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See detailFunctional traits are weak predictors of tree sapling growth worldwide
Paine, C. E. Timothy; Auge, Harald; Baraloto, Christopher et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

Functional traits, well-defined characteristics of organisms that influence or coordinate with ecological performance, promise that one may predict vital rates, such as survival and growth, by measuring a ... [more ▼]

Functional traits, well-defined characteristics of organisms that influence or coordinate with ecological performance, promise that one may predict vital rates, such as survival and growth, by measuring a few aspects of anatomy and physiology. Functional traits have been shown to correlate significantly, though weakly, with the relative growth rate (RGR) of trees in five Neotropical forests. Here, we estimated size-standardized height RGR for 26344 saplings of 240 species from 23 sites around the world using nonlinear models of growth. We then predicted the contribution of three functional traits (specific leaf area, wood density and seed mass) to individual RGR with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The three functional traits, alone and in combination, explained a relatively small amount of variance in RGR, with variation among continents and between temperate and tropical regions. We echo the calls for researchers to shift toward the measurement of 'hard' functional traits, with clear linkages to realized vital rates, rather than 'soft' functional traits, which are easier to measure but may only indicate the theoretical maxima of vital rates. Doing so would advance ecology onto a more solidly functional foundation. [less ▲]

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See detailTests of stellar interiors physics with classical pulsators
Briquet, Maryline ULg

Conference (2013, June 26)

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See detailEFFECT OF RAW MATERIAL PROPERTIES ON THE KINETICS OF IRON ORES GRANULATION
Jaimes Contreras, Rafael Antonio ULg; van Loo, Fréderic; Douce, Jean-François et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

The current study is focused on the iron ores granulation process in a laboratory-scale batch drum granulator using water as a binder, and on the investigation of the influence of raw material properties ... [more ▼]

The current study is focused on the iron ores granulation process in a laboratory-scale batch drum granulator using water as a binder, and on the investigation of the influence of raw material properties (morphology and wettability of the primary particles) on its kinetics. Nowadays processing of iron ores often requires a modification of particle size by means of granulation in order to improve further processability. A comparison of the granulation behaviour of three types of iron ores (magnetite, hematite and goethite) has been carried out. The wettability of the powders has been characterised by contact angle measurement. The results confirm the hydrophobic and hydrophilic characters of magnetite and goethite respectively. The granulation kinetics (evolution of particle size distribution as a function of time) of each type of iron ores was measured. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relation between the coping strategies and the state of food insecurity in the Republic of Niger
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2013, June 26)

The Niger’s rural population represents 80 percent of the total population. This very high percentage creates an important pressure over the environment because of the high density of population. Indeed ... [more ▼]

The Niger’s rural population represents 80 percent of the total population. This very high percentage creates an important pressure over the environment because of the high density of population. Indeed, the agricultural favorable area is equivalent to a third of the total area of Niger. This area is located in the South of Niger over a strip 300 kilometers of broad. Furthermore, the rural population is subjected to the temporal and structural disruptions. The temporal shocks are defined by the “natural” disruptions such as the hydrometeorological disruption, etc. The structural disruptions are caused by the chronicle difficulties (low income, etc.). The capacity to struggle against the disruptions is defined by the resilience (Lhomme et al., 2010). The resilience is illustrated and assessed by the different coping strategies practiced by the Niger’s rural population. The target of the paper is to demonstrate the state of food insecurity and the coping strategies developed in the departments of Niger. The state of food insecurity and the coping strategy index are calculated as from the data of an annual survey realized by the Early Alert System (EAS) and the Statistical National Institute of Niger (INS). This survey investigates around 10.000 households in December 2009 and April 2010. The sample is extrapolated to estimate the number of people suffering from food insecurity per department. The paper illustrates the state of food insecurity of each department and coping strategy index of the departments. The results will demonstrate the differences between departments. The answers of the paper at the following question: Which are the most vulnerable departments and what is the situation of the coping strategies index in each department? This paper creates also a typology bringing together the same departments in comparison with the coping strategies and the state of food insecurity. [less ▲]

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See detailHow closely are Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) patches linked to past human disturbances in South-Eastern Cameroon
Bourland, Nils ULg; Cerisier, François; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

Studies conducted in the Congo Basin forests concluded that soil parameters and large disturbances induced by human activities since 3000–2000 BP could be the main driver for the persistence of long lived ... [more ▼]

Studies conducted in the Congo Basin forests concluded that soil parameters and large disturbances induced by human activities since 3000–2000 BP could be the main driver for the persistence of long lived light-demanding tall tree species. Today most of the timber species belong to this group, among them Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae). Like many other light-demanding trees, this species suffers from important regeneration problems. While the conditions for its establishment must have been met in the past, they obviously have become unfavourable. Because of ongoing logging activities and a natural decline of its populations, this species is recorded in both the IUCN Red List and the CITES Appendix II listings. Our goal was to investigate the roles of both pedological and anthropogenic factors in the persistence of forest patches characterized by this clustered species. Soil surveys, botanical inventories and anthracological excavations were conducted in three different forest sites located in south-eastern Cameroon. P. elata patches (3.3-14.7 ha) were studied and compared to their close surroundings. No statistical differences were observed between the results of botanical inventories conducted inside and outside the patches (Morisita-Horn indices from 0.69-0.77). Soils only differed in Fe content, but otherwise no significant differences could be observed. Charcoal is widespread and abundant in study sites, mostly inside the patches. Charcoal radiocarbon dating (2,150-195 BP) was consistent with decoration techniques of archaeological materials that we discovered. The average age of P. elata individuals coincides with fire events that occurred in a region where fires rarely occur naturally. We present evidence of past anthropogenic disturbances (human settlement, slash-and-burn cultivation) in the Congolese mixed moist semi-evergreen forest in south-eastern Cameroon. We discuss the potential influence of our findings on the management of light-demanding tall trees populations in a context of logging activities. [less ▲]

