References of "Poster"
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See detailSurface properties of two closely related sugar esters : glucose octanoate and octyl glucuronate.
Blecker, Christophe ULg; Deroanne, Claude; Moreau, B. et al

Poster (2004, February 11)

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See detailThe effect of the hydrophobic chain lenght on surface properties of enzymatically prepared n-alkylesters of glucuronic acid.
Piccicuto, Salvator; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Marlier, Michel et al

Poster (2004, February 11)

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See detailStudy of synthesis and surface activity of inulin lauric esters.
Ius, E.; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Verardo, G. et al

Poster (2004, February 11)

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See detailHS-SPME - GCMS characterization of volatile secondary products from 37 Trichoderma strains
Delvigne, Frank ULg; Verscheure, M.; Palm, Rodolphe ULg et al

Poster (2004, February)

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See detailSustained antihypertensive activity of telmisartan vs valsartan
Lacourciere, Yves; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; White, William et al

Poster (2004, February)

DBP reduction in the last 6 h of the once-daily dosing interval and 24-h mean DBP control when a dose is missed are significantly superior with telmisartan than with valsartan. Thus, telmisartan due to ... [more ▼]

DBP reduction in the last 6 h of the once-daily dosing interval and 24-h mean DBP control when a dose is missed are significantly superior with telmisartan than with valsartan. Thus, telmisartan due to its longer half-life offers more sustained BP control, especially at the end of the dosing period and provides sustained efficacy in poorly compliant patients. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of exotic invasive plants on soil properties in Belgium
Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Vanderhoeven, Sonia ULg; Dassonville, N. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailActivity-stability relationships in extremophilic enzymes
D'Amico, Salvino; Collins, Tony; Marx, Jean Claude et al

Poster (2004)

Peer Reviewed
See detailImpacts of plant invasions on ecosystem processes in Belgium
Vanderhoeven, Sonia ULg; Chapuis-Lardy, L.; Dassonville, N. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailInteraction of antimicrobial lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis with lipid membranes
Deleu, Magali ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg; Olofsson, Gerd et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailPreliminary characterization of banana mild mosaic virus isolates from Colombia, the Philippines and Burundi
Reichel, H.; Martinez, A. K.; Arroyave, J. A. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailPrevalence of Toxocara canis eggs in faecal deposits from pet dogs in Liège, Belgium
Mignon, Bernard ULg; Vermout, S.; Moreaux, N. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailDiversité génétique de la oca (Oxalis tuberosa Mol.) en conservation ex situ
Toussaint, André ULg; Ugarte, M. L.; Malice, Marie ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailCase report : A suspicion of cortico-cerebral necrosis in a Belgian Blue herd after ingestion of moulded silage
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg; Aliaoui, Hamani et al

Poster (2004)

After ingestion of moulded beet pulp silage, cases of cortico-cerebral necrosis (CCN) and mortalities have been observed in a Belgian Blue (BB) herd. Contamination with Paecilomyces spp., a mould that ... [more ▼]

After ingestion of moulded beet pulp silage, cases of cortico-cerebral necrosis (CCN) and mortalities have been observed in a Belgian Blue (BB) herd. Contamination with Paecilomyces spp., a mould that produces byssochlamic acid, malformins and patulin, has been proven. Among these toxins, patulin is known to have cancerogenic, immunosuppressive and tremorgenic effects, but also acts on the respiratory and digestive systems. Twenty-five days after progressive introduction of beet pulp silage into the ration of a dual purpose BB herd, most of the animals showed diminished appetite, salivation and decreased milk production. All 35 cows were reluctant to consume the beet pulp silage, but continued to eat grass silage voluntarily. Seven of them showed anorexia and nervous symptoms, like head pressing and blindness. Four animals died within 1 week after onset of neurological symptoms. No necropsy has been performed, since legislation does not allow post-mortem examination of the central nervous system in the field. The three survivors had been treated successfully with thiamine (10 mg/kg, IV, TID) and recovered completely within five days. After the beet pulp silage had been identified as causative agent, it had been removed from the animals’ ration and no more clinical case has been observed. Four weeks later, the same beet pulp silage has been reintroduced into the animals’ ration and provoked again diminished appetite, salivation and a decrease in milk production in most of the animals. Clinical signs were also suggesting lead poisoning but any contact with lead containing material could have been excluded. Silage was obviously moulded and analysis revealed the presence of 1.6 million CFU Paecilomyces spp./g of silage. Although no further investigation has been made to identify the mycotoxins, an intoxication with patulin has been suspected, since other mycotoxins produced by these species are less toxic. Although it has not been described that CCN can be induced by ingestion of Paecilomyces spp., it seems that there is a close relation between ingestion of Paecilomyces-contaminated silage and observed clinical signs in this herd. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace elements deficiencies in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome in the mature newborn calf
Guyot, Hugues ULg; Aliaoui, Hamani; Rollin, Frédéric ULg

