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See detailElectron Transport Calculations and Thermoelectric Coefficients of Doped InSb
Pike, Nicholas ULg

Poster (2016, January 11)

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See detail"Quand voyager mentalement dans le temps est difficile) - Une étude comparative des souvenirs et projections définissant le soi chez des patients dépressifs et des sujets contrôles sains
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Thirion, Julie; PITCHOT, William ULg et al

Poster (2016, January)

INTRODUCTION. Les patients dépressifs présentent des difficultés à effectuer le voyage mental dans le temps, une des fonctions principales de la mémoire autobiographique, c’est-à-dire à se projeter ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION. Les patients dépressifs présentent des difficultés à effectuer le voyage mental dans le temps, une des fonctions principales de la mémoire autobiographique, c’est-à-dire à se projeter mentalement dans le passé et le futur. Cette étude s’intéresse à des événements passés et futurs potentiels particuliers qui sont les souvenirs et les projections futures définissant le soi (SDS et PFDS, respectivement). Les SDS et les PFDS sont des événements autobiographiques particuliers hautement pertinents pour l’identité de l’individu et qui l’aident à se définir. Plus précisément, les SDS sont considérés comme une cristallisation des liens entre mémoire et identité. Le premier objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer les caractéristiques de ces SDS et des PFDS (spécificité, intégration, valence émotionnelle, modification de la valence émotionnelle pour les SDS) chez des patients dépressifs, en comparaison à des sujets contrôles sains. Le second objectif est d’évaluer les liens entre les caractéristiques des SDS et des PFDS avec la clarté du concept de soi. HYPOTHÈSES. Les patients dépressifs rapporteront des SDS et des PFDS moins spécifiques, moins intégrés et plus négatifs que les sujets contrôles sains. Ceci sera en lien avec une faible clarté du concept de soi. MÉTHODE. 19 patients dépressifs et 17 sujets contrôles sains appariés (sexe, âge, niveau d’éducation) ont évoqué des SDS et des PFDS en fonction de domaines de vie (ex. : relations familiales, hobbies, emploi/carrière). RÉSULTATS. La récolte des données est toujours en cours. Les résultats préliminaires mettent en évidence que les patients dépressifs évoquent des SDS et des PFDS moins intégrés que les sujets contrôles. Les patients dépressifs rapportent également davantage de séquence de contamination dans le rappel de SDS (la valence de l’événement lorsqu’il s’est déroulé était positive et devient négative lors de l’évocation du souvenir). DISCUSSION. Les résultats obtenus confirment partiellement nos hypothèses. Ces résultats semblent cohérents avec certains biais préalablement observés dans l’évocation de souvenirs autobiographiques tels que le biais de congruence à l’humeur. Les implications cliniques de ces résultats seront discutées. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle molecule force spectroscopy on synthetic foldamers
Devaux, Floriane ULg; Li, Xuesong; Ivan, Huc et al

Poster (2016, January)

Inspired by the many folded conformations of the molecular machineries responsible for chemical reactions and mechanical tasks in nature, such as enzyme catalysis and duplication in nucleic acids ... [more ▼]

Inspired by the many folded conformations of the molecular machineries responsible for chemical reactions and mechanical tasks in nature, such as enzyme catalysis and duplication in nucleic acids, chemists have been developing the syntheses of artificial folded molecular architectures, namely foldamers (Guichard and Huc, 2011). The investigation of these molecules using AFM-based Single Molecule Force Spectrosocopy (SMFS) allows the elucidation of both mechanochemical properties and conformational dynamics on the unimolecular scale in solution. The stepwise synthesis of aromatic oligoamide-based foldamers was designed (Jiang et al., 2003; Huc, 2004) to produce well-defined helically-folded molecular architectures. A poly(ethylene oxide) PEO tether was coupled to one end of the foldamer. This tether design enables the coupling with the AFM tip and increases the number of potentially accessible physicochemical parameters through SMFS experiments. SMFS pulling experiments on this system yielded specific and reproducible force-extension patterns characteristic of single foldamers. Those patterns were further analyzed to determine unfolding forces and dynamics as well as to propose mechanistics hypotheses of the unfolding process. Several helical foldamers presenting variable lengths were considered. Experiments in multiple solvents pointed out a variation in the foldamer stability, leading to different average forces values. This last study enabled us to modulate the intramolecular interactions responsible for the folding and to evaluate the mechanochemical properties of the helix. The force values measured for those foldamers are higher than those previously measured in natural biopolymers (Clausen-Schaumann et al., 2000; Janshoff et al., 2000), showing a high stability under a load and a propensity for the development of emergent properties. In addition, the increased stability of these aromatic oligoamide foldamers was confirmed by the observation of almost instantaneous reversibility of the unfolding under load. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of a standardisation procedure on an international network of MIR instruments for milk analysis
Grelet, Clément ULg; Fernandez Pierna, Juan A.; Dardenne, Pierre et al

Poster (2016, January)

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See detailResting-state test-retest reliability over different preprocessing steps
Varikuti, Deepthi; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Genon, Sarah ULg et al

Poster (2016)

Introduction: Resting-state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. While most of the current ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Resting-state (RS) functional connectivity (FC) analysis has become a widely used method for the investigation of human brain connectivity and pathology. While most of the current applications are based on data-driven analyses, the use of functionally specific, a priori defined networks provided by neuroimaging meta-analyses represent an important alternative to these, as they allow the standardized assessment of connectivity patterns. Neuronal activity as measured by functional MRI is influenced by various nuisance signals including system noise, thermal noise, and noise induced by physiological processes of the participant. The presence of these confounds in turn have an impact on the estimation of functional connectivity. Several methods exist to deal with this predicament, but little consensus has yet been reached on the most appropriate approach. Given the crucial importance of reliability for the development of clinical applications, we investigated the test-retest reliability of FC analyses in meta-analytically defined networks after removing confounding noise regressors. Methods: RS-fMRI data of 42 healthy subjects with an average age of 42 ± 20 years were obtained in two sessions with an average time interval of 175 ± 75 days. A seed-based FC analysis was conducted after spatial preprocessing, approach specific confound-regression, and band-pass filtering [0.01-0.08 Hz]. We focused on the effects of various commonly used confound removals in the resting state studies such as PCA de-noising, global mean signal regression, and removal of tissue-class specific mean signals (in particular, white matter (WM) + cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and WM + CSF + grey matter (GM)) [2,3,4,5,7]. Additionally, we examined GM specific time-series extraction from seed regions. In order to compute the seed based FC, a priori defined networks were analyzed (extended socio-affective default mode [1] and working-memory [6]). Both networks show robust within network resting state connectivity as well as anti-correlation between each other. The reliability of FC was measured using two different measures Spearman correlations and the absolute differences of functional connectivity scores. The different approaches defined by the combination of different masking / confound removal approaches were compared using a non-parametric Friedman ANOVA. Results: The summary ranking across both indices of reliability (Spearman correlations and absolute differences) reflects the major patterns noted in the individual analyses (Fig.1). GM masking, in particular using the group-mean segmentation, improves reliability. PCA denoising in turn reduces it. Within-network connections are most reliably estimated when not using any global or tissue-class specific signal regression, with removing the global WM and CSF signals representing the next-best approach. In contrast, between-network connections are most reliably measured by linear and second order removal of global signals of all three-tissue classes. Conclusion: Our results show that GM masking of the seed regions based on the group-average GM probabilities is advisable when investigating meta-analytically defined networks. In turn, PCA de-noising reduces the reliability of connectivity estimates. Finally, with respect to global signal regression, we observe that refraining from this approach enhances reliability, but comes at the expense of potentially poorer biological validity, indicated by missing anti-correlations between what has been previously described as antagonistic networks. Here, removal of global WM and CSF signals seems to provide a good compromise, as this approach yielded reliable and meaningful estimates of within and between-network connections (Fig.2). We noted that reliability is proportional to the retained variance, presumably including structured noise. Consequently, we would argue that compromises are needed between maximizing reliability and removing variance that may be attributable to non-neuronal sources. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyzing but Not Buying: The Mere Exposure Effect on Children’s Behavior in an Ecological Context
Geurten, Marie ULg; Geurten, Claire ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2016)

The mere exposure effect is usually considered a robust phenomenon whereby people’s attitudes can easily be influenced. However, recent studies suggest that some conditions must be met for this effect to ... [more ▼]

The mere exposure effect is usually considered a robust phenomenon whereby people’s attitudes can easily be influenced. However, recent studies suggest that some conditions must be met for this effect to emerge. In this experiment, the influence of the features of a specific material on the mere exposure effect was examined in an ecological context. Children were told that they would play a game during which they would have to buy several items in different shops. In these shops, half of the participants were incidentally exposed to two target stimuli. During a subsequent judgment phase, the target stimuli were presented to each child, either with perceptually similar items or with perceptually dissimilar items. Prior encounter with an item only influenced children’s preference choices when the test items were dissimilar. These findings are discussed in terms of the processing styles that are necessary for the mere exposure effect to appear. [less ▲]

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See detailMultimodal evidence of a rostro-caudal and ventro-dorsal organization in the dorsal premotor cortex
Genon, Sarah ULg; Li, Hai; Fan, Lingzhong et al

Poster (2016)

Introduction Different methods for in-vivo characterization have resulted in different maps of the human dorsal premotor cortex (PMd): Task-based functional studies suggested a rostro-caudal gradient ... [more ▼]

