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See detailLes corps des scientifiques et de l’intellectuel dans la revue La Recherche
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Mabrour, Abdel; Bajomée, Danielle (Eds.) La lettre et l’image. Enquêtes interculturelles sur les territoires du visible (2016, October)

Ce travail entend examiner les rapports entre les représentations photographiques des corps des scientifiques dans la revue de vulgarisation savante La Recherche, tels les portraits, les scènes de travail ... [more ▼]

Ce travail entend examiner les rapports entre les représentations photographiques des corps des scientifiques dans la revue de vulgarisation savante La Recherche, tels les portraits, les scènes de travail collectif en laboratoire etc., et les conceptions de la science qui en sont valorisées. L’étude des relations entre les photographies et les textes qui les accompagnent ont ainsi pour objectif de déployer une réflexion non seulement sur les différents types de commensurabilité entre le langage verbal et le langage visuel mais aussi sur le fait que le langage visuel est à même de forger de manière tout à fait autonome des valeurs identitaires et des formes de vie identifiables via l’analyse sémiotique. Notre exploration se développera en deux volets : le premier vise à esquisser la méthodologie de la sémiotique visuelle pour pouvoir introduire les niveaux pertinents de l’analyse sémiotique, le deuxième consiste à analyser un corpus constitué de textes tirés de quelques numéros de la revue La Recherche en en distinguant les différents genres discursifs (entretien, présentation de travaux en cours, etc.) et les différents types de cadrage et de mise en scène photographique afin d’expliquer comment ils se combinent avec les prises de position épistémologiques valorisées. [less ▲]

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See detailThyroid nodule : metastasis or primary neoplasm ?
PETIGNOT, Sandrine ULg; PETROSSIANS, Patrick ULg; VAN DAELE, Daniel ULg et al

in 26nd meeting of the Belgian Endocrine Society - Abstract book (2016, October)

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See detailLes dernières évolutions en droit européen en matière d'assurance protection juridique
Wildemeersch, Jonathan ULg

in Wildemeersch, Jonathan (Ed.) L'assurance protection juridique : quid pour demain? (2016, October)

L'assurance protection juridique est régie par une directive européenne. Comment la Cour de justice interprète-t-elle le principe du libre choix de l'avocat imposé par la directive ? Tel est l'objet de ... [more ▼]

L'assurance protection juridique est régie par une directive européenne. Comment la Cour de justice interprète-t-elle le principe du libre choix de l'avocat imposé par la directive ? Tel est l'objet de cette contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailHistorical Mortars in Wallonia (Belgium): A New Archaeological Approach. The Case of the Mediaeval Fortress of Pont-de-Bonne (Belgium, Province of Liège)
Demelenne, Marie; Bossiroy, Dominique; Dagrain, Fabrice et al

in Papayianni, Ioanna; Stefanidou, Maria; Pachta, Vasiliki (Eds.) 4th Historic Mortars Conference HMC2016 (2016, October)

This paper deals with an innovative methodology dedicated to the study of historical mortars. Gathering macroscopic observation, petrography in thin sections, chemical analyses as well as physical and ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with an innovative methodology dedicated to the study of historical mortars. Gathering macroscopic observation, petrography in thin sections, chemical analyses as well as physical and mechanical data namely obtained with non destructive technologies developed for the petroleum industry, it allows cross-interpretation that can effectively contribute to archaeological research through correlations with the age, the function, the technology and the provenance of each mortar sample collected on a studied site. Following a synthetic description of the proposed approach, a practical application is illustrated on the site of a mediaeval fortress located in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailFaut-il suivre par IRM hypophysaire les patients porteurs de macroprolactinome dont l'hypersécrétion est contrôlée médicalement ?
Eroukhmanoff, J; Tejedor, I; Potorac, Iulia ULg et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie : 33ème congrès de la Société Française d'Endocrinologie (2016, October)

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See detailUtilisation de la cabergoline dans le traitement palliatif de la maladie de Cushing : l'étude Frenchcab
Ferriere, A; Cortet, C; Chanson, P et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie : 33ème congrès de la Société Française d'Endocrinologie (2016, October)

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See detailFrom guidelines to real daily practice : prolactinoma in pregnancy
VROONEN, Laurent ULg; Potorac, Iulia ULg; D'Andréa, S et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie : 33ème congrès de la Société Française d'Endocrinologie (2016, October)

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See detailClassification criteria for neurogenic claudication caused by lumbar spinal stenosis
Genevay, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine; Konstantinou, Kika et al

in 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back And Pelvic Girdle Pain (2016, October)

BACKGROUND Classification criteria are recommended for diseases that lack highly specific biomarkers in order to improve homogeneity in clinical research. Since imaging evidence of lumbar spinal stenosis ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND Classification criteria are recommended for diseases that lack highly specific biomarkers in order to improve homogeneity in clinical research. Since imaging evidence of lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) or lumbar disc herniations (LDH) may not be associated with symptoms, clinical classification criteria based upon patient symptoms and physical examination findings are required. This study sought to develop a set of criteria identifying patients with neurogenic claudication (NC) caused by LSS and patient with radicular pain (RP) caused by LDH. This abstract reports the results concerning NC caused by LSS. METHODS Phase 1: Nineteen spine specialists (clinicians and researchers) from 8 countries participated in a Delphi process, using an internet program, to rank symptoms and signs which suggest LSS as the cause of NC or DH as the cause of RP. Phase 2: Nineteen different spine specialists (surgeons and non-surgeons) from 5 countries recruited patients during office visits and classify them with a high degree of confidence as having with either: 1) NC caused by LSS 2) RP caused by LDH or 3) non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) with non-specific leg pain radiation. Patients completed survey items and specialists documented examination signs. Signs and symptoms present in ≥ 10 patients were analyzed by using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE). Patients with NC caused by LSS or NSLBP served as controls. Items with p<0.1 in univariate analysis were entered in the multivariate analysis. A score to predict NC caused by LSS was developed based on the coefficient of the GEE, and used to obtain a ROC curve and the associated area under the curve (AUC). RESULTS A list of 46 clinical signs and 28 patient-reported symptoms were selected by the group of spine specialists during the 1st phase. For the 2nd phase, 209 patients with high confidence in the diagnosis were included 63 NC caused by LSS, 89 RP caused by DH, and 57 NSLBP with non-specific leg pain radiation. Items which predicted NC with a p-value <0.1 included age >60, bilateral leg pain, leg pain relieved by sitting, leg pain decreased by leaning or flexing, positive30 seconds extension test, negative straight leg raise test. The score had an AUC of 0.91, and the cutoff to obtain a specificity of 92.1% resulted in a sensitivity of 80.0%. CONCLUSION An international collaboration of surgeon and non-surgeon spine specialists produced a set of diagnostic criteria with high specificity and sensitivity for identifying patients with NC caused by LSS. Using this set could improve the quality of basic science and clinical research in this field by improving homogeneity within groups of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailA Simple Method for Thermal Characterization of Low-Melting Temperature Phase Change Materials (PCMs)
Salvador, Lucas ULg; Hastanin, Juriy ULg; Novello, Frédéric et al

in COMSOL 2016 Proceedings (2016, October)

The successful implementation of a high-efficient latent heat storage system necessitates an appropriate experimental approach to investigate and quantify the variations of the Phase Change Material (PCM ... [more ▼]

The successful implementation of a high-efficient latent heat storage system necessitates an appropriate experimental approach to investigate and quantify the variations of the Phase Change Material (PCM) thermal properties caused by its aging, as well as its potential demixing induced by cyclic freezing and melting. In this paper, we present a concept for the PCM characterization. The proposed method is relatively simple to be implemented. It consists of a cyclic cooling and melting of the PCM sample placed into a tube and monitoring its temperature evolution with a set of temperature sensors. In our work, the temperature evolution of the sample, as well as its sensitivity to the thermal parameters have been numerically investigated using the COMSOL Multiphysics® software. [less ▲]

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See detailAgent-based analysis of dynamic access ranges to the distribution network
Mathieu, Sébastien ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULg

in Proceedings of the 6th European Innovative Smart Grid Technologies (ISGT) (2016, October)

There is a need to clearly state an interaction model that formalizes interactions between actors of the distribution system exchanging flexibility. In previous works we quantitatively evaluated the ... [more ▼]

There is a need to clearly state an interaction model that formalizes interactions between actors of the distribution system exchanging flexibility. In previous works we quantitatively evaluated the performance of five interaction models devised with industrial partners using the agent-based testbed DSIMA. Simulation results showed that these interaction models relying on active network management suffer from a lack of coordination between the distribution and the transmission system operator, activating flexibility simultaneously in opposite directions. This paper introduces a new interaction model fixing this issue based on dynamic access bounds to the network changing throughout the day and preventing the activation of flexibility leading to congestions. This new interaction model is implemented in DSIMA and compared to a model restricting the grid users to a very restrictive but safe access range. Results show that this new model allows to safely increase by 55% the amount of distributed generation in the network. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit public et le tiers. Rapport belge
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Les tiers. Journées panaméennes (2016, October)

Le présent rapport envisage le rôle du tiers en droit public belge, en se focalisant sur les trois thématiques retenues par le rapporteur général : le tiers et la norme (I), l’intérêt du tiers (II) et ... [more ▼]

Le présent rapport envisage le rôle du tiers en droit public belge, en se focalisant sur les trois thématiques retenues par le rapporteur général : le tiers et la norme (I), l’intérêt du tiers (II) et l’exécution de tâches publiques et le tiers (III). [less ▲]

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See detailGestion du stress professionnel : sensibilisation aux processus psychologiques et outils de gestion dérivés
Brouette, Béatrice ULg; Stassart, Céline ULg; Dethier, Marie ULg et al

in Etienne, Anne-Marie; Bragard, Isabelle (Eds.) Evolutions sociales, Innovations et Politiques: nouvelles questions et nouveaux enjeux pour la psychologie de la santé. (2016, October)

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See detailDesign of an experimental set-up to analyse compliant mechanisms used for the deployment of a panel
Dewalque, Florence ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Proceedings of the 14th European Conference on Spacecraft Structures, Materials and Environmental Testing (ECSSMET) (2016, September 30)

Due to their high complexity, compliant mechanisms require high-fidelity mechanical models to reach a detailed understanding of their characteristics and predict their actual behaviour in various ... [more ▼]

Due to their high complexity, compliant mechanisms require high-fidelity mechanical models to reach a detailed understanding of their characteristics and predict their actual behaviour in various situations. This work focuses on tape springs which are used as an alternative to common mechanisms composed of kinematic joints. They present several assets such as, among others, passive deployment and self-locking, but they are characterised by a highly nonlinear behaviour including buckling, the formation of folds and hysteresis. An experimental set-up is then designed to gather information on these phenomena, while in parallel an equivalent finite element model is developed. Quasi-static and dynamic tests are performed, as well as small amplitude vibration tests and large amplitude deployments in order to collect data in a broad variety of cases. The post-processing of the numerous raw data shows, with the help of statistical considerations, the good quality of the acquisitions. Finally, the finite element model proves to be fairly well correlated to the experimental results. [less ▲]

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See detailInfections de la shère génitale
MELIN, Pierrette ULg; DESCY, Julie ULg; MEEX, Cécile ULg

in MELIN, Pierrette; POLET, Marianne (Eds.) Les infections de la sphère génitale. Bruxelles, Belgique (2016, September 29)

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See detailInfluence d'un programme de revalidation multidisciplinaire post-cancer du sein sur la fonction physique
Leclerc, Anne-France ULg; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULg; BURY, Thierry ULg et al

in 9ème Congrès commun SFMES - SFTS : Abstract book (2016, September 22)

Objectif : Le cancer du sein ainsi que ses traitements sont à l'origine de nombreux effets secondaires indésirables, notamment sur la fonction physique. Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer les ... [more ▼]

Objectif : Le cancer du sein ainsi que ses traitements sont à l'origine de nombreux effets secondaires indésirables, notamment sur la fonction physique. Cette étude a pour objectif de déterminer les bénéfices éventuels d’un programme de revalidation multidisciplinaire sur la santé physique des femmes ayant été traitées pour un cancer du sein et d'évaluer l'influence de certaines caractéristiques individuelles initiales sur la réponse du groupe expérimental au programme de revalidation. Matériel et méthodes : L'étude constitue un essai clinique contrôlé non-randomisé évaluant une population totale de 209 patientes, recrutées sur base du volontariat et réparties en deux groupes, soit un groupe contrôle (n = 106) et un groupe expérimental (n = 103). Ce dernier a bénéficié d’une revalidation de trois mois comprenant un entraînement physique supervisé à raison de trois séances par semaine et diverses sessions psycho-éducatives. Pour l'ensemble des participantes, des évaluations constituées d'une part de mesures physiques et fonctionnelles et d'autre part de mesures de composition corporelle ont été programmées à 0 et 3 mois. Celles-ci ont inclus un test de souplesse ("Sit and Reach"), un test d'effort maximal sur bicyclette ergométrique avec suivi cardio-respiratoire, un test de marche de six minutes et la mesure de l'indice de masse corporelle et du pourcentage de graisse corporelle. Afin d'affiner l'analyse, trois groupes ont également été constitués au sein du groupe expérimental à partir des caractéristiques individuelles de thérapie adjuvante (présence de chimiothérapie ou non), de chirurgie (mastectomie ou tumorectomie) et de délai de fin de traitement (délai ≤ 4 mois ou ≥ 8 mois). Résultats : Initialement, toutes les patientes présentent un état de déconditionnement physique, non influencé par le délai de fin de traitement ou par le type de chirurgie, mais bien influencé par la présence d'une chimiothérapie puisque la VO2max apparaît significativement plus faible dans ce cas. Au terme des trois mois, la souplesse (p < 0,0001), la consommation maximale d'oxygène (p < 0,0001), la puissance maximale aérobie (p < 0,0001) et la distance de marche en six minutes (p < 0,0001) s’améliorent significativement au sein du groupe expérimental. Au sein du groupe contrôle, aucune amélioration n'est constatée, excepté pour la distance de marche (p = 0,0031). Par ailleurs, une augmentation significative de l'indice de masse corporelle (p = 0,034) et du pourcentage de graisse corporelle (p = 0,034) est observée au sein du groupe contrôle alors que ce paramètre diminue significativement au sein du groupe expérimental (p = 0,037). Enfin, toutes les patientes du groupe expérimental présentent un même profil de progression quelles que soient leurs caractéristiques individuelles initiales. Conclusion : Cette étude démontre ainsi les effets bénéfiques, tant sur le plan physique que de la composition corporelle, d’une prise en charge multidisciplinaire chez des femmes ayant été traitées pour le cancer du sein. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic interactions of a supercritical aerofoil in the presence of transonic shock buffet
Giannelis, N. F.; Vio, G. A.; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Proceedings of the International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, ISMA 2016 (2016, September 19)