Poster (2004)

In Belgium, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in the mature hypermuscled Belgian Blue calf (BB) but also occurs in other cattle breeds. Major clinical ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in the mature hypermuscled Belgian Blue calf (BB) but also occurs in other cattle breeds. Major clinical signs (tachypnea, tachycardia and sometimes depression) develop in the first hours after birth and are due to insufficiency of functional surfactant. Knowing that trace elements deficiencies can slow pulmonary maturation, the aim of this study was to investigate trace elements status in 10 RDS affected BB herds in comparison with 6 reference herds without any evidence of RDS. In each herd, blood was sampled from 10 pregnant or freshly calved healthy cows. In each blood sample, the plasmatic zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) contents and erythrocytic glutathion peroxydase activity (GSH-pxe) were measured and considered normal when above 15 μmol/L, 14 μmol/L and 250 IU/gHb, respectively. A herd was deficient in one element if at least 30 % of sampled animals were out of normal range for this element. Milk was also sampled and pooled from 10 other cows or, when possible, bulk milk was taken. Milk iodine (I) content was considered normal when above 80 μg/L. Results were compared between groups by Chi-square test. All RDS affected herds had low Zn and Cu concentrations and low GSH-pxe activity. Eight out of 10 had low I in milk. In the non-RDS affected herds, only 1 herd was deficient in I, Zn, Cu and had low GSH-pxe activity, 2 herds were deficient in Zn and Cu and 1 herd was deficient in Cu. RDS affected herds were significantly more often deficient in I and GSH-pxe than non-affected herds. It seems that the trace elements selenium (Se), Zn and Cu play an essential role in the development of RDS. The same applies for I, although not deficient in all herds. The reason for this might be that milk samples were taken during lactation, when cows’ nutrition was different and, in any case, supplemented in I. In mature babies, the same RDS is observed but its etiology is still unclear, although I deficiency in the mother is suspected to play a major role in pathogenesis. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that a Se-dependent deiodinase is responsible for transformation of thyroxine (T4) into tri-iodothyronine (T3), which is essential for effective surfactant production. In conclusion, results suggest an association between RDS in mature newborn calves and trace elements deficiencies, especially Se and I, that can be responsible for primary surfactant insufficiency. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (13 ULg)
See detailDevelopment of duplex RT-PCR tests for the routine detection of latent and ILAR viruses in fruit trees
Roussel, S.; Kummert, J.; Dutrecq, O. et al

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
See detailTwo-dimensional model for the cold atom micromaser
Martin, John ULg; Solano, E.; Zagury, N. et al

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (4 ULg)
See detailThe two-dimensional cold atom micromaser
Martin, John ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
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See detailStudy of the role and origin of endotoxemia in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn calf.
Aliaoui, Hamani; Danlois, Fabien; Guyot, Hugues ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailCarste em Quartzito de Região de Diamantina : Gruta do Salitre e Parque Estadual do Rio Preto, Minas Gerais
Willems, Luc ULg; Rodet, J.; Pouclet, A. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailDIC dynamics in a tropical estuary (Kiddogoweni, Kenya)
Borges, Alberto ULg; Frankignoulle, M.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailAvaliação Nutricional da Rotulagem Nutricional Obrigatória Utilizada em Salsichas Normais e Light
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Mano, Sérgio; Mônica, Freitas et al

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)
See detailSimultaneous Chandra X-ray, HST UV, and Ulysses Radio Observations of Jupiter's Aurora
Elsner, R. F.; Bhardwaj, A.; Waite, J. H. et al

