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See detailL’évaluation de l’efficacité des approches didactiques : l’art de conjuguer didactique et évaluation ? Symposium du réseau EVADIDA
Fagnant, Annick ULg; Schillings, Patricia ULg

in Actes du 27e colloque de l'Admée-Europe. L'évaluation à la lumière des contextes et des disciplines. (in press)

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See detailImpact de l’anisotropie du milieu dans les études de profilage géographique
Trotta, Marie ULg; Deprez, Cécile; Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

in SAGEO 2014, Grenoble 24-27 November 2014 (in press)

This communication aims at assessing the bias introduced by the use of the Euclidean distance in the context of geographic profiling analyzes. It proceeds by a comparison of road and Euclidean distances ... [more ▼]

This communication aims at assessing the bias introduced by the use of the Euclidean distance in the context of geographic profiling analyzes. It proceeds by a comparison of road and Euclidean distances of about 1 000 pairs of origin-destination (crime sites – criminal’s anchor point) from the database of the Belgian Federal Police. Comparisons are differentiated by the density of road network (rural and urban areas) and the statistical parameters of the resulting distributions are exploited in the application of the most common geographic profiling model called the distance decay model. [less ▲]

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See detailgammaMAXT: a fast multiple-testing correction algorithm
Van Lishout, François ULg; Gadaleta, Francesco ULg; Moore, Jason H. et al

in ERCIM 2014 Abstract Book (in press)

The purpose of the maxT algorithm (1993) is to control the family-wise error rate (FWER) when assessing significance of multiple tests jointly. However, the requirements in terms of computing time and ... [more ▼]

The purpose of the maxT algorithm (1993) is to control the family-wise error rate (FWER) when assessing significance of multiple tests jointly. However, the requirements in terms of computing time and memory of this procedure are proportional to the number of investigated hypothesis. The memory issue has been solved by Van Lishout’s implementation of maxT (2013), which makes the memory usage independent from the size of the dataset. This algorithm is implemented in MBMDR-3.0.3, a software that is able to identify genetic interactions, for a variety of SNP-SNP based epistasis model,s in an effective way. However, that implementation turned out to be less suitable for genome-wide interaction analysis studies, due to the prohibitive computational burden. Here, we present gammaMAXT, a novel algorithm which is part of MBMDR-4.2.2. We show that, in the abscence of interaction effects, test-statistics produced by the MB-MDR methodology follow a mixture distribution with a point mass at zero and a shifted gamma distribution for the top 10% of the strictly positive values. We show that the gammaMAXT algorithm has a power comparable to maxT and maintains FWER, but requires less computational resources and time. MBMDR-4.2.2 can be downloaded at http://www.statgen.ulg.ac.be. [less ▲]

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See detailMéthodes et outils statistiques pour une étude du lexique de la dépendance chez Pétrone
Longrée, Dominique ULg

in Brunet, Cl (Ed.) Actes du colloque Discours de la dépendance et dépendance du discours dans le Satiricon de Pétrone, 13-14 septembre 2012, Besançon (in press)

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See detailLes structures frontalières de renseignement : le modèle français exportable ?
Pirot, Pascal ULg

in Arboit Gérald (Ed.) Renseignement et avant-guerre de 1914 en Grande Région (titre provisoire) (in press)

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See detail« La Supplicatione di Italia al re di Francia. Sur un témoin retrouvé (ms. Firenze, Biblioteca Buonarroti, 95) »
Moreno, Paola ULg

in Encuentros / Desencuentros. Italia y España en los siglos XIV y XVI : Textos y contextos, Actes du Colloque Intarnational, México City. (in press)

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See detailVariation de la ponctuation dans une charte originale en double expédition écrite en français à Liège au XIIIe siècle
Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg

in Rochelois, Cécile; Fasseur, Valérie (Eds.) Ponctuer l'œuvre médiévale: des signes au sens (in press)

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See detailRegards croisés sur le sac de Rome: Le 'carteggio' de Francesco Guicciardini et les 'Diarii' de Marino Sanudo
Miesse, Hélène ULg

in Moreno, Paola; Godinas, Laurette; Miesse, Hélène (Eds.) Encuentros/Desencuentros. Italia y España en los siglos XV y XVI: Textos y contextos. Actas del congreso internacional, UNAM-Instituto de Investigaciones bibliogràficas, 26-27 de octubre 2009 (in press)

L'article envisage de façon conjointe la correspondance de Francesco Guicciardini et les journaux de Marino Sanudo pour la période qui précède immédiatement le sac de Rome de mai 1527, moment critique où ... [more ▼]

L'article envisage de façon conjointe la correspondance de Francesco Guicciardini et les journaux de Marino Sanudo pour la période qui précède immédiatement le sac de Rome de mai 1527, moment critique où se noue un nouvel équilibre entre les forces en présence en Italie. Issus de patries ennemies que la Ligue de Cognac a assemblées autour d’un objectif commun - la défense des intérêts italiens mis à mal - la mise en perspective de leurs écrits offre un éclairage nouveau sur l’entreprise portée par Guicciardini et la perception immédiate de l’événement par les contemporains puisque cette prise rapide, qui suscita stupeur et étonnement, rendit pendant un certain temps les hommes du temps, dont Sanudo, incapables de trancher de la véracité des faits qui leur étaient rapportés. La confrontation de ces deux corpus à caractère «privé» permet en outre de mettre en évidence les disparités de jugement qui peuvent émerger, que l’on soit acteur ou spectateur de l’histoire. [less ▲]

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See detailVltra posse nemo tenetur : du bon usage des bases de données en linguistique latine
Longrée, Dominique ULg

in Poccetti P. (Ed.) Actes du 17e Colloque international de Linguistique Latine, 20-25 mai 2013, Rome (in press)

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See detailAntiquité tardive et christianisme africains dans l'Africa romana : un bilan historiographique
Fialon, Sabine ULg

in Ruggeri, Paola (Ed.) L’Africa romana XX. Momenti di continuita e rottura : bilancio di 30 anni di convegni de l’Africa romana (in press)

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See detailAffixes transitivisants en français Examen morphologique des données du LVF
Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg; Martin, Fabienne

in Actes du 27e Congrès International de Linguistique et de Philologie Romanes (in press)

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See detailSe faire « manger par l’autre ». Stratégie féminines d’affirmation de soi en contexte public.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

in Etrangers au Maghreb. Maghrébins à l’étranger : politiques publiques à l’épreuve de la société civile : XIXe-XXIe siècles. Actes du colloque. (in press)

Cette communication vise à étudier la participation des femmes migrantes marocaines à la vie sociale du « pays d’accueil » ; participation qui se réalise grâce aux activités de la vie quotidienne. En ... [more ▼]

Cette communication vise à étudier la participation des femmes migrantes marocaines à la vie sociale du « pays d’accueil » ; participation qui se réalise grâce aux activités de la vie quotidienne. En particulier, la performance publique des pratiques culinaires, observée dans une ville de la province de Milan, permet aux femmes considérées d’exercer une agency à l’intérieur des espaces institutionnellement concédés à l’expression des migrants. D’un côté, la consommation des « recettes de l’Autre » de la part de la population majoritaire détermine une incorporation de la diversité afin de la contrôler. De l’autre côté, la préparation de ces recettes consent aux migrantes d’exprimer leur subjectivité (individuelle et collective) de façon active et en présentant des aspects qui vont au-delà de la culture alimentaire. Une participation sociale fondée sur le partage de nourriture donne la possibilité aux femmes d’assumer un rôle actif dans la communauté locale, tout en affirmant ses propres spécificités. Des sujets tels que la liberté religieuse sont abordés, et certains droits peuvent être réclamés par des individus qui ont ainsi acquis une position politiquement importante au sein de la société locale. [less ▲]

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See detailConservation of contemporary art: from concepts to practice, Cloaca by Wim Delvoye
Verbeeck, Muriel ULg; Broers, Nico

in Authenticity in transition (in press)

This paper looks at the ambiguities of language and concepts when considering the restoration of contemporary art.

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See detail"Arianisme “vandale” et controverse religieuse : le cas de la Disputatio Cerealis contra Maximinum"
Fialon, Sabine ULg

in Wolff, Étienne (Ed.) Afrique vandale. Littérature, religion et politique (in press)

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See detailSyntactic polygraphs - A formalism extending both constituency and dependency
Kahane, Sylvain; Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg

in Proceedings of the 14th Meeting on Mathematics of Language (MOL 2015) (in press)

Syntactic analyses describe grouping operations that explain how words are combined to form utterances. The nature of these operations depends on the approach. In a constituency-based approach, grouping ... [more ▼]

Syntactic analyses describe grouping operations that explain how words are combined to form utterances. The nature of these operations depends on the approach. In a constituency-based approach, grouping operations are ordered, or stratified, part-whole relations. In a dependency-based approach, grouping operations identify a governor (or head), i.e. they are directed hierarchical relations between words. It is possible to convert a constituency tree into a dependency tree by dereifying the nodes, by identifying the governor and by removing the stratification of the part-whole relations. Polygraphs combine the two types of information into a single structure and are therefore a more powerful formalism. By relaxing constraints, polygraphs also allow to underspecify both kinds of information. [less ▲]

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See detailDependency-based analyses for function words. Introducing the polygraphic approach
Kahane, Sylvain; Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg

in Proceedings of Depling 2015. International conference on dependency linguistics (in press)

This paper scrutinizes various dependency-based representations of the syntax of function words, such as prepositions. The focus is on the underlying formal object used to encode the linguistic analyses ... [more ▼]

This paper scrutinizes various dependency-based representations of the syntax of function words, such as prepositions. The focus is on the underlying formal object used to encode the linguistic analyses and its relation to the corresponding linguistic theory. Two types of representation are proposed for the encoding of syntactic properties and applied for function words. Although the mathematical object introduced here encodes a dependency-based analysis, it does not consist in a tree. It is rather more general than a graph (it allows edges to be vertices of other edges) and is called a polygraph. [less ▲]

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See detailPaper documents from Iṣṭabl ʿAntar: Assessment of the findings and data analysis
Bauden, Frédéric ULg

in Denoix, Sylvie; Gayraud, Roland-Pierre (Eds.) Fusṭāṭ - Iṣṭabl ʿAntar IFAO's Excavations. First Symposium (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (4 ULg)
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See detailLe débat sur la véritable nature du corail
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Actes du IXe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

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See detailLa légation des Pays-Bas en cour de Rome au temps de l’agent Laurent du Blioul (1573-1598): Une légation au cœur des réseaux de la monarchie de Philippe II
Regibeau, Julien ULg

in Actes du neuvième congrès de l'Association des Cercles francophones d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (14 ULg)
See detailThe mata'a and the "collapse hypothesis"
Flas, Damien ULg

in De Dapper, Morgan; Cauwe, Nicolas; Huyghe, Dirk (Eds.) Easter Island. Collapse or Transformation ? A State of the Art. Proceedings of the International Conference of Bruxelles (November 9th-10th 2012) (in press)

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See detailLe traitement de l’Histoire Auguste selon les méthodes du LASLA : descriptif du projet et perspectives linguistiques
Longrée, Dominique ULg; Bertrand-Dagenbach, Cécile

in Cuzzolin, P, Fedriani, Ch (Ed.) Actes du Colloque Latin vulgaire et Latin Tardif, LVLT 10, Bergame, 5-8 septembre 2013 (in press)

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See detailLA RENONCIATION, L’ABDICATION ET LA RUPTURE DU CONTRAT DE TRAVAIL
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

in LA RUPTURE DU CONTRAT DE TRAVAIL : ENTRE HARMONISATION ET DISCRIMINATION (in press)