Introduction Different methods for in-vivo characterization have resulted in different maps of the human dorsal premotor cortex (PMd): Task-based functional studies suggested a rostro-caudal gradient corresponding to a cognitive-motor gradient1,2 and mapping based on resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) likewise suggested a subdivision along the rostro-caudal axis3. In contrast, mapping based on structural connectivity as assessed by probabilistic diffusion tractography (PDT) provided evidence that the dorsal part of the precentral gyrus (PG) is organized along a ventro-dorsal axis4. However, there is currently no multimodal mapping of a broadly defined PMd. The present study used a multimodal approach to (1) identify a robust topographical organization of the right PMd by using connectivity-based parcellation (CBP) applied to a meta-analytic approach of task-related coactivation data (i.e. meta-analytic connectivity modeling, MACM5,6), and (2) examine whether the thus obtained parcellation pattern would be reproduced by CBP based on two other connectivity modalities: unconstrained functional (as reflected by RSFC) and structural as measured by PDT based on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). Methods A volume of interest (VOI) was defined by merging PMd activation sites from several meta-analyses serving as robust functional localizers of the PMd while excluding primary sensorimotor areas. MACM-CBP6 was performed using Brainmap database. RSFC-CBP and PDT-CBP were performed on distinct datasets to ensure independent parcellation7. RSFC-CBP was computed on RS data of 124 healthy subjects (age: 39.5 ± 11.5 yrs., 66 males) from the 1000BRAINS project8. The voxels’ time series (TS) were first cleaned from confounding effects using PCA denoising and global signal regression. RSFC was then computed by Pearson correlations between the TS of the VOI voxels and those of the rest of the brain. PDT-CBP9 was performed on DWI data of 20 healthy subjects (age: 18.5 ± .76, 10 males) using FSL. Several cluster solutions (k solution) were examined with k-means for MACM- and RSFC-CBP and spectral clustering for PDT-CBP. The choice of the k solution was driven by task-based functional data (MACM) based on three criteria: variation of information, percentage of deviants, and silhouette value6. Results The selected criteria jointly identified the 5-cluster (5k) solution as optimal across the range of functional studies from Brainmap database (Figure 1). Examination of stability across subjects following PDT-CBP further suggested that k=5 may be considered a local optimum within 2 ≤ k ≤ 6. This solution revealed a similar pattern of topographical organization across modalities (Figure 2) with a subdivision along both rostro-caudal and ventro-dorsal axes, including a rostral cluster lying mainly anteriorly to the PG, a central one at the intersection of the precentral sulcus and the superior frontal gyrus, a caudal one in the posterior part of the PG, a ventral one adjacent to ventral PM, and a dorsal one adjacent to the inter-hemispheric premotor areas. Discussion For the first time our study revealed that the PMd could be divided along two axes: rostro-caudal and ventro-dorsal. This is consistent with previous functional2 and microstructure studies10 in humans and non-human primates suggesting a rostro-caudal distinction and with a previous PDT-CBP of the (dorsal) precentral gyrus4 showing that it could be subdivided in the ventro-dorsal direction. Importantly, this topographical organization was found in the independent analysis of three different connectivity aspects: task functional, unconstrained functional and structural, each based on different datasets. In sum, different modalities consistently show that the PMd can be subdivided into 5 subregions organized along both rostro-caudal and ventro-dorsal axes, comprehensively integrating patterns previously revealed by different methods. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Fractal Nature of Mars Topography Analyzed via the Wavelet Leaders Method
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Poster (2016)

This work studies the scaling properties of Mars topography based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data through the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This approach shows a scale break at 15 km. At small ... [more ▼]

This work studies the scaling properties of Mars topography based on Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data through the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This approach shows a scale break at 15 km. At small scales, these topographic profiles display a monofractal behavior while a multifractal nature is observed at large scales. The scaling exponents are greater at small scales. They also seem to be influenced by latitude and may indicate a slight anisotropy in topography. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of cell growth on/in modified polymer matrices as scaffolds for tissue engineering
Markvicheva, E.; Drozdova, M.; Demina, T. et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailSemantic relatedness of the memoranda prevents older adults from benefitting from unitization
Delhaye, Emma ULg; Tibon, Roni; Gronau, Nurit et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailThe effect of aging on associative memory for semantically-related word pairs
Folville, Adrien; Delhaye, Emma ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

Poster (2016)

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See detailIdentification d’indicateurs de la transition forestière en lien avec les impacts de la déforestation sur les socio-écosystèmes en Afrique centrale
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

Poster (2015, December 26)

La théorie de la transition forestière lie l’évolution du couvert forestier au temps (Mather, 1992). Dans la première phase, le couvert forestier est très dense. Il diminue ensuite avec l’augmentation de ... [more ▼]

La théorie de la transition forestière lie l’évolution du couvert forestier au temps (Mather, 1992). Dans la première phase, le couvert forestier est très dense. Il diminue ensuite avec l’augmentation de la densité de population qui pratique la défriche pour la production agricole et utilise le bois pour répondre aux besoins en énergie et en bois d’œuvre. Dans un troisième temps, l’économie se spécialise, l’agriculture s’intensifie et est pratiquée sur les terres les plus productives et le rôle de l’écosystème forestier dans l’économie diminue. L’abandon des terres les moins productives permet la recolonisation forestière visible sur la courbe de transition. La présente étude tente d’identifier et de proposer des indicateurs d’occupation spatiale permettant, sur base d’images de télédétection, de prévoir la position réelle d’un site sur la courbe de transition forestière. Ensuite, l’étude des socio-écosystèmes en lien avec la transition forestière permet de démontrer l’impact de la diminution du couvert forestier sur le fonctionnement des sociétés humaines. Nous nous sommes penchés sur différents aspects caractérisant les activités des populations locales dans trois sites d’étude situés sur un gradient de déforestation en Afrique centrale tels que la composition de repas et l’origine des aliments. On observe que la déforestation induit une diminution des composants issus des activités fortement liées à l’écosystème telles que la chasse, la pêche ou la collecte au profit de l’agriculture et de l’élevage. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat tracer and solute tests in an alluvial aquifer: field experiment and inverse modelling
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Klepikova, Maria; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 18)

Using heat as an active tracer in different types of aquifers is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential interest of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a ... [more ▼]

Using heat as an active tracer in different types of aquifers is a topic of increasing interest. In this study, we investigate the potential interest of using heat tracer tests for characterization of a shallow alluvial aquifer. A thermal tracer test was conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the Meuse River, Belgium. The tracing experiment consisted in simultaneously injecting heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in the recovery well and in monitoring wells. To get insights in the 3D characteristics of the heat transport mechanisms the space-filling arrangement of observation wells was used. The breakthrough curves measured in the recovery well showed that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer is slower and more dispersive than solute transport. Recovery is very low for heat while in the same time it is measured as relatively high for the solute tracer. This is due to the fact that heat diffusion is larger than molecular diffusion, implying that exchange between groundwater and the porous medium matrix is far more significant for heat than for solute tracers. Temperature breakthrough curves in other piezometers are contrasted with what would be expected in an ideal layered aquifer. They reveal strongly unequal lateral and vertical components of the transport mechanisms. The observed complex behavior of the heat plume was explained by the groundwater flow gradient on the site and heterogeneities of hydraulic conductivity field. By using numerical model of heat and flow coupled with pilot points inverse approach main preferential paths were characterized. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Analysis of Martian Nightglow Seasonal Variations Observed by MAVEN's Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; IUVS team

Poster (2015, December 15)

We report results from a study of nitric oxide nightglow over the northern hemisphere of Mars during winter and southern hemisphere during equinox. We present observations of the nitric oxide δ and γ band ... [more ▼]

We report results from a study of nitric oxide nightglow over the northern hemisphere of Mars during winter and southern hemisphere during equinox. We present observations of the nitric oxide δ and γ band emissions between 190 and 270 nm by the Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph on the MAVEN spacecraft. The emission reveals recombination of N and O atoms dissociated on the dayside of Mars, and is known to trace upper atmosphere hemispheric circulation patterns. We extend previous studies to higher latitudes, finding brighter emissions closer to the poles as predicted from global circulation models. Statistically significant variability suggests variation of the fluxes of N and O carried from the dayside thermosphere, as well as possible variations of the wind pattern in the nightside thermosphere and mesosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailINVESTIGATING MODEL DEFICIENCIES IN THE GLOBAL BUDGET OF ETHANE
Tzompa-Sosa, Z. A.; Keller, C. A.; Turner, A. J. et al

Poster (2015, December 14)

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See detailEvaluating the performance of short-term heat storage in alluvial aquifer with 4D electrical resistivity tomography and hydrological monitoring
Robert, Tanguy; Paulus, Claire; Bolly, Pierre-Yves et al

Poster (2015, December 14)

In the context of energy demand side management (DSM), energy storage solutions are needed to stock energy during high production periods and recover energy during high demand periods. Among currently ... [more ▼]

