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See detailHandling Intra-Household Correlations in Modeling Travel: A Comparison of Hierarchical (Random Effect) Models and Marginal (GEE) Models
Cools, Mario ULiege; Moons, Elke

in Proceedings of the 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (2016)

In this paper, the necessity for treating intra-household correlation is investigated by analyzing two travel behavior indices, i.e. travel time and travel distance, for three important travel motives ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the necessity for treating intra-household correlation is investigated by analyzing two travel behavior indices, i.e. travel time and travel distance, for three important travel motives (commuting, shopping, and leisure). Data stemming from the 2010 Belgian National Household Travel Survey are used in the analysis. Two model approaches that accommodate for intra-household correlation are compared, namely the generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) and GEE model approach. Both model approaches show that high levels of intra-household correlation are present, and therefore the use of models that take into account intra-household correlation, is strongly recommend. Results indicate that this requirement is the most urgent for non-commuting trips. Moreover, the results show that GLMM and GEE yield comparable estimates in the case of normally distributed data. Furthermore, evidence was provided that the more the estimates of the intra-household correlation provided by the two approaches differ, the less the homogeneity of the parameters is assured. In this regard, if one has to choose between the GLMM and GEE methodology, especially the negative consequences of choosing an inappropriate covariance model in the case of a GLMM model favor the selection of the GEE methodology. Further research is needed to compare the two approaches in the context of non-normally distributed travel behavior data. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the effect of traveler's nationality on daily travel time expenditure using Zero-Inflated Negative Binomial Regression models: results from the Belgian national household travel survey.
Eftekhar, Hamed ULiege; Creemers, Lieve; Cools, Mario ULiege

in Proceedings of the 95th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board (2016)

In this paper, the effect of traveler's nationality on daily travel time expenditure is assessed using data stemming from the 2010 Belgian national household travel survey. In particular, different (zero ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the effect of traveler's nationality on daily travel time expenditure is assessed using data stemming from the 2010 Belgian national household travel survey. In particular, different (zero-inflated) negative binomial models were estimated to isolate the effect of nationality, after controlling for other contributing factors such as socio-demographics, residential characteristics, transport options and temporal characteristics. The results indicate that, even if one controls for a series of other influencing factors, nationality plays a significant role in differences in travel time expenditure. This finding is especially relevant in the development of policy packages that are targeted to tackle social inequalities. From a methodological perspective, different methodological options, i.e. two weighting schemes and two bootstrap solutions, were presented to provide sufficient support for the conclusions. In order to generalize the results in further studies, an oversampling of travelers with a different nationality is strongly recommended. Future research should focus more on the underlying psychological constructs of why ethnic and cultural differences persist, even if one accounts for other determinants. [less ▲]

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See detailMethod for detecting interest points in images using angular signatures
Grogna, David ULiege; Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULiege; Verly, Jacques ULiege

in IEEE Xplore Digital Library (2016)

We present an innovative method for detecting interest points (IPs) in grayscale and color images. It is based on the use of angular signatures (ASs), produced by spinning, at each pixel in the image, an ... [more ▼]

We present an innovative method for detecting interest points (IPs) in grayscale and color images. It is based on the use of angular signatures (ASs), produced by spinning, at each pixel in the image, an "x-tapered, y-derivative, half-Gaussian kernel" in discrete angular steps. By exploiting the AS(s) produced at each pixel, it automatically "classifies" the pixel as being an IP or not. We present preliminary results on synthetic grayscale and real color 2D images, and these confirm the potential value of the method. It can easily be extended from grayscale and color images to images with any number of components, as well as to 3D volumetric images and images on grids of higher dimensionality. It is useful for stereo matching and video tracking. [less ▲]

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See detailLes documents officiels romains d’époque républicaine et du Principat d’Auguste
Famerie, Etienne ULiege

in Pierangelo Buongirno (Ed.) Texte regenerieren, Kontexte rekonstruieren (2016)

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See detailThe syntax-semantics Interface in Earlier Egyptian: A Case study in Verbs of Cognition
Winand, Jean ULiege

in Coping with Obscurity: The Brown Workshop on Earlier Egyptian Grammar (2016)

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See detailUne analyse dynamique des interactions entre acteurs portuaires et leurs effets sur l’efficience d’un port pétrolier
Belaid, Emna ULiege; Rigo, Philippe ULiege; Cools, Mario ULiege

in Recueil des articles des 34èmes Rencontres Universitaires de Génie Civil de l'AUGC (2016)

The port is a heterogeneous entity which includes a set of actors whose objectives are sometimes contradictory. The analysis of their interactions allows us to understand the mechanism that governs the ... [more ▼]

The port is a heterogeneous entity which includes a set of actors whose objectives are sometimes contradictory. The analysis of their interactions allows us to understand the mechanism that governs the port management. This mechanism influences the port performance. In this article, we analyze port efficiency as a dynamic model. The latter is based on a framework established by a systemic analysis. From the simulations performed, it may be concluded that the parameters "loading rate" and "Connector dimension" are the most important parameters. Investment in new facilities for the port of La Skhira (Sfax, Tunisia) is our main recommendation. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental validation of heat transport modeling in district heating networks
Sartor, Kevin ULiege

in Proceedings of Conference (2016)

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling technics are required to ... [more ▼]

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling technics are required to consider the dynamic behaviour of district heating network to design them correctly, spare investment costs and limit the heat losses related to the use of a too high operating temperature. For the same reasons, the DHN control or retrofit of installations also requires the assessment of the DHN dynamic behaviour. To achieve this, the heat transport in DHN, which is one of the key issues in the behaviour of a whole centralized heating system, has to be correctly modelled. Previous work evidenced current limitations of one dimensional finite volume method to model heat transport in pipes and proposed an alternative method considering the thermal losses and the inertia of the pipes. The present contribution intends to experimentally validate this model on a test rig facility available in the Thermodynamics laboratory of the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium) and on an existing district heating network. For both experimental facilities, the current model shows good agreement between experimental data and simulation results for a large range of water velocities. Moreover, it is shown that the thermal inertia of the pipe has a significant influence on the outlet pipe temperature profile. [less ▲]

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See detailTechno-economic optimization of isolate micro-grids including PV and Li-Ion Batteries in the Bolivian context
Balderrama, Sergio; Canedo, Walter; Lemort, Vincent ULiege et al

in Proceedings of ECOS 2016 - the 29th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (2016)

In Bolivia 44 % of the people living in rural areas do not have reliable access to electric energy. This is due to a combination of unfavourable geography and the lack of economic resources to achieve the ... [more ▼]

In Bolivia 44 % of the people living in rural areas do not have reliable access to electric energy. This is due to a combination of unfavourable geography and the lack of economic resources to achieve the necessary infrastructure. In this context, the main goal of this study is to evaluate the economic and technical feasibility of micro-grids including photovoltaic panels (PV), batteries systems and the possible inclusion of diesel generators for off-grid applications. To that aim, a linear optimization model was developed within the Pyomo framework in order to optimize both the installed capacities and dispatch of the PV, battery and diesel sub-systems. The defined objective function is the net present cost. The exogenous inputs of the optimization are the typical demand and solar irradiation of a region of Bolivia in order to achieve results close to real Bolivian systems. Results indicate that due to the high levels of subvention to hydrocarbons, the PV and Li-Ion technology are not yet competitive with a diesel generator for the electrification of rural areas. On the other hand a sensitivity analysis is performed and proves that if the government decide to stop part of the subvention or shared it between conventional and non-conventional sources, the PV becomes competitive and the Li-Ion batteries enter the market around 2020. [less ▲]

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See detailLes anaphores rhétoriques : des rafales de motifs ?
Longrée, Dominique ULiege; Mayaffre, Damon; Mellet, Sylvie

in Mayaffre, Damon; Poudat, Céline; Vanni, Laurent (Eds.) et al Statistical Analysis of Textual Data, Proccedings of 13th International Conference on Statistical Analysis od Textual Data, 7-10 June 2016, Nice (2016)

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See detailIndoor Joinery and Furniture Made for Eighteenth-Century Houses in Liège (Belgium)
Gilles, Isabelle ULiege

in Sosnowska, Philippe; Charruadas, Paulo; Fraiture, Pascale (Eds.) et al From Carpentry to joinery : floors and ceilings, shutters and frames, doors and panelling in medieval and modern architecture (2016)

Though few eighteenth-century houses in Liège have conserved their original wooden furniture or fittings, archival research reveals that these elements constituted a key aspect of the domestic interior ... [more ▼]

Though few eighteenth-century houses in Liège have conserved their original wooden furniture or fittings, archival research reveals that these elements constituted a key aspect of the domestic interior. The present work draws largely on a series of public announcements known as Rendages proclamatoires which concerned property belonging to orphans sold by public auction, that exist. From 1697 to 1765, these sources provided descriptions of 257 houses situated within the city walls. The wooden furniture and fittings of eighteenth-century Liegerian houses can clearly be seen to be pertain to far more than the sole history of joinery: they also tell the story of Liege’s domestic living spaces in terms of social structure and cultural change. As such they eloquently illustrate the fact that it is only by taking into account the Old Regime’s conception of architecture as a total entity that we can today work towards establishing an increasingly just, coherent and complete understanding of ancient edifices. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and use of foamed recycled fibers to control shrinkage cracking of cementitious mortars
Coppola, Bartolomeo ULiege; Di Maio, Luciano; Courard, Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 4rd Workshop "The New Boundaries of Structural Concrete" (2016)

In this study a new class of engineered fibers were produced using end of waste materials obtained from post-consumer plastics. Taking into account the rising issue of plastic waste disposal and the ... [more ▼]

In this study a new class of engineered fibers were produced using end of waste materials obtained from post-consumer plastics. Taking into account the rising issue of plastic waste disposal and the importance of fiber/matrix adhesion for composites materials, recycled plastic fibers with improved adhesion were developed. In particular, foamed fibers presenting a rough surface and a porous morphology were obtained by a foam extrusion process using a chemical blowing agent. Fiber reinforced mortars (FRMs) were produced containing foamed fibers at three volume fractions (0.50, 1 and 2 %) and two lengths (15 and 30 mm). FRM plastic shrinkage cracking resistance was investigated: the better adhesion of foamed fibers influenced cracks propagation, reducing crack area and delaying crack openings during shrinkage. Moreover, shorter fibers are better efficient in controlling cracks length while longer fibers are able to reduce cracks width and number. [less ▲]

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See detailNew challenges for the Vietnamese aquaculture sector
Nguyen Thi Khanh Hong, ULiege; Tran Thi Nang Thu; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Nanhua University; Vietnam University of Commerce; Hue College of Economics (Eds.) International Conference "The economy of Vietnam in the integration period: opportunities and challenges: Proceedings (2016)

The supply chain of seafood in Vietnam has not been effectively designed and operated, and has not contributed to the sustainability of the sector. Problems include the protection of resources ... [more ▼]

The supply chain of seafood in Vietnam has not been effectively designed and operated, and has not contributed to the sustainability of the sector. Problems include the protection of resources, limitations in traceability, food safety issues and lack of branding/eco-certification. The objective of this article is first to characterize the recent development of this sector of economic activity. Particular attention will be linked to the importance of aquaculture in the trade balance of Vietnam. The authors also describe the issues that arise in the various constituent links in the aquaculture industry in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailL'appartement des bains et le cabinet des peintures du château de Fontainebleau sous le règne d'Henri IV
Fagnart, Laure ULiege

in Nativel, Colette (Ed.) Henri IV. Art et pouvoir (2016)

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See detailAgriculture towards a more sustainable development: the case of Wallonia (South of Belgium)
Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Svatos, Miroslav et al. (Ed.) International Scientific Conference Agrarian Perspectives XXV "Global and European Challenges for Production, Agribusiness and the Rural Economy", Prague, Czech Republic, September 14-16, 2016: book of abstracts (2016)

The new Common Agricultural Policy defined in 2013 and implemented since 2015 created the so-called "green payment" and also supports organic farming and origin-labelled products in order to produce more ... [more ▼]