Within a narrow transonic flight region, shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions yield large amplitude, self sustained shock oscillations that are detrimental to both platform handling quality and ... [more ▼]

Within a narrow transonic flight region, shock-wave/boundary-layer interactions yield large amplitude, self sustained shock oscillations that are detrimental to both platform handling quality and structural integrity. In this study, the aeroelastic interactions between this transonic buffet instability and a spring-suspended supercritical aerofoil are investigated by means of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations. Single degree-of-freedom pitching simulations are performed for a range of structural to aerodynamic frequency ratios, sectional mass ratios and levels of structural damping. The results show that for a range of pitch eigenfrequencies above the fundamental buffet frequency, sychronisation of the aerodynamic and structural modes occurs. This so called lock-in phenomenon acts as a mechanism for large amplitude Limit Cycle Oscillation in aircraft structures within the transonic flow regime. The sectional mass and the addition of structural damping are both found to have a pronounced effect on the nature of the limit cycles [less ▲]

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See detail‘There is nothing more practical than a good theory’: Conceptual tools for conservation practice
Verbeeck, Muriel ULg

in Saving the Now: Crossing Boundaries to Conserve Contemporary Works (2016, September 12)

Faced with the growing number of case studies in contemporary art, philosophy provides conservators with a series of conceptual tools that allow to theorize their practice. The notion of intentionality ... [more ▼]

Faced with the growing number of case studies in contemporary art, philosophy provides conservators with a series of conceptual tools that allow to theorize their practice. The notion of intentionality and attentionality borrowed from Genette enables a better understanding of the problems that Dirty Corner by Anish Kapoor (a work vandalized on many occasions) poses. I will show that the conservator deals with the issue of the identity of a contemporary work in a different way from the art historian, and that philosophy is a practical tool to understand the specificity of the former’s approach and intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometallurgical Modelling of Low-Grade Itabirite Iron Ores from the Iron Quadrangle, Brazil
Martino, Rémi ULg; Correa de Araujo, Armando; Gotelip Barbosa, Marcela et al

in Proceedings of the XXVIII International Mineral Processing Congress (IMPC 2016) (2016, September 11)

The Iron Quadrangle district is a world-class iron ore mining district in the region of Belo Horizonte, capital of Minas Gerais state, in Brazil. Many mining companies have been mining high-grade hematite ... [more ▼]

The Iron Quadrangle district is a world-class iron ore mining district in the region of Belo Horizonte, capital of Minas Gerais state, in Brazil. Many mining companies have been mining high-grade hematite ores for decades throughout the region. The mines reserves often include itabirite ores which are available in high volumes, but have lower iron grades than hematite ores and require elaborated mineral processing to meet the requirements of downstream steelmaking. Itabirite ores have acquired importance, with the depletion of high-grade hematite reserves due to their intensive mining. The objective of this paper is to propose a geometallurgical model for the processing of itabirite ores from an Iron Quadrangle deposit, which will allow predicting the behaviour of ores throughout the deposit, according to their local variations. An initial step consists in characterizing representative samples of the different ores to acquire mineralogical and textural data. Then, itabirite ores of known characteristics are processed with different techniques, in order to extract the trends and key parameters upon which the geometallurgical model is developed. At first, the model takes into account the particle size distribution and its shift during mining and screening, as well as the chemistry and mineralogy of the material. Then, using the previously identified key parameters such as iron recovery, the model predicts the composition of the processing products. Finally, this data is used to model the mineralogy and mass recovery of the products. The geometallurgical model is of great importance, as it is able to model the processing of any sampled ore throughout the deposit. The incorporation of the results in a mining block model will assist mine planning and opens new opportunities for an optimized mining schedule. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of bacteria and the addition of pyrite during leaching of Co(III) from heterogenite
Zeka, Leon; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Frenay, Jean ULg et al

in Proceedings of the XXVIII International Mineral Processing Congress (IMPC 2016) (2016, September 11)

Reductive leaching of cobalt (III) from a heterogenite bearing ore has been performed. Pyrite was added to the system and simultaneously bioleached in order to provide ferrous iron as reducing agent ... [more ▼]

Reductive leaching of cobalt (III) from a heterogenite bearing ore has been performed. Pyrite was added to the system and simultaneously bioleached in order to provide ferrous iron as reducing agent. Within such arrangement the iron ions are continuously re-circulated inside a Fe3+/ Fe2+ loop. As a result Co(III) is solubilized in the presence of Fe2+ ions in concentrations well below the stoichiometric requirement. The ore has been initially subjected to acid pre-leaching in order to guarantee that the available Co (II) has been entirely removed. Two technological parameters have been studied to show influence on the degree of cobalt leaching: concentration of ferric iron in the inoculum and the presence of bacteria. The bacterial role could be mainly viewed in supplying ferric ions in the system which chemically react with the pyrite to generate ferrous ions used as Co(III) reducing agent. Co(III) dissolution has been less efficient when the concentration of total iron in the system was low, but also when microorganisms were absent. SEM observations on leached heterogenite have evidenced bacterial attack on the mineral; however the precise role of bacterial presence on cobalt (III) leaching is still to be elucidated. [less ▲]

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See detailA new toolbox for the identification of diagonal Volterra kernels allowing the emulation of nonlinear audio devices
Schmitz, Thomas ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Schmitz, Thomas (Ed.) International Congress on Acoustics : ICA, Argentine 5-9 Septembre 2016 (2016, September 10)

Numerous audio systems are nonlinear. It is thus of great importance to study them and understand how they work. Volterra series model and its subclass (cascade Hammerstein-Wiener model) are usual ways to ... [more ▼]

Numerous audio systems are nonlinear. It is thus of great importance to study them and understand how they work. Volterra series model and its subclass (cascade Hammerstein-Wiener model) are usual ways to modelize nonlinear systems. However the identification methods of these models are still considered as an open topic. Therefore we have developed a new optimized identification tool ready for use and presented as a Matlab toolbox. This toolbox provides the parameters of the optimized sine sweep needed for the identification method, it is able to calculate the parameters of the Hammerstein model and to emulate the output signal of a nonlinear device for a given input signal. To evaluate the toolbox, we modelize a guitar distortion effect (the Tubescreamer) having a total harmonic distortion (THD) comprised in the range 10-23\%. We report a mean error of less than 0.7\% between the emulated signal and the signal coming from the distortion effect. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Assumptions Underlying Identity in Entrepreneurship Research: A Systematic Review in Leading Academic Journals
Aouni, Zineb ULg; Artemis, Chang; Biga-diambeidou, mahamadou

in BAM2016 Proceedings (2016, September 09)

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See detailPostpartum anoestrus in Holstein x Lai Sind crossbred dairy cows in small farms of Ho Chi Minh City
Nguyen, Kien Cuong; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Vo Thi, Tra; Ho Thi Kim, Hoa; Le Thanh, Hien (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 19th Federation of Asian Veterinary Association Congress (2016, September 08)

The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of postpartum (PP) anestrus and the effect of factors on this prevalence in small dairy farmers. The data of 419 calvings and PP periods from 35 small ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of postpartum (PP) anestrus and the effect of factors on this prevalence in small dairy farmers. The data of 419 calvings and PP periods from 35 small dairy farms was collected during two years 2013 and 2014. Cows which failed to express estrus signs by day 60th after calving were submitted for manual palpation and transrectal ultrasonography to evaluate ovarian state. 49.9% of observed cows were not detected in estrus by the stockman during the first 60 days PP. The prevalence of type I, type II, cystic, pyometral and detective anestrus (or subestrus) was 27.0, 6.7, 0.5, 0.7 and 15.0%, respectively. The presence of dystocia or uterine infection was accompanied by an increase in risk of the type I anestrus (36.7% vs 23.1%, P = 0.005; 41.4% vs 21.5% , P < 0.001, respectively). Cows with a low BCS at calving (< 3) or at the 30th day PP (< 2.5) significantly showed a high risk of the type I anestrus than cows with a medium or high BCS at the same periods. In conclusion, the anestrus type I and subestrus mainly contriduted to high risk of PP anestrus in small dairy farms in HCMC. The dystocia, uterine infection, low BCS at calving and at day 30th PP constituted major causes of the type I anestrus. [less ▲]

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See detailBetween bovine milk production and reproduction : the challenge.
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Nguyen Kien, Cuong

in Vo Thi Tra; Ho Thi Kim, Hoa; Le Thanh, Hien (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the 19th Federation of Asian Veterinary Association Congress (2016, September 07)

Huge differences in dairy milk production can be observed around the world. They can be explained by differences in genetic, nutritional resources and management including the capacities of the farmers ... [more ▼]

Huge differences in dairy milk production can be observed around the world. They can be explained by differences in genetic, nutritional resources and management including the capacities of the farmers and veterinarian to prevent and treat the different pathologies inducing of the wellbeing of the animals. According to the world market of milk production, the challenge of each farm is not only to produce a milk of quality but also to reduce the costs of milk production by improving reproductive performances. Anywhere in the world we are responsible to encourage and develop a sustainable approach of milk production and agriculture development according to his three pillars: environment, economic and social. Our presentation will present (1) the mains figures about the milk production in the world, (2) the definitions and prevalences of the different periods involved in the reproductive life of a cow, (3) the nutritional, genetic and pathological factors involved in the milk production on general and more specifically in reproduction (dystocia, placental retention, uterine infections, postpartum anoestrus), the relationships between these factors, (‘) the state of art of the definition, methods of diagnostic state of art of the main reproduction pathologies (dystocia,) affecting the dairy cows during the waiting and reproduction periods. [less ▲]

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See detailProbabilistic Measures of Earthquake Effects on Fire Performance of Tall Buildings
Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Garlock, Maria

in Zingoni (Ed.) Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (2016, September 06)

Cascading multi-hazard events, such as fires following an earthquake, can trigger progressive collapse of structures. Risk or the probability of reaching a limit state after an extreme event is related to ... [more ▼]

Cascading multi-hazard events, such as fires following an earthquake, can trigger progressive collapse of structures. Risk or the probability of reaching a limit state after an extreme event is related to (a) the probability of occurrence of the hazard, and (b) the probability of reaching the limit state given the hazard. In this paper, earthquake effects on fire performance of tall buildings in a community are studied. First, the proba-bility of fire ignition due to an earthquake is modeled based on historical data and properties of the built en-vironment. In the second step, the effect of earthquake on structural fire performance of a steel frame is studied using system level probabilistic approaches. The results show that the earthquake does not increase the probability of reaching different limit states under fire, however, post earthquake fire can increase the drift demand on columns located on the perimeter of the structure, and may cause instability. [less ▲]

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See detailThree-Parameter Kinematic Approach for Shear Behaviour of Short Coupling Beams with Conventional Reinforcement
Mihaylov, Boyan ULg; Franssen, Renaud

in fib bulletin (in preparation) (2016, September 06)

This paper presents a three-parameter kinematic theory (3PKT) for predicting the shear strength and deformation patterns of short coupling beams. The 3PKT approach is situated between simple and ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a three-parameter kinematic theory (3PKT) for predicting the shear strength and deformation patterns of short coupling beams. The 3PKT approach is situated between simple and conservative strut-and-tie models and complex non-linear finite element (FE) models. It is aimed at improving the shear strength predictions of strut-and-tie models while maintaining relative simplicity and clear physical basis. In addition, it is aimed at providing estimates of the ultimate deformations in coupling beams which are typically calculated with FE models. While FE models use a large number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) to describe the deformation patterns in coupling beams, the 3PKT is based on a kinematic model with only three DOFs. In addition to kinematic conditions, the 3PKT also includes equilibrium equations and constitutive relationships for the mechanisms of shear resistance in short coupling beams. The paper presents the formulation of the 3PKT and compares its shear strength predictions to results from tests, finite element simulations, and strut-and-tie models. It is shown that the 3PKT approximates very well the predictions of the FE models, while the strut-and-tie model produce significantly lower strengths. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroducing regenerative design and circularity into architectural and engineering curriculum
Attia, Shady ULg

in Mazijn (Ed.) BUILDING A CIRCULAR ECONOMY TOGETHER (2016, September 05)

Looking today to the challenges for planning and design of sustainable built environment including, carbon emissions, climate change, human health, water problems, biodiversity, scarcity of resources ... [more ▼]

