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See detailAll poly(ionic) liquid-based block copolymers incorporating fluorinated and triethyleneglycol units: direct synthesis in water and investigation as single-ion conductive solids
Ouhib, Farid ULg; Cordella, Daniela; Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) have attracted a considerable attention as innovative single-ion solid polyelectrolytes (SPEs) in substitution to the more conventional electrolytes for a variety of ... [more ▼]

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) have attracted a considerable attention as innovative single-ion solid polyelectrolytes (SPEs) in substitution to the more conventional electrolytes for a variety of electrochemical devices. Imidazolium-based PILs are amongst the most investigated, because they are easy to synthesize and some of them have shown a good combination between high ionic conductivity, wide chemical and electrochemical stability, and good mechanical properties. Herein, we report the precise synthesis, characterization, and use as single-ion SPE of a novel double PIL-based amphiphilic diblock copolymer (BCP), i.e. where all monomer units are of N-vinyl-imidazolium-type, with triethylene glycol pendant groups in the first block, and a statistical distribution of N-vinyl-3-ethyl- and N-vinyl-3-perfluorooctyl-imidazolium bromides in the second block. BCP synthesis is achieved directly in water by a one-pot process, following the principle of the cobalt-mediated radical polymerization-induced self-assembly (CMR-PISA). A subsequent anion exchange reaction substituting bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) for bromide (Br-) counter-anions leads to the targeted PIL BCPs with two different lengths of the first block. They demonstrate ionic conductivity σDC = 1-3 10-7 S cm-1, as determined by broadband dielectric spectroscopy at 30 °C (under anhydrous conditions), and form free standing films with mechanical properties suited for SPE applications with Young’s modulus of 3.8 MPa and elongation at break of 250 % as determined by stress/strain experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailReinforced poly(hydroxyurethane) coatings and high performance adhesive
Panchireddy, Satyannarayana ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most widely used polymeric materials and largely valorised in coating applications as paints or as adhesives. Because toxicity issues of isocyanates and changes in the ... [more ▼]

Polyurethane (PU) is one of the most widely used polymeric materials and largely valorised in coating applications as paints or as adhesives. Because toxicity issues of isocyanates and changes in the environmental and REACH regulations, there is a need today to develop new greener and safer alternatives to produce PU. One of the most promising way relies on the synthesis of polyurethane by a non-isocyanate route (NIPU) by copolymerization between a bicyclic carbonate monomers and a diamine. This study reports on the synthesis of new sustainable NIPU coatings for Al anti-corrosion protection and for metal adhesion. In a first step, (bio- and) CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates will be synthesized by coupling of multifunctional epoxides with CO2 using a new efficient bicomponent organocatalyst. In a second step, various cyclic carbonates/amines formulations were developed and cured in presence of fillers to produce reinforced NIPUs thermosets which anti-corrosion and adhesive properties are evaluated and benchmarked with existing formulations. Some formulations present outstanding adhesions to various substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantifying coral colony morphology to assess their roles in ecosystem processes
Chen, Qi; Yang, Emma; Sturaro, Nicolas ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Colony morphology is among the best predictors of the scleractinian coral’s function in the reef ecosystem. However, morphological traits are categorical and to convert this information into a ... [more ▼]

Colony morphology is among the best predictors of the scleractinian coral’s function in the reef ecosystem. However, morphological traits are categorical and to convert this information into a quantitative value remains a real challenge to quantify the influence of this parameter on ecosystem processes. Recently, the ratio between colony mass and surface area (CMA) has been proposed to represent a suitable proxy of species morphologies and their growth. Hypothetically, CMA could be used to assess a broad range of biological, ecological, and evolutionary processes in coral reef ecosystem. Here, we propose to test CMA as a predictor of coral morphology and focus on the intraspecific variation of this parameter. We used historical coral collection from the Museum of Zoology (National Taiwan University) and our own specimens collected from contrasting environments to establish a database of coral models using a high-resolution David 3D scanner. From these models, we extracted surface area and volume of the coral colonies. Colony mass was measured on a Mark S Bel balance. CMA was compared for its power in predicting species morphology with other traits such as skeleton density. Eventually, we tested the use of CMA at an intraspecific level to detect plasticity in growth rate. Our 3D models are available online (http://www.dipintothereef.com/corals.html) and constitute a valuable resource for estimating the roles of corals in the ecosystem. [less ▲]

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See detailThiol-ene reaction: an efficient tool to design polyphosphoester-based drug delivery systems
Riva, Raphaël ULg; Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Ergül, Zeynep ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Thanks to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and their structure similar to natural biomacromolecules, polyphosphoesters (PPE) are appealing polymers for biomedical applications. In contrast to ... [more ▼]

Thanks to their biocompatibility, biodegradability and their structure similar to natural biomacromolecules, polyphosphoesters (PPE) are appealing polymers for biomedical applications. In contrast to polyesters, PPE properties and functionality are easily tuned via the chemical nature of the lateral chains. To enhance the drug loading capacity of PPE-based micelles used as carriers for the delivery of poorly soluble drugs, an efficient strategy to increase the lipophilicity of the PPE block of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-b-PPE amphiphilic copolymers has been investigated. A PEO-b-PPE copolymer bearing pendant vinyl groups along the PPE block was synthesized and then modified by thiol-ene click reaction with thiols bearing either a long linear alkyl chain (dodecyl) or a tocopherol moiety. Ketoconazole was used as model for hydrophobic drugs. Comparison of the loading contents and release profiles with PEO-b-PPE bearing shorter pendant groups is presented evidencing the key role of the structure of the pendant group on the PPE backbone. Finally, the low cytotoxicity of these novel PEO-b-PPE copolymers was also demonstrated. The tocopherol derivative was evidenced as particularly promising for drug delivery systems. [less ▲]

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See detailPhoto-crosslinkable hydrogel for guided periodontal tissue regeneration
Chichiricco, Pauline Marie ULg; Riva, Raphaël ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease resulting from the presence of oral bacteria biofilm in periodontal tissue, which destroys the tooth-supporting attachment apparatus. Untreated inflammation can ... [more ▼]

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease resulting from the presence of oral bacteria biofilm in periodontal tissue, which destroys the tooth-supporting attachment apparatus. Untreated inflammation can spread to the gum tissue and lead, ultimately, to the loosening of the supporting tooth bone, with the risk that the tooth eventually falls. Guided Tissue Regeneration is a technique based on the application of a barrier membrane designed to prevent colonization of the wound space by epithelial cells from soft tissues. Indeed, these cells, characterized by a faster migration and proliferation rate compared to bone and periodontal ligament cells, could interfere with the regeneration process. In previously work Struillou et al. demonstrated the benefit effect of silated hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (Si HMPC)-based hydrogel can act as an efficient physical barrier in periodontal defect. Typically, this material is able to form a 3D network through the condensation of silanoate groups at physiological pH. However, a decrease of gelation time is necessary to assure the stability in peripheral part of the wound. In this project, we developed an injectable photo-crosslinkable membrane based on methacrylated carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCs) and Si HPMC that can be applied as a viscous solution and cured in situ in presence of a photoinitiator system made of riboflavin and triethanolamine. A visible light lamp (λ 420-480 nm), already used in dentistry, was preferred over a UV lamp. The addition of methacrylated polymer increase the stability of the material and increase the mass loss, in order to improve the bioresorption of the membrane. The chemical grafting of methacrylated carboxymethyl chitosan was characterized by 1H NMR and Infrared Spectroscopy. The gel point of the solution was determined by rheology and remained compatible with a clinical application. Moreover, the biocompatibility of this biomaterials was tested using murine cells using two assay: Neutral Red assay and MTT Cell Proliferation Assay. The in vitro tests validate the chemical synthesis in a biological point of view. The irradiation on cells and the direct contact with hydrogel doesn’t have an impact on cells viability. The capability of this material to act as a physical barrier was also evaluated using human gingival fibroblast. The cells were isolated from human gum explant before being put in contact with the hydrogel. After four days of contact no cells invasion was observed in the hydrogel using confocal microscopy. These preliminary results are quite promising for the development of novel injectable systems for Guided Periodontal Regeneration. In the future work, in vivo assays will be performed in Periodontal defect in a canine model. [less ▲]

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See detailSimple, cheap but highly efficient organo catalysts for the fixation of CO2 on propargylic alcohols
Ngassam Tounzoua, Charlene Gabriela ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

In the last years, many efforts have been devoted to the valorisation of CO2 as an abundant and renewable C1 building block for cyclic carbonate synthesis. Many synthetic routes have been proposed to ... [more ▼]

In the last years, many efforts have been devoted to the valorisation of CO2 as an abundant and renewable C1 building block for cyclic carbonate synthesis. Many synthetic routes have been proposed to convert CO2 into five or six-membered cyclic carbonates finding applications as green solvent, electrolytes for Li-ion batteries, intermediates for organic synthesis, monomers for the production of polycarbonates or isocyanate-free synthesis of poly(hydroxyrethane)s, etc. Although the 100% atom economy synthesis of 5-membered cyclic carbonates from CO2 and epoxides/oxetanes has been widely reported in the literature, the carboxylative coupling of CO2 with alkynols remains unexplored. Transition metal-based complexes, organic bases (guanidine, amidine, phosphine), N-heterocyclic carbenes or olefins, and K2CO3 have been proposed as catalysts. However they generally present sufficient activity at high pressure and/or temperature or require a high catalyst loading. Additionally some of them are toxic and/or sensitive to hydrolysis or oxidation. In this work, we designed novel, cheap, easily customizable and highly efficient organocatalysts for the synthesis of cyclic α-methylene carbonates from CO2 and alkynols. Kinetics of the CO2/alkynol coupling reaction were followed by Raman spectroscopy with organocatalysts of different structures, and the best candidate was identified. The main parameters that influenced the system reactivity and selectivity have been identified and will be presented in this poster. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of well-defined polyvinylamine-containing copolymers via organometallic-mediated radical polymerization
Stiernet, Pierre ULg; Demarteau, Jérémy ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 04)

Polyvinylamine (PVAm) is a useful polymer involved in a large range of applications including paper coating, surface engineering, membrane separation, etc. It is commonly produced via free radical ... [more ▼]

Polyvinylamine (PVAm) is a useful polymer involved in a large range of applications including paper coating, surface engineering, membrane separation, etc. It is commonly produced via free radical polymerization of N-vinylformamide (NVF) or N-vinylacetamide (NVA) followed by hydrolysis of the pendent amides of the resulting polymers. Due to the lack of stabilizing group on the double bond of N-vinylamides, the controlled radical polymerization of these monomers remained a challenge for a long time, preventing the preparation of well-defined PVAms. Recently, our group reported the controlled polymerization of NVA via reversible deactivation of the growing radical chains with cobalt complexes. Moreover, the use of well-defined PVAms as efficient carriers for gene transfection was demonstrated. This communication aims at reporting the synthesis of novel well-defined polyvinylamine-based copolymers. First, we explored the organometallic-mediated radical copolymerization of NVA and vinyl acetate. The optimized polymerization conditions and the comonomer reactivity ratios will be presented. Further conversion of the pendent amides and esters moieties into amino and hydroxy groups, respectively, was also considered for the preparation of unprecedented hydrophilic polyvinylamine-based copolymers. [less ▲]

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See detailTrace elements and organochlorines in sperm whales stranded on the coast of Schleswig Holstein in 2016
Pinzone, Marianna ULg; Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 02)

Several strandings of sperm whales occurred in the North Sea during January and February 2016. Twelve animals were necropsied and sampled after their discovery on German coasts of Schleswig Holstein ... [more ▼]

Several strandings of sperm whales occurred in the North Sea during January and February 2016. Twelve animals were necropsied and sampled after their discovery on German coasts of Schleswig Holstein. Muscle, liver, kidney and blubber samples were taken from all specimens for toxicological analyses. The concentrations of lipophilic organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and pesticides such as DDT were determined in adipose tissue. Metals and trace elements such as cadmium, selenium and mercury were measured in the liver, kidney and muscle. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides such as DDTs were determined in adipose tissue at levels of 0.9 and 1.3 mg.kg-1 lipid weight respectively. Cadmium, selenium and mercury were measured in the liver at respective concentrations of 57, 52 and 81 mg.kg-1 dry weight. The investigated 12 sperm whales stranded on the coasts of Schleswig Holstein in spring 2016 showed a lower contamination of organic pollutants than the 7 sperm whales stranded along the Belgian and Dutch coast in the winter of 1994/95. These animals were clearly larger and older than the ones that stranded in Schleswig-Holstein. So, lower contaminant burden may be due to shorter life span. It seems unlikely that contamination is the direct cause of the death of sperm whales. However, debilitating role of pollutants cannot be excluded, as strandings are often a multi factorial event. Further investigations on the contaminant patterns among the 30 sperm whales at different stranding sites may also give indications on the feeding strategy and linkage among the individuals. [less ▲]

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See detailSAFIR: a software for modeling structures in fire
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg

Poster (2017, May 02)

SAFIR is a computer program developed at University of Liege to model the behavior of building structures subjected to fire.

