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See detailLe tradipraticien est un acteur crédible dans l'offre des soins en territoire périurbain: Résultats d'une étude menée dans la commune de Kisenso à Kinshasa, Congo
Manzambi Kuwekita, Joseph ULg; Mbadu Kivuidi, Véronique; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 19)

Cette étude examine la perception des tradipraticiens par les populations, afin d’envisager leur intégration dans les politiques de développement de Kisenso par des focus groupes en juillet 2013. 100% de ... [more ▼]

Cette étude examine la perception des tradipraticiens par les populations, afin d’envisager leur intégration dans les politiques de développement de Kisenso par des focus groupes en juillet 2013. 100% de participants reconnaissent l’existence de tradipraticiens et les avoir déjà consultés, 80% déclarent avoir expérimenté la guérison totale. Le recours au tradipraticien est justifié par l’efficacité des soins, le type de maladie, la compétence, la proximité et la possibilité de paiement à crédit. Pour 70% des participants, le tradipraticien doit améliorer les conditions d’hygiène dans la manipulation des produits. La quasi-totalité des tradipraticiens ne sont pas autorisés à fonctionner, dû notamment au coût d’actes administratifs pour l’obtention de l’autorisation et la peur de s’ouvrir aux intellectuels. 20% d’entre eux disent collaborer avec la biomédecine pour les soins de "mbasu", 20% se déclarent spécialistes en ostéologie, 20% dans les soins de "mbasu" et 60% disent tout soigner. Si l’on veut intégrer les tradipraticiens dans les politiques de développement local, on devra supprimer le coût d’actes administratifs, leur accorder des formations, intégrer les soins traditionnels dans les paquets d’activités et leur accorder le statut d’agent de l’Etat. [less ▲]

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See detailPeut-on concilier la phytostabilisation des sols pollués avec la conservation des espèces cupro-cobalticoles dans la région de Lubumbashi (R. D. Congo) ?
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Collignon, Julien; Ngoy Shutcha, Mylor et al

Conference (2013, December 19)

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See detaillutte contre la mortalité périnatale: actualisation de l'asphyxie périnatale
Battisti, Oreste ULg

Conference (2013, December 18)

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See detailValorisation et propriétés des substances humiques des lixiviats de décharge
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 18)

Des expérimentations ont été menées dans notre laboratoire en utilisant des substances humiques (SH) extraites des lixiviats de cEntre d’Enfouissemnt Techique et des une formulation stable de SH « ... [more ▼]

Des expérimentations ont été menées dans notre laboratoire en utilisant des substances humiques (SH) extraites des lixiviats de cEntre d’Enfouissemnt Techique et des une formulation stable de SH « Humifirst » (12%d’acides humiques et 3% d’acides fulviques) de la compagnie TRADECORP s.a. (Espagne) commercialisée sous l’appelation Humifirst en vue d’en étudier leurs effets sur le développement du système racinaire de vitro-plants de bouleau et d’aulne. Les résultats montrent qu‘un traitement à faible concentration (10ppm) pendant la phase d’élongation des racines affecte la formation des racines latérales formée en présence de SH de lixiviat avec une intensité variable selon l’espèce testée. [less ▲]

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See detailPattern of morpho-functional diversifcation of damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Frederich, Bruno ULg

Conference (2013, December 18)

Coral reef fishes represent one of the most outstandingly diverse assemblages of vertebrates on the planet but our understanding of their mode of diversification remains limited. Currently, some ... [more ▼]

Coral reef fishes represent one of the most outstandingly diverse assemblages of vertebrates on the planet but our understanding of their mode of diversification remains limited. Currently, some biologists are testing various hypotheses about the evolutionary history of coral reef fishes and are exploring the factors driving their diversification. During my post-doctoral research, I explored the pattern of morphological diversification of damselfishes (Pomacentridae, 386 species). I produced a time-calibrated phylogeny based on 8 loci including 208 species and collected eco-morphological data (trophic data, body shape and oral jaws shape) in more than 120 species. Using various phylogenetic comparative methods, I have illusrated that the Pomacentridae observed repeated ecological radiation and morphological convergence during their evolutionary history. I have also highlighted the primary role of a ligament joining the mandible and the hyoid in the evolution and the morpho-functional diversification of pomacentrids. [less ▲]

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See detailOdour monitoring by sensors technology
Romain, Anne-Claude ULg

Conference (2013, December 18)

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See detailL'ENMG, c'est le pied !
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2013, December 17)

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See detailAnalyse d’un dispositif de (re)mise en emploi : Le cas d’un bureau de recrutement, recherche et sélection de personnel
Gérard, Julie ULg

Conference (2013, December 17)

Au cours de ces dernières années, le souci d’allier flexibilité et sécurité au travail a conduit à l’essor considérable des métiers de l’intermédiation (Orianne et Maroy, 2008). Dans le domaine de ... [more ▼]

Au cours de ces dernières années, le souci d’allier flexibilité et sécurité au travail a conduit à l’essor considérable des métiers de l’intermédiation (Orianne et Maroy, 2008). Dans le domaine de l’accompagnement et du développement de carrière, divers dispositifs privés d’aide et de suivi ont vu le jour afin de contribuer à l’amélioration des conditions de travail et de guider les travailleurs dans leurs transitions professionnelles. Par leur action, ces nouveaux dispositifs – que nous qualifierons de dispositifs d’intermédiation – semblent complexifier les temporalités sociales en créant de nouvelles opportunités d’emploi et/ou en redéfinissant les rythmes de carrière. À l’aide d’une étude de cas réalisée dans le secteur du recrutement belge, nous analyserons la capacité d’un processus de (re)mise en emploi à remplir de tels objectifs dans un contexte de gestion mixte du marché du travail. À partir d’une approche qualitative cumulant des entretiens semi-directifs et de l’observation participante, nous montrerons qu’en plus de régir l’offre et la demande de travail, ce dispositif d’intermédiation, par son système de cooptation interpersonnelle et d’accompagnement de carrière, assure la fluidification du marché et sécurise les transitions professionnelles. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse du métier de facilitateur et de son rôle dans la diffusion de normes d’emploi : le cas d’un bureau de chômage belge
Beuker, Laura ULg

Conference (2013, December 17)

En 2004, suite aux injonctions européennes en matière d’activation impulsées par les lignes directrices de 2003-2005, la Belgique met en place le PAC (ou Plan d’Accompagnement des chômeurs). Cette ... [more ▼]

En 2004, suite aux injonctions européennes en matière d’activation impulsées par les lignes directrices de 2003-2005, la Belgique met en place le PAC (ou Plan d’Accompagnement des chômeurs). Cette importante réforme prévoit – notamment – la mise en place de la procédure d’activation du comportement de recherche d’emploi par l’Office National de l’Emploi (Ou l’ONEm). Désormais, des agents sont spécifiquement dédiés à l’évaluation des efforts menés par les demandeurs d’emploi (ou DE) pour s’insérer sur le marché du travail : ce sont les facilitateurs. Si la procédure d’évaluation est officiellement définie, la décision, quant à elle, est bel et bien fonction de l’agent, qui doit interpréter le cadre réglementaire général à l’aune de la situation singulière du demandeur d’emploi. À l’aide d’une étude de cas réalisée au sein d’un bureau de chômage situé en Belgique francophone, nous allons tenter d’ouvrir la « boîte noire » du jugement des facilitateurs. À partir d’une approche qualitative cumulant des entretiens semi-directifs et de l’observation d’interactions entre facilitateurs et demandeurs d’emploi, nous montrerons que la décision des facilitateurs n’est ni arbitraire, ni déterminée. Elle est, au contraire, le fruit de la mobilisation d’une multitude d’appuis conventionnels dans l’action (Dodier, 1993). En outre, dans la lignée des travaux de Benarrosh (2000 ; 2006 ; 2012) nous démontrerons que ces agents sont des « pourvoyeurs » de normes institutionnelles précises à destination des demandeurs d’emploi. [less ▲]

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See detailA new methodological approach for error distributions selection
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

Conference (2013, December 15)