Looking today to the challenges for planning and design of sustainable built environment including, carbon emissions, climate change, human health, water problems, biodiversity, scarcity of resources, depletion of fossil fuel, population growth and urbanization; sustainable architecture will play a key role for the sustainable development of society as a whole. In the context of an architectural design studio, this paper presents the experience of introducing the concept of regenerative design within a Belgian engineering faculty. The regenerative design objective and principles are used as a method to develop engineers’ capabilities to design within a circular economy paradigm. The aim of the study is to evaluate the adoption of circular economy principles and their influence on the decision making and final outcomes on third-year architectural engineering students at the University of Liege (Ulg), Faculty of Applied Sciences in 2014 and 2015. The paper utilizes two design studios outcomes in the form of projects evaluation and students feedback, in the form of interviews and surveys, in order to assess the students’ knowledge uptake, learned skills and design capabilities. Students completed a knowledge, skills, and attitudes questionnaire before the curriculum, after the final learning experience, and one year later. The paper provides results that shed light on the opportunities, challenges and architectural engineer’s needs to engage in a circular built environment. [less ▲]

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See detailFlipped classes and enriched skeleton maps to foster deep and interactive learning in engineering education
Attia, Shady ULg; Detroz, Pascal ULg

in Mazijn (Ed.) BUILDING A CIRCULAR ECONOMY TOGETHER (2016, September 05)

This paper reports the initial experience of applying the enriched skeleton mapping technique as innovative and meaningful learning methods within a flipped class teaching setting. Driven by the low ... [more ▼]

This paper reports the initial experience of applying the enriched skeleton mapping technique as innovative and meaningful learning methods within a flipped class teaching setting. Driven by the low confidence and autonomy of many undergraduates; this study focus on stimulating collaboration and interactive learning. The study was performed in a course labeled ‘sustainable building construction technology’ of the Bachelor of Architectural Engineering program at Liege University (Ulg). First year and second year students, were assigned to an experimental group of 27 students and a control group of 8. In the experimental group, students worked together in pairs on mini-concepts and created enriched skeleton maps for the course content. The control group received a regular ex-cathedra course. The results show that students who used the enriched skeleton mapping technique were more engaged and outperformed the control group. Enriched skeleton concept mapping fostered deep learning and resulted in a better understanding of the course mini concepts in addition to the course structure and domain. Students of the enriched skeleton mapping found learning to be more ‘useful, stimulating and more engaging’, whereas students of the congenital ex-cathedra curriculum found learning to be ‘passive and boring’. A combination of both techniques may provide the most effective training for undergraduate engineering students. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining engineers to meet the challenges of a changing world: how a competency framework improves teaching programs and team cohesion
Degré, Aurore ULg; Colaux, Catherine ULg

in Mazijn, Bernard (Ed.) 8th Conference on Education engineering for sustainable development (2016, September 05)

The competency framework is a complex and time-consuming exercise seen by most teachers as an administrative process. When applied, however, it can be a powerful tool for adapting curricula for engineers ... [more ▼]

The competency framework is a complex and time-consuming exercise seen by most teachers as an administrative process. When applied, however, it can be a powerful tool for adapting curricula for engineers to meet the emerging needs of society, including training in sustainable development. This paper looks at how to use the competency framework to generate a tool for bringing teachers together around shared objectives, helping students build their career paths and improving communication with the ‘outside world’. This approach, largely inspired by the Tardif approach, is being used for the Bioengineering Masters Degree in Environmental Sciences and Technology at the Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech Faculty, University of Liège, Belgium. The approach has allowed the teaching staff to build a common educational project aimed at enabling bioengineers to meet the needs of society [less ▲]

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See detailLife-Dairyclim, European project aiming to mitigate methane emissions and carbon footprint of dairy cows
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Bernard, Maxime; Reding, Romain et al

in Höglind, Mats; Bakken, Anne Kjersti; Hovstad, Knut Anders (Eds.) et al The multiple roles of grassland in the European bioeconomy (2016, September 04)

How can dairy farming contribute to reduce the climate change without compromising food security and farm economy? This is the question the project Life-Dairyclim wants to answer. The project gathers ... [more ▼]

How can dairy farming contribute to reduce the climate change without compromising food security and farm economy? This is the question the project Life-Dairyclim wants to answer. The project gathers partners from research groups, association of advisory services to farmers and feed industry in collaboration with private farmers in three countries (Belgium, Luxembourg and Denmark). It focuses on production of feed, including utilisation of grassland and feeding of dairy cows in order to implement strategies that can contribute to a sustainable development of the dairy sector. Feeding experiments to decrease methane from dairy cows will be assessed at the University of Liège (Belgium) with cows milked by an automatic milking system. Methane production will be analysed individually by a device (Guardian®) inserted in the feeding bin as well as by mid infrared spectrum analysis of milk. The effect of concentrate composition on methane production during grazing in combination with optimization of grazing practices will be studied in collaboration with the industrial partner, Dumoulin (Belgium). The carbon footprint of produced milk will be determined using lifecycle assessment methods based on input from the experiments in combination with effect of feed production on especially carbon sequestration from different type of crop and utilization by Aarhus University (Denmark) and Convis, association of advisory services to farmers (Luxembourg). An important part of the project is dissemination based on pilot farms in all three countries documenting the impact of mitigation strategies adopted during the project [less ▲]

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See detailGrazing practices, perception and expectations of Walloon dairy farmers
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Bernard, Maxime; Lioy, Rocco et al

in Högling, Mats; Bakken, Anne Kjersti; Hovstad, Knut Anders (Eds.) et al The multiple roles of grassland in the European bioecnomy (2016, September 04)

The role of grasslands as a C sink is generally accepted. It is considered that permanent grasslands allow annual C storage rates between 22 and 44 g C/m2/y (Soussana et al., 2010) thereby contributing to ... [more ▼]

The role of grasslands as a C sink is generally accepted. It is considered that permanent grasslands allow annual C storage rates between 22 and 44 g C/m2/y (Soussana et al., 2010) thereby contributing to the mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Grassland preservation has several other advantages including a decrease in feeding costs (Dillon et al., 2005), a positive effect on cows’ health (e.g.a decrease in lameness) (Burow et al., 2011) and the provision of a positive image to consumers. Despite these arguments, grazing is decreasing in Europe and grasslands are disappearing. A better understanding of grazing practices and of farmers’ expectations could suggest ways of improving these practices and limiting grassland disappearance. As a result, Walloon dairy farmers were surveyed in December 2015 and the preliminary results are presented below. [less ▲]

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See detailCpG-DNA expand immunosuppressive interstitial macrophages from Ly6c+ local precursors
Sabatel, Catherine ULg; Radermecker, Coraline ULg; Fievez, Laurence ULg et al

in Proceeding of Cell Symposia: 100 years of phagocytes (2016, September)

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See detailMonitoring topography of laboratory fluvial dike models subjected to breaching based on a laser profilometry technique
Rifai, Ismail ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in International Symposium on River Sedimentation: Stuttgart 19th-22d september 2016 (2016, September)

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See detailTraduction inter-culturelle et validation du Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (AKPS) en français
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Bornheim, Stephen ULg; Remy, Gaël et al

in 9ème Congrès commun SFMES - SFTS (2016, September)

Introduction : Le syndrome fémoro-patellaire est l'un des problèmes de genou les plus répandus qui se caractérise par une douleur antérieure du genou dans des activités mettant en charge l'articulation ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Le syndrome fémoro-patellaire est l'un des problèmes de genou les plus répandus qui se caractérise par une douleur antérieure du genou dans des activités mettant en charge l'articulation fémoro-patellaire. Le Kuala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (Kujala AKPS) est un questionnaire utilisé pour évaluer les symptômes subjectifs, tels que les limitations fonctionnelles et la douleur antérieure du genou. Le questionnaire a déjà été traduit et validé en portugais brésilien, en persan, en chinois, en turque, et en néerlandais. Le but de cette étude est de traduire ce questionnaire en français afin d'en évaluer sa fiabilité et sa validité. Matériel et méthode : La traduction et l’adaptation interculturelle du questionnaire a été adaptée selon les recommandations internationales qui se présentent en 6 étapes : traduction initiale, synthèse des traductions, traduction de retour vers la langue d’origine, comité d'experts, test de la version pré-finale et approbation du comité experts. Une fois la version française obtenue, les participants (n=101) ont remplis 2 fois le Kujula AKPS avec un intervalle de 7 jours, et le Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) afin d'en évaluer les propriétés psychométriques (la cohérence interne, la fidélité test-retest et la validité de construit). Résultats : Le Kujula AKPS montre une fidélité test-retest élevée pour le score total (ICC 0,97). La traduction française possède une cohérence interne élevée (0,87). Le Kujula AKPS possède une corrélation forte avec une partie des sous-échelles convergentes du SF-36 (PF, RP et BP). Il y a une corrélation faible ou modérée avec les sous-échelles divergentes du SF-36 (MH, SF et VT). Il n’y a pas d’effet plancher et plafond. Conclusion : La version française du questionnaire Kujula AKPS étant compréhensible, semble avoir une bonne adaptation interculturelle. Cette étude a démontré que le Kujula AKPS-F est fiable et valide pour les patients francophones souffrant d'un syndrome rotulien. [less ▲]

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See detailEngineering education at the heart of the Raw Materials Value Chain
Pirard, Eric ULg; Sonnemann, Guido

in Mazijn, Bernard (Ed.) Proceedings 8th Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (2016, September)

EIT Raw Materials has the mission to reinforce Europe’s innovation capacity by preparing the entrepreneurs and innovators of tomorrow. By fully integrating the three sides of the knowledge triangle ... [more ▼]

EIT Raw Materials has the mission to reinforce Europe’s innovation capacity by preparing the entrepreneurs and innovators of tomorrow. By fully integrating the three sides of the knowledge triangle (education, research and industry), the EIT Raw Materials aims at boosting the innovation process: from idea to product; from lab to market and from student to entrepreneur. A key mission of the EIT Raw Materials is to educate young professionals and specifically engineers and scientists by breaking the barriers of classical disciplines. The so-called T-shaped professional will have a strong entrepreneurial mindset and combine an in depth knowledge of his own discipline with a sound understanding of the challenges appearing along the whole raw materials value chain, such as exploration, extraction and processing of primary resources, recycling of secondary resources and substitution of critical and toxic materials. It is essential that these T-shaped professionals understand their role within the value chain as actors of a more circular economy. Every educational activity organized under the umbrella of the EIT Raw Materials (RM) Academy will therefore make sure to involve all stakeholders of the raw materials value chain and to contribute to raising awareness with respect to the societal function of raw materials and the related supply and availability challenges. To achieve these missions and create a long lasting impact, the RM Academy aims to innovate in terms of teaching, which includes: • The promotion of problem-based learning, self organisation and learning by doing. • The offer of an open learning environment and a series of online courses. • Enabling a high degree of mobility of students and professionals. • Facilitating access to experimental platforms and pilot plants for hands-on training • Adopting a strong multidisciplinary approach (e.g. joint courses across sectors) • Thinking beyond boundaries and systematically exploring and generating new ideas • Transforming innovations into feasible business solutions • Joint curriculum development Critical reflection, peer review processes as well as assessments and collegial discussions under the roof of the EIT Raw Material Academy will be used for continuing quality development of the programs. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of NIR hyperspectral imaging to detect and quantify nodules on root system of associated crops
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Pierreux, Jérome ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio et al

in ESA 14 -Growing landscape - Cultivating innovative agricultural systems (2016, September)

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See detail10 years of advances in nonlinear system identification in structural dynamics: A review
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Proceedings of ISMA 2016 - International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering (2016, September)

Nonlinear system identification is a vast research field, today attracting a great deal of attention in the structural dynamics community. Ten years ago, an MSSP paper reviewing the progress achieved ... [more ▼]

Nonlinear system identification is a vast research field, today attracting a great deal of attention in the structural dynamics community. Ten years ago, an MSSP paper reviewing the progress achieved until then concluded that the identification of simple continuous structures with localised nonlinearities was within reach. The past decade witnessed a shift in emphasis, accommodating the growing industrial need for a first generation of tools capable of addressing complex nonlinearities in larger-scale structures. The objective of the present paper is to survey the key developments which arose in the field since 2006 towards developing these tools. [less ▲]

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See detailTeaching of Life Cycle Assessment methodology to sensitize future engineers to sustainable development
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Proceedings of the 8th Conference on ‘Engineering Education for Sustainable Development’ (2016, September)

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See detailProcess oriented characterisation of oolitic iron concentrate during dephosphorisation by roasting and leaching
Ionkov, Krassimir; Gomes, Otavio; Neumann, Reiner et al

in Proceedings of the XXVIII International Mineral Processing Congress (IMPC 2016) (2016, September)

Phosphorus in iron ores is considered as a deleterious component to iron making reflecting in cold shortness of the produced steel. The present study investigates the phosphorus migration pattern ... [more ▼]

Phosphorus in iron ores is considered as a deleterious component to iron making reflecting in cold shortness of the produced steel. The present study investigates the phosphorus migration pattern resulting from thermal treatment of an oolitic-type iron concentrate with and without additives. To this end focused mineralogical and microscopic observations were performed. The results have shown that roasting with alkaline additive drives phosphorus outside the hematite hosting mineral, however it remains evenly distributed inside the volume of the oolites. It penetrates inside the newly formed cementing phases of Al-Na-Si-Fe-type and also fills the interstices between the crystals. Other than phosphorus, aluminum, calcium and iron tend also to migrate towards the amorphous-type cementing phase. Finally, the possibilities for P removal by means of magnetic separation and acid leaching of the roasted concentrate were evaluated. The obtained final product presents a standard iron concentrate suitable for steelmaking with its phosphorous being dropped from 0.71% to 0.05% and iron grade of a nearly 66% being reached. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of Meta-Analysis Strategies for Network Inference using Information-Theoretic Approaches
Pham, Cam Ngoc ULg; Haibe-Kains; Bellot, Pau et al

in IEEE Dexa workshops 2016 (2016, September)

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See detailImpact d’une réathlétisation précoce sur les performances des sportifs opérés d’une rupture du ligament croisé antéro-externe du genou
Duval, Thomas; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; LEHANCE, Cédric ULg et al

in 9ème Congrès commun SFMES - SFTS (2016, September)