The new Common Agricultural Policy defined in 2013 and implemented since 2015 created the so-called "green payment" and also supports organic farming and origin-labelled products in order to produce more sustainable agricultural activities. This paper analyses the impact of the green payment on Walloon agriculture in 2015 and the evolution of organic farming and origin-labelled products in the South of Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailContract farming application in the Vietnamese shrimp value chain
Ho, T. M. H.; Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Petropoulos, D.; Kyriazopoulos, G. (Eds.) 2nd International Conference of Development and Economy (ICODECON) 9-12 June 2016 : book of abstracts (2016)

Shrimp value chain in Vietnam functions with a large number of farmers. They stayed in the weakest position in the chain due to their small individual scale with an average land of about 0.5 ha/farm, and ... [more ▼]

Shrimp value chain in Vietnam functions with a large number of farmers. They stayed in the weakest position in the chain due to their small individual scale with an average land of about 0.5 ha/farm, and low skills [1]. As a leader and holding the strongest power in the shrimp value chain, the processors determine shrimp prices and set up requirements of shrimp quality and size in the market though quality control has not been completely implemented due to the limitations of financial capital, knowledge, awareness, as well as the quality of raw material supplied by collectors and farmers. In order to help the shrimp sector working more efficiently, the Vietnamese government brought together shrimp farmers and plant processors through a farming contract. Two years after this application, the contract farming model failed due to the floor price mechanism, risk sharing, small scale of the model while there are excess suppliers in the market, administrative misconception and inefficient public management. As a result, farmers still stay at the weakest position and the shrimp sector could not improve its product safety to adapt the requirement of import markets. The study results recommend necessarily a planning and projection of shrimp production zones, re-organizing shrimp farmers into legal teams or groups or cooperatives to increase the size of the existing shrimp cultivation units in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-Varying Modal Parameters Identification in the Modal Domain
Bertha, Mathieu ULiege; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULiege

in Proceedings of ISMA 2016 - International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering (2016)

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See detailAn approach for detection of glomeruli in multisite digital pathology
Marée, Raphaël ULiege; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Meas-Yedid, Vannary

in Proceedings International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (2016)

We present a novel bioimage informatics workflow that combines Icy and Cytomine software and their algorithms to enable large-scale analysis of digital slides from multiple sites. In particular, we apply ... [more ▼]

We present a novel bioimage informatics workflow that combines Icy and Cytomine software and their algorithms to enable large-scale analysis of digital slides from multiple sites. In particular, we apply this workflow on renal biopsies and evaluate empirically our approach for the automatic detection of glomeruli in hundreds of tissue sections. [less ▲]

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See detailNoWaste: waste heat re-use for greener truck
Bettoja, Federica; Perosino, Andrea; Lemort, Vincent ULiege et al

in Proceedings of 6th Transport Research Arena (2016)

The present paper summarizes the key points of the European NoWaste Project, which aims at developing Rankine cycle systems for integration into long-haul trucks with the aim to convert the waste heat of ... [more ▼]

The present paper summarizes the key points of the European NoWaste Project, which aims at developing Rankine cycle systems for integration into long-haul trucks with the aim to convert the waste heat of the exhaust gases into useful energy usable in mechanical or electrical form. The first part of the paper describes the ORC system architectures defined for two different truck engines: one with EGR and the other one without EGR. For both engines, different cycle configurations and working fluids are compared in terms of energy performance and technical constraints. For both ORC systems, the paper shows the final technical choices made in terms of main components: boiler, condenser, expander and pump. The second part of the paper presents preliminary experimental results carried out on demonstrators of the two ORC systems. The objectives of these tests were to check the performance announced by the components’ manufacturers. Finally, the last part of the paper compares the cost of both systems. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a more sustainable development model in Belgium: the role of organic farming
Burny, Philippe ULiege

in Petropoulos, D.; Kyriazopoulos, G. (Eds.) 2nd International Conference of Development and Economy (ICODECON) 9-12 June 2016 : book of abstracts (2016)

During the last years, organic farming considerably developed in Belgium. In 2014, it represented 5% of the total agricultural area and 4.5% of the number of farms [1]. Organic farming is mainly developed ... [more ▼]

During the last years, organic farming considerably developed in Belgium. In 2014, it represented 5% of the total agricultural area and 4.5% of the number of farms [1]. Organic farming is mainly developed in Wallonia where its share of the agricultural area exceeded 10% in 2014. Pastures for bovine production (meat and milk) and general crops (mainly cereals) are the most common cultivated areas. Poultry, eggs and vegetables recorded the highest increases. This success is partly the result of a strategic plan for the development of organic farming in Wallonia towards 2020 [2] and of remarkable financial support for the farmers [3]. More than 8,400 food and non-food organic products are available for the consumers. The number of prepared and processed food products is increasing. The market share of food organic products is still low, but continuously increasing: 1.3% in 2008, 2.3% in 2014. Remarkably, the expenses for organic food products still increased by 50% in 2014, while the total expenses for common food products declined for the first time since many years. The most important expenses per capita concern dairy products (5.40€), vegetables (4.74€), fruits (3.71€) and bovine and pork meat (2.84€). The main locations where food organic products are bought are supermarkets (45%) and specialized shops (31%). Families with children and high income and retired people with high income count for more than 5% of the expenses for organic food, while single persons aged over 40 are the category which spend the highest share of its income (4.1%) for organic food. In such conditions, organic farming is an important topic of the strategic plan for sustainable development presently proposed for discussion to the Walloon citizens. [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation des impacts économiques indirects selon un scénario de risque d’inondation
Saadi, Ismaïl ULiege; El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege et al

in Recueil des articles des 34èmes Rencontres Universitaires de Génie Civil de l'AUGC (2016)

In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to estimate the indirect economic impact due to flood risk in Belgium. By taking into account the land-use change and different scenarios of climate ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose an integrated framework to estimate the indirect economic impact due to flood risk in Belgium. By taking into account the land-use change and different scenarios of climate change, the economic impact can be estimated at the micro-scale level using an Input-Output (I-O) approach. I-O is an econometric model that represents the structure of an economy in the form of a Production-Consumption (P-C) matrix. From a physical point of view, it corresponds to commodity flows between different sectors classified according to the NACE code. This approach is implemented to describe and to better understand the propagation of higher order damage through the entire economic structure. This tool can be used to take strategic decisions in the case of transport and land-use policies within vulnerable areas. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a New Design Equation for Piano Key Weirs Discharge Capacity
Bashiri Atrabi, Hamid ULiege; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege et al

in Proc. of the 6th International Symposium on Hydraulic Structures (2016)

Piano Key weirs are Labyrinth like weirs which can be placed on the top of gravity dams. They represent a powerful solution to increase the discharge capacity of existing dam spillways. For proper design ... [more ▼]

Piano Key weirs are Labyrinth like weirs which can be placed on the top of gravity dams. They represent a powerful solution to increase the discharge capacity of existing dam spillways. For proper design it is necessary to accurately predict this discharge capacity. In this research, artificial neural network, multiple linear and nonlinear regressions are used to set up a new design equation for the discharge capacity of Piano Key weirs. The effect of each parameter on the discharge capacity of Piano Key weirs is tested in these models. Several non-dimensional parameters are used to define a functional relationship between the inputs and output. These parameters are built from the geometric dimensions of the structure such as weir height, inlet and outlet keys width, overhangs length, water head and side crest length. Previous experimental data, which were collected at the experimental laboratory of the research group Hydraulics in Environmental and Civil Engineering (HECE), University of Liege, are used for training and testing patterns of the models. Root mean square errors (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R2) are used as comparing criteria for the evaluation of the models. The models’ results are compared with experimental results and other existing equations. [less ▲]

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See detailConditional expected static wind loads
Blaise, Nicolas ULiege; Andrianne, Thomas ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege

in In Vento 2016 (2016)

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See detailWater retention behaviour of compacted bentonites: experimental observations and constitutive model
Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Gatabin, Claude; Talandier, Jean et al

in Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun; Ghabezloo (Eds.) et al 3rd European Conference on Unsaturated Soils – “E-UNSAT 2016” (2016)

Bentonite-based materials are studied as potential barriers for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this context, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier is first ... [more ▼]

Bentonite-based materials are studied as potential barriers for the geological disposal of radioactive waste. In this context, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the engineered barrier is first characterized by free swelling conditions followed by constant volume conditions. This paper presents an experimental study conducted in order to characterize the water retention behaviour of a compacted MX-80 bentonite/sand mixture. Then, based on observations of the material double structure and the water retention mechanisms in compacted bentonites, a new water retention model is proposed. The model considers adsorbed water in the microstructure and capillary water in the aggregate-porosity. The model is calibrated and validated against the experimental data. It is used for better understanding competing effects between volume change and water uptake observed during hydration under free swelling conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailPresentazione del Tesoro dei Lessici degli Antichi Volgari Italiani (TLAVI)
Aresti, Alessandro ULiege

in Bozzi, Andrea; Fairon, Cédric; Trotter, David (Eds.) Actes du XXVIIe Congrès international de linguistique et de philologie romanes (Nancy, 15-20 juillet 2013). Section 16 : Projets en cours ; ressources et outils nouveaux. Nancy, ATILF (2016)

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See detailPerino del Vaga maestro di Marcello Venusti
Geremicca, Antonio ULiege

in Agosti, Barbara; Leone, Giorgio (Eds.) Intorno a Marcello Venusti (2016)

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See detailÉvaluation des réparations en béton et identification des principaux facteurs d’influence
Bissonnette, Benoît; Courard, Luc ULiege; Garbacz, Andrzej et al

in Courard, Luc; Collin, Frédéric; Cerfontaine, Benjamin (Eds.) RUGC 2016 (2016)

La réparation et le renforcement des structures existantes en béton comptent parmi les plus importants défis auxquels les ingénieurs civils sont confrontés aujourd’hui et qu’ils devront relever dans les ... [more ▼]

La réparation et le renforcement des structures existantes en béton comptent parmi les plus importants défis auxquels les ingénieurs civils sont confrontés aujourd’hui et qu’ils devront relever dans les années à venir. Les préoccupations actuelles concernant le développement durable favorisent la réfection au détriment de la construction neuve et ne peuvent que renforcer cette tendance. Des efforts concertés de la part des scientifiques et ingénieurs sont encore nécessaires afin d’améliorer la conception des réparations en béton et d’en assurer la qualité et la fiabilité attendues. L’un des aspects essentiels de la durabilité des réparations en béton et des revêtements ou traitements de surface est la qualité de l’adhérence entre le matériau de réparation et le béton existant. Le présent article résume les principales conclusions de travaux réalisés en collaboration en vue d’identifier les facteurs influençant l’adhérence des réparations (la rugosité, le degré de saturation et la carbonatation du substrat) et l’évaluation de celle-ci en conditions in situ (type de chargement, alignement de l’appareil). Sur la base des résultats recueillis, des recommandations ont été émises dans un guide du USBR [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Life Cycle Assessment in Biobased Industries: Identifying Main Indicators and Impacts
Rafiaani, Parisa; Van Passel, Steven; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Benoit Norris, Catherine; Norris, Gregory (Eds.) 5th International Social LCA Conference Harvard, Cambridge, USA, June 13 - 15, 2016: book of abstracts (2016)

Assessing social impacts of various products, services and human activities has achieved an increasing interest worldwide. The nature of sustainability of biobased industries from a social point of view ... [more ▼]