L’étude, limitée au contexte de la dissolution du contrat de travail, aborde, dans une première partie, la possibilité pour les parties au contrat de travail de renoncer au bénéfice d’une disposition ... [more ▼]

L’étude, limitée au contexte de la dissolution du contrat de travail, aborde, dans une première partie, la possibilité pour les parties au contrat de travail de renoncer au bénéfice d’une disposition, possibilité liée au caractère impératif ou d’ordre de la disposition en cause. Est particulièrement étudié le lien entre le rapport de subordination et la faculté d’abdiquer un droit. Le document effectue ensuite une incursion dans la question de la preuve de la renonciation. La troisième partie passe en revue un large éventail de droits auxquels les parties pourraient être tentées de renoncer : clauses d’écolage, clauses de stabilité d’emploi, renonciation au droit d’invoquer la rupture du contrat de travail en cas d’acte équipollent à rupture ou de préavis nul, renonciation à la durée du préavis ou à l’indemnité en tenant lieu, renonciation au reclassement professionnel, aux droits découlant d’une convention collective, renonciation par un délégué du personnel, renonciation par la voie d’une convention collective, etc. Si la matière reste incertaine à bien des égards, elle est aussi en évolution, tant par l’effet de la jurisprudence que par l’action de la loi, et notamment celle du 26 décembre 2013 dite « statut unique », qui a modifié de manière sensible le champ de la licéité des renonciations au délai ou à l’indemnité compensatoire de préavis. [less ▲]

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See detailZoroastre dans "Les Mages hellénisés". Portrait illusoire d'une sagesse barbare.
Swennen, Philippe ULg

in Sagesses barbares: colloque scientifique international (in press)

Dans "Les Mages hellénisés", Cumont et Bidez ont tenté un compromis entre l'état de l'art contemporain de la rédaction de leur ouvrage et le contenu des sources classiques qu'ils ont collectées. L'examen ... [more ▼]

Dans "Les Mages hellénisés", Cumont et Bidez ont tenté un compromis entre l'état de l'art contemporain de la rédaction de leur ouvrage et le contenu des sources classiques qu'ils ont collectées. L'examen de ces dernières permet pourtant de douter que les premiers témoins grecs du monde achéménide aient cru en l'historicité récente de Zoroastre. [less ▲]

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See detailDébats européens sur les formes de la vie marine au Siècle des Lumières
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Jullien, Vincent; Nicolaidis, Efthymios; Skordoulis, Kostas (Eds.) Europe et sciences modernes, histoire d’un engendrement mutuel (in press)

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See detailRestaurer la Lumière. Les effets luminodynamiques de la Tour cybernétique de Nicolas Schöffer à Liège
Verbeeck, Muriel ULg; D'Haenens, Manon ULg

in Lumière et patrimoine (in press)

Cette communication porte sur la nécessaire conservation préventive de la Tour Schöffer, en amont du chantier de restauration prévu pour 2015.

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See detailInventer. Le jeune Descartes et les voies de l’inventio en 1619-1620
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg

in Savini, Massimiliano (Ed.) Les écrits de jeunesse de Descartes (in press)

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See detailToponymie et anthroponymie dans l'Atlas linguistique de la Wallonie
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Germain, Jean; Tamine, Michel (Eds.) Actes du XVIe Colloque d'Onomastique de la Société française d’onomastique (SFO) (in press)

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See detailRésolution de problèmes arithmétiques et représentations schématiques : comment évaluer l’efficacité d’approches didactiques contrastées ?
Fagnant, Annick ULg; Auquière, Amélie ULg; Vlassis, Joëlle

in Actes du 27e colloque de l'Admée-Europe. L'évaluation à la lumière des contextes et des disciplines. (in press)

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See detailLe droit de préemption de la France sur le Congo Belge en 1960
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Actes du IXe Congrès de l'Association des Cercles francophones d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

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See detailCombining Features for Cover Song Identification
Osmalsky, Julien ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Foster, Peter et al

in 16th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (2015, October)

In this paper, we evaluate a set of methods for combining features for cover song identification. We first create multiple classifiers based on global tempo, duration, loudness, beats and chroma average ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we evaluate a set of methods for combining features for cover song identification. We first create multiple classifiers based on global tempo, duration, loudness, beats and chroma average features, training a random forest for each feature. Subsequently, we evaluate standard combination rules for merging these single classifiers into a composite classifier based on global features. We further obtain two higher level classifiers based on chroma features: one based on comparing histograms of quantized chroma features, and a second one based on computing cross-correlations between sequences of chroma features, to account for temporal information. For combining the latter chroma-based classifiers with the composite classifier based on global features, we use standard rank aggregation methods adapted from the information retrieval literature. We evaluate performance with the Second Hand Song dataset, where we quantify performance using multiple statistics. We observe that each combination rule outperforms single methods in terms of the total number of identified queries. Experiments with rank aggregation methods show an increase of up to 23.5 % of the number of identified queries, compared to single classifiers. [less ▲]

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See detailTime ordering shuffling for improving background subtraction
Laugraud, Benjamin ULg; Latour, Philippe ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (ACIVS) (2015, October)

By construction, a video is a series of ordered frames, whose order is defined at the time of the acquisition process. Background subtraction methods then take this input video and produce a series of ... [more ▼]

By construction, a video is a series of ordered frames, whose order is defined at the time of the acquisition process. Background subtraction methods then take this input video and produce a series of segmentation maps expressed in terms of foreground objects and scene background. To our knowledge, this natural ordering of frames has never been questioned or challenged. In this paper, we propose to challenge, in a prospective view, the natural ordering of video frames in the context of background subtraction, and examine alternative time orderings. The idea consists to change the order before background subtraction is applied, by means of shuffling strategies, and to re-order the segmentation maps afterwards. For this purpose, we propose several shuffling strategies and show that, for some background subtraction methods, results are preserved or even improved. The practical advantage of time shuffling is that it can been applied to any existing background subtraction seamlessly. [less ▲]

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See detailSimple median-based method for stationary background generation using background subtraction algorithms
Laugraud, Benjamin ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Braham, Marc ULg et al

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

The estimation of the background image from a video sequence is necessary in some applications. Computing the median for each pixel over time is effective, but it fails when the background is visible for ... [more ▼]

The estimation of the background image from a video sequence is necessary in some applications. Computing the median for each pixel over time is effective, but it fails when the background is visible for less than half of the time. In this paper, we propose a new method leveraging the segmentation performed by a background subtraction algorithm, which reduces the set of color candidates, for each pixel, before the median is applied. Our method is simple and fully generic as any background subtraction algorithm can be used. While recent background subtraction algorithms are excellent in detecting moving objects, our experiments show that the frame difference algorithm is a technique that compare advantageously to more advanced ones. Finally, we present the background images obtained on the SBI dataset, which appear to be almost perfect. The source code of our method can be downloaded at http://www.ulg.ac.be/telecom/research/sbg . [less ▲]

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See detailA perfect estimation of a background image does not lead to a perfect background subtraction: analysis of the upper bound on the performance
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

The quest for the “best” background subtraction technique is ongoing. Despite that a considerable effort has been undertaken to develop flexible and efficient methods, some elementary questions are still ... [more ▼]

The quest for the “best” background subtraction technique is ongoing. Despite that a considerable effort has been undertaken to develop flexible and efficient methods, some elementary questions are still unanswered. One of them is the existence of an intrinsic upper bound to the performance. In fact, data are affected by noise, and therefore it is illusory to believe that it is possible to achieve a perfect segmentation. This paper aims at exploring some intrinsic limitations of the principle of background subtraction. The purpose consists in studying the impact of several limiting factors separately. One of our conclusions is that even if an algorithm would be able to calculate a perfect background image, it is not sufficient to achieve a perfect segmentation with background subtraction, due to other intrinsic limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear Background Filter to Improve Pedestrian Detection
Wang, Yi; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Su, Song-Zhi et al

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

In this paper, we propose a simple nonlinear filter which improves the detection of pedestrians walking in a video. We do so by first cumulating temporal gradient of moving objects into a motion history ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a simple nonlinear filter which improves the detection of pedestrians walking in a video. We do so by first cumulating temporal gradient of moving objects into a motion history image (MHI). Then we apply to each frame of the video a motion-guided nonlinear filter whose goal is to smudge out background details while leaving untouched foreground moving objects. The resulting blurry-background image is then fed to a pedestrian detector. Experiments reveal that for a given miss rate, our motion-guided nonlinear filter can decrease the number of false positives per image (FPPI) by a factor of up to 26. Our method is simple, computationally light, and can be applied on a variety of videos to improve the performances of almost any kind of pedestrian detectors. [less ▲]

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See detailGalland épigraphiste et philologue classique
Famerie, Etienne ULg

in Bauden, Frédéric; Waller, Richard (Eds.) Actes du Colloque "Antoine Galland (1646-1715) : orientaliste, antiquaire, numismate, humaniste" (2015, September)

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See detailPhysical modeling of lateral dike breaching due to overtopping
Rifai, Ismail; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, RCEM 2015 (2015, August)

Dikes are commonly used as defense structures for river flow channelization, protecting population and property from floods and against lateral riverbed migration. However, the aging of these structures ... [more ▼]

Dikes are commonly used as defense structures for river flow channelization, protecting population and property from floods and against lateral riverbed migration. However, the aging of these structures, combined with their increased vulnerability to extreme hydrological events may cause the dikes to breach, and subsequently to break. Furthermore, statistics show that flow overtopping is the main cause of dike failure, which emphasizes the need to understand thoroughly the process of breaching. Indeed, from a risk management perspective it is particularly important to have a detailed understanding of the mechanisms (e.g. internal erosion, overtopping erosion) underlying the formation of breaches due to overtopping and reliable information on flows passing through them. Conversely, the current knowledge of breaching mechanisms remains fragmented, especially because dike failure involves complex interactions between flows, materials of the structure, soil and foundations. The existing studies have addressed partially these interactions as the considered idealized dikes were generally homogenous, the piping erosion unaccounted for and the overtopping replicated in a dam-break like configuration. Yet, river embankments are subjected to high flow velocities parallel to the direction of the dike and to flow in the floodplain, which highly influence the shape of the breach and its evolution. The objective of the present work is to fill this gap. A laboratory experimental investigation is planned in the National Laboratory for Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of EDF R&D (France) and in the research group Hydraulics in Environmental and Civil Engineering (HECE) of the University of Liege (Belgium), reproducing realistic configurations of river dikes, accounting for the tangential flow in both main channel and floodplain. It enables thus the assessment of, on the one hand, the effect of the increase of the water level, and on the other hand, the influence of waves. The laboratory tests also consider the effect of a surface layer and composition of the dike core by testing different material mixtures. Geometry and composition of the idealized dikes are representative of typical field dikes, based on the similarity theory. [less ▲]

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See detailA viscoelastic-viscoplastic-damage constitutive model based on a large strain hyperelastic formulation for amorphous glassy polymers
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Morelle, Xavier; Lani, Frédéric et al

in proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Composite Materials, Copenhagen, Denmark, 19-24th July 2015 (2015, July 20)