Introduction : La reconstruction du ligament croisé antéro-externe du genou est une chirurgie lourde qui est suivie d’une longue période de rééducation. Le retour au sport après cette opération reste ... [more ▼]

Introduction : La reconstruction du ligament croisé antéro-externe du genou est une chirurgie lourde qui est suivie d’une longue période de rééducation. Le retour au sport après cette opération reste toutefois un défi. Plus d’un tiers des athlètes est incapable de reprendre son activité au même niveau. La peur de subir un nouvel accident reste un obstacle majeur à cette reprise sportive et la persistance de déficits fonctionnels est la première cause de récidives de déchirure ligamentaire. Matériels et méthodes : Notre échantillon comprend dix sujets, cinq dans le groupe bénéficiant d’une réathlétisation précoce et cinq dans le groupe témoin. Le premier groupe réalise une séance de réathlétisation précoce hebdomadaire (à raison d’une fois par semaine et ce, durant six mois) associée à la rééducation en kinésithérapie durant une durée de six mois. Le deuxième groupe bénéficie uniquement de séances de kinésithérapie classique respectant un protocole bien défini du CHU de Liège. Nous avons choisi de réaliser, en pré-opératoire, dans les deux groupes, un test isocinétique. En post-opératoire (après six mois), les sujets des deux groupes ont réalisé dans l’ordre suivant : un test isocinétique, un questionnaire de KOOS et enfin des tests fonctionnels (Hop test). Les séances de réathlétisation et de kinésithérapie sont suivies selon un protocole spécifique respectant l’individualisation propre à chaque patient. Résultats : L’analyse des tests isocinétiques et du questionnaire de KOOS, nous a permis de constater des différences entre les deux groupes au niveau des valeurs chiffrées mais qui ne sont cependant pas significatives (P level= 0,07). Par contre, l’analyse des résultats obtenus dans les tests fonctionnels (tests de sauts en longueur évaluant la performance en distance) a montré des différences significatives (P level= 0,04 pour le single hop et le triple hop test, P level= 0,02 pour le cross over hop test) entre les deux groupes et celles-ci sont au bénéfice du groupe ayant bénéficié d’une réathlétisation précoce. Conclusion : Dans cette étude, nous constatons une amélioration globale des performances en faveur du groupe ayant bénéficié d’une réathlétisation précoce. Cependant lors de l’analyse statistique et ce surtout concernant dans le test isocinétique, peu d’éléments évoluent de manière significative voir aucun pour le questionnaire de KOOS. Le faible échantillonnage de cette étude préliminaire intervient certainement dans ce constat. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of chemical composition of 6 available by-products in the North of Morocco
El Otmani, Samira ULg; Ayadi, Mohamed; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Book of Abstracts of the 12th International Conference on Goats (2016, September)

In the northern region of Morocco, goat breeding is the dominant activity of farmers. This livestock plays a major economic role in the contribution of more than 70% of household income. His diet is based ... [more ▼]

In the northern region of Morocco, goat breeding is the dominant activity of farmers. This livestock plays a major economic role in the contribution of more than 70% of household income. His diet is based essentially on forest rangelands characterized by a variable feed offer. Therefore, it is necessary to diversify and improve its feed calendar to reduce overgrazing and increase livestock productivity. This work aims to characterize the chemical composition of agricultural by-products to be introduced in the diet of goat herd. The studied by-products was residues of watermelon, melon, zucchini, tomato, sunflower and peanut. These samples were collected in the different places in the region of the north of Morocco. In the laboratory, they were dried in oven at 60°C and subsequently ground and sieved to 1 mm diameter. The studied composition parameters were dry matter, ash, total nitrogen and fat. The chemical composition of these samples was determined by the methods of AOAC (1997). The means and the standard error of means were calculated using SAS software. From results, dry matter of by-products varies from 16.4% in watermelon residues and 96.7% in sunflower residues. The sunflower residues has a low mineral content of 3% while the melon residue contains 26.5% of mineral matter. The nitrogenous matter ranges from 2.6% in sunflower residue to 19.5% in watermelon residues. The highest fat content was recorded in melon residues (5.1%). Sunflower residue is lower in fat (1.4%). In conclusion, sunflower and peanut residues drier than the other by-products and contain less mineral matter, fat and nitrogenous matter. These by-products represent a free feed that can take their place in feed calendar in the northern region of Morocco for the goat population. However, to introduce them in the diet, it is necessary to evaluate their nutritional values. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation interculturelles du questionnaire "Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation" pour les patients francophones
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; DELVAUX, François ULg; SCHAUS, Jean ULg et al

in 9ème Congrès commun SFMES - SFTS (2016, September)

Contexte: L’épicondylite latérale est une blessure commune chez les joueurs de tennis et les travailleurs physiques pour qui il existe un questionnaire en anglais qui en évalue la sévérité. Le ... [more ▼]

Contexte: L’épicondylite latérale est une blessure commune chez les joueurs de tennis et les travailleurs physiques pour qui il existe un questionnaire en anglais qui en évalue la sévérité. Le questionnaire « Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation » (PRTEE) mesure la douleur et l’incapacité fonctionnelle du coude chez les patients souffrant d’une épicondylite latérale. Le questionnaire a déjà été traduit en suédois, en turc, en québécois, en italien, en néerlandais et en grec. Objectifs : Le but de cette étude est de traduire et de réaliser une adaptation interculturelle du questionnaire PRTEE en français et d’en évaluer sa fiabilité et sa validité. Matériel et Méthodes : Le PRTEE a été adapté interculturellement en français selon les lignes directrices internationales. Les participants (n=115) ont rempli le PRTEE-F, deux fois avec un intervalle de 30 minutes, le questionnaire Disabilities of Arm, Soulier and Hand (DASH), et le Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) pour évaluer la fiabilité et la validité du PRTEE-F. La cohérence interne (avec l’alpha de Cronbach), la fidélité test-retest (avec la corrélation intra-classe (ICC)) et la validité de construit (avec le coefficient de corrélation de Spearman). Résultats : Le PRTEE-F montre une fidélité test-retest bonne pour le score total (ICC 0,83) et pour les différents items (ICC 0,71-0,9). La traduction française possède une cohérence interne élevée (0,98). La corrélation entre le PRTEE-F et le DASH est forte pour le score total (rs=0,92, p<0.001), pour le sous-total symptomatique (rs=0,86, p<0.001) et fonctionnel (rs=0,93, p<0.001). Le PRTEE-F possède une corrélation forte avec une partie des sous-échelles convergentes du SF-36 (PF, RP et BP). Il y a une corrélation faible ou modérée avec les sous-échelles divergentes du SF-36 (REm, MH, SF et VT). Il n’y a pas d’effet plancher et plafond. Conclusion : La version française du questionnaire PRTEE a été adaptée interculturellement avec succès, et cette étude a montré que le PRTEE-F est fiable et valide pour évaluer les patients francophones souffrant d’une épicondylite latérale. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom resource to process efficiency. Educating a new generation of georesources engineers
Pirard, Eric ULg; Fiorentino, Rosalia ULg

in Mazijn, Bernard (Ed.) Proceedings 8th Conference on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (2016, September)

Even though the Circular Economy paradigm clearly puts the emphasis on recycling, it is essential to understand that we will still need for decades to explore and find resources in the earth crust. Mining ... [more ▼]

Even though the Circular Economy paradigm clearly puts the emphasis on recycling, it is essential to understand that we will still need for decades to explore and find resources in the earth crust. Mining is vital to feed the loop and make sure enough metals and minerals are made available to society. But, mining is also one of the most challenging industrial operations when it comes to sustainability objectives. A modern education in mineral resources engineering must build on a strong technical background but give students the opportunity to confront their knowledge with societal needs and responsibilities. The EMerald Erasmus Mundus Master program in Georesources Engineering was set up by four leading European universities with the clear objective to educate responsible professionals who will be actors of sustainable solutions. Therefore, the University of Lorraine, the Lulea Technical University, the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and the University of Liege (coordinator) designed a unique curriculum bridging the traditional gap between natural sciences and engineering, encompassing the valley too often separating the industrial operators from the stakeholders of a mining project. The program offers a unique blend of courses from geology to mineral processing with the aim to familiarize students with the most advanced tools for improving the efficiency of processes. Field trips and industrial visits are a key component of this program as are the non-technical seminars delivered by professionals (lawyers, entrepreneurs, NGO leaders, etc.). Evaluation is often based on written reports, documentary research and short oral presentations to make sure students acquire the indispensable soft skills for efficient communication on environmental and societal issues linked to the impact of extractive activities. Internships and hands-on practices on pilot platforms or laboratory equipments are absolutely essential to reach the highest standards and meet the objectives of the master program. This is costly and can only be maintained thanks to the strong presence of the participating universities in research programs. All four universities are core partners of the EIT Raw Materials knowledge innovation community. This gives an additional leveraging effect when it comes to the education of young entrepreneurs with a strong sustainability mindset. [less ▲]

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See detailA Macro-Element Formulation and Solution Procedure for Shear Analysis of RC Deep Beams
Liu, Jian ULg; Mihaylov, Boyan ULg

in the 11th fib International PhD Symposium in Civil Engineering (2016, August 30)

This paper presents a computationally-effective macro element capable of predicting the complete shear response of RC deep beams in analogy with beam elements for slender beams. The element stems from a ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a computationally-effective macro element capable of predicting the complete shear response of RC deep beams in analogy with beam elements for slender beams. The element stems from a three-parameter kinematic theory (3PKT) for the shear strength and deformation capacity of deep beams subjected to double curvature. The macro element is composed of two rotational springs and one transverse spring to simulate the nonlinear flexural and shear behaviour of the shear span. The element has two nodes (end sections) with two DOFs per node, which enables it to be easily connected to other elements of the same or different types to model structures with deep beams. The numerical implementation of the element is based on the secant stiffness approach which provides robust convergence properties. Validation studies are performed by using thirteen tests from the literature showing excellent results for the complete shear response. The obtained peak load experimental-to-predicted ratios have an average of 1.10 with a coefficient of variation of 14.2%, while these values for the mid-span deflection are 1.16 and 17.0%. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison between four Techniques to Measure Cardiac Output
Pironet, Antoine ULg; Dauby, Pierre ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey et al

in Proceedings of the 38th International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (2016, August 17)

Cardiac output is an important variable when monitoring hemodynamic status. In particular, changes in cardiac output represent the goal of several circulatory management therapies. Unfortunately, cardiac ... [more ▼]

Cardiac output is an important variable when monitoring hemodynamic status. In particular, changes in cardiac output represent the goal of several circulatory management therapies. Unfortunately, cardiac output is very difficult to estimate, either in experimental or clinical settings. The goal of this work is to compare four techniques to measure cardiac output: pressure-volume catheter, aortic flow probe, thermodilution, and the PiCCO monitor. These four techniques were simultaneously used during experiments of fluid and endotoxin administration on 7 pigs. Findings show that, first, each individual technique is precise, with a relative coefficient of repeatability lower than 7 %. Second, 1 cardiac output estimate provided by any technique relates poorly to the estimates from the other 3, even if there is only small bias between the techniques. Third, changes in cardiac output detected by one technique are only detected by the others in 62 to 100 % of cases. This study confirms the difficulty of obtaining a reliable clinical cardiac output measurement. Therefore, several measurements using different techniques should be performed, if possible, and all such should be treated with caution. [less ▲]

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See detailPreliminary optical design for the common fore optics of METIS
Agócs, Tibor; Brandl, Bernhard R.; Jager, Rieks et al

in Evans, C.; Simard, L.; Takami, H. (Eds.) Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI (2016, August 09)

METIS is the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, which will provide outstanding observing capabilities, focusing on high angular and spectral resolution. It consists of two diffraction-limited ... [more ▼]

METIS is the Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph, which will provide outstanding observing capabilities, focusing on high angular and spectral resolution. It consists of two diffraction-limited imagers operating in the LM and NQ bands respectively and an IFU fed diffraction-limited high-resolution (R=100,000) LM band spectrograph. These science subsystems are preceded by the common fore optics (CFO), which provides the following essential functionalities: calibration, chopping, image de-rotation, thermal background and stray light reduction. We show the evolution of the CFO optical design from the conceptual design to the preliminary optical design, detail the optimization steps and discuss the necessary trade-offs. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-contrast imaging with METIS
Kenworthy, Matthew A.; Absil, Olivier ULg; Agócs, Tibor et al

in Evans, C.; Simard, L.; Takami, H. (Eds.) Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI (2016, August 09)

The Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph (METIS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) consists of diffraction-limited imagers that cover 3 to 14 microns with medium resolution (R 5000 ... [more ▼]

The Mid-infrared E-ELT Imager and Spectrograph (METIS) for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) consists of diffraction-limited imagers that cover 3 to 14 microns with medium resolution (R 5000) long slit spectroscopy, and an integral field spectrograph for high spectral resolution spectroscopy (R 100,000) over the L and M bands. One of the science cases that METIS addresses is the characterization of faint circumstellar material and exoplanet companions through imaging and spectroscopy. We present our approach for high contrast imaging with METIS, covering diffraction suppression with coronagraphs, the removal of slowly changing optical aberrations with focal plane wavefront sensing, interferometric imaging with sparse aperture masks, and observing strategies for both the imagers and IFU image slicers. [less ▲]

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See detailMEASUREMENT OF MOISTURE DIFFUSIVITY BY INVESTIGATION OF SORPTION ISOTHERM AND MODELING MOISTURE TRANSFER OF MORTAR SUBMITED TO CONVECTIVE DRYING
Kahlerras, Loubna ULg; BELHAMRI, Azeddine; Fraikin, Laurent ULg et al

in Proceedings of The 20th International Drying Symposium (IDS 2016) (2016, August 08)

