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See detailImpact de différents modes de présentation du sélénium dans la ration de bovins
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in 11èmes Rencontres autour des Recherches sur les Ruminants (2004)

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See detailAnalisis Mineralogico Cuantitativo
Pirard, Eric ULg

in XVI Congreso Geologico Boliviano (2004)

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See detailCushing's disease : very long-term results of transsphenoidal, clinical and genetic studies
Stevenaert, Achille ULg; Perrin, G.; Martin, Didier ULg et al

in 12th International Congress of Endocrinology - Abstract book (2004)

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See detailQuality control of particulate materials through image analysis.
Pirard, Eric ULg

in Optics and Industrial Vision (2004)

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See detailPrise en charge multimodale de la chirurgie abdominale majeure
Kaba, Abdourahmane ULg; Joris, Jean ULg

in La réhabilitation post-opératoire (2004)

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See detailDevelopment of a hydrogel containing GM-CSF to improve the dendritic cells colonisation of HPV+ epithelium
Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Hubert, Pascale ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Proceedings of Eur conference on drug delivery and pharmaceutical technology (2004)

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See detailA new high-order high-frequency integral equation method for the solution of scattering problems. II. Multiple scattering configurations
Bruno, O.; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Reitich, F.

in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics, ACES 2004 (2004)

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See detailDietary aspects of ruminal acidosis
Nguyen, Patrick; Dumon, Henri; Siliart, Brigitte et al

in Proceedings of the ACVIM Forum 2004 (2004)

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See detailA new high-order high-frequency integral equation method for the solution of scattering problems. I. Single scattering configurations
Bruno, O.; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Reitich, F.

in Proceedings of the 20th Annual Review of Progress in Applied Computational Electromagnetics, ACES 2004 (2004)

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See detailShake Table Test and Seismic Performance Evaluation of Bracing Members
Elghazouli, A.; Broderick, B.; Goggins, J. et al

in Proceedings of the 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering (2004)

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See detailCartografía de Minerales Evaporiticos Utilizando Imágenes Satelitales de los Salares de Sud Lipez (Bolivia)
Caceres, Fernando; Ali-Ammar, Hamid; Pirard, Eric ULg

in XVI Congreso Geologico Boliviano (2004)

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See detailMonitoring color alteration of ornamental flagstones using digital image analysis.
Lebrun, Vincent; Toussaint, Caroline; Pirard, Eric ULg

in Prykryl, R. (Ed.) Dimension Stone (2004)

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See detailComment former les usagers ? Réflexions à partir de la diversité des expériences de formation organisées en Belgique
Pochet, Bernard ULg

in Chevillotte, Sylvie (Ed.) Formation à la maîtrise de l'information à l'heure de l'harmonisation européenne : problématiques et perspectives. Actes des rencontres (2004)

Is there specific educational curriculum to information literacy? Which training for our teachers and information professionals? Proving interest of Infomration literacy programs for our students? How to ... [more ▼]

Is there specific educational curriculum to information literacy? Which training for our teachers and information professionals? Proving interest of Infomration literacy programs for our students? How to create a critical attitude in information retrieval? So many questions and others animate the EduDOC group's and led us to observe in detail the IL training activities organized in Belgium. This communication is not intended to answer these questions but rather to generate more questions [less ▲]

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See detailHow can intermodal transport support the logistical strategies of enterprises: a study on the opportunities and bottlenecks
Marchal, Jean ULg; Macharis, Cathy; Vereecken, Laetitia

(2004)

Intermodal freight transport is the movement of goods in one and the same load unit or vehicle by successive modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves when changing modes (European ... [more ▼]

Intermodal freight transport is the movement of goods in one and the same load unit or vehicle by successive modes of transport without handling of the goods themselves when changing modes (European Conference of Ministers of Transport et al. 1997). Altough it has still a small market share compared to road transport, it becomes more and more apparant that intermodal transport transport will play an important role in the future. Intermodal transport is more environmental friendly than road transport (Kreutzberger et al., 2003) and has a positive effect on the congestion problems (Van Schijndel and Dinwoodie, 2000). A third and important positive feature of intermodal transport is that it can easily fit in the supply chain management efforts by the companies. In this paper the missing links and opportunities for the intermodal transportsector are analysed. Also solutions for overcoming these bottlenecks are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evolution of inorganic chlorine above the Jungfraujoch station: an update.
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Duchatelet, Pierre ULg; Zander, Rodolphe ULg et al

in Zerefos, C. S. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 20th Quadrennial Ozone Symposium (2004)

Within the frame of the NDSC, the total vertical column abundances of HCl and ClONO2, by far the two most important inorganic chlorine reservoirs at northern mid-latitudes, have been further monitored ... [more ▼]

Within the frame of the NDSC, the total vertical column abundances of HCl and ClONO2, by far the two most important inorganic chlorine reservoirs at northern mid-latitudes, have been further monitored above the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5ºN, 8.0ºE, 3580m a.s.l.), by analyzing infrared solar absorption spectra recorded with very high-resolution Fourier spectrometers. The mean temporal evolution of the sum of their monthly mean abundance time series indicates that the total stratospheric inorganic chlorine loading (Cly) has decreased slowly (-0.7+/-0.3%/yr, 1-sigma) since it peaked in late 1996, at the limit of being statistically significant at the 2-sigma level. Comparison with model calculations and with the evolution of surface total organic chlorine will also be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe nimbe et le jurème
Brausch, Géraldine ULg

in Brausch, Géraldine; Delruelle, Edouard (Eds.) La droit sans la justice : Actes de la rencontre autour du 'Cap des tempêtes' de L. François (2004)

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See detailLes compétences à la recherche d’équité
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg; Letor, Caroline; Vandenbergh, Vincent

in M. FRENAY & C. MAROY (Ed.) L’école, six ans après le décret « Missions », (2004)