The aim of this work is to develop an efficient large-strain hyperelastic constitutive model for amorphous polymers in the glassy state. These materials exhibit a complex rate- and pressure-sensible ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is to develop an efficient large-strain hyperelastic constitutive model for amorphous polymers in the glassy state. These materials exhibit a complex rate- and pressure-sensible behavior in both elastic and plastic regimes. After an initial linear elastic region, a nonlinear stage continues until reaching a peak stress, which is followed by a softening stage. At large strains, when the softening is saturated, a re-hardening stage is reached. The viscoelastic effect is captured using the generalized Maxwell model. The viscoplastic effect is considered using a Perzyna-type flow rule incorporating a pressure sensitive yield surface and a non-associated flow potential. This yield surface is extended from the Drucker-Prager one. The saturated softening phenomenon is modelled using an isotropic numerical damage variable progressed by a saturated softening law. With the introduction of the damage parameter, a non-local implicit gradient damage model is used to avoid the loss of the solution uniqueness. Through experimental comparisons, it is shown that the proposed model has the ability to model the complex mechanical responses of amorphous glassy polymers. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling Uncertainties in Long-Term Predictions of Urban Growth: A Coupled Cellular Automata and Agent-Based Approach
El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed Mohamed ULg; Saadi, Ismaïl ULg; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Ferreira, Joseph; Goodspeed, Robert (Eds.) Proceedings of CUPUM 2015 (2015, July 07)

Modelling the growth of urban settlements is of considerable interest for different applications, amongst which integrated flood management. This study aims at modelling urban growth for a long time ... [more ▼]

Modelling the growth of urban settlements is of considerable interest for different applications, amongst which integrated flood management. This study aims at modelling urban growth for a long time horizon up to 2100 and to integrate the model outcomes with a hydrological model for the same time horizon. Forecasting land-use change over such time frames entails very significant uncertainties. In this regard, the main focus of this paper is attributed to the handling of uncertainty in an urban growth model. To this end, we examine a Monte Carlo Simulation method, which is integrated in the proposed urban growth model. Transition probabilities for each non-urban cell are estimated by a coupled Cellular Automata-Agent-Based ap-proach. The results help to handle uncertainty over long time horizons and to assess the increment in degree of uncertainty at every time-step. [less ▲]

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See detailSuppression of simulated self-excited oscillation using smart materials on flexible wing structure
Abdul Razak, N.; Nasip, N. S.; Hawari, A. F. et al

in Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics, IFASD 2015 (2015, July 01)

Suppression of simulated self-excited oscillation due to aeroelastic effects using piezoelectric patches is reported. The focus of the present work is suppressing simulated flutter oscillation using ... [more ▼]

Suppression of simulated self-excited oscillation due to aeroelastic effects using piezoelectric patches is reported. The focus of the present work is suppressing simulated flutter oscillation using piezoelectric patches bonded to the wing structure. First, a clean wing is exposed to airflow in the wind tunnel where it experienced limited amplitude oscillation. The responses were recorded. This is followed by bonding piezoelectric patches to the identical wing that was tested in the wind tunnel. Two of the patches were used as actuators to simulate self-excited oscillation in a control manner. The selected mode for excitation is 1st bending mode. The other two patches were used as suppressor for active control using negative velocity feedback Single-Input, Single-Output approach. The single input signal for negative feedback is also sensed using piezoelectric patches. The controller manages to suppress the simulated flutter response to a lower oscillation amplitude values. This works demonstrated the used of piezoelectric material as actuator to reproduce the oscillation amplitude during self-excited oscillation and suppress the oscillation at the same time. [less ▲]

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See detailA new test of uniformity for object orientations in astronomy
Pelgrims, Vincent ULg

in Heavens, A. F.; Starck, J.-L.; Krone-Martins, A. (Eds.) Statistical Challenges in 21st Century Cosmology (2015, July 01)

We briefly present a new coordinate-invariant statistical test dedicated to the study of the orientations of transverse quantities of non-uniformly distributed sources on the celestial sphere. These ... [more ▼]

We briefly present a new coordinate-invariant statistical test dedicated to the study of the orientations of transverse quantities of non-uniformly distributed sources on the celestial sphere. These quantities can be projected spin-axes or polarization vectors of astronomical sources. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de l'évolution de l'enneigement dans les Hautes Fagnes (Belgique) au cours des cinquante dernières années à l'aide du modèle climatique régional MAR
Wyard, Coraline ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg

in Erpicum, Michel (Ed.) Actes du XXVIIIe colloque annuel de l’Association Internationale de Climatologie : Modélisations et variabilités (2015, July)

The “Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale” MAR is a regional climate model originally developed to study the polar ice sheets. In this study, the MAR model has been adapted to Belgium in order to study the snow ... [more ▼]

The “Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale” MAR is a regional climate model originally developed to study the polar ice sheets. In this study, the MAR model has been adapted to Belgium in order to study the snow cover evolution of the High Fens (east of Belgium), a region covered by snow on average one to two months per year. As validation, we have sucessfully compared MAR based daily snow heights with snowcam-based and/or laser sensor-based observations over the period 2008-2013. Then, the model has been forced by ERA-Interim since 1958 to study the snow cover evolution during the last fifty years at the summit of Belgium. The results show no significant trend despite global warming. [less ▲]

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See detailMarcel-Henri Jaspar, "Le plus gaullien des Belges" ? Construction et déconstruction d'une réputation (1940-1966)
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Lanneau, Catherine; Depagie, Francis (Eds.) De Gaulle et la Belgique (2015, July)

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See detailComparison of experimental results and numerical modelling of unreinforced load-bearing masonry structures subjected to earthquake loading
Mordant, Christophe ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Degée, Hervé

in Proceedings of the SECED 2015 Conference: Earthquake Risk and Engineering towards a Resilient World (2015, July)

This paper presents a comparison of experimental tests results on unreinforced load-bearing masonry structures subjected to earthquake loading with numerical predictions. First, simple walls are submitted ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a comparison of experimental tests results on unreinforced load-bearing masonry structures subjected to earthquake loading with numerical predictions. First, simple walls are submitted to cyclic and shaking table tests. Some of them include soundproofing devices in order to investigate their influence on the general behaviour in static and dynamic conditions. Additional walls with an opening and T-shaped walls are then tested under cyclic loading. The study is focused on the frame effect, the contribution of the perpendicular wall to the global strength and the efficiency of the connection. These aspects are also studied through shaking table tests on two masonry frames with T- or L-shaped piers. The main information is expressed in terms of force-displacement curves, mechanical properties and energy dissipation for the cyclic tests. The shaking table tests provide results in terms of dynamic and mechanical properties. Comparison of the results with numerical predictions is finally performed thanks to the software TREMURI. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative study of different output metrics for a three weakly coupled resonator sensor
Zhao, Chun; Wood, Graham; Xie, J.B. et al

in Proceedings of Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers 2015) (2015, July)

This work, for the first time, investigates the characteristics of different output metrics for a three degree-of-freedom (DoF) coupled resonator sensor. The main aspects examined are sensitivity and ... [more ▼]

This work, for the first time, investigates the characteristics of different output metrics for a three degree-of-freedom (DoF) coupled resonator sensor. The main aspects examined are sensitivity and linear range. It is shown from electrical measurements that using the vibration amplitude ratio as an output signal provides improved sensitivity and linearity range, compared to other methods such as shift in eigenstate, mode frequency or amplitude difference. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing 2D-PIV measurements to compute unsteady aerodynamic loads on a flat plate at high angle of attack
Guissart, Amandine ULg; Bernal, Luis; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 16th International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics, IFASD 2015 (2015, June 30)

This work exposes and discusses results obtained for aerodynamic forces using an indirect calculation based on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The methodology used is based on the integral ... [more ▼]

This work exposes and discusses results obtained for aerodynamic forces using an indirect calculation based on Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. The methodology used is based on the integral formulation of the Navier-Stokes equations and is applied to spatio-temporal data for different flows around a plate with a 16:1 chord-to-thickness ratio at high angle of attack. Experimental data are obtained in a water channel for both a static and a pitching plate. In addition to PIV data, direct measurements of aerodynamic loads are carried out to assess the quality of the indirect calculation. It is demonstrated that this indirect method is able to compute the mean and the temporal evolution of the lift and drag coefficients with a reasonable accuracy. It is also shown that the noise sensitivity of the method can be partly alleviated through the use of Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) as a pre-processing step to smooth the spatio-temporal data. [less ▲]

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See detailAsymmetric limit cycle oscillations in systems with symmetric freeplay
Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics, IFASD 2015 (2015, June 30)

In this paper, a simple 2D aeroelastic system with degrees of freedom in pitch, plunge and control surface deflection is investigated with freeplay in the pitch degree of freedom. It is shown that this ... [more ▼]

In this paper, a simple 2D aeroelastic system with degrees of freedom in pitch, plunge and control surface deflection is investigated with freeplay in the pitch degree of freedom. It is shown that this system features a fixed point at the origin as well as two anti-symmetric fixed points. Asymmetric limit cycles that span only two of the three piecewise linear subdomains of the phase plane can orbit these anti-symmetric fixed points. A single three-domain symmetric cycle and two two-domain cycles appear as a result of a grazing bifurcation occurring at the flutter speed of the underlying linear system. The two-domain cycles can undergo further fold, period doubling and torus bifurcations. They can cause both periodic and aperiodic oscillations, including highly chaotic responses at parameter values where they interact strongly. [less ▲]

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See detailTheoretical and experimental investigation of a structurally and aerodynamically nonlinear pitch and flap wing
Verstraelen, Edouard ULg; Boutet, Johan ULg; Grappasonni, Chiara ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics, IFASD 2015 (2015, June 29)

This paper presents and experimental and theoretical investigation of a novel nonlinear aeroelastic system. It consists of a wing with pitch and flap degrees of freedom, suspended from a leaf spring ... [more ▼]

This paper presents and experimental and theoretical investigation of a novel nonlinear aeroelastic system. It consists of a wing with pitch and flap degrees of freedom, suspended from a leaf spring secured in a nonlinear clamp. Both the structural and the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing can be nonlinear, depending on the amplitude of oscillations. Wind tunnel experiments show that the system undergoes a supercritical Hopf bifurcation that leads to small amplitude limit cycle oscillations. At a particular airspeed, the pitch amplitude jumps to a much higher value and dynamic stall starts to occur. Three mathematical models of the system are formulated, one based on linear aerodynamics and two based on the Leishman-Beddoes dynamic stall model. The objective of the modelling is to determine whether the jump in pitch oscillation amplitude is due to dynamic stall. The predictions for amplitude, frequency and mean angle of the limit cycle oscillations are compared to the experimental observations. All three models predict the small amplitude oscillations with satisfactory accuracy. The complete Leishman-Beddoes model predicts the occurrence of a jump in pitch amplitude but the magnitude of this jump is signi cantly overestimated. The other two models completely fail to model the jump. The failure of the Leishman-Beddoes model to predict the correct post-jump oscillation amplitude may be due to the values selected for the model parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparative study for simulation of heat transport in large district heating network
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Thomas, David ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Prooceedings of ECOS 2015 (2015, June 29)

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See detailUnsteady Viscous-Inviscid Coupling Simulations of Separated Laminar Flows Around 2D Airfoils
Rothkegel Ide, José Ignacio ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics, IFASD 2015 (2015, June 29)

An interactive boundary layer model has been developed in 2D in order to solve the unsteady flow around an airfoil. The inviscid problem is solved using a panel method, by the discretization of the ... [more ▼]

An interactive boundary layer model has been developed in 2D in order to solve the unsteady flow around an airfoil. The inviscid problem is solved using a panel method, by the discretization of the airfoil into linear-varying vortex panels. The solution of the boundary layer equations is carried out using a finite volume scheme. Viscous-inviscid coupling is preformed by imposing a permeation velocity on the skin panels of the airfoil and the addition of a free wake at each separation point. [less ▲]