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See detailHybrid Fire Testing: A new approach for fire labs
Sauca, Ana ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Mergny, Elke ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 02)

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See detailWal-e-Cities
Schelings, Clémentine ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg et al

Poster (2017, May 02)

L’objectif du portefeuille FEDER Wal-e-Cities est le développement de villes intelligentes («Smart Cities») au sein d’un territoire wallon interconnecté. La technologie, vue ici comme un outil au service ... [more ▼]

L’objectif du portefeuille FEDER Wal-e-Cities est le développement de villes intelligentes («Smart Cities») au sein d’un territoire wallon interconnecté. La technologie, vue ici comme un outil au service de la Smart Région Wallonne et de ses citoyens, permettra de répondre à cinq défis principaux identifiés: connectivité, mobilité, énergie et environnement, gouvernance et enfin bien-être en environnement urbain. Les partenaires de ce portefeuille (Universités et Centres de Recherche), et parmi eux l’UR Urban & Environmental Engineering de l'Ulg, oeuvreront au déploiement de solutions dédiées en regard des besoins spécifiques (géographiques, démographiques, socio-économiques et culturels) de chaque ville pilote partenaire. [less ▲]

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See detailSniffing Out the Hypoxia Volatile Metabolic Signature of Aspergillus fumigatus
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Rees, Christiaan A.; Beattie, Sarah R. et al

Poster (2017, May)

Background: Aspergillus fumigatus is responsible for the life-threatening infection invasive aspergillosis (IA) that is associated with high mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Current diagnostics ... [more ▼]

Background: Aspergillus fumigatus is responsible for the life-threatening infection invasive aspergillosis (IA) that is associated with high mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Current diagnostics for IA are either highly invasive or suffer from inadequate sensitivity and/or specificity. Improvement of IA diagnostic assays requires a better understanding of fungal metabolism inside the host. The infection microenvironment becomes progressively depleted of oxygen during IA. Thus, metabolites associated with hypoxia metabolism may yield to novel diagnostic biomarkers. Here, we report on the volatile metabolites emitted from A. fumigatus batch cultures under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. Methods: A. fumigatus strain CEA10 was incubated in glucose minimal medium at 37 °C under either normoxia (21% O2, 0.04% CO2) or hypoxia (0.2% O2, 5% CO2) growth conditions. Volatile molecules from the supernatants of early (1 h) and late (8 h) cultures were collected using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analyzed using two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS). Results: We identified 10 volatile compounds that are significantly more abundant in late hypoxia cultures compared with all other experimental conditions. Among these compounds, we identified ethanol and acetaldehyde, which are known to result from hypoxia metabolism of glucose by A. fumigatus. In addition, we detected 2-propanol, which can be generated by the reduction of acetone via alcohol dehydrogenase, as well as 2,3-butanedione (diacetyl) and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin), which results from the catabolism of acetolactate. Transcriptomic data collected from normoxia and hypoxia cultures validates our volatilomic findings through the identification of putative catabolic pathways that are upregulated during hypoxia growth. Diacetyl is known to be produced by bacteria as a pH-neutral fermentative byproduct to prevent lethal acidification, and we speculate that A. fumigatus may use the same pathway. Conclusion: The composition of A. fumigatus’ volatile metabolome changes according to the oxygen tension in the environment. We measured hypoxia-associated compounds, ethanol and acetaldehyde which have been previously identified as byproducts of hypoxia metabolism in this organism. 2-propanol, 2, 3-butanedione and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone represent novel metabolites that suggests the existence of other catabolic pathways activated in A. fumigatus under hypoxia growth conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailBasic Helix loop Helix transcription factor twist1a and twist1b and their involvement in the skeletal development of zebrafish.
Zappia, Jérémie ULg; Windhausen, Thomas ULg; Renn, Jörg ULg et al

Poster (2017, May)

1. Objective The twist1a and twist1b genes code for transcription factors involved during embryogenesis in the craniofacial development. The human ortholog of twist1a and twist1b, TWIST1 has been shown to ... [more ▼]

1. Objective The twist1a and twist1b genes code for transcription factors involved during embryogenesis in the craniofacial development. The human ortholog of twist1a and twist1b, TWIST1 has been shown to be mutated in cases of the Saethre–Chotzen syndrome (SCS). However, the roles of these genes in skeletal development in zebrafish remain to be clarified. The aim of our research is to characterize the effects of the knock-down of twist1a and twist1b in the zebrafish. 2. Methods Antisens morpholino are used for the knock-down of twist1a and twist1b (respectively MoTwist1a and MoTwist1b). The sox9a expression is investigated using whole amount in situ hybridization. 3. Results We show the spatio-temporal expression pattern of twist1a and twist1b during the first 6 days of zebrafish development and present the effects observed on cartilage and bone formation upon knock-down of these genes in zebrafish larvae. The results reveal a decrease of the cranial cartilage and bone formation in both MoTwist1a and MoTwist1b. Interestingly, when MoTwist1a and MoTwist1b are co-injected, the cranial cartilage formation is strongly reduced, while ectopic cartilage formation appeared in the front of the head. We also show an increase in expression of sox9a, a master regulator of chondrogenesis, in morphants. 4. Summary and Conclusions Even though it was shown that twist1a and twist1b maintain a pool of osteoprogenitor-like cells, we show that a knock-down of these genes induces a decrease of skeletal formation. Our hypothesis is that the morphants run out of progenitor cells to assure correct bone and cartilage formation. In the future, we plan to generate twist1a mutants in order to further characterize the effect of this mutation. The twist1a mutant will eventually serve for a rescue study using human TWIST1 mRNA, wild-type or mutant in order to have a better understanding of the human disorder SCS. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the glycolytic switch induced by saturated fatty acid in human macrophages
Colonval, Megan ULg; Fettweis, Grégory; L'homme, Laurent et al

Poster (2017, May)

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See detailL’hospitalisation sous contrainte : Urgences psychiatriques et mises en observation.
Schmits, Emilie ULg; Evrard, Maude; Valassopoulou, Eftychia et al

Poster (2017, May)

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See detailDeciphering the role of dendritic sodium channels on action potential dynamics in substantia nigra dopaminergic neurons
Moubarak, Estelle; Engel, Dominique ULg; Dufour, Martial et al

Poster (2017, May)

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See detailIdentifying infectious agents from lung transplant patients using GC×GC-TOFMS
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Rees, Christiaan A.; Romamno, Rosalba et al

Poster (2017, May)

During the first year post-surgery, bacterial and fungal infections are the main causes of death in lung transplant recipients. Contributing substantially to the high mortality rate (35%) is the lengthy ... [more ▼]

During the first year post-surgery, bacterial and fungal infections are the main causes of death in lung transplant recipients. Contributing substantially to the high mortality rate (35%) is the lengthy time-to-diagnosis, which includes both pathogen identification and antibiotic resistance profiling. A novel diagnostic strategy based on the detection of volatile compounds in breath seems a promising option to improve these patients’ outcomes. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, we characterized the volatile fraction of different clinical matrices (i.e., bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blind bronchial aspirate (BBA)). Due to the complexity of the mixture and high dynamic range of the concentrations, we applied headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) to obtain a comprehensive overview of the sample headspace composition. Following the analytical step, we applied various univariate and multivariate statistical methods (e.g. random forest, principal component analysis, and hierarchical cluster analysis) in order to extract required information from the data. Based on the composition of the volatile fraction, we were able to differentiate between BAL and BBA with a classification accuracy of 88.4 %. Furthermore, we could correctly distinguish between individuals with active respiratory infections and those without infection with a 72.2 % classification accuracy. In some cases, it was also possible to differentiate between pathogens at the species level. These results are preliminary evidence to suggest the possibility of detecting infections in these patient without the use of time-consuming culture techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailSalmonella thyphimirium early onset neonatal sepsis
Thirion, Sophie ULg; RIGO, Vincent ULg; Snyers, Diane ULg et al

Poster (2017, May)

Background: Early onset neonatal sepsis due to salmonella spp is rare in developed countries. Vertical and horizontal transmissions were described, including faecal contamination of the birth canal. After ... [more ▼]

Background: Early onset neonatal sepsis due to salmonella spp is rare in developed countries. Vertical and horizontal transmissions were described, including faecal contamination of the birth canal. After a short incubation period, newborns may remain asymptomatic or present with sepsis or meningitis. Mortality rate as high as 58% were reported. Case Presentation Summary: We report a case of transplacental Salmonella Typhimurium infection in a premature infant. A mother with a one day history of fever and diarrhoea spontaneously delivered a premature boy at 35 weeks of gestation. On day 3, the infant presented with symptoms suggesting necrotizing enterocolitis: apnea, respiratory distress, feeding intolerance, bloody diarrhea and fever. Feeding were suspended and intravenous antibiotic therapy (ampicillin, amikacine and metronidazole) initiated. Laboratory data showed an inflammatory syndrome with elevated C-reactive proteine (71 mg/l), leukocytopenia (7270/mm3) and severe lymphopenia (580/mm3). Enterocolitis stage 1 (Bell classification) was diagnosed based on clinical and radiological evaluation. Salmonella spp were grown from the baby’s blood and stools and from the mother’s stools; the National Reference Center identified a Salmonella Typhimurium. Cerebrospinal fluid culture remained sterile. Clinical and biological evolutions were rapidly favourable with 14-days of cefotaxim IV. Maternal history revealed consumption of raw meat 3 days before delivery.Learning Points/Discussion: Salmonella spp should be considered in the differential diagnosis of early onset sepsis, particularly when mother presents gastrointestinal symptoms. Food safety education is crucial. The consumption of raw or uncooked meat during pregnancy should be avoided regardless toxoplasmosis immunization status. To avoid outbreaks in the neonatal ward (as reported in the literature), rapid detection and prompt institution of isolation and clustering measures are important. [less ▲]

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See detailEcomorphology of the axial skeleton in Odontocetes and Mysticetes
Gillet, Amandine ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

Poster (2017, May)

Ecomorphology concerns the study of the relationships between functional design and the environmental constraints acting on organisms. It aims to understand how the morphological variations among species ... [more ▼]