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See detailDéveloppement d'un système de traçabilité génétique chez le porc basé sur le séquençage de régions riches en SNP
China, Bernard; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in 36èmes Journées de la Recherche Porcine (2004)

Traceability is a major concern in food industry. Genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used in the genetic traceability context. Two loci rich in SNPs were sequenced in 96 ... [more ▼]

Traceability is a major concern in food industry. Genetic markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used in the genetic traceability context. Two loci rich in SNPs were sequenced in 96 different individuals. Thirty-two significant SNPs were observed. All tested individuals presented a different genotype. In order to simplify the procedure, a hybrid amplicon joining the two regions of interest was generated. A traceability experiment based on this strategy was successfully performed allowing to identify the right couple « ear-meat ». [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of thermophysical properties of semi-solid steels for thixoforming
Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Rassili, Ahmed ULg; Carton, Marc ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys and Composites (S2P) (2004)

Major challenge for semi-solid processing includes broadening the range of alloys that can be successfully thixoformed and developing alloys specifically for thixoforming. One important parameter is ... [more ▼]

Major challenge for semi-solid processing includes broadening the range of alloys that can be successfully thixoformed and developing alloys specifically for thixoforming. One important parameter is appropriate solidus-liquidus interval. The wider the solidification interval, the wider the processing window. This study is related to the experimental determination of this critical parameter on eight different steel compositions. This parameter was obtained using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. This technique allows to obtain the solid fraction versus temperature. The paper also presents the results of thermophysical properties determination such as thermal diffusivity, heat capacity and thermal conductivity. These properties were measured from room temperature to semi-solid state in one particular steel. The thermal diffusivity was measured using the Laser Flash method and the heat capacity using a DSC calorimeter. The thermal conductivity was obtained by calculation knowing the thermal dilatation measured with a dilatometer. All these measurements were performed for temperatures up to the liquidus. These parameters are difficult to measure but they are important to determine for the conductive heating phase of a semi-solid forming (SSM) process. [less ▲]

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See detailPrédiction du gras intermusculaire du porc Piétrain par l'ultrasonographie en temps réel
Youssao, A. K. I.; Verleyen, Vincent ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg et al

in Viandes & Produits Carnés - Hors série "10èmes journée Sciences du Muscle et Technologies des Viandes" (2004)

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See detailAlbert Henry et la dialectologie
Boutier, Marie-Guy ULg

in Guyaux, André; Wilmet, Marc (Eds.) Hommage à Albert Henry, Actes de la journée du 22 février organisée à la Sorbonne (2004)

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See detailMorphodynamics of the Meuse River and its tributaries in the Ardenne Massif
Petit, François ULg

in Symposium pour la Protection de la Meuse (2004)

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See detailPathologie, leeftijd en geslacht van de olievogels
Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Masure, S.

(2004)

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See detailAn attempt to derive a DEM and Ortho-photo map from hyperspectral data in the high resolution mode (Casi/SWIR)
Devriendt, Dennis; Goossens, Rudi; De Wulf, Alain et al

in Goossens, Rudi (Ed.) Remote Sensing in Transition (2004)

Future Remote Sensing data will include hyperspectral data more and more. This study frames in the preliminary studies to investigate the possibilities of these types of data. In this framework ... [more ▼]

Future Remote Sensing data will include hyperspectral data more and more. This study frames in the preliminary studies to investigate the possibilities of these types of data. In this framework experimental flights were organised by VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research) and OSTC (Federal Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs) on 13th of September 2002 with a Dornier 228 aircraft carrying the CASI/SWIR sensor, over different test sites in Belgium. The flights were done by NERC and VITO and framed in the STEREO-program of OSTC. This paper deals with the “Ghent test site” over a peri-urban area, and focuses on the 3D-geometry of these data. These hyperspectral data are characterised by relief-displacement and differences in relief. These displacements occur in a direction away from the centre of the image. For remotely sensed images this is the direction away from the flight-line. In the monoscopic analysis of such images, these displacements will disturb the interpretation, the classification and the mapping of the image information. These distortions can be compensated for with a DEM. Very often this DEM has to come from an external data source such as laser scanning or aerial photography. However, when hyperspectral data is taken stereoscopically, it is possible to derive a DEM from these stereoscopic hyperspectral images, and so avoiding the cost to purchase an external DEM. To obtain stereoscopic imagery, two images were taken with an overlap of 80% in the so called “metrical mode” i.e. with a high spatial resolution (0.5m) and a lower spectral resolution. A third image was taken in “spectral mode”, for interpretation issues. A DEM and orthophoto were generated from the hyperspectral data by means of digital photogrammetry. A number of Ground Control Points were collected for absolute orientation, by means of DGPS. The geometric precision of the DEM and orthophoto derived from these data are evaluated using DEM and orthophoto derived from aerial pictures on different scales. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental evidence for the action of M. fijiensis toxins on banana photosynthetic apparatus.
Busogoro, J. P.; Etame, J. J.; Harelimana, G. et al

in Banana improvement: cellular, molecular biology, and induced mutations.Proceedings of a meeting held in Leuven, Belgium, 24-28 September 2001 (2004)

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See detailSelenium enriched winter barley for fattening bulls : animal performance and plasma metabolites
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; de Behr, Vanessa; Delobel, Agathe et al

in Proceedings of the British Society of Animal Science (2004)

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See detailQui est la Kourotrophos athénienne ?
Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Dasen, Véronique (Ed.) Naissance et petite enfance dans l'Antiquité, Actes du colloque de Fribourg, 28 novembre-1er décembre 2001 (2004)

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See detailLa dimension "famille de situations" de la notion de compétence: Quelle objectivité? Quelle validité?
Chenu, Florent ULg

in Actes du 17e Colloque de l’Association pour le Développement des Méthodologies d’Evalutaion en Education - Reconnaître et valoriser les acquis de l’expérience. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal, Novembre 2004. (2004)