In the context of energy demand side management (DSM), energy storage solutions are needed to stock energy during high production periods and recover energy during high demand periods. Among currently studied solutions, storing energy in the subsurface through heat pumps and/or exchangers (thermal energy storage) is relatively simple with low investment costs. However, the design and functioning of such systems have strong interconnections with the geology of the site which may be complex and heterogeneous, making predictions difficult. In this context, local temperature measurements are necessary but not sufficient to model heat flow and transport in the subsurface. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) provides spatially distributed information on the temperature distribution in the subsurface. In this study, we monitored, with 4D ERT combined with multiple hydrological measurements in available wells, a short-term heat storage experiment in a confined alluvial aquifer. We injected heated water (ΔT=30K) during 6 hours with a rate of 3 m³/h, stored during 3 days, and then we pumped it back to estimate the energy balance. We collected ERT data sets using 9 parallel profiles of 21 electrodes and cross-lines measurements. Inversion results clearly show the ability of ERT to delimit the thermal plume growth during injection, the diffusion and decrease of temperature during storage, and the decrease in size after pumping. Quantitative interpretation of ERT is difficult at this stage due to strong spatial variations of the total dissolved solid content in the aquifer, due to historical chloride contamination of the site. Energy balance shows that up to 75% of the energy can be easily recovered with an adapted strategy in the context of DSM. Short-term heat storage in alluvial aquifer is efficient and ERT is a valuable tool to image and estimate the temperature distribution in the subsurface. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de la répartition spatiale des restes fauniques du site éémien de Caours. Apport des systèmes d'information géographique.
Moreau, Gwénaëlle ULg

Poster (2015, December 12)

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a ... [more ▼]

The Palaeolithic deposit of Caours, located in the Somme, is the only Eemian site in Northern Europe in interglacial context. This site show an incredible conservation of faunal remains spread out over a large area and a recurrence Human occupation. That gave us a large amount of data about this period of Neanderthal history. We now questioning about the choice of this locality and the spatial organisation of Neanderthal. Then, spatial analysis using the Geographic Information System (GIS) appear to being a useful tool to answer it. We show the consequent availability of water, prey and tool raw material. Neanderthalians was opportunistic hunters of cervidae. There has also eat a heavier prey as aurochs and rhino by trapping or scavenging. Then Neanderthal of Caours butchering with tool made in-situ eating the meat and the marrow. [less ▲]

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See detailNitrous oxide fluxes by croplands: Towards a better understanding of emission mechanisms and dynamics
Lognoul, Margaux ULg; Broux, François ULg; SALERNO, Giovanni ULg

Poster (2015, December 10)

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that can be emitted by crops. Our poster summarizes the emission mechanisms and implied variables and presents preliminary results obtained with eddy covariance on winter ... [more ▼]

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that can be emitted by crops. Our poster summarizes the emission mechanisms and implied variables and presents preliminary results obtained with eddy covariance on winter wheat and automated dynamic closed chambers on maize. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of shoreline changes on population in Cotonou, Benin
de Longueville, Florence; Hountondji, Yvon Carmen; Gemenne, François ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 10)

The coast of Cotonou (Benin) is affected by an intensive coastal erosion for several decades, mainly due to unsuitable port infrastructures and human activities. In the future, the process will very ... [more ▼]

The coast of Cotonou (Benin) is affected by an intensive coastal erosion for several decades, mainly due to unsuitable port infrastructures and human activities. In the future, the process will very likely be worsen by sea level rise as a consequence of global warming. In this study, we use a combination of very high resolution satellite images from Google Earth recorded in 2002, 2011, 2013 and 2014 and carry out field missions in September 2012, September 2013, July 2014 and February 2015 to assess the retreat of the coastline and to understand the dynamic of population in the risk area. Multi-temporal analyses of satellite images show that nearly 93 hectares of land (including 40 hectares off) were progressively eroded by the sea between 2002 and 2014 on the stretch of the first eight kilometers at the east of the Safiato groyne. This corresponds to an average coastline’s retreat of 115 meters in 13 years, with variations from 38 to 145 meters, depending on the location. Thanks to the comparison between the images of 2002 and 2014, we assess that around 765 houses disappeared by the encroachment of the sea over the distance of 8 km to the East of the Safiato groyne, of which 60 villas and about 705 makeshift houses (informal settlements). Well-off population leave the risk area when their houses are threatened and go inland, fishermen prefer to stay in the risk area to be close to their activities and precarious population have no financial and social capitals to migrate, they are trapped in the risk area. Other precarious population coming from somewhere else settle in the coastal area and grow the at-risk population. The use of intermediate images and the results of field works confirm a rapid process of settlement/destruction of makeshift houses in the coastal area. Poor people carry out simply short displacements in the risk area. There is an urgent need to secure these populations. Update and respect of urban planning regulations, good governance, cooperation with other countries and involvement of local communities are all factors that are expected to reach this objective. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical developments to assess the crashworthiness of an offshore wind turbine jacket impacted by a ship
Pire, Timothée ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Buldgen, Loïc ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 10)

As the number of offshore wind farms is constantly increasing, impacts between ships and wind turbines is becoming a major concern. Nowadays, design offices use finite elements simulations to assess the ... [more ▼]

As the number of offshore wind farms is constantly increasing, impacts between ships and wind turbines is becoming a major concern. Nowadays, design offices use finite elements simulations to assess the crashworthiness of offshore supporting structures, which give accurate results but is time demanding. There is therefore a need for a faster method, especially during the pre-design stage. The purpose of this research is to develop analytical formulations, based on the so-called continuous elements method in order to compute the resistance of offshore wind turbine jackets when submitted to an impact. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution récente du trait de côte dans le Golfe de Guinée: Exemple du Togo et du Bénin (2000-2015)
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; de Longueville, Florence

Poster (2015, December 10)

L’interface terre-mer est un environnement extrêmement fragile. De par le monde, les littoraux sont menacés par une multitude de facteurs parfois naturels et le plus souvent anthropiques. Ainsi, aux ... [more ▼]

L’interface terre-mer est un environnement extrêmement fragile. De par le monde, les littoraux sont menacés par une multitude de facteurs parfois naturels et le plus souvent anthropiques. Ainsi, aux perturbations occasionnées aux zones côtières par les infrastructures portuaires, les barrages, les prélèvements de sédiments à même la plage ou encore l’extension urbaine, s’ajoutent les conséquences des changements climatiques, dont l’élévation du niveau des océans. Nous proposons dans cet article d’évaluer la récente évolution du trait de côte au Togo et au Bénin où plusieurs études localisées démontrent que les plages sableuses connaissent des modifications (accumulation ou érosion) majeures ces dernières décennies. Dans le but d’avoir une vision globale de la dynamique côtière sur les 152 kilomètres de plages de ces deux pays d’Afrique de l’Ouest, nous utilisons les images à haute définition spatiale disponibles en open access sur Google Earth. Dans cette étude exploratoire, nous analysons le trait de côte par sections de 1 kilomètre entre 2002 et 2015 en estimant systématiquement l’évolution moyenne en mètre par an. Globalement, il appert que si certaines sections connaissent une accumulation, c’est uniquement dû au fait que celles-ci se trouvent en amont d’un obstacle majeur, comme la jetée d’un port. Les sections relativement stables sont uniquement liées à la présence de mesures de protection, comme des épis. Partout ailleurs, les littoraux subissent un processus érosif pouvant être impressionnant avec des reculs moyens pouvant dépasser les 10 mètres par an. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ICOS Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory: long term greehouse gas flux measurements
Hurdebise, Quentin ULg; De Ligne, Anne ULg

Poster (2015, December 10)

Presentation of the Vielsalm ICOS Terrestrial Observatory: site management, data available, data access, flux temporal dynamic and flux relation with climate variables.

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See detailLa traduction de l’humour dans la poésie orale peule du Cameroun
Oumarou Mal Mazou, Rachid ULg

Poster (2015, December 09)

Le poster présente le projet de thèse en cours de finalisation à l'Université de Liège

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See detailOn the LZ distance for dereplicating redundant prokaryotic genomes
Léonard, Raphaël ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg; Kerff, Frédéric ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 07)

The fast-growing number of available prokaryotic genomes, along with their uneven taxonomic distribution, is a prob- lem when trying to assemble broadly sampled genome sets for phylogenomics and ... [more ▼]

The fast-growing number of available prokaryotic genomes, along with their uneven taxonomic distribution, is a prob- lem when trying to assemble broadly sampled genome sets for phylogenomics and comparative genomics. Indeed, most of the new genomes belong to the same subset of hyper-sampled phyla, such as Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, or even to single species, such as Escherichia coli (almost 2000 genomes as of Sept 2015), while the continuous flow of newly discovered phyla prompts for regular updates. This situation makes it difficult to maintain sets of representative genomes combining lesser known phyla, for which only few species are available, and sound subsets of highly abundant phyla. An automated straightforward method is required but none are publicly available. The LZ distance, in conjunction with the quality of the annotations, can be used to create an automated approach for selecting a subset of represen- tative genomes without redundancy. We are planning to release this tool on a website that will be made publicly available. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 ULg)
See detailRegulation of Tissue Factor by Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transitions: Impacts for the metastatic progression.
Francart; Bourcy, M; Suarez-Carmona, M et al

Poster (2015, December 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
See detailFunctional characterization of FRD3,  a citrate transporter, in Arabidopsis relatives
Scheepers, Maxime ULg; Charlier, Jean-Benoit; Spielmann, Julien ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 03)

Transcriptomic studies identified genes which are constitutively over-expressed in A. halleri compared to A. thaliana and which may have a role in metal tolerance or accumulation (1-3). A candidate gene ... [more ▼]