Assessing social impacts of various products, services and human activities has achieved an increasing interest worldwide. The nature of sustainability of biobased industries from a social point of view is how and to what extent they are perceived by society, and how various societies take advantages from such activities. However, an important issue is that social factors are not usually easy to be quantitatively analyzed and although the social impacts might be very remarkable, especially at the local scale, they have been not possible to be investigated in the majority of impact evaluations in the past. Despite the existence of many different methodologies towards Social Life Cycle Assessment (SLCA) to address social impacts of various businesses and industries, most of them impartially address social performances of an industry. The aim of this paper is to highlight the main criteria that need to be taken into account in SLCA approaches for identifying the social indicators and impacts of biobased industries that is a timely topic worldwide toward climate change mitigation goals. Accordingly, considering the general approach of SLCA and particularly its inventory analysis phase for impact categories and indicator determinations, the paper provides an overview of the existing guidelines and frameworks for identifying social indicators and impact categories associated with bio-industries. In conclusion, main impact categories and indicators formulated in the existing frameworks applied to biobased industries are demonstrated as a basic set of applicable elements of social dimensions in evaluating bio-industries’ sustainability when conducting SLCAs. The state of the art for this study mainly includes leading journal articles, international reports and conference papers up to and including 2016 on SLCA in biobased industries. According to the reviewed frameworks in this study, quantitative, midpoint and site-specific data are the main elements taken into account when collecting the data for biobased product social impact assessment. This study also reveals that although SLCA is in its early steps of development and despite in numerous cases, conducting a comprehensive SLCA is not yet feasible, it has been considered to have substantially promising methodological attributes that can help policymakers and other stakeholders to quantify and assess sustainability of bio-industries from the social perspective. Recommendations for further research work concerning SLCA in bio-industries are also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ULg Multimodality Drowsiness Database (called DROZY) and examples of use
Massoz, Quentin ULiege; Langohr, Thomas ULiege; François, Clémentine ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE Winter Conference on Applications of Computer Vision (WACV) (2016)

Drowsiness is a major cause of accidents, in particular in road transportation. It is thus crucial to develop robust drowsiness monitoring systems. There is a widespread agreement that the best way to ... [more ▼]

Drowsiness is a major cause of accidents, in particular in road transportation. It is thus crucial to develop robust drowsiness monitoring systems. There is a widespread agreement that the best way to monitor drowsiness is by closely monitoring symptoms of drowsiness that are directly linked to the physiology of an operator such as a driver. The best systems are completely transparent to the operator until the moment he/she must react. In transportation, cameras placed in the passenger compartment and looking at least at the face of the driver are most likely the best way to sense physiology related symptoms such as facial expressions and the fine behavior of the eyeballs and eyelids. We present here the new database (available on http://www.drozy.ulg.ac.be) called DROZY that provides multiple modalities of data to tackle the design of drowsiness monitoring systems and related experiments. We also present two novel systems developed using this database that can make predictions about the speed of reaction of an operator by using near-infrared intensity and range images of his/her face. [less ▲]

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See detailStockage de chaleur en aquifère et flexibilité de la demande électrique: quelles possibilités?
Paulus, Claire; Bolly, Pierre-Yves; Hermans, Thomas ULiege et al

in Proceedings des 34e rencontres universitaires du Génie Civil de l'AUGC (2016)

In the context of energy demand side management (EDSM) and heat storage in aquifers, the design and functioning of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems have strong interconnections with the ... [more ▼]

In the context of energy demand side management (EDSM) and heat storage in aquifers, the design and functioning of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) systems have strong interconnections with the geology of the site which may be complex and heterogeneous, making predictions difficult. In this context, we developed a subsurface monitoring methodology to better characterize heat transfer in the subsurface with the help of 4D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), multiple hydrological measurements in wells, and a short-term heat storage experiment conducted for the purpose in a confined alluvial aquifer. Results clearly show the ability of ERT to delimit the thermal plume growth during injection, the diffusion and decrease of temperature during storage, and the decrease in size after heat recovery. Energy balance shows that up to 70% of the energy can be easily recovered with an adapted strategy in the context of DSM. Short-term heat storage in alluvial aquifer is efficient and ERT is a valuable tool to image and estimate the temperature distribution in the subsurface. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating social aspects into sustainability assessment of biobased industries: Towards a systemic approach
Rafiaani, Parisa; Van Passel, Steven; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege et al

in Benoit Norris, Catherine; Norris, Gregory (Eds.) 5th International Social LCA Conference Harvard, Cambridge, USA, June 13 - 15, 2016: book of abstracts (2016)

Considering its potential impacts on development, biobased industries require to be assessed according to the positive and negative effects they can bring to the society. Typically, the implications of ... [more ▼]

Considering its potential impacts on development, biobased industries require to be assessed according to the positive and negative effects they can bring to the society. Typically, the implications of biobased industries are considered in terms of economic, environmental and technical indices while social factors are usually neglected in the majority of impact assessments. This is mainly due to the fact that social issues are not easy to be quantitatively analyzed, measured and monitored. Indeed, the following issues need to be addressed: (i) how the social dimension is understood from different stakeholders’ perspective; (ii) how the social pillar can be properly integrated into sustainability evaluation methodologies which are mainly focused on environmental performance and (techno)-economic assessments of biobased industries. This review paper aims to answer these questions firstly through identifying the main social impacts and indicators of the biobased industries at local level in order to find an answer for the second question by analyzing and comparing the current methodologies for assessing social impacts in bioindustries. These methods mainly include Social Impact Assessment (SIA), Socio-economic Impacts Assessment (SEIA) and Social Life Cycle Analysis (SLCA). The latter, although is in its early steps of development, has been considered to have substantially promising methodological attributes for bioindustries’ social sustainability assessment. Although ongoing research tackles the incorporation of the environmental dimension into extended techno-economic assessments, no integration of the social pillar into such assessments has been made. Given that, this review focuses on the social dimension for integrated sustainability assessments of biobased industries to assess the main social impacts resulting from each operation or from the bioenergy sector. The current review focuses on the importance of social sustainability indicators and evaluation techniques. By discussing the methodologies for evaluating social impacts, a systemic methodology for assessing and integrating the social dimension into the sustainability assessments of bioindustries is developed, considering the four main iterative steps of an SLCA framework and three useful SLCA-based approaches including Product Social Impact Assessment; Prosuite and the UNEP SETAC Guidelines for SLCA of Products. It is concluded that the term systemic analysis implies that the whole approach needs the capacity to understand different subsystems and relations between them. Accordingly, the systemic assessment of biobased technologies should simultaneously include technological, economic, social and environmental dimensions. The result of this study identifies social impacts in the bioeconomy and particularly highlight the importance of considering social issues in biobased industries’ design and innovation. [less ▲]

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See detailScience yield modeling with the Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator (EXOSIMS)
Delacroix, Christian ULiege; Savransky, Dmitry; Garrett, Daniel et al

in Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management for Astronomy VI (2016)

We report on our ongoing development of EXOSIMS and mission simulation results for WFIRST. We present the interface control and the modular structure of the software, along with corresponding prototypes ... [more ▼]

We report on our ongoing development of EXOSIMS and mission simulation results for WFIRST. We present the interface control and the modular structure of the software, along with corresponding prototypes and class definitions for some of the software modules. More specifically, we focus on describing the main steps of our high-fidelity mission simulator EXOSIMS, i.e., the completeness, optical system and zodiacal light modules definition, the target list module filtering, and the creation of a planet population within our simulated universe module. For the latter, we introduce the integration of a recent mass-radius model from the FORECASTER software. We also provide custom modules dedicated to WFIRST using both the Hybrid Lyot Coronagraph (HLC) and the Shaped Pupil Coronagraph (SPC) for detection and characterization, respectively. In that context, we show and discuss the results of some preliminary WFIRST simulations, focusing on comparing different methods of integration time calculation, through ensembles (large numbers) of survey simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailLes obligations, la responsabilité et l’assurance de l’architecte. Panorama général et pistes de réflexion
Kohl, Benoît ULiege

in Uytterhoeven, Kristof (Ed.) L’architecte au 21ième siècle. Profession libérale ou entreprise protégée ? La loi du 20 février 1939 : 75 ans (2016)

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See detailLa lettre d’art dans l’œuvre de Jean de Montreuil, en particulier sa Lettre à un prince anglais (1394)
Marchandisse, Alain ULiege

in Cammarosano, Paolo; Dumézil, Bruno; Gioanni, Stéphane (Eds.) et al Art de la lettre et lettre d’art. Épistolaire politique III. Convegno di studio, Roma, 11-13 aprile 2013 (2016)

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See detailLes aspects financiers du contrat d'entreprise. Questions choisies
Kohl, Benoît ULiege

in Kohl, Benoît (Ed.) Droit de la construction (2016)

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See detailLes Lannoy, Lalaing, Croÿ, Luxembourg. Des lignages curiaux bourguignons devant la mort (XVe–XVIe s.)
Marchandisse, Alain ULiege

in Andenmatten, Bernard; Pibiri, Eva (Eds.) Mourir à la cour. Normes, usages et contingences funéraires dans les milieux curiaux à la fin du Moyen Âge et à l’époque moderne (2016)

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See detailLe Chèque Habitat en Région Wallonne: premier aperçu
Bourgeois, Marc ULiege; Voisin, Fanny ULiege

in Chroniques notariales. Volume 63 (2016)

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See detailLa notion de champ conceptuel au travail entre calculus et analyse mathématique
Balhan, Kevin ULiege; Gerard, Isaline

in Recherches en didactique des mathématiques (2016)

Lors des séances de travaux dirigés, il était question d’identifier de quelles manières la pensée fonctionnelle était mobilisée au sein du théorème fondamental de l’Analyse. Nous regardons ainsi l’usage ... [more ▼]

Lors des séances de travaux dirigés, il était question d’identifier de quelles manières la pensée fonctionnelle était mobilisée au sein du théorème fondamental de l’Analyse. Nous regardons ainsi l’usage qui est fait, par les élèves, de la pensée fonctionnelle à travers des problèmes mobilisant le théorème fondamental mais, aussi, les aspects de la pensée fonctionnelle dont font usage Leibniz et Newton et qui rendent intelligible ce théorème. Nous cherchons, en outre, à cerner de quelle manière il serait possible d’injecter des telles pensées fonctionnelles dans l’esprit des élèves. [less ▲]

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See detailDu texte littéraire au document : les connexions entre les papyrus littéraires et documentaires grecs et latins
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULiege

in Urbanik, Jakub; Derda, Tomasz; Lajtar, Adam (Eds.) Proceedings of the 27th International Congress of Papyrology (Warsaw, 29 July - 3 August 2013) (2016)

Si l'on distingue généralement les papyrus littéraires et les papyrus documentaires grecs et latins, ces deux catégories présentent cependant, à côté du support, de l'écriture et des scribes, d'autres ... [more ▼]

Si l'on distingue généralement les papyrus littéraires et les papyrus documentaires grecs et latins, ces deux catégories présentent cependant, à côté du support, de l'écriture et des scribes, d'autres caractéristiques communes : certains papyrus paralittéraires présentent des traits documentaires ; d'autres papyrus sont trop fragmentaires pour être sûrement identifiés, soit comme littéraires, soit comme documentaires ; certains écrits comme les lettres et les discours peuvent, soit être liés à une profession ou à une circonstance particulière (documents), soit être fictifs (littéraires) ; des papyrus documentaires contiennent des citations ou des réminiscences littéraires ; des papyrus littéraires présentent un document sur l'autre face ; des papyrus littéraires font partie d'archives documentaires . Appliquant aux textes documentaires ou indéterminés la même grille d'analyse qu'aux textes littéraires, la nouvelle base de données du CEDOPAL permet de rendre compte de ces connexions et de les exploiter en vue de mieux évaluer les écrits concernés, les méthodes scribales mises en œuvre, ainsi que leur contexte de production et d'utilisation. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic rotational stability of tower cranes under gusty winds
Vanvinckenroye, Hélène ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege

in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (2016)

This work aims to study the rotational stability of a tower crane left free to rotate. Indeed, in case of important wind velocities, small oscillations can increase and build up into autorotations due to ... [more ▼]