This work reports the results of experimental study concerning convective drying of cement mortar and the influence of water-to cement ratios (W/C) used for the preparation of mortar, on moisture changes ... [more ▼]

This work reports the results of experimental study concerning convective drying of cement mortar and the influence of water-to cement ratios (W/C) used for the preparation of mortar, on moisture changes. The first experimental campaign was a convective dryer; in the purpose to obtain the drying curves of mortar and the influence of water to cement ratios (W/C) on drying kinetics. A second experimental campaign aims to characterize from textural and hydric point of view, the materials, by mean of DVS (dynamic vapor sorption) In order to obtain sorption cycles and identify the moisture diffusivity coefficient of mortar. The pore size distribution is obtained from sorption cycles and completed by MIP. The contribution of each components of the microstructure to the diffusion is studied. Finally X-ray microtomography is used to measuring the moisture content in the internal structure of mortars during drying. [less ▲]

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See detailThe path to interferometry in space
Rinehart, S. A.; Savini, G.; Holland, W. et al

in Malbet, F.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Tuthill, P. (Eds.) Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V (2016, August 04)

For over two decades, astronomers have considered the possibilities for interferometry in space. The first of these missions was the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), but that was followed by missions ... [more ▼]

For over two decades, astronomers have considered the possibilities for interferometry in space. The first of these missions was the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), but that was followed by missions for studying exoplanets (e.g Terrestrial Planet Finder, Darwin), and then far-infrared interferometers (e.g. the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope, the Far-Infrared Interferometer). Unfortunately, following the cancellation of SIM, the future for space-based interferometry has been in doubt, and the interferometric community needs to reevaluate the path forward. While interferometers have strong potential for scientific discovery, there are technological developments still needed, and continued maturation of techniques is important for advocacy to the broader astronomical community. We review the status of several concepts for space-based interferometry, and look for possible synergies between missions oriented towards different science goals. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking high-accuracy null depth measurements for the LBTI exozodi survey
Mennesson, Bertrand; Defrere, Denis ULg; Nowak, Matthias et al

in Malbet, F.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Tuthill, P. (Eds.) Optical and Infrared Interferometry and Imaging V (2016, August 04)

The characterization of exozodiacal light emission is both important for the understanding of planetary systems evolution and for the preparation of future space missions aiming to characterize low mass ... [more ▼]

The characterization of exozodiacal light emission is both important for the understanding of planetary systems evolution and for the preparation of future space missions aiming to characterize low mass planets in the habitable zone of nearby main sequence stars. The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) exozodi survey aims at providing a ten-fold improvement over current state of the art, measuring dust emission levels down to a typical accuracy of 12 zodis per star, for a representative ensemble of 30+ high priority targets. Such measurements promise to yield a final accuracy of about 2 zodis on the median exozodi level of the targets sample. Reaching a 1 σ measurement uncertainty of 12 zodis per star corresponds to measuring interferometric cancellation ("null") levels, i.e visibilities at the few 100 ppm uncertainty level. We discuss here the challenges posed by making such high accuracy mid-infrared visibility measurements from the ground and present the methodology we developed for achieving current best levels of 500 ppm or so. We also discuss current limitations and plans for enhanced exozodi observations over the next few years at LBTI. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Athena X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU)
Barret, Didier; Trong, Thien Lam; den Herder, Jan-Willem et al

in Proc. SPIE. 9905, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2016: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 99052F. (August 17, 2016) (2016, August 01)

The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy from 0.2 to 12 keV, with 5 ... [more ▼]

The X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) on board the Advanced Telescope for High-ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) will provide spatially resolved high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy from 0.2 to 12 keV, with 5 arc second pixels over a field of view of 5 arc minute equivalent diameter and a spectral resolution of 2.5 eV up to 7 keV. In this paper, we first review the core scientific objectives of Athena, driving the main performance parameters of the X-IFU, namely the spectral resolution, the field of view, the effective area, the count rate capabilities, the instrumental background. We also illustrate the breakthrough potential of the X-IFU for some observatory science goals. Then we briefly describe the X-IFU design as defined at the time of the mission consolidation review concluded in May 2016, and report on its predicted performance. Finally, we discuss some options to improve the instrument performance while not increasing its complexity and resource demands (e.g. count rate capability, spectral resolution). The X-IFU will be provided by an international consortium led by France, The Netherlands and Italy, with further ESA member state contributions from Belgium, Finland, Germany, Poland, Spain, Switzerland and two international partners from the United States and Japan. [less ▲]

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See detailOverview of LBTI: a multipurpose facility for high spatial resolution observations
Hinz, P. M.; Defrere, Denis ULg; Skemer, A. et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2016, August 01)

The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a high spatial resolution instrument developed for coherent imaging and nulling interferometry using the 14.4 m baseline of the 2×8.4 m LBT. The ... [more ▼]

The Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI) is a high spatial resolution instrument developed for coherent imaging and nulling interferometry using the 14.4 m baseline of the 2×8.4 m LBT. The unique telescope design, comprising of the dual apertures on a common elevation-azimuth mount, enables a broad use of observing modes. The full system is comprised of dual adaptive optics systems, a near-infrared phasing camera, a 1-5 μm camera (called LMIRCam), and an 8-13 μm camera (called NOMIC). The key program for LBTI is the Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial planetary Systems (HOSTS), a survey using nulling interferometry to constrain the typical brightness from exozodiacal dust around nearby stars. Additional observations focus on the detection and characterization of giant planets in the thermal infrared, high spatial resolution imaging of complex scenes such as Jupiter's moon, Io, planets forming in transition disks, and the structure of active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Several instrumental upgrades are currently underway to improve and expand the capabilities of LBTI. These include: Improving the performance and limiting magnitude of the parallel adaptive optics systems; quadrupling the field of view of LMIRcam (increasing to 20"x20"); adding an integral field spectrometry mode; and implementing a new algorithm for path length correction that accounts for dispersion due to atmospheric water vapor. We present the current architecture and performance of LBTI, as well as an overview of the upgrades. [less ▲]

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See detailEnabling the direct detection of earth-sized exoplanets with the LBTI HOSTS project: a progress report
Danchi, W.; Bailey, V.; Bryden, G. et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2016, August 01)

NASA has funded a project called the Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) to survey nearby solar type stars to determine the amount of warm zodiacal dust in their habitable zones ... [more ▼]

NASA has funded a project called the Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Systems (HOSTS) to survey nearby solar type stars to determine the amount of warm zodiacal dust in their habitable zones. The goal is not only to determine the luminosity distribution function but also to know which individual stars have the least amount of zodiacal dust. It is important to have this information for future missions that directly image exoplanets as this dust is the main source of astrophysical noise for them. The HOSTS project utilizes the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), which consists of two 8.4-m apertures separated by a 14.4-m baseline on Mt. Graham, Arizona. The LBTI operates in a nulling mode in the mid-infrared spectral window (8-13 μm), in which light from the two telescopes is coherently combined with a 180 degree phase shift between them, producing a dark fringe at the location of the target star. In doing so the starlight is greatly reduced, increasing the contrast, analogous to a coronagraph operating at shorter wavelengths. The LBTI is a unique instrument, having only three warm reflections before the starlight reaches cold mirrors, giving it the best photometric sensitivity of any interferometer operating in the mid-infrared. It also has a superb Adaptive Optics (AO) system giving it Strehl ratios greater than 98% at 10 μm. In 2014 into early 2015 LBTI was undergoing commissioning. The HOSTS project team passed its Operational Readiness Review (ORR) in April 2015. The team recently published papers on the target sample, modeling of the nulled disk images, and initial results such as the detection of warm dust around η Corvi. Recently a paper was published on the data pipeline and on-sky performance. An additional paper is in preparation on β Leo. We will discuss the scientific and programmatic context for the LBTI project, and we will report recent progress, new results, and plans for the science verification phase that started in February 2016, and for the survey. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Cover Song Identification with Hierarchical Rank Aggregation
Osmalsky, Julien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the 17th International for Music Information Retrieval Conference (2016, August)

Abstract Cover song identification involves calculating pairwise similarities between a query audio track and a database of reference tracks. While most authors make exclusively use of chroma features ... [more ▼]

Abstract Cover song identification involves calculating pairwise similarities between a query audio track and a database of reference tracks. While most authors make exclusively use of chroma features, recent work tends to demonstrate that combining similarity estimators based on multiple audio features increases the performance. We improve this approach by using a hierarchical rank aggregation method for combining estimators based on different features. More precisely, we first aggregate estimators based on global features such as the tempo, the duration, the loudness, the beats, and the average chroma vectors. Then, we aggregate the resulting composite estimator with four popular state-of-the-art methods based on chromas as well as timbre sequences. We further introduce a refinement step for the rank aggregation called “local Kemenization” and quantify its benefit for cover song identification. The performance of our method is evaluated on the Second Hand Song dataset. Our experiments show an significant improvement of the performance, up to an increase of more than 200 % of the number of queries identified in the Top-1, compared to previous results. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of multibody systems in the local frame
Bruls, Olivier ULg; Sonneville, Valentin

in Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (ICTAM) (2016, August)

A local frame finite element approach is proposed to describe the kinematics of a flexible multibody system, derive the equations of motion and solve them numerically. It is argued that this approach ... [more ▼]

A local frame finite element approach is proposed to describe the kinematics of a flexible multibody system, derive the equations of motion and solve them numerically. It is argued that this approach leads to reduced geometric nonlinearities and improved computational efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailLa légation des Pays-Bas en cour de Rome au temps de l’agent Laurent du Blioul (1573-1598): Une légation au cœur des réseaux de la monarchie de Philippe II
Regibeau, Julien ULg

in Actes du neuvième congrès de l'Association des Cercles francophones d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Belgique (2016, August)

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See detailInference in a stochastic SEIR model using Sequential Monte Carlo methods
Bonou, Wilfried ULg; LAMBERT, Philippe

in The 37th Annual Conference of the International Society for Clinical Biostatistics (ISCB): Book of Abstracts. Birmingham, UK, 21-25 August 2016 (2016, August)

Many biological, physical, chemical, economic, and social phenomena are dynamic and are modeled using (systems of) Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). But a more realistic way to describe these ... [more ▼]

Many biological, physical, chemical, economic, and social phenomena are dynamic and are modeled using (systems of) Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). But a more realistic way to describe these dynamics relies on Discrete Time Markov Chains (DTMC). There is a growing interest in the development of Bayesian statistical methods to infer on the parameters in such dynamic models, particularly those defining epidemic spread, by combining prior information with experimental or observational data. Our proposal aims to explore the merits of the Bayesian Optimal Filtering technique in the estimation of the parameters of a stochastic SEIR (S = Susceptible, E = Exposed, I = Infectious, R = Removed) epidemic model. State Space Models (SSMs) are used to describe the epidemic dynamic. The unknown static parameters are estimated using a combination of Sequential Monte Carlo techniques with a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm, . . . [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility study of burning neat jatropha oil into a vaporizing burner for household applications.
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Makaire, Danielle; Fontaine, Jean-Marie et al

in Proceedings (2016, August)

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See detailObservation of the surface circulation of the Mediterranean Sea from space
Karimova, Svetlana ULg

in Ouwehand, L. (Ed.) Proc. ESA Living Planet Symposium 2016 (2016, August)

In the present work mesoscale eddies of the Western Mediterranean are being investigated by means of thermal imagery and altimetry data. Comparison of 1489 anticyclonic and 782 cyclonic eddy ... [more ▼]

In the present work mesoscale eddies of the Western Mediterranean are being investigated by means of thermal imagery and altimetry data. Comparison of 1489 anticyclonic and 782 cyclonic eddy manifestations found in sea surface temperature (SST) imagery on an analysis of a 3-year-long dataset (covering the period from 2011 to 2013) with corresponding sea level anomaly (SLA) fields showed that only anticyclonic eddies exceeding ca. 70 km in diameter can be more or less sustainably manifested in the fields of SLA and its derivatives (such as relative vorticity). Detection of cyclonic eddies on base of SLA data, presumably due to the small spatial and temporal scales of such eddies and their non-geostrophic nature, is problematic. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the compatibility equations in geometrically exact beam finite element
Sonneville; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Bauchau, Olivier A.

in Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Multibody Systems, Nonlinear Dynamics and Control (MSNDC) within the ASME/IDETC/CIE Conference (2016, August)

This paper discusses the compatibility equations which relate the velocity field and the strain field in geometrically exact beam theory. The analysis is carried out in the context of intrinsic equations ... [more ▼]

This paper discusses the compatibility equations which relate the velocity field and the strain field in geometrically exact beam theory. The analysis is carried out in the context of intrinsic equations, namely the dynamic equilibrium equations are formulated in terms of velocity and strain only. In addition to the well established objectivity and path-independence requirements of the spatial discretization, these compatibility equations show that a consistent spatial interpolation of the velocity field should depend on the curvature of the beam, including initial curvature and curvature from the deformation, and it is shown that this consistency is connected to the ability of the element to represent rigid body motion velocity. A two node interpolation scheme is studied and it appears that, as the element gets smaller under mesh refinement, the effect of this dependency reduces, leading eventually to the classical linear shape functions. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal design of flexible mechanisms using a generalized equivalent static load method
Tromme, Emmanuel; Sonneville, Valentin; Guest, James K. et al

in Proceedings of the 24th International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics (2016, August)

The equivalent static load (ESL) method is a powerful approach to solve dynamic response structural optimization problems. The method transforms the dynamic response optimization into a static response ... [more ▼]

The equivalent static load (ESL) method is a powerful approach to solve dynamic response structural optimization problems. The method transforms the dynamic response optimization into a static response optimization under multiple load cases. The ESLs are defined based on the transient analysis response whereupon all the standard techniques of static response optimization can be used. In the last decade, the ESL method has been applied to perform structural optimization of flexible components of mechanical systems modeled as multibody systems. This method considers the optimization of isolated component during the static response optimization. The present research proposes a generalized ESL method accounting for the entire system during the static response optimization, which enables to formulate the constraints with respect to the mechanism and not restricted to the individual components. The proposed method relies on a Lie group formalism which has appealing properties to derive efficiently the ESL. Examples validate the method. [less ▲]