Ecomorphology concerns the study of the relationships between functional design and the environmental constraints acting on organisms. It aims to understand how the morphological variations among species can be related to environmental factors and impact fitness. Having a large diversity both in their morphology and ecology, the cetacean taxa appears to be the ideal taxa to tackle the relationships between the locomotor system and way of life. Different studies have already showed that the number and shape of vertebrae in different cetaceans can reflect the stiffness of the body and consequently can impact their swimming mode. The aim of this study is to establish relationships between characteristics of the vertebral column of different cetaceans and their ecology. Meristic and morphometric data were collected on the vertebrae (centrum lengths, heights and widths, neural spine heights and transverse processes lengths) of species of odontocetes housed in different Natural History Museums in the world (AM-ULg, RBINS, MNHN, SMNS, NRM, Queensland, PEM, Iziko). Preliminary results show clear morphological variations between species at the level of the number and sizes of vertebrae. There is a clear relationship between body size and number of vertebrae except in Delphinidae. This family has an important higher vertebral count. These differences should be related to different swimming modes and reflect the different ecological behaviours of the studied cetaceans. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Young Adolescents’ Self-Esteem Predicted by Peer Acceptance? A Gender Perspective
Gaudet, Olivier; Vollet, Justin; Véronneau, Marie-Hélène et al

Poster (2017, May)

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See detailL'enseignement-apprentissage du français dans le qualifiant : regards croisés
Scheepers, Caroline ULg; Outers, Pierre ULg; Werner, Anne-Catherine ULg

Poster (2017, April 29)

La présentation donne à voir les résultats partiels d'une recherche exploratoire qui a consisté à questionner les élèves et les professeurs de l'enseignement secondaire de transition et du qualifiant à ... [more ▼]

La présentation donne à voir les résultats partiels d'une recherche exploratoire qui a consisté à questionner les élèves et les professeurs de l'enseignement secondaire de transition et du qualifiant à propos de leurs représentations relatives à l'enseignement-apprentissage du français dans le qualifiant. Pour l'heure, nous disposons des réponses apportées par 30 enseignants et par 450 élèves. A terme, cinquante enseignants et 1000 élèves sont concernés. [less ▲]

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See detailN2O eddy covariance fluxes : from field measurements to flux analysis
Lognoul, Margaux ULg; Debacq, Alain ULg; Heinesch, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 28)

N2O eddy covariance data were collected for a complete season of sugar beet crop (from first fertilization to harvest). Data treatment and preliminary results are presented.

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See detailThree-dimensional modelling of the hydrodynamics of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: first results
Ivanov, Evgeny ULg; Capet, Arthur ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 28)

In the frame of the Belgian research project FaCE-It (Functional biodiversity in a Changing sedimentary Environment: Implications for biogeochemistry and food webs in a managerial setting), the impact of ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the Belgian research project FaCE-It (Functional biodiversity in a Changing sedimentary Environment: Implications for biogeochemistry and food webs in a managerial setting), the impact of dredging activities andoffshorewindfarminstallationonthespatialdistributionofsedimentgrainsize,biodiversityandbiogeochemistry will be estimated in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (SBNS) with a focus on the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ). To reach this goal, the three-dimensional hydrodynamical model ROMS-COAWST is implemented in the SBNS in order to simulate the complex hydrodynamics and sediment transport. Two levels of nesting are used to reach a resolutionof250mintheBCZ.Themodelisforcedattheair-seainterfacebythe6-hourlyECMWFERA-interim atmospheric dataset and at the open boundaries by the coarse resolution model results available from CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service), and also considers tides and 4 main rivers (Scheldt, Rhine with Maas, Thames and Seine). Two types of simulations have been performed: a 10-years climatological simulation and a simulation over 20032013toinvestigatetheinterannualdynamics.Themodelskillsareevaluatedbycomparingitsoutputstohistorical data (e.g. salinity, temperature and currents) from remote sensing and in-situ. The sediment transport module will then be implemented and its outputs compared to historical and newly collected (in the frame of FaCE-iT) observations on grain size distribution as well as with satellite Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) images. This will allow assessing the impact of substrate modification due to offshore human activities at local and regional scales. [less ▲]

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See detailGrazing-induced BVOC fluxes from a managed grassland
Mozaffar, Ahsan ULg; Schoon, N.; Bachy, Aurélie ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 28)

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See detailProfil d'acides gras et acides aminés essentiels de la vainde ovine de la race Beni-Guil conduite en élevage semi-extensif dans l'est du Maroc
Belhaj, Kamal; Mansouri, Farid; Sindic, Marianne ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

Les viandes sont commercialisées sous forme de muscles prêts à découper ou de portions « pièces »prêtes à cuire. La couleur de la viande est le premier paramètre de qualité perçue par le consommateur ... [more ▼]

Les viandes sont commercialisées sous forme de muscles prêts à découper ou de portions « pièces »prêtes à cuire. La couleur de la viande est le premier paramètre de qualité perçue par le consommateur, ensuite les paramètres de qualité organoleptiques, hygiénique et nutritionnelle deviennent déterminants et le guide dans son choix. La viande ovine de la race Béni-Guil, qui bénéficie de l’Indication géographique protégée est réputée pour sa qualité gustative et nutritionnelle mais uniquement sur la base de tests hédonique. De ce fait, vient cette étude sur l’analyse de la couleur et des profils lipidiques et protéiques du muscle long dorsal (LDM), un muscle de référence et morceau de viande apprécié par le consommateur. L’analyse de la couleur a montré que LDM de la race béni-guil a une couleur rouge vif très recherché par le consommateur avec un indice de rouge de 14,74. Les résultats d’analyse par GC-FID a permis l’identification de 27 d’acide gras (AG). Comme il a été signalé dans d’autres études (1,2). On observe, qu’un apport de suppléments alimentaires à base d’orge et de son en période critique (sécheresse, ou période de soudure), engendrerait des variations assez importantes par rapport à une conduite au pâturage. En effet, au niveau du profil lipidique le taux d’AG saturés augmente de 40% à 49% au dépend du taux d’AG insaturés qui chute de 60 à 51%. Pour les AG majoritaires, les plus importantes variations ont été enregistrées pour la teneur en acide oléique (C18:1n9) qui chute de 38% à 35%, en faveur de l’acide palmitique (C16:0) qui augmente de 20 à 24%. L’analyse de la composition en acides aminés par HPLC a permis l’identification de 17 acides aminés dont 8 essentiels (His, Mét, Ile, Leu, Lys, Thr, Val, Phe). [less ▲]

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See detailHighlights from two years of remote sensing at Mars with MAVEN’s Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph
Chaffin; Schneider; Deighan et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission’s Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) observes Mars in the far and mid ultraviolet (110-340 nm), investigating lower and upper atmospheric ... [more ▼]

The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission’s Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) observes Mars in the far and mid ultraviolet (110-340 nm), investigating lower and upper atmospheric structure and indirectly probing neutral atmospheric escape. After two Earth years in orbit (one Mars year), IUVS has assembled a large quantity of data and made many discoveries, some of which we report here. Among the key results obtained by IUVS are: (1) discovery of the widespread occurrence of a diffuse proton aurora, representing a newly discovered means of energy deposition into the atmospheres of unmagnetized planets; (2) continued investigation of time-variability in H and O escape, which have dessicated the planet over its history; and (3) synoptic characterization of thermospheric variability and response to solar input. We will present an overview of these results and a discussion of their implications for the state of the atmosphere and its evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid places : a conceptual framework
Uyttebrouck, Constance ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

Poster (2017, April 27)

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See detailImportin-8 could cause CAE/JME by delaying early neuroblast migration
Nganou, Gerry ULg; Tanaka, Miyabi; Coumans, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

Abstract : Childhood Absence Evolving to Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (CAE/JME) is an uncommon form of genetic generalized epilepsy that appears as absence in childhood and evolves into generalized ... [more ▼]

Abstract : Childhood Absence Evolving to Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy (CAE/JME) is an uncommon form of genetic generalized epilepsy that appears as absence in childhood and evolves into generalized tonic–clonic seizures with myoclonic jerks during adolescence. In some family of patients affected by CAE/JME, mutations have been observed in the gene encoding for the transport protein importin-8 (IPO8). IPO8 could be at the origin of CAE/JME via its role in the transport of its targets (like Ago-2, Smad4, c-Jun). RT-qPCR has shown that IPO8 mRNA is expressed at all ages with no big difference in expression level. Using ISH, a clear expression of mIPO8 mRNA was observed in the sub-ventricular/ventricular zone (SVZ/VZ), the cortical plate (CP) and the ganglionic eminences (GE) of developing brain at E14. Both SVZ/VZ and GE are the “neurogenic niches” that generate glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons respectively. The implication of IPO8 in the generation of “glutamatergic neurons” was investigated by In Utero electroporation (IUE) and MGE Electroporation. Using shRNA, we observed that after 3 days, “glutamatergic neuroblasts” do not reach the CP in contrast to the control condition. This effect can be rescued by the co-expression of a form of IPO8 that is resistant to the shRNA. When overexpressing the pathological forms of hIPO8, but not a variant, migration of “glutamatergic neuroblasts” was also impaired. However, when the observation is made later, i.e. at P5, we observed that the neuroblasts finally reach their correct layer in the cortex, suggesting IPO8 only delayed but not blocked migration. Moreover, shRNA against IPO8 mRNA lead to alteration of interneurons (GABAergic neurons) migration same to overexpression of one mutated form of IPO8. Conclusion : IPO8 is expressed in mouse brain during development. It shows a clear expression during embryogenesis in the “neurogenic niches”. Moreover, IPO8 modulates neuroblasts (radial and tangential) migration in the developing brain. So, abnormal brain development due to IPO8 mutations could be at the origin of CAE/JME. [less ▲]

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See detailCARACTERISATION BIOCHIMIQUE DES AMANDES DE QUELQUES VARIETES D’AMANDIER EN CULTURE DANS LA REGION ORIENTALE DU MAROC
Melhaoui, Reda; Houmy, Nadia ULg; Ben Moumen, A et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

Le Plan Maroc Vert (PMV) accorde une grande importance à l’agriculture solidaire en faveur des zones agro écologiques fragiles. Dans ce cadre on assiste dans la région orientale du Maroc à l’extension des ... [more ▼]

Le Plan Maroc Vert (PMV) accorde une grande importance à l’agriculture solidaire en faveur des zones agro écologiques fragiles. Dans ce cadre on assiste dans la région orientale du Maroc à l’extension des plantations d’amandier, au dépend des cultures annuelles, jugées non rentable et étroitement lié à la pluviométrie. Ainsi le projet*PROFAO porte sur la plantation de 6000 ha de nouveaux vergers d’amandier, avec principalement les variétés Ferragnes et Ferraduel (F/F) en raison de leur floraison tardive en Mars, qui leur permet d’échapper aux effets néfastes des gelées de Janvier et Février. Dans un but de la diversité des cultures et de la sauvegarde de la biodiversité et également dans un but de valorisation en post récolte des amandes et produits dérivés. Cette étude porte sur la caractérisation de variété(s) locale(s), nommée «Amandier Beldi (Be)» à floraison précoce et qui semble être une variété population. La comparaison aux variétés F/F, porte sur des caractères botaniques et la période de floraison et surtout sur la composition chimique des amandes comme produits final de la récolte. A ce propos «Be» fleurissent dès le début février alors que pour F/F la floraison est pour Mars. Les analyses des huiles et tourteaux d’amandes des récoltes antécédentes, montent un rendement moyen en huile, de l’ordre de 50% pour «Be» et de 57% pour «F/F» avec des profils d’acide gras comparables. L’analyse des tourteaux ne montre pas de différences significatives ainsi on observe, pour« Be » des teneurs en protéines de 47% et en sucres de 14,2% et pour l’association F/F ces teneurs sont respectivement de 45% et 13% [less ▲]

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See detailBotanical and Physicochemical characterization of almond population varietal in eastern Morocco
Melhaoui, Reda; Houmy, Nadia ULg; Mihamou, Atika et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

Abstract: Cooperatives play an important role in socio-economic development. In this regard, the Eastern Morocco adopts this strategy via the PROFAO* Project as a way of promoting local development, which ... [more ▼]