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See detailLe générique de faux documentaire. Approche critique d'un incitant à la lucidité du spectateur.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2013, June 26)

Parallèlement aux multiples commentaires cinéphiliques que le générique suscite depuis plusieurs années, les travaux récents qui lui sont consacrés l’envisagent comme un objet d’étude esthétique ... [more ▼]

Parallèlement aux multiples commentaires cinéphiliques que le générique suscite depuis plusieurs années, les travaux récents qui lui sont consacrés l’envisagent comme un objet d’étude esthétique, narratologique ou sémiologique à part entière. Selon ces études, le générique est un objet fragmentaire (placé majoritairement à partir des années 1960 « sur » les images du début ou de la fin d’un film) voire autonome (on connaît les auteurs spécialisés en réalisation de génériques), marginal aussi (rarement au centre de l’œuvre ; le « générique-préface » de de Mourgues), frontalier encore (dans et hors du film, ou plutôt : à son orée), qui fait office d’ouverture ou de clôture hybride du film. Appartenant à la fois à l’univers de la fiction et à « un autre espace-temps, réel, celui de la production » (Moinereau), le générique de début plus particulièrement sert à « enclencher la diégèse » (de Mourgues) mais aussi à lui résister. « [S]orte de zone franche entre le monde de la réalité et celui de la fiction » (Metz), il est une passerelle, une aide au passage, au basculement dans la fiction. En tant que point pivot bâtard, le générique de début – et non pas « du début », appellation qui sous-entendrait l’appartenance exclusive à un seul lieu –, joue en effet sur deux registres. D’une part il affiche la ou les paternités bien réelles de l’œuvre (jusqu’au début des années 1910 il ne satisfait bien souvent qu’à cette seule obligation légale) et leur rend hommage (graphismes et durées différenciées), ou, dans ses versions les plus sophistiquées, offre au cinéphile (auto-)références et private jokes qui établissent entre le spectateur et l’auteur réel une complicité néanmoins non fatale pour le récit de fiction. D’autre part il aide le spectateur à s’abandonner à l’illusion de la fiction qui doit « mentir sur ses conditions de production » (Comolli) et dont le générique est pourtant le premier symptôme. En somme, le générique de début n’est donc pas seulement hybride par son lieu, mais aussi en raison de sa fonction quasi paradoxale : il établit avec le spectateur un lien a priori adiégétique dont la fonction première est précisément de faciliter son entrée dans la diégèse. Compte tenu de l’intérêt particulier que ces études accordent à la nature hybride du générique, il n’est pas étonnant que les travaux auxquels nous nous référons ici concernent exclusivement des films de fiction. Car, à l’inverse, dans le cas du cinéma documentaire, l’ambivalence inhérente à ce « commutateur de diégèse » (Gardies) est, en principe, inexistante étant donné que le générique d’un film non-fictionnel renvoie le spectateur à un univers « uniquement » réel, commun à l’ensemble du discours filmique. Dans cette perspective, il ne sert donc a priori qu’à inaugurer un contrat spectatoriel ou à poser les fondements d’une convention de lecture qui s’épanouira et développera sa pleine puissance dans le film (installation du principal médiateur, authentification de l’énonciateur, etc.). En documentaire, pas de conflit donc entre un espace-temps « adiégétique » et le film, entre la marge et le texte, car tous deux convoquent des éléments appartenant in fine au même registre, celui du réel. C’est en substance ce que suggère l’approche sémio-pragmatique du documentaire en envisageant le générique de début comme le lieu dans lequel un « je-origine réel » (Odin), par le biais de médiations institutionnelles ou non, prend ses quartiers dans le texte, ouvrant ainsi la voie à une « lecture documentarisante » incontestée dans la suite du film. Les paradigmes trop rapidement évoqués ici révèlent leurs limites dès lors qu’on les confronte à quelques sous-genres particulièrement pratiqués et populaires aujourd’hui tels que le faux documentaire, le docufiction, le mockumentary et le programme de télé-réalité. Se jouant précisément d’un contrat de lecture unilatéral et libre de tout malentendu, ces sous-genres documentaires brouillent la binarité posée par l’approche sémio-pragmatique (« documentarisant » vs « fictionalisant »). Notre analyse de quelques génériques, prégénériques et séquences d’annonce de faux documentaires, de mockumentaries et d’émissions de télé-réalité nous amène à redéfinir le contrat de lecture et les conventions qui y sont liées, propres au cinéma et à la télévision de non-fiction. Ces génériques ne contribuent pas à l’identification par le spectateur d’un énonciateur considéré comme réel (par jeu ou par conviction), mais établissent un nouvel accord tacite et flou entre un auteur reconnu comme fictif (ou ses avatars particulièrement nombreux dans le cas du mockumentary et de la télé-réalité) et le spectateur. Ce nouvel accord vise en réalité à produire l’adhésion forcée d’un spectateur qui pourtant sait qu’il n’est pas dupe, ou croit le savoir. Dans ce sens, le générique apparaît alors comme un lieu crucial pour toute analyse critique du discours non fictionnel : un lieu qui conteste l’authenticité de l’énonciateur et qui nie le crédit accordé au médiateur documentaire, pour offrir au public l’illusion de sa lucidité et le pousser ensuite vers une adhésion sans réserve à un jeu de réel. En somme, une étape indispensable à la constitution d’une crédulité paradoxale du spectateur. [less ▲]