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See detailEnd-to-end simulations of the E-ELT/METIS coronagraphs
Carlomagno, Brunella ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg; Kenworthy, Matthew et al

in Marchetti, E.; Close, L.; Véran, J.-P. (Eds.) Adaptive Optics Systems V (2016, July 27)

The direct detection of low-mass planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars is an important science case for future E-ELT instruments such as the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph METIS, which ... [more ▼]

The direct detection of low-mass planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars is an important science case for future E-ELT instruments such as the mid-infrared imager and spectrograph METIS, which features vortex phase masks and apodizing phase plates (APP) in its baseline design. In this work, we present end-to-end performance simulations, using Fourier propagation, of several METIS coronagraphic modes, including focal-plane vortex phase masks and pupil-plane apodizing phase plates, for the centrally obscured, segmented E-ELT pupil. The atmosphere and the AO contributions are taken into account. Hybrid coronagraphs combining the advantages of vortex phase masks and APPs are considered to improve the METIS coronagraphic performance. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart co-phasing system for segmented mirror telescopes
Simar, Juan Felipe ULg; Stockman, Yvan ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg

in SPIE 9906, Ground-based and Airborne Telescopes VI (2016, July 27)

Space observations of fainter and more distant astronomical objects constantly require telescope primary mirrors with a larger size. The diameter of monolithic primary mirrors is limited to 10 m because ... [more ▼]

Space observations of fainter and more distant astronomical objects constantly require telescope primary mirrors with a larger size. The diameter of monolithic primary mirrors is limited to 10 m because of manufacturing and logistics limitations. For space telescopes, monolithic primary mirrors are limited to less than 5 m due to fairing capacity. Segmented primary mirrors thus constitute an alternative solution to deal with the steadily increase of the primary mirror size. The optical path difference between the individual segments must be close to zero (few nm) in order to be diffraction limited over the full telescope aperture. In this paper a new system that may co-phase 7 segments at once with the light of a star and without artificial one is proposed. First the measuring methods and feedback system is explained, then the breadboard setup is presented and the results are analyzed and discussed, finally a comparison with Keck telescope is performed. This system can be adapted in order to be used in the co-phasing system of future segmented mirrors, its dynamic range starts from several hundred of microns till some tenths of nanometers [less ▲]

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See detailThe QACITS pointing sensor: from theory to on-sky operation on Keck/NIRC2
Huby, Elsa ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg; Mawet, Dimitri et al

in Marchetti, E.; Close, L.; Véran, J.-P. (Eds.) Adaptive Optics Systems V (2016, July 26)

Small inner working angle coronagraphs are essential to benefit from the full potential of large and future extremely large ground-based telescopes, especially in the context of the detection and ... [more ▼]

Small inner working angle coronagraphs are essential to benefit from the full potential of large and future extremely large ground-based telescopes, especially in the context of the detection and characterization of exoplanets. Among existing solutions, the vortex coronagraph stands as one of the most effective and promising solutions. However, for focal-plane coronagraph, a small inner working angle comes necessarily at the cost of a high sensitivity to pointing errors. This is the reason why a pointing control system is imperative to stabilize the star on the vortex center against pointing drifts due to mechanical flexures, that generally occur during observation due for instance to temperature and/or gravity variations. We have therefore developed a technique called QACITS[SUP]1[/SUP] (Quadrant Analysis of Coronagraphic Images for Tip-tilt Sensing), which is based on the analysis of the coronagraphic image shape to infer the amount of pointing error. It has been shown that the flux gradient in the image is directly related to the amount of tip-tilt affecting the beam. The main advantage of this technique is that it does not require any additional setup and can thus be easily implemented on all current facilities equipped with a vortex phase mask. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of the QACITS sensor at Keck/NIRC2, where an L-band AGPM has been recently commissioned (June and October 2015), successfully validating the QACITS estimator in the case of a centrally obstructed pupil. The algorithm has been designed to be easily handled by any user observing in vortex mode, which is available for science in shared risk mode since 2016B. [less ▲]

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See detailArchitectural and Environmental Housing Typology Analysis in Huamachuco, Peru
Meliani, Houmam ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg; Attia, Shady ULg

in La Roche, Pablo; Schiler, Marc (Eds.) Passive and Low Energy Architecture Conference (2016, July 12)

This work focuses on the city of Huamachuco, a town 3200 meters above sea level in Northern Peru. The main aim of this study is to share and disseminate technological knowledge on architecture, building ... [more ▼]

This work focuses on the city of Huamachuco, a town 3200 meters above sea level in Northern Peru. The main aim of this study is to share and disseminate technological knowledge on architecture, building technology and lifestyle of Huamachuco inhabitants. The paper objective is to (1) highlight the concept of architectural quality in Huamachuco, (2) compare the living environment of existing traditional dwellings in comparison with newly constructed concrete dwellings, and to (3) identify the reasons for neglecting ecological construction technologies and materials in the new built environment. The research methodology went through different phases that range from qualitative data collection and quantitative measuring, to data analysis and findings reporting. Firstly, a typological study was conducted visiting 110 houses. The typological study enabled us to describe and understand the housing typologies and classify those under four major typologies according to their construction techniques: 1) adobe, 2) rammed earth, 3) concrete and 4) mixed technique. Secondly, detailed field studies were conducted for representative houses representing the four categories. Finally, 10 houses have been thoroughly audited for using measuring equipment to collect data related to temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, lighting intensity, and envelope thermography. [less ▲]

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See detailA Novel Methodology for Hybrid Fire Testing
Sauca, Ana ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Robert, Fabienne et al

in Proceedings of the 6th European Conference on Structural Control (2016, July 11)

This paper describes a novel methodology for conducting stable hybrid fire testing (HTF). During hybrid fire testing, only a part of the structure is tested in a furnace while the reminded structure is ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a novel methodology for conducting stable hybrid fire testing (HTF). During hybrid fire testing, only a part of the structure is tested in a furnace while the reminded structure is calculated separately, here by means of a predetermined matrix. Equilibrium and compatibility at the interface between the tested “physical substructure” and the “numerical substructure” is maintained throughout the test using a dedicated algorithm. The procedures developed so far are sensitive to the stiffness ratio between the physical and the numerical substructure and therefore they can be applied only in some cases. In fire field, the stiffness of the heated physical substructure may change dramatically and the resulting change in stiffness ratio can lead to instability during the test. To overcome this drawback, a methodology independent of the stiffness ratio has been developed, inspired from the Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) method, which has been originally developed for substructuring in numerical analyses. The novel methodology has been successfully applied to a hybrid fire test in a purely numerical environment, i.e. the physical substructure was also modelled numerically. It is shown that stability does not depend on the stiffness ratio and that equilibrium and compatibility can be consistently maintained at the interface during the fire. Finally, the ongoing experimental program aimed at employing and experimentally validating this methodology is described. [less ▲]

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See detailL’argumentation de l’image scientifique : une affaire de méréologie
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Pollet, Marie-Christine; Glorieux, Carole (Eds.) Argumenter dans les écrits scientifiques (2016, July 07)

Ce texte vise à étudier, dans une perspective sémiotique, le discours scientifique de recherche et celui de la vulgarisation et notamment les images présentes dans ces deux genres de discours. Nous ... [more ▼]

Ce texte vise à étudier, dans une perspective sémiotique, le discours scientifique de recherche et celui de la vulgarisation et notamment les images présentes dans ces deux genres de discours. Nous examinons des travaux relevant de l’astrophysique et notamment la manière dont les images argumentent. Le corpus sera abordé à partir de la notion de rhétorique entendue comme un ensemble d’opérations méréologiques. Nous reprendrons à ce propos la théorie de l’iconicité de Jean-François Bordron, illustrée par ses deux derniers livres, L’iconicité et ses images (2011) ainsi qu’Image et vérité. Essais sur la dimension iconique de la connaissance (2013). [less ▲]

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See detailOVMS-plus at the LBT: disturbance compensation simplified
Böhm, Michael; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Borelli, José et al

in Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2016, July 01)

In this paper we will briefly revisit the optical vibration measurement system (OVMS) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and how these values are used for disturbance compensation and particularly for ... [more ▼]

In this paper we will briefly revisit the optical vibration measurement system (OVMS) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) and how these values are used for disturbance compensation and particularly for the LBT Interferometer (LBTI) and the LBT Interferometric Camera for Near-Infrared and Visible Adaptive Interferometry for Astronomy (LINC-NIRVANA). We present the now centralized software architecture, called OVMS+, on which our approach is based and illustrate several challenges faced during the implementation phase. Finally, we will present measurement results from LBTI proving the effectiveness of the approach and the ability to compensate for a large fraction of the telescope induced vibrations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe filter wheel and filters development for the X-IFU instruments onboard Athena
Bozzo, E.; Barbera, M.; Genolet, L. et al

in den Herder, Jan-Willem, A.; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Bautz, Marshall (Eds.) Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2016, July 01)

Athena is the large mission selected by ESA in 2013 to investigate the science theme "Hot and Energetic Universe" and presently scheduled for launch in 2028. One of the two instruments located at the ... [more ▼]

Athena is the large mission selected by ESA in 2013 to investigate the science theme "Hot and Energetic Universe" and presently scheduled for launch in 2028. One of the two instruments located at the focus of the 12 m-long Athena telescope is the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU). This is an array of TES microcalorimeters that will be operated at temperatures of 50 mK in order to perform high resolution spectroscopy with an energy resolution down to 2.5 eV at energies < 7 keV. In order to cope with the large dynamical range of X-ray fluxes spanned by the celestial objects Athena will be observing, the X-IFU will be equipped with a filter wheel. This will allow the user to fine tune the instrument set-up based on the nature of the target, thus optimizing the scientific outcomes of the observation. A few positions of the filter wheel will also be used to host a calibration source and to allow the measurement of the instrument intrinsic background. [less ▲]

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See detailValidity and reliability of the French translation of the Patient-Related Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; DELVAUX, François ULg; SCHAUS, Jean ULg et al

in Crossing borders through sport science (2016, July)

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was created to measure pain and ... [more ▼]

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was created to measure pain and functional disabilities specifically reported in patient with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Developed in English, this questionnaire has since then been translated into several languages but not in French. Objectives: The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this new version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). Methods: The PRTEE was cross-culturally adapted into French according to the international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants filled in the PRTEE-F twice, and the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) once. Internal consistency (with Cronbach’s alpha), test-retest reliability (with intra-class correlation (ICC)), convergent and divergent validity (by calculating the Spearman’s correlation coefficients with the DASH and some sub scales of the SF-36, respectively) were assessed. Results: The PRTEE was translated in French without problem. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.83) and for each items (ICC 0.71-0.9) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (good convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlations with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. Conclusions: The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French the PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating the French-speaking patient with lateral elbow tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailA vascular plant precursor from North Gondwana
Cascales-Miñana, Borja ULg; Gerrienne, Philippe ULg

in 4th International Meeting of Agora Paleobotanica, Brussels 7-10 July 2016 (2016, July)

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See detailNew spore data from the Lower Devonian Posongchong Formation from Wenshan, Yunnan, China
Cascales-Miñana, Borja ULg; Rial, Gonzalo; Xue, Jinzhuang et al

in 4th International Meeting of Agora Paleobotanica, Brussels 7-10 July 2016 (2016, July)

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See detailInventaire et typologie des listes grecques et latines de produits pharmaceutiques
Ricciardetto, Antonio ULg

in Derda, Tomasz; Lajtar, Adam; Urbanik, Jakub (Eds.) Proceedings of the XXVIIth International Congress of Papyrology. Warsaw, 29 July - 3 August 2013 (2016, July)

Dans la documentation papyrologique relative aux pratiques médicales de l’Égypte gréco-romaine et byzantine, le genre des listes de produits pharmaceutiques n’a encore jamais fait l’objet, ni d’un ... [more ▼]

Dans la documentation papyrologique relative aux pratiques médicales de l’Égypte gréco-romaine et byzantine, le genre des listes de produits pharmaceutiques n’a encore jamais fait l’objet, ni d’un inventaire, ni d’une étude exhaustifs. Dans le cadre de nos recherches doctorales sur la typologie des papyrus documentaires grecs et latins à caractère médical, c’est cette lacune que l’on se propose de combler, d’une part en cataloguant, au moyen de la fiche Mertens-Pack³ du CEDOPAL, la trentaine de listes de produits pharmaceutiques provenant d’Égypte, écrites en grec sur papyrus et ostracon (IIIe s. av. J.-Chr.-VIIe s. apr. J.-Chr.), auxquelles on ajoutera deux listes latines sur tablettes de bois, provenant du camp romain de Vindolanda (c. 100p), et, d’autre part, en analysant les aspects formels, paléographiques, textuels et contextuels de ces documents médicaux qui peuvent correspondre, soit à un inventaire de droguiste, soit à une commande, soit à une ou plusieurs recettes dont l’état fragmentaire du support a fait disparaître les proportions. On comparera les données obtenues avec d’autres pièces papyrologiques, spécialement les nombreuses prescriptions médicales, ainsi que les comptes, les reçus de paiement ou encore les lettres privées relatives à des demandes de médicaments ou à la livraison de substances pharmaceutiques. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Multipath TCP Aware Load Balancer
Lienardy, Simon ULg; Donnet, Benoît ULg

in Applied Networking Research Workshop (2016, July)

Multipath TCP has been recently introduced in order to allow a better resource consumption and user quality-of-experience. This is achieved by allowing a connection between two hosts through multiple ... [more ▼]