Transcriptomic studies identified genes which are constitutively over-expressed in A. halleri compared to A. thaliana and which may have a role in metal tolerance or accumulation (1-3). A candidate gene encodes FRD3, a member of the MATE family of membrane transporters (56 members in A. thaliana). It is a citrate transporter involved in iron homeostasis (4-6) and playing a role in zinc tolerance in A. thaliana (7). We are aiming to analyse the FRD3 high expression in A. halleri and the FRD3 function in zinc and iron homeostasis in A. thaliana. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (5 ULg)
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See detailAFM study of the penicillin receptor BlaR1 of Bacillus licheniformis
Mescola, Andrea ULg; Dauvin, Marjorie ULg

Poster (2015, December 03)

In presence of β-lactamines, some strains of B. licheniformis secret a β-lactamase that hydrolyses the antibiotic, making the bacteria resistant to penicillin. Staphylococcus aureus possesses a very ... [more ▼]

In presence of β-lactamines, some strains of B. licheniformis secret a β-lactamase that hydrolyses the antibiotic, making the bacteria resistant to penicillin. Staphylococcus aureus possesses a very similar system, allowing the expression of a β-lactamase in response to the presence of antibiotic outside the cell . In both strains, cells are able to sense the antibiotic in the medium through a membrane penicillin receptor BlaR1. Up to now, the 3D structure addressing the receptor in its entire form is not available, mainly due to low production yields and degradation. Here we show production, purification and reconstitution of the entire membrane protein in a lipid bilayer and a first AFM study of intra-molecular forces involved in the activation process of BlaR1. [less ▲]

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See detailNo favorable effect of reduced tillage on microbial communities in a silty loam soil (Belgium)
Degrune, Florine ULg; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg et al

Poster (2015, December 01)

To date, only a few studies have applied metagenomics to investigate the influence of different tillage regimes and types of crop residue management on soil microbial communities. These studies were ... [more ▼]

To date, only a few studies have applied metagenomics to investigate the influence of different tillage regimes and types of crop residue management on soil microbial communities. These studies were conducted under specific climates on soils characterized by particular land-use histories. A very different ecological context is to be found in certain areas of Western Europe, such as central Belgium, whose loess-derived soils are among the most fertile in the world and have long been used for intensive agriculture. Specific objectives were to determine diversity levels and changes in microbial community composition under different combinations of tillage regime (conventional vs. reduced) and crop residue fate (residue removal R- vs. residues left R+ on the field). As reduced tillage results in two contrasting zones (the first centimeters of soil are mixed each year, while the soil below remains unperturbed), we chose to perform the analysis at two depths: 0 to 5 cm and 15 to 20 cm. [less ▲]

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See detailProtein structure modeling using backbone chemical shifts
Wanko Nembot, Alexis Marius ULg; Damblon, Christian ULg

Poster (2015, December 01)

The knowledge of the tridimensional structure of a protein is essential to study its interactions and understand its mode of action. The Purpose of our work is to quickly and easily determine the ... [more ▼]

The knowledge of the tridimensional structure of a protein is essential to study its interactions and understand its mode of action. The Purpose of our work is to quickly and easily determine the structure of proteins using the backbone chemical shifts. Backbone chemical shifts data are NMR parameters that can be rapidly, easily and accurately measured. This parameter is very sensitive to the conformation of amino acids and is used to deduct the secondary structure (TALOS, RCI,...). We therefore plan to use backbone chemical shifts as constraints on dihedral angles to quickly and easily determine protein structure. Several « de novo » methods like CS-Rosetta , CS23D et CHESHIRE have been recently developed in this purpose. We will use proteins of different sizes for which, the structure (X-ray or NMR structure) and chemical shifts backbone are available for testing the three softwares. Knowing that each of these softwares predicted a large number of low energy models on the one hand, and that the deployment and use of these tools constitutes obstacles for users who are not experts in computer science on the other hand, our goal will be to develop a platform that can easily compare these three methods based on quality of the structure produced. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailSpatial variations in the concentrations of mercury and persistent organic pollutants in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins from South Florida
Das, Krishna ULg; Damseaux, France ULg; Heithaus, M.R. et al

Poster (2015, December)

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an abundant top predator found in nearshore waters of South Florida including heavily developed and remote coastal waters. The objective of this study was to ... [more ▼]

The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an abundant top predator found in nearshore waters of South Florida including heavily developed and remote coastal waters. The objective of this study was to quantify total mercury (T-Hg) and persistent organic pollutant (POPs: NDL-PCBs, PBDEs, DDT, HCH, HCB, PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs) levels in bottlenose dolphins found off the highly populated island of Key West (n = 27) and from the undeveloped Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE; n = 20). T-Hg and POPs were analyzed in skin and blubber tissues, respectively, using a Direct Mercury analyzer (for T-Hg), GC-ECD (POPs) and GC-HRMS (DLCs). The 7 ICES PCBs were the main compounds found in bottlenose dolphins from Key West (8229 ng.g-1 lipids) and the FCE (2289 ng.g-1 lipids), while the concentrations of PCDD/Fs remained low (Key West: 104 pg.g-1 lipids, FCE: 102 pg.g-1 lipids). POP concentrations were higher in individuals from Key West compared to those from the FCE. However, POP concentrations in Key West dolphins were lower than those from other locations in Florida and around the world. Unlike organic pollutants, T-Hg concentrations were significantly higher in FCE dolphins (Key West: 2941 ng.g-1 dw versus, FCE: 9314 ng.g-1 dw), with the highest concentrations reported from the southeastern US. PCB concentrations remained under previously suggested threshold for adverse health effects (including immunosuppression) in marine mammals of 17 000 ng/kg lipid. To conclude, sources of T-Hg and POPs differed between Key West and the FCE as reflected by their concentrations in skin and blubber of free-ranging bottlenose dolphins highlighting their role as sentinels of their environment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (6 ULg)
See detailThe Two Types of Aurora on Mars as Observed by MAVEN's Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph
Schneider; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2015, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULg)
See detailMars Ozone Mapping with MAVEN IUVS
Lefèvre; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2015, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
See detailEFHC1/Myoclonin-1 modulates the post-translational modification of microtubules
Medard, Laurie ULg; Godin, Juliette; Coumans, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2015, December)

Rationale: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsies (JME) are one of the most common forms of genetic generalized epilepsy. Genetic studies have shown that heterozygous mutations in EFHC1/Myoclonin1 are responsible ... [more ▼]

Rationale: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsies (JME) are one of the most common forms of genetic generalized epilepsy. Genetic studies have shown that heterozygous mutations in EFHC1/Myoclonin1 are responsible for 3-22% of JME cases worldwide. The Myoclonin1 protein contains three DM10 domains of unknown function and an EF-hand domain. We have previously demonstrated that Myoclonin1 is a microtubule-associated protein involved in cell division and radial migration during neocortex development. In cells, this protein co-localized with specific structures rich in microtubules (MTs) such as the centrosome, the poles of the mitotic spindle or the motile cilia but not with cytoplasmic MTs. This suggests post-translational modifications (PTM) of MTs may be important for the interaction between Myoclonin1 and MTs Methods: We co-expressed the different enzymes catalyzing PTM of MTs with Myoclonin1 in U2OS cell line, and then performed immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis. We next performed pulldown and luciferase complementation assays to test protein interaction Results: With one of these enzymes, we observed a strong increase in PTM in the presence of Myoclonin- 1.Interestingly, the effect is observed even when a DM10 domain alone is co-expressed with the enzyme, suggesting for the first time a role for this domain. This suggests that Myoclonin1 may interact with and modulate the activity of this enzyme. By using luciferase complementation assay and pull down experiments, we could demonstrate that both proteins interact. Conclusions: Our data suggest Myoclonin-1 modulates specific PTM of MTs. This is of prime importance for microtubule dynamic and notably for neuroblast precursor migration during neocortex development. This could be the mechanism that explains why pathological forms of myoclonin-1 may affect brain development. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (4 ULg)
See detailTides in the Martian Atmosphere as Observed by MAVEN IUVS
Lo; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2015, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
See detailStudy of the Martian cold oxygen corona from the O I 130.4 nm by IUVS/MAVEN
Chaufray; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2015, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
See detailCarbon substrate utilization and microbial biomass in European forest soils are related to tree species diversity
Carnol, Monique ULg; Baeten, Lander; Bosman, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2015, December)

Tree species influence biogeochemical cycling through element deposition (throughfall, litterfall), root decomposition and exudates, and through their influence on the microbial activities in the soil ... [more ▼]