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See detailPlant ecological niche distribution along heavy metal gradients
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Seleck, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

Why species do not occur everywhere? The concept of ecological niche is central to understand relationships among biotic/abiotic factors and species distribution. Gradients of environmental stress ... [more ▼]

Why species do not occur everywhere? The concept of ecological niche is central to understand relationships among biotic/abiotic factors and species distribution. Gradients of environmental stress associated to interspecific interactions generate testable patterns of specie’s response curves. Distribution of response curves have been seldom tested along toxicity gradient, in contrast to resource gradients. On Katangan copper hills (south R.D.C.), natural copper and cobalt concentrations span a large range: 2 - 1000 mg kg-1 for cobalt and 30 - 10 000 mg kg-1 for copper. In this study, we evaluate three hypotheses related to niche distributions and shapes along metal toxic gradients: (1) Species optima are uniformly distributed over copper-cobalt gradient. (2) Realized niche width varies in relation to the niche optimum along copper and cobalt gradient. (3) Absolute values of skewness coefficient are higher when plant species optima are in the extremes of cobalt gradient with a niche tails toward mesic conditions. Realized niches of 80 taxa were modeled with general additive models (GAM) using presence/absence data in 172 1m² plots. Niche optima, niche widths and skewness coefficients were estimated from species response curves. The three hypotheses were globally validated. Three groups of species were distinguished according to their optima position along metal gradient with packed optima on intermediate concentrations suggesting higher interspecific competition in low metal concentrations. Niche width increased with metal concentrations. Highest metal tolerant plant species had broader niches. Skewness coefficient was inversely related to niche optima positions. Our study demonstrates that species distribution pattern on toxicity gradient presents similarities with resource gradient. Broad realized amplitude of species adapted to high levels of copper cobalt concentrations suggests that fundamental niche of specialist metallophytes may be larger than expected. This should be further tested in controlled conditions in association to competition tests. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical inverse analysis and stochastic modeling of transition
Serino, Gennaro ULg; Pinna, Fabio; Rambaud, Patrick et al

Conference (2013, June 25)

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See detailLogiciels d'analyse de textes : Pièges et fausses évidences
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Conference (2013, June 22)

Les logiciels d'analyse de textes ont la côte. Selon certains, un projet de recherche ou une thèse digne de ce nom ne peut sérieusement s'envisager sans le recourt à de tels instruments. Si les logiciels ... [more ▼]

Les logiciels d'analyse de textes ont la côte. Selon certains, un projet de recherche ou une thèse digne de ce nom ne peut sérieusement s'envisager sans le recourt à de tels instruments. Si les logiciels rendent de réels services, ils ne garantissent cependant pas pour autant la qualité des résultats. Il arrive même que l'utilisateur du logiciel oublie les exigences de la recherche scientifique (la collecte raisonnée, la problématisation, la conceptualisation et la réflexivité). À partir de ses propres recherches et ses expériences d'enseignement, Christophe Lejeune présente les atouts des outils disponibles ainsi que les pièges à éviter. [less ▲]

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See detailSartre en psychopathologie : de Huis-clos à l’« homme en situation
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

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See detailHard and soft tissue regeneration in anterior cases: Materials and Procedures.
LAMBERT, France ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

Hard and soft tissues around implants are not similar to those around natural teeth. Peri-implant tissues required being thicker and self-supportive in order to allow optimal and long-term aesthetic ... [more ▼]

Hard and soft tissues around implants are not similar to those around natural teeth. Peri-implant tissues required being thicker and self-supportive in order to allow optimal and long-term aesthetic results. The objective of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of hard and soft tissues surgical management for long-lasting tissues volumes and therefore aesthetic outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cours "Approche intégrée d'une question d'environnement": une mise en scène des "scientifques dans la tourmente" selon Stengers
Semal, Nathalie ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

La communication présente le concept et l'organisation pratique du cours "Approche multidisciplinaire d'une question d'environnement. Elle montre en quoi ce cours innovant, multidisciplinaire et basé sur ... [more ▼]

La communication présente le concept et l'organisation pratique du cours "Approche multidisciplinaire d'une question d'environnement. Elle montre en quoi ce cours innovant, multidisciplinaire et basé sur une approche "learning by doing", permet de faire émerger des questions d'ordre épistémologique et favorise une posture réflexive et une appropriation de la pensée complexe dans le chef des étudiants. Elle questionne la capacité de cette approche à répondre aux défis de la science de demain, tels que développés par Isabelle Stengers dans le premier chapitre de son livre "La vierge et le neutrino" [less ▲]

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See detailRecherche de lignées aromatiques d’Abies par hybridation somatique
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

Créer une lignée d’Abies aromatique qui associera les propriétés de croissance reconnues à l’espèce A. nordmanniana aux propriétés aromatiques d’A. balsamea, en utilisant des lignées embryogènes capables ... [more ▼]