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See detailL'assurance contre la perte de revenus en Région wallonne
Paris, Catherine ULg

in Lecocq, Pascale (Ed.) Actualité législative en droit immobilier (2004)

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See detailComposite columns to mitigate soft storey in reinforced concrete structures submittes to earthquake.
Plumier, André ULg; Stoychev, L.; Doneux, C.

in Proceedings of the Colloquium recent Advances and New Trends in Structural Design (2004)

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See detailEffect of fertilisation with selenium on plasma selenium in Belgian Blue suckling cows and heifers: first results
Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Coenen, M. et al

in Land use systems in grassland dominated regions, 20th General Meeting of the European Grassland Federation (2004)

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See detailRéflexion sur les obstacles et les paradoxes d'une évaluation des compétences professionnelles
Chenu, Florent ULg

in Actes du 3e congrès des chercheurs en éducation, Espace Flagey, Bruxelles, Mai 2004. (2004)

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See detailDéficience du système glutathion chez le cheval de course
De Moffarts, Brieuc; Kirschvink, N.; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in 30ème Journée de la Recherche Equine, Les Haras Nationaux (2004)

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See detailMineralogical characteristics of copper flotation products from Cayeli mine, Turkey and their influence to mineral processing
Strashimirov, S.; Dobrev, S.; Stamenov, S. et al

in Annual of the University of Mining and Geology, Sofia, 47, I, 147-153 (2004)

The paper presents mineralogical characteristics and pecularities of minerals distribution in products from Cu cycle of clastic ore mineral processing in Cayeli concentrator, Turkey. Special attention has ... [more ▼]

The paper presents mineralogical characteristics and pecularities of minerals distribution in products from Cu cycle of clastic ore mineral processing in Cayeli concentrator, Turkey. Special attention has been drawn to the mineralogical pecularities of sphalerite. The study has covered 16 samples from Cu flotation feed, Cu rougher concentrate, Cu final concentrate and tailing, each sieved in 4 granulometric classes. Significant quantity of sphalerite charactarized by higher amount of Cu and Fe as isomorphic impurities or extemely fine crystals of chalcopyrite are present in the Cu concentrate. Based on the performed studies, an improvement in the processing circuit has been suggested - especially in the grinding and hydrocycloning circuits. [less ▲]

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See detailFace au spectre de la pénurie, une nécessaire revalorisation objective et subjective d'une profession enseignante en quête d'elle-même
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Jaspar, Steve ULg; Mathieu, Cédric et al

in Actes du 3e congrès des chercheurs en éducation, Bruxelles, 16 mars 2004 (2004)

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See detailInsert'Prof : pour un dispositif de formation favorisant une insertion réussie dans la vie professionnelle
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Jardon, Dorothée; Jaspar, Steve ULg et al

in Actes du 3e congrès des chercheurs en éducation, Bruxelles, 16 mars 2004 (2004)

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See detailPromotion des entrepreneurs ruraux en Asie du Sud-Est
Dogot, Thomas ULg; Duquesne, Brigitte ULg; Pham Van Bien et al

in Colloque international AIEA2 et Ateliers de la SCAE (Association internationale d’économie alimentaire et agro-industrielle, Société canadienne d’agroéconomie) : actes du colloque (2004)

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See detailS'engager dans la lecture : un investissement au service des compétences
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Actes du 3e congrès des chercheurs en éducation, Bruxelles, 16-17 mars 2004 (2004)

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See detailWhich metrics to assess and compare the quality of image fusion products ?
Cornet, Yves ULg; Binard, Marc ULg

in New Strategies for European Remote Sensing (2004)

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See detailControl of listeria monocytogenes in dairy farms
Belleflamme, Christel ULg; Di Tanna, Sybille ULg; Anceau, Christine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the Ninth Conference on Food Microbiology (2004)

- Performed in Walloon farms in contact with the PDR project - L. monocytogenes characterised by its ubiquity - Numerous sources of contaminations : environment, cross-contaminations, post-contaminations ... [more ▼]

- Performed in Walloon farms in contact with the PDR project - L. monocytogenes characterised by its ubiquity - Numerous sources of contaminations : environment, cross-contaminations, post-contaminations, mastitis,… [less ▲]

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See detailImprovements of an iterative and staggered Approach for a Model of Mixed Lubrication in Cold Rolling
STEPHANY; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Proceedings of NUMIFORM 2004, The 8th International Conference on Numerical Methods in Industrial Forming Processes: Materials processing and design. Modeling, Simulation and Applications (2004)

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See detailThermomechanical Modeling at finite strains : updated EAS and SRI finite element formalisms
ADAM, L.; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Proceedings of PACAM VIII, eigth Pan American Congress of Applied Mechanics (2004)

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See detailModeling and experimental validation of an industrial sheet metal forming process
CELENTANO, D.; GARCIA, C.; FLORES, F. et al

in Computational Mechanics, WCCM VI (2004)

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See detailModeling the elastic-plastic behavior of a rotor support structure under a large unbalance: numerical simulations
Stainier, Laurent ULg; BUI, Q. V.; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Proceedings of ISMA 2004, International Conference on Noise & Vibration Engineering (2004)

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See detailFire Modelling
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in COST C12, Improvement of Buildings' Structural Quality by New Technologies, Outcome of the Cooperative Activities (2004)

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See detailMotivation et démotivation : les élèves ont la parole
Chenu, Florent ULg

in Actes du 3e congrès des chercheurs en éducation, Espace Flagey, Bruxelles, Mai 2004. (2004)

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See detailDevelopment of in vitro techniques for the elimination of Cucumber Mosaic Virus from banana (Musa spp.).
Helliot, B.; Panis, B.; Hernandez, R. et al

in Banana improvement: cellular, molecular biology, and induced mutations.Proceedings of a meeting held in Leuven, Belgium, 24-28 September 2001 (2004)

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See detailModelling of the wave propagation, the coastal currents and the induced topographic changes
Fraikin, Catherine; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 9th International Symposium on River Sedimentation (2004)