This work aims to study the rotational stability of a tower crane left free to rotate. Indeed, in case of important wind velocities, small oscillations can increase and build up into autorotations due to autoparametric excitation of the structure. Many references in the literature describe the limit between oscillation and autorotation for simple cases like the deterministic pendulum and evidence the importance of the Hamiltonian of a system on its stability. In this context the susceptibility of the structure to this dynamical instability is characterized by the average time necessary to reach a given energy barrier departing from an initial energy level. This first passage time is the solution of the Pontryagin equation and is approached by an asymptotic expansion. First- and second-order terms are calculated as well as the boundary layer solution providing a correction when the initial energy is close to the barrier level. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental Passive Flutter Mitigation Using a Linear Tuned Vibrations Absorber
Verstraelen, Edouard ULiege; Habib, Giuseppe ULiege; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the IMAC XXXIV Conference (2016)

The current drive for increased efficiency in aeronautic structures such as aircraft, wind turbine blades and helicopter blades often leads to weight reduction. A consequence of this tendency can be ... [more ▼]

The current drive for increased efficiency in aeronautic structures such as aircraft, wind turbine blades and helicopter blades often leads to weight reduction. A consequence of this tendency can be increased flexibility, which in turn can lead to unfavourable aeroelastic phenomena involving large amplitude oscillations and nonlinear effects such as geometric hardening and stall flutter. Vibration mitigation is one of the approaches currently under study for avoiding these phenomena. In the present work, passive vibration mitigation is applied to an experimental aeroelastic system by means of a linear tuned vibration absorber. The aeroelastic apparatus is a pitch and flap wing that features a continuously hardening restoring torque in pitch and a linear one in flap. Extensive analysis of the system with and without absorber at subcritical and supercritical airspeeds showed an improvement in flutter speed around 34%, a suppression of a jump due to stall flutter, and a reduction in LCO amplitude. Mathematical modelling of the experimental system showed that optimal flutter delay can be obtained when two of the system modes flutter simultaneously. However, the absorber quickly loses effectiveness as it is detuned. The wind tunnel measurements showed that the tested absorbers were much slower to lose effectiveness than those of the mathematical predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of preexisting semantic integration on associative memory in normal aging
Bastin, Christine ULiege

in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Memory (2016)

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See detailLe théâtre en vers d'Apollinaire
Purnelle, Gérald ULiege

in Purnelle, Gérald; Delbreil, Daniel (Eds.) Apollinaire et le théâtre. Actes du XXIIIe colloque international de Stavelot (2016)

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See detailCASTLE4D: An Archaeological Information System Based on 3D Point Clouds
Luczfalvy Jancsó, Andrea ULiege; Billen, Roland ULiege; Hoffsummer, Patrick ULiege et al

in Lerma, José Luis; Cabrelles, Miriam (Eds.) Proceedings of the Arqueológica 2.0 - 8th International Congress on Archaeology, Computer Graphics, Cultural Heritage and Innovation : Universitat Politècnica de València, Valence 5-7 septembre 2016 (2016)

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See detail"Nos coeurs pendent aux citronniers". Fruits et fleurs de la Méditerranée dans la poésie d'Apollinaire
Purnelle, Gérald ULiege

in Debon, Claude (Ed.) Apollinaire méditerranéen. Actes du XXIIe colloque international. Aix-en-Provence, 11, 12 et 13 avril 2013 (2016)

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See detailEffects of acoustic degradations on cover song identification systems
Osmalsky, Julien ULiege; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULiege

in International Congress on Acoustics: ICA 2016 (2016)

Cover song identification systems deal with the problem of identifying different versions of an audio query in a reference database. Such systems involve the computation of pairwise similarity scores ... [more ▼]

Cover song identification systems deal with the problem of identifying different versions of an audio query in a reference database. Such systems involve the computation of pairwise similarity scores between a query and all the tracks of a database. The usual way of evaluating such systems is to use a set of audio queries, extract features from them, and compare them to other tracks in the database to report diverse statistics. Databases in such research are usually designed in a controlled environment, with relatively clean audio signals. However, in real life conditions, audio signals can be seriously modified due to acoustic degradations. For example, depending on the context, audio can be modified by room reverberation, or by added hands clapping noise in a live concert, etc. In this paper, we study how environmental audio degradations affect the performance of several state-of-the-arty cover song recognition systems. In particular, we study how reverberation, ambient noise and distortion affect the performance of the systems. We further investigate the effect of recording or playing music through a smartphone for music recognition. To achieve this, we use an audio degradation toolbox to degrade the set of queries to be evaluated. We propose a comparison of the performance achieved with cover song identification systems based on several harmonic and timbre features under ideal and noisy conditions. We demonstrate that the performance depends strongly on the degradation method applied to the source, and quantify the performance using multiple statistics. [less ▲]

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See detailcolour in the urban environment: a tool for the chromatic analysis of spatial coherence
Nguyen, Ngoc Luan ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

in XII Conferenza del Colore : Book of Abstracts (2016)

Colour is an essential component of urban landscapes that inform us about the status and history of a place, through relations of dominance, integration or uniformity that can be observed between its ... [more ▼]

Colour is an essential component of urban landscapes that inform us about the status and history of a place, through relations of dominance, integration or uniformity that can be observed between its built components. It can be shown that many traditional cities appear to be « chromatically polynuclear » in Europe and that each epoch, each type of urban area, each city is characterized by its own colour palette, which can be more or less homogeneous. Still the urban mutations observed in the second part of the 20th century generated a significant increase in the entropy of contemporary extentions of cities, which induced a loss of meaning and coherence by dislocating permanent structures set up in the past that maintained some integrity of urban landscapes. City entrances for instance, where old buildings mix with commercial equipment, show an unprecedented heterogeneity in their colour palettes. Few studies have focused on the description of these emerging configurations. Their complexity both in formal and chromatic aspects is certainly a difficulty from the perspective of their characterization. This can be explained by the lack of tools for an objective analysis of colour palettes in an urban environment. Given this lack of both affordable and reliable assessment method of colour that has been observed in the field of urban design, the research presents the implementation of a tool that can be used to characterize chromatic attributes of an urban area. The challenge is to provide statistical and quantitative answers to these questions: how is colour organized, how does it develop its own structure in the city? How can colour appear as an indicator of homogeneity and spatial coherence? As colour can be represented in a tri-dimensional space, we use a k-means statistical clustering technique, based on a data partitioning algorithm, to produce a chromatic classification of building facades. Once the chromatic categories are defined through the developed assessment method, the question of spatial coherence is investigated using Shannon entropy. Our method was tested through an application to several urban fragments of the city of Liège (Belgium) and the research highlights the differences between historic urban areas (historic center, 19th century developments) with new urban configurations (city entrances, commercial and periurban zones). [less ▲]

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See detailMathématique et culture numérique : supports aux nouvelles formes d’expression architecturale
Jancart, Sylvie ULiege; Stals, Adeline ULiege; Gallas, Mohamed-Anis

in Goulette, Jean-Pierre, Ferries, Bernard (Ed.) Actes du Séminaire de Conception Architecturale Numérique (2016)

Les mathématiques occupent une place importante dans les procédés de conception et de matérialisation qui caractérisent l’architecture non standard. Cette forme d’expression architecturale fait appel à un ... [more ▼]

Les mathématiques occupent une place importante dans les procédés de conception et de matérialisation qui caractérisent l’architecture non standard. Cette forme d’expression architecturale fait appel à un enchainement de dispositifs numériques matérialisant ainsi le concept de continuum numérique. Dans ce sens, il est important de réduire l’écart qui se crée entre les possibilités techniques actuelles et les connaissances mathématiques utilisées dans les nou-velles méthodes de conception. Cet article propose une analyse des interactions entre deux disciplines, la géométrie architecturale et les supports numériques appliqués de la conception à la fabrication, ainsi que l’intérêt de leur intégration dans les démarches de conception architecturales actuelles. [less ▲]

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See detailRuptures et démesures de l'architecture non standard à l'ère du numérique: la paramétrisation comme outil de réconciliation.
Stals, Adeline ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege; Jancart, Sylvie ULiege

in Goulette, Jean-Pierre; Ferries, Bernard (Eds.) Actes du Séminaire de Conception Architecturale Numérique (2016)

L’intégration de l’outil numérique au processus de conception architectural a ouvert les champs morphologiques et a favorisé l’émergence de l’architecture non standard. Cette contribution identifie les ... [more ▼]

L’intégration de l’outil numérique au processus de conception architectural a ouvert les champs morphologiques et a favorisé l’émergence de l’architecture non standard. Cette contribution identifie les principaux bouleversements pratiques et réflexifs liés à l’émergence de cette architecture parfois démesurée. Il les résume en trois ruptures entre les différentes phases du projet-objet et les acteurs du projet. Nous proposons ensuite de considérer la modélisation paramétrique comme l’un des outils d’une maîtrise renouvelée du processus de génération de la forme, et de la forme elle-même. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do small and medium architectural firms deal with architectural complexity? A look into digital practices
Stals, Adeline ULiege; Jancart, Sylvie ULiege; Elsen, Catherine ULiege

in Hentila, Helka-Liisa; Herneoja, Aulikki; Pihlajaniemi, Henrika (Eds.) et al Proceedings of te 34th eCAADe annual conference: Complexity and Simplicity (2016)

Digital design tools are nowadays deeply rooted in most architectural design processes. Either used as a way to communicate a designed artifact, or rather as a medium to test innovative morphologies ... [more ▼]

Digital design tools are nowadays deeply rooted in most architectural design processes. Either used as a way to communicate a designed artifact, or rather as a medium to test innovative morphologies (lately referred to as non-standard architecture), these design tools profoundly shape the way architects envision complexity all along their day-to-day tasks. The large teams of "star-architects" were able to develop dedicated and specific strategies and digital tools to overcome some of the technological gaps they were faced to when using commercial packages. But how are small and medium firms dealing with the inherent complexities of such software? This contribution analyzes how those firms (and more specifically the Walloon ones) deal with the growing complexity of digital tools, both in terms of use and interdisciplinarity. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout the use of CO2 as tracer gas for identification of air renewal; combination with co-heating test
Andre, Philippe ULiege; Aparecida Silva; Davin, Elisabeth ULiege et al

in Heiselberg, Per Kvols (Ed.) CLIMA 2016 - Proceedings of the 12th REHVA World Congress : volume 5 (2016)

Three types of tracer gas test are, until now, mentioned in international standards: Injection at constant indoor concentration, injection at constant flow rate and transient injection followed by a ... [more ▼]

Three types of tracer gas test are, until now, mentioned in international standards: Injection at constant indoor concentration, injection at constant flow rate and transient injection followed by a recording of the decontamination curve. A fourth method is proposed in this paper: it is based on the same scenario as the third method, but with weighting of the mass of tracer gas (CO2) injected and integration of the curve of indoor concentration on the whole testing period. The concentration peak is used to identify the “effective” volume of the building zone considered; this volume, associated to the final concentration, is used to calculate the amount of CO2 remaining inside the zone at the end of the test. The total mass of renovation air is then deduced from the corresponding CO2 mass balance. The CO2 can be injected from a bottle or directly produced by combustion on site. In the latter case, the tracer gas method is combined with a co-heating test. It can be done, for example, with a current camping butane cooker: From the weighting of this device and continuous recording of air temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity ratio, three significant (energy, CO2 and water) balances are established in such a way to verify and tune a reference simulation model of the building zone. [less ▲]

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See detailLes conceptions des futurs enseignants du secondaire en matière d'évaluation : frein ou levier à un changement de pratiques ?
Goffin, Christelle ULiege; Fagnant, Annick ULiege

in Cavaco, Carmen; Alves, Natãlia; Guimarães, Paula (Eds.) et al Actes du colloque de l’Admée-Europe. Actes du 28e colloque qui s’est tenu en janvier 2016 à Lisbonne : Avaliação e aprindizagem = Evaluations et apprentissages (2016)

Plusieurs recherches se sont intéressées aux conceptions des enseignants ou futurs enseignants en matière d’évaluation (Boraita & Issaieva, 2013 ; Issaieva & Crahay, 2010 ; Goffin, Renson & Fagnant, 2014 ... [more ▼]