Tree species influence biogeochemical cycling through element deposition (throughfall, litterfall), root decomposition and exudates, and through their influence on the microbial activities in the soil. Yet, the effect of mixing tree species on soil functioning is unclear, in particular concerning the microbial diversity and activity in soils. Here we synthesize results from the Exploratory Platform of the FunDivEUROPE project (http://www.fundiveurope.eu/). This network of 209 comparative plots covering tree diversity levels of 1 to 5 species was established in existing mature forests in 6 European regions. These six focal regions represent a gradient of major European forest types from boreal to Mediterranean forests. The aims of this study were to determine the soil microbial biomass and metabolic diversity of soil bacteria for these 6 European forest regions, presenting each a tree species richness gradient and to analyse the impact of tree species richness and the role of other controlling factors. We analysed the relation between tree species diversity, the proportion of coniferous tree species and soil factors (pH, soil organic carbon, water soluble carbon and nitrogen) and the carbon substrate utilisation pattern of soil bacteria (BIOLOG Ecoplate), soil microbial biomass (fumigation-extraction), hot water carbon and nitrogen in the forest floor and the upper mineral soil horizon (linear mixed models, GLM for multivariate abundance data, discriminant correspondence analysis). Mean values of microbial biomass carbon ranged from 3264 (Italy) to 8717 (Finland) mg kg-1 in the forest floor and from 465 (Italy) to 3748 (Finland) mg kg-1 in the mineral soil. Statistical models predicted microbial biomass to increase in both soil layers by 7-8% with each step increase in tree diversity. Increased proportion of conifers was linked to a decrease in the number of carbon substrates used by soil bacteria. The types of carbon sources used were dependent on region, proportion of conifers, soil pH and water-soluble carbon and nitrogen. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (4 ULg)
See detailThe Hot Oxygen Corona of Mars: Observations by MAVEN IUVS
Deighan; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2015, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
See detailProbing the Martian Atmosphere with MAVEN/IUVS Stellar Occultations
Gröller; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2015, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
See detailMAVEN/IUVS Apoapse Observations of the Martian FUV Dayglow
Correira; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2015, December)

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
See detailRetrieval of Mars' Upper Atmospheric Composition using Dayglow Observations by IUVS on MAVEN
Evans; IUVS team; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg

Poster (2015, December)

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See detailBiomass and carbon stocks of tropical African forests: synthesis and perspectives
Loubota Panzou, Grâce Jopaul ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Loumeto, Jean-Joël et al

Poster (2015, November 26)

Quantifying the biomass and carbon stocks contained in tropical forests has become an international priority for the implementation of the REDD+ mechanism. Forest biomass is estimated through three ... [more ▼]

Quantifying the biomass and carbon stocks contained in tropical forests has become an international priority for the implementation of the REDD+ mechanism. Forest biomass is estimated through three successive levels: the tree, the stand and the region level. This study reviews the state of the art on the estimation of biomass and carbon stocks contained in tropical African forests. This review highlights that only few allometric equations, equations used for estimating biomass of the tree from non-destructive measurements (diameter, height), have been established for tropical African forests. At the stand level, this synthesis highlights the spatial and temporal variations in biomass between forests types in Central and Eastern Africa. While biomass recovery after disturbance (logging for instance) is rather quick, there is still a lot of uncertainity on the spatial variation in biomass, and there is no consensus on a regional biomass map. The quality of biomass mapping in tropical Africa stronly depends on the various sensors used (optical, RADAR or LIDAR), the allometric equation used to convert forest inventory data and sampling design. Based on the lack of precision of available allometric equations and forest inventory data a large spatial scale, many uncertainties persist on estimating the biomass and carbon stocks contained in the African tropical forests. It is important to develop reference sites (both allometry and forest inventory) to provide accurate biomass estimates for an effective implementation of the REDD+. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (4 ULg)
See detailCardio-pulmonary mechanics and minimal modelling in critical care
de Bournonville, Sébastien; Pironet, Antoine ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailMiombo Woodlands : an endangered forest ecosystem in periurban areas of the southeastern cities of Democratic Republic of Congo
Hick, Aurélie ULg; Kizila Wimana, Pacifique; Tooth, Martin et al

Poster (2015, November 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
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See detailForward Stagewise Additive Modeling for Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) Systems
Wehenkel, Marie ULg

Poster (2015, November 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (3 ULg)
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Peer Reviewed
See detailMultimedia-enhanced learning productions - A typology based on instructional use and needed resources
Van de Poël, Jean-François ULg; Martin, Pierre; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

Poster (2015, November 24)

This poster introduces a typology of educational multimedia objects stemming from an analysis of 400 audiovisual items produced by IFRES-eCampus, the staff development unit of the University of Liège ... [more ▼]

This poster introduces a typology of educational multimedia objects stemming from an analysis of 400 audiovisual items produced by IFRES-eCampus, the staff development unit of the University of Liège (Belgium). The classification of the multimedia productions is based on their instructional use and is enriched by additional qualifications in terms of time investment by the faculty and the Teaching and Learning center. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (13 ULg)
See detailPegylated Polyplexes Based On HDAC5 siRNA And Aliphatic Polycarbonate Polymers For An Anticancer Therapy
Frère, Antoine ULg; Baroni, Alexandra; Peulen, Olivier ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 23)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (6 ULg)
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See detailUNRAVELLING THE ROLES OF LYSINE ACETYLATION BY ELP3 DURING INNER EAR DEVELOPMENT
Mateo Sanchez, Susana ULg; Delacroix, Laurence ULg; Freeman, Stephen ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 23)

We planned to investigate the role of Elp3 acetyl-transferase, a member of the Elongator complex, in inner ear formation. We first analysed the spatio-temporal pattern of Elp3 mRNA expression and showed ... [more ▼]

We planned to investigate the role of Elp3 acetyl-transferase, a member of the Elongator complex, in inner ear formation. We first analysed the spatio-temporal pattern of Elp3 mRNA expression and showed that it was expressed in the entire early otocyst at E11.5 and persisted later in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea, in the spiral ganglion and in the vestibule. To unravel functions of Elp3, we used conditional knock-out mice in which Elp3 gene is deleted from early otocyst (Elp3cKO). We submitted these mice to a battery of vestibular testing and found significant abnormalities. Besides, the auditory brain stem response of Elp3cKO indicated that these mice are severely deaf. We were also able to demonstrate an increased level of apoptosis in the Elp3cKO spiral ganglion leading to a reduced number of neurons and fibers innervating the sensory cells as well as a reduced number of their synaptic ribbons. Moreover, the remaining spiral ganglion neurons extend processes showing clearly defects regarding sensory cell innervation. In conclusion, our results clearly show a role for Elp3 both in hearing and balance. We plan to go deeper in the mechanisms involved through the identification of the proteins that are targeted for acetylation by Elp3. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria on Wheat Growth under Greenhouse and Field Conditions in combination with different nitrogen fertilizer levels
Nguyen, Minh ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 23)

Many Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to enhance root growth, mineral availability, and nutrient use efficiency of crops. The aim of this project is to screen commercially available ... [more ▼]

Many Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are able to enhance root growth, mineral availability, and nutrient use efficiency of crops. The aim of this project is to screen commercially available PGPR formulations and lab strains to increase wheat growth and yield in combination with an optimized nitrogen (N) fertilizer application scheme. This could lead to a significant reduction of N fertilizer application without affecting the subsequent grain yields. The screened products collection includes (1) Mix1 (a mix of Azospirillum sp., Azorhizobium sp., and Azoarcus sp.), (2) Mix2 (a mix of Mix1 complemented with two strains of phosphorus-solubilizing Bacillus sp.), (3) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a, (4) B. subtilis, and (5) B. amyloliquefaciens b. These products were screened under greenhouse and field conditions in 2014 by using spring and winter wheat varieties, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions, there was a significant increase in root dry weight and in root per shoot ratio of plants inoculated with Mix1. Under field conditions, the interaction between PGPR inoculation and different N fertilizer doses was assessed. The grain yield was negatively impacted by low N fertilizer applications. Under such conditions, the inoculation of the wheat rhizosphere with B. subtilis increased the grain yield by 15% relative to the water control. However, in the field trial, the variability between plot replicates was high and lead to non-significant results. Based on these results, modified screening strategies for PGPR selection were set up for the next trials. [less ▲]

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See detailPhénologie des hêtres dans une forêt ardennaise: comparaison de méthodes de suivi et relations avec les flux de CO2
Hurdebise, Quentin ULg; Vincke, Caroline; De Ligne, Anne ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 18)

Bien caractériser la phénologie des essences forestières dans un contexte climatique changeant est indispensable. Dans cette optique, confronter les différentes sources d’informations phénologiques ... [more ▼]

Bien caractériser la phénologie des essences forestières dans un contexte climatique changeant est indispensable. Dans cette optique, confronter les différentes sources d’informations phénologiques (relevé de terrain, modélisation, capteurs de rayonnement, caméra phénologique, satellite, eddy covariance…) est une démarche essentielle. Les différences et la complémentarité de ces sources d’informations ont été mises en évidence en utilisant les données provenant d’une forêt mixte de l’Est de la Belgique, principalement composée de hêtres. Par ailleurs, ces informations ont été utilisées pour étudier l’influence de la phénologie des hêtres sur les échanges annuels de CO2 de ces derniers. [less ▲]

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See detailComment améliorer la réussite à l'examen d'anatomie en 1ère année de bachelier en médecine? Etude de l'impact d'une activité intégrée dans un dispositif hybride de formation
Ernst, Denise ULg; SEIDEL, Laurence ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 17)

The course of “Introduction to Human Anatomy” is part of the curriculum delivered to the undergraduated students (Freshman year) at the Faculty of Medecine of the University of Liege. The course is taught ... [more ▼]