Créer une lignée d’Abies aromatique qui associera les propriétés de croissance reconnues à l’espèce A. nordmanniana aux propriétés aromatiques d’A. balsamea, en utilisant des lignées embryogènes capables de régénérer des plantes entières. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ propos du "trouble à l'ordre public": Dewey selon Stengers
Thoreau, François ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

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See detailUn journal de bord pour des publications régulières et de haut niveau
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Conference (2013, June 20)

Pourtant classique en ethnographie et en analyse par théorisation ancrée, la pratique du journal de bord est méconnue de nombre de doctorants et de chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales. Or, ses ... [more ▼]

Pourtant classique en ethnographie et en analyse par théorisation ancrée, la pratique du journal de bord est méconnue de nombre de doctorants et de chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales. Or, ses vertus en font un adjuvant de premier ordre pour garantir des recherches de qualité, des publications régulières, des thèses de doctorat finies dans les temps et des carrières enrichissantes. Au niveau scientifique, (1) le journal de bord permet de consigner les notes de terrain, y compris sur ce qui n'est pas enregistrable. (2) Il organise la mémoire de la recherche et en assure la documentation ultérieure. Il soutient dès lors la « traçabilité » et la validation des analyses développées. (3) Il catalyse également la réflexivité et favorise la régularité de l'analyse, qui contribue au développement d'analyses fines et plus élaborées. (4) Une version rédigée du travail en cours est toujours disponible (dans une forme temporaire, certes) pour le comité d'accompagnement ou pour répondre à un appel à communication. Au niveau logistique, (5) la tenue du journal de bord permet en outre de désamorcer les blocages de l'écriture, de lutter contre l'angoisse de la page blanche, voire contre l'ennui, facteurs d'abandon en fin de recherche doctorale. Pour chacune de ces caractéristiques, un exemple issu des recherches ou des enseignements de l'auteur éclaire l'apport du journal de bord, mais aussi ses limites voire les pièges à éviter. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of well-defined N-vinylamides based copolymers via organometalllic-mediated radical polymerization
Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Fustin, Charles-André et al

Conference (2013, June 19)

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See detailDynamical properties of DNA-ligand complexes under shear stress: insights from classical molecular dynamics
Fresch, Barbara ULg

Conference (2013, June 19)

Nucleic acids are flexible molecules: their dynamical properties play an essential role in molecular recognition and self-assembly. In the biological environment, because of mechanical forces acting at ... [more ▼]

Nucleic acids are flexible molecules: their dynamical properties play an essential role in molecular recognition and self-assembly. In the biological environment, because of mechanical forces acting at the molecular level, DNA is transiently deformed, cut and resealed, damaged and repaired, and the strands pulled apart and then re-annealed. These unique features make short DNA oligonucleotides promising building blocks in the development of “bottom-up” nano-devices and molecular logic machines. Single molecule manipulation techniques (Atomic Force Microscopy/ Optical Tweezers) allow detailed investigation of nucleic acids response to the application of controlled mechanical stress. Interpretations of these data in terms of molecular structural changes and dynamical properties call for a collaborative effort between experiments and theoretical/computational modeling. We have theoretically investigated the dynamical properties a DNA dodecamer and its complex with two different binders (Hoechst 33258 and Ethidium cation) by performing fully atomistic classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We focused on the modeling of the so-called overstretching transition occurring when double stranded DNA is subjected to a shear stress until separation of the two strands occurs. The results of our analysis reveal the molecular details of the overstretching dynamics and point out the effects of the binders on the structure and the dynamics of the oligonucleotide under stress. The minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 acts as a zip between the two strands enhancing the lifetime of some base-pairs during the pulling experiment while ethidium cation, which is an intercalator, facilitates the separation of the double helix at high elongations. The understanding of the interactions between the binders and the helix at the molecular level gives insights into the unbinding pathways probed by Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy (SMFS). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Shift from Defined Benefit to Defined Contribution in an Ageing Society
Artige, Lionel ULg; Cavenaile; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, June 18)

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See detailAnalysis of PSII antenna size heterogeneity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during state transitions - Colloque annuel de la Société Française de Photosynthèse
de Marchin, Thomas ULg; Ghysels, Bart ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 18)

PSII antenna size heterogeneity has been extensively studied in the past. Based on in vivo DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, at least two types of photosystems were described. They differ by their apparent ... [more ▼]

PSII antenna size heterogeneity has been extensively studied in the past. Based on in vivo DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, at least two types of photosystems were described. They differ by their apparent antenna size and connectivity (this last term refers to the transfer of absorbed energy from a closed PSII unit to an open neighboring unit). In this study, we analysed PSII heterogeneity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using non-linear linear regression fitting on in vivo DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, with a focus on changes in PSII heterogeneity associated with state transitions. We found that PSIIα possesses a high degree of connectivity and an antenna about 3 times larger than PSIIβ, as described previously. In contrast with most earlier studies, we found some connectivity for PSIIβ (although it was highly variable). This is in agreement with recent models based on biochemical and structural analysis of PSII after gel filtration separation which describe PSII mega-, super- and core- complexes in Chlamydomonas. According to these studies, the smallest unit of PSII in vivo would be a dimer of two core complexes hence still allowing connectivity. We also showed that strain and medium dependent variations in the half-time of the fluorescence rise, generally taken as an indicator of the average cross-section of PSII, can be explained by variations in the proportions of PSIIα and PSIIβ. When analyzing the state transition process, we showed for the first time in vivo that it induces an inter-conversion of PSIIα and PSIIβ. These findings are discussed with respect to the latest insights on the remodeling of the pigment-protein PSII architecture during this process. [less ▲]