Plusieurs recherches se sont intéressées aux conceptions des enseignants ou futurs enseignants en matière d’évaluation (Boraita & Issaieva, 2013 ; Issaieva & Crahay, 2010 ; Goffin, Renson & Fagnant, 2014 ; Soussi, Ducrey, Ferrez, Nidegger & Viry, 2006). Elles pointent des conceptions relativement positives à propos des évaluations formatives, tout en en marquant les limites quant aux retombées dans les classes. Les modifications des pratiques seraient en effet tributaires de résistances diverses, liées notamment « à la complexité et la lourdeur qui caractérise la mise en place des démarches concrètes en vue de réguler au mieux les apprentissages » (Boraita & Issaieva, p. 1). Les résistances pourraient aussi s’expliquer par une non-prise en compte des conceptions à l’entrée en formation et par la difficulté de réellement les infléchir (Crahay, Wanlin, Issaieva & Laduron, 2010). La présente étude s’intéresse aux conceptions des futurs enseignants du secondaire. S’appuyant sur un questionnaire soumis à environ 250 étudiants à leur entrée en formation initiale, elle cherche à cerner la façon dont ils perçoivent, spontanément d’abord puis de manière plus ou moins incitative ensuite, les liens entre évaluation et apprentissage. Considérant que les conceptions des futurs enseignants proviennent de sources diverses, dont notamment les expériences qu’ils ont vécues eux-mêmes en tant qu’élève (Crahay & al., 2010 ; Vause, 2010), l’étude s’intéresse également aux différentes formes d’évaluation auxquelles ils ont été confrontés dans leur parcours scolaire et à anticiper des leviers et freins potentiels pour leurs pratiques futures. A plus long terme, l’objectif est de prendre en compte ces conceptions dans le cadre de la formation, pariant sur l’idée qu’une réelle prise en compte des conceptions les plus ancrées et des freins anticipés pourraient être bénéfique pour un transfert vers la pratique. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of Nappe Vibration on a Weir
Lodomez, Maurine ULiege; Pirotton, Michel ULiege; Dewals, Benjamin ULiege et al

in Sustainable Hydraulics in the Era of Global Change (2016)

The nappe vibration phenomenon may affect numerous prototype structures, such as gates and spillways, when they operate under low head conditions. This phenomenon, which is far not well understood and ... [more ▼]

The nappe vibration phenomenon may affect numerous prototype structures, such as gates and spillways, when they operate under low head conditions. This phenomenon, which is far not well understood and poorly controlled, produces frequency oscillations in the thin flow nappe cascading downstream of the weir. These oscillations result in a disturbing noise production that increases the environmental and societal impacts of the hydraulic structure. Given limited information available regarding the physical processes of this phenomenon, a detailed investigation has been undertaken to characterize the flow for free-overfall structures where nappe vibration may be of concern. The research conducted on a prototype-scale linear weir model (weir length of 3.5 m and a fall height of 3 m) at the Engineering Hydraulics laboratory of the University of Liège enable to describe the flow and nappe vibration by using image and sound analysis. The paper presents the first quantitative results of the study. [less ▲]

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See detailBiotechnolgia w rozrodzie koni
Deleuze, Stefan ULiege; Gajewski, Zdzislaw; Faundez, Ricardo et al

in Rozrod koni, Wybrane aspekty IV Monograph (2016)

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See detailHigh rate monitoring CH4 production dynamics and their link with behavioral phases in cattle
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Lebeau, Frédéric ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege et al

in EAAP – 67 th Annual Meeting, Belfast 2016 (2016)

Microbial fermentation in the rumen produces methane (CH4) which is a loss of energy for ruminants and also contributes to global warming. While the respiration chamber is the standard reference for CH4 ... [more ▼]

Microbial fermentation in the rumen produces methane (CH4) which is a loss of energy for ruminants and also contributes to global warming. While the respiration chamber is the standard reference for CH4 emissions quantification, daily CH4 production dynamics can be measured only by steps of 30 min and measurements on pasture are impossible. The alternative method using SF6 as tracer gas can be applied for grazing animals but provides average CH4 production values over at least several hours, making it impossible to measure short term dynamics of rumen CH4 production with changing animal behavior along the day. Newly developed methods using CO2 as internal tracer gas extrapolate CH4 emissions from few short measurements. However, both CO2 and CH4 emissions fluctuate during the day depending on the behavior and the post-feeding times questioning the validity of this method. Therefore, an innovative device was developed to monitor at a high rate CH4 and CO2 emission dynamics in order to investigate the link between CH4 dynamics and the animal behavior on pasture. Preliminary results showed the ability of the device to record differences in CH4:CO2 ratios and eructation frequencies according to the individual and the behavior. Results from complementary experiments in barn with animals fed contrasting diets regarding CH4 production (with and without linseed) and on pasture with different forage allowance will be presented in order to highlight how post-feeding time and grazing behavior impact CO2 and CH4 emission dynamics along the day. [less ▲]

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See detailBridging familiarity and novelty detection: a matter of timing?
Delhaye, Emma ULiege; Barbeau, Emmanuel; Moulin, Christopher et al

in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Memory (2016)

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See detailThe ultimate role of the perirhinal cortex in familiarity: a novel hypothesis
Besson, Gabriel ULiege; Bastin, Christine ULiege

in Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Memory (2016)

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See detailAn investigation of inland water soundscapes: Which sonic sources influence acoustic levels?
Bolgan, Marta ULiege; O' Brien, Joanne; Winfield, Ian J. et al

in Proceedings of meetings on acoustics Acoustical Society of America 27(1) (2016)

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See detailIs the venice lagoon noisy? First passive listening monitoring of the venice lagoon: Possible effects on the typical fish community
Bolgan, Marta ULiege; Picciulin, Marta; Codarin, Antonio et al

in Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2016)

Three passive listening surveys have been carried out in two of the three Venice lagoon tide inlets and inside the Venice island. The spectral content and the intensity level of the underwater noise as ... [more ▼]

Three passive listening surveys have been carried out in two of the three Venice lagoon tide inlets and inside the Venice island. The spectral content and the intensity level of the underwater noise as well as the presence or absence of Sciaena umbra and the distribution of its different sound patterns have been investigated in all the recording sites. The passive listening proved to be successful in detecting S. umbra drumming sounds in both Venice lagoon tide inlets. Our results indicate that the spectral content and the level of underwater noise pollution in the Venice lagoon could affect fish acoustic communication. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016. [less ▲]

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See detailSupport for energy and comfort management in an office building using smart electrochromic glazing : dynamic simulations
Ajaji, Youness; Andre, Philippe ULiege

in Mathur, Jyotirmay; Garg, Vishal (Eds.) Proceedings of BS2015 : 14th conference of IBPSA (2016)

] In this research, we look for a control strategy of the electrochromic windows, depending on the measurement of the vertical outdoor illuminance and the outdoor temperature, for an efficient highly ... [more ▼]

] In this research, we look for a control strategy of the electrochromic windows, depending on the measurement of the vertical outdoor illuminance and the outdoor temperature, for an efficient highly glazed office building in Brussels. We simulate this building in TRNSYS. We implement a Perez model in TRNSYS to assess the vertical diffuse outdoor illluminance. As the building is equipped with a dimmable lighting system, we assess the average indoor illuminance. We simulate the switching dynamics of the elctrochromic window and we implement a control strategy. Finally, we evaluate the primary energy consumption due to HVAC and lighting, the risk of overheating and the average indoor illuminance. [less ▲]

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See detailIrrigated food systems in Maradi, Republic of Niger: a comparison between operating accounts
Andres, Ludovic ULiege; Dambo, Sambo; Baboussouna, Awal et al

in Kovacevic, Dusan (Ed.) VII International Scientific Agriculture Symposium “AGROSYM 2016”, Jahorina, October 06-09, 2016 : book of proceedings (2016)

In Niger, most food systems are based on pluvial crops (millet, sorghum and cowpea).However, during the last decade, agricultural policy and technical and financial partners focused on increasing the ... [more ▼]

In Niger, most food systems are based on pluvial crops (millet, sorghum and cowpea).However, during the last decade, agricultural policy and technical and financial partners focused on increasing the productivity of irrigated food products. The region of Maradi, located in the Centre-South of Niger, is an area traditionally dedicated to agriculture. Some parts of this region are particularly adapted for irrigation, especially the Goulbi of Kaba and the Goulbi of Maradi valleys. The goal of this study is to establish the socio-economic situation of the main irrigated food productions, based on the following indicators: (i) the crop management technics used; (ii) the results of the operating account; and (iii) the comparison between the village and the adoption of new technic (farmer field school). This paper is based on direct surveys conducted in three areas of the Maradi’s region: Soumarana (commune of Safo, department of Madarounfa); N’Yelwa (commune of Madarounfa, department of Madarounfa); Madarounfa (commune of Madarounfa, department of Guidan Roumdji). The software used is Minitab and Excel. The results highlighta good perspective for the irrigation system but this food system is conditioned by the petroleum price and some other input (fertilizer and seed). The operating accounts show that irrigation is a non-negligible income source, which increases the resilience of the farmers. [less ▲]

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See detailFranz Thedieck (1900-1995) und das Verhältnis zwischen Wissenschaft und Politik "von Weimar nach Bonn": eine biographische Annäherung
Brüll, Christoph ULiege

in Thomes, Paul (Ed.) Von der Narration zur Methode. Neue Impulse in der historischen Biographieforschung (2016)

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See detailLa nutrition néonatale – Pourquoi et comment l’optimiser tout en réduisant le risque d’entérocolite nécrosante
SENTERRE, Thibault ULiege; Jacob, Mathilde

in journée annuelle de conférences de l'association des Infirmiers Spécialisés en Pédiatrie et Néonatologie (2016)

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See detailDe l’Aurignacien au Gravettien dans le Nord-Ouest européen
Touzé, Olivier ULiege

in Chirica, Vasile; Ichim, Cristian (Eds.) Les Aurignaciens. Leur création matérielle et spirituelle (2016)

The study of the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Northwestern Europe faces several difficulties associated with the qualitative and quantitative state of the documentation. These limits constrain the ... [more ▼]

The study of the Early Upper Palaeolithic in Northwestern Europe faces several difficulties associated with the qualitative and quantitative state of the documentation. These limits constrain the precision of the analyses, though the study of this period benefits from a dynamic of research based on the preventive and programmed archaeologies, and the reappraisal of old collections. Recent data and current work on several sites demonstrate that Northwestern Europe can fully contribute to the discussions on this period, and in particular to the question of the transition between the Aurignacian and the Gravettian. Thus, we propose here an overview of the period extending from the Recent Aurignacian to the Early Gravettian, in order to propose some thoughts on this pivotal phase of the Upper Palaeolithic. During this particular period, the European Northwest indeed distinguishes itself by the appearance of the Maisierian, an original lithic tradition whose technical system, devoid of elements peculiar to the Aurignacian traditions, announces the development of Gravettian norms. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Goats (2016) (2016)

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, sylvopastoral systems satisfy the diverse needs of local population and represent the most important feed sources for goats. This system is under pressure due to climate change ... [more ▼]

In Rif Mountain of Morocco, sylvopastoral systems satisfy the diverse needs of local population and represent the most important feed sources for goats. This system is under pressure due to climate change and overgrazing. For a sustainable and integrated development of this area, it is essential to establish a resource assessment. This study aims to evaluate the pastoral production (biomass) and investigate the use of pasture in Rif Mountain (Loubar) exclusively used by goat herds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys, on using pasture by breeders, were realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoeches and Pistacia lentiscus, represent the most palatable species selected by goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by a poor floristic diversity (65 species) dominated by shrubs. The biomass produced was estimated at 373 kg dry matter per hectare composed for 63% by shrubs. For biomass production, significant differences were observed depending on the season and according to sampling sites. The continuous use of the same pasture for a long time can explain the low production estimated and appearance of unpalatable species, such as Arisarum vulgare, Daphne gnidium and Ranunculus sardous. In fact, due to the bad operating practices of pastoral resources, sylvopastoral areas will be less available and of lower quality. The reasonable use of these resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure a better productivity and sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailBispecial Factors in the Brun S-Adic System
Labbé, Sébastien ULiege; Leroy, Julien ULiege

in Brlek, Sre Vcko; Reutenauer, Christophe (Eds.) Developments in Language Theory: 20th International Conference, DLT 2016, Montréal, Canada, July 25-28, 2016, Proceedings (2016)