Since 2008 and its financial crisis, an increasing attention has been devoted to the selection of an adequate error distribution in risk models, in particular for Value-at-Risk (VaR) predictions. We ... [more ▼]

Since 2008 and its financial crisis, an increasing attention has been devoted to the selection of an adequate error distribution in risk models, in particular for Value-at-Risk (VaR) predictions. We propose a robust methodology to select the most appropriate error distribution candidate, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the traditional approach, we do not use any GARCH-type estimation of the conditional variance. Instead, we propose to use a recently developed nonparametric procedure: the Local Adaptive Volatility Estimation (LAVE). The motivation for using this method is to avoid a possible model misspecification for the conditional variance. In a second step, we suggest a set of estimation and model selection procedures tests based on the so-obtained residuals. These methods enable to assess the global fit of a given distribution as well as to focus on its behaviour in the tails. Finally, we illustrate our methodology on three time series (UBS stock returns, BOVESPA returns and EUR/USD exchange rates). [less ▲]

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See detailLittérature latino-américaine de la migration: au-delà du concept
Berlage, Pauline ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

La littérature de la migration, encore peu développée en Europe dans le domaine hispanique est cependant un véritable courant littéraire en Amérique du Nord. Au Canada francophone, par exemple, ce courant ... [more ▼]

La littérature de la migration, encore peu développée en Europe dans le domaine hispanique est cependant un véritable courant littéraire en Amérique du Nord. Au Canada francophone, par exemple, ce courant regroupe aujourd'hui un nombre important de romans, de contes ou de poésie ainsi qu’une énorme littérature secondaire. Dans le cas de la littérature hispano-américaine en Europe, nous sommes souvent confrontés à un paradoxe à l’heure d’étudier une création littéraire dans cette perspective. En effet, l’appellation même de “littérature de la migration latino-américaine” pose question car à la fois ces romans semblent partager des traits communs avec la littérature hispanique du vingtième siècle, à la fois ces œuvres s’avèrent être innovantes tant par leurs thématiques que par les traits stylistiques qu'elles proposent. Par conséquent, comment définir le champ d’étude de la littérature de la migration latino-américaine ? Quelle serait la validité d’une telle appellation? Ne pourrait-on pas définir toute la production littéraire contemporaine comme littérature transnationale ? Voici les questions qui me sont apparues tout au long de ma recherche concernant la validité et l’éventail de possibilité que présente la notion de littérature de la migration latino-américaine. Mon objectif est donc de dépasser le débat terminologique pour souligner certaines des nombreuses questions que ce nouveau domaine de recherche suscite. [less ▲]

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See detailDrowsiness monitoring for road safety
Wertz, Jérôme ULg; François, Clémentine ULg; Verly, Jacques ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

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See detailRésister par ou résister à la médiation culturelle : comment évaluer les dispositifs de médiation ?
Servais, Christine ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

Je m’interroge ici sur les moyens (scientifiques) dont nous disposons pour poser et étayer des affirmations du type : la médiation culturelle est essentielle au partage du sens et par conséquent à ce ... [more ▼]

Je m’interroge ici sur les moyens (scientifiques) dont nous disposons pour poser et étayer des affirmations du type : la médiation culturelle est essentielle au partage du sens et par conséquent à ce qu’on appelle si rapidement le “vivre ensemble”. Je voudrais proposer ceci : contrairement à ce qu’affirmait Davallon dans le numéro de MEI consacré aux méditeurs , il faut réintroduire la conflictualité dans la notion de médiation si nous voulons pouvoir l’évaluer ; si nous faisons cela , nous nous interdisons de fait toute possibilité d’une évaluation objective des dispositifs de médiation mais nous lui rendons une dimension propement politique. C’est sur une telle conception critique de la médiation qu'est basée cette intervention ; elle se réfère à un modèle fondé sur la mise en lien entre l’expérience esthétique et la possibilité d’une communauté ; ce modèle, théorisé par Kant, est très longuement commenté et interrogé par Arendt, en particulier dans La Crise de la culture et dans Juger. Sur la philosophie politique de Kant. Ces références s’inscrivent également dans le cadre théorique dessiné par les notions de malentendu et de mésentente telles qu’elles sont problématisés respectivement par Derrida et Rancière. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of MCM proteins in HTLV-1 transcription
Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Boxus, Mathieu et al

Conference (2013, December 13)

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See detailConclusions
Masson, Christophe ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

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See detailL'ENMG dans la pathologie de la face dorsale du pied
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

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See detailThe Taste of the Eye and the Sight of the Tongue
Von Hoffmann, Viktoria ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

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See detailImaginer-lire Le Capital. Approche des Nachrichten aus der ideologischen Antike
Pieron, Julien ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

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See detailAfrican Migration: on the centrality of Europe
Demart, Sarah ULg

Conference (2013, December 13)

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See detailExercice physique dans les maladies neuromusculaires
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2013, December 12)

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See detailLe CRP et ses opérateurs : les usages de la confiance
Remy, Céline ULg

Conference (2013, December 12)

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See detailCoupling of hydrogeological models with hydrogeophysical data to characterize seawater intrusion and shallow geothermal systems
Beaujean, Jean ULg; Kemna, Andreas; Engesgaard, Peter et al

Conference (2013, December 12)

While coastal aquifers are being stressed due to climate changes and excessive groundwater withdrawals require characterizing efficiently seawater intrusion (SWI) dynamics, production of geothermal energy ... [more ▼]

While coastal aquifers are being stressed due to climate changes and excessive groundwater withdrawals require characterizing efficiently seawater intrusion (SWI) dynamics, production of geothermal energy is increasingly being used to hinder global warming. To study these issues, we need both robust measuring technologies and reliable predictions based on numerical models. SWI models are currently calibrated using borehole observations. Similarly, geothermal models depend mainly on the temperature field at few locations. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be used to improve these models given its high sensitivity to TDS and temperature and its relatively high lateral resolution. Inherent geophysical limitations, such as the resolution loss, can affect the overall quality of the ERT images and also prevent the correct recovery of the desired hydrochemical property. We present an uncoupled and coupled hydrogeophysical inversion to calibrate SWI and thermohydrogeologic models using ERT. In the SWI models, we demonstrate with two synthetic benchmarks (homogeneous and heterogeneous coastal aquifers) the ability of cumulative sensitivity-filtered ERT images using surface-only data to recover the hydraulic conductivity. Filtering of ERT-derived data at depth, where resolution is poorer, and the model errors make the dispersivity more difficult to estimate. In the coupled approach, we showed that parameter estimation is significantly improved because regularization bias is replaced by forward modeling only. Our efforts are currently focusing on applying the uncoupled/coupled approaches on a real life case study using field data from the site of Almeria, SE Spain. In the thermohydrogeologic models, the most sensitive hydrologic parameters responsible for heat transport are estimated from surface ERT-derived temperatures and ERT resistance data. A real life geothermal experiment that took place on the Campus De Sterre of Ghent University, Belgium and a synthetic case are tested. They consist in a thermal injection and storage of water in a shallow sandy aquifer. The use of a physically-based constraint accounting for the difference in conductivity between the formation and the tap injected water and based on the hydrogeological model calibrated first on temperatures is necessary to improve the parameter estimation. Results suggest that time-lapse ERT data may be limited but useful information for estimating groundwater flow and transport parameters for both the convection and conduction phases. [less ▲]

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See detailPLS analysis of fMRI data on cognitive processes
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Genon, Sarah ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 12)

Cognitive processes like memory and self-referential are known to be underlined by extended neural networks. To study these complex processes, multivariate methods appear as the methods of the first ... [more ▼]

Cognitive processes like memory and self-referential are known to be underlined by extended neural networks. To study these complex processes, multivariate methods appear as the methods of the first choice since they take into account the functional integration. Partial Least Square (PLS) was used to study neural networks related to memory and self-referential processing in Alzheimer’s disease patients (AD) and two examples were presented. In the first one, we investigated the metabolic correlates of two forms of memory (conjunctive and relational memory performances) in AD. PLS identified two different brain networks highlighting correlations of the two types of memory and the glucose metabolism. In the second example, we assessed brain regions engaged during self-referential processing of information in AD patients during a task related fMRI study. PLS identified a wide brain network showing the effect of self- vs. other-referential processing. In contrast to univariate methods, PLS showed to be suitable for the study of cognitive processes. [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Energy: Between Legitimacy and Threat
Michel, Quentin ULg