Poster (2004)

Observations of Jupiter carried out by the Chandra ACIS-S instrument over 24-26 February, 2003, show that the auroral X-ray spectrum consists of line emission consistent with high-charge states of ... [more ▼]

Observations of Jupiter carried out by the Chandra ACIS-S instrument over 24-26 February, 2003, show that the auroral X-ray spectrum consists of line emission consistent with high-charge states of precipitating ions, and not a continuum as might be expected from bremsstrahlung. The part of the spectrum due to oxygen peaks around 650 eV, which indicates a high fraction of fully-stripped oxygen in the precipitating ion flux. The OVIII emission lines at 653 eV and 774 eV, as well as the OVII emission lines at 561 eV and 666 eV, are clearly identified. There is also line emission at lower energies in the spectral region extending from 250 to 350 eV for which sulfur and carbon lines are possible candidates. The Jovian auroral spectra differ significantly from measured cometary X-ray spectra. The charge state distribution of the oxygen ion emission evident in the measured auroral spectra strongly suggests that, independent of the source of the energetic ions (magnetospheric or solar wind) the ions have undergone additional acceleration. For the magnetospheric case, acceleration to energies exceeding 10 MeV is apparently required. The ion acceleration also helps to explain the high intensities of the X-rays observed. The phase space densities of unaccelerated source populations of either solar wind or magnetospheric ions are orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed emissions. The Chandra X-ray observations were executed simultaneously with observations at ultraviolet wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope and at radio wavelengths by the Ulysses spacecraft. These additional data sets provide interesting hints as to the location of the source region and the acceleration characteristics of the generation mechanism. The combined observations suggest that the source of the X rays is magnetospheric in origin, and that strong field-aligned electric fields are present which simultaneously create both the several-MeV energetic ion population and the relativistic electrons believed to be responsible for the generation of 40 minute quasi-periodic radio outbursts. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of metal dispersion in Pd/SiO2 cogelled xerogel catalysts
Lambert, Stéphanie ULg; Polard, Jean-François; Ferauche, Fabrice et al

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (2 ULg)
See detailAuroral and Non-auroral X-ray Emissions from Jupiter: A Comparative View
Bhardwaj, A.; Elsner, R.; Gladstone, R. et al

Poster (2004)

Jovian X-rays can be broadly classified into two categories: (1) "auroral" emission, which is confined to high-latitudes ( ˜>60° ) at both polar regions, and (2) "dayglow" emission, which originates from ... [more ▼]

Jovian X-rays can be broadly classified into two categories: (1) "auroral" emission, which is confined to high-latitudes ( ˜>60° ) at both polar regions, and (2) "dayglow" emission, which originates from the sunlit low-latitude ( ˜<50° ) regions of the disk (hereafter called "disk" emissions). Recent X-ray observations of Jupiter by Chandra and XMM-Newton have shown that these two types of X-ray emission from Jupiter have different morphological, temporal, and spectral characteristics. In particular: 1) contrary to the auroral X-rays, which are concentrated in a spot in the north and in a band that runs half-way across the planet in the south, the low-latitude X-ray disk is almost uniform; 2) unlike the ˜40±20-min periodic oscillations seen in the auroral X-ray emissions, the disk emissions do not show any periodic oscillations; 3) the disk emission is harder and extends to higher energies than the auroral spectrum; and 4) the disk X-ray emission show time variability similar to that seen in solar X-rays. These differences and features imply that the processes producing X-rays are different at these two latitude regions on Jupiter. We will present the details of these and other features that suggest the differences between these two classes of X-ray emissions from Jupiter, and discuss the current scenario of the production mechanism of them. [less ▲]

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See detailMathematical modelling applied to caspase activation reveals a requirement for additional control
Eißing, T.; Conzelmann, H.; Gilles, E. D. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailSubcellular localization of the Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) R3 and G4 accessory proteins in BLV producing cells.
Dimitrov, P.; Russev, Russi; Shikova, E. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailComparison between co-crystallisation properties of POP and OPP
Danthine, Sabine ULg; tirtiaux, a; wouters, j et al