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See detailEnunciation vs destination : how a phenomenological point of view on media audiences is also a political one
Servais, Christine ULg

Conference (2013, June 17)

This paper is based on Derrida’s deconstruction of significance, and focuses on how media-based discourses organize the audience in a public space. In audience studies, the text/reader relationship ... [more ▼]

This paper is based on Derrida’s deconstruction of significance, and focuses on how media-based discourses organize the audience in a public space. In audience studies, the text/reader relationship remains a difficult point because it remains unclear how to account for the fact that the media structure perception, although they do not determine it. To solve this contradiction, we need to link together facts and possibilities (empirical and transcendental levels) in a way that keeps alive this relationship between a text and a reader. This is what Jacques Derrida’s work makes possible. We’ll mainly use his concepts of “address” and “destination”. The “address” might be considered as an attempt to translate the linguistic “enunciation” into phenomenological terms: the address modifies reference and thus inscribes the reader in a “world”. As for the “destination”, it refers to a model where communication is indeterminate (“incalculable”). This model gives readers the opportunity to create previously unseen kinds of worlds, or communities of “common sense”. In this way, this model is political. Our analysis allows us to account for both representations of the world and places given to readers in this world, so that we can describe, with this “sharing of the sensory”, mediated experience as political. [less ▲]

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See detailHow are we vulnerable? Opening industrial hazards vulnerability analysis to participation
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel

Conference (2013, June 17)

The risk analysis framework has been the dominant theoretical framework used to address the uncertainty of a potential hazard bypassing the system's safeguards and protection. In essence, this involves ... [more ▼]

The risk analysis framework has been the dominant theoretical framework used to address the uncertainty of a potential hazard bypassing the system's safeguards and protection. In essence, this involves the evaluation of the probability and the magnitude of the consequences of the undesired events that can transform the hazard into actual damage. Despite the technical premises, the importance of integrating social aspects into the analysis is now recognized by an increasing number or risk analysis models. Another way to deal with potential consequences of hazards is to analyze the vulnerability of the system considered. This paradigm overcomes the shortcomings of risk analysis in situations when the knowledge about the probabilities and the outcomes is incomplete or insufficient On the one hand, studies in the literature show that socio-economic factors are often integrated in a participative way in vulnerability analysis models especially in the natural hazards research field. On the other hand, it seems that such considerations are rarely integrated in the models aiming at evaluating the vulnerability to an industrial hazard. What can we learn from the analysis of models addressing vulnerability to natural hazards in terms of the participatory integration of social factors? What could be the reasons to apply such participation tools in order to assess the vulnerability to industrial hazards? These are the questions we address in this contribution. To do so, we realized a systematic literature review from scientific journal papers on vulnerability analysis published in the last two decades. From this review, three main arguments can be found arguing for the use of participation for vulnerability analysis. Indeed, participation allows (1) context-based assessments, that may (2) foster the development of adaptative capacities (3) both for short and long-term. Based on those arguments, we identifiy possible paths to foster participation for context-based industrial vulnerability analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailAND IF IT WAS NO ALS
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2013, June 15)

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See detailPiston et dithyrambe. Ce que l’amitié fait aux groupes littéraires
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

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See detailOstraca littéraires profanes de provenance monastique dans l'Égypte byzantine
Carlig, Nathan ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

Documentée par des milliers de papyrus, parchemins, ostraca, tablettes de bois ou cirées, – restes de livres ou de documents dont les plus anciens remontent au IIe siècle de notre ère –, la ... [more ▼]

Documentée par des milliers de papyrus, parchemins, ostraca, tablettes de bois ou cirées, – restes de livres ou de documents dont les plus anciens remontent au IIe siècle de notre ère –, la christianisation de l’Égypte a longtemps été perçue comme un phénomène ayant entraîné la disparition de la culture profane de tradition hellénique (paideia). Il faut cependant nuancer ce propos : nombre d’échanges, d’emprunts entre les deux types de cultures ont existé. La découverte, à côté de quelques papyrus, de 37 ostraca à contenu littéraire profane dans les ruines de monastères égyptiens, tous de la région thébaine, et datant de la fin du Ve siècle au milieu du VIIIe siècle, constitue un petit ensemble de témoins de ce phénomène. Nous fondant sur l'analyse de la forme, de la mise en page et du contenu de ceux-ci, nous montrerons par quels biais la paideia hellénique s'est introduite dans les monastères, milieux chrétiens par excellence. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple pitfalls in the diagnosis of a complex liver disease
HARVENGT, Julie ULg; Wanty, Catherine; Lissens, Willy et al

Conference (2013, June 14)

A one year old girl, born to consanguineous parents, presented with unexplained liver disease. Liver biopsies revealed respiratory chain complex I and IV deficiencies. Progressive liver failure at 19 ... [more ▼]