This paper models the sea bottom evolution. This model is built up on three main parts. The first one describes the wave propagation, taking simultaneously into account the refraction, the diffraction and ... [more ▼]

This paper models the sea bottom evolution. This model is built up on three main parts. The first one describes the wave propagation, taking simultaneously into account the refraction, the diffraction and the reflection but also the energy dissipation caused by wave breaking. This model is solved by the numerical method of the finite volumes, using an iterative resolution (the GMRES method). Several validations of this model have been carried out on many examples such as harbors of various geometries and depths, beaches,… The wave induced currents are computed in the second part based on the concept of the radiation stresses describing the excess of the flux momentum caused by the waves. A model based on the complete Navier-Stokes equations integrated on the depth and associated with appropriated forcing and friction terms is used. This model is computed as an update of WOLF software (HACH, ULg) and is applied to some examples such as beaches with or without coastal structures. Finally, the third part is about the sediment transport. It exhibits the topographic modifications of the coastal sea bottom caused by the waves and their currents. A loop execution of these three models ends this work. It gives us an operational tool to describe the topographic evolution of the coastal areas caused by the incident waves, the induced currents and then the resulting sediment transport, fulfilling the objectives of this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to manage obesity in growing giant dogs ?
Lhoest, Estelle; Jeusette, Isabelle; Claeys, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 8th ESVCN International Conference (2004)

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See detailDistribution of the forces in a bolted connection under shear loading
Pietrapertosa, C.; Piraprez, E.; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Connections (2004)

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See detailMédecine grecque et papyrologie : bilan et perspectives
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Leclant, Jean; Jouanna, Jacques (Eds.) Actes du XIVe Colloque de la Villa grecque Kérylos "La Médecine grecque antique" organisé à Beaulieu-sur-mer, les 10 et 11 octobre 2003 (2004)

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See detailA three-month course of depot octreotide in the treatment of Graves' orbitopathy : clinical results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study
Wémeau, J. L.; Beckers, Albert ULg; Caron, P. et al

in 12th International Congress of Endocrinology - Abstract book (2004)

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See detailApproaching the true prevalence of pituitary tumors
Beckers, Albert ULg; Ciccarelli, A.; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in 12th International Congress of Endocrinology - Abstract book (2004)

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See detailUne langue entre soi
Servais, Christine ULg

in Exils : théorie, histoire, figures, pratiques (2004)

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See detailInverse analysis on in situ geotechnical measurement using a genetic algorithm
Malécot, Yann; Levasseur, Séverine ULg; Boulon, Marc et al

in Pande, G. N.; Pietruszczak, S. (Eds.) Numerical Models in Geomechanics (2004)

This paper is dedicated to the identification of constitutive parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model from in situ measurements. A general definition of an objective function is proposed. A ... [more ▼]

This paper is dedicated to the identification of constitutive parameters of the Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model from in situ measurements. A general definition of an objective function is proposed. A direct approach of inverse analysis is used to identify the shear modulus and the friction angle in four different situations. The first two examples deal with a “numerical” and with a real pressuremeter curve. A difficult convergence and a strong non unicity of solution is observed, which is classical in inverse analysis (ill posed problems). In a second stage, the horizontal displacements related to two excavation problems are used for identifying the two mechanical parameters. A clear minimum of the objective function is detected, giving a unique solution. The reasons of these differences are discussed and some ways of improving the interpretation of the pressuremeter test results are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailConsidérations théoriques et pratiques sur la portée des arrêts de la Cour d’arbitrage
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg; Tulkens, François

in La Cour d’arbitrage, un juge comme les autres ?, Actes du colloque organisé le 28 mai 2004 par la Faculté de droit de l’Université de Liège (Service de droit constitutionnel) et la Conférence libre du Jeune Barreau de Liège (2004)

This articles questions about the effects of the decisions of the Belgian constitutional court.

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See detailLe projet de plate-forme électronique de construction et de gestion qualité de tests standardisés e-C&QCST
Gilles, Jean-Luc ULg; Piette, Sylvie-Anne ULg; Detroz, Pascal ULg et al

in Arzola, S. (Ed.) World education for educational research (WAER) : XIV congreso mundial de ciencias de la educacion : educatores para una nueva cultura : summary of papers abstracts (2004)

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See detailShould the safety and ethical evaluation of GMOs be based on the process or on the product of the novel gene combination?
du Jardin, Patrick ULg

in du Jardin, Patrick (Ed.) Science, Ethics & Society - 5th Congress of the European Society for Agricultural and Food Ethics (2004)

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See detailA generic approach for image classification based on decision tree ensembles and local sub-windows
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg; Piater, Justus ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 6th Asian Conference on Computer Vision (2004)

A novel and generic approach for image classification is presented. The method operates directly on pixel values and does not require feature extraction. It combines a simple local sub-window extraction ... [more ▼]

A novel and generic approach for image classification is presented. The method operates directly on pixel values and does not require feature extraction. It combines a simple local sub-window extraction technique with induction of ensembles of extremely randomized decision trees. We report results on four well known and publicly available datasets corresponding to representative applications of image classification problems: handwritten digits (MNIST), faces (ORL), 3D objects (COIL-100), and textures (OUTEX). A comparison with studies from the computer vision literature shows that our method is competitive with the state of the art, an interesting result considering its generality and conceptual simplicity. Further experiments are carried out on the COIL-100 dataset to evaluate the robustness of the learned models to rotation, scaling, or occlusion of test images. These preliminary results are very encouraging [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in carcass and meat composition during the finishing of Belgian Blue double-muscled cull cows
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg; Dufrasne, Isabelle ULg; Istasse, Louis ULg et al

in Book of absracts of the 55th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production (2004)

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See detailConcrete surface treatments quantification by means of mechanical profilometry
Courard, Luc ULg; Garbacz, Andrzej; Gorka, M.