The course of “Introduction to Human Anatomy” is part of the curriculum delivered to the undergraduated students (Freshman year) at the Faculty of Medecine of the University of Liege. The course is taught in a blending learning mode combining traditional intructor-led and e-learning activities. The MCQ 2 test is one of the three components of the final written exam (which consists of 3 MCQ tests). This test requires students to recognize and identify the organ’s orientation in cross-sections represented in different spatial views. In our study, we tried to evaluate how the online training exercises provided by the instructors team for that particular ability was appreciated by students and if students benefited from this type of online activities to improve their examination results for MCQ 2 test. Further in our research, we asked student about their perceptions of coherence between the aims, methods and evaluation of our entire system. Then this perception has been compared with the overall score of the exam to look for the present of correlation elements. We observed that the MCQ 2 test results are significantly better for students who practiced the new online exercises and for students having seen the value of this activity. The perception of consistency or coherence between the objectives, methods and assessment is not correlated to the overall score of the student. As conclusion, we can declare that the new learning scenario proposed positively enriches the learning environment for students. It can be easily scaled up for important groups and accessed at any time by users. It focusses on specific objectives, is directly linked to the examination system of the course (MCQ 2) and also allows developing a competence expertise related to their future medical profession. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (9 ULg)
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See detailImpacts of Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria-based Biostimulants on Wheat Growth under Greenhouse and Field Conditions
Nguyen, Minh ULg; Ongena, Marc ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 16)

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are one of the main biostimulant classes due to their capacity of stimulating root growth and enhancing soil mineral availability, hence increasing nutrient use ... [more ▼]

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) are one of the main biostimulant classes due to their capacity of stimulating root growth and enhancing soil mineral availability, hence increasing nutrient use efficiency in crops. The aim of this study is to screen commercially PGPR-containing products to enhance wheat growth and yield in combination with an optimized nitrogen (N) fertilizer application scheme. This could lead to a significant reduction of N fertilizer application without affecting the subsequent grain yields. The screened products collection includes (1) Mix1 (a mix of Azospirillum sp., Azorhizobium sp., and Azoarcus sp.), (2) Mix2 (a mix of Mix1 complemented with two strains of phosphorus-solubilizing Bacillus sp.), (3) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens a, (4) B. subtilis, and (5) B. amyloliquefaciens b. These biostimulants were screened under greenhouse and field conditions in 2014 by using spring and winter wheat varieties respectively. There was a significant increase in root dry weight and in root per shoot ratio of plants inoculated with Mix1. Under field conditions, the interaction between PGPR inoculation and N fertilizer application was assessed. The grain yield was negatively impacted by low N fertilizer applications. Under such conditions, the inoculation of the wheat rhizosphere with Bacillus subtilis increased the grain yield by 15% relative to the water control. However, in the field trial, the variability between plot replicates was high and lead to non-significant results. Based on those results, modified screening strategies for PGPR selection were set up for the 2015 trials to reduce field variability and possibly achieve higher yield increases. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (9 ULg)
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See detailStructure of the Q-Codes semantic knowledge base in General Practice/Family Medicine
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Grosjean, Julien; Darmoni, Stefan

Poster (2015, November 13)

Aim ; Coding abstracts of communications of GPs during congress allows more efficient exchange of information through a specific indexing process. Coding with Core Content Classification in General ... [more ▼]

Aim ; Coding abstracts of communications of GPs during congress allows more efficient exchange of information through a specific indexing process. Coding with Core Content Classification in General Practice/Family Medicine (3CGP/FM), an association of ICPC and of a new tool called Q-Codes means identifying the main concepts the writer is willing to share in his/her contribution. This is called ‘text classification’ or ‘topic list building’ in computer science and ‘qualitative data analysis’ in cognitive science. The GP is dealing with issues concerning the patient and with issues concerning the management of the job. Symptoms, diagnosis and process are what we will call clinical activities. General management as well as ethical or quality related issues are up to what we will call non-clinical or managerial activities. Clinical activities will be identified in the abstracts by the use of the International Classification of Primary Care second edition, electronic, version 5 (ICPC-2 e ver5). Managerial activities will be identified in the abstracts by the use of the Q-Codes, version 2.1, 2015 which we are explaining now in detail. Method ; www.hetop.eu is the European cross-lingual portal of health terminologies for indexing and searching Web resources. The portal uses OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. We have developed the terminological content of 183 items called Q-codes using a graphic interface, populating the knowledge base with relevant information about the concepts studied. These concepts are linked to: (i) professional terminologies such as MeSH, (ii) lay terminologies such as Babelnet and DBpedia, and (iii) top bibliographic free full text citations of the domain GP/FM. Results ; One hundred and eighty-three Q-Codes have been designed and 177 extensive terminological records are available online for now for beta testers. The whole process is described on http://docpatient.net/3CGP. The ongoing version of the Q-codes is available here in 6 languages http://docpatient.net/3CGP/Q-Codes_ver_2_2.pdf This poster present a general overview of the terminological development, showing the relations of the Q-Codes QT3, Quality Assurance [less ▲]

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See detailCollaborer avec des enseignants-témoins en formation pédagogique d’adultes – Finalités, difficultés et plus-values
Leduc, Laurent ULg; Detroz, Pascal ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

Poster (2015, November 10)

En prélude à une étude empirique, ce poster problématise la décision pédagogique de faire intervenir, au cours d’une formation, des enseignants pour témoigner devant d’autres enseignants de leur pratique ... [more ▼]

En prélude à une étude empirique, ce poster problématise la décision pédagogique de faire intervenir, au cours d’une formation, des enseignants pour témoigner devant d’autres enseignants de leur pratique. Le poster recourt au QQOQCP (qui-quoi-où-quand-comment-pourquoi), une méthode qui allie simplicité et souci de complétude dans le balisage initial d’un phénomène. Sans remettre en cause la richesse des témoignages par des enseignants dans un contexte de formation, ni la satisfaction que beaucoup de participants estiment en retirer, le poster plaide pour une approche raisonnée des témoignages en soulignant certaines tensions et ambiguïtés qui peuvent marquer ces derniers. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailQuel outil d'entrainement proposer aux étudiants de médecine suivant un cours de physique ?
Marique, Pierre-Xavier ULg; Hoebeke, Maryse ULg

Poster (2015, November 10)

La réforme des études de médecine mise en application dès la rentrée académique de septembre 2012 en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles a introduit une liste abondante de prérequis dans les cours dits de « ... [more ▼]

La réforme des études de médecine mise en application dès la rentrée académique de septembre 2012 en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles a introduit une liste abondante de prérequis dans les cours dits de « sciences fondamentales » (physique, chimie, biologie)et a favorisé l’évaluation sous forme de questions à choix multiples en première année de bachelier. Or, les étudiants sortant de l’enseignement secondaire maîtrisent rarement, pour de multiples raisons, l’ensemble des prérequis. Par ailleurs, ils sont très peu entraînés à ce mode d’évaluation et n’en maîtrisent donc pas les spécificités. Lors de leur arrivée à l’université, les causes d’échec des étudiants sont multiples. Parmi celles-ci, nous pouvons citer le temps d’adaptation de l’étudiant au système supérieur, la difficulté d’apprendre la nouvelle matière vue au cours (problèmes de méthode de travail, quantité de matière plus importante, laps de temps plus court pour l’assimiler, …) et, éventuellement, une mauvaise maîtrise des prérequis. Cela nous a poussé à développer un outil d’apprentissage du cours de physique. Nous avons opté pour une plate-forme en ligne afin qu’elle soit accessible à chaque instant et de n’importe quel endroit moyennant une connexion internet. L’étudiant peut notamment y travailler la nouvelle matière, ou les prérequis, via une série de tests formatifs présentés sous forme de QCM. L’étudiant peut à tout moment générer un test selon trois paramètres : la(les) matière(s) qu’ils souhaitent travailler, le temps qu’il désire y consacrer et le niveau de maîtrise qu’il souhaite atteindre à ce moment-là. La matière vue au cours a préalablement été décomposée en cinq grands thèmes. L’étudiant peut, lors de l’ouverture d’une session choisir un ou plusieurs de ces thèmes. Le nombre de questions figurant dans son test formatif dépendra de la durée qu’il aura préalablement sélectionnée (30, 60, 90 ou 120 minutes). Un barème de 10 questions par heure, identique aux conditions d’examens, est appliqué. L’étudiant pourra, en outre, choisir un niveau parmi trois échelons de difficultés. Les questions de chacune des cinq matières, issues notamment des examens des années antérieures, ont été évaluées par plusieurs membres de l’équipe pédagogique et ont été affublées d’un niveau de difficulté de 1 à 4. Vingt pools de questions ont alors été créés, soit un par niveau de difficulté de question et par matière. Une attention particulière est apportée à la rédaction des questions notamment afin de respecter les règles de conception développées par Leclercq (Leclercq, 1986) et sériant les niveaux d’abstraction des questions selon les taxonomies de Bloom (Bloom, 1956) Une fois les trois paramètres sélectionnés par l’étudiant, un test formatif est généré automatiquement. Un nombre de questions, fixé par la durée choisie par l’étudiant, est tiré aléatoirement en respectant le niveau de difficulté (du test) que l’étudiant a choisi. Le niveau « faible » de test proposera uniquement des questions de niveaux 1 et 2, le niveau « moyen », des questions de niveaux 1, 2 et 3 et le niveau « fort » des questions de niveaux 2, 3 et 4. L’étudiant pourra visualiser son état d’avancement dans la maîtrise de chacun des thèmes grâce à un rapport qu’il pourra à tout moment générer. Ce rapport détaillera également quel type (théorie, application directe de formule, problèmes, …) de questions l’étudiant a tendance à réussir ou rater. Une vue simplifiée et ludique, à l’aide de médailles à gagner sera également proposée à l’étudiant. A l’aide de cette vue simplifiée et du rapport complet, l’équipe pédagogique pourra travailler plus efficacement avec l’étudiant si cela demande un rendez-vous de remédiation. Outre cet outil, la plate-forme propose le travail des prérequis et de la nouvelle matière sous différentes forme (vidéos d’expérience à commenter, résolution guidée de problèmes, forums, questions débats, …) [less ▲]