A one year old girl, born to consanguineous parents, presented with unexplained liver disease. Liver biopsies revealed respiratory chain complex I and IV deficiencies. Progressive liver failure at 19 months led to liver transplantation. One year later, anemia and thrombocytopenia occurred due to hypersplenism. Histopathological analyses of partial splenectomy showed the presence of Gaucher cells, and Gaucher disease was confirmed by enzyme and genetic analyses. Respiratory chain deficiency was considered as a possible artifact due to liver failure and cirrhosis. She was treated by ERT. Clinical follow-up showed developmental delay, strabism, nystagmus and external ophthalmoplegia. A mitochondrial disorder was considered again, and molecular analysis revealed a mtDNA depletion syndrome due to homozygous MPV17 mutation. In the meantime, a young sister presented with acute abdominal pain, pancytopenia and major hepatosplenomegaly. ERT for Gaucher disease allowed visceral normalization, without any developmental delay or neurological symptom. She was unaffected by the mtDNA depletion syndrome. Unfortunately, a third sister systematically screened, was affected by both conditions. Despite ERT, she presents chronic moderate liver dysfunction and mild hepatomegaly. Aged 3 years, she has marked developmental delay and ophthalmoplegia. Metabolic investigations showed normal blood lactate, in basal condition as well as following an oral glucose load [less ▲]

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See detailCatastrophe naturelle: Quand la communication se noie (c onfrontation Bénin / Tubize)
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

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See detailL'activation comportementale: principes et efficacité
Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Conference (2013, June 13)

Ce programme est basé sur le rôle du comportement opérant dans la dépression. Une attention particulière est allouée à la fonction des évitements dans le maintien de l'état dépressif. Les outils ... [more ▼]

Ce programme est basé sur le rôle du comportement opérant dans la dépression. Une attention particulière est allouée à la fonction des évitements dans le maintien de l'état dépressif. Les outils thérapeutiques sont la psychoéducation, le relevé des activités quotidiennes avec mesures de la satisfaction, la planification d'activités et une réflexion sur les domaines de vie importants pour le patient avec incitation à la mise en place d'activités dans ces domaines de vie. L'efficacité de ce programme thérapeutique est bien documentée dans la littérature scientifique. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Internet en politique au Cameroun: usages, cyberprésence et enjeux démocratiques
Beche, Emmanuel ULg

Conference (2013, June 13)

Depuis 1997, l’espace socio-public camerounais « devient média » (Blondeau, 2007) de plus en plus. Dans ce processus, la politique ne fait pas exception. Au contraire, les partis et leurs leaders ... [more ▼]

Depuis 1997, l’espace socio-public camerounais « devient média » (Blondeau, 2007) de plus en plus. Dans ce processus, la politique ne fait pas exception. Au contraire, les partis et leurs leaders investissent l’Internet, le territorialisent et en utilisent les outils : sites web et blogs, forums, facebook, twitter, myspace, etc. Cela apparaît techno-politiquement innovant dans un contexte certes marqué par le multipartisme, la libéralisation de l’espace sociopolitique et l’avènement des NTIC, mais qui présente aussi des déficits. Politiquement, on note une opposition en panne, des élections contestées et une faible culture de participation politique. (Ahmadou, 2006; Mack-Tit, 2007; Kokoroko, 2009). Au plan sociotechnique et économique, le taux de pénétration de l’Internet (4%) et le pouvoir d’achat de 70% de la population restent faibles. Cela limite l’accès au Net (Bâ, 2003) mais n’empêche pas son usage et sa représentation politiques. Nous avons étudié cet usage et cette représentation au niveau macro-politique en nous limitant aux acteurs institutionnels. Nous avons alors remarqué que leur cyberprésence c’est-à-dire la façon dont ils s’approprient l’espace numérique tend à reproduire leurs rapports de force dans le champ politique classique (Ovadia, 2011). Les usages politiques qu’ils y développent traduisent davantage la diffusion de l’information que l’interactivité et la mobilisation (Greffet et Wojcik, 2008). Dans ce contexte, les enjeux démocratiques de net-politique varient selon le caractère « opposant » ou « au pouvoir » des acteurs (Greffet, 2011). Si pour le parti au pouvoir, il s’agit de dominer tous les espaces d’expression politique, pour les opposants, le but est de trouver une visibilité nationale et de se faire entendre à l’international. Pour mener ce travail, nous avons examiné trois points : la cyberprésence des acteurs institutionnels, le contenu de leurs sites web et blogs et celui de leurs pages facebook. Nous situant dans la perspective de la communication médiatisée par ordinateur (Yanoshevsky, 2010), nous avons alors utilisé les indicateurs que Bastien et Greffet (2009) et Béché (2011) ont utilisés dans leurs travaux sur la net-campagne. [less ▲]

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See detailThree cases of structural and procedural barriers to return to work in the Belgian health system.
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

Conference (2013, June 12)

Three cases of structural and procedural barriers to RTW in the Belgian health system • Access to “part-time return to work”: past (before 2013) and present procedures; which improvements are brought by ... [more ▼]

Three cases of structural and procedural barriers to RTW in the Belgian health system • Access to “part-time return to work”: past (before 2013) and present procedures; which improvements are brought by the regulation change effective in April 2013? • “Pre-return to work visit” by the occupational physician: theoretical advantages of this visit introduced in the labour law in 2004; why is it poorly implemented? what are the actual barriers to access it? what changes should be brought to lower the access threshold? • How to implement in the Belgian system a procedure of therapeutic RTW like the Quebec RTT system (a period of trial RTW without productivity requirements and with no costs to the employer)? Exercise case to be solved by the WDP trainees. Reference: Mairiaux et al. National study report on return to work after a long sickness absence (in Dutch): http://www.werk.belgie.be/moduleDefault.aspx?id=37079 [less ▲]