in Maultzsch, M. (Ed.) Proceedings of the 11th International Congress on Polymers in Concrete ICPIC 2004 (2004)

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlock with repair material. Surface mechanical morphometry is based on the measurement of surface profile ... [more ▼]

Existing concrete surfaces need to be roughened to a profile necessary to achieve mechanical interlock with repair material. Surface mechanical morphometry is based on the measurement of surface profile - profilometry - which can be extended to 3D representation with surfometry by means of a stylus registering the profile. Profilometry and surfometry analysis were realized on concrete after different surface treatments (grinding, sandblasting, shotblasting, hand- and mechanical milling). The profile has been quantified by means of statistical and amplitude parameters calculated from the waviness (lower frequencies) and the roughness (higher frequencies) profiles of the surface. Bearing ratio and Abbott's curve observations are also very useful to characterise surface profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the O(1) Solution of Multiple-Scattering Problems
Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Bruno, O.; Reitich, F.

in Proceedings of the 11th IEEE Conference on Electromagnetic Field Computation (CEFC'2004) (2004)

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See detailMonde sauvage et monde civilisé dans le mythe : le cas d'Orion
Renaud, Jean-Michel ULg

in Charpentier, Marie-Claude (Ed.) Les espaces du sauvage dans le monde antique. Approches et définitions (2004)

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See detailCharacterisation of a novel topical nanoemulsion vehicle with spreading properties
Roland, Isabelle ULg; Gillard, Patricia ULg; Delattre, Luc ULg et al

in Proceedings of Eur conference on drug delivery and pharmaceutical technology (2004)

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See detailAnalyse explicative des influences observables de la reconnaissance et de la validation des compétences : le cas du PMTIC.
Pierrard, Jean-François; Brundseaux, Marie-France ULg; Georges, François ULg et al

in L'évaluation des compétences: entre reconnaissance et validation des acquis de l'expérience (2004)

L’article présente une réflexion théorique argumentée sur le manque de justifications empiriquement fondées de la mise en place de la reconnaissance et de la Validation des Acquis de l’Expérience et sur ... [more ▼]

L’article présente une réflexion théorique argumentée sur le manque de justifications empiriquement fondées de la mise en place de la reconnaissance et de la Validation des Acquis de l’Expérience et sur les effets observables que celle-ci est censée avoir sur tous ceux et toutes celles qui en bénéficient. Pour étoffer la réflexion théorique, l’article présente, en outre, les résultats provisoires d’une étude de terrain réalisée, en Belgique francophone, sur les acteurs du Plan Mobilisateur aux Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication (PMTIC) ; acteurs qui reçoivent, chacun à leur échelon, la reconnaissance et la validation de leurs compétences par l’acteur de l’échelon supérieur. [less ▲]

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See detailAn immunohistochemical study of eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy in dogs.
Peeters, Dominique ULg; Day, M. J.; Clercx, Cécile ULg

in Proceedings of the 14th Annual Congress of the ECVIM-CA (2004)

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See detailFacies and environments of the Middle Frasnian platform in Belgium
Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Abstract book - 23th IAS meeting, Coimbra, Portugal (2004)

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See detailLa philosophie de la réparation et le système pénal", Actes du Forum « La justice réparatrice à l’épreuve du carcéral
Dubois, Christophe ULg

in Actes du colloque "La justice réparatrice à l'épreuve du carcéral" (2004)

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See detailLate Frasnian Atrypida (Brachiopoda) from the Ardenne shelf (southern Belgium)
Mottequin, Bernard ULg

in Anonymous (Ed.) Abstracts with programme of the 48th Palaeontological Association Annual Meeting (2004)

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See detailRenormalization in effective theories: Prescriptions for kaon-nucleon resonance parameters
Semenov-Tyan-Shanskiy, Kirill ULg

in Lipatov, L.; Kim, V. (Eds.) Proceedings of First International Workshop, Hadron Structure and QCD, from low to high energies, Repino, St. Petersburg, Russia, 18-22 May 2004 (2004)

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See detailRecent state of the Aral sea from regular satellite observations. 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly
Stanichny, Sergey ULg; Davidov, A.; Djenidi, Salim ULg et al

in 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2004)

The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea ... [more ▼]

The Aral Sea disaster is one of the most significant examples of ecological catastrophe caused by mismanagement of water resources. Aral sea level dropped on 22 meters for the last 35 years. The sea separated in to two independent parts , the Large Sea(Southern) and the Small Sea (Northern), loosing more than 90% of its original water masses. After the collapse of the former Soviet Union, satellite retrieved data became the main source of information on this perishing system. Regular observations from AVHRR, SeaWiFS, MODIS and ASTER satellite sensors were used for our investigations. Sea surface temperature (SST) data of the AVHRR sensor and digital bottom map topography were used for sea level drop calculations. The Sea level defined as the digital map isobate corresponds quite well to the satellite derived coastline for the Eastern part of the Large Sea with a bottom slope of ˜ 0.00015. For the period 1989-2002 the sea level of the Large Sea dropped on 9.2 meters. However in 2003 the sea level remained stable. This stabilisation was due to an increase of water output of the rivers Amu--Darya and Syr-Darya in 2003. High resolution ASTER data showed that the main amount of Syr-Darya waters is discharged into the Large Sea. The dried bottom area now covers more than 45000 km2. On the base of AVHRR-SST data the temperature regime for different parts of the Aral Sea was calculated for the years 2002-2003. The annual amplitude of the SST variation reaches 37° C for the open waters. The observed minimum freezing point was -7° C due to very high salinity. Estimations from satellite retrieved freezing points show an increase of salinity up to 10% in the Eastern part of the Large Sea. It is almost paradox that on satellite images the ice appears warmer than the water. Strong variations of the water temperature (up to 5° C) within a few days could be observed from April to August and could be related to wind induced mixing. SeaWiFS ocean colour data were used for the investigation of the optical properties of the water in different parts of the Aral Sea for the years 2002-2003. A significant relation of optical properties with wind and temperature was obtained. Strong changes of the thermal regimes of the Sea can cause variations in local climatic conditions: The analysis of AVHRR NDVI - data for the surrounding areas demonstrated a shift in the annual vegetation cycle. In addition phenomena like: salt storms, wind driven tides, sources of groundwater, eddies and frontal structures as well as ice coverage of the Aral Sea were demonstrated on satellite images. [less ▲]