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See detailWood, the material of tomorrow's retrofits
Ruellan, Guirec ULg; Attia, Shady ULg

in High-quality retrofit and redensification with timber construction systems (2015, June 18)

The construction sector has focused for many years on performance improvement of new constructions. Today's largest problem is the energetic retrofitting of existing buildings. The building retrofit is an ... [more ▼]

The construction sector has focused for many years on performance improvement of new constructions. Today's largest problem is the energetic retrofitting of existing buildings. The building retrofit is an important strategy for energy savings. Building retrofit is addressed towards the real estate in Europe and allows for substantial gains, especially for heating houses and urban densification. However retrofit requires the use of special construction techniques. The problem is quite different from that of the new buildings: adaptation to existing building, heritage conservation, elimination of thermal bridges, etc. In this context, wood is experiencing strong growth in its use in new constructions, due to its qualities. And we think that some of those allow more appropriate responses to retrofit than other traditional materials. In this study, we will first present succinctly the problems related to the renovation, then we will dedicate ourselves to define the characteristics of the wood. The focus will be on some problems that commonly arise in wood constructions. We will then discuss a case, highlighting different characteristics of wood that are particularly important in this particular renovation. This allows us to observe on the ground the coherence of the choice of wood in the renovation. A discussion will close the study by summarizing the advantages and limitations of the use of wood in the renovation This is not to show that wood is one of the most environmentally friendly building materials, or demonstrate the sustainable character of retrofit. This is to see that the timber construction systems can provide an adequate response to many retrofit issues. [less ▲]

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See detailOverview and recommendation on urban densification potential in Liège, Belgium
Attia, Shady ULg

in AEE INTEC (Ed.) High-quality retrofit and redensification with timber construction systems (2015, June 18)

Belgium, like many European Countries, has a serious challenge in the housing sector. The Federal planning bureau estimates the increase of population by one million inhabitants by 2030, which represent ... [more ▼]

Belgium, like many European Countries, has a serious challenge in the housing sector. The Federal planning bureau estimates the increase of population by one million inhabitants by 2030, which represent 600.000 additional family requiring accesses to new housing facilities. Population ageing (mainly due to increasing life expectancy) combined with a constant growing rate of individuals living in collective households, leads to a substantial increase of demand of collective households (Vandresse & Bureau, 2013). This highlights a substantial challenge underlined mainly in the need to live in cities, which as consequence will increase the demand for smaller housing with or without integrated services or equipment in common. Furthermore, the stringent European performance environmental regulations for the building sector require that by 2020, all new construction are zero or nearly zero energy, (equivalent to 15 kWh/m2/year), with 60% efficient on-site coverage by renewable energy. The shortage of vacant land and the increasing energy performance requirements is pushing the idea of urban densification and zero energy construction households. During the recent 6 years, there has been a trend to use timber frame constructions as a sustainable solution facing the economic and environmental crisis in Belgium. However, there is lack of knowledge on the design, construction and operation of zero energy lightweight constructions for urban densification. The goal of this research is to provide an overview and recommendation on urban densification potential in Liège Province. The focused aim is to demonstrate validated design prototypes and products of different zero energy, timber frame construction systems and composite components. Thus inform and support the decision making of policy makers, municipalities, developers, and architects and building engineers in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailScreening and analyzing retrofit systems for zero energy renovation and their potential application in Liège, Belgium
Attia, Shady ULg

in AEE INTEC (Ed.) High-quality retrofit and redensification with timber construction systems (2015, June 18)

Retrofit systems for Zero Energy Renovation comes energy as the most topical subject in the Belgian construction sector. Concepts and solutions for zero energy renovation are a new topic. Since 2006 ... [more ▼]

Retrofit systems for Zero Energy Renovation comes energy as the most topical subject in the Belgian construction sector. Concepts and solutions for zero energy renovation are a new topic. Since 2006, Belgium has been striving to achieve the European ambitions of fulfilling the Kyoto Protocol by insulating more effectively and reducing CO2 emissions associated with the use of fossil fuel for operational and embodied energy in buildings. In 2011, a Belgian decree mandated the construction of nearly zero and nets zero energy buildings by 2020. Following the German PassivHaus Standard performance requirements the Belgian residential sector is aiming to achieve an energy consumption to less than 15 kWh/m2/year and an onsite renewable energy production up to 60% for every newly construct household. In this, context the study will build on grounded knowledge developed and implemented by the IEA ECBCS Annex 50: Prefabricated Systems for Low Energy Renovation of Residential Buildings. The goal of this research is to screen and select a series of envelope retrofitting solutions. The focused aim is to demonstrate validated envelope prototypes and products of different zero energy, timber frame construction systems and composite components. This will include the comparison of timber retrofit systems with conventional systems. Thus inform and support the decision making of policy makers, municipalities, developers, and architects and building engineers in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailCompétition partisane, changement climatique et écologie politique : convergences et conflits sur les thématiques politiques
Piet, Grégory ULg

in Flipo, Fabrice (Ed.) Les actes du Colloque "Penser l'écologie politique" (2015, June 16)

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See detailEVALUATION OF CONTINUOUS SUPRASCAPULAR NERVE BLOCKADE IN THE TREATMENT OF REFRACTORY ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS : A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY
MUTSERS, Pierre ULg; LECOQ, Jean-Pierre ULg; GOFFIN, Pierre ULg et al

in Abstract Book du Residence Meeting de la Société Belge d'Anesthésie (2015, June 15)

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See detailRegional crop and irrigation monitoring: some examples of (new) opportunities
Wellens, Joost ULg

in Begian workshop: Space4Food (2015, June 11)

Satellite images are used since long for agricultural monitoring at different spatial scales: from continental, national to regional and even field level. Combined with agro-meteorological data and ... [more ▼]

Satellite images are used since long for agricultural monitoring at different spatial scales: from continental, national to regional and even field level. Combined with agro-meteorological data and simulation models they constitute powerful decision support tools for agriculture throughout the world. Some examples at different scales and domains are presented. In Burkina Faso, free MODIS time series of coarse resolution vegetation indices (NDVI), phenological and meteorological data are combined in a multiple regression analysis for early yield warning in the cotton industry. Using a limited amount of data, it allows a decent yield forecasting more than a month before harvest. Time series of ERS radar images are analysed to monitor water intakes on the irrigated perimeter of Tadla (Morocco). The back-scatter intensity gives a clear indication of the top soil moisture state, permitting irrigation managers a regional monitoring of the irrigation water distribution and a guidance in the water allocation pricing. Actually in Belgium, and soon to be exported elsewhere, very-high resolution imagery (SPOT-5 Take5) are used to observe crop canopy development (fAPAR, fCover) on field level. Either by curve-fitting functions or assimilating these satellite derived data in existing crop growth models, improved and spatially more detailed forecasting systems are being developed. Although mostly still in the domain of applied research, the new availability of high spatial and temporal resolution imageries such those that will provide the Sentinel satellites paves the way to a growing number of operational end users. [less ▲]

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See detailCHRONIC TOXIC HEPATITIS IN BEEF CALVES DUE TO MYCOTOXINS CONTAMINATION IN MIXED FEED
Theron, Léonard ULg; Callebaut, Alfons; Bayrou, Calixte ULg et al

in Zemljic, Borut; Podpecan, Ozbalt; Zmljic-Jokhadar, Spela (Eds.) Proceedings of the XV middle European Buiatric Congress (2015, June 10)

Mycotoxins intoxination is an emerging disorder in Belgium, due to evolution of cultural practices and harvesting weather conditions. These intoxinations are difficult to diagnose for the vet practioners ... [more ▼]

Mycotoxins intoxination is an emerging disorder in Belgium, due to evolution of cultural practices and harvesting weather conditions. These intoxinations are difficult to diagnose for the vet practioners, since unspecific clinical signs, and their impact on ruminant disorder remains controversial. Although legal concentrations have been established for mycotoxins in the EU, farm forages are most of the time not tested (EU 2006/576/EC). In January 2015, a 500 calvings cross-bred Belgian blue cattle herd (BVDV free) referred a second (the first was directly sent to the rendering-plant) unexplained fatal case of jaundice on a 2 months-old calf to the Clinic for Ruminants of the University of Liège for necropsy. In 2013, a case of jaundice due to a Salmonella dublin hepatocholecystitis had previously diagnosed in this farm (Ronzoni et al., 2014), but so far preventions measures were implemented. Necropsy revealed generalized icterus, mild bilirubinuria, splenomegaly, but no precise etiology. On February a second 2 month old calf with jaundice is referred, lethargic, normothermic with a mild diarrhea, Calf shown generalized jaundice, anemia, elevation of leukocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes), TGO, bilirubinemia, total biliary acids and Globulins (alpha2). He had also diminished erythrocytes and albuminemia. Copraemia, leptospirosis serology, leademia, hemoculture and pancreatic enzymes were within normal ranges, ruling out classic causes of jaundice in calf. Abdomen ultrasonography revealed a mild hyperechogenicity of the liver but no gall bladder modifications. Symptomatic treatment was based on symptoms, with fluidotherapy and choleretics. A third calf was referred three days after in a worst clinical condition, with also a severely modified liver enzymes, but no anemia. Three days after, this calf died and a necropsy revealed petechiae and hemorrhages in the abomasum, congestive mucosae in the distal bowel, white depot in the kidney medulla, modified urine and splenomegaly. Bile bacteriology and leptospirosis PCR was negative and liver histopathology revealed a severe histopathological liver degeneration associated with a disruption of the parenchyma and marked hyperplasia of the bile ducts compatible with chronic metabolic disorder. Meanwhile, the anemic calf recovered from anemia without any treatment after 4 days and was discharged from the Clinic for Ruminants. Considering the weird clinical patterns of these jaundice cases, and the fact that only calves from 2 to 3 months were affected, a nutritional origin as etiology was suspected. To test it, eight clinically healthy two to three months-old calves, of two different pens were sampled. TGO, GLDH, GGT or biliary acids were either modified and the values tended to increase with the age of the calves. The water was analyzed for classic toxics, and cultured for total germ content and everything were within recommended values. The calves fed with a milk replacer (30 % milk powder), and a commercial calf starter until one month of age. Then, they were given a mixed feed (containing cereal mix, cocoa, beet pulp, soja, maize), made at the farm from primary product/byproducts bought from different sources. The mix was tested for mycotoxins presence and ranged from 0.8 to 1.5 ppm of Desoxynivalenone (DON), and 115-215 ppb of Zearalenone (ZEA). The principal source of DON was maize (3.1 to 6.2 ppm), as for ZEA (0.3-0.6 ppm), but several compounds contained small dose of DON (0.2-0.7 ppm) for Barley feed, Tanned soja. Cacao contained 2.7 to 5.9 ppb of Ochratoxine (OTA). Nutritionnal recommendations were immediately given with a change in the source of maize and an addition of clay and yeast at 40g/calf/day and hay. Since, any other hypothetic origin to this progressive hepatic intoxination was demostrated, and that the doses founded, even if barely legal in the mix, are not accounted for toxic in the EU regulation, we believe that the calves were chronically exposed to these toxins. However, some mycotoxins experts still claim that various clinical signs would be observed in ruminants, if the rumen is partially defaunated, like in our case with the lake of forage. We propose that monitoring of subclinical liver health could be a key to screen DON effects. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques écueils à éviter lors de la rédaction et la publication d'un règlement-taxe
Bortolotti, Aurélien ULg

in Le droit communal - Etat des lieux (2015, June 05)

La présente contribution a pour seule ambition d’énoncer et d’expliquer les écueils à éviter lors de la rédaction et de la publication d'un règlement-taxe. Il ne sera, par conséquent, pas question de ... [more ▼]