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See detailEmotions and cognitions. The evolution of the theory of emotions in the first Husserl
Gyemant, Maria ULg

Conference (2013, June 12)

In the Fifth Logical Investigation, after a series of objections to Brentano’s thesis that presentations constitute the most basic type of mental acts, Husserl offers the alternative of a fundamental ... [more ▼]

In the Fifth Logical Investigation, after a series of objections to Brentano’s thesis that presentations constitute the most basic type of mental acts, Husserl offers the alternative of a fundamental distinction between objectifying and non-objectifying mental acts. Objectifying acts include the first two Brentanian classes: presentations and judgments. Thus the class of emotions is singled out as the typical model for non-objectifying acts. However, Husserl changes his mind on this issue later on. We find a new and rather surprising theory of emotions in his Ideas I of 1913. In the §117 for instance, Husserl states clearly that all acts, emotions included, are objectifying because they all constitute objects. The only difference between emotions and cognitions is that emotions constitute values as their objects. Since all acts are objectifying, the difference is now between kinds of objects rather than kinds of acts. It seems though that the role values play in our mental life is more complicated. Not only are they dependent objects constructed from objects of simple presentations or judgments, but they are also the sort of objects that can motivate other acts. So, while emotions are in Husserl always dependent on cognitions, since wanting something necessarily supposes, as in Brentano, a previous presentation of that thing, certain emotions can also play a foundational role for cognitions. Hence the question addressed in this paper: is the relation between emotions and cognitions a symmetrical one since both can play the role of foundational act for the other? And if this is the case what is the specificity of emotions as mental acts and how can they be distinguished from cognitions? [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction to Symposium on Socio-political Challenges in Work Disability Prevention
MacEachen, Ellen; Tompa, Emile; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

Conference (2013, June 12)

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See detailINFLUENCE OF DISSOLVED MACROMOLECULES ON ADHERENCE OF PARTICULATE SOILS
Toure, Yetioman ULg; Sindic, Marianne ULg; Rouxhet, G. Paul

Conference (2013, June 12)

Polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and other biopolymers are the main components of food and pharmaceutical mixtures and may influence interactions at interfaces and thus fouling and cleaning. In this ... [more ▼]

Polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and other biopolymers are the main components of food and pharmaceutical mixtures and may influence interactions at interfaces and thus fouling and cleaning. In this study, quartz particles (10 to 30µm) were used as a model soil for examining the effect of dissolved proteins on the cleanability of substrates after soiling and drying. Glass and stainless steel pretreated by UV-Ozone (StSteel-UVO) were used as model hydrophilic substrates, while hydrophobic substrates were represented by stainless steel cleaned with ethanol (StSteel-Eth) and polystyrene. BSA and β-LGB were used as proteins. The quartz suspensions used for soiling (150g/L) were prepared in pure water and in a solution of each protein (8g/l). After soiling and drying, the cleanability was evaluated using a radial-flow cell, with pure water as the cleaning fluid. When soiling was made with a quartz suspension in pure water, the soil adherence increased with substrate hydrophilicity. This may be explained by better droplet spreading and increase of the capillary forces created upon drying. The presence of proteins in the suspension used for soiling hydrophilic substrates (Glass and StSteel-UVO), decreased the adherence of quartz particles. Its effect was less marked and tended to be opposite for less hydrophilic substrates (StSteel-Eth, Polystyrene). The comparison of different substrates and two proteins showed that the adherence cannot be explained by a simple relation with the contact angle. Other factors may be the solution surface tension itself and the protein behavior at the interfaces created by drying and by rehydratation during cleaning. When considering the influence of substrate on soiling, it must be kept in mind that high surface energy solids (metals, oxides) are readily contaminated in contact with air and lose their hydrophilicity. Amazingly this may improve the substrate behavior regarding cleanability with respect to particulate soil. [less ▲]

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See detailVécu des conjoints face au cancer de leur partenaire - Besoins psychosociaux et dimensions du rôle de proche aidant principal
Wagener, Aurélie ULg

Conference (2013, June 11)

Cancer causes cognitive, emotional and behavioral reactions in patients who are suffering from it, but what about their spouses? This study aims to describe, among spouses in good physical health ... [more ▼]

Cancer causes cognitive, emotional and behavioral reactions in patients who are suffering from it, but what about their spouses? This study aims to describe, among spouses in good physical health, different facets of their caregiver's role, their emotional distress and their psychosocial needs (PN). Participants were recruited with the prior consent of the patient. These assessments were administered: sociodemographic questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Caregiver Reaction Assessment, Perception of Inequity, Psychosocial Needs Inventory. Thirty-seven spouses (23 men, 14 women) participated in this study. Main scores highlight a positive self-esteem as a caregiver and a high level of anxiety. PN concern especially interactions with healthcare professionals, information and support. [less ▲]

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See detailRisk Horizon and Expected Market Returns
Hübner, Georges ULg; Lejeune, Thomas ULg

Conference (2013, June 08)

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See detailMythologizing the Past: The Significance of the ‘Insignificant’ in Kate Grenville’s The Secret River
Joubail, Houda ULg

Conference (2013, June 07)