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See detailGaseous emissions in the raising of weaned pigs on fully slatted floor or on straw-bases deep litter
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Clement, G.; Madec, F. (Eds.) Proceedings of the in- between congress of the International Society for Animal Hygiene (2004)

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See detailThe nitrogen isotope ratio in a few Oort Cloud comets
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Arpigny, Claude ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2004)

In the past few years, high-resolution (R ˜ 70,000) and high quality spectra of the CN B^2Sigma^+ - X^2Sigma^+ (0,0) band (at 388 nm) of several Oort Could comets have been collected by our team in ... [more ▼]

In the past few years, high-resolution (R ˜ 70,000) and high quality spectra of the CN B^2Sigma^+ - X^2Sigma^+ (0,0) band (at 388 nm) of several Oort Could comets have been collected by our team in different observatories and have allowed the first optical detections of [SUP]12[/SUP]C[SUP]15[/SUP]N. Observations with first class spectrographs on large 8m telescopes, such as UVES at the ESO VLT, have shown that such very efficient equipment are able to provide isotopic ratios for comets as faint as m_r ˜ 9 (heliocentric magnitude), opening up the possibility of carrying out a systematic analysis over a significant sample of comets. While the measured [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C isotope ratios in the different comets are in good agreement with the Solar system value (89), the derived [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N ratios are only about half the value in Earth's atmosphere (272), indicating an excess of [SUP]15[/SUP]N by a factor of about 2 with respect to the "cosmic" value. It is striking to note that the optical determinations of [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N in the different comets are consistent with each other (140 � 30), but not with the ratios derived for comet Hale-Bopp from sub-millimeter measurements on HCN, generally believed to be the main parent of CN. This discrepancy could indicate the existence of (an) other unknown parent(s) of CN, with an even higher [SUP]15[/SUP]N excess. Organic compounds like those found in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) are good candidates. Further determinations from HCN are now badly needed in other comets. Obtaining the value of the N isotopic ratio in Jupiter-family short-period comets would be of great significance in view of their presumed different place of birth. Much is also expected in this respect, as in many others, from several space missions such as Deep Impact, Stardust, and Rosetta. [less ▲]

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See detailDrying up of a natural spring for ensuring stability of an artificial slope: is it sustainable development ?
Dachy, Marie; Sage, Sandrine; Dassargues, Alain ULg

in Hack, R.; Azzam, R.; Charlier, Robert (Eds.) Engineering geology for infrastructure planning in Europe (2004)

Near a small city of the Belgian ‘Ardennes’ (East of Belgium), modification of a natural slope for extension of industrial activities has required an extensive drainage in a weathered zone composed of ... [more ▼]

Near a small city of the Belgian ‘Ardennes’ (East of Belgium), modification of a natural slope for extension of industrial activities has required an extensive drainage in a weathered zone composed of colluvium and weathered claystones and quartzites. After a few days, the drain at the foot of the artificial slope was producing about 1000 m3/day while a natural spring located at a 200 m distance on the hillside was completely dried up. This spring was used for drinking water by the local community. A shallow geophysical prospection by refraction seismics and 2D geoelectrical tomography, associated to geological, morphostructural and hydrogeological observations have lead to a clear understanding of (1) the spring occurrence; (2) the feeding conditions of the spring and consequently (3) the ‘lateral’ hydraulic impact of the drain. In the hill, the bedrock is changing from quartzites (uphill) to claystones (downhill) inducing changes in hydraulic conductivity and thickness of the overlying weathered zone. On the basis of these hydrogeological conditions, associated to the specific topographic conditions, different possible remediation schemas have been proposed to the decision makers. Unfortunately, the full restoration of the natural spring appears to be one of the most technically and financially difficult option …while it is surely the most suitable in the name of a sustainable development. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based FTIR measurements of O3- and climate-related gases in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere
De Mazière, M.; Barret, B.; Vigouroux, C. et al

in Zerefos, C. S. (Ed.) Proceedings Quadrennial Ozone Symposium (2004)

In the frame of the EC project UFTIR (Time series of Upper Free Troposphere observations from a European ground-based FTIR network), a common strategy for an optimal determination of the chemical ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the EC project UFTIR (Time series of Upper Free Troposphere observations from a European ground-based FTIR network), a common strategy for an optimal determination of the chemical composition in the free troposphere and lower stratosphere with ground-based Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers is being developed. The project focuses on 6 target species that are O3, CO, CH4, N2O, C2H6 and CHClF2 (HCFC-22). The strategy consists in selecting the most appropriate parameters to retrieve vertical concentration profiles from solar FTIR spectra. Among the important parameters are the spectral microwindows: they have been optimised to maximise the information content and to minimize the influence of poorly known spectroscopic data and interfering species. [less ▲]

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See detailLe non-lieu de l'exil dans le cinéma de Belgique francophone
Mélon, Marc-Emmanuel ULg

in Bajomée, Danielle; Mabrour, Abdelouahed (Eds.) Exils imaginaires et exils réels dans le domaine francophone. Théorie, histoire, figures, pratiques (2004)

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See detailSpécificités cardiorespiratoires des ânes
Delvaux, Véronique ULg; Kirschvink, N.; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Proceedings: Congrès de l'Association Vétérinaire Equine Française (AVEF) (2004)

A group of 22 donkeys underwent a series of non-invasive cardiorespiratory tests in order to establish the reference standards for this species and compare the results with those for horses. For ... [more ▼]