Conference (2013, December 12)

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See detailWhen does the market feel it ? Magnitude, speed and persistence of market reactions to cross-listings
Muller, Aline ULg; Biell, Elizabeth; Mouchette, Xavier ULg

Conference (2013, December 11)

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See detailEvaluation of the bacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef from British and Belgian origins under different atmosphere and temperature conditions
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Tahiri, Assia ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 10)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef, depending on its origin, packaging and storage temperature, by using a metagenomic ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bacterial diversity and its evolution during storage of fresh beef, depending on its origin, packaging and storage temperature, by using a metagenomic approach. Metagenomic analyzes revealed that the origin, atmosphere and temperature conditions influenced the selection of the predominant flora. Vacuum-packaged British samples presented higher concentrations of Lactobacillus algidus at the begging of the experiment than Belgian samples. Furthermore, the development of Lactobacillus algidus was favored in British and Belgian samples preserved under vacuum at −1 °C, while a predominance of Lactococcus piscium was observed for samples stored at +4 °C. These microorganisms have already been isolated from beef, but taking into account that the knowledge about these two species is currently limited, it is still not possible to state if the conservability of the tested samples was influenced by the presence of these bacteria. Moreover, storage under modified atmosphere favored the development of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum in both British and Belgian samples. This specie is often associated with spoilage of cold-stored modified-atmosphere-packaged (MAP) nutrient-rich foods. This result can partially explain the short shelf-life of the samples once they are stored under this condition. Metagenomics showed to be a useful tool to study the microbial population of a complex matrix since some of the identified genera could not have grown or have grown slowly in culture media commonly used. In addition, it helped to clarify the evolution of the bacterial ecosystem associated to meat during its storage. [less ▲]

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See detailCompétences et pratiques pédagogiques innovantes
Poumay, Marianne ULg

Conference (2013, December 10)

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See detailScikit-Learn: Machine Learning in the Python ecosystem
Louppe, Gilles ULg; Varoquaux, Gaël

Conference (2013, December 10)

The scikit-learn project is an increasingly popular machine learning library written in Python. It is designed to be simple and efficient, useful to both experts and non-experts, and reusable in a variety ... [more ▼]

The scikit-learn project is an increasingly popular machine learning library written in Python. It is designed to be simple and efficient, useful to both experts and non-experts, and reusable in a variety of contexts. The primary aim of the project is to provide a compendium of efficient implementations of classic, well-established machine learning algorithms. Among other things, it includes classical supervised and unsupervised learning algorithms, tools for model evaluation and selection, as well as tools for data preprocessing and feature engineering. This presentation will illustrate the use of scikit-learn as a component of the larger scientific Python environment to solve complex data analysis tasks. Examples will include end-to-end workflows based on powerful and popular algorithms in the library. Among others, we will show how to use out-of-core learning with on-the-fly feature extraction to tackle very large natural language processing tasks, how to exploit an IPython cluster for distributed cross-validation, or how to build and use random forests to explore biological data. [less ▲]

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See detailScience and Technology as Sites of Struggle in New Political Economies: Insights from Latin American Bioeconomy
Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, December 09)

Increasingly, science and technology (S&T) are used as key strategic resources to address the social and economic challenges of our time (Tyfield 2012). This paper is part of my broader research program ... [more ▼]

Increasingly, science and technology (S&T) are used as key strategic resources to address the social and economic challenges of our time (Tyfield 2012). This paper is part of my broader research program, which takes S&T as sites of struggle, where (geo)political and socio-economic issues interact, and studies them in three new political economies: bioeconomy, new manufacturing economy and smart security economy. It identifies two global dynamics that are at stake in the strategic construction and use of S&T: (1) proliferating varieties of neoliberalism (Harvey 2005, Mirowski and Plehwe 2009) and (2) shifting asymmetric dependency relations (Vernengo 2006, Metcalfe and Ramlogan 2008). My main goal is to analyze and understand developments in S&T domains as co-evolving with these two key global dynamics. For this paper, I will focus on one S&T site of struggles, biotechnologies/bioeconomy in Argentina, which will allow me to look at the reconfiguring of center-periphery relations and neoliberal enactments. Based on extensive fieldwork conducted with actors from public, private and associative sectors, I explore the expansion of genetically modified soy in Argentina and I aim to figure out how the neoliberal “globalized privatization regime” (Mirowski and Sent 2008) unfolded in a peripheral location. My case points at two inherent contradictions with such a regime’s main tenets, namely that it needs a weak antitrust policy and a hyper-restrictive system of intellectual property. I conclude that it is not enough to postulate that the neoliberal globalized privatization regime will just expand to the South as it did in Northern countries. Rather, combined with the commercialization of science, peripherality creates protest, activism and local regulation. Lastly, further implications for the theorization and circulation of bioeconomy (Birch and Tyfield 2013) beyond the “charmed circle” of OECD countries (Delvenne and Thoreau 2012) will be drawn. [less ▲]

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See detailSaturn’s UV aurora: the (high latitude) point of view of Cassini
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 09)

The high latitude vantage point of Cassini and its short distance to Saturn give rise to a unique opportunity for obtaining exceptional spectral images of the aurorae, along with in situ observations of ... [more ▼]

The high latitude vantage point of Cassini and its short distance to Saturn give rise to a unique opportunity for obtaining exceptional spectral images of the aurorae, along with in situ observations of the associated particles and magnetic field. Cassini’s T83 flyby of Titan significantly changed the inclination of the spacecraft’s orbit and marked the beginning of the XXM inclined phase 1 which will last until March 16, 2015. We will give an overview of the auroral emissions observed so far with the UVIS camera on board Cassini. In particular we will link the morphology of the aurora with specific magnetospheric processes, such as dayside reconnection and auroral bifurcations, nightside reconnection, hot plasma injections. We will also take advantage of the view from nearly above the poles to describe the overall shape and size of the aurora, which are expected to respond to the solar wind conditions. Moreover, this presentation will focus on small-scale features, which can only be observed by an instrument close enough to the planet. We will also present movies of these observations, allowing us to explore the auroral dynamics at various timescales. This information will be used to identify the various mechanisms at play in Saturn’s magnetosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailOppositions et arguments paysagers dans le projet éolien en Wallonie
Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

Conference (2013, December 09)

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See detailEnjeux politiques de l'ignorance : Socrate et Rancière
Herla, Anne ULg; Jeanmart, Gaëlle

Conference (2013, December 07)

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See detailPeut-on tout représenter ou les défis de la modélisation en archéologie
Van Ruymbeke, Muriel ULg

Conference (2013, December 07)

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See detailLa dynastie belge et la science, 1909-1959
Pirot, Pascal ULg

Conference (2013, December 07)

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See detailReliability of resistivity-derived temperature: insights from laboratory measurements
Robert, Tanguy ULg; Hermans, Thomas ULg; Dumont, Gaël ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 06)

This contribution consists in studying the reliability of resistivity-derived temperature, for example from time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. The idea of using temperature as a ... [more ▼]

This contribution consists in studying the reliability of resistivity-derived temperature, for example from time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys. The idea of using temperature as a quantitative tracer is growing in the hydrogeophysical community, especially to simulate geo/hydrothermal systems. However, plenty of physico-chemical processes are influenced by temperature and most of them impact directly resistivity measurements. Therefore, one needs to take them into account to retrieve quantitative temperature estimates from resistivity measurements but, up to now, it is seldom the case. The experiment we conducted consisted in simulating an ERT monitoring of heat storage in a sandy aquifer. We show that using experimental relationships between fluid electrical conductivity and temperature alone does not allow reliable temperature estimates, simply because rock-water interactions are neglected. Worst, from a certain temperature (45°C here), the bulk resistivity starts to increase with temperature although this is not expected from the experimental law. Chemical analyses made on water samples collected during the experiment highlight the importance of accounting chemical reactions (e.g. calcite precipitation with increasing temperature) occurring when temperature changes as well as their kinetics. Finally, other parameters as surface conductivity cannot always be neglected when estimating temperature from resistivity measurements. This means that retrieving reliable temperatures from bulk resistivity measurements (e.g. time-lapse ERT) requires the knowledge of water mineralization as well as the rock / soil mineralogy in order to fully integrate physico-chemical reactions between groundwater and the host rock, for example with a joint inversion scheme. [less ▲]