Multipath TCP has been recently introduced in order to allow a better resource consumption and user quality-of-experience. This is achieved by allowing a connection between two hosts through multiple subflows. However, with the rise of middleboxes and inherent Internet ossification, the large-scale deployment of this TCP extension is difficult. In particular, a load balancer at the entry point of a data center may forward subflows to different servers, canceling so the advantages of Multipath TCP. In this paper, we introduce MpLB, a Multipath TCP aware load balancer that fixes this particular issue without any modification to the Multipath TCP protocol itself. We demonstrate advantages of MpLB through a proof-of-concept. [less ▲]

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See detailLeibniz et J.S. Bach
Dony, Arthur ULg

in Li, Wenchao (Ed.) "Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer" : Vorträge des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses (2016, July)

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See detailFirst on-sky results with ARGOS at LBT
Orban De Xivry, Gilles ULg; Rabien, Sebastian; Busoni, Lorenzo et al

in First on-sky results with ARGOS at LBT (2016, July)

One year and an half after ARGOS first light, the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) laser guided ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system has been operated on both sides of the LBT. The system fulfills ... [more ▼]

One year and an half after ARGOS first light, the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) laser guided ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system has been operated on both sides of the LBT. The system fulfills the GLAO promise and typically delivers an improvement by a factor of 2 in FWHM over the 4'×4' field of view of both Luci instruments, the two near-infrared imagers and multi-object spectrographs. In this paper, we report on the first on-sky results and analyze the performances based on the data collected so far. We also discuss adaptive optics procedures and the joint operations with Luci for science observations. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications of the multiple timescale spectral analysis in wind engineering
Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Zingoni, Alphose (Ed.) Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (2016, July)

The random response of civil engineering structures to the buffeting action of wind loads is typically composed of several components, usually referred to as the background component, in the low fre ... [more ▼]

The random response of civil engineering structures to the buffeting action of wind loads is typically composed of several components, usually referred to as the background component, in the low fre- quency zone and the resonant component(s) in the neighborhood of modal natural frequencies. It has become customary to study separately and add the contributions of these components to the total response, at least as far as the second order response (variance of structural responses) is concerned. Such a decomposition exists but is less usual for the computation of covariances of modal coordinates or of structural displacements, which are in turn necessary for the determination of internal stresses. The question of such a decomposition also holds for nonlinear systems, or even for the higher statistical moments of a linear structural system, should the response be non Gaussian. With very wide ranges of applicability, the Multiple Timescale Spectral Analysis summarizes under a unified framework recent works aiming at the development of such decompositions. This paper briefly pictures this particular theory based on perturbation methods, and provides illustrations of its applicability to the problems cited above. [less ▲]

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See detailTechno-economic evaluation of self-consumption with PV/battery systems under different regulation schemes
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Zucker, Andreas

in Proceedings of the 29th international conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (2016, July)

The recent disclosure of new and innovative home battery systems has been seen by many as a catalyser for a solar energy revolution, and has created high expectations in the sector. Many observers have ... [more ▼]

The recent disclosure of new and innovative home battery systems has been seen by many as a catalyser for a solar energy revolution, and has created high expectations in the sector. Many observers have predicted an uptake of combined PV/Battery units, which, could ultimately disconnect from the grid and lead to autonomous homes or mini-grids. However, most of the comments originating from social media, blogs or press articles lack proper cost evaluation and realistic simulations. This work aims at bridging this gap by simulating self-consumption in different EU countries, for different household profiles with or without battery. Results indicate that (1) Although decreasing at a fast pace, the cost of domestic Li-Ion storage is most likely still too high for a large-scale market uptake in Europe; (2) PV incentives based on net metering are not favourable to home batteries; (3) Home battery profitability and future uptake mainly depend on the indirect self-consumption subsidies provided by the structure of the retail prices; (4) These systems do not allow residential consumers to go off-grid. They only allow for a maximum self-sufficiency ratio close to 70%. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an Observatory for Network Transparency Research
Neuhaus, Stephan; Münter, Roman; Edeline, Korian ULg et al

in Applied Networking Research Workshop (2016, July)

The Internet is full of middleboxes that change packets and flows. In fact, there is probably no IP or TCP header that is not affected by at least one middlebox. Obviously, middleboxes impede path ... [more ▼]

The Internet is full of middleboxes that change packets and flows. In fact, there is probably no IP or TCP header that is not affected by at least one middlebox. Obviously, middleboxes impede path transparency, i.e., the idea that an exchange of messages results in more or less the same packets, no matter what path the packets takes. But no one seems to have a truly global view of what middleboxes do to packets on what Internet paths, which would however be an essential knowledge for new transport protocols to be successfully deployed. We address these concerns in the MAMI project by building an observatory of path transparency measurements. The project hosts an extensive set of path transparency measurements - we believe it to be the first dataset to deal specifically with middlebox involvement. In this paper, we describe that Observatory and a number of questions that we want to address with the data in that Observatory. Eventually, the project will provide public access to that Observatory so that researchers and the interested public can ask their own questions about path transparency issues and middlebox involvement. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of a mountain ultra-marathon on cardiac biomarkers
Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Gergelé, Laurent; Kaux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Crossing borders through sport science (2016, July)

Objectives. While moderate exercise has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, consequences of a supra-physiological effort are not clear yet. In particular, the physiological consequences of ... [more ▼]

Objectives. While moderate exercise has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, consequences of a supra-physiological effort are not clear yet. In particular, the physiological consequences of ultramarathons need to be further documented. The aim of the study was to assess the changes of various cardiac biomarkers after a mountain ultra-marathon. Material and methods. Blood and urine samples were collected on 28 runners (17 men) participating to the Ultra-Trail du Mont Blanc (105km, total positive elevation: 5600 m) at 3 different times: before the race (Pre), within 1 h after the finish (Post) and 7 days after the finish (D+7). Several biomarkers involved in heart disease (coronary syndrome, heart failure and fibrosis) and in inflammation were assayed on different analyzers such a COBAS® (for CKMB,TnThs, NT-proBNP, H-FABP and CRPs) and KRYPTOR® (for Copeptin). ST2 was measured manually with the Presage kit from CRITICAL DIAGNOSTIC®. Results. Plasma levels of cardiac markers (CKMB, TnThs, NT-proBNP, copeptin, H FABP, ST2) and inflammation (CRPs) increased significantly at Post. Means values increased from Pre to Post as follows: 2.3 to 91.9 UI/L for CKMB (p<0.0001); 7.6 to 31.7 ng/L for TnThs (p<0.0001); 41.7 to 1190.5 ng/L for NT-proBNP, 4.2 to 22.9 pmol/L for copeptin (p=0.001); 3.6 to 107.8 ng/mL for H-FABP (p<0.0001), 29.7 to 126.2 ng/mL for ST2 (p<0.0001); 0.5 to 29.1 mg/L for CRPs (p<0.0001). With the exception of a few (H-FABP, ST2, CRPs) biomarkers in some subjects, all values were back to Pre values at D+7. Discussion-conclusion. Prolonged strenuous running exercise caused an elevation in cardiac biomarkers. Elevation in CK-MB levels lacks specificity for cardiac damage as runners have increased CKMB from skeletal muscles as well. Previous studies suggested that exercise induced TnThs elevation is a benign reversible physiologic phenomenon but this parameter, as well as H-FABP, could be a sign of ischemia. Different phenomena occurred such as stretch of myocytes causing an increase in pressure or volume and neurohormonal activation which can explain the Copeptine and NT-proBNP increase, while ST2 is a biomarker of cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. CRP is an acute phase compound that tends to increase following a strenuous and prolonged bout of exercise and/or muscular injury. As the values tended to return within the normal reference range values within 7 days after the race, our study suggests that there is no permanent structural damage at the myocardium level. [less ▲]

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See detailLeveraging orientation knowledge to enhance human pose estimation methods
Azrour, Samir ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects AMDO 2016 (2016, July)

Predicting accurately and in real-time 3D body joint positions from a depth image is the cornerstone for many safety, biomedical, and entertainment applications. Despite the high quality of the depth ... [more ▼]

Predicting accurately and in real-time 3D body joint positions from a depth image is the cornerstone for many safety, biomedical, and entertainment applications. Despite the high quality of the depth images, the accuracy of existing human pose estimation methods from single depth images remains insufficient for some applications. In order to enhance the accuracy, we suggest to leverage a rough orientation estimation to dynamically select a 3D joint position prediction model specialized for this orientation. This orientation estimation can be obtained in real-time either from the image itself, or from any other clue like tracking. We demonstrate the merits of this general principle on a pose estimation method similar to the one used with Kinect cameras. Our results show that the accuracy is improved by up to 45.1 %, with respect to a method using the same model for all orientations. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of the breaching process in the case of overtopping induced fluvial dike failure
Rifai, Ismail ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in River Flow 2016 Proceedings (2016, July)

Fluvial dikes are common structures constructed for flow channelization, prevention of river bed lateral migration and for flood protection purposes. Their aging increases their vulnerability to extreme ... [more ▼]

Fluvial dikes are common structures constructed for flow channelization, prevention of river bed lateral migration and for flood protection purposes. Their aging increases their vulnerability to extreme hydro-logical events, and subsequently may cause their failure. Many laboratory studies of overtopping induced dike failure were conducted, dealing mainly on normal configurations (i.e. dam break configuration) without ac-counting for the influence of a parallel flow. The fluvial dike breaching process remains, therefore, insuffi-ciently studied. A simplified model assuming a parameterized evolution of the breach geometry has been de-veloped to evaluate the fluvial breaching process. Results showed a sensitivity of the breaching process to the main channel configuration and to the flow conditions. Also, the evolution mode that was prescribed for the breach cross-section strongly influences the breaching duration and the sediment discharge [less ▲]

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See detailNappe Vibration Mitigation Techniques for Free-overfall Structrures
Lodomez, Maurine ULg; Crookston, Brian M.; Tullis, Blake P. et al

in Full Proceedings: Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management (2016, June 27)

Nappe vibration is a phenomenon that has been witnessed in the field for a variety of different free overflow hydraulic structures operating at low heads, such as fountains, crest gates, and weirs. This ... [more ▼]

Nappe vibration is a phenomenon that has been witnessed in the field for a variety of different free overflow hydraulic structures operating at low heads, such as fountains, crest gates, and weirs. This phenomenon is visually characterized by oscillations in the thin nappe cascading downstream of the control structure. These oscillations can produce a significant level of noise and acoustic pressure waves, which can increase the environmental and societal impacts of the hydraulic structure. As a result, a detailed investigation has been undertaken to identify practical and effective mitigation solutions for free-overfall structures where nappe vibration may be of concern. Research is being performed with a prototype-scale linear weir (weir length of 3.5 m and fall height of 3 m) located at the Engineering Hydraulics laboratory of the University of Liège, to assess the effectiveness of various crest modifications and any corresponding impacts to hydraulic efficiency (i.e., flow rate). The test matrix includes the optimization (position and spacing of elements) of three mitigation solutions which are projecting bolts, deflectors and step. In addition, a high-speed camera and audio equipment have been used to evaluate effectiveness of the configurations in reducing nappe vibration. Finally, this practical study has identified countermeasures suitable for retrofits and new construction, easy to construct, durable, hydraulically efficient, and with minimal potential for debris collection. [less ▲]

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See detailReceding-Horizon Control of Distributed Generation to Correct Voltage or Thermal Violations and Track Desired Schedules
Soleimani Bidgoli, Hamid ULg; Glavic, Mevludin ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the 19th PSCC (2016, June 23)

This paper presents a real-time, centralized control system acting on the active and reactive powers of distributed generators when the network experiences voltage and/or thermal limits violation. The ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a real-time, centralized control system acting on the active and reactive powers of distributed generators when the network experiences voltage and/or thermal limits violation. The control resorts on multi-step receding-horizon optimization. The objective is to minimize the deviations of Dispersed Generation Units (DGU) active and reactive powers from reference values. The reactive power corrections have priority over the active ones. Furthermore, the formulation is such that DGU powers are restored to their desired schedule as soon as operating conditions allow doing so. Three modes of operation of the proposed controller are presented, involving dispatchable units as well as DGUs operated to track maximum power output. The effectiveness of the proposed control is illustrated through detailed simulations of a 75-bus, 11-kV system hosting 22 DGUs. [less ▲]

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See detailORCmKit: an open-source library for organic Rankine cycle modelling and analysis
Dickes, Rémi ULg; Ziviani, Davide; van den Broek, Martjin et al

in Proceedings of ECOS 2016 (2016, June 20)

As for many other technologies, modelling and simulation of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) are crucial for design, optimization and control purposes. However, model development is often time consuming and ... [more ▼]

As for many other technologies, modelling and simulation of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) are crucial for design, optimization and control purposes. However, model development is often time consuming and the scientific community lacks of open-access tools to study ORC systems. For these reasons, researchers from the universities of Liège and Ghent in Belgium gathered their knowledge and created “ORC modelling Kit” (ORCmKit), an open-source library dedicated to the steady-state simulation and analysis of organic Rankine cycles. Both component-level and cycle-level models are provided and different ORC architectures can be simulated. For each of the main component of ORC systems, different models are available with increasing complexity which allows a wide range of modelling possibilities. In order to remain general and accessible to as many people as possible, three widely used programming languages are covered within ORCmKit, i.e. Matlab, Python and EES (Engineering Equation Solver). Besides source codes, ORCmKit also includes calibration tools for empirical and semi-empirical models as well as a complete documentation for ease of use. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganic Rankine cycle modelling and the ORCmKit library: analysis of R1234ze(Z) as drop-in replacement of R245fa for low-grade waste heat recovery
Ziviani, Davide; Dickes, Rémi ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg et al

in Proceedings of ECOS 2016 (2016, June 20)