A group of 22 donkeys underwent a series of non-invasive cardiorespiratory tests in order to establish the reference standards for this species and compare the results with those for horses. For particular tests (haematology, measurement of arterial blood gases, electrocardiogram width phonocardiogram, thoracic radiographs, cardiac echocardiography), no major différences were found. However, the mechanical ventilation parameters differed from those for horses and were similar to those for food-producing animals (cattle). The conformation of the pharynx and larynx is slightly différent to that of horses making it more difficult to pass an endoscope through this area. The differencial leukocyte count from tracheal lavage includes a number of epithelial cells, and a higher percentage of eosinophils and neutrophils for donkeys compared to horses. These similarities and différences between donkeys and horses should be taken into account when performing ancillary tests. [less ▲]

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See detailThe mechanobiology of tissue differentiation around immediately loaded implants: a bone chamber experiment
Geris, Liesbet ULg; Van Oosterwyck, Hans; Duyck, Joke et al

in Proceedings of the 14th conference of the European Society of Biomechanics (2004)

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See detailA multi-Agent System for Architectural Sketches Interpretation
Juchmes, Roland ULg; Leclercq, Pierre ULg; Azar, Sleiman

in Hugues, John F.; Jorge, Joaquim A. (Eds.) Eurographics Workshop on Sketch-Based Interfaces and Modeling (2004)

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See detailElaboration d’une typologie hydro-géomorphologique de cours d’eau dans l’Euregio Meuse-Rhin
Hallot, Eric ULg; Schmitt, L.; Mols, J. et al

in Mosella - XXIX, 3-4 (2004)

This paper shows the first results of a method of river hydro-geomorphological typology applied on the Euregio Maas-Rhine. This is based on non factorial multivariate analysis (clusters) of only ... [more ▼]

This paper shows the first results of a method of river hydro-geomorphological typology applied on the Euregio Maas-Rhine. This is based on non factorial multivariate analysis (clusters) of only quantitative data automatically extracted from DEM or obtained by field measurements with a simplified protocol. The regional differentiation of variables allows the automatic characterization of rivers especially with the specific stream power. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect estimation of sieve size distributions from 2-D image analysis of sand particles
Pirard, Eric ULg; Vergara, Nicolas; Chapeau, Vincent

in Proceedings PARTEC 2004 (2004)

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See detailRecherches en technologies de l'éducation
Denis, Brigitte ULg

in 2e rencontre des chercheurs en éducation (ABCéduc) (2004)

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See detailDes socles de compétences à la mise en place d'une démarche expérimentale à l'école primaire : intervention en formation initiale des enseignants
Hindryckx, Marie-Noëlle ULg; Stegen, Pierre; Graftiau, Marie-Christine et al

in Herphelin, Martine (Ed.) Actes du troisième congrès des chercheurs en éducation : (re)trouver le plaisir d'enseigner et d 'apprendre; construire savoirs et compétences (2004)

Dans le cadre de ce projet de recherche-action, une collaboration étroite entre deux services universitaires de Liège (Service de Didactique générale , faculté de Psychopédagogie et service de Chimie ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre de ce projet de recherche-action, une collaboration étroite entre deux services universitaires de Liège (Service de Didactique générale , faculté de Psychopédagogie et service de Chimie organique - faculté des Sciences) et la Haute École Charlemagne (Liège et Huy) s’est mise en place pendant trois ans. La question centrale qui a guidé le travail durant ces trois années est : « Comment incorporer, dans le curriculum de formation des futurs instituteurs, des mises en situation favorisant le développement de leur capacité à construire des activités d’apprentissages faisant intervenir des démarches expérimentales telles que présentées dans le document « Socles de compétences » ? ». L’objet de la collaboration entre les différents partenaires concernés a été la construction d’un outil de formation prenant place dans les ateliers de formation professionnelle (AFP) des futurs enseignants. Cet outil de formation a pris la forme d’un module qui s’est articulé sur une démarche en trois temps : • Faire vivre aux futurs enseignants une démarche de recherche expérimentale concrète, au départ d’une énigme scientifique à leur niveau ; • Prendre du recul face au vécu pour faire identifier par les stagiaires les fondements didactiques de la démarche de formation et prolonger cette réflexion métacognitive par des moments de théorisation sur les contenus visés ; • Construire ensemble des séquences de leçons mettant en place une démarche expérimentale et les tester dans des classes du primaire Ce dispositif a été testé à cinq reprises, dans des situations différentes, à la Haute École Charlemagne dans les implantations de Liège et de Huy. Un document en cinq volumes constitue le rapport final qui clôture les trois années de recherche pour l’AGERS. Il est construit comme un outil destiné aux enseignants des Hautes Ecoles (psychopédagogues et/ou professeur de sciences) ainsi qu’aux maîtres de formation pratique. [less ▲]

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See detailArticuler présence et distance pour former aux technologies de l'éducation et de la formation. Communication présentée au Colloque TICE Méditérannée, Nice
Denis, Brigitte ULg; Vandeput, Etienne ULg

in Actes du Colloque TICE Méditerranée : « L'humain dans l'enseignement en ligne » (2004)

For five years, a postgraduate program in Educational and Training Technology has been developed by both Universities of Liège and Namur (Belgium). This program addresses already graduated adults having a ... [more ▼]

For five years, a postgraduate program in Educational and Training Technology has been developed by both Universities of Liège and Namur (Belgium). This program addresses already graduated adults having a training background. Depending on his/her training experience and a personnal project, the participant has the opportunity of developing different competencies profiles like: educational designer, designer and manager of training systems integrating ICT, e-tutor or trainer in e-learning environments, designer and producer of information or learning multimedia products. The plan of action articulates face-to-face and distance activities. It is based on several principles like definition and follow-up of a personal learning project, clarification of the actors’ roles, systematical use of technologies, active pedagogical methods and quality process. The authors present a series of scenarios including several types of distance activities. On the one hand, they illustrate these activities, insisting on their target goals, their meaning and usefulness, their development and their evaluation criteria. On the other hand, they discuss the organization of face-toface, blended or distance activities taking into account different sides of a learning system in order to stimulate the thought of designers and animators of such learning environments. [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioural impact of food presentation: How to find an ideal number od weaned pigs per feeding place?
Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Desiron, Alain et al

in Kirkwood, J. K.; Roberts, E. A.; Vickery, S. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Universities Federation for Animal Welfare (2004)