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See detailPerformance of the chicken contract farming and its affecting factors in Vietnam: a case study in Hoa Thach Commune, Quoc Oai District, Hanoi
Bui Thi, Nga; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Vietnam National University of Agriculture (VNUA); Académie de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur (ARES) (Eds.) Proceedings International Conference "Agriculture Development in the Context of International Integration: Opportunities and Challenges". December 7-8, Hanoi, Vietnam (2016)

This study aims to analyze the performance and its affecting factors in the chicken contract farming in a case study of Hoa Thach commune, Quoc Oai province, Hanoi, based on the questionnaire surveyed ... [more ▼]

This study aims to analyze the performance and its affecting factors in the chicken contract farming in a case study of Hoa Thach commune, Quoc Oai province, Hanoi, based on the questionnaire surveyed data of 40 representative chicken contract farmers in the study site in 2016. The results showed that surveyed household’s head was medium (37 years old), low educational level (80% secondary school), but they had experience (87.5% had more than 3 years of raising), with quite large raising scale (popular 3001 to 5000 heads). Feed cost was too high (87.7% total cost), led farmers to lower performance, and situation of depending on the market. The farm income was rather low, accounted for only 10.4% total revenue. Results also showed that, any decrease in labor cost, improvement in by - products revenue or egg laying rate will lead to the enhancement of chicken raising performance for contract farmers. Therefore, the farmers had better reduced the feed cost, better manage their labor, exploit by- products and improve the egg laying rate to enhance the farm performance. [less ▲]

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See detailHousehold risk management strategies for coastal aquaculture risks: the case of clam farming in Thaibinh province, Vietnam
Ngo Thi Thu Hang, ULiege; Tran Huu, Cuong; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Vietnam National University of Agriculture (VNUA); Académie de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur (ARES CCD) (Eds.) Proceedings "International conference on Agriculture development in the context of international integration: opportunities and challenges". 2016 ICOAD, December 7-8, Hanoi, Vietnam (2016)

Endowed with 3,260 km of coastal line and 112 estuaries, Vietnam has a high potential for aquaculture development. However, long coastal line is also embedded with natural high risks under climate changes ... [more ▼]

Endowed with 3,260 km of coastal line and 112 estuaries, Vietnam has a high potential for aquaculture development. However, long coastal line is also embedded with natural high risks under climate changes and sea level rise. Vietnam is ranked at the 18th in the 2015 world risk index and the vulnerability index of 50.9%. Relying on coastal resources, aquatic farmers have adopted a number of strategies to cope with aquaculture risks. By using the OECD holistic approach, this research used several tools to identify farmer's performance on clam farming practices and their risk management strategies (RMS) in Thaibinh province (the largest area of the clam production in the north and north central coastal part of Vietnam). RSMs are found of diversification and flexibility among farmers. For production risks, the RSMs are: (1) enlarging clam raising size and (2) actively controlling clam production by experience and technical innovations. For market risks, the RSM is searching for more clam market channels in both input and output market. For financial risks, RSMs are (1) securing family from clam farming loss by diversifying livelihood activities and (2) accessing secure financial sources in term or interest and bond conditions. Although some RSMs had resulted positive impacts but in overall, the clam farming risks have not managed well by those strategies due to the limitation in capacity of households comparing with level of risks. To cope better with different risks in clam sector, besides the adjustment in RSMs of farmers themselves, it is necessary to have the intervention from government (from national to local level) to address the aquaculture risks which the farmers cannot handle by themselves, such as (1) addressing the issue of polluted wastewater to the clam field; and (2) more focusing in supporting farmer in linkages to the both formal financial market and output market. In addition, supports for technical training targeting on improving farmer's skills and knowledge in farming decision making and market information is also of high value to clam farmers in coping with farming risks. [less ▲]

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See detailContract Farming as a Determinant of Promoting Tea Marketing Channel for Small Producers in Phu Tho Province
Le Thi Kim, Oanh ULiege; Vu Dinh, Ton; Tran Huu, Cuong et al

in Global Business Research Journals (GBRJ) (Ed.) Proceedings of the Doctoral Research Conference in Business Studies & Management Sciences (2016)

Making contracts between farmers and firms (contract farming, for short) plays an important role in establishing access to the agricultural markets for the small producers, especially in the developing ... [more ▼]

Making contracts between farmers and firms (contract farming, for short) plays an important role in establishing access to the agricultural markets for the small producers, especially in the developing and less developed countries. It is argued that contract farming provides farmers with the assured sale of their crops and agro-business firms with a steady supply of agricultural products required by the market. This paper focuses on analyzing benefits of tea producers through signing contract with firms. By using relevant research methods of verifying studying areas, making Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), and surveying farmers, the paper finds that although contract farmers receive lower fresh tea price in compared with the price received by non-contract farmers, they would have higher price stability and are provided with market guarantee mechanism. These benefits are really important in context of globalization and market liberalization with the demand for high quality and high value products. It is highly recommended that small farmers therefore should participate in the coordination model between farmers and firms in the process of tea production and marketing in Phu Tho Province, Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in the Rif Mountains of Morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, Mouad; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Casasus, I.; Lombardi, G. (Eds.) Mountain pastures and livestock farming facing uncertainty: environmental, technical and socio-economic challenges (2016)

In Northern Morocco, the forest rangelands provide goods and services, which satisfy the diverse needs of local population. These silvopastoral areas represent the most important feed sources for goats in ... [more ▼]

In Northern Morocco, the forest rangelands provide goods and services, which satisfy the diverse needs of local population. These silvopastoral areas represent the most important feed sources for goats in the Rif Mountain. This study aims to evaluate the biomass production and investigate the use of a silvopastoral area (Derdara) exclusively used by goatherds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. A survey on using pasture by breeders was realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Arbutus unedo, Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Lavandula stoeches and Mentha pulegium, represent the fundamental diet for goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by a diversity average level of pastoral flora (94 species) dominated by shrubs. The biomass produced was estimated at 1867 kg dry matter per hectare composed for 74% by shrubs. Significant differences were observed concerning the intensity of the canopy cover, depending on the season and according to sampling sites. The continuous use of the same pasture for a long time, can explain the appearance of low pastoral value species in the study area, such as Arisarum vulgare, Daphne gnidium and Ranunculus sardous. The reasonable use of silvopastoral resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure better productivity and sustainability of these resources. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomass production and use of silvopastoral areas in northern Morocco: A case study of western Rif
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 3nd FARAH Day, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2016) (2016)

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas provide diverse needs for local population and livestock. These pasture represent the most important feed sources for goats in Rif Mountain. This study aims to ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, silvopastoral areas provide diverse needs for local population and livestock. These pasture represent the most important feed sources for goats in Rif Mountain. This study aims to evaluate biomass production and investigate the use of a silvopastoral area in two representative pastoral areas (Derdara and Loubare) exclusively used by goatherds. For biomass production, we used the method of the reference module. The surveys, on using pasture by breeders, were realized during the biomass evaluation period. The pastoral shrubs, mainly Arbustus unedo, Cistus crispus, Cistus monspeliensis, Erica arborea, Lavendula stoeches and Mentha pulegium, are the main diet of goats. Breeders use pasture throughout the year, except on rainy days where they resort to limbing. The pasture was characterized by an average level of diversity of pastoral flora in Derdara (94 species) and poor floristic diversity in Loubare (65 species) dominated by shrubs . The phytomass productions at Derdara and Loubare were estimated at respectively 1867 kg and 373 kg for dry matter per hectare. The continuous use of pastoral resources and lack of pasture management has considerably reduced the palatable pasture species and has allowed the appearance of low pastoral value species. Statistically significant differences were observed depending on season, with a maximum in the spring and a minimum in the winter, and according to sampling sites are differentiating by intensity of canopy cover. Management actions and use of silvopastoral resources, including a reduction in grazing pressure, should be developed to ensure better productivity and sustainability of these resources. [less ▲]

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See detailZola in Sciascia: Una nota su Candido (1977) e sul corpo
Curreri, Luciano ULiege

in Baldassarri, Guido (Ed.) I cantieri dell’italianistica. Ricerca, didattica e organizzazione agli inizi del XXI secolo. (2016)

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See detailUse of new technology to estimate the grazing behavior of goats in northern morocco
Chebli, Youssef ULiege; Chentouf, M.; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Proceedings of the 3nd FARAH Day, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (2016) (2016)

In northern Morocco, goats are exclusively or partially conducted in extensive farming systems in which most nutrients from forest pastures. Grazing is associated with daily activities significantly ... [more ▼]

In northern Morocco, goats are exclusively or partially conducted in extensive farming systems in which most nutrients from forest pastures. Grazing is associated with daily activities significantly different from those of animals in confinement, such as grazing behavior and distance. Currently, new techniques have been proposed to characterize the feeding behavior of goats on rangelands and throughout the day. These measures are now determined mainly by GPS collars and IceTag, which are used to monitor activity,location and movement in grazing areas. This study was conducted in two representative pastures (Derdara and Loubare) in western Rif. The study concerned the characterization of movement of goats on a silvopastoral pasture through using new technology. GPS collars have allowed us to estimate a distance travelled at 8 km for 10 hours of grazing per day. With IceTag (attached to a rear leg of goat), we estimated the number of steps and time spent standing, lying , and active. IceTags and GPS collars data was used simultaneously to estimate times spent grazing/eating, as well as other behaviors. The study also revealed that the goats consumed mainly of palatable vegetation at ground level. The intersection of several parameters of pastoral assessment with the study of feeding behavior of goats on rangelands will allow us in future to manage better the herd in time and space. [less ▲]

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See detailLa régionalité lexicale du moyen français (1350-1500) dans le DMF
Renders, Pascale ULiege

in Glessgen, Martin; Trotter, David (Eds.) La régionalité lexicale au Moyen Âge. Colloque international en l’honneur du 70e anniversaire de Gilles Roques (2016)

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See detailSimultaneous Water Vapor and Dry Air Optical Path Length Measurements and Compensation with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer
Defrere, Denis ULiege; Hinz, P.; Downey, E. et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2016)

The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution ... [more ▼]

The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer uses a near-infrared camera to measure the optical path length variations between the two AO-corrected apertures and provide high-angular resolution observations for all its science channels (1.5-13 microns). There is however a wavelength dependent component to the atmospheric turbulence, which can introduce optical path length errors when observing at a wavelength different from that of the fringe sensing camera. Water vapor in particular is highly dispersive and its effect must be taken into account for high-precision infrared interferometric observations as described previously for VLTI/MIDI or the Keck Interferometer Nuller. In this paper, we describe the new sensing approach that has been developed at the LBT to measure and monitor the optical path length fluctuations due to dry air and water vapor separately. After reviewing the current performance of the system for dry air seeing compensation, we present simultaneous H-, K-, and N-band observations that illustrate the feasibility of our feedforward approach to stabilize the path length fluctuations seen by the LBTI nuller. [less ▲]

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See detailRice and shrimp farming in the Xuan Thuy National Park: sustainable and unsustainable practices
Nguyen Thi Trang Nhung, ULiege; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege; Tran Huu, Cuong

in Vietnam National University of Agriculture (VNUA); Académie de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur (ARES) (Eds.) Proceedings International Conference "Agriculture Development in the Context of International Integration: Opportunities and Challenges". December 7-8, Hanoi, Vietnam (2016)

Agricultural and aquaculture patterns in Xuan Thuy National Park mainly consists of rice planting and shrimp aquaculture (intensive and semi-intensive). Currently, there are about 11,899 rice households ... [more ▼]