Abstract: Cooperatives play an important role in socio-economic development. In this regard, the Eastern Morocco adopts this strategy via the PROFAO* Project as a way of promoting local development, which guarantees sustainable jobs. This project is based on planting 6000 ha of new almond orchards and creating three cooperatives to value post-harvest Almond products. Currently the Eastern Moroccan regions could benefit of the new project PRD** which will include local Almond varieties characterization to safeguard its biodiversity and the valorization of its products. This study concerns two mains points 1) Botanical characterization of local varieties named "almond Beldi (Be)" based on the flowering period and determination of the color of the flowers 2) Physicochemical characterization of some parameters such as the oil yield, acid and peroxide values. This botanical study shows the result of the early flowering variety (Be) (beginning in February). The color results of 100 flowers analyzed by chromametre , shows two different color categories. The first is very light pink to white (L*=81,58 ; a*=7.43 ;b*=8.06) and the second is a dark pink (L*=71,64 ;a*= 18,34 ;b*= 4,97), with a difference in color between the two categories ∆E=15.07. This almond variety shows an oil yield of 50%, a low acidity value 0,039 (% of Linoleic acid ) and a peroxide value of 16.39 (meq/o2/Kg). [less ▲]

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See detailDoes tree species richness attenuate the effect of experimental irrigation and drought on decomposition rate in young plantation forests?
Rahman, Md Masudur ULg; Verheyen, Kris; Castagneyrol, Bastien et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

Expected changes in precipitation in Europe due to climate change are likely to affect soil organic matter (OM) transformation. In forests, increasing tree species diversity might modulate the effect of ... [more ▼]

Expected changes in precipitation in Europe due to climate change are likely to affect soil organic matter (OM) transformation. In forests, increasing tree species diversity might modulate the effect of changed precipitation. We evaluated the effect of tree species richness on the decomposition and stabilization rate in combination with reduced precipitation (FORBIO, Belgium) and irrigation treatment (ORPHEE, southern France) in young (6-8 yr.) experimental plantations. The species richness were one to four in FORBIO and one to five in ORPHEE. Twenty four rainout shelters of 3 m × 3 m were built around oak and beech trees in FORBIO plantation to impose a reduced precipitation treatment, whereas four of the eight blocks (175 m×100 m) in ORPHEE plantation was subjected to irrigation treatment. These treatments resulted in about 4% less soil moisture in FORBIO and about 7% higher soil moisture in ORPHEE compared to control. Commercially available green and rooibos tea bags were buried in the soil at 5-7 cm depth to measure two decomposition indices, known as ‘tea bag index’ (TBI). These TBI are (i) decomposition rate (k) and (ii) stabilization rate (S). The results showed no species richness effect on TBI indices in both reduced precipitation and irrigation treatment. In FORBIO, reduced precipitation resulted in decreased k and increased S compared to control around the beech trees only. In ORPHEE, both k and S were higher in the irrigation treatment compared to control. Overall, TBI indices were higher in FORBIO than ORPHEE and this might be explained by the sandy soils and poor nutrient content at the ORPHEE site. These results suggest that OM decomposition rate may be slower in drier condition and OM stabilization rate may be slower or faster in drier condition, depending on the site quality. The absence of tree species effects on OM transformation indicates that tree species richness would not be able to modulate the effects of changed precipitation patterns in young plantations. We conclude that in young afforestations, soil moisture has more influence on OM transformation than tree species richness. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the evolution of the osteoarthritis pathology and the mechanical properties of cartilage in a spontaneous osteoarthritis model in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs.
Legrand, Catherine ULg; Centonze, Prescilia ULg; Comblain, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 27)

In animal models, the severity of cartilage damage is assessed by histological scores evaluating the structure, the proteoglycan content, the integrity of the tidemark, the cellularity, and osteophytes ... [more ▼]

In animal models, the severity of cartilage damage is assessed by histological scores evaluating the structure, the proteoglycan content, the integrity of the tidemark, the cellularity, and osteophytes. In parallel to these histological analyzes, we studied the mechanical properties of cartilage at different stages of disease progression in the Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs. We also correlated the severity of histological lesions with the mechanical properties of cartilage. [less ▲]

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See detailInterviews on Residential Building Stock Deep Renovation in Belgium
Ruellan, Guirec ULg

Poster (2017, April 26)

Belgium should increase the deep renovation rate of existing residential building stock at least to 3% a year to achieve the EU objectives of decreasing by 80% the Green House Gas Emissions before 2050 ... [more ▼]

Belgium should increase the deep renovation rate of existing residential building stock at least to 3% a year to achieve the EU objectives of decreasing by 80% the Green House Gas Emissions before 2050. Since the first thermal legislations (between 1985 and 2000, depending on the Region), efficiency and comfort of newly built houses have met higher standards. But the renovation rate of residential buildings remained stable in the last 20 years. Only 25000 renovation permits are issued each year, in which a small amount of them are highly energy efficient. Literature review has showed that drivers and barriers of deep renovation are many and varied, sometimes contradictory and often underestimated. Conducted interviews with experts who study different facet of renovation present some others viewpoints on this subject. According to their own specific experience, each interviewee thinks differently on possible solutions. The poster set out the interview analysis. Some points are very close to the literature review, such as the environmental and economic issues of the residential renovation, while other results are solely extracted based on the interviews’ results. Amongst others, the necessity to maintain and improve the existing building stock to new standards takes an important place. The regulation appears to be a good driver as much as a barrier, depending on the local legislations and buildings context particularly in Belgium where the diversity of the building stock is very important. Public policies seem to be the first tools to unlock the renovation rate even if the development of new financial model and the information of stakeholders are also highlighted. This analysis increases the comprehension of the renovation topic on a new level, including some adjacent ideas that lead to better understanding of the existing barriers and possible strategies to overtake them, so that to involve everyone in the renovation strategy definition to promote the most efficient one. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics of surface chlorophyll-a concentrations in the South China Sea
Huynh, Thi Hong Ngu ULg; Alvera Azcarate, Aida ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 25)

In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated, using the cloud-free MODISA Chl-a data set (2003-2016 ... [more ▼]

In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of surface chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations in the South China Sea (SCS) is investigated, using the cloud-free MODISA Chl-a data set (2003-2016) reconstructed by the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions technique. EOF analysis on the reconstructed data set presents the characteristics of the surface Chl-a: (1) the first mode presents the high Chl-a concentrations in the coastal regions, except those of the Palawan and Philippines, generally with peaks in summer (June-July) and winter (November-December). (2) the second mode shows the seasonal variability of Chl-a in the whole basin, increasing in winter and decreasing in summer. (3) the third mode highlights the out-of-phase variability of the southern SCS Chl-a between the west and east coasts in winter and summer. The analysis also indicates that the variability of surface Chl-a is influenced by ENSO with a time lag of 5-9 months. [less ▲]

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See detailThaw pond dynamics and carbon emissions in a Siberian lowland tundra landscape
Van Huissteden, J.; Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Dean, J. et al

Poster (2017, April 25)

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See detailDetermining fine population structure using iterative pruning
Chaichoompu, Kridsadakorn ULg; Yazew, Fentaw Abegaz; Tongsima, Sissades et al

Poster (2017, April 25)

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See detailHow phosphorus limitation can control climatic gas sources and sinks
Gypens, N; Borges, Alberto ULg; Ghyoot, C

Poster (2017, April 25)

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See detailSalinity impact on seed yield, polyphenols composition and antioxidant activity of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgarae Mill) extracts
Bettaieb Rebey, Ines; Bourgou, S.; Msaada, K. et al

Poster (2017, April 24)

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See detailMomentum, sensible heat and CO2 correlation coefficient: what can we learn from 20 years of eddy covariance measurements
Hurdebise, Quentin ULg; De Ligne, Anne ULg; Vincke, Caroline et al

Poster (2017, April 24)

Long-term data series of carbon dioxide and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere become more and more numerous. Long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good ... [more ▼]

Long-term data series of carbon dioxide and other gas exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere become more and more numerous. Long-term analyses of such exchanges require a good understanding of measurement conditions during the investigated period. Independently of climate drivers, measurements may indeed be influenced by measurement conditions themselves subjected to long-term variability due to vegetation growth or set-up changes. The present research refers to the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) an ICOS candidate site located in a mixed forest (beech, silver fir, Douglas fir, Norway spruce) in the Belgian Ardenne. Fluxes of momentum, carbon dioxide and sensible heat have been continuously measured there by eddy covariance for more than 20 years. During this period, changes in canopy height and measurement height occurred. The correlation coefficients (for momemtum, sensible heat and CO2) and the normalized standard deviations measured for the past 20 years at the Vielsalm Terrestrial Observatory (VTO) were analysed in order to define how the fluxes, independently of climate conditions, were affected by the surrounding environment evolution, including tree growth, forest thinning and tower height change. A relationship between canopy aerodynamic distance and the momentum correlation coefficient was found which is characteristic of the roughness sublayer, and suggests that momentum transport processes were affected by z-d. In contrast, no relationship was found for sensible heat and CO2 correlation coefficients, suggesting that the z-d variability observed did not affect their turbulent transport. There were strong differences in these coefficients, however, between two wind sectors, characterized by contrasted stands (height differences, homogeneity) and different hypotheses were raised to explain it. This study highlighted the importance of taking the surrounding environment variability into account in order to ensure the spatio-temporal consistency of datasets. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced Tillage generates higher N2O emissions: results of continuous chamber-based measurement in a winter wheat field.
Broux, François ULg; Lognoul, Margaux ULg; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas et al

Poster (2017, April 24)

Agriculture is one of the most important contributors to GHG emission, notably through fertilized croplands. Though, few publications have studied simultaneously and through continuous measurement the N2O ... [more ▼]

Agriculture is one of the most important contributors to GHG emission, notably through fertilized croplands. Though, few publications have studied simultaneously and through continuous measurement the N2O and CO2 emissions in cultivated lands. We conducted this study to assess the effect of farming practices and climate on both N2O and CO2 emissions from a winter wheat crop. The experiment was held in an experimental field in the loamy region in Belgium from March 2016 till crop harvest in August 2016. The fluxes were measured on two nearby parcels in a winter wheat field with restitution of the residues from previous crop. For the past 8 years, one parcel was subjected to a Reduced tillage (RT, 10 cm depth) and the other one to a conventional tillage (CT, 25 cm depth). On each parcel, the emissions are assessed with homemade automated closed chambers. Measurement continuity and good temporal resolution (one mean flux every 4 hours) of the system allowed a fine detection and quantification of the emission peaks which usually represent the major part of N2O fluxes. In addition to gas fluxes, soil water content and temperature were measured continuously. Soil samples were taken regularly to determine soil pH, soil organic carbon and nitrogen pools (total, NO3- and NH4+) and study microbial diversity and nitrification/denitrification gene expression. Surprisingly, results showed N2O emissions twice as large in the RT parcel as in the CT parcel. On the contrary, less important CO2 emissions were observed under RT. Several emission peaks of N2O were observed during the measurement period. The peaks occurred after fertilization events and seemed to be triggered by an elevation of soil water content. Interesting links could be made between soil NH4-N and NO3-N pools and N2O emissions. Nitrification being the main process originating the fluxes was suggested on the one hand by the temporal evolution of nitrogen pools and N2O emissions and on the other hand by the relation between spatial variability of the emissions with the soil nitrate content. A comparison of the emissions between ST and CT and a discussion on peaks temporal dynamic, focusing on their intensity, duration and starting time will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailDose-dependent effect of Estetrol on Angiogenesis and Tumor Growth
Gallez, Anne ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Lenfant, Françoise et al

Poster (2017, April 24)

Hormone replacement therapies (HRT) based on estrogen preparations are the most powerful treatments to prevent menopause symptoms. However, they are associated to an increased risk of breast cancer and ... [more ▼]