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See detailL'interface 1ère-2ème ligne de soins
Belche, Jean-Luc ULg

Conference (2013, December 06)

L’implication des MG dans le suivi de patients insuffisants cardiaques sévères est importante. Le « chronic car model » a démontré son efficacité dans le suivi d’une maladie chronique. L’opérationnalité ... [more ▼]

L’implication des MG dans le suivi de patients insuffisants cardiaques sévères est importante. Le « chronic car model » a démontré son efficacité dans le suivi d’une maladie chronique. L’opérationnalité de la prise en charge intégrée sur le terrain devrait respecter les particularités locales et/ou les réseaux existants. Le MG n’est pas le seul intervenant actuel de la première ligne de soins ; il travaille le plus souvent en réseau, quand celui-ci n’est pas structuré en centre de santé intégré. Ce modèle, promotionné par l’OMS, repose sur un travail en équipe pluridisciplinaire, dans un souci de continuité relationnelle et informationelle. (Les réseaux multidisciplinaires locaux (RML) ont été créés à cette fin dans le cadre des trajets de soins.) L’adjonction d’intervenant spécialisé dans le suivi de l’insuffisance cardiaque porte en elle le germe de la muliplication des intervenants et de la fragmentation des soins. Cela risque de provoquer un rejet par la première ligne de soins, au moment où on l’appelle à se structurer en réseau d’intervenants, à vocation transversale ou générale. Or la situation la plus prévalente est la multimorbidité, l’insuffisance cardiaque au milieu d’autres maladies ou conditions chroniques. Il est démontré que la multiplication des approches centrées sur la maladie a un impact négatif sur l’efficacité des soins, sur la qualité des soins, et à un coût plus élevé. L’approche centrée sur la maladie, prédominante actuellement, doit glisser lentement mais surement vers une approche centrée sur le patient, et ses propres objectifs. [less ▲]

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See detailOdour emissions impact of on-farm biogas production with co-digestion : a case study in four European farms of the Great Region
Adam, Gilles ULg; Gennen, Jérome; Ubeda Sanchez, Yolanda et al

Conference (2013, December 06)

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See detailMonitoring temperature changes during heat tracing experiments using electrical resistivity tomography
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2013, December 06)

Thermal tracing experiments are becoming common in hydrogeology to estimate parameters governing heat transport processes and to study geothermal reservoirs. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has ... [more ▼]

Thermal tracing experiments are becoming common in hydrogeology to estimate parameters governing heat transport processes and to study geothermal reservoirs. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has proven its ability to monitor salt tracer tests, but few studies have investigated its performances, both qualitatively and quantitatively, in thermal tracing experiments. In this study, we monitored a heat injection and pumping experiment in an alluvial aquifer using both surface and crosshole ERT. The data sets of the surface profile, located along the main direction of flow, are distorted during injection by an electrical short-circuit through the external pumping-heating-injection experimental set-up. Current is flowing outside the subsurface leading to bad data for electrode dipoles located near the pumping and injection wells. The crosshole ERT panel is perpendicular to the main direction of flow. Difference inversion time-lapse images clearly show a preferential flow path in the bottom of the aquifer related to the presence of a coarse and clean gravel layer. Direct temperature measurements are available in control piezometers during the experiment to validate the ERT-derived temperatures and confirm the spatial pattern of temperature observed with ERT. Breakthrough curves are correctly retrieved in time and difference of 10 to 20% are observed for temperature estimation. The latter requires site-specific petrophysical laws and chemical stability assumptions that must be carefully verified. Our study proves that ERT, especially crosshole ERT, is a reliable tool to follow thermal tracing experiments but also to characterize heat transfer in the subsurface and to monitor geothermal resource exploitations. We also show that surface ERT may be impacted by the survey layout in unsuspected ways. [less ▲]

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See detailEtat des lieux et perspectives de la foresterie communautaire au Gabon
Meunier, Quentin; Boldrini, Sylvie; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

Conference (2013, December 06)

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See detailSources, transport et transformation du carbone, de l’azote et du phosphore dans le fleuve Niger : résultats après 2 années d’observations à Niamey
Alhou, Bassirou; Darchambeau, François ULg; Bouillon, Steven et al

Conference (2013, December 05)

Le fleuve Niger est le troisième plus important fleuve d'Afrique et draine une superficie d'environ 2 120 000 km². Il englobe six régions hydrographiques caractéristiques des écosystèmes de l’Afrique ... [more ▼]

Le fleuve Niger est le troisième plus important fleuve d'Afrique et draine une superficie d'environ 2 120 000 km². Il englobe six régions hydrographiques caractéristiques des écosystèmes de l’Afrique occidentale. Nonobstant l’importance de ce fleuve à l’échelle régionale et continentale, peu de données ont été récemment collectées sur la biogéochimie du fleuve et en particulier sur son rôle dans le transport et la transformation de la matière, dont le carbone, l’azote et le phosphore. La présente communication traite des résultats d’un suivi sur deux années, d’avril 2011 à mars 2013 dans le Niger moyen, en amont de la ville de Niamey (Niger) [2.01° E, 13.57° N], selon une fréquence d’observation bihebdomadaire. Les variables mesurées sont la température, la conductivité, l’oxygène dissous, le pH, la matière en suspension (MES), l’alcalinité totale (TA), les différentes formes du carbone (C), de l’azote (N) et du phosphore (P) inorganiques dissous, le C, l’N et le P organiques particulaires, ainsi que la composition isotopique de ces éléments. Une attention particulière est portée aux concentrations des gaz à effet de serre (GES) que sont le dioxyde de carbone (CO2), le méthane (CH4) et l’hémioxide d’azote (N2O). Les débits journaliers du fleuve proviennent de la station de mesure hydrologique de l’autorité du Bassin du Niger (ABN) à Niamey. Les flux annuels ont été calculés par la méthode de Beale pour les régimes stratifiés (Gumleaf v0.1) à partir des débits quotidiens et des concentrations observées. La situation hydrologique a été fort contrastée entre les 2 années d’étude puisque le débit moyen sur la première année était de seulement 674 m3 s-1, soit un des débits les plus faibles enregistrés sur le fleuve à Niamey depuis 1940, et de 1096 m3 s-1, soit une valeur médiane, lors de la deuxième année. Nos résultats montrent que la MES, le carbone organique particulaire, le carbone organique dissous et le carbone inorganique dissous sont principalement transportés lors de la crue locale, engendrée par les précipitations de la mousson en juillet-août. La seconde crue, ou crue guinéenne, qui a lieu de novembre à janvier, est caractérisée par une chute des températures et des eaux claires. Les flux annuels des différentes espèces transportées étaient en relation directe avec les différences de régime hydrologique. [less ▲]

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See detailMinimum gradient support and geostatistics regularization approaches for inverting time-lapse data
Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Hermans, Thomas ULg; Robert, Tanguy ULg

Conference (2013, December 05)

Inversion of time-lapse resistivity data allows obtaining ‘snapshots’ of changes occurring in monitored systems for applications such as aquifer storage, site remediation or tracer tests. Based on these ... [more ▼]