Agricultural and aquaculture patterns in Xuan Thuy National Park mainly consists of rice planting and shrimp aquaculture (intensive and semi-intensive). Currently, there are about 11,899 rice households covering 1,873.07 ha, 215 semi-intensive shrimp households occupying 1,730.7 ha and 40 intensive households amounting to 90 ha in the Ramsar site. The local farmers produce 14,411 ton of rice, 450 ton of intensive shrimp and 516 tonof semi-intensive shrimp. Thus, rice and shrimp contribute significantly to local food basket and economy but it is overshadowed by environmental concerns. This paper aims to focus on reviews how farmers practice rice and shrimp at the international important location. It finds some inappropriate management practices regarding to monoculture, use of fertilizer, pesticide, antibiotic and other drugs, and water effluent systems. In addition, almost of respondents aware of water discharge from rice areas after spraying pesticide is the most serious constraint for their shrimp and the effluent from shrimp ponds make pollution for the environment. Lesson learned from review are considered in the context of recommendations to apply effective management measures to mitigate the unsustainable practices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe dynamic pathways of agrarian change in the Red River Delta of Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Minh Khué, ULiege; Nguyen Thi, Dien; Lebailly, Philippe ULiege

in Vietnam National University of Agriculture (VNUA); Académie de Recherche et d'Enseignement Supérieur (ARES) (Eds.) Proceedings International Conference "Agriculture Development in the Context of International Integration: Opportunities and Challenges". Vietnam National University of Agriculture, December 7-8, 2016, Hanoi, Vietnam (2016)

Even though agricultural production has not been the main source of income for rural households in Red River Delta, yet farming remains an important livelihood and security for many rural people. The ... [more ▼]

Even though agricultural production has not been the main source of income for rural households in Red River Delta, yet farming remains an important livelihood and security for many rural people. The empirical findings from fieldwork in a village in the Red River Delta of Vietnam show how dependence on agriculture is determined by family context, including land, education and job of household members, their gender and age. Most educated young people have successfully found employment opportunities outside in the village as migratory wage labour, and have capacity to attain higher social status and become rural entrepreneurs. While less educated and older villagers consider agriculture as a more favorable alternative and valuable security. Besides, maintenance agricultural production at reasonable level and return to traditional cultivation is also considered as a rural household strategy coping with food security in industrialization and rural-urban linkage. Diverse and special extended livelihoods are contributed by historical, cultural and economic specificities which are conditioned for rural transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes formations à silex dans le sud de la France : élaboration en multipartenariat d’une base de données géoréférencées, premiers résultats
Fernandes, Paul; Tuffery, Christophe; Raynal, Jean-Paul et al

in Tomasso, Antonin; Binder, Didier; Martino, Gabriele (Eds.) et al Ressources lithiques, productions et transferts entre Alpes et Méditerranée (2016)

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See detailThe study of ornament and the shaping of a new architecture in 19th century Belgium
Prina, Daniela ULiege

in James-Chakraborty, Kathleen (Ed.) Proceedings Of The Fourth International Conference Of The European Architectural History Network (2016)

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See detailGain Adaptation for Continuous Sliding Mode Control
Cho, Hancheol ULiege

in 2016 2nd International Conference on Control Science and Systems Engineering (ICCSSE), Singapore 27-29 July 2016 (2016)

In this paper a novel adaptive sliding mode controller design is presented for robust control of nonlinear uncertain systems. A continuous control law to compensate for the uncertainties is first ... [more ▼]

In this paper a novel adaptive sliding mode controller design is presented for robust control of nonlinear uncertain systems. A continuous control law to compensate for the uncertainties is first developed that is completely free from chattering. Focusing on the relation between the tried gain value and the resultant sliding variable, a new method for estimating the uncertainty bounds is then derived, leading to an adaptive law for gain-tuning by which the error eventually lies within a user-specified region in a finite time. Unlike other existing approaches, the new adaptive rule only requires the magnitude of the control input in the previous time step, which greatly eases the application of the proposed algorithm to real-world systems. An inverted pendulum system is simulated to demonstrate the accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed control strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailUne plateforme collaborative pour soutenir la communication des personnes présentant un trouble du spectre de l’autisme : première évaluation fonctionnelle par des orthophonistes.
Grevesse, Pascale ULiege; dor, Orianne; Maillart, Christelle ULiege

in Joyeux, Nathalie; Topouzkhanian, Sylvia (Eds.) ORTHOPHONIE ET TECHNOLOGIES INNOVANTES (2016)

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See detailFrom the spirit to the letter of the charters : mind the gap for the future
Houbart, Claudine ULiege; Dawans, Stéphane ULiege

in Szmygin, Bogusław (Ed.) Heritage in Transformation. Cultural heritage Protection in XXI century. Problems, Challenges, Predictions (2016)

Since the 1960’s and the foundation of ICOMOS, charters have been considered as a sort of conservation gospel. In this presentation, we would like to question this fact, in the light of the very ... [more ▼]

Since the 1960’s and the foundation of ICOMOS, charters have been considered as a sort of conservation gospel. In this presentation, we would like to question this fact, in the light of the very particular production and reception conditions of the documents. What may be perceived as a mostly provocative approach seems to us a constructive basis for future reflections. When we read and use charters – in this presentation, we will mainly focus on the Venice Charter, the Nara document and the Riga Charter – , we forget too often that they have been written by human beings, sometimes very tired, in a hurry, and even arguing with each other. The study of the archival material related to the writing of the Venice Charter and the Nara document very clearly illustrates that these documents are rather a conceptual “bricolage” than indisputable normative texts as if they had been written by lawyers. In the case of the Venice Charter, the archive as well as the records of Raymond M. Lemaire, Paul Philippot or Gertrud Tripp make clear that the document has been written at the last moment and adopted too rapidly by an assembly too glad to finally have a updated version of the Athens charter. As a consequence, only a few years later, Raymond Lemaire and Piero Gazzola already questioned the validity of the new text in the light of the extension of heritage debates to the city centers. On the other hand, the fact that a French and an English version of the Nara document were written in parallel by Raymond M. Lemaire and Herb Stovel in 1994 has had immediate consequences on the content and the formulation of the text, which logically left both of them unsatisfied with the result. Even so, the Venice charter and the Nara document still have force of law today. Yet, besides the particular circumstances of their writing, we must keep in mind that these texts answered specific questions, closely linked to the context: a critical answer to postwar reconstruction for the first, and apparently opposed visions of authenticity between East and West for the second. As far as the Riga charter is concerned, the influence of the delicate context of the Eastern bloc collapse is evident. For this reason, using such documents today requires at least a critical reading, going back to the spirit beyond the text. Our presentation will illustrate ad absurdum, through recent case studies, how a cynical reading of such documents can lead to interventions dangerously in conflict with this spirit and the fundamental ideals of conservation philosophy. In the era of late capitalism and heritage globalization, are we allowed to forget the conditions and the context in which our doctrinal documents have been written to justify anything and everything and to meet, for example, the “tourist gaze”, the “nouveaux riches” taste or the architect’s egomania? Do architects really want to know what the writers of the Venice charter’s article 9 meant by the “contemporary stamp”? What are the limits of the tolerance towards reconstruction first expressed by the Nara document, and a few years later, the charter of Riga? So many questions that ICOMOS must face if it wants to pursue its guiding mission in a mostly financial world. [less ▲]

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See detailSymboles et abréviation chrétiens dans les papyrus littéraires grecs à contenu profane (IVe-VIIe siècles)
Carlig, Nathan ULiege

in Derda, Tomasz; Urbanik, Jakub; Lajtar, Adam (Eds.) Proceedings of the 27th International Congress of Papyrology, Warsaw 29.07—3.08 2013 (2016)

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See detailA quantitative approach to the concept of concrete repair compatibility
Bissonnette, Benoît; Modjabi-Sangnier, François; Courard, Luc ULiege et al

in Dehn, Frank; Beushausen, Hans (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV (2016)

The work reported in this paper is part of a wider research program intended to provide the repair industry with improved fundamental knowledge to implement rational design methods and rules for repairs ... [more ▼]

The work reported in this paper is part of a wider research program intended to provide the repair industry with improved fundamental knowledge to implement rational design methods and rules for repairs. In that regard, there is a strong need to study the fundamental relationships and parameters that underlie the repair compatibility concepts, in particular those relating to dimensional compatibility. In the first part of the paper, classical formulas derived for thick cylindrical specimens were used to analyze the tensile stress buildup in annular restrained shrinkage test specimens, taking into account the restraining conditions the investigated ring test method and the individual concrete properties/phenomena determined experimentally (elastic modulus, creep coefficient, drying shrinkage deformation). By comparing the ring test results with the calculated tensile stresses, the validity and accuracy of the theoretical approach could be appraised. A quantitative approach for the evaluation of the performance of concrete repair in terms of dimensional compatibility was then developed. Derived from the basic strain balance approach (ratio between the total deformability in tension and the drying shrinkage deformation), a parameter referred to as dimensional compatibility index (CI) was introduced in order to analyze the evolution of dimensional compatibility as a function of time for a given concrete mixture, taking into account the actual degree of restraint in the element. Compatibility index evolution curves were calculated for various repair concrete mixtures in order to highlight material behavior relating to composition parameters and temperature. As it requires the evaluation of a limited number of individual properties that are for most readily available (i.e. strength, elastic modulus, shrinkage), the compatibility index expressed in terms of deformation carries a lot of potential as a relatively simple and convenient analytical tool for assessing the cracking sensitivity of concrete repair materials. Overall, it can be stated that a good correlation was found between the ring test results and the tensile stress values calculated based on individual concrete properties / phenomena and that the proposed calculation method lays ground for evaluating quantitatively the dimensional compatibility of repair materials and defining suitable performance criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailA repair quality control with elastic waves based methods vs. substrate quality
Garbacz, Andrzej; Piotrowski, Tomasz; Courard, Luc ULiege et al

in Dehn; Beushausen, Hans (Eds.) Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting IV (2016)

An adhesion in repair system is one of the most important factors that affect the repair efficiency. The elaboration of reliable nondestructive method for an adhesion mapping is one of the most important ... [more ▼]

An adhesion in repair system is one of the most important factors that affect the repair efficiency. The elaboration of reliable nondestructive method for an adhesion mapping is one of the most important tasks. A majority of NDT methods mentioned in EN 1504-10 and ACI Concrete Repair Manual for assessment of concrete structures are based on propagation of stress waves. However, these investigations are rarely focused on evaluation of bond strength. Repair system is difficult to test with NDT methods because of many factors influencing stress wave propagation. In this paper the effect of a quality of concrete substrate on propagation of stress waves in repair system and their influence on possibility of estimation of the bond strength is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrosyntaxe et macrosyntaxe des lexèmes _chaitif_, _dolent_, _las_ et _maleuré/maleureus_ en français médiéval. De l'adjectif au locutif
Mazziotta, Nicolas ULiege

in Actes du 5e Congrès Mondial de Linguistique Française (CMLF) (2016)

This paper investigates the syntax of the following medieval French lexemes: chaitif, dolent, las and maleuré/maleureus. The theoretical framework takes into account micro- and macrosyntax. The lexemes at ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the syntax of the following medieval French lexemes: chaitif, dolent, las and maleuré/maleureus. The theoretical framework takes into account micro- and macrosyntax. The lexemes at study can be used as adjectives as well as locutives, i.e. words belonging to a POS that has a very constrained microsyntactic distribution and carrying a specific illocutionary point. The latter characteristics implies that locutives cannot be governed by other words in a syntactic dependency structure. The syntactic analysis of the locutive uses of the aforementionned lexemes leads to consider them as "advocate" illocutionary units that undergo special constraints on their linear order. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal and visual comfort under different trees cover in urban spaces at Constantine city centre - hot and dry climate
LOUAFI BELLARA, Samira; ABDOU, Saliha; Reiter, Sigrid ULiege

in La Roche, Pablo; Schiler, Marc (Eds.) Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Passive and Low Energy Architecture. PLEA 2016 : "Cities, Buildings, People: Towards Regenerative Environments" (2016)