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (2 ULg)
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See detailInteraction of lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis with lipid vesicles
Deleu, Magali ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg; Olofsson, Gerd et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailNovel surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: Transobturator vaginal tape inside-out
de Leval, Jean ULg; Bonnet, Pierre ULg; Reul, Olivier ULg et al

Poster (2004)

Introduction and Objective: To describe a new, simple surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to evaluate its feasibility. Methods: We have developed a novel ... [more ▼]

Introduction and Objective: To describe a new, simple surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to evaluate its feasibility. Methods: We have developed a novel surgical treatment of SUI, the transobturator inside-out tension-free urethral suspension, which uses specifically designed surgical tools: a pair of stainless steel helical passers, two plastic tubes with a pointed distal end and one guide. Using these instruments, a synthetic tape is passed from underneath the urethra, through the obturator foramens, towards the thighs, without entering the pelvic region at any time during the procedure. The tubes bear a lateral opening, which allows the insertion of the helical passer into its lumen. The proximal end of each tube is attached to a non-absorbable synthetic tape. The guide acts as a shoe-horn to ease the introduction of the tubes assembled onto the helical passers from the perineal space through the obturator foramen. After perforation of the obturator membrane, a rotational movement of the helical passer around the upper part of ischio-pubic ramus allows the exit of the pointed tip of the tube and, further, of the tape at the level of the thigh on either side. The tape is positioned without tension under the junction between mid and distal urethra. Results: The procedure was carried out in 210 consecutive patients (mean age = 62 years) using the same operative protocol in all case subjects, independently of the patient’s size and weight. Mean operative time was 14 min (range = 6 to 20) in case of isolated SUI treatment. No bladder or urethra injury and no vascular (hematoma or bleeding) or neurological complication were observed. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that our novel transobturator inside-out surgical technique for treating SUI is feasible, accurate, and quick. This technique avoids damage to the urethra and bladder and, therefore, makes cystoscopy not necessary. Further prospective studies are currently ongoing to determine the efficacy of our new surgical approach for treating SUI. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of surfactin penetration into lipid monolayers by using AFM
Eeman, Marc; Berquand, Alexandre; Dufrêne, Yves et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailCritical points in glucosinolates analysis in seed and plant tis Critical points in glucosinolates analysis in seed and plant tissues by HPLC of desulfo-derivatives
Leoni, O.; Iori, R.; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

Poster (2004)

In the EU the ISO 9167-1 is the reference method for glucosinolates content determination in rapeseed. This method is widely used also for other seeds or Brassica plant tissues analysis also in order to ... [more ▼]

In the EU the ISO 9167-1 is the reference method for glucosinolates content determination in rapeseed. This method is widely used also for other seeds or Brassica plant tissues analysis also in order to the large diffusion of HPLC instrumentation in analytical laboratories. Anyway, in our experience the use of this method has revealed some critical points which can considerably affect the final result, thus when this method is used to analyse materials different from seeds of B. napus some methodological modifications must be done especially in reason of the kind of glucosinolate present in the sample. [less ▲]

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See detailRecombinant antibody an its application in plant pathogen diagnosis
Tassus, X.; Duterme, O.; Roussel, S. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailNanoscaleorganization of mixed fengycin/lipid monolayers
Eeman, Marc; Deleu, Magali ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailRetrospective study of 41 cases of mitral insufficiency in horses
Bertrand, D; Maurin, E; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailProfil neuropsychologique chez des enfants présentant un trouble d’attention avec hyperactivité
Catale, Corinne ULg; Lejeune, Caroline ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

Poster (2004)

Le trouble d’attention avec hyperactivité (ou ADHD-Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder) se caractérise par [1] un déficit d’attention, [2] une agitation motrice et [3] une impulsivité motrice. Ce ... [more ▼]