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See detailConduire un projet techno-pédagogique avec trois universités francophones belges
Vincke, Grégoire ULg; Marée, Raphaël ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg et al

Poster (2015, November 10)

L’imagerie numérique devient omniprésente dans beaucoup de métiers, dont ceux de la médecine. Sa montée en puissance questionne l’université quant à la meilleure manière d’entraîner les étudiants à lire ... [more ▼]

L’imagerie numérique devient omniprésente dans beaucoup de métiers, dont ceux de la médecine. Sa montée en puissance questionne l’université quant à la meilleure manière d’entraîner les étudiants à lire, interpréter, comparer, contextualiser et discuter ces ressources inédites. A l’université, ces compétences s’acquièrent principalement, aux premiers stades de la formation, dans les cours d’histologie. Dans ce contexte, l’IFRES a initié un projet wallon (Appel Germaine Tillion / Convention n°1318185 http://histoweb.ifres.ulg.ac.be ) dont l’objectif est la transformation de la plate-forme logicielle wallonne Cytomine – http://cytomine.be une solution Web existante d'échange, de visualisation, d'annotation et d’analyse collaborative semi-automatique d'images numérisées – en un système d’activités pédagogiques tirant parti des initiatives partielles existant chez les partenaires et des évolutions techniques les plus récentes. Le projet HistoWeb travaille à cette transformation en s’appuyant, au plan conceptuel, sur l’exploration de la notion d’« écologie d’apprentissage ». Le projet compte parmi ses partenaires 3 universités (ULB, UNamur, Liège) et exige donc de chercher un équilibre entre des développements techno-pédagogiques susceptibles de les intéresser tous et des développements spécifiques et en prise avec les écologies d’apprentissage propres à chaque institution. Le poster présente les manières choisies par l’IFRES pour coordonner l'ensemble du projet, travaillant tantôt individuellement tantôt collectivement avec les différents partenaires. Le poster aura un mot par ailleurs sur la collaboration entre pédagogues et développeurs informatiques. En effet, l’IFRES, sur toute la durée du projet est appelé à travailler avec une équipe de recherche (Systmod) dépourvue de familiarité avec les leviers de l’enseignement et de l’apprentissage. Il évoquera aussi les collaborations espérées d’un passage en Open source. Le poster pourra apporter des éclairages aux questions : - qu’entend-on précisément par collaboration lorsqu’il s’agit de mener de la « recherche » dans un contexte académique ? Il sera ici question de cet équilibre entre convergence et différentiation. - Qui est susceptible de se développer professionnellement ? Les bénéfices tirés du projet par les uns et les autres au niveau pédagogique seront ici évoqués. [less ▲]

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See detailWalES: an integrated database to assess ecosytem services
Maebe, Laura ULg; Pipart, Nathalie; Dendoncker, Nicolas et al

Poster (2015, November 10)

While the significance and needs of Ecosystem Services (ES) valuation is now more pregnant in decision processes, the design of operational tools remains complex because of the multiplicity and diversity ... [more ▼]

While the significance and needs of Ecosystem Services (ES) valuation is now more pregnant in decision processes, the design of operational tools remains complex because of the multiplicity and diversity of information sources, indicator types, scales of interest and the variety of managers. The most important challenges are 1) to build strong links between administrations responsible for information flows and scientists working on ES emerging definitions and valuations and 2) to re-organize these flows to link biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and social expectations to provide a common reference system. In Wallonia, the heads of several regional administration and academic institutions proposed to the Government to mutualize theirs skills and means to build WalES: a transdisciplinary Walloon platform on ES. Its conceptual model for ES assessment is based on a Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) framework promoted by European Environment Agency to disentangle biodiversity and environment (state indicators) from ecosystem services (impact indicators). Ecosystem biocapacity is approached by a combination of ecological conditions (e.g. soil type and moisture, topography), main land use classes and management methods (pressures/responses indicators). ES indicators, proxy and models are declined along these three potential dimensions at different levels of precision and related to providing, benefiting, and negatively impacted stakeholders. We will present the original Walloon approach of a common and shared information system detailing data and data flows useful to assess ES, collecting relevant experiences and methods on ES valuation. The comparison of these information sources allows us to identify best practices, to combine the various data in order to improve their accuracy and to highlight missing data and methods needing further development. In this way, this operational database supports an integrated assessment of ES by measuring their diversity of components (capacity, flow and demand), values (biophysical and social) and their interactions at different scales. [less ▲]

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See detailVariation radiale de l'angle des microfibrilles de cellulose et de la longueur des trachéides chez le Douglas
Vaianopoulos, Céline; Hebert, Jacques ULg; Jourez, Benoît ULg

Poster (2015, November 04)

Le Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii) connaît depuis quelques décennies un essor important en Wallonie, du fait entre autre de son potentiel de croissance supérieur à celui de l’Epicéa. Néanmoins, la ... [more ▼]

Le Douglas (Pseudotsuga menziesii) connaît depuis quelques décennies un essor important en Wallonie, du fait entre autre de son potentiel de croissance supérieur à celui de l’Epicéa. Néanmoins, la sylviculture appliquée à cette essence est généralement calquée sur celle de l’Epicéa, ce qui ne permet pas nécessairement de profiter pleinement du potentiel de l’espèce. Aussi, pour guider l’action des sylviculteurs, une étude visant à évaluer l’impact de la vitesse de croissance sur les propriétés du bois de Douglas a été initiée. Il est admis aujourd’hui que l’angle des microfibrilles de cellulose (AMF) de la paroi des trachéides, ainsi que la longueur des trachéides, en complément de caractéristiques telles que la masse volumique, la largeur des cernes ou la texture, pourraient permettre d’expliquer plus finement le comportement mécanique du bois sans défaut. Afin de tenter de le démontrer, dans un premier temps, l’étude a porté sur les variations de l’AMF et de la longueur des trachéides au sein des arbres en fonction de différents paramètres : la largeur des cernes, l’âge du cerne, la position radiale et la hauteur dans l’arbre. Par la suite, ces résultats seront utilisés pour identifier les relations entre les propriétés mécaniques du bois et ses caractéristiques anatomiques. L’objectif final est de relier les caractéristiques de croissance avec les propriétés du bois produit et d’en déduire des recommandations sylvicoles. [less ▲]

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See detailIntra-cultivar potential of Desmanthus spp. as a greenhouse gas mitigation strategy for tropical livestock pastoral systems
Vandermeulen, Sophie ULg; Ramírez-Restrepo, Carlos Alberto; Singh, Sultan et al

Poster (2015, November)

Improved agricultural efficiency and reduction in the impacts of tropical livestock farming on habitat degradation require global approaches that enhance ruminant farming functionality in terms of feed ... [more ▼]

Improved agricultural efficiency and reduction in the impacts of tropical livestock farming on habitat degradation require global approaches that enhance ruminant farming functionality in terms of feed use efficiency, emissions and food security. This study evaluated the in vitro mitigation potential of the prostrate to erect, herbaceous Desmanthus spp. pasture legume adapted to semiarid clay soil land types in northern Australia. D. bicornutus, D. leptophyllus and D. virgatus were seasonally harvested from commercial plots by Agrimix Pty. Ltd. Samples of the legumes and the control Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) using ruminal fluid from grazing Brahman (Bos indicus) steers were incubated in vitro (Ankom RF1 Technology) for 24, 48 and 72 h. Overall, the in vitro organic matter degradability (OMD) and methane production between Desmanthus species differed (P < 0.001). Compared to the control (0.656 ± 0.027 proportion of total OM) at 48 h of incubation, D. leptophyllus showed lower OMD (0.479 ± 0.016), while D. bicornutus (0.688 ± 0.016) and D. virgatus (0.619 ± 0.015) were different from each other, but similar to the control. Methane production (ml/g OM) was 15.7 ± 1.54, 3.7 ± 0.89, 12.0 ± 0.95 and 11.7 ± 0.95, respectively. It is suggested that the impact of these attributes may benefit household farmers in developing economies to expand productivity, improve livelihoods and meet the growing food consumption. Further analyses of the intra-cultivar characteristics of Desmanthus spp. will complement the design of sustainable and efficient interventions across tropical pastoral feeding systems, with a particular emphasis on large-scale grazing operations. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecies diversity and abundance of aphids and their natural enemies in a crop association
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg; Starý, Petr et al

Poster (2015, November)

Crop associations can be efficient to reduce aphid populations, by disrupting the visual and olfactory location of host plants. However, increasing the chemical and structural complexity of vegetation can ... [more ▼]