In urban environments, vegetated spaces have proven to act as ameliorating factors of some climatic features related to heat stress, reducing their effects and providing comfortable outdoor settings for ... [more ▼]

In urban environments, vegetated spaces have proven to act as ameliorating factors of some climatic features related to heat stress, reducing their effects and providing comfortable outdoor settings for people. The consideration of the thermal and visual outdoor conditions in cities is increasingly important for the well-being of man and the use of public spaces. Tree shaded areas can reduce the heat effect by amelioration of microclimate and human outdoor thermal comfort. The objective of this research is to investigate thermal and visual comfort and perception in tree shaded area in open urban spaces and to compare the performance of areas shaded by different types of tree coverage, including an open area without vegetation, located in a hot and dry climate. The methodology is based on a combination of an investigation conducted by structured interview, microclimate measurement. Measurements of air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, solar global radiation, luminance and the sky view factor combined with comfort surveys were performed during summer in different areas in the city center of Constantine in Algeria (a hot and dry climate). The results indicate that the percentage of tree coverage of a space is a highly important metric to assess outdoor comfort in a hot-dry climate and that it influences mainly the use of outdoor recreational areas. Dense vegetation cover optimises the microclimatic environment for pedestrians' thermal and visual comfort in urban spaces, under these climatic conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscours et stratégies dans les déclarations criminelles élaborées devant les notaires liégeois aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles
Drécourt, Aurore ULiege

in Dire, (d)écrire, représenter la violence, Colloque international du CRIHAM (2016)

Le présent projet de communication propose une étude sur la manière de représenter la violence ainsi que son instrumentalisation à des fins personnelles dans des actes relevant de la pratique notariale ... [more ▼]

Le présent projet de communication propose une étude sur la manière de représenter la violence ainsi que son instrumentalisation à des fins personnelles dans des actes relevant de la pratique notariale aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles à Liège. L’analyse de ces sources est novatrice pour une histoire de la criminalité. En effet, les historiens se sont avant tout centrés sur les archives des cours judiciaires. Il semble cependant que les populations d’Ancien Régime n’allaient pas systématiquement devant le juge pour régler leurs conflits. Ainsi des accords, qui ne seraient sans doute jamais parvenus à la connaissance de l’historien par la seule étude des archives criminelles, émergent dans les actes relevant de la pratique notariale. Outre ces accommodements clairement identifiés dans les minutes, les populations d’Ancien Régime se déplacent également devant notaires pour que ceux-ci retranscrivent, plus ou moins fidèlement, le récit subjectif d’un évènement vécu. Ces déclarations criminelles seront ensuite, selon le choix du comparant, enregistrées ou non au greffe. En effet, cette trace d’accusation ou de témoignage ne parvient pas systématiquement aux autorités. Tout dépend de l’évolution du conflit et parfois le simple déplacement chez le notaire pousse la partie adverse à s’accommoder avant le passage en justice. Ces déclarations criminelles constituent des sources particulièrement intéressantes pour observer la psychologie, les perceptions et les interprétations de la violence des victimes et des agresseurs. Nous proposons ici d’étudier les stratégies discursives mises en œuvre lors de la passation d’une déclaration devant le notaire et sur ce qu’elles révèlent de la société qui les produit. En effet, ces témoignages constituent une véritable mise en scène de la violence, qui est instrumentalisée afin d’obtenir gain de cause lors d’un conflit. Comment les comparants s’y prennent-ils ? Quels sont les topoï les plus souvent utilisés ? Observe-t-on une évolution de ces discours entre le XVIIe et le XVIIIe siècle ? Cette analyse permettra de mettre en lumière la manière dont la société attribuait différents seuils de gravité à des actes violents, leurs circonstances aggravantes et comment ces représentations de la société étaient sciemment utilisées par les intervenants pour déconstruire la gravité de leurs actes. Enfin, étudier la violence et les discours des personnes impliquées permet également une meilleure compréhension de phénomènes sociaux que nous proposons de souligner, comme l’importance de l’honneur et sa place essentielle dans la société d’Ancien Régime. [less ▲]

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See detailUSING TDU-GC-MS TO INVESTIGATE THE VOCS EMISSION OF BRASSICA NAPUS L. PLANTLETS CULTIVATED IN VITRO AND EXPOSED TO CADMIUM ABIOTIC STRESS.
Durenne, Bastien ULiege; Blondel, Alodie; Druart, Philippe et al

in 40th ISCC and 13th GCxGC Symposium Abstracts book (2016)

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See detailLa signature dans les lettres du duc de Bourgogne Philippe le Bon
Dumont, Jonathan ULiege; Marchandisse, Alain ULiege

in Dumézil, Bruno; Vissière, Laurent (Eds.) Epistolaire politique II : « Authentiques et autographes (IVe–XVIe siècles) » (2016)

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See detailL'usage de la signature par les premiers ducs de Bourgogne de la Maison de Valois
Marchandisse, Alain ULiege; Schnerb, Bertrand

in Feller, Caludia; Lackner, Christian (Eds.) Manu propria. Vom eigenhändigen Schreiben der Mächtigen (13.-15. Jahrhundert) (2016)

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See detailThe soundscape of a mussel farm: Biophony and man-made noise levels
Picciulin, Marta; Colla, Silvia; Pranovi, Fabio et al

in Proceedings of meetings on acoustics Acoustical Society of America 27(1) (2016)

During the summer of 2015, four Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) surveys were carried out over a mussel farm in the Venetian (Italy) littoral zone at night-time hours. A qualitative and quantitative ... [more ▼]

During the summer of 2015, four Passive Acoustic Monitoring (PAM) surveys were carried out over a mussel farm in the Venetian (Italy) littoral zone at night-time hours. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the soundscape was carried out. The high frequencies component of the soundscape (i.e above 2 kHz) was dominated by snapping shrimps sounds, while the low frequency component (i.e. below 2 kHz) was characterized by fish vocalization, mainly emitted by Sciaena umbra (Sciaenidae), with less frequent occurrences emitted by Gobidae spp. S. umbra highest vocal activity was recorded from June to August inside the mussel farm. The low frequency component of the soundscape was dominated by boat noise; in particular, low frequency noise (i.e. below 4 kHz) emitted by commercial ships and passenger cruises. The Acoustic Complexity Index (ACI) was found to increase concurrently with the number of S. umbra vocalizations: ACI highest values corresponded with S. umbra chorus recorded during July. The results of this study suggest that the mussel farm may function as a Fishery Aggregated Device (FAD), where fish might utilize it for different ecosystem services. Despite this, man-made noise was present in most of the acoustic samples, suggesting a potential impact on the local fauna [less ▲]

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See detailEn tous quartiers ou j’ay esté. Le récit de pèlerinage de Georges Lengherand, mayeur de Mons (1486–1487) : une esquisse
Bruwier, Marie-Cécile; Docquier, Gilles; Marchandisse, Alain ULiege

in Docquier, Gilles; Marchandisse, Alain (Eds.) Pays bourguignons et Orient : diplomatie, conflits, pèlerinages, échanges (XIVe–XVIe siècles) (2016)

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See detailLe référentiel Matières Premières de l’Arc Liguro-Provençal (MP-ALP) : ressources siliceuses entre Vallée du Rhône et Apennins
Tomasso, Antonin ULiege; Binder, Didier; Martino, Gabriele et al

in Tomasso, Antonin; Binder, Didier; Martino, Gabriele (Eds.) et al Ressources lithiques, productions et transferts entre Alpes et Méditerranée (2016)

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See detailNuovi studi sull'Epigravettiano di Isola Santa e della Toscana Settentrionale
Dini, Mario; Tomasso, Antonin ULiege; Tozzi, Carlo

in La Garfagnana. Società, cultura materiale e sviluppo del territorio (2016)

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See detailLa littératie: un cadre d'analyse au service du développement professionnel des enseignants
Schillings, Patricia ULiege

in Godenir, Anne; Vanesse-Hannecart, Marianne (Eds.) Actes. Enseignement et apprentissage de la lecture-écriture: les garants de la participation citoyenne (2016)

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See detailIntentions d'implémentation et procrastination chez les étudiants.
Stassart, Céline ULiege; Potdevin, Benoit; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULiege

in Évolutions sociales, innovations et politiques: Nouvelles questions et nouveaux enjeux pour la psychologie de la santé, Actes du Congrès de l’AFPSA, tome 2, (2016)

Introduction : La procrastination est définie comme une tendance à reporter ce qui est nécessaire pour atteindre un objectif. Ainsi, la procrastination concerne une intention qui ne se traduit pas en ... [more ▼]

Introduction : La procrastination est définie comme une tendance à reporter ce qui est nécessaire pour atteindre un objectif. Ainsi, la procrastination concerne une intention qui ne se traduit pas en action. L’intention d’implémentation se définit notamment à travers le désengagement face au problème, l’orientation vers les buts, et l’activation des ressources et cette étude examine la part explicative de ces trois dimensions dans le processus de procrastination. Méthodologie : Un échantillon de 197 étudiants ont complété les versions françaises du Solution Focused Inventory (SFI), et du Procrastination Assessment Scale for Students (PASS). Résultats : L’intention d’implémentation intervient dans 32% de la variance de la procrastination. Le désengagement face au problème et l’orientation vers les buts expliquent de manière significative la fréquence de procrastination.  Conclusion : Le processus de procrastination pourrait en partie être expliqué par manque d’intentions d’implémentation, plus particulièrement par une difficulté à se désengager du problème (tendance à être bloqué dans sa réflexion en se focalisant davantage sur les problèmes) et à s’orienter vers les buts (présenter des difficultés à mettre au point des plans d’action efficaces). [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an “integrated conservation” : the contribution of R.M. Lemaire and Piero Gazzola during the first decade of ICOMOS (1965-1975)
Houbart, Claudine ULiege

in Szmygin, Bogusław (Ed.) Heritage in Transformation. Cultural Heritage Protection in XXI century. Problems, challenges, predictions (2016)

Respectively elected first President and first Secretary General during the first general assembly of ICOMOS in Cracow in 1965, Piero Gazzola and Raymond M. Lemaire have deeply contributed to the success ... [more ▼]

Respectively elected first President and first Secretary General during the first general assembly of ICOMOS in Cracow in 1965, Piero Gazzola and Raymond M. Lemaire have deeply contributed to the success of the newly born organisation. During the first years, they didn’t only provoke the creation of numerous national committees around the world, but they also positioned ICOMOS as a major actor of the international conservation scene, through the organisation of conferences and an active participation in the debates initiated by Unesco and the Council of Europe, for which ICOMOS acted as a consultant. The study of Raymond M. Lemaire’s archive, kept at the KU Leuven in Belgium, clearly shows that one of the major concerns of both Lemaire and Gazzola, who had been, in 1964, amongst the main authors of the Venice Charter, was to broaden the scope of the document in order to address the issue of pre-industrial city centres, threatened by late reconstruction or development projects mostly promoting functionalist approaches. Depending on the time available, this presentation will address one or various aspects of Lemaire’s and Gazzola’s contribution to the emergence of integrated conservation, consecrated by the European Charter and the Amsterdam Declaration of 1975, that is: the new ideas (social value of heritage for example) developed during the expert meetings organised by the Council of Europe in 1965-1968, where they both represented ICOMOS. These ideas are synthesised in the report “Saving the face of Europe” in 1973, the relation between these theoretical contributions and Lemaire and Gazzola’s contemporary field experience, the role of Eastern Europe experiences (D. Libal in Prague and M. Horler in Budapest) in the development of an appropriate methodology to address urban issues, the differences between the concept of “integral planning” proposed by Lemaire in 1973 and the “integrated conservation” that was promoted by the 1975 Council of Europe charters, an epilogue could mention the revision projects of the Venice Charter between 1975 and 1981. Based on my PhD about R.M. Lemaire, recently presented at the KU Leuven (Belgium), this presentation aims at clarifying and illustrating the shift from monument restoration towards city “reanimation” or “rehabilitation” during the late sixties and seventies, as well as paying tribute to the action of two of the most important figures of the beginnings of ICOMOS. [less ▲]

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