Le trouble d’attention avec hyperactivité (ou ADHD-Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder) se caractérise par [1] un déficit d’attention, [2] une agitation motrice et [3] une impulsivité motrice. Ce trouble présente une prévalence estimée aux environs de 3 à 8% de la population prépubère, avec une nette prédominance masculine. Les conséquences de ce trouble sont importantes et multiples : échec scolaire, difficultés d’apprentissages, mauvaise intégration sociale, … L’hypothèse quant à une étiologie organique de ce trouble trouve un appui considérable dans les études en neuro-imagerie qui ont montré une hypo-activité au niveau des régions frontales, du striatum et d’une partie du système dopaminergique. Les études neuropsychologiques vont également dans ce sens en montrant une similarité entre les profils cognitifs de ces enfants et de patients frontaux. Toutefois, malgré une meilleure compréhension du trouble, le diagnostic d’ADHD reste encore difficile et repose le plus souvent sur le recueil de données subjectives (entretien avec les parents, …). Le but de notre étude est d’une part d’objectiver les déficits attentionnels et exécutifs chez des enfants ADHD de 6 à 12 ans, et d’autre part d’identifier les épreuves neuropsychologiques les plus sensibles aux troubles présentés par ces enfants. Nous avons administré à 17 enfants ADHD et 17 enfants de contrôle (appariés sur base de l’âge et du sexe) des tâches [i] attentionnelles (attention soutenue, sélective et divisée) de la TEA et [ii] exécutives (inhibition évaluée par le test de Stroop, de la Statue [NEPSY] et Go/No Go [TEA] ; test de flexibilité cognitive [TEA] et épreuve de planification [NEPSY]). Les analyses de comparaison de moyennes montrent qu’au niveau attentionnel, les enfants ADHD présentent des troubles d’attention sélective visuelle et auditive (p<.05) ainsi que de l’attention soutenue (p<.05). Au niveau exécutif, on constate des difficultés de flexibilité cognitive et d’inhibition (p<0.01). Une analyse discriminante (par régression logistique) a également été réalisée afin de déterminer la sensibilité/spécificité de ces épreuves dans le diagnostic de l’ADHD. Les analyses permettent de montrer que c’est l’association de deux mesures d’inhibition (test de Statue et Go/No Go) qui permet d’avoir la meilleure sensibilité/spécificité (respectivement de 80% et 87,5%). Ces résultats préliminaires soulignent la contribution importante que peuvent apporter les tests neuropsychologiques dans le diagnostic de l’ADHD. Plus spécifiquement, ils permettent de préciser la nature des déficits attentionnels et exécutifs chez les enfants ADHD : troubles de l’attention soutenue et de l’attention sélective d’une part, et troubles de l’inhibition et de la flexibilité cognitive d’autre part. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of specific biomarkers related to the effects of pollutants on the immune system of marine mammals
Brenez, Cécile; Gerkens, Pascal; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailEffects of temperature on the chemistry of the echinoderm skeleton
Ranner, Herwig; Ladrière, Ophélie ULg; Navez, Jacques et al

Poster (2004)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailTrace metal variations in tissues of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) stranded along Southern North Sea coasts
Drouguet, Olivier; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Holsbeek, Ludo et al

Poster (2004)

During the last decade, recurrent epizootics have affected harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations in the North Sea. The trace metal levels of the harbour seal in the Southern North Sea are poorly known ... [more ▼]

During the last decade, recurrent epizootics have affected harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) populations in the North Sea. The trace metal levels of the harbour seal in the Southern North Sea are poorly known. In this study, trace metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Hg and Se) were measured in tissues (liver, kidney and muscle) of 72 harbour seals collected along the coasts of France, Belgium and Netherlands between 1994 and 2004. Hg levels were significantly higher in seals from the Southern North Sea than in seals from Norwegian waters (1) probably due to the amount of anthropogenic inputs in the North Sea. Hepatic Hg was positively correlated to hepatic Se, both increasing with the length of the seals. Such a relationship reflects an age accumulation process coupled to a detoxication mechanism involving antagonism between Hg and Se in the liver. Increasing Zn and Hg hepatic levels were observed with degrading body condition of the harbour seals, which is reflected by decreasing blubber thickness and high hepatic to total body mass ratio. Body condition was particularly poor in seals which died from infectious diseases. These observations tend to indicate a global redistribution of trace metals from muscle and blubber to liver, as a result of protein and lipid catabolism linked to disease and starvation. [less ▲]

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See detailExtremophiles, early Earth biosphere and exobiology
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Marshall, C.