La présente contribution a pour seule ambition d’énoncer et d’expliquer les écueils à éviter lors de la rédaction et de la publication d'un règlement-taxe. Il ne sera, par conséquent, pas question de rappeler les principes généraux en la matière, mais au contraire d’envisager les problèmes récurrents soulevés devant les juridictions administratives et judiciaires. Nous analyserons successivement la motivation du règlement-taxe, sa rétroactivité, sa publication ainsi que le respect de la procédure de taxation d’office. Ensuite, nous examinerons la procédure de contestation de ces impôts. Nous rappellerons, à cette occasion, le délai pour introduire une réclamation administrative, mais également la représentation de l’autorité locale devant les instances judiciaires. Nous clôturerons notre analyse par la question de l’indemnité de procédure et plus particulièrement les questions préjudicielles récemment posées par le tribunal de première instance d’Arlon à la Cour constitutionnelle. Ce domaine n’échappant pas à la régionalisation des compétences, il convient préalablement d’envisager la manière dont les différents législateurs régionaux réglementent les principes applicables à ces perceptions tout en conservant à l’esprit que la loi du 24 décembre 1996 relative à l'établissement et au recouvrement des taxes provinciales et communales reste la colonne vertébrale de ces réformes. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation de la remontée des eaux dans les anciennes mines de charbon : un outil pour détecter les seuils de risques d’inondation en plaine alluviale de la Meuse près de Liège (Belgique)
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Des villes et des territoires sobres et sûrs, Synthèse des interventions (2015, June 03)

La plaine alluviale de la Meuse occupe la partie centrale du bassin charbonnier de Liège. Durant les exploitations minières, les niveaux d’eau des aquifères avaient été rabattus par des pompages d’exhaure ... [more ▼]

La plaine alluviale de la Meuse occupe la partie centrale du bassin charbonnier de Liège. Durant les exploitations minières, les niveaux d’eau des aquifères avaient été rabattus par des pompages d’exhaure. Des galeries d’exhaure creusées à partir des pieds de versant dans la vallée de la Meuse contribuaient également à dénoyer le gisement. La fermeture des dernières exploitations minières durant les années 70 et 80 a été le plus souvent assortie d’un arrêt des opérations de pompage qui y sont associées. Ceci a induit une remontée significative des eaux souterraines avec des conséquences indésirables possibles. Les modèles hydrogéologiques peuvent grandement aider à simuler les écoulements des eaux souterraines dans le contexte particulier des travaux miniers. Cependant, les techniques de modélisation classiques ne sont pas adaptées à ce contexte car le milieu est fortement perturbé par les anciens travaux et les réseaux de galeries. Par conséquent, des techniques de modélisation spécifiques ont été développées. Il s'agit d'une combinaison de modèles de boîte (ne nécessitant que quelques paramètres) pour calculer les niveaux d'eau moyens dans les zones exploitées, avec une modélisation physiquement basée et spatialement distribuée représentant explicitement les zones inexploitées et prenant en compte les interactions entre ces deux sous-domaines. Grâce à ce couplage, les échanges d'eau entre les zones exploitées et inexploitées sont explicitement pris en compte. La méthode permet de simuler la remontée des eaux souterraines après la fermeture des mines et des phénomènes associés tels que les 'coups d'eau' produits par les galeries drainantes. Les concepts et équations de la méthode sont présentés et illustrés sur des cas synthétiques, puis sur l'application de la zone de Cheratte-Blégny. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact des changements climatiques sur la principale réserve en eau souterraine alimentant la ville de Liège (Belgique)
Goderniaux, Pascal; Orban, Philippe ULg; Compère, Jean-Michel et al

in Des villes et des territoires sobres et sûrs, Synthèse des interventions (2015, June 02)

Le changement climatique amène de nouvelles 'pressions' sur les ressources en eaux de surface et souterraines dans de nombreuses zones du monde. Des travaux scientifiques sont nécessaires pour aider les ... [more ▼]

Le changement climatique amène de nouvelles 'pressions' sur les ressources en eaux de surface et souterraines dans de nombreuses zones du monde. Des travaux scientifiques sont nécessaires pour aider les gestionnaires de l'eau à planifier les changements futurs. Un générateur de climats transitoire sophistiqué est utilisé en combinaison avec une modélisation intégrée hydrologique (HydroGeoSphere) pour évaluer les impacts sur les ressources en eaux souterraines de façon probabiliste. Cette nouvelle méthodologie est appliquée pour l'aquifère crayeux de Hesbaye (bassin Geer en Belgique) qui est le principal réservoir d'eau souterraine pour l'alimentation de la ville de Liège. Les sources d'incertitude étudiées sont les suivantes: (1) l'incertitude liée à la calibration du modèle hydrologique, en utilisant 'UCODE_2005'; (2) l'incertitude liée aux modèles climatiques mondiaux et régionaux (GCM et RCM); (3) l'incertitude liée à la variabilité naturelle du climat, en utilisant des scénarios stochastiques de changement climatique locaux. 100 changements climatiques équiprobables scénarios ont été générés sur 2010-2085 pour chacun des six RMC différents. Les résultats montrent que bien que les intervalles de confiance à 95% calculés autour des niveaux piézométriques calculés restent importants, l'effet du changement climatique devient clair et plus prononcé que la variabilité naturelle du climat d'ici 2085. Cette méthodologie constitue une réelle amélioration dans le domaine des prévisions de l'évolution des réserves en eau souterraine dans des conditions de changement climatique car il permet aux gestionnaires d'analyser les risques et prendre des décisions en toute connaissance du degré de confiance des résultats. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical study of intrinsic features of isolas in a 2-dof nonlinear system
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

in Proceedings of the ICEDyn conference (2015, June)

In the present paper, isolated response curves in a nonlinear system consisting of two masses sliding on a horizontal guide are examined. Transverse springs are attached to one mass to provide the ... [more ▼]

In the present paper, isolated response curves in a nonlinear system consisting of two masses sliding on a horizontal guide are examined. Transverse springs are attached to one mass to provide the nonlinear restoring force, and a harmonic motion of the complete system is imposed by prescribing the displacement of their supports. Numerical simulations are carried out to study the conditions of existence of isolated solutions, their bifurcations, their merging with the main response branch and their basins of attraction. This is achieved using tools including nonlinear normal modes, energy balance, harmonic balance-based continuation and bifurcation tracking, and global analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailGalectin-3 and Suppression of Tumorigenicity 2 measurement in participants at the “Tor des Géants”
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Gergelé, Laurent et al

in Radmann, A; Hedenborg, S; Tsolakidis, E (Eds.) 20th annual Congress of the EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE - BOOK OF ABSTRACTS0th annual Congress of the EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE - BOOK OF ABSTRACTS (2015, June)

Introduction: Gal-3 is a carbohydrate binding lectin produced by macrophages, upregulated in hypertrophied heart, emerging as a mediator for fibrosis development and cardiac remodeling. ST2 is a family ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Gal-3 is a carbohydrate binding lectin produced by macrophages, upregulated in hypertrophied heart, emerging as a mediator for fibrosis development and cardiac remodeling. ST2 is a family member of IL-1 receptors initially known for its role in immunological processes. It has a potential role in the cardiac pathogenesis. These receptors are led in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts due to a mechanical stress. We aimed to examine the evolution of Gal-3 and ST2 in trailers who ran one of the most challenging ultra-marathon in the world: the Tor des Géants (330 km, altitude range: 24000m). Methods: Levels of plasma Gal-3 and ST2 were determined at 4 times: before the start, after 158km, at the end and 3 days after the end of the race in 33 trailers. Samples were directly centrifuged and frozen at -80°C. Gal-3 measurement was performed on the VIDAS (Biomerieux) and ST2 was analyzed with the Presage ST2 Assay (Critical Diagnostic). The reference values are <17.8ng/mL for Gal-3 and <35ng/mL for ST2. Statistica was used for the statistical analysis (ANOVA). We calculated the difference between the different time and expressed in delta: Δ1=(T2-T1)/T1*100, Δ2=(T3-T2)/T2*100, Δ3=(T4-T3)/T3*100, Δ4=(T3-T1)/T1*100, Δ5=(T4-T1)/T1*100. After that, we tried to correlate the delta between them (results= R(p-value)). Results were considered as significant with p<0.05. Results: Plasmatic levels of Gal-3 did never exceed the cut-off of 17.8ng/mL, except for 1 trailer in T2. A slight increase of levels of Gal-3 was observed at T2 (min-max:7.5-17.6ng/mL). These ones did not vary a lot at T3 (min-max:7.0- 18.8ng/mL) but return to normality at T4 (min-max:6.0-12.8ng/mL). For ST2, at T1, 12 subjects had plasmatic levels above the reference value of 35ng/ml. At T2, only 2 trailers blood samples were still in the reference interval. Indeed, a great increase of ST2 plasmatic levels observed (min-max:18.8-158.8ng/mL). A slight decrease of ST2 levels was observed at T3, but only one subject had a value below 30ng/ml (min-max:20.1-182.7ng/mL). However, a subject had still plasmatic levels above T2 values. A return to normality was observed at T4 with 16 trailers blood levels in the reference interval (min-max:12.0-56.4ng/mL). We observed an increase for Gal-3 and ST2, above the reference values only for ST2. We noted for both a decrease up to the normal values 3 days after the trail. For the correlation between deltas, we observed that Gal-3 and ST2 are correlated for each delta. Discussion: A logical correlation is observed between Gal-3 andST2 as they are involved in cardiac fibrosis and inflammation. But we do not known why it is not in the same proportion. We know that some trailers take NSAIDs and painkillers during the race. The results of this study demonstrate that this exercise was associated with biochemical abnormalities that may reflect adverse consequences on cardiac structure as fibrosis. However, ST2 values were higher, perhaps due to a mechanical stress more than a cardiac stress. Gal-3 is perhaps then more cardiospecific than ST2. [less ▲]

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See detailRegression-based modelling of a fleet of gas turbine engines for performance trending
Borguet, Sébastien ULg; Léonard, Olivier ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2015 (2015, June)

Module performance analysis is a well-established framework to assess changes in the health condition of the components of the engine gas-path. The primary material of the technique is the so-called ... [more ▼]

Module performance analysis is a well-established framework to assess changes in the health condition of the components of the engine gas-path. The primary material of the technique is the so-called vector of residuals, which are built as the difference between actual measurement taken in the gas-path and values predicted by means of an engine model. Obviously, the quality of the assessment of the engine condition depends strongly on the accuracy of the engine model. The present paper proposes a new approach for data-driven modelling of a fleet of engines of a given type. Such black-box models can be designed by operators such as airlines and thirdparty companies. The fleet-wide modelling process is formulated as a regression problem that provides a dedicated model for each engine in the fleet, while recognising that all engines are of the same type. The methodology is applied to a virtual fleet of engines generated within the ProDiMES environment. The set of models is assessed quantitatively through the coefficient of determination and is further used to perform anomaly detection. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement du latin à Constantinople : une mise au point
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Haverling, Gerd V.M. (Ed.) Latin Linguistics in the Early 21st Century. Acts of the 16th International Colloquium on Latin Linguistics, Uppsala, June 6th-11th, 2011 (2015, June)

Nous savons que Constantinople a possédé une chaire stable de latin vers 360. Plusieurs grammairiens latins qui ont travaillé à Constantinople ou dans d’autres villes du monde grec ont mis au point des ... [more ▼]