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See detailLingopti project: semi-continuous casting process of copper-nickel alloys
Pecquet, Etienne ULg; Volles, Ralf; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Theoritical and Applied Mechanics (2004)

The following text deals with casting of copper-nickel alloys. They are high added values materials. The research contains two main parts. Laboratory tests (completed with bibliography) that provide ... [more ▼]

The following text deals with casting of copper-nickel alloys. They are high added values materials. The research contains two main parts. Laboratory tests (completed with bibliography) that provide thermal and mechanical properties of the ingot and the mould but also heat transfer coefficients between the ingot and its environment (mould, air and water). These parameters are required in the second part : development and validation of numerical modelization by the finite element method to optimise the industrial process. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of simple cheating in application-level multicast
Mathy, Laurent ULg; Blundell, N.; Roca, V. et al

in INFOCOM 2004. Twenty-third AnnualJoint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (2004)

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See detailLes contrats. Le contrat d'entreprise et la loi Breyne
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Chroniques du droit à l'usage du notariat (2004)

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See detailMarble classification using scale spaces
Dislaire, Godefroid; Pirard, Eric ULg; Vanrell, Maria

in Prykryl, R. (Ed.) Dimension Stone (2004)

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See detailAdipocyte fatty acid-binding protein expression and mitochondrial activity as indicators of intramuscular fat content in young bulls
Barnola, I.; Hocquette, J. F.; Jurie, C. et al

in Book of Abstracts of the 55th Annual Meeting of the European Association for Animal Production (2004)

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See detailNew trends in flood risk analysis: working with 2D flow models, laser DEM and a GIS environment
Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Greco, M.; Carravetta, A.; Della Morte, R. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Fluvial Hydraulics: River Flow 2004 (2004)

This paper outlines the integration of new and accurate laser DEM into the determination of floodplains. Global and robust GIS environment is absolutely necessary to manage this very large amounts of ... [more ▼]

This paper outlines the integration of new and accurate laser DEM into the determination of floodplains. Global and robust GIS environment is absolutely necessary to manage this very large amounts of topographic data. The development and interaction of 2D flow models, simplified or not, ensures to offer more accurate and flexible physically based tools to the decision-makers. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic anatomy of a meteor with the Very Large Telescope (ESO)
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Jenniskens, P.; Laux, C. O. et al

in 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly (2004)

A meteor spectrum in the range 637 - 1050 nm was recorded serendipitously at the ESO Very Large Telescope during a long exposure in long-slit spectroscopic mode with FORS1. The meteor crossed the narrow 1 ... [more ▼]

A meteor spectrum in the range 637 - 1050 nm was recorded serendipitously at the ESO Very Large Telescope during a long exposure in long-slit spectroscopic mode with FORS1. The meteor crossed the narrow 1" x 7' slit during normal service mode operation on May 12, 2002. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of a spatially resolved spectrum across a meteor trail. The trail is wider than expected and the plasma excitation temperature varies only from about 4,300 to 4,365 K across the trail, based on the ratio of atomic and molecular nitrogen emissions. The observed width could originate from a range of fragments that have spread significantly at the time of the observation. Finally, carbon atom emission is not detected in the relatively unexplored range above 900 nm. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural damage diagnosis under changing environmental conditions
Yan, A. M.; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; De Boe, Pascal et al

in 7th International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control, Saint Louis, 2004 (2004)

A method is proposed to perform structural health monitoring under varying environmental and operational conditions. The method is based on principal component analysis (PCA) applied to a data set ... [more ▼]

A method is proposed to perform structural health monitoring under varying environmental and operational conditions. The method is based on principal component analysis (PCA) applied to a data set containing vibration characteristics identified during the monitoring of the structure. The advantage of the method is that it does not require the measurement of environmental parameters that are taken into account as embedded variables. As the influence of environmental effects may be effectively eliminated, the residual error of the PCA prediction model remains small if the structure is healthy, and increases significantly when structural damage occurs. Novelty analysis on the residual errors provides a statistical indication of damage. The PCA-based damage detection method is illustrated using experimental data. It will also be shown that when the relationship between the vibration characteristics becomes nonlinear, PCA is advantageously replaced by one of its nonlinear generalizations. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle(s) conception(s) de la motivation dans le sillage du décret Missions ? Le cas des programmes de français
Dufays, Jean-Louis; Lucchini, Silvia ULg

in Actes du 3ème Congrès des chercheurs en éducation. (Re)trouver le plaisir d’enseigner et d’apprendre – Construire savoirs et compétences (2004)

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See detailProposition d’une méthode de typologie hydro-géomorphologique des cours d’eau et tes sur un sous-bassin du Rhône (Bassin de l’Yzeron).
Schmitt, Laurent; Valette, L.; Valin, K. et al

in MOSELLA, XXIX (3-4) (2004)

Proposal of a method of hydro-geomorphological typology of rivers and test of a sub-basin of the Rhône River (Yzeron basin). The paper proposes a hydro-geomorphological typology method of watercourses ... [more ▼]

Proposal of a method of hydro-geomorphological typology of rivers and test of a sub-basin of the Rhône River (Yzeron basin). The paper proposes a hydro-geomorphological typology method of watercourses that might potentially be used in western Europe. The method was tested in the Yzeron basin (France). Field data were collected and analysed by multivariate statistics. Statistical results were consistent with the results of the typology model. Some recommendations are also made for the future development of automatic methods of characterization-sectorization of rivers. [less ▲]

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