Poster (2004)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailEnvironmental effects on the chemistry of the echinoderm skeleton
Ranner, Herwig; de Jonghe, Caroline; Ladrière, Ophélie ULg et al

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
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See detailPerfluorochemicals in harbour porpoises
Van de Vijver, K. I.; Hoff, P. T.; Das, Krishna ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailCytokine messenger RNA expression in the blood of harbour porpoises (phocoena phocoena).
Das, Krishna ULg; Fonfara, Sonja; Beineke, Andreas et al

Poster (2004)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDuodenitis/Proximal Jejunitis- a retrospective study of 27 cases
Lopez, D; Delguste, Catherine ULg; Sandersen, Charlotte ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailContribution to the development of a biological control method against crown rot banana disease
Lassois, Ludivine ULg; de Lapeyre de Bellaire, Luc; Jijakli, Haissam ULg et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailDIC dynamics in the Bay of Palma (NW Mediterranean)
Borges, Alberto ULg; Gazeau, F.; Gattuso, J. P. et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailEarly neurophysiological diagnosis of true neurogenic « thoracic outlet syndrome » (TOS)
Hua, MT; DUBUISSON, Annie ULg; Zeevaert, Bernard et al

Poster (2004)

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See detailLow-frequency coherent fluctuations in BOLD activity: a preliminary report
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Guido, Nolte; Mark, Hallett

Poster (2004)

Background Low frequency (<0.1Hz) fluctuations originating from blood flow and oxygenation have been observed in the brain by different groups (Golanov et al. 1994; Biswal.et al. 1995). The goal of this ... [more ▼]

Background Low frequency (<0.1Hz) fluctuations originating from blood flow and oxygenation have been observed in the brain by different groups (Golanov et al. 1994; Biswal.et al. 1995). The goal of this study was to use BOLD fMRI to characterize coherent fluctuations in those low frequencies between spatially distant brain regions. Methods Thirteen right-handed subjects were studied using blocked-design BOLD fMRI at rest and as they performed sequential finger movements at a slow rate (~0.5 Hz) with their right hand. Serial acquisitions of EPI images were obtained at 3T using a single-shot 2D gradient-echo echo-planar imaging sequence. Data were processed and analyzed using standard procedures implemented in the statistical parametric mapping software (SPM2). Temporal profile of brain activity in 6 predefined regions (left S1M1, right S1M1, SMA, left thalamus, right cerebellum and CSF) were extracted on a subject-by-subject basis using the VOI tool in SPM2. After deconvolution (Gitelman et al. 2003), time series data representing movement and resting conditions were concatenated to create 2 within-condition time-series. After subtracting the mean over all epochs from each epoch, the (complex) coherency was calculated in the 5 lowest frequency bins with a frequency resolution of 1/17.5Hz (0, 0.05, 0.11, 0.17, 0.23 Hz). Real and imaginary parts of coherency, representing correlation and correlation of phase-shifted signals, respectively, were analyzed separately. Coherency was computed independently for each region pairs and each subject. Significance was defined as p<0.05 Bonferroni corrected for multiple comparisons. Results The main finding was the presence of coherent fluctuations in BOLD signal mainly in the lowest frequencies for (almost) all regions. The real part of coherency was equally pronounced during the movement and rest conditions. The only exception was a larger coherence during rest than during the task condition in the lowest frequencies between left and right S1M1. We could not find any significant imaginary part of coherency indicating that the time delays between dependent neural activations are negligible compared to the inverse frequencies under study. Partialling out the data in any of the regions did not have any significant impact on coherence map. Importantly, there was no evidence of coherent activity between any of the brain regions and CSF in any of the frequency bands. Discussion BOLD signal recorded during different behavioral steady-states showed very similar coherent fluctuations for all regions pairs studied mainly in the lowest frequencies. Those results are in good agreement with electrophysiological recordings in monkeys in which high coherence in band-limited power of local field potential signals have been reported at very low frequencies (<0.1Hz) (Leopold et al. 2003). In that study, coherence patterns were also highly similar under distinctly different behavioral states. Task-independent coherence in lower frequencies may be related to whole brain slow synchronous oscillations whose significance remains to be elucidated. References Golanov et al. (1994). Am J Physiol. 266; R204-214. Biswal et al. (1995). Magn Reson Med. 34; 537-541. Gitelman et al. (2003). NeuroImage. 19; 200-207. Leopold. et al. (2003). Cereb Cortex. 13; 422-433. [less ▲]

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