Nous savons que Constantinople a possédé une chaire stable de latin vers 360. Plusieurs grammairiens latins qui ont travaillé à Constantinople ou dans d’autres villes du monde grec ont mis au point des artes destinées à un public hellénophone. Les analogies entre le grec et le latin dans la grammaire et le lexique n’ont pas échappé à l’attention à ces grammairiens. Aboutissement d’une tradition qui remonte à Claudius Didymus, Macrobe donne une σύγκρισις du système verbal grec et latin dans son traité De uerborum Graeci et Latini differentiis uel societatibus. Il offre un exemple unique pour l’antiquité de linguistique comparative, mais son but n’est pas pédagogique. Il décrit, mais n’explique pas les ressemblances et les différences entre le système verbal grec et latin. C’est toutefois la même méthode qui est mise en œuvre dans l’enseignement du latin comme L², à savoir l’approche comparative. Le latin s’enseigne aux hellénophone par analogie ou en contraste avec le grec. [less ▲]

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See detailA new formulation of state estimation in distribution systems including demand and generation states
Rousseaux, Patricia ULg; Toubeau, Jean-François; De Grève, Zacharie et al

in proceeedings of the 2015 Power Tech conference (2015, June)

Distribution system state estimation faces a major difficulty: the lack of real-time measurements. This imposes to add information, usually pseudo-measurements from historical data. This paper proposes a ... [more ▼]

Distribution system state estimation faces a major difficulty: the lack of real-time measurements. This imposes to add information, usually pseudo-measurements from historical data. This paper proposes a different, novel formulation of state estimation relying on the classification of loads into components (e.g. residential, commercial, etc.) and accounting for dispersed generation. The approach “by-passes” the use of pseudo-measurements by expressing the medium-voltage bus injections as functions of a small number of active power components at low-voltage level, treated as additional state variables. The injections at medium-voltage buses become equality constraints. A procedure to identify the above functions is detailed, which takes advantage of data collected by smart meters. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of the morphological acceleration factor in fluvial hydraulics
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress (2015, June)

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been widely used to speed-up morphodynamic simulations, mostly in coastal applications. The value of Morfac was generally set by trial and error and ... [more ▼]

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been widely used to speed-up morphodynamic simulations, mostly in coastal applications. The value of Morfac was generally set by trial and error and little theoretical background is available to identify an optimal value of Morfac for a given application and a target level of accuracy. In the present research, we generalize the few previous theoretical analyses regarding two main aspects. First, the range of the considered parameters (Froude number, relative roughness, transport rate …) has been considerably extended to cover typical values characterizing fluvial applications and not only coastal settings. Second, we show that the optimal value of Morfac depends greatly on the specific mathematical formulation of the flow model and on the flow regime. [less ▲]

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See detailDamage process sensitivity analysis using an XFEM-Level Set framework
Noël, Lise ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Maute, Kurt

in Proceedings of the 11th World Congress on Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (WCSMO-11) (2015, June)

Designing efficient and lightweight structures is a key objective for many industrial applications such as in aerospace or the automotive industry. To this end, composite materials are appealing as they ... [more ▼]

Designing efficient and lightweight structures is a key objective for many industrial applications such as in aerospace or the automotive industry. To this end, composite materials are appealing as they combine high stiffness and light weight. The main challenge slowing down the integration of such materials in real structures is their damage be- havior. The latter should be considered in the design process of the structures. This work focuses on developing a systematic approach to designing structures that can sustain an acceptable amount of degradation or exhibit a low sensitivity to damage. An optimization approach is chosen to achieve this goal. To deal with complex geometries and to allow for large shape modifications in the optimization process, the extended finite element method (XFEM) is advantageously combined with a level set description of geometry. The degradation of materials is modeled by using a non-local damage model, motivated by the work of James and Waisman on a density approach to topol- ogy optimization. To solve design problems with damage constraints by gradient-based optimization method, a sensitivity analysis of the damage process is developed. Damage propagation and growth is an irreversible pro- cess. Therefore, the path dependence of the structural response needs to be accounted for in the sensitivity analysis. In this paper, we present an analytical approach for efficiently and accurately evaluating the design sensitivities, considering both direct and adjoint formulations. Finally, the sensitivity analysis approach is studied with simple benchmark problems and compared with the results obtained by finite differences. [less ▲]

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See detailDe novo sequencing using MELD proteolysis coupled to a "sequence assembly" algorithm
Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg; Zimmerman, Tyler; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg et al

in 63rd ASMS Conference Proceedings, May 30 - June 4 2015, St. Louis, MO (2015, June)

Introduction Protein de novo sequencing requires a method that combines extensive MSMS fragmentation and an appropriate data processing. This can be applied either on intact protein or on its proteolytic ... [more ▼]

Introduction Protein de novo sequencing requires a method that combines extensive MSMS fragmentation and an appropriate data processing. This can be applied either on intact protein or on its proteolytic peptides. Peptide analysis has the advantage to be compatible with well-known workflows. Nevertheless the connectivity between peptides is lost. Taking these considerations into account, a specific digestion method and a sequence assembly software were developed. The MELD method relies on a combination of MultiEnzymatic AND Limited proteolytic Digestions. The MELD generates in a single experiment numerous different peptides with miss-cleavages that overlap when aligned on the matching protein sequence. The two major benefices are an increased probability to obtain the entire protein sequence and a redundancy in the protein sequence matches. Methods The MELD consists in two parallel 2h digestions both using an optimized protease mixture. The mixtures are composed of the same proteases but in different relative quantities. Analyses were performed by UPLC-Orbitrap (IClass, Waters, QExactive, Thermo). Data were processed with PEAKS (BSI) to generate de novo sequence candidates. After data importation into our software, a seed sequence is set or can be found automatically. The software extends the seed sequence in both directions with moving windows of three amino acids, plus a fourth one to be added. The added amino acid is validated in several ways, including by the total frequency of occurrence, by larger windows of aa, by the local spectrum-derived confidence, and by combinations of these factors. Preliminary Data The MELD protocol was first validated by applying a traditional database search workflow on several commercial proteins with an inter-day and inter-individual procedure. These experiments showed 100% sequence coverage for each protein analyzed, involving information on peptide identity and modifications localization. Strong confident identification was obtained due to multiple overlapping peptides matches with the given sequence and with a high number of overlapping peptides assignments. The analysis of the four proteins provided the following results: HSA, Myoglobin and Lysozyme were identified with 100% sequence coverage with respectively 890, 300 and 120 unique peptides (CV<10%, peptide FDR<0.1%). The variable region of each heavy and light chains of Adalimumab antibody were identified with 100% sequence coverage. With the MELD, an average of 10 different peptides covering each sequence stretch of the protein could be obtained. The combinatory effect of the multiple enzymes used and the limited digestions leads to an increased robustness, very high confidence identifications and allows clear localization of PTMs. The MELD protocol as presented here and tested on several pure proteins digested in solution, certainly improves the general "bottom-up" strategy applied for highly confident protein identification and would allow better protein characterization, even for those having PTMs. In addition, in our analysis, each fragment position of the entire protein sequence was evidenced either by a "y" or a "b" fragment ion. This high and confident amount of information enables extensive de novo sequencing using PEAKS software, followed by application of our “sequence assembly” algorithm. The first version of our assembling tool on MELD experimental data generated long sequence tags, up to 90 amino acids long. [less ▲]

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See detailA dynamic simulation approach to identify additional reactive reserves against long-term voltage instability
Papangelis, Lampros ULg; Panciatici, Patrick; Debry, Marie-Sophie et al

in Proc. of IEEE PES 2015 PowerTech conference (2015, June)

A simple method is proposed to identify additional reactive reserves enabling to counteract long-term voltage instability after a large disturbance. In contrast to the many references based on power flow ... [more ▼]

A simple method is proposed to identify additional reactive reserves enabling to counteract long-term voltage instability after a large disturbance. In contrast to the many references based on power flow calculations, the method resorts to dynamic simulation. The post-disturbance system evolution is simulated in the presence of time-varying shunt susceptances with specified rate of change. This allows to deal with dynamic issues such as the required speed of the additional reactive power sources, or the onset of unstable electromechanical oscillations. Furthermore, a compromise is sought between the speed of action and the volume of additional compensation. The method is demonstrated on a detailed model of the Nordic test system. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric pressure mode localization coupled resonators stiffness sensor
Montaseri, Mohammad; Xie, J.B.; Chang, Homglong et al

in Proceedings of Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers 2015) (2015, June)

This paper reports on a 3-DoF mode localization resonant sensor experimentally evaluated under atmospheric conditions. It was demonstrated that using amplitude ratio as an output signal, even when the ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on a 3-DoF mode localization resonant sensor experimentally evaluated under atmospheric conditions. It was demonstrated that using amplitude ratio as an output signal, even when the device is operated in air, yields a higher sensitivity compared to the frequency variation sensitivity when assuming vacuum conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailModular modelling of combined AC and DC systems in dynamic simulations
Aristidou, Petros ULg; Papangelis, Lampros ULg; Guillaud, Xavier et al

in Proc. of IEEE PES 2015 PowerTech conference (2015, June)

A formulation is proposed in which an AC-DC system is modeled as a combination of AC grids, DC grids, injectors, AC two-ports and AC/DC converters, respectively. This modular modelling facilitates the ... [more ▼]

A formulation is proposed in which an AC-DC system is modeled as a combination of AC grids, DC grids, injectors, AC two-ports and AC/DC converters, respectively. This modular modelling facilitates the dynamic simulation of future complex AC/DC systems. Furthermore, it can be exploited by the solver, which performs less operations on components with lower dynamic activity, and offers parallel processing of the time simulation. This approach is illustrated on a test system in which a multi-terminal DC grid connects two asynchronous AC systems, allows frequency support between them, and acts as emergency control against AC voltage instability. [less ▲]

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See detailLanduse change and future flood risk: an integrated and multi-scale approach
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Bruwier, Martin ULg; Mohamed El Saeid Mustafa, Ahmed ULg et al

in E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress (2015, June)

The goal of this research is a better understanding of the complex interactions between landuse change and future flood risk. Landuse change is mainly driven by population growth and socio-economic ... [more ▼]

The goal of this research is a better understanding of the complex interactions between landuse change and future flood risk. Landuse change is mainly driven by population growth and socio-economic factors. It affects future flood risk by altering catchment hydrology and vulnerability in the floodplains, as well as through the feedback effect that changes in flood hazard may have on landuse evolution. The research is based on a chain of modelling tools, including: stochastic landuse change modelling, traffic modelling as well as Land-Use and Transport Interactions models, continuous hydrological modelling and efficient hydraulic modelling of floodplains inundation. The coupling of these modelling tools will allow assessing direct and indirect impacts of land use change on future flood risk, while considering the uncertainties related to each of these processes and their combinations at a 2100 time horizon. [less ▲]

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See detailLes leviers de l'inovation pédagogique: contraintes externes vs régulations internes
Scheffers, Patricia ULg

in Scheffers, Patricia (Ed.) Actes du colloque (2015, June)

Depuis les années 60, la fréquence de mutations organisationnelles de l'enseignement supérieur et universitaire en Belgique s'amplifie et adopte même un rythme frénétique ces dix dernières années. Les ... [more ▼]

Depuis les années 60, la fréquence de mutations organisationnelles de l'enseignement supérieur et universitaire en Belgique s'amplifie et adopte même un rythme frénétique ces dix dernières années. Les causes sont tour à tour l'évolution des professions et la volonté politique et/ou économique de restructuration. Deux niveaux de régulations pédagogiques sont amenés à s'articuler. D'une part, celui de l'enseignant acteur-réflexif de son enseignement et d'autre part, des injonctions externes qui réorganise le cadre général. Retour d'expérience sur les innovations en Faculté d'Architecture à Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear ground vibration identification of an F-16 aircraft - Part 1: Fast nonparametric analysis of distortions in FRF measurements
Vaes, Mark; Schoukens, Johan; Peeters, Bart et al

in Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics (2015, June)