Inversion of time-lapse resistivity data allows obtaining ‘snapshots’ of changes occurring in monitored systems for applications such as aquifer storage, site remediation or tracer tests. Based on these snapshots, one can infer qualitative information on the location and morphology of changes occurring in the subsurface but also quantitative estimates on the degree of changes in certain property such as temperature or total dissolved solid content. Analysis of these changes can provide direct insight into flow and transport processes and controlling parameters. However, the reliability of the analysis is dependent on survey geometry, measurement schemes, data error, or regularization. Except regularization, survey design parameters may be optimized prior to the monitoring survey. Regularization, on the other hand, may be chosen depending on available information collected during the monitoring. Common approaches consider smoothing model changes both in space and/or time. We here propose to use two alternative regularization approaches which may be better suited to invert time-lapse data. The first approach is the minimum gradient support (MGS) regularization, which focus the changes in tomograms snapshots. MGS will limit the occurrences of changes in electrical resistivity but will also restrict the variations of these changes inside the different zones. The second approach is based on geostatistics and requires first to derive variogram parameters for the model changes. In this contribution, we demonstrate the benefits and limitations of these regularization approaches to time-lapse data on numerical benchmarks and three case studies. [less ▲]

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See detailTandem MS of -new- antibiotics from Bacillus guided by MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging
Debois, Delphine ULg; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Cawoy, Hélène ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 05)

Generally, an antibiotic is thought to have a role in antagonism simply because the producing strain is known to exhibit a potential for pathogen growth inhibition. Some genetic approaches such as PCR ... [more ▼]

Generally, an antibiotic is thought to have a role in antagonism simply because the producing strain is known to exhibit a potential for pathogen growth inhibition. Some genetic approaches such as PCR using specific primers or genome mining using known sequence data of close relatives are also used. Nevertheless, none of these methods allows stating for a link between a specific compound and the observed antagonism. Yet MALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI) is a powerful tool to decipher the chemical messengers exchanged by two protagonists [1,2,3;]. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) may be also used, either on extracts [2,3] or directly on the microbial colonies [4]. The presentation will thus be focused on two examples of application of MALDI MSI combined to in situ tandem mass spectrometry. The first presented case will be the antagonism between soilborne strain Paenibacillus polymyxa Pp56 and the fungal phytopathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Using MALDI MSI, we were able to precisely localize each detected antibiotic, allowing discriminating which LI-F lipopeptides (fusaricidin) were really active against the pathogen progression. Besides, the use of in situ MS/MS allowed us to sequence the peptide moiety of several LI-F lipopeptides, showing that some of them are actually a mixture of several forms. The second example concerns the metabolites that are released by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499 cells following their inoculation on 7 days old tomato roots. We developed specific bioassays for time-course monitoring by MALDI MSI. First analyses revealed an efficient secretion of surfactin by Bacillus cells after 3 days when colonization as biofilm-structured populations is well established. Even if the composition of antibiotic mixture does not greatly evolve over time, after long incubation periods (32 or 35 days post inoculation), new series of compounds are detected in the tomato root -surrounding medium. Structural analysis based on exact mass measurements and MS/MS experiments, performed directly on the semi-solid agar medium, allowed us to identify these compounds as new variants of surfactins. [1] Barger, S., et al., Anton Leeuw Int J G, 2012, 102, 435-445. [2] Hoefler, B. C., et al,. Natl Acad Sci USA, 2012, 109, 13082-13087. [3] Moree, W. J., et al., Natl Acad Sci USA, 2012, 109, 13811-13816. [4] Debois, D., et al., J Am Soc Mass Spectrom. 2013, 24, 1202-1213 [less ▲]

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See detailFriction Stir Processing of Magnesium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibres or Carbon Nanotubes - A Comparative Study
Mertens, Anne ULg; Simar, Aude; Garray, Didier et al

Conference (2013, December 05)

The poor wettability of carbon substrates by liquid Mg and, in the case of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their strong tendency to agglomerate, are major obstacles to the large-scale production of C-Mg ... [more ▼]

The poor wettability of carbon substrates by liquid Mg and, in the case of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), their strong tendency to agglomerate, are major obstacles to the large-scale production of C-Mg composites by classical ‘liquid-state’ processing routes such as squeeze casting. As an innovative ‘solid state’ process, Friction Stir Processing (FSP) hence appeared as a very promising alternative for the production of C-Mg composites, although the method for inserting the reinforcing phase - in grooves or holes machined in the matrix material - remained time-consuming and labour-intensive. More recently, the present authors proposed a new and easier technique for the insertion of C fibres in FSPed Mg-matrix composites i.e. FSP of a C fabric stacked between two metal sheets. In the current work, the feasibility of extending this latter method to the production of CNTs-Mg composites has been assessed. “Bucky papers” – thin disks made from agglomerated CNTs, thus ensuring for their safe handling – were stacked between two sheets of Mg alloy AZ31B, and the resulting sandwich was FSPed. The effect of FSP experimental parameters such as the rotational and advancing speeds or the number of passes on the microstructural changes occuring upon processing has been studied and compared with the case of C fibres-Mg composites. Moreover, a particular attention has been given to the distribution of the reinforcements in the Mg matrix and to the characterization of the resulting mechanical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailCapture of 3D sound with a spherical microphone array
Feron, Hermine; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

Conference (2013, December 05)

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See detailL'autodestruction de la Raison comme histoire naturelle: Adorno, Horkheimer, Schelling
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

Conference (2013, December 04)

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See detail3D ERT monitoring of the reactivation of waste biodegradation with fresh leachate injection
Dumont, Gaël ULg; Robert, Tanguy ULg; Pilawski, Tamara et al

Conference (2013, December 04)

The aim of this study is to monitor (bio) physical processes occurring in a landfill. The experiment consists in injecting leachate towards a drain in unsaturated and not yet digested waste to reactivate ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to monitor (bio) physical processes occurring in a landfill. The experiment consists in injecting leachate towards a drain in unsaturated and not yet digested waste to reactivate (or activate) waste biodegradation. The target is the first 15 meters of the studied landfill subsurface. The visualization of the wet front arrival (short term effect) is crucial because we want to ensure that waste is entirely humidified to allow the reactivation of waste digestion. The second process is a long term effect consisting in the increase of the internal temperature of the landfill which is synonymous of the reactivation of biodegradation processes. We use 3D time-lapse ERT on a monthly basis to capture the decrease of electrical resistivity related to the increasing temperature. We also collect ground truth data, including distributed temperatures in a borehole to validate results. For short term effects, we monitored the wet front arrival with three 2D ERT profiles composing the 3D image, during an entire day. Preliminary results, corroborated by ground truth data, show that leachate flow in anisotropic (more rapid horizontally than vertically). So far, waste was completely humidified and slight changes of temperature occurred. [less ▲]

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See detailPotentiel d'utilisation de la spectrometrie moyen infrarouge pour prédire le rendement fromager du lait et étudier sa variabilité génétique
Colinet, Frédéric ULg; Troch, Thibault ULg; Abbas, O. et al

Conference (2013, December 04)

Providing a quick, reliable and cheap indication of the expected cheese yield for a milk sample by avoiding (empirical or theoretical) formulas based on previously determined milk constituents would be an ... [more ▼]

Providing a quick, reliable and cheap indication of the expected cheese yield for a milk sample by avoiding (empirical or theoretical) formulas based on previously determined milk constituents would be an economically valuable tool useful for farmers and the dairy industry. In order to study the genetic variability of cheese yield on a large scale, mid-infrared (MIR) chemometric methods were used to predict fresh or dry Individual Laboratory Cheese Yield (RdFF and RdFS, respectively). RdFF and RdFS were determined on a total of 258 milks samples also analyzed by a MIR spectrometer. Equations to predict RdFF and RdFS from milk MIR spectra were developed using partial least square regression (PLS) after first derivative pre-traitment applied to the spectra. The cross-validation coefficients of determination (R²cv) of the two equations were equal to 0.81 for the prediction of RdFF and 0.82 for the prediction RdFS. The ratios of performance to deviation (RPD) of the two equations were both equal to 2.3. Therefore, these results suggest a practical utility of these two equations, i.e. for genetic research. Both equations were applied on the spectral database generated during the Walloon routine milk recording. The variances components were estimated using univariate random regressions animal test-day model. The dataset included 51 537 predicted records from 7 870 Holstein first-parity cows. Estimated daily heritabilities ranged from 0.31 (at 5th day in milk (DIM)) to 0.59 (at 279th DIM) for RdFF and from 0.31 (at 5th DIM) to 0.57 (at 299th DIM) for RdFS. Those moderate to high daily heritabilities indicated potential of selection for both traits. [less ▲]