The recent revelations about Australia’s colonial past, particularly the dispossession and the institutionalized maltreatment of the Aboriginal populations, have provoked an ontological and ... [more ▼]

The recent revelations about Australia’s colonial past, particularly the dispossession and the institutionalized maltreatment of the Aboriginal populations, have provoked an ontological and epistemological malaise affecting notably the sense of historical and cultural legitimacy previously enjoyed by settler Australians. This was a consequence of the work performed by progressive historians who endeavoured to lay bare the brutal foundations of the nation, thus confronting the settlers’ descendants with an array of harrowing truths difficult to reconcile with any foundational myth of pioneering heroism. This context of angst and guilt has given rise to a new literary trend, known as the “Sorry Novels”, which is informed by the wish to come to grips with the trauma of colonization by acknowledging the harm done to the Aborigines. In tackling the vexed issues of dispossession and frontier violence, Kate Grenville’s The Secret River (2005) ostensibly belongs to this well-intentioned literary trend. However, as one examines the novel carefully, one notices that vestiges of a mythologized past presently emerge. From mythologies of convictivism and hardship to pioneerism and ownership, the representation of the colonial past abounds with continuing references to a range of national myths that stand in marked contrast with the author’s avowed keenness to inscribe her novel within the framework of a genuine reconciliation. It is, therefore, my intention in this paper to conduct a close reading of The Secret River with a view to unveiling the unsettling significance of some representational strategies – which might at first glance appear as insignificant – and thus emphasising the ambivalence which characterises Grenville’s discourse about the colonial trauma. [less ▲]

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See detailActualité des manuscrits et études génétiques de Sartre : les années 1950
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2013, June 07)

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See detailLes biographies existentielles : le cas Ben Sadok (1957)
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2013, June 07)

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See detailMultivariate statistics to understand the geochemical processes induced by groundwater pollution Multi-scale applying
Gesels, Julie ULg; Joniau, Claire; Batlle-Aguilar, Jordi et al

Conference (2013, June 07)

Different hydrogeochemical approaches (classical diagrams, spatial distribution maps, geochemical equations and multivariate statistics) are combined to obtain a global understanding of the ... [more ▼]

Different hydrogeochemical approaches (classical diagrams, spatial distribution maps, geochemical equations and multivariate statistics) are combined to obtain a global understanding of the hydrogeochemical processus at regional and at local scale. [less ▲]

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See detailProposition de nouveaux indices de détection de patrons de réponses inappropriés dans le contexte des enquêtes et des épreuves d’évaluation des apprentissages
Béland, Sébastien; Raîche, Gilles; Magis, David ULg

Conference (2013, June 07)

Il n’est pas rare de voir des étudiants répondre de façon inappropriée à une épreuve d’évaluation comportant des items à réponses choisies. Par exemple, certains individus peuvent tricher alors que ... [more ▼]

Il n’est pas rare de voir des étudiants répondre de façon inappropriée à une épreuve d’évaluation comportant des items à réponses choisies. Par exemple, certains individus peuvent tricher alors que d’autres peuvent tenter de se sous-classer intentionnellement à un examen. Plusieurs approches ont été développées pour faire la détection de ce type d’étudiants. À ce jour, l’approche la plus prometteuse est l’utilisation d’indice de détection de type person‐fit (Meijer et Sijtsma, 2001). L’indice de détection lz (Drasgow, Levine et Williams, 1985) est fort probablement le plus utilisé et le plus connu d’entre tous. Malheureusement, cet indice est fortement affecté par le fait que l’habileté des étudiants est estimée et non pas réelle ; ce qui peut biaiser son calcul (Molenaar et Hoijtink, 1990). Pour pallier ce problème, Snijders (2001) a proposé une correction qui permet de diminuer considérablement le biais associé à la moyenne et à la variance de l’indice lz. Dans le cadre de notre projet doctoral, nous nous inspirerons de la suggestion de Snijders (2001) pour corriger deux autres indices de détection de patrons de réponses inappropriés : l’infit mean square (u) et l’outfit mean square (w). À cette fin, nous utiliserons une approche monte carliste afin d’investiguer plus en détails l’erreur de type 1 et la puissance de ces autres indices. Nos résultats préliminaires, que nous présenterons lors de cette communication, montrent que ces autres indices corrigés semblent eux aussi plus efficaces que leur version traditionnelle sans correction. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative Methodology for the Definition of Design Spaces of Chromatographic Methods
Rozet, Eric ULg; Debrus, B; Lebrun, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 06)

As defined by ICH [1] and FDA, Quality by Design (QbD) stands for “a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process ... [more ▼]

As defined by ICH [1] and FDA, Quality by Design (QbD) stands for “a systematic approach to development that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process control, based on sound science and quality risk management”. A risk–based QbD–compliant approach is proposed for the robust development of analytical methods. This methodology based on Design of Experiments (DoE) to study the experimental domain models the retention times at the beginning, the apex and the end of each peak corresponding to the compounds of a mixture and uses the separation criterion (S) rather than the resolution (RS) as a Critical Quality Attribute. Stepwise multiple linear regressions are used to create the models. The estimated error is propagated from the modelled responses to the separation criterion (S) using Monte Carlo simulations in order to estimate the predictive distribution of the separation criterion (S) over the whole experimental domain. This allows finding ranges of operating conditions that will guarantee a satisfactory quality of the method in its future use. These ranges define the Design Space (DS) of the method. In chromatographic terms