Although they are generally modelled as linear systems, aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena. A specific challenge encountered with fighter aircraft, besides aeroelastic ... [more ▼]

Although they are generally modelled as linear systems, aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena. A specific challenge encountered with fighter aircraft, besides aeroelastic nonlinearity, is the modelling of the wing-to-payload mounting interfaces. For large amplitudes of vibration, friction and gaps may be triggered in these connections and markedly impact the dynamic behaviour of the complete structure. In this series of two papers, the nonlinear dynamics of an F-16 aircraft is investigated using rigorous methods applied to real data collected during a ground vibration test campaign. The present work focuses on the detection, qualification and quantification of nonlinear distortions affecting frequency response function (FRF) measurements. The key idea of the approach is to excite the structure using a random signal with a user-defined amplitude spectrum, where only a set of well-selected frequencies is different from zero in the band of interest. It is demonstrated that this careful choice of the input frequencies allows, without any further user interaction, to quantify the importance of odd and even nonlinear distortions in the output spectra with respect to the noise level. At high excitation amplitude, the F-16 dynamics is found to exhibit substantial odd nonlinearities and less significant, yet not negligible, even nonlinearities. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear ground vibration identification of an F-16 aircraft - Part 2: Parameter estimation using a frequency-domain subspace method
Dossogne, Tilàn ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics (2015, June)

Although they are generally modelled as linear systems, aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena. A specific challenge encountered with fighter aircraft, besides aeroelastic ... [more ▼]

Although they are generally modelled as linear systems, aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena. A specific challenge encountered with fighter aircraft, besides aeroelastic nonlinearity, is the modelling of the wing-to-payload mounting interfaces. For large amplitudes of vibration, friction and gaps may be triggered in these connections and markedly impact the dynamic behaviour of the complete structure. In this series of two papers, the nonlinear dynamics of an F-16 aircraft is investigated using rigorous methods applied to real data collected during a ground vibration test campaign. The present work focuses on the construction of an experimental mathematical model of the F-16 structural dynamics. A nonlinear generalisation in the frequency domain of the so-called subspace identification algorithms, termed FNSI method, is exploited to this end. The frequency response functions of the underlying linear aircraft and the coefficients of the nonlinearities are reliably estimated by this approach based on periodic random data. The use of stabilisation diagram in nonlinear system identification is also discussed. The application of the FNSI method is made challenging by the high modal density of the structure, and the complexity of the nonlinear stiffness and damping mechanisms involved within the wing-to-payload connections. [less ▲]

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See detailA process to address electricity distribution sector challenges: the GREDOR project approach
Cornélusse, Bertrand ULg; Vangulick, David; Glavic, Mevludin ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2015 (2015, June)

This paper presents a general process set in the GREDOR (French acronym for “Gestion des Réseaux Electriques de Distribution Ouverts aux Renouvelables”) project to address the challenges in distribution ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a general process set in the GREDOR (French acronym for “Gestion des Réseaux Electriques de Distribution Ouverts aux Renouvelables”) project to address the challenges in distribution systems posed by the integration of renewable generation, changing load patterns, and the changes in the electricity market sector. A use case describing interactions among different players that fits the process is also presented. A pseudo-dynamic approach to Global Capacity Announcement as a way to increase penetration of Renewable Energy Sources in a distribution system is elaborated in more details. [less ▲]

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See detailMacroscopic analysis of interaction models for the provision of flexibility in distribution systems
Mathieu, Sébastien ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULg

in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2015 (2015, June)

To ease the transition towards the future of distribution grid management, regulators must revise the current interaction model, that is, the set of rules guiding the interactions between all the parties ... [more ▼]

To ease the transition towards the future of distribution grid management, regulators must revise the current interaction model, that is, the set of rules guiding the interactions between all the parties of the system. Five interaction models are proposed, three of them considering active network management. This paper evaluates the economic efficiency of each model using macroscopic representation of the system, by opposition to more techniques requiring a complete picture of the system. The interaction models are simulated on the horizon 2015-2030. Results show that for the first five years all the models provide similar economic efficiency. For the remaining ten years, interaction models implementing active network management provide up to a 10% higher economic efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailMutation de l'image, mutation de l'intention ? L'impact des représentations numériques en composition architecturale
Cunin, Maxime; Yang, Maria C.; Elsen, Catherine ULg

in de Boissieu, Aurélie; Deshayes, Catherine; Tufano, Antonella (Eds.) Mutations du Projet - Milieux et Cultures Numériques (2015, June)

Les architectes ont toujours eu recours à de multiples représentations pour générer, faire évoluer puis communiquer leurs concepts architecturaux (tant aux pairs qu’aux usagers, ou encore aux décideurs ... [more ▼]

Les architectes ont toujours eu recours à de multiples représentations pour générer, faire évoluer puis communiquer leurs concepts architecturaux (tant aux pairs qu’aux usagers, ou encore aux décideurs). Cet article envisage comment la représentation externe impacte la perception « naïve » d’une intention architecturale, les « non experts » assumant des rôles de plus fondamentaux au sein de certains mécanismes décisionnels. Comment l’image, en pleine mutation depuis l’ère du numérique, façonne-t-elle la perception des facteurs clés (ou « attributs ») d’une intention architecturale ? L’article résume les principaux résultats d’une enquête menée en ligne via l’interface « Amazon Mechanical Turk » et générant 790 échelles d’évaluation de 6 avant-projets architecturaux. Les résultats abordent l’analyse des données en regard des différentes attributs; en regard des trois types de représentation choisies et en regard enfin des inconsistances dont font preuve les architectes eux-mêmes, étant donné l’évaluation de leurs propres projets et représentations. Ils révèlent que les attributs ne sont pas équitablement propices à un transfert d’intention exclusivement graphique et que les formes plus abstraites de représentations constituent, dans certains contextes, le moyen le plus efficace pour le transfert fidèle d’une intention architecturale. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement of 3D Room Impulse Responses with a Spherical Microphone Array
Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the Euronoise 2015 Congress (2015, June)

Directional room impulse responses (DRIRs) are composed of the sound contributions reaching a given location in the room from a well-defined direction in space. DRIRs can be useful in many applications ... [more ▼]

Directional room impulse responses (DRIRs) are composed of the sound contributions reaching a given location in the room from a well-defined direction in space. DRIRs can be useful in many applications, such as the evaluation of spatial room acoustics parameters, the detection of unwanted specular reflections or the 3D auralization of acoustic spaces. A spherical array containing 16 microphones has been realized to measure DRIRs. The logarithmic sinesweep technique is first applied to measure 16 impulse responses, one for each microphone. A spherical harmonics (SH) decomposition of the sound field is then obtained. Spatial aliasing, placement errors and the ‘white noise gain’ (WNG) have been analysed to define the useful bandwith of this measure, i.e. [250Hz – 4kHz]. The coefficients of the SH decomposition are then processed by some beamforming methods, in order to compute the DRIR in any direction around the spherical array. Time and 3D space representations can be generated. The results obtained in some rooms are illustrated in this paper: it is shown that the combination of the ‘delay-and-sum’ and ‘minimum-variance distorsionless response’ beamforming methods is particularly well suited for the analysis of DRIRs. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel resonant accelerometer based on model localization of weakly coupled resonators.
Zhang, Hemin; Yuan, W.Z.; Li, B.Y. et al

in Proceedings of Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems (Transducers 2015) (2015, June)

This paper describes a novel MEMS resonant accelerometer based on two weakly coupled resonators (WCRs) using the phenomenon of mode localization. It is the first time that this principle is demonstrated ... [more ▼]

This paper describes a novel MEMS resonant accelerometer based on two weakly coupled resonators (WCRs) using the phenomenon of mode localization. It is the first time that this principle is demonstrated experimentally for an accelerometer. The measured relative shift in amplitude ratio (~312162 ppm/g) is 302 times higher than the shift in resonance frequency (~1035 ppm/g). [less ▲]

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See detailDescription of the research project CIMEDE for the industrial construction of evolutionary, sustainable and economic houses
Duthoit, Fabienne ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Proceedings of the Euronoise 2015 Congress (2015, June)

CIMEDE is a research project supported by the Region of Wallonia (Belgium). It stands for CIMEDE “Construction Industrielle de Maisons Evolutives, Durables et Economiques – industrial construction of ... [more ▼]

CIMEDE is a research project supported by the Region of Wallonia (Belgium). It stands for CIMEDE “Construction Industrielle de Maisons Evolutives, Durables et Economiques – industrial construction of evolutionary, sustainable and economic houses”. Since the materials envisaged for this project are timber and gypsum fibre board, it was necessary to design a constructive principle of lightweight timber frame constructions which meets the industrial, sustainable, evolutionary and economic requirements and also the requirements of the Belgian acoustic standard NBN S01-400-1. First of all, an inventory of constructive elements that are currently used in this type of construction (floors, walls and facades) is presented with their acoustic performances. Then, the laboratory measurements of some samples of floors, facades, interior walls and partition walls are described and discussed. On the basis of the measurement results, several solutions that best meet all criteria were retained and a mock-up was built with these constructive elements. Measurement results on this mock-up are also presented. The final solution for the floor, the partition wall, the interior wall and the facade which meets the acoustic requirements is finally described [less ▲]

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See detailGraph matching for reconciling SCADA and GIS of a distribution network
Cornélusse, Bertrand ULg; Leroux, Amandine; Glavic, Mevludin ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Conference on Electricity Distribution, CIRED 2015 (2015, June)

This article deals with the problem of automatically es- tablishing a correspondence between two databases popu- lated independently over the years by a distribution com- pany, for instance a SCADA system ... [more ▼]

This article deals with the problem of automatically es- tablishing a correspondence between two databases popu- lated independently over the years by a distribution com- pany, for instance a SCADA system and a geographical information system. This problem is abstracted as a graph matching problem, well known in the combinatorial op- timisation community. It is then casted as an integer quadratic program. An idea of achievable results on a real system is provided, and needs for approximation or decom- position algorithms are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNo interest for a second closely-timed infiltration of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to treat jumper’s knees
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; CROISIER, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Radmann, A; Hedenborg, S; Tsolakidis, E (Eds.) 20th annual Congress of the EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE - BOOK OF ABSTRACTS (2015, June)

Introduction: Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of jumper’s knee. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of jumper’s knee. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to be an effective treatment for this indication, most of the existing studies evaluated the effects of 2 or 3 successive infiltrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 2 infiltrations of PRP proves moreeffective than a single treatment. Methods: Twenty patients suffering from chronic jumper’s knee were enrolled into our prospective, randomized and comparative study of level 2, and split into two randomized groups (1 or 2 infiltrations of PRP, respectively). The 3-month follow-up evaluation consisted of VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores, along with algometer, isokinetic and ultrasounds evaluations. After 1 year, subjects were contacted to define their functional evolution. Results: The concentration of the PRP used for each infiltration was similar in both groups, and contained no red or white cells. Results revealed no difference in treatment efficacy between the groups.Discussion: The comparison between 1 or 2 infiltrations of PRP did not reveal any difference between the 2 groups at short to mid term. A second closely-timed infiltration of PRP to treat jumper’s knees is not necessary to improve the efficacy of this treatment in the short term. References: Kaux JF, Croisier JL, Bruyere O, Rodriguez de la Cruz C, Forthomme B, Brabant G et al. One injection of platelet-rich plasma associated to a submaximal eccentric protocol to treat chronic jumper’s knee. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2014 Jun 19. [Epub ahead of print]. Kaux JF, Croisier JL, Forthomme B, Le Goff C, Buhler F, Savanier C et al. Using platelet-rich plasma to treat jumper’s knees: exploring the effect of a second closely-timed infiltration. J Sci Med Sport. Submitted. Kaux JF, Bruyère O, Croisier JL, Forthomme N, Le Goff C, Rohr N et al. One-year follow-up of platelet-rich plasma infiltration to treat chronic upper patellar tendinopathies. Acta Orthop Belg. In press. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental impact assessment of rail freight intermodality
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Rasouli, Soora; Timmermans, Harry (Eds.) Current issues in transportation research - Proceedings of the BIVEC/GIBET transport research days 2015 (2015, May 28)