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See detailRay tracing enhancement for space thermal analysis: isocell method
Jacques, Lionel ULg; Masset, Luc ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

Conference (2013, December 04)

The finite element method (FEM) is widely used in mechanical engineering, especially for space structure design. However, FEM is not yet often used for thermal engineering of space structures where the ... [more ▼]

The finite element method (FEM) is widely used in mechanical engineering, especially for space structure design. However, FEM is not yet often used for thermal engineering of space structures where the lumped parameter method is still dominant. Radiative exchange factors (REFs), used to calculate radiative thermal exchanges in space, are usually computed through Monte Carlo ray-tracing. Due to the large number of elements composing a FE model, the computation of the REFs is prohibitively expensive. In the frame of a global approach, several research axes will be investigated to reduce the computational effort of the REFs with FEM. The first one focuses on accelerating the convergence and enhancing the accuracy of the ray-tracing process to decrease the number of rays required to achieve a given accuracy. The developments of the new Isocell quasi-Monte Carlo ray tracing method are presented. Based on Nusselt’s analogy, the ray direction sampling is carried out by sampling the unit disc to derive the ray directions. The unit disc is divided into cells into which random points are then generated. The cells have the particularity of presenting almost the same area and shape. This enhances the uniformity of the generated quasi-random sequence of ray directions and leads to faster convergence. This Isocell method has been associated with different surface sampling to derive the REFs. The method is benchmarked against ESARAD, the standard thermal analysis software used in the European aerospace industry. Various geometries have been used. In particular, one entrance baffle of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) instrument developed at the Centre Spatial de Liège in Belgium is used. The EUI instrument of the Solar Orbiter European Space Agency mission and will be launched in a Sun-centered (0.28 perihelion) orbit in 2018. [less ▲]

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See detailLa recherche et la formation doctorales au XXIe siècle
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2013, December 04)

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See detailLa légende d'Isis et de Rê conservée sur le P. Turin 1993
Sojic, Nathalie ULg

Conference (2013, December 04)

The Story of Isis and Ra is a text famous in the world of Egyptology, since its publication by Pleyte and Rossi in the Catalogue des papyrus de Turin at the end of the nineteenth century. Although it has ... [more ▼]

The Story of Isis and Ra is a text famous in the world of Egyptology, since its publication by Pleyte and Rossi in the Catalogue des papyrus de Turin at the end of the nineteenth century. Although it has been translated many times, this text has however never received a full philological treatment and several problems remain hitherto unsolved. In my paper I will first present P. Turin 1993, its text and the parallel sources. I well then contextualise the text within the broader frame of Egyptian magic during the New Kingdom. The second part of my paper will be devoted to an analysis of the document, of its text and of the sources, stressing the contribution of such a study to the general issue of text composition, conservation and transmission in ancient Egypt. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of anti-HPV lipoplexes for the treatment of cervical cancer
Lechanteur, Anna ULg; Furst, Tania ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

Conference (2013, December 03)

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See detailA micro-meso model to predict van der Walls and capillary induced stiction in micro-structures
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Wu, Ling ULg

Conference (2013, December)

Undesirable stiction in MEMS results from the contact between surfaces and is due to the adhesive van der Waal and/or capillary forces, which become important for micro-structures. In this work, a micro ... [more ▼]

Undesirable stiction in MEMS results from the contact between surfaces and is due to the adhesive van der Waal and/or capillary forces, which become important for micro-structures. In this work, a micro-macro multi-scale approach is developed in order to predict possible stiction in MEMS structures At the lower scale, the unloading adhesive contact-distance curves of two interacting rough surfaces are established based on Maugis’ model extended herein to account simultaneously for the van der Waals and the capillary forces. The resulting unloading adhesive contact-distance curves are dependent on the material and surface properties -such as elastic modulus, surface energy- on the rough surfaces’ topography parameters -the standard deviation of asperities heights and the asperities’ density- and on the humidity level. At the higher scale, a beam finite element analysis is considered to determine the residual configuration due to the adhesive forces once contact happened. Toward this end, the adhesive contact-distance curve computed previously is integrated on the surface of the finite elements as a contact law. [less ▲]

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See detailAttribution of Cysteine Connectivities in small toxins - New Prospects Based on Partial Oxidation/Reduction Experiments and Ion-Mobility Mass Spectrometry
Quinton, Loïc ULg; Massonnet, Philippe ULg; Echterbille, Julien ULg et al

Conference (2013, December)

Disulfide bonds are post-translational modifications often found in biological compounds and especially in animal toxins. Disulfide bonds participate in the formation of specific folding of peptides and ... [more ▼]

Disulfide bonds are post-translational modifications often found in biological compounds and especially in animal toxins. Disulfide bonds participate in the formation of specific folding of peptides and proteins, directly related to their biological activity. Cystein pairing determinations are primordial for the synthesis of chemical homologous displaying the same bioactivity than the natural compound. This task appears already difficult when the cysteine pairings have to be determined from large proteins. The combination of physical and chemical techniques such as NMR, enzymatic proteolysis, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, is needed to circumvent this difficulty. However, when the work concerns small compounds such as conotoxins, the problem is much more complex due to the low amount of available compound and to the lack of enzymatic cleavage sites between cysteines. In this study, we investigate the case of small peptides that contain two disulphide bonds. The idea is to determine the cystein pairings in such compounds by a chemical partial reduction (or oxidation) of the peptides, followed by the separation of the generated species by ion-mobility mass spectrometry, and their characterisation by tandem mass spectrometry. Up to now, we have investigated the partial reduction not only in solution (with DTT and TCEP) but also in the gas-phase (Electron transfer dissociation), and partial oxidation in solution (with 3-CPBA). The results demonstrate an unexpected complexity of the data, including low fragmentation ratios of peptides and disulfide scramblings. [less ▲]

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See detailBiohydrometallurgy, a key for recyclng crtical metals?
Lambert, Fanny ULg

Conference (2013, December)

In Europe, recycling of end-of-life consumer goods appears as a strategy to secure raw materials supply and to preserve resources. Industrial processes exist to recycle a large number of metals (ferrous ... [more ▼]

In Europe, recycling of end-of-life consumer goods appears as a strategy to secure raw materials supply and to preserve resources. Industrial processes exist to recycle a large number of metals (ferrous metals, base metals and precious metals) but high technology metals, as some of the fourteen metals listed as critic in Europe, are currently not recycled from post-consuming applications. The PhD project focuses on the recycling of these high technology metals by an innovative process based on bio-hydrometallurgy. The main objective is the study of the possibility (technique and economic) to recover gallium from printed circuit boards. [less ▲]

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See detailCompétences durables et transférables, clé pour l'employabilité
Dujardin, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2013, December)

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See detailCURRENT CROWDING EFFECTS IN NANOSTRUCTURED SUPERCONDUCTORS
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg

Conference (2013, December)

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See detailL'iconologie des intervalles. Métavisuel et montages d'images fixes (Warburg)
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Conference (2013, December)

Je vais tenter ici de reformuler ici les problématiques abordées durant ces journées à partir du champ disciplinaire spécifique de l’iconologie – que l’on peut plus ou moins situer à l’intersection de la ... [more ▼]