Crop associations can be efficient to reduce aphid populations, by disrupting the visual and olfactory location of host plants. However, increasing the chemical and structural complexity of vegetation can also decrease the searching efficiency of predators and parasitoids, which are not always more abundant in complex habitats. Using attractive semiochemicals such as methyl salicylate (MeSA) combined with a crop association seems promising to maximise aphid control. We compared the abundances of aphids and their natural enemies between a wheat-pea mixture (with and without MeSA) and pure stands, using yellow traps and observations on plants. Significantly higher numbers of pea aphids (Acyrthosiphon pisum) were observed in the pure stand of pea compared with the mixture (with and without MeSA) in 2013 and 2014. Concerning aphid natural enemies, hoverfly larvae abundance was not significantly different between treatments in both years. Parasitoid mummies were significantly more abundant in the pure stand of pea compared with the mixture (with and without MeSA) in 2014. Fifty-two aphid species were collected in yellow traps, as well as 12 Aphidiinae and four Aphelinus species. Acyrthosiphon primulae, Aphelinus daucicola, Aphelinus fusciscapus, Aphidius asteris, Aphidius eadyi, Metopolophium frisicum, Praon barbatum, and Trioxys auctus were recorded for the first time in Belgium. Besides determining the effects of a wheat-pea mixture (with or without MeSA) on aphid control, this study contributed to increase the knowledge on aphid and their parasitoid diversity in Belgium, by recording new species and establishing the first Aphidiinae and Aphelinus national checklist. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo Types of Aurora on Mars as Observed by MAVEN's Imaging UltraViolet Spectrograph
Schneider; Deighan; Jain et al

Poster (2015, November)

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See detailMulti-allergens detection by flow cytometric immunoassay
Otto; Planque; Lamote et al

Poster (2015, November)

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See detailNew Observations of Molecular Nitrogen by the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph on MAVEN
Stevens; Evans; Schneider et al

Poster (2015, November)

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See detailImproving laboratory diagnostic capacity of epizootic diseases in Belgium
Cargnel, Mickaël ULg; Roelandt, Sophie; Van der Stede, Yves et al

Poster (2015, October 30)

Belgium and other European neighbouring countries faced several emerging and re-emerging diseases as well as zoonotic diseases over the last decade. However, it has been noticed that during these episodes ... [more ▼]

Belgium and other European neighbouring countries faced several emerging and re-emerging diseases as well as zoonotic diseases over the last decade. However, it has been noticed that during these episodes, the laboratory diagnostic capabilities were surpassed, which led to an increase in the time required for the control and the eradication of these diseases. Belgium is a European hub and can be affected by these diseases which can via different paths e.g. trade of live animals or animal products from around the world or via wildlife. It is therefore crucial to react rapidly to these diseases, to establish contingency plans and to develop appropriate diagnostic tests. Moreover, there are only few publications looking at the issues of increased diagnostic capacities for epizootic diseases based on [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailIn vitro and in vivo evaluation of an optimized fenofibrate lipid based solid dispersion produced by a PGSS process
Pestieau, Aude ULg; Lebrun, Sonia; Cahay, Bernard et al

Poster (2015, October 28)

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See detailEvaluation isocinétique de la fatigabilité musculaire du genou: qu'en est-il de la reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre et de la compatibilité inter-dynamomètre?
Paulus, Julien ULg; Krecke, Roland; Bosquet, Laurent et al

Poster (2015, October 26)

Abstract Certains aspects de l'isocinétisme, bien que considéré comme un gold standard de l'évaluation musculaire [1], restent à explorer: entre autre la reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre des index de ... [more ▼]

Abstract Certains aspects de l'isocinétisme, bien que considéré comme un gold standard de l'évaluation musculaire [1], restent à explorer: entre autre la reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre des index de fatigue (quotient des n dernières répétitions par les x premières par exemple) et des paramètres mesurés lors d'une épreuve de fatigabilité musculaire pour le genou mais également la compatibilité inter-dynamomètre de cette même épreuve de résistance à la fatigue. Après étude via à un test-retest, la reproductibilité des index de fatigue semble très insuffisante pour une utilisation clinique ou scientifique, au contraire des paramètres mesurés. De plus, après exploration via la réalisation du protocole sur trois modèles différents, il apparait que la reproductibilité insuffisante des fléchisseurs du genou ne permettrait pas de comparer les résultats obtenus sur différents dynamomètres. Introduction Les tests isocinétiques contribuent largement à l'évaluation de la performance musculaire et en sont considérés comme un gold standard [1]. Les tests de fatigabilité peuvent s'avérer complémentaires des épreuves courtes de force notamment pour évaluer un athlète sollicitant particulièrement la filière anaérobie lactique ou dans des contextes pathologiques spécifiques [2]. Bien que Bosquet et al. [3] aient démontré la reproductibilité d'un protocole de fatigabilité pour le genou, 30 flexions-extensions maximales à 180°.s-1 avec une amplitude de 100°, à notre connaissance, aucune étude, ayant pour objectif d'être exhaustive dans son analyse, n'a été menée sur la reproductibilité des paramètres mesurés (meilleure répétition, cumuls total et partiels) et index de fatigue (quotient des n dernières répétitions par les x premières, du cumul des répétitions par la meilleure,…) bien qu'ils soient proposés directement par les dynamomètres et/ou utilisés en clinique et dans la littérature lors de l'étude de la fatigabilité du genou [4]. Sont-ils suffisamment reproductibles pour que leur utilisation soit scientifiquement validée? La compatibilité des résultats d'une épreuve de fatigabilité du genou entre différents dynamomètres isocinétiques n'a également, à notre connaissance, pas été évaluée récemment, qui plus est sur plus de deux dynamomètres de marques différentes [5]. Est-il envisageable de comparer les résultats obtenus sur des dynamomètres de marques différentes et de généraliser les normes? Méthodes Pour tenter d'apporter un élément de réponse à la première question, dix-huit hommes sains, modérément actifs, ont réalisé trente extensions-flexions maximales du genou à trois occasions sur un Biodex System 3 Pro, en observant sept à dix jours de repos entre chaque session. Afin de compiler onze paramètres mesurés et de construire quarante-quatre index, le moment de force maximum (MFM) et le travail maximal (Wmax) de chaque répétition ont été enregistrés. La reproductibilité de chaque paramètre et index a été évaluée via leur ICC (2,1), SEM et MD respectifs. Pour évaluer la compatibilité inter-dynamomètre du Biodex System 3 Pro, du Con-Trex MJ PM-2 et du Cybex Humac CSMI, vingt-et-un sujets sains, modérément actifs, ont réalisé trente extensions-flexions maximales du genou à trois occasions, en observant six à dix jours de repos entre chaque session. Le MFM et le Wmax de chaque répétition ont été enregistrés. La compatibilité inter-dynamomètre deux-à-deux a été évaluée à l'aide des ICC (3,1), SEM et MD des paramètres mesurés.   Résultats En ce qui concerne la reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre, les valeurs d'ICC des paramètres mesurés pour les extenseurs du genou sont quasi-systématiquement supérieures à 0.8 tandis que celles pour les fléchisseurs oscillent entre 0.7 et 0.8. Les index de fatigue présentent quant à eux des ICC inférieurs à 0.7 et 0.5 respectivement pour les extenseurs et fléchisseurs. Les valeurs d'ICC ne diffèrent guère entre le MFM et le Wmax (que ce soit pour les extenseurs ou les fléchisseurs ou pour les paramètres mesurés et les index de fatigue). Pour le volet compatibilité inter-dynamomètre, les ICC des paramètres mesurés lors de l'épreuve de fatigabilité musculaire des extenseurs du genou sont très majoritairement supérieurs à 0.8, quelle que soit la paire de dynamomètres considérée. A contrario, les ICC de ces mêmes paramètres mesurés sont presque tous inférieurs à 0.7 pour les fléchisseurs. Les valeurs d'ICC ne diffèrent guère entre le MFM et le Wmax (que ce soit pour les extenseurs ou les fléchisseurs). Logiquement, la compatibilité inter-dynamométrique des index de fatigue n'a pas été étudiée puisque leur reproductibilité intra-dynamomètre a été démontrée comme insuffisante dans la première partie de notre étude. Discussion Considérant qu'un ICC supérieur à 0.8 soit acceptable pour une utilisation clinique [6], nous pouvons conclure que, compte tenu des valeurs obtenues sur notre population, aucun index de fatigue, bien que séduisant compte tenu de leur capacité théorique à caractériser la décroissance de la performance lors d'une épreuve de fatigabilité, ne semble présenter une reproductibilité intra-dynamométrique suffisante pour une utilisation clinique ou de recherche. Seuls les paramètres mesurés tels que la meilleure répétition, les cumuls total ou partiels apparaissent utilisables, en clinique et dans un contexte de recherche, en raison d'une reproductibilité intra-dynamométrique qui peut être qualifiée de (très) haute voire excellente [7, 8]. Des index de fatigue sont donc fréquemment utilisés alors que leur reproductibilité semble très largement insuffisante. La reproductibilité inter-dynamomètre des paramètres mesurés du protocole de fatigue défini par Bosquet et al. [3] permet leur utilisation clinique pour les extenseurs du genou mais est très insuffisante pour les fléchisseurs. Il apparaît donc nécessaire de réaliser les tests à chaque reprise sur le même dynamomètre dans le cadre de suivis longitudinaux ou des comparaisons transversales impliquant les fléchisseurs du genou. Ce manque de compatibilité inter-dynamomètre implique également que les normes soient spécifiques à chaque modèle de dynamomètre isocinétique. Conclusion Nos résultats indiquent que les index de fatigue ne peuvent être utilisés que ce soit dans un contexte clinique ou de recherche pour l'évaluation isocinétique du genou. Seuls les paramètres mesurés sont suffisamment reproductibles pour être employés. Le manque de compatibilité inter-dynamomètre pour les fléchisseurs du genou impliquent d'utiliser le même dynamomètre isocinétique lors de suivis longitudinaux ou de comparaisons transversales. [less ▲]

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