Hormone replacement therapies (HRT) based on estrogen preparations are the most powerful treatments to prevent menopause symptoms. However, they are associated to an increased risk of breast cancer and they sustain the development of Estrogen Receptor α-positive tumors (ERα+). In addition, we have previously observed that estradiol (E2) can promote the growth of ERα-negative (ERα-) tumors, by increasing tumor angiogenesis that subsequently improves oxygen and nutrients delivery, thereby preventing hypoxia and necrosis. To identify new and safe drugs for the development of HRT presenting a better benefit/risk ratio, it is therefore necessary to evaluate the potential impact of new candidates on both ERα+ and ERα- tumors. In this context, estetrol (E4), a natural estrogen exclusively produced by the fetal liver, is a promising candidate. [less ▲]

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See detailHow learning methods in anatomy allow a boost of visuospatial abilities for undergraduate students
Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Ernst, Denise; Dernier, Adrienne ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 24)

Because it is know that visuospatial abilities affect anatomy learning and that our students are heterogeneous related to these competences, it is essential to offer an educational strategy designed to ... [more ▼]

Because it is know that visuospatial abilities affect anatomy learning and that our students are heterogeneous related to these competences, it is essential to offer an educational strategy designed to specifically train and develop those skills at the beginning of the anatomy courses. We managed to offer various formative activities that improve visuospatial skills. [less ▲]

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See detailClay minerals behaviour in thin sandy clay-rich lacustrine turbidites (Lake Hazar, Turkey)
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Lamair, Laura ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 23)

Turbidites have been extensively studied in many different areas using cores or outcrop, which represent only an integrated snapshot of a dynamic evolving flow. Laboratory experiments provide the missing ... [more ▼]

Turbidites have been extensively studied in many different areas using cores or outcrop, which represent only an integrated snapshot of a dynamic evolving flow. Laboratory experiments provide the missing relationships between the flow characteristics and their deposits. In particular, flume experiments emphasize that the presence of clay plays a key role in turbidity current dynamics. Clay fraction, in small amount, provides cohesive strength to sediment mixtures and can damp turbulence. However, the degree of flocculation is dependent on factors such as the amount and size of clay particles, the surface of clay particles, chemistry and pH conditions in which the clay particles are dispersed. The present study focuses on thin clayey sand turbidites found in Lake Hazar (Turkey) occurring in stacked thin beds. Depositional processes and sources have been previously studied and three types were deciphered, including laminar flows dominated by cohesion, transitional, and turbulence flow regimes (Hage et al., in revision). For the purpose of determine the clay behavior in the three flow regimes, clay mineralogical, geochemical measurements on the cores allow characterising the turbidites. SEM observations provide further information regarding the morphology of clay minerals and other clasts. The study is particularly relevant given the highly alkaline and saline water of the Hazar Lake. Clay minerals in Hazar Lake sediments include kaolinite (1:1-type), illite and chlorite (2:1-type). Hazar lake water is alkaline having pH around 9.3, in such alkaline environment, a cation-exchange reaction takes place. Furthermore, in saline water (16‰), salts can act as a shield and decrease the repulsive forces between clay particle surfaces. So, pH and salt content jointly impact the behaviour of clays differently. Since the Al-faces of clay structures have a negative charge in basic solutions. At high pH, all kaolinite surfaces become negative-charged, and then kaolinite particles are dispersed, and the suspension is stabilized supported by our SEM observations. In alkaline water, kaolinite reveals a lower degree of consolidation. While, alkaline water has no measurable effect on illite and chlorite surface properties due to the absence of modifications in charge. Illite and chlorite form with other clasts clusters or aggregate structures in suspension when the particle interactions are dominated by attractive energies were formed. The aggregate structure plays a major part in the flow behavior of clay suspensions. Flocs will immobilize the suspending medium, and give rise to increasing viscosity and yield strength of the suspension. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Vitek2 system and E-test relevant and reliable for determining susceptibility to temocillin?
VISEE, Clotilde ULg; FRIPPIAT, Frédéric ULg; DESCY, Julie ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 22)

Compared to BMD, Vitek2® seems to overestimate sensitivity and underestimate resistance, while E-test® seems to overestimate resistance, pleading for the use of BMD when evaluating susceptibility to ... [more ▼]

Compared to BMD, Vitek2® seems to overestimate sensitivity and underestimate resistance, while E-test® seems to overestimate resistance, pleading for the use of BMD when evaluating susceptibility to temocillin. However, this study, which is currently enrolling more patients, will include more isolates in order to meet FDA criteria set out in Cumitech 31A for validation of method comparison [less ▲]

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See detailViolence dans les relations amoureuses : le contexte conflictuel est-il adéquat pour son étude ?
Courtain, Audrey ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2017, April 20)

La violence dans les relations amoureuses des adolescents et jeunes adultes est étudiée depuis un peu plus d’une trentaine d’années (Makepeace, 1981). Ces recherches ont souvent utilisé le questionnaire ... [more ▼]

La violence dans les relations amoureuses des adolescents et jeunes adultes est étudiée depuis un peu plus d’une trentaine d’années (Makepeace, 1981). Ces recherches ont souvent utilisé le questionnaire Conflict Tactics Scale (« CTS 1 », Straus, 1979 ; « CTS2 », Strauss et al., 1996) pour investiguer le phénomène, jusqu’au développement du questionnaire Conflict in Adolescent Dating Relationships Inventory (« CADRI », Wolfe et al., 2001) précisément élaboré pour la violence dans les relations amoureuses. Or, les consignes de passation du CADRI rencontrent celles du CTS en termes de contexte de conflit : « Les phrases suivantes te questionnent sur des situations qui ont pu t’arriver à toi et à ton/ta petit(e) copain/copine pendant que vous vous disputiez ». Le CADRI s’inscrit dans la continuité du CTS eu égard à la théorie du conflit qui leur est sous-jacente. Notre présente recherche entend investiguer comment cette consigne introductive influence les taux de violences agies et subies. En passation groupale, un questionnaire papier a été soumis à des étudiants (N>200, 16-23 ans) en Belgique francophone. Dans un premier temps, les participants ont répondu à une version modifiée du CADRI où la consigne introductive ne circonscrivait pas les items de violence à du conflit ; dans un second temps, ils ont répondu à la version-type délimitant les items de violence à un contexte de conflit. Pour ces deux versions, la perpétration et la victimisation sont étudiées sous cinq formes de violences : verbale/émotionnelle, physique, sexuelle, relationnelle, et par menace. Pour certaines formes de violences agies et subies, les résultats indiquent des différences de score de perpétration et de victimisation selon le type de test (CADRI en version modifiée vs. CADRI en version-type), tantôt pour les participants de sexe féminin, tantôt pour les participants de sexe masculin. Des interactions entre le type de test et le sexe des répondants sont également relevées. Cette étude permet d’interroger la (non) pertinence d’une consigne mentionnant le conflit pour étudier la violence dans les relations amoureuses, consigne ayant d’ailleurs des impacts différents selon le sexe du répondant. En ce sens, délimiter l’étude de la violence dans les relations amoureuses à un contexte de conflit nous met à risque de grandement sous-estimer les prévalences de perpétration et de victimisation, les violences hors-conflit n’étant pas prise en considération. Egalement, considérant les interactions entre type de test et sexe des répondants, il est important de désormais s’assurer que les différentes prévalences relevées pour chaque sexe ne sont plus des différences liées à l’éventuelle compréhension genrée de cette consigne. Enfin, prendre en compte la violence dans les relations amoureuses dans un contexte non-délimité à du conflit permettra d’élaborer de nouvelles stratégies de prévention et de sensibilisation incluant davantage de contextes. [less ▲]

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See detailMises en observation au départ d’un service d’urgences psychiatriques : Procédure, population et orientation.
Schmits, Emilie ULg; Evrard, Maude; Valassopoulou, Eftychia et al

Poster (2017, April 20)

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See detailEvaluation des traits psychopathiques dans une population de sujets schizophrènes : Les limites de la PCL-R
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Matteucci, Marie; De Page, Louis et al

Poster (2017, April 19)

Notre étude vise à déterminer si la PCL-R (Psychopathy Check List- Revised), destinée à évaluer la psychopathie et utilisée dans le contexte médico-légal, est adaptée à des sujets diagnostiqués ... [more ▼]

Notre étude vise à déterminer si la PCL-R (Psychopathy Check List- Revised), destinée à évaluer la psychopathie et utilisée dans le contexte médico-légal, est adaptée à des sujets diagnostiqués schizophrènes. Notre hypothèse principale est que plusieurs items de l’échelle peuvent être côtés avec le même score et pourtant exprimer une manière d’être et d’agir différente si le sujet est réellement psychopathe ou s’il est schizophrène. Afin d’éprouver notre hypothèse, nous avons sélectionné sept patients présentant soit une schizophrénie, soit une personnalité psychopathiques, soit considérés comme potentiels « héboïdophrènes » (schizophrénie pseudo-psychopathique) à qui nous avons administré la PCL-R. À partir d’analyses qualitatives, nous avons ensuite établi une liste d’items de la PCL-R sensibles à la psychose. Nous observons que 45% des items se révèlent positivement ou négativement influencés par la psychose au-delà de tout trait psychopathique. Sémiologiquement, c’est la présence de la dynamique paranoïde de la schizophrénie qui influence principalement les scores attribués aux items de la PCL-R. Cette recherche suggère des hypothèses concernant l’interaction psychose-psychopathie et son rapport avec des actes de violence. La conclusion de l’étude est que la PCL-R connait des limitations importantes en ce qui concerne son application à une population de sujets schizophrènes. [less ▲]

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See detailTraits psychopathiques dans une population infra-clinique et traitement émotionnel
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Bral, Laura; Dehon, Hedwige ULg et al

Poster (2017, April 19)

L’intérêt pour la psychopathie infra-clinique n’est pas neuf. Toutefois, les études sur le sujet sont encore peu nombreuses. Notre recherche a consisté à mettre à l’épreuve deux hypothèses. La première ... [more ▼]

L’intérêt pour la psychopathie infra-clinique n’est pas neuf. Toutefois, les études sur le sujet sont encore peu nombreuses. Notre recherche a consisté à mettre à l’épreuve deux hypothèses. La première, concerne la présence de « traits psychopathiques » dans la population tout-venant et la seconde tend à évaluer dans quelle mesure la présence de ces traits influence le traitement émotionnel. Pour tester ces hypothèses, nous avons créé une version « online » du SRP-III (Self Report Psychopathy). Aux soixante-quatre items initialement présents dans cette échelle nous avons ajouté dix-sept items afin d’être en mesure d’également coter la PCL-R (Psychopathy Check List- Revised). Deux groupes de chacun treize participants ont été créés sur base de leur score au SRP-III (un groupe « faibles caractéristiques psychopathique » et un groupe « fortes caractéristiques psychopathiques »). La seconde partie de l’étude consistait en une entrevue durant laquelle nous avons procédé à des mises en situation d’induction émotionnelle. Pour mesurer l’influence de cette induction, trois tâches cognitives étaient administrées aux sujets des deux groupes. La première hypothèse s’est vue confirmée à travers la récolte des données du questionnaire en ligne. Quant à la seconde hypothèse, les résultats statistiques n’indiquent aucune différence significative entre les groupes en ce qui concerne leur score aux tâches cognitives. Il est donc suggéré que la présence de traits psychopathiques n’influence pas le traitement émotionnel. Cette recherche confirme la présence de la psychopathie dans la population tout-venant et semble infirmer, parmi cette population, l’hypothèse d’un déficit du traitement émotionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailExploitation et instrumentation des mémoires
Nossent, Jérôme ULg

Poster (2017, April 03)

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See detailDes complots partout? Epistémologie du discours conspirationniste
Debras, François ULg

Poster (2017, April 03)

Il n’existe pas d’un côté des « farfelus » qui voient des complots partout et de l’autre, des scientifiques rationnels qui considèrent que les complots sont des divagations. L’adhésion aux théories du ... [more ▼]