Je vais tenter ici de reformuler ici les problématiques abordées durant ces journées à partir du champ disciplinaire spécifique de l’iconologie – que l’on peut plus ou moins situer à l’intersection de la philosophie et de l’histoire de l’art (en tant que ses fondateurs, Aby Warburg puis Erwin Panofsky, ont construit les principes de la méthode dans le cadre d’une réflexion générale sur le symbolique, en dialogue avec la philosophie d’Ernst Cassirer, notamment). J’aborderai en introduction – très rapidement – les critiques récentes adressées à la méthode iconologique par la théorie de l’image contemporaine, critiques qui reposent globalement sur l’idée d’un déni du visuel et de sa spécificité (= ses moyens et sa logique propres) au profit du paradigme langagier – omniprésent dès qu’il s’agit de dégager le sens d’une image. Je repartirai notamment des propos d’un des principaux protagonistes de la Bildwissenschaft actuelle (= la science de l’image), G. Boehm. La critique de l’iconologie me semble parfois caricaturale, même si ces questions sont essentielles, et je voudrais essayer de la déstabiliser quelque peu en revenant aux sources de la méthode. Dans son ouvrage sur le métavisuel, dont MG m’a suggéré la lecture, Stefania Caliandro décrit le projet établi par Warburg d’un atlas d’images intitulé Mnemosyne comme une vaste entreprise d’explicitation, par l’image, de la fonction du visuel – idée que j’appuierai ici. En développant ce qu’il a lui-même appelé une « iconologie de l’intervalle », Aby Warburg suggère que les montages d’images, et la variété des agencements/séries dans lesquels elles peuvent être prises, contribuent à l’élaboration d’un méta-discours qui dépasse largement les significations établies portées par ces images individuellement. Loin de se contenter d’attribuer à des motifs visuels artistiques des significations déterminées, l’iconologie – dans cette version inaugurale – se donne pour objectif de faire apparaître (par l’image) la dynamique de transformation incessante qui anime les symboles de l’art. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Local Incremental-Secant Mean-Field-Homogenization of Damage-Enhanced Elasto-Plastic Composites
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2013, December)

An anisotropic gradient–enhanced continuum damage model is herein embedded in a mean–field homogenization (MFH) process for elasto-plastic composites. The homogenization procedure is based on the newly ... [more ▼]

An anisotropic gradient–enhanced continuum damage model is herein embedded in a mean–field homogenization (MFH) process for elasto-plastic composites. The homogenization procedure is based on the newly developed incremental secant mean-field homogenization formulation, for which the residual stress and strain states reached in the phases upon a fictitious elastic unloading are considered as starting point to apply the secant method. The mean stress fields in the phases are then computed using isotropic secant tensors, which are naturally used to define the Linear Comparison–Composite The resulting multi– scale model is then applied to study the damage process at the meso–scale of laminates, and in particular the damaging of plies in a composite stack. By using the gradient–enhanced continuum damage model, the problem of losing uniqueness upon strain softening is avoided. [less ▲]

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See detailProbabilistic model for MEMS micro-beam resonance frequency made of polycrystalline linear anisotropic material
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg et al

Conference (2013, December)

In order to ensure the accuracy of MEMS vibrometers, the first resonance frequency should be predicted at the design phase. However, this prediction cannot be deterministic: there is a scatter in the ... [more ▼]

In order to ensure the accuracy of MEMS vibrometers, the first resonance frequency should be predicted at the design phase. However, this prediction cannot be deterministic: there is a scatter in the reached value resulting from the uncertainties involved in the manufacturing process. The purpose of this work is to take into account these uncertainties of the microstructure and to propagate them up to the micro-beam resonance frequency. The objective is a non-deterministic model that can be used since the design stage. Towards this end a 3-scales stochastic model predicting the resonance frequency of a micro-beam made of a polycrystalline linear anisotropic material is described. Uncertainties are related to the sizes and orientations of the grains. The first part of the problem is a homogenization procedure performed on a volume which is not representative, due to the small scale of the problem inherent in MEMS. The method is thus non-deterministic and a meso-scale probabilistic elasticity tensor is predicted. This stage is followed by a perturbation stochastic finite element procedure to propagate the meso-scale uncertainties to the macro-scale, leading to a probabilistic model of the resonance frequency of the MEMS. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the Effects of Training and Techno-Pedagogical Support
Lecomte, Béatrice ULg; Van de Poël, Jean-François ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg et al

Conference (2013, December)

This communication presents a quantitative-qualitative research conducted among 225 teachers and teaching assistants who have benefited from the education technologies training program provided by our ... [more ▼]

This communication presents a quantitative-qualitative research conducted among 225 teachers and teaching assistants who have benefited from the education technologies training program provided by our eCampus department at IFRES (University of Liege, Belgium) since 2011. The data collected are used to a) describe and characterize the public who attended these training sessions, b) identify the types of training programs chosen by the attendees, and c) to explore the influence of those sessions on the techno-pedagogical development of teachers. That effect is manifested by a change of mental representations or by "acting out" in terms of integrating technology into teaching practices. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the statistical assessment of small sample classification
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Lesenfants, Damien ULg; Gomez, Francisco et al

Conference (2013, December)

Classifiers start to be used in medical application to infer diagnosis. Their results are assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Distributions built from classification of random data ... [more ▼]

Classifiers start to be used in medical application to infer diagnosis. Their results are assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Distributions built from classification of random data with cross-validation, did not follow the theoretical binomial distribution, showing that binomial test was not conservative enough. A permutation test is thus recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailAlexander KLUGE / Gerhard RICHTER. L’ART CONTRE LE HASARD
Hagelstein, Maud ULg; Letawe, Céline ULg

Conference (2013, December)

Dans plusieurs de ses textes, A. Kluge affronte le problème du temps qui coule sans discontinuer avec des effets tantôt heureux tantôt désastreux. La formulation de ce problème implique presque toujours ... [more ▼]

Dans plusieurs de ses textes, A. Kluge affronte le problème du temps qui coule sans discontinuer avec des effets tantôt heureux tantôt désastreux. La formulation de ce problème implique presque toujours la référence au hasard – le cours hasardeux des choses qui fait qu’entre plusieurs indéterminations (plusieurs virtualités encore susceptibles d’êtres actualisées), à un moment, un seul événement est fixé de manière irréversible. Cette détermination hasardeuse et brutale a quelque chose de fatalement injuste : pourquoi le monde prend-il telle tournure (éventuellement catastrophique) plutôt que telle autre ? Pourquoi certains sont épargnés quand d’autres ne le sont pas ? Face à ce problème, Kluge nous donne les moyens – dans ses réflexions théoriques mais aussi par le dispositif pratique qu’il met au point dans ses œuvres – de repenser la fonction de l’art : les œuvres (visuelles ou littéraires) pourraient avoir pour vocation de dompter le flux fatal du temps, de suspendre l’ « emportance » du temps (pour citer la traduction de Vincent Pauval), en mettant « sous tension » nos représentations du monde et en y réintroduisant des indéterminations (des possibles) pour nous inviter à repenser l’histoire aussi bien dans sa terrible détermination que dans ses alternatives. Le travail entamé avec l’artiste allemand Gerhard Richter nous semble pouvoir être lu dans cette perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailHD 97658 and its super-Earth: Spitzer transit analysis and seismic modeling of the host star
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Valencia, Diana et al

Conference (2013, December)

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See detailEnergetical aspects of solar-like oscillations in red giants
Grosjean, Mathieu ULg; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; Belkacem, Kevin et al

Conference (2013, December)

CoRoT and Kepler observations of red giants reveal very rich spectra of non-radial solar- like oscillations allowing us to probe their internal structure. The study of energetic aspects of these ... [more ▼]

CoRoT and Kepler observations of red giants reveal very rich spectra of non-radial solar- like oscillations allowing us to probe their internal structure. The study of energetic aspects of these oscillations is of great importance to predict the peak parameters in the power spectrum. The theoretical determination of lifetimes (or equivalently width) of the modes require non- adiabatic computations. Next, combined with a stochastic excitation model, we can also predict the height of the mode and finally obtain theoretical power spectra. Comparison between our theoretical predictions with observations give important constraint on red-giants models. Lifetimes and amplitudes of modes trapped in the envelope (e.g. radial modes) constrain the characteristics of the convective envelope and its time-dependent interaction with oscillations. Lifetimes of mixed-modes (mainly dipolar modes) strongly depend on mode trapping, allowing us to probe the core of red-giants. I will discuss under which circumstances mixed modes are detectable for a large variety of red-giant stellar models, with emphasis on the effect of the evolutionary status of the star (along the red-giant branch and during the He-burning phase) for a wide range of stellar masses (from 0.7 to 4 Msun ) on theoretical power spectra. [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroseismology of B stars with MESA
Thoul, Anne ULg

Conference (2013, December)