Due to the wide interest in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) as a sustainable technology and the importance of numerical analyses and optimization procedures while considering such systems, we created a ... [more ▼]

Due to the wide interest in organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) as a sustainable technology and the importance of numerical analyses and optimization procedures while considering such systems, we created a dedicated open-source library named “ORC modelling Kit” (ORCmKit). The comprehensive library includes single com-ponents and overall models for subcritical, transcritical and supercritical ORCs. Three main programming environments are currently supported: Matlab, Python and EES (Engineering Equation Solver). A detailed steady-state cycle model of a small-scale regenerative ORC with a single-screw expander is used to evalu-ate the performance influence of R1234ze(Z) as a drop-in replacement of R245fa currently used in the instal-lation. The ORC system is used to recover low-grade waste heat with a temperature range between 90°C and 120°C. A thermal oil heater is used to simulate the heat source. A parametric study is carried out to in-vestigate the performance of the system throughout the range of interest in order to optimize the ORC with R1234ze(Z). [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Adaptive Facades: The Case Study of AGC Headquarter in Belgium
Attia, Shady ULg; Bashandy, Hamza

in Belis, Jan; Louter, Christian (Eds.) Challenging Glass 5 (2016, June 17)

The evaluation of adaptive facades presents a challenge because there is no established evaluation strategy to systematically reach this goal and many of the available façade performance evaluation tools ... [more ▼]

The evaluation of adaptive facades presents a challenge because there is no established evaluation strategy to systematically reach this goal and many of the available façade performance evaluation tools have limited applicability for such advanced building facades. This paper presents a case study for an adaptive glass façade and evaluates its performance. The evaluation focuses mainly on pre and post construction phase of adaptive facades: The design assist phase (including the durability test, visual mockup, onsite panel mounting and weather stripping), the commissioning phase (field verification and performance testing) and the monitoring phase. The selected project is a nearly zero energy building with unique façade comprising thermal isolated glass sunshades printed with white silk screen. These louvers respond dynamically and automatically to the angle of the sun which improves the control over energy consumption, solar radiation and glare with the ability to admit natural light into the building. The paper is part of the research activities of working group 3 of the European COST Action 1403 on “Adaptive Facades “. Different methods were used for evaluation, this include: interviews with the architect, façade engineer and technical control specialist, reviews of standard and codes and a systematic process mapping. A documentation of the case study describing the post construction occupant comfort and façade operation was prepared. This paper’s audience is mainly architects, building façade engineers together with facility managers concerned with the process of design, construction and operation of adaptive glass facades. The outcome of this study identifies effective strategies for the design and performance evaluation of optimal adaptive facades. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a standard measure of the ability of a structure to resist a natural fire
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 10)

Fire brigades face a major threat when intervening in a building in fire: the possibility of structural collapse during the cooling phase of the fire, or soon thereafter. In the current approaches to ... [more ▼]

Fire brigades face a major threat when intervening in a building in fire: the possibility of structural collapse during the cooling phase of the fire, or soon thereafter. In the current approaches to structural fire engineering, the fire resistance rating (R) is generally the only measure taken into consideration to characterize the fire performance of structural elements, although this measure does not reflect the response in real fire conditions. In this work, a standard measure is proposed to characterize the ability of structural members to resist a natural fire including the decay phases. This measure yields information about the potential occurrence of delayed failure as a function of the duration of the fire before it started to decrease, whether by self-extinction or due to the action of the fire fighters. The paper presents the method to derive this new standard measure as well as results for different typologies of structural elements. Finally, the interpretation and practical consequences are discussed, in particular regarding the safety of fire fighters during an intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical parameters in deriving fire fragility functions for steel gravity frames
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Garlock, Maria

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 10)

Fire fragility functions can be used to characterize the probabilistic vulnerability of buildings to fire in the context of urban resilience assessment. A methodology has been proposed to develop such ... [more ▼]

Fire fragility functions can be used to characterize the probabilistic vulnerability of buildings to fire in the context of urban resilience assessment. A methodology has been proposed to develop such functions for multi-story steel buildings. However, a large number of parameters with uncertainties play a role in the process of constructing the fragility functions. The goal of this research is to identify the critical parameters that most affect the global fire safety by investigating the sensitivity of the fragility functions to different input parameters. Sensitivity in parameters affecting the fire model, the heat transfer process and the thermo-mechanical response is examined. The effects of different design assumptions at the system level are also studied. The presented approach is useful for selecting the prevailing parameters in a fire reliability analysis and it provides important information for modeling tools that can be used to evaluate resilience for fire scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailFire fragility functions for community resilience assessment
Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Garlock, Maria

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 10)

This work provides a framework to evaluate the response of buildings in a community to fire following earthquake. As part of the framework, the paper discusses two methodologies: (1) how to develop fire ... [more ▼]

This work provides a framework to evaluate the response of buildings in a community to fire following earthquake. As part of the framework, the paper discusses two methodologies: (1) how to develop fire fragility functions; (2) how the fire fragility functions can be used in conjunction with an original fire ignition model to estimate the potential losses in a community from fire following earthquake. The paper focuses in particular on the development of fire fragility functions for an entire building to measure the probability of reaching a damage state given a fire scenario. Next, the paper proposes an ignition model to evaluate the probability of fire ignition after an earthquake. The ignition model together with fragility functions measure the probability of damage from fire following earthquake given an earthquake scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailConversion of visual post fire measurements into fire severity with the aid of thermo-plastic analysis for retrofitting
Molkens, Tom; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Van Coile, Ruben

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 10)

At Koksijde in Belgium a severe fire took place in an apartment building in 2015, resulting in the death of a young man and visible structural damage to four balconies. Following the fire, experts were ... [more ▼]

At Koksijde in Belgium a severe fire took place in an apartment building in 2015, resulting in the death of a young man and visible structural damage to four balconies. Following the fire, experts were mandated to assess the damage and the need for structural repair. They estimated that the balconies had to be refurbished but that there were no other structural elements affected, in particular the slab inside the apartment could be left in place with only a surface treatment and new plaster finishing. However, the floor slab in the apartment located above the fire apartment exhibited several visual indications that the fire could have had a structural impact, such as residual deformations and cracks in the tiles. This paper presents a methodology to infer the fire severity based on post-fire measurements and non-linear thermo-plastic numerical simulations. Finally, knowing the fire severity, its effect on the structure is evaluated and a reliability-based assessment is made of the residual load bearing capacity of the slab. [less ▲]

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See detailStability in Hybrid Fire Testing
Sauca, Ana ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Robert, Fabienne et al

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 09)

Hybrid testing is an appealing technique to observe the behavior of an element in an experimental test while taking into account the interaction with the rest of the structure which is modelled ... [more ▼]

Hybrid testing is an appealing technique to observe the behavior of an element in an experimental test while taking into account the interaction with the rest of the structure which is modelled numerically. Being widely used in the seismic field, this technique has been recently proposed in the fire field. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the loading control process may be unstable during the hybrid testing when using the methodology applied in former tests presented in the literature. The stability in the latter method depends on the stiffness ratio between the two substructures. For the purpose of discussion, a one degree-of-freedom elastic system is studied. To overcome the stability issues, a new method is presented, independent on the stiffness ratio. Finally, the hybrid testing of a 2D beam being part of a moment resisting frame is analyzed in a virtual environment (both parts being modeled numerically) using the “first generation method” and the new proposed method. [less ▲]

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See detailFire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns Subjected to Standard Fire – Comparison of an Advanced and a Simplified Method
Achenbach, Marcus; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Morgenthal, Guido

in Garlock, Maria; Kodur, Venkatesh (Eds.) Structures in Fire (Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference) (2016, June 08)

For designing concrete columns subjected to a standard fire exposure, the Eurocode permits the use of simplified or advanced calculation methods. For the designer, the question of the respective ... [more ▼]

For designing concrete columns subjected to a standard fire exposure, the Eurocode permits the use of simplified or advanced calculation methods. For the designer, the question of the respective advantages of these two types of methods arises. Which situations demand the use of an advanced method? When does a simple method provide sufficient accuracy? In this paper, laboratory tests are recalculated using Finite Element Modeling (FEM) as an advanced and Extended Zone Model (EZM) as a simple method in order to investigate these questions. The recalculations indicate that the simple EZM is of sufficient accuracy for symmetric heated columns without restraints. In contrast, the mechanical behavior of columns heated on three sides demands an advanced method such as FEM to be properly described. [less ▲]

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See detailA Stochastic Multi-scale Model For Predicting MEMS Stiction Failure
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULg; Paquay, Stéphane; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Proceedings of the SEM XIII International Congress and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. (SEMXIII 2016) (2016, June 06)

Adhesion is an important phenomenon in the context of MEMS for which the surface forces become dominant in comparison with the body forces. Because the magnitudes of the adhesive forces strongly depend on ... [more ▼]

Adhesion is an important phenomenon in the context of MEMS for which the surface forces become dominant in comparison with the body forces. Because the magnitudes of the adhesive forces strongly depend on the surface interaction distances, which in turn evolve with the roughness of the contacting surfaces, the adhesive forces cannot be determined in a deterministic way. To quantify the uncertainties on the structural stiction behavior of a MEMS, this work proposes a “stochastic multi-scale methodology”. The key ingredient of the method is the evaluation of the random meso-scale apparent contact forces, which homogenize the effect of the nano-scale roughness and are integrated into a numerical model of the studied structure as a random contact law. To obtain the probabilistic behavior at the structural MEMS scale, a direct method needs to evaluate explicitly the meso-scale apparent contact forces in a concurrent way with the stochastic multi-scale approach. To reduce the computational cost, a stochastic model is constructed to generate the random meso-scale apparent contact forces. To this end, the apparent contact forces are parameterized by a vector of parameters before applying a polynomial chaos expansion in order to construct a mathematical model representing the probability of the random parameters vector. The problem of miro-beam stiction is then studied in a probabilistic way. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Properties of a Discontinuous Galerkin formulation for electro-thermal coupled problems
Homsi, Lina; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in Papadrakakis, M.; Papadopoulos, V.; Stefanou, G. (Eds.) et al Proceedings of the VII European Congress on Computational Methods in Applied Sciences and Engineering, Crete Island, Greece, 5–10 June 2016 (2016, June 05)

Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods are attractive tools to integrate several PDEs in engineering sciences, due to their high order accuracy and their high scalability in parallel simulations. The main ... [more ▼]

Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods are attractive tools to integrate several PDEs in engineering sciences, due to their high order accuracy and their high scalability in parallel simulations. The main interest of this work is to derive a constant and stable Discontinuous Galerkin method for two-way electro-thermal coupling analyses. A fully coupled nonlinear weak formulation for electro-thermal problems is developed based on continuum mechanics equations which are discretized using the Discontinuous Galerkin method. Toward this end, the weak form is written in terms of energetically conjugated fields gradients and fluxes. In order to validate the effectiveness of the formulation and illustrate the algorithmic properties, a numerical test for composite materials is performed. [less ▲]

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See detailY-a-t-il des contre-indications à l'examen ENMG ?
WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni (Ed.) ENMG 2016 (2016, June 02)

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See detailInfluence of propeller configuration on propulsion system efficiency of multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Theys, Bart; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg; Hendrick, Patrick et al

in Proceedings of the International Conference on Unmanned Aircraft Systems, ICUAS 2016 (2016, June)

Multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles make use of multiple propellers, mounted on arms, to produce the required lift. This article investigates the influence on propulsion system efficiency in hover due to ... [more ▼]

Multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles make use of multiple propellers, mounted on arms, to produce the required lift. This article investigates the influence on propulsion system efficiency in hover due to the configuration of these propellers. Influence of pusher or puller configuration of the propeller, number of blades, shape and dimensions of the arm, coaxial and overlapping propellers, is presented. A dedicated test bench that allows testing of various experimental setups is designed and built in order to realistically represent multi-rotor arms. Test results show that a two-bladed pusher configuration is most efficient and slenderness of the arm has more influence on efficiency than shape. A coaxial propulsion system approaches the efficiency of a single-prop system at high disk loadings. Finally, interference effects due to overlapping propellers are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailModifying Indoor Facilities Appropriate to Children
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Delvaux, Anne ULg; Mornard, Manhattan ULg et al

in Book of abstracts AISEP 2016 (2016, June)

Introduction Physical literacy development during childhood is critical not only to favor sport performance outcomes but also to develop long term physical activity. It’s very important for children to ... [more ▼]

Introduction Physical literacy development during childhood is critical not only to favor sport performance outcomes but also to develop long term physical activity. It’s very important for children to move in a thinking way. Diversified activities are important to develop a large panel of fundamental motor skills and to stimulate perception. It is important for children to move, but it has to be done in a thinking way. Focus on inquiry With young children it is important to maximize active time, to develop fundamental motor skills and perception, to take into account inter-individual differences, to favor enjoyment, self-confidence and to guarantee optimal security. Most of these pedagogical challenges can be reached by appropriate instruction and by an adapted environment. Contribution There is clear evidence that modifying exercise facilities influence children’s behaviour with consequences for motivation, activity level and motor development. For 25 years a reflexive approach has been used at CEReKi (Liège, Belgium) in order to determine how indoor facilities can be modified with the aim to meet children needs and to favor motor development. Attractive circuits have been developed to stimulate specific motor skills (gymnastic, athletic or ball circuits). They were created to afford action possibilities and challenges for children to explore their own abilities for exercise. According to the children’s age and level of ability different pedagogical conditions can be provided: spontaneous play, guided discovery or structured games. Circuits have to be organised in such a way that children can do most exercises on their own. The arrangement of equipment offers multiple possibilities for movement, favouring active discovery for all children. The autonomy of children allows the teacher to move throughout the circuit and assist children by scaffolding their learning. Conclusion Our experience confirms that modifying indoor facilities is relevant for 3 to 8 years old children activities. [less ▲]

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