Il n’existe pas d’un côté des « farfelus » qui voient des complots partout et de l’autre, des scientifiques rationnels qui considèrent que les complots sont des divagations. L’adhésion aux théories du complot n’est pas un simple oui ou non. C’est un curseur qui indique que chacun se pose des questions et émet des doutes. De plus, l’histoire témoigne de l’existence de multiples complots bien réels que nous ne nions pas (incident de Mukden, incident du golf de Tonkin, affaire des couveuses au Koweit,…). Les théories du complot nous invitent à ne pas croire aveuglément tout ce que nous racontent les médias. Mais, à l’inverse, il ne faut pas non plus déceler des complots partout et analyser un monde « lu à l’envers » où tout ce qui est présenté comme vrai est faux et inversement. [less ▲]

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See detailSaisir les reconfigurations des pratiques d'engagement de "publics" en science et technologie
Macq, Hadrien ULg

Poster (2017, April 03)

La gouvernance des sciences et des technologies se trouve actuellement dans une situation de tension entre deux dynamiques : un agenda néo-libéral promouvant l’innovation technologique, d’une part, et un ... [more ▼]

La gouvernance des sciences et des technologies se trouve actuellement dans une situation de tension entre deux dynamiques : un agenda néo-libéral promouvant l’innovation technologique, d’une part, et un mouvement de démocratisation et d’expérimentation collective, d’autre part. Cette recherche vise à analyser les effets de cette tension sur les différentes pratiques d’engagement de « publics » promues par les autorités publiques. Elle poursuit dès lors une double ambition : caractériser les formes émergentes d’engagement de « publics » et les comparer aux précédentes afin de saisir ce que ce changement de pratiques implique pour la gouvernance des sciences et des technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailStable GPR101 over-Expressing Cell Lines As an Invaluable Tool for Functional Studies, Ligand Screening, and the Identification of Deregulated Genes/Pathways in Patients with X-Linked Acrogigantism
Trivellin, Giampaolo; Janjic, Maria; Larco, Darwin et al

Poster (2017, April 02)

Background: GPR101 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is duplicated in patients with X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) and over-expressed in their GH- and PRL-secreting tumors. GPR101 is a ... [more ▼]

Background: GPR101 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is duplicated in patients with X-linked acrogigantism (X-LAG) and over-expressed in their GH- and PRL-secreting tumors. GPR101 is a constitutively active GPCR that strongly activates the cAMP pathway. To elucidate the mechanisms through which GPR101 causes GH over-secretion we generated HEK293 and GH/PRL-secreting (GH3) cells with stable GPR101 expression. Methods: Both cell lines were created via direct integration of a human GPR101-coding sequence into their genome. In HEK293 cells this was achieved by transient transfection of a GPR101-expressing plasmid, while GH3 were transduced with GPR101 lentiviral particles. Cells were selected with appropriate antibiotics and the surviving clones expanded. GPR101 expression was quantified by RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence/western blotting. Cell proliferation (MTT assay), cAMP levels (125I-labeled cAMP tracer), and calcium signaling (FURA 2 AM) were determined. RNA was extracted from both cell lines and subjected to RNA-seq. Differential gene expression between control and GPR101-expressing cells and pathway analysis was carried out with the Stirplate and MetaCore softwares, respectively. De-regulated genes were validated by RT-qPCR. Results: High GPR101 expression was achieved in both cell lines and confirmed at the mRNA and protein level. GPR101-expressing cells proliferated at different rates from the respective controls: GPR101-HEK293 cells were slow-dividing, while GPR101-GH3 divided faster. cAMP production was enhanced in GPR101-GH3 and accompained by increased excitability of cells. Differential expression analysis in HEK293 cells revealed several up-regulated and few down-regulated genes. Among the genes with high expression, several were linked to the cAMP pathway: CGA, PCK1, LINC00473 and PDE3A. Enrichment analysis ranked cytoskeleton remodeling and cell cycle regulation (inhibition of G1/S transition) as the most relevant pathways. In GH3 cells most of the genes with a significantly different expression encoded for membrane-localized proteins, among which were ion channels (Trpm8, Kcnj1), GPCRs (Trhr), and calcium sensors (Syt4, Anxa1). Biological processes associated with these genes are: vesicle transport and fusion, cytoskeleton organization, and energy homeostasis. Conclusions: These results show that the intrinsic activity of GPR101 strongly stimulates cAMP production and this in turn facilitates voltage-gated calcium influx. Changes in cAMP/calcium signaling are accompanied with faster/slower cell division depending on the cell type. Accordingly, several genes associated with these and related pathways are differentially expressed. The establishment of these cell lines will be of paramount importance to validate putative GPR101 ligands and to conduct functional studies. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic flood modelling to support flood-proof urban design
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Mustafa, Ahmed; Aliaga, Daniel et al

Poster (2017, April)

Urban flood risk is influenced by many factors such as hydro-meteorological drivers, existing drainage systems as well as vulnerability of population and assets. The urban fabric itself has also a complex ... [more ▼]

Urban flood risk is influenced by many factors such as hydro-meteorological drivers, existing drainage systems as well as vulnerability of population and assets. The urban fabric itself has also a complex influence on inundation flows. In this research, we performed a systematic analysis on how various characteristics of urban patterns control inundation flow within the urban area and upstream of it. An urban generator tool was used to generate over 2,250 synthetic urban networks of 1 km². This tool is based on the procedural modelling presented by Parish and Müller (2001) which was adapted to generate a broader variety of urban networks. Nine input parameters were used to control the urban geometry. Three of them define the average length, orientation and curvature of the streets. Two orthogonal major roads, for which the width constitutes the fourth input parameter, work as constraints to generate the urban network. The width of secondary streets is given by the fifth input parameter. Each parcel generated by the street network based on a parcel mean area parameter can be either a park or a building parcel depending on the park ratio parameter. Three setback parameters constraint the exact location of the building whithin a building parcel. For each of synthetic urban network, detailed two-dimensional inundation maps were computed with a hydraulic model. The computational efficiency was enhanced by means of a porosity model. This enables the use of a coarser computational grid , while preserving information on the detailed geometry of the urban network (Sanders et al. 2008). These porosity parameters reflect not only the void fraction, which influences the storage capacity of the urban area, but also the influence of buildings on flow conveyance (dynamic effects). A sensitivity analysis was performed based on the inundation maps to highlight the respective impact of each input parameter characteristizing the urban networks. The findings of the study pinpoint which properties of urban networks have a major influence on urban inundation flow, enabling better informed flood-proof urban design. [less ▲]

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See detailTectonic, human and climate signal over the last 4000 years in the Lake Amik record (southern Turkey)
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg et al

Poster (2017, April)

This study investigates the upper sediments infilling the central part of the Amik Basin in Southern Turkey. The Amik Basin is located in a tectonically active area: it is crossed by the Dead Sea Fault, a ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the upper sediments infilling the central part of the Amik Basin in Southern Turkey. The Amik Basin is located in a tectonically active area: it is crossed by the Dead Sea Fault, a major neotectonic structure in the Middle East extending from the Red Sea in the South to the East Anatolian Fault Zone in the North. Continuous human occupation is attested since 6000-7000 BC in the Amik Basin. The study focuses on the sedimentary record of the Lake Amik occupying the central part of the Basin. Our objective is to constrain major paleo-environmental changes over the last 4000 years. The lake has been drained and progressively dried up since the mid-50s. The absence of water column during the summer season allows to collect lacustrine samples along a 5 meter depth trench with a sampling resolution of 1 to 2 cm. Diverse complementary methods were applied to characterize the sedimentary record: i.e. magnetic susceptibility, grain size, organic and inorganic matter by loss-of-ignition, mineralogy by X-ray diffraction and core scanner X-ray fluorescence (XRF) geochemistry. The age of the record is constrained combining radionuclide and radiocarbon datings. Structural disturbances observed in the lacustrine sediments record are linked with major historical earthquakes from the 6th to the 9th century AD due to the Hasipasa Fault rupture. In addition to the tectonic influence, the sedimentary record clearly shows two periods indicating strong soil erosion in the lake catchment: (1) the most recent erosion phase occurs over the Roman period to Present; (2) the oldest one would have occurred during the Late Bronze period. Such changes are most probably related to change in land use. In term of climate influences, the mineralogical and geochemical results allow to evidence variations in chemical weathering conditions in the watershed and lake water level fluctuations, respectively. The clay mineral assemblages attest for significant pedogenesis transformations, especially during the Islamic/Ottoman period. Based on XRF results, an increase in potassium is attributed to a lake development phase during a wet phase An overflow of the Orontes River would be responsible for clay deposition. By contrast, increased calcium and strontium rather correspond to a low lacustrine level and a drier period. The Bronze and Iron/Hellenistic periods are both characterized by low lake level with limited contribution from the watershed. To conclude, our multiproxy study of the Lake Amik allows to decipher between tectonic, human and climate influences over the last 4000 years. Further step would be to compare the Amik record with other regional archives to evidence local and regional events. [less ▲]

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See detailHST observations of Jupiter's UV aurora during Juno's orbits PJ03, PJ04 and PJ05
Grodent, Denis ULg; Gladstone, G Randall; Clarke, John T. et al

Poster (2017, April)

The intense ultraviolet auroral emissions of Jupiter are currently being monitored in the frame of a large Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program meant to support the NASA Juno prime mission. The present ... [more ▼]

The intense ultraviolet auroral emissions of Jupiter are currently being monitored in the frame of a large Hubble Space Telescope (HST) program meant to support the NASA Juno prime mission. The present study addresses the three first Juno orbits (PJ03, 04 and 05) during which HST obtained parallel observations. These three campaigns basically consist of a 2-week period bracketing the time of Juno’s closest approach of Jupiter (CA). At least one HST visit is scheduled every day during the week before and the week following CA. During the ∼12-hour period centered on CA and depending on observing constraints, several HST visits are programmed in order to obtain as many simultaneous observations with Juno-UVS as possible. In addition, at least one HST visit is obtained near Juno’s apojove, when UVS is continuously monitoring Jupiter’s global auroral power, without spatial resolution, for about 12 hours. We are using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) in time-tag mode in order to provide spatially resolved movies of Jupiter’s highly dynamic aurora with timescales ranging from seconds to several days. We discuss the preliminary exploitation of the HST data and present these results in such a way as to provide a global magnetospheric context for the different Juno instruments studying Jupiter’s magnetosphere, as well as for the numerous ground based and space based observatories participating to the Juno mission. [less ▲]

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See detailWork environment and work-to-family conflict: Mediating role of work investment.
Babic, Audrey ULg; Stinglhamber, Florence; Barbier, Marie ULg et al

Poster (2017, April)

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See detailSafety behaviors: the moderating role of trust and support
Laurent, Julie ULg; Chmiel, Nik; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

Poster (2017, April)

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See detailXenogeneic graft-versus-host disease : Impact of Th17 cells
Delens, Loïc ULg; SERVAIS, Sophie ULg; Vrancken, Louise ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 27)

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See detailAnosognosia for behavioral disorder is related to confidence for false self-related memories in Alzheimer’s disease
Mélon, Marlène; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 24)

Impaired self-awareness (i.e. anosognosia) and altered metacognitive monitoring in memory tasks have both been evidenced in AD. Furthermore, cognitive studies showed disrupted interaction between self and ... [more ▼]

Impaired self-awareness (i.e. anosognosia) and altered metacognitive monitoring in memory tasks have both been evidenced in AD. Furthermore, cognitive studies showed disrupted interaction between self and memory cognitive systems in AD, reducing cognitive advantages of self-related memories (i.e. decreasing self reference effect, SRE) in these patients. However, how anosognosia relates to impaired metacognitive monitoring in AD, particularly for self-related memories, is still an open question. To investigate this question, an ecological memory task based on face-name associations was administrated to 20 healthy older controls (HC) and 20 mild AD patients. The influence of self-reference at encoding was assessed on subsequent name recall and recollective experience, as well as on predictive (feeling-of-knowing, FOK) and postretrieval (judgments-of-confidence, JOC) metacognitive judgments on name recognition in all participants. Furthermore relationships between metacognitive outcomes and awareness of daily cognitive and behavioral impairment was examined in AD. Altered SRE was evidenced in name recall and recollective experience in AD. Patients also showed impaired FOK and JOC, as well as lower awareness of their daily functioning impairment (anosognosia). Nevertheless, differential effect of self on metacognitive judgment in AD and HC was only observed on JOC for false memories. Importantly, anosognosia for behavioral disorders was related to post-retrieval confidence for false recognition of self-related items in AD patients. Thus, anosognosia concerning behavioral disorder and altered post-retrieval monitoring of self-related memories appear to be related in AD. We hypothesized that impaired monitoring of personal false memories may lead AD patients to rely on distorted recent reality when providing judgment about their everyday behavioral functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailDepression is a heterogeneous condition: A cluster-analysis approach
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Baeyens, Céline; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 24)

The heterogeneity of depression (i.e., symptomatology profiles, treatment responsiveness) is more and more evidenced. From a clinical perspective, having a clearer overview of the symptoms’ heterogeneity ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of depression (i.e., symptomatology profiles, treatment responsiveness) is more and more evidenced. From a clinical perspective, having a clearer overview of the symptoms’ heterogeneity of depression will help (1) to deeper understand its underlined psychological processes and (2) to tailor clinical treatments (i.e., psychological interventions and/or antidepressant medications). In order to so, an effort to determine subtypes of depression has been developed through a cluster-analysis approach. Andreasen et al. (1980) identified three clusters of depressed patients based on the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia; Schacht et al. (2014) evidenced five clusters based on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (i.e., lack of insight, sleep/sexual/somatic, typical MDD, gastrointestinal/weight loss, mild MDD); Hybels et al. (2012) found three clusters of depressive patients based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale in community seniors; and Guidi et al. (2011) found two clusters of depressives in medically ill patients based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (i.e., depressed somatizers, irritable/anxious depression). The current study aims at replicating and extending these previous findings in adults presenting depressive symptoms through a cluster-analysis approach. Unlike previous studies, the highlighting of the clusters will be based on the most frequently used assessment of depression, the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition (BDI-II). Further, the definition of the clusters will be based on the presence of the depressive symptoms rather than on their severity because symptoms’ severity on the BDI-II can be misrepresentative of the phenomenology of depressive symptoms’ clusters. A sample of 619 adults from community and mental healthcare centers has been recruited. Inclusion criteria were as follows: being a French-speaking adult aged between 18 and 60 years and presenting at least five symptoms on the BDI-II, irrespective of their severity. Data grouping was achieved through a combination of hierarchical (Ward’s method with squared Euclidian distance measurement) and nonhierarchical procedures (K-means cluster analysis), as recommended by recent theoretical trends. A six-cluster solution was evidenced: heavy sleepers (high levels of tiredness, loss of energy and increase of sleep), cognitive depressives (high levels of pessimism, past failures, guilty feelings, self-dislike and worthlessness), affective-somatic depressives (high levels of affective symptoms - loss of interest and pleasure - and somatic symptoms - increase of appetite and sleep, irritability), mild depressives (mild levels of all symptoms), sleepless depressives (high levels of decrease of sleep and tiredness), typical depressives (high levels of all symptoms). Results evidenced the heterogeneity of depressive symptoms, as six different clusters of depressive adults have been found. Two of the clusters identified in the current study are similar to two clusters identified by Schacht et al. (2014) (sleepless depressives are similar to the cluster “sleep/sexual/somatic” because their profile are highly characterized by symptoms related to insomnia and tiredness; mild depressives are similar to the cluster “mild MDD/symptoms” because their profile are characterized by low to average levels on all symptoms). The take-home message of this study is that depression is a heterogeneous condition. Consequently, it is necessary to consider this heterogeneity in order to tailor the psychological intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailRecollection versus familiarity in normal aging and in mild cognitive impairment: Impact of test format
Simon, Jessica ULg; Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; SALMON, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 24)

If familiarity is better preserved than recollection in aging and in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (Koen & Yonelinas, 2014), the experimental conditions promoting its use should be beneficial to ... [more ▼]

If familiarity is better preserved than recollection in aging and in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (Koen & Yonelinas, 2014), the experimental conditions promoting its use should be beneficial to these populations. One condition influencing the relative contribution of recollection and familiarity during recognition is the format of the test. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of test format on recollection and familiarity in normal aging and in MCI in two tasks where the level of performance is equalized. Seventy young participants, 70 younger-old (55-69 years old), 69 older-old (70-85 years old), and 13 MCIs were presented with forced-choice and yes/no visual recognition memory tasks with the Remember/Know/ Guess paradigm. Young participants had better recognition memory performance than younger-old, who performed better than older-old and MCIs. Recollection and familiarity declined progressively in healthy aging. In MCI, recollection was more affected than familiarity, but patients demonstrated a more liberal use of familiarity. Finally, test format did not influence strongly the results. Young people used recollection more often in the forced-choice task compared to the yes/no task. [less ▲]

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See detailRecognition memory is associated with hippocampal volume in aging population: new evidence from brain imaging study
Narbutas, Justinas ULg; Blanpain, Manon ULg; Van Egroo, Maxime ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 23)

Introduction. The hippocampus is crucial for episodic memory, especially for recollection and pattern separation (i.e., the ability to store similar episodes as distinct memory traces). Episodic memory ... [more ▼]

Introduction. The hippocampus is crucial for episodic memory, especially for recollection and pattern separation (i.e., the ability to store similar episodes as distinct memory traces). Episodic memory declines with aging and this has been associated with hippocampal dysfunction. The main objective of our study was to explore how performance on a recognition memory task designed to assess pattern separation is associated with hippocampal volume in aging population. Methods. Fourteen healthy late middle-aged participants (52-69 years-old) were evaluated on a Mnemonic Similarity Task (MST). In this task, participants study pictures and then have to discriminate between targets, similar lures, and unrelated foil objects. Recognition memory (RM) is assessed as the difference between hits and false alarms to unrelated foils, while pattern separation Bias metric (BPS) is the difference between the rate of ‘‘Similar’’ responses given to the lure items minus ‘‘Similar’’ responses given to the foils. Hippocampal volume was calculated using ASHS software, which uses T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI to obtain optimal segmentation of hippocampal subfields. Results. Correlation analysis of preliminary data revealed that RM was significantly positively associated with the volume of the left subiculum and left perirhinal area 35, while there were no significant correlations in the right hemisphere. BPS was positively correlated with the volume of right CA2 region, but negatively associated with the volume of right CA3 region, what is more contradictory according to the current literature. No significant link was found between BPS and the volume of hippocampal subfields in the left hemisphere. Conclusion. In a middle-aged population, better visual recognition memory is associated with larger volume of the left subiculum and perirhinal area 35, two regions supporting representation of objects [less ▲]

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See detailRelating pessimistic memory predictions to Alzheimer’s disease brain structure
Genon, Sarah ULg; Simon, Jessica ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 23)

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show impairment of episodic memory and related metacognitive processes. The present study examined subjective metacognitive judgments preceding objective memory ... [more ▼]

Patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) show impairment of episodic memory and related metacognitive processes. The present study examined subjective metacognitive judgments preceding objective memory retrieval and investigated the neural correlates of pessimistic predictions for successfully retrieved memories in AD patients. AD patients and healthy older participants provided predictive judgements on their recognition performance before retrieval of famous (semantic) and recently learned (episodic) names. Correlations between grey matter volume (GMV) in T1 images and behavioural scores were examined with multivariate (PLS) and univariate (GLM) analyses in AD patients. AD patients showed a significant proportion of successful name recognition preceded by pessimistic prediction (Prediction_low_hits) in episodic memory. PLS revealed that behavioural pattern in AD patients was related with a mainly right lateralized pattern of GMV decrease including medial temporal lobe and posterior cingulate cortex, but also right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). GLM further confirmed that pessimistic prediction negatively correlated with GMV in VLPFC. Thus, impaired monitoring processes (possibly influenced by inaccurate beliefs) allowing inferences about one’s own memory performance are primarily related to decrease GMV in VLPFC in AD patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCoarsening dynamics of a granular lattice gas
Opsomer, Eric ULg; Noirhomme, Martial ULg; Ludewig, François et al

Poster (2017, March 23)

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See detailImpact of the number of alternatives during a forced-choice recognition task on recollection and familiarity in normal aging
Simon, Jessica ULg; Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

Poster (2017, March 23)

Forced-choice recognition tasks are often used to evaluate recognition memory. However, no study have specifically investigate the impact of the number of alternatives on memory performance. Here, we ... [more ▼]

Forced-choice recognition tasks are often used to evaluate recognition memory. However, no study have specifically investigate the impact of the number of alternatives on memory performance. Here, we wanted to determine, on the one hand, if the number of alternatives - two or three - and on the other hand if the degree of similarity between targets and foils have an impact on recognition strategies. Moreover, we investigated how aging interacted with these variables. We recruited 20 young and 20 older participants. During the reconnaissance task, they had to choose, among two or three photographs of faces, the one that was presented previously. Some couples of targets and foils were more similar than others (sharing 60% of common characteristics versus 40%). For each selected item, the participants had to explain what guided their choice via verbal reports. We observed similar performance between the groups for the two-alternative recognition memory task, while young participants had better performance than the older participants in the three-alternative task. Young participants used more often recollection when the similarity between targets and foils was higher, unlike older participants whose rate of recollection was not influenced by target-foil similarity. Both groups used more often familiarity in the two-alternative task, but older participants demonstrated a more liberal bias. Finally, our participants used more often elimination strategies when the similarity is low or when they had to select one item out of three. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalytic functionalisation of starch and amylose using plant oils: towards polymeric materials and composites
Scholten, Philip ULg; Söyler, Zafer; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 19)

Fossil fuels have been the main source of starting materials for the chemical industry over the last century. Especially synthetic polymers rely on this feedstock and are indispensible for mankind’s ... [more ▼]

Fossil fuels have been the main source of starting materials for the chemical industry over the last century. Especially synthetic polymers rely on this feedstock and are indispensible for mankind’s technological advances and status quo. However, a shift to renewable and sustainable resources is needed, as the end of the fossil fuel era is in sight. Biomass presents one possible alternative to fossil fuels, as it consists of a large pool of different chemicals and is inexhaustible. Cellulose, and the closely related starch and amylose, are available cheaply from plants and have favourable properties, such as high strength, thermal stability and biodegradability. However, such poly(saccharides) have been difficult to use directly as materials because of the lack of thermoplasticity, low solubility and high hydrophilicity. Modifications are thus necessary to be able to exploit their advantageous properties. Recently, our group published the catalytic transesterification of maize starch with different plant oils to obtain fully renewable fatty acid starch esters in a sustainable fashion. Polymeric materials with glass transition temperatures (Tgs), soluble in common organic solvents and an increased hydrophobicity were obtained. Compatibilisation tests of the modified starch and amylose with low-density poly(ethylene) (LDPE) and cellulose are being investigated to obtain composites of commodity plastics with improved mechanical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of NMDA receptor mediated excitatory synaptic currents in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra.
Destreel, Geoffrey ULg; Seutin, Vincent ULg; Engel, Dominique ULg

Poster (2017, March 17)

Dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) exhibit two main firing modes, spontaneous single action potential (AP) firing and bursting. The amount of DA released by these neurons in ... [more ▼]

Dopamine (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) exhibit two main firing modes, spontaneous single action potential (AP) firing and bursting. The amount of DA released by these neurons in target areas depends on the presynaptic AP firing pattern and is essential to modulate several aspects of behavior such as the control of movement. Bursting activity is mediated by excitatory afferents and specifically by the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). However, the level of activation of NMDARs at these synapses during spontaneous synaptic activity is unknown. We assessed the occupancy of the glycine binding sites of the NMDAR by testing the effects of coagonists and by blocking the uptake of glycine on spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) in DA neurons of the SNc. Parasagittal midbrain slices (300 – 350 µm thickness) were cut from the brains 16- to 26- days old Wistar rats using a vibratome. Whole-cell recordings were made using warm (~35C°) standard artificial cerebrospinal fluid. sEPSCs were pharmacologically isolated and recorded at +40 and -70 mV. A large NMDAR-sEPSC component was present at +40 mV as revealed by the application of 50 µM D-AP5 (n=8, P < 0.001). At -70 mV, D-AP5 had no effect on the EPSC, as expected (n=7, P = 0.52). The mean amplitude of the average NMDAR sEPSC measured at +40 mV increased significantly from 8.6 ± 0.8 pA in control conditions to 10.9 ± 1.0 pA during bath application of 300 μM glycine (n=10, P < 0.001). We also investigated the effect of D-serine, the other coagonist at the NMDAR glycine site. The mean NMDAR EPSC amplitude measured at +40 mV showed a tendency toward larger values, from 6.8 ± 0.8 pA in control conditions to 8.8 ± 1.1 pA in the presence of 100 µM D-serine (n=4). Blockade of the glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) significantly increased the mean amplitude of NMDAR sEPSCs measured at +40 mV from 7.1 ± 0.5 pA in control conditions to 10.5 ± 0.8 pA in the presence of 5 μM NFPS (n=8, P < 0.001). At -70 mV, NFPS had no effect on the AMPAR-sEPSC component, as expected (n=8, P = 0.23). In conclusion, our results indicate that the NMDAR glycine sites are not saturated by glycine and D-serine during sEPSCs in control conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of Igf2 inhibition in thymic epithelial cells infected with CVB4 E2
Michaux, Hélène ULg; Charlet-Renard, Chantal; Martens, Henri ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 12)

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See detailPolitiques Architecturales en Belgique
De Visscher, Lisa ULg

Poster (2017, March 10)

The procedures for tenders proposed by the different government architects or the Cellule Architecture in Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia have an important influence on the quality of the process of the ... [more ▼]

The procedures for tenders proposed by the different government architects or the Cellule Architecture in Flanders, Brussels and Wallonia have an important influence on the quality of the process of the project and therefore on its physical result. Comparison and analysis of the different existing procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-range Rydberg-blockade entangling gate mediated by auxiliary atoms
Cesa, Alexandre ULg; Martin, John ULg

Poster (2017, March 09)

Arrays of qubits encoded in the ground state manifold of trapped neutral atoms appear as a promising platform for the realisation of a scalable quantum computer. Indeed, such physical qubits have a long ... [more ▼]

Arrays of qubits encoded in the ground state manifold of trapped neutral atoms appear as a promising platform for the realisation of a scalable quantum computer. Indeed, such physical qubits have a long coherence time and allow for high-fidelity single-qubit operations [1]. In such a platform, entangling two-qubit gates can be implemented by exploiting the Rydberg-blockade mechanism to produce a phase shift or a flip of the state of a target atom conditioned on the state of a control atom [2]. However, because dipole-dipole interactions fall off rapidly with the interatomic distance, such entangling gates based on Rydberg-blockade are impractical between distant qubits. In this work, we propose a protocol to implement long-range Rydberg-blockade gates (CZ or CNot) using auxillary non-coding atoms to transfer the Rydberg excitation from the control to the target qubit. The dependence of the fidelity on the number of auxillary atoms, the blockade strength and the decay rates of the Rydberg states are determined. When compared to a sequential application of nearest neighbours entangling gates, our protocol leads to a larger fidelity and a reduction of the overall gate duration (which scales linearly with the number of auxillary atoms). [1] M. Saffman, J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 49, 202001 (2016). [2] D. Jaksch, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, S. L. Rolston, R. Côté, and M. D. Lukin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2208 (2000). [less ▲]

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See detailAnticoherence measures for spin states
Baguette, Dorian ULg; Martin, John ULg

Poster (2017, March 09)

Among all possible spin states, spin-coherent states are the most classical because the spin expectation value in these states yields a vector of maximal norm pointing in a well defined direction. In ... [more ▼]

Among all possible spin states, spin-coherent states are the most classical because the spin expectation value in these states yields a vector of maximal norm pointing in a well defined direction. In contrast, anticoherent spin state to order t are such that <(J.n)^k> is independent of the unit vector n for k = 1, ..., t [1]. By construction, coherent and anticoherent spin states are at both ends of the spectrum of classicality. The aim of this work is to position all possible spin states on such a spectrum, that is to provide measures of anticoherence. To this aim, we introduce an axiomatic definition of anticoherence measures to any order t. In particular, we show that the total variance of a pure spin state, first introduced in [2] can be used to define a measure of anticoherence to order 1. We describe a systematic way of constructing anticoherence measures to any order that relies on the mapping between spin-j states and symmetric states of N = 2j spin-1/2. In particular, we exploit the fact that anticoherent spin states to order t have maximally mixed t-spin-1/2 reduced density matrices in the symmetric subspace [3]. [1] J. Zimba, Electron. J. Theor. Phys. 3, 143 (2006). [2] A. A. Klyachko, B. Öztop, and A. S. Shumovsky, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032315 (2007). [3] D. Baguette, T. Bastin, and J. Martin, Phys. Rev A 90, 032314 (2014). [less ▲]

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See detailUnravelling Potential Roles of HTLV-1 Tax and HBZ Proteins in mRNA Splicing Regulation
Vandermeulen, Charlotte ULg; Cherkaoui, Majid ULg; A. Calderwood, Michael et al

Poster (2017, March 08)

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See detailInvestigating non-coding viral transcripts in Bovine Leukemia Virus induced leukemia
Hahaut, Vincent ULg; Artesi, Maria ULg; Durkin, Keith ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 08)

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus closely related to the Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). The natural host of BLV is cattle and much like the case of HTLV-1 in humans, about ~5% of ... [more ▼]

Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is a deltaretrovirus closely related to the Human T-cell leukemia virus-1 (HTLV-1). The natural host of BLV is cattle and much like the case of HTLV-1 in humans, about ~5% of infected individuals develop leukemia/lymphoma following a long period of asymptomatic infection (~7 years in cattle, several decades in human). Experimental infection of sheep with BLV results in a reduced latency period (2 years on average), making for an attractive cancer model. A further advantage of the BLV system is that it is possible to infect sheep via injection of a cloned provirus, facilitating the mutation of specific parts of the viral genome to examine the function of viral products in vivo. Like HTLV-1, the BLV mRNAs/proteins are transcribed from the viral 5’ long terminal repeat (LTR), a region rich in regulatory elements. It was previously believed that the BLV provirus was transcriptionally silent in tumors, however we identified a cluster of five abundantly expressed non-canonical RNA polymerase III dependent microRNAs (miRNAs) encoded by BLV (Rosewick et al., PNAS 2013). In addition, using RNA sequencing we recently discovered viral antisense transcripts originating in the 3' Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) of the BLV provirus (Durkin et al., Retrovirology 2016) . While 5'LTR dependent transcription is absent in malignant cells, both the viral miRNAs and the antisense transcripts are expressed in all BLV induced leukemic and pre-leukemic samples examined to date, pointing to a vital role in the life cycle of the virus and a critical function in cellular transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing exoplanetary atmospheres with a mid-infrared nulling spectrograph
Defrere, Denis ULg; Léger, Alain; Absil, Olivier ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 07)

The discovery of an increasing number of terrestrial planets around nearby stars marks the dawn of a new era in the exoplanet field: the characterization and understanding of their atmospheres. To make ... [more ▼]

The discovery of an increasing number of terrestrial planets around nearby stars marks the dawn of a new era in the exoplanet field: the characterization and understanding of their atmospheres. To make significant progress, it becomes clear that a large number of exoplanetary atmospheres have to be studied at various wavelengths. This is particularly relevant for identifying possible bio-signatures. In this poster, we present a concept of a space-based mid-infrared nulling spectrograph that can characterize a large number of exoplanetary atmospheres and provide key information on their size, surface temperature, and the presence of key molecules such as CO2, H2O, CH4 and O3. The proposed mission concept would be particularly suited to characterize Proxima Cen b. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalytic reforming of gasification tars with bi- and trimetallic catalysts optimized with organosilane precursors
Claude, Vincent ULg; Lambert, Stéphanie ULg

Poster (2017, March 07)

Biomass gasification is interesting for the production of CO + H2 from wastes and catalysts are necessary for tars degradation. Catalysts were synthesized by the sol-gel process to develop γ-Al2O3 doped ... [more ▼]

Biomass gasification is interesting for the production of CO + H2 from wastes and catalysts are necessary for tars degradation. Catalysts were synthesized by the sol-gel process to develop γ-Al2O3 doped with 10%wt of nickel and 2 wt.% of a second dopant (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo). Before their adding in AlOOH sol, metallic dopants were complexed with (OCH3)3-Si-(CH2)3-NH-(CH2)2-NH2 (EDAS) to increase their dispersion by cogelation between EDAS and AlOOH clusters. These catalysts were tested at 650°C for toluene reforming. [less ▲]

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See detailThree-dimensional modelling of the Southern Bight of the North Sea: first results and perspectives
Ivanov, Evgeny ULg; Capet, Arthur ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 03)

The impact of offshore wind farm installation and dredging activities on the spatial distribution and dynamics of sediment grain size, biogeochemistry and biodiversity will be estimated in the Southern ... [more ▼]

The impact of offshore wind farm installation and dredging activities on the spatial distribution and dynamics of sediment grain size, biogeochemistry and biodiversity will be estimated in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (SBNS) with a focus on the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ) in the frame of the FaCE-It research project (Functional biodiversity in a Changing sedimentary Environment: Implications for biogeochemistry and food webs in a managerial setting). The three-dimensional hydrodynamical model ROMS-COAWST was implemented for simulation of the complex hydrodynamics of SBNS and sediment transport. The first level of nesting with the resolution of 1 km was used in the area of Belgian Economical Zone. In order to reach a fine resolution of 250 m in the BCZ, the second level of nesting will be used. Six-hourly ECMWF ERA-interim meteorological data was used to force the model at the sea-air boundary and the coarse resolution model results available from Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service were used to force the model at the open boundaries. Tides and rivers were also considered. Next types of long-run simulations have been conducted: a 10-years climatological simulation and an interannual simulation over 2004-2013 in order to investigate the interannual dynamics. The model accuracy was evaluated through validation of its outputs against observed salinity, temperature and currents data (remote sensing and in-situ). Results validation of currents and temperature and salinity horizontal fields and vertical profiles against available satellite fields and in-situ data, i.e. from the project field campaign, is conducted and discussed. Application of the nested grid and its benefits for results accuracy is also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotonic photoanode for macroporous perovskite solar cells
Baron, Damien ULg; Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Henrist, Catherine ULg et al

Poster (2017, March 01)

Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have reached power conversion efficiencies over 20%. Two archetypal PSC architectures are reported in the literature: mesoporous and planar ... [more ▼]

Organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have reached power conversion efficiencies over 20%. Two archetypal PSC architectures are reported in the literature: mesoporous and planar PSCs. In the former one, a mesoporous TiO2 scaffold is incorporated into the cell. Because sizes of the mesopores are typically small compared to wavelengths of visible light, the scaffold barely scatters light. In this work, we propose to periodically structure a porous TiO2 scaffold incorporating pores with diameters comparable to wavelengths of visible light thanks to the use of colloidal crystal templating fabrication method. The resulting TiO2 scaffold filled with perovskite will constitute an opal-like photonic crystal incorporated in the solar cell, which will strongly interact with light. Through Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations, we demonstrate that the photonic crystal induces resonances that can be exploited to modulate light harvesting in the macroporous TiO2 layer. Sunlight absorption by the PSC will be presented and discussed with dependency of pore sizes and number of opal layers. [less ▲]

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