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See detailEkphrasis in the Work of Lucian of Samosata – The Case of “The Centaurs Family”
Vanesse, Sylvain ULg

Conference (2013, December)

The literary and rhetoric process of Ekphrasis was used on numerous occasions in Ancient literature, especially by the author Lucian of Samosata. Because these descriptions of Works of Art combine ... [more ▼]

The literary and rhetoric process of Ekphrasis was used on numerous occasions in Ancient literature, especially by the author Lucian of Samosata. Because these descriptions of Works of Art combine literature and Art history, they allow scientists to choose either a philological or an iconographical study approach. Philologists obviously have studied these Ekphraseis so as to define their styles, shapes, and influences from the author, whereas Art historians have considered them as one of the rare source of information about the Ancient painting but have not always replaced them in their context of writing or taken a critical look at them. « The Centaur’s Family » picture, for example, which would have been painted by Zeuxis of Heraclea, will on the one hand allow us to highlight the problem of these two different analyses, and on the other hand to show how they can be combined to bring a new perspective, not only on this picture, but perhaps also on the other paintings described by Lucian of Samosata. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversité des races de poules locales dans trois régions du monde: Bejaia (Algérie), le Nord du Vietnam et le Bas-Congo (République Démocratique de Congo)
Moula, Nassim ULg; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Philippe, François-Xavier ULg et al

Conference (2013, November 30)

La gestion des ressources génétiques animales est capitale pour le développement de filières de production durables. En production avicole, une érosion graduelle et régulière des ressources génétiques est ... [more ▼]

La gestion des ressources génétiques animales est capitale pour le développement de filières de production durables. En production avicole, une érosion graduelle et régulière des ressources génétiques est observée à l'échelle mondiale. Parmi les causes de cette érosion, on retrouve principalement un abandon progressif, volontaire ou contraint, de ces races par les éleveurs. D'autres facteurs aggravant sont les épidémies, les catastrophes naturelles, les conflits et la dégradation de l’habitat de ces animaux. Néanmoins, les races de poules traditionnelles contribuent significativement à la production de viande et d’œufs. Les races indigènes représentent plus de 80 % de la population de volaille mondiale. Cependant, la majorité de ces races n’ont pas été décrites et sont mal connues. La gestion efficace des ressources génétiques animales en général et aviaires en particulier nécessite une identification précise des races concernées, la connaissance des effectifs (taille des populations) et leur distribution géographique, permettant la caractérisation de leur habitat. L’objectif de ce travail est par conséquent de caractériser les races de poules locales dans trois régions du monde : Bejaia (Algérie), le Nord du Vietnam et le Bas-Congo (République Démocratique de Congo) par une description phénotypique, une évaluation des performances zootechniques et une étude des différentes pratiques d’élevage. Une grande diversité phénotypique a été révélée dans chaque région d'étude. Les objectifs d'élevage sont multiples (alimentaire, financier et socioculturel) et variables d’un pays à un autre. Les femmes et les enfants jouent un rôle important dans l'aviculture familiale, quoique variable entre les régions d'étude. Ainsi, les solutions visant à la promotion des races de poules locales doivent être adaptées à la spécificité de chaque contexte. [less ▲]

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See detailIndoor Joinery and Furniture Made for Eighteenth-Century Houses in Liège (Belgium)
Gilles, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2013, November 29)

Though few eighteenth-century houses in Liège have conserved their original wooden furniture or fittings, archival research reveals that these elements constituted a key aspect of the domestic interior ... [more ▼]

Though few eighteenth-century houses in Liège have conserved their original wooden furniture or fittings, archival research reveals that these elements constituted a key aspect of the domestic interior. The present work draws largely on a series of public announcements known as Rendages proclamatoires which concerned property belonging to orphans sold by public auction, that exist. From 1697 to 1765, these sources provided descriptions of 257 houses situated within the city walls. The wooden furniture and fittings of eighteenth-century Liegerian houses can clearly be seen to be pertain to far more than the sole history of joinery: they also tell the story of Liege’s domestic living spaces in terms of social structure and cultural change. As such they eloquently illustrate the fact that it is only by taking into account the Old Regime’s conception of architecture as a total entity that we can today work towards establishing an increasingly just, coherent and complete understanding of ancient edifices. [less ▲]

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See detailUn sociologue au pays du libre
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Conference (2013, November 29)

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See detailDeterminanten bij bedrijfsartsen in hun aanpak van middelenmisbruik van werknemers
Lambrechts, M.C.; Ketterer, Frédéric ULg; Symons, Linda et al

Conference (2013, November 28)

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See detailIntroduction / Conclusions
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2013, November 28)

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See detailIntroduction de la conférence inaugurale de J.-P. Bronckart "Dimensions praxéologiques et gnoséologiques de l'organisation des textes/discours" (27/11/2013) et aux deux journées d'études sur les "genres" en Langues et littératures modernes : didactique - linguistique, littérature, traduction (24 et 25 avril 2014)
Simons, Germain ULg; Letawe, Céline ULg

Conference (2013, November 27)

Cette introduction visait à présenter brièvement a) les objectifs de l'Entité de recherche structurelle du département, b) l'objet de recherche : les "genres", c) le programme des deux journées d'études ... [more ▼]

Cette introduction visait à présenter brièvement a) les objectifs de l'Entité de recherche structurelle du département, b) l'objet de recherche : les "genres", c) le programme des deux journées d'études dans les quatre grands domaines de recherche : littérature, linguistique, didactique et traduction et d) l'orateur de cette conférence inaugurale : J.P. Bronckart (Université de Genève). [less ▲]

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See detaildilemmas in cluster analysis
Sauvageot, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2013, November 27)

Cluster analysis is a set of multivariate procedures to detect natural groupings in data. The objective of those methods is to group a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called ... [more ▼]

Cluster analysis is a set of multivariate procedures to detect natural groupings in data. The objective of those methods is to group a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called cluster) are more similar to each other than to those in other groups. Organizing data into sensible groupings arises naturally in many scientific fields as psychology, biology, statistics, bioinformatics, marketing, and so on. However, the obtained solution is not unique and it strongly depends upon the analyst’s choices. Representation and normalization scheme, selection of distance measures and a clustering algorithm, choice of the number of clusters and their interpretations are all subjective choices which change the final output. Those decisions are mainly guided by the purpose of grouping, domain knowledge and the individual data set. Therefore, cluster validity assessment should be performed to evaluate the validity of the obtained clusters and to find the partitioning that best fits the underlying data. I provide a brief overview of clustering, summarize well known algorithms, and discuss the major challenges and key issues in performing clustering analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction de l’habitat et enjeux territoriaux : comment soutenir la transition vers un nouveau système de production pour l’habitat wallon ?
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2013, November 26)

En Wallonie, la maison isolée demeure le type de logement le plus fréquemment construit. La construction résidentielle continue donc à se caractériser par un usage peu parcimonieux du sol. Pour autant ... [more ▼]

En Wallonie, la maison isolée demeure le type de logement le plus fréquemment construit. La construction résidentielle continue donc à se caractériser par un usage peu parcimonieux du sol. Pour autant, des signaux annonciateurs de la mise en place d’un système de production plus vertueux semblent se manifester, en lien avec la représentation croissante des logements collectifs et des logements mitoyens dans la production immobilière. Les traitements opérés afin de rendre compte de ces évolutions mettent en avant le rôle central de la disponibilité en zones d’habitat. En effet, ces tendances caractérisent surtout des régions où l’offre foncière constructible est en pénurie. La première partie de notre intervention sera focalisée sur ce sujet des relations entre la disponibilité en terrains et les modes de production du logement. En deuxième partie, nous présenterons les résultats d’une enquête menée auprès de ménages ayant choisi d’habiter un logement neuf. Les résultats de cette enquête témoignent du fait que la rareté foncière renforce l’acceptation des ménages pour les produits immobiliers de la maison jointive et de l’appartement. Par ailleurs, ils attestent de l’opportunité de développer une politique foncière active visant, d’une part, à renforcer la production de maisons mitoyennes à proximité des centres urbains et, d’autre part, à contrôler les développements de type Bimby. [less ▲]

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