The European Commission’s White Paper on transport (European Commission, 2011) seeks to achieve an efficient and sustainable balance between the various transport modes. Environmental impact studies on ... [more ▼]

The European Commission’s White Paper on transport (European Commission, 2011) seeks to achieve an efficient and sustainable balance between the various transport modes. Environmental impact studies on intermodality transport show that rail freight transport is the land-based transport that has a higher environmental performance compared to intermodal road-rail and all-road transport (Fries and Hellweg, 2014), especially when electrified railway is used (Spielmann and Scholz, 2005). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows us to model as best as possible the environmental impacts of several pollutants in numerous categories. For other categories such as accident damages, noise impact and land use, new developments have to be performed. For the environmental impact assessment, all life cycle phases of rail freight transport operation, rail infrastructure, and rail equipment are taken into account (Spielmann et al., 2007). [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting the non-linear shear behaviour of deep beams based on a two-parameter kinematic model
Mihaylov, Boyan ULg

in Concrete - Innovation and Design, fib Symposium Proceedings, Copenhagen 18 to 20 May 2015 (2015, May 20)

Deep beams are often used as transfer girders in high rise buildings to support heavy loads from discontinuous columns or shear walls. Several buildings with such transfer girders were affected by the ... [more ▼]

Deep beams are often used as transfer girders in high rise buildings to support heavy loads from discontinuous columns or shear walls. Several buildings with such transfer girders were affected by the February 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, New Zealand, which produced very large vertical accelerations and overloaded the transfer girders. One of the buildings had to be stabilized urgently in the hours after the earthquake while others sustained significant damage. The structures which remained standing were those capable of redistributing the forces from the damaged transfer girders to less damaged structural members. The extent of such force redistribution, and therefore the ability of the structure to survive extreme events, depends in part on the displacement capacity and post-peak behaviour of the transfer girders. For this reason, the evaluation of structures with deep transfer girders under extreme loading requires accurate models for predicting the complete non-linear response of the girders. As deep beams usually fail in a brittle manner due to shear, predicting their non-linear behaviour represents a challenging problem even when sophisticated non-linear finite element models are used. This paper will discuss a simpler alternative approach based on a kinematic model for deep beams. The kinematic model describes the deformation patterns of the beam with the help of two degrees of freedom: the average strain along the flexural reinforcement from support to support, and the transverse displacement in the critical zones in the vicinity of the applied loads (critical loading zones). The model assumes that much of the deformations concentrate along a critical diagonal crack which widens and slips as the deflections of the member increase. The equations of the kinematic model are combined with equilibrium equations and constitutive relationships for the load-resisting mechanisms across the critical crack. These mechanisms include diagonal compression in the critical loading zones, aggregate interlock, tension in the stirrups crossing the crack, and dowel action of the longitudinal reinforcement. The complete set of equations is solved iteratively in order to compute the pre- and post- peak response of deep beams. This approach is validated with the help of tests of deep beams. The model will be used to draw conclusions on the effect of the properties of deep beams on their non-linear behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailComputer simulations of spray retention by a 3D barley plant: effect of formulation surface tension
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg et al

in 67th International Symposium on Crop Protection (2015, May 19)

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See detailDrop size distribution measurement of ISO nozzles by shadowgraphy method
De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg et al

in Drop size distribution measurement of ISO nozzles by shadowgraphy method (2015, May 19)

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See detailDrift potential of tilted shielded rotary atomisers based on wind tunnel measurements
Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg et al

in 67th International Symposium on Crop Protection (2015, May 19)

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See detailFast Userspace Packet Processing
Barbette, Tom ULg; Soldani, Cyril ULg; Mathy, Laurent ULg

in Proceedings of ANCS 2015 (2015, May 07)

In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of high speed packet I/O frameworks, bringing unprecedented network performance to userspace. Using the Click modular router, we first review and ... [more ▼]

In recent years, we have witnessed the emergence of high speed packet I/O frameworks, bringing unprecedented network performance to userspace. Using the Click modular router, we first review and quantitatively compare several such packet I/O frameworks, showing their superiority to kernel-based forwarding. We then reconsider the issue of software packet processing, in the context of modern commodity hardware with hardware multi-queues, multi-core processors and non-uniform memory access. Through a combination of existing techniques and improvements of our own, we derive modern general principles for the design of software packet processors. Our implementation of a fast packet processor framework, integrating a faster Click with both Netmap and DPDK, exhibits up-to about 2.3x speed-up compared to other software implementations, when used as an IP router. [less ▲]

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See detailThe crucial role of soil when modelling the impact of climate change on crop production
Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Shcherbak, Iurii et al

in Shirmohammadi, Adel; Bosch, David; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafa (Eds.) Proceedings of the 1st ASABE Climate Change Symposium - Adaptation and Mitigation (2015, May 03)

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See detailBeam to concrete-filled rectangular hollow section column joints using long bolts
Hoang, Van Long ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Proceedings of the 15th international symposium on tubular structures - ISTS15 (2015, May)

This paper presents a research on a specific type of unstiffened extended end-plate joint used to connect I-shaped beams to concrete-filled rectangular hollow section columns. The main idea is to use long ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a research on a specific type of unstiffened extended end-plate joint used to connect I-shaped beams to concrete-filled rectangular hollow section columns. The main idea is to use long bolts throughout the column to connect the beam end-plates, so avoiding intermediate connecting elements (e.g. a reverse U channel) or special bolts (e.g. blind bolts). However, the use of long bolts for beam-to-column connections is still rare in the construction and no design procedure exists in the Eurocodes; this justifies the pre-sent research. Firstly, a test program within a RFCS European project titled HSS-SERF “High Strength Steel in Seismic Resistant Building Frames”, 2009-2013 was performed. In this project, specimens subjected to sig-nificant bending moments (and shear) or to shear only was defined. Then, analytical developments based on the component approach and aimed at predicting the joint response have been carried out; their validity is demonstrated through comparisons with the tests. Finally, design guidelines have been provided. [less ▲]

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See detailX-linked acro-gigantism (X-LAG) : A new form of infant-onset pituitary gigantism
Trivellin, G; Daly, Adrian ULg; Faucz, FR et al

in Endocrine Abstracts (2015, May)

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See detailThe Clinical characteristics of X-linked acro-gigantism syndrome
Daly, Adrian ULg; Trivellin, G; Rostomyan, Liliya ULg et al

in Endocrine Abstracts (2015, May)

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See detailIn vitro evaluation of fermentation characteristics of two types of insects, as potential novel protein feeds for pigs
POELAERT, Christine ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg; Despret, Xavier et al

in 13th International Symposium on Digestive Physiology of Pigs (2015, May)

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See detailRocking behaviour of simple unreinforced load-bearing masonry walls including soundproofing rubber layers
Mordant, Christophe ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Degée, Hervé

in Proceedings of 5th ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Methods in Structural Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering (2015, May)

This paper compares experimental measurements with predictions of different rocking models. These comparisons are carried out on the base of recent experimental results obtained by shake-table tests of ... [more ▼]

This paper compares experimental measurements with predictions of different rocking models. These comparisons are carried out on the base of recent experimental results obtained by shake-table tests of four simple unreinforced load-bearing clay masonry walls that have exhibited a significant rocking behaviour for the highest acceleration inputs. In a first stage, the simple model proposed by Housner is used after slight modifications needed to properly consider the actual mass distribution. Two parameters are identified as governing the model response, namely the criterion defining the initiation of motion and the restitution coefficient. Then, a two stacked blocks model is developed and solved by an event-driven strategy. This two-block model is intended to allow a better description of the behaviour of tested specimens through a more precise modelling of the additional mass. Finally, the pres-ence of rubber layers positioned at the top and bottom of two of the tested walls with the pur-pose of improving their acoustic behaviour required the development of an updated rocking model with viscous and flexible interfaces at the base of the wall and between the two stacked blocks. The properties of these interfaces are deduced from experimental data and their sig-nificant influence on the response is evidenced. [less ▲]

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See detailAdapting Nitrogen management to the increasing climatic uncertainty
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in Shirmohammadi, Adel; Bosch, David; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafa (Eds.) Proceedings of the 1st ASABE Climate Change Symposium - Adaptation and Mitigation (2015, May)

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See detailPancreatitis in familial hypocalciuric hypercalcaemia
Potorac, Iulia ULg; MALAISE, Olivier ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Endocrine Abstracts (2015, May)

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See detailDetermination of Stress and Strain Fields in Cast and Heat Treated Bimetallic Rolling Mill Rolls
Neira Torres, Ingrid; Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg; Sinnaeve, Mario et al

in Proceedings of the Iron & Steel Technology Conference and Exposition (AISTech 2015 & ICSTI) (2015, May)

Efficient work rolls for Hot Strip mill roughing stands are usually produced as bimetallic spun cast rolls with a core material made of Spheroidal Graphite Iron (SGI) and a shell material made of High ... [more ▼]

Efficient work rolls for Hot Strip mill roughing stands are usually produced as bimetallic spun cast rolls with a core material made of Spheroidal Graphite Iron (SGI) and a shell material made of High Chromium Steel alloy, semi-High speed steel or adapted High Speed steel chemistry. In this paper, the evolution of stress fields and microstructure during post casting cooling and subsequent heat treatment of a standard high chromium steel is targeted. This knowledge is a first step to analyze the different events that could happen during these production stages and provides the residual stress fields as well as the final roll microstructure which are interesting data for roll service life. As far as roughing mill work rolls for roughing mills are concerned, current trends in terms of work roll design are forcing the roll producer to go towards higher usable shell thicknesses or increased residual shell thickness after scrap diameter in order to delay potential fatigue phenomena at the shell-core interface. One important parameter could not be evaluated in this study, it concerns the pollutions of the core material by alloying elements of the shell during production, which could affect to some extent the mechanical properties and microstructure of the core. The macroscopic thermo-mechanical-metallurgical Finite Element model used to perform simulations, takes into account coupled effects. Input data parameters are identified by experimental tests such as compression tests at constant strain rate and numerical procedures such as inverse method. After the model presentation, the material data set is commented. Whole experimental campaign could not be presented, however interested readers are referred to [1] where more details on the material study of High Chromium Steel alloy can be found. The section of simulation results show the phase transformation histories and stress profiles of a typical roll of diameter 1.2 m and shell thickness of 0.08 m. An additional sensitivity analysis of the results to some material data such as induced plasticity transformation coefficient and shift of the martensitic transformation start temperature parameters is reported. Finally, some conclusions analyze the interest and drawbacks of the described model and its results. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular analysis of miRNA expression profiles in AIP mutation positive somatotropinomas
Falk, N; Daly, Adrian ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg et al

in Endocrine Abstracts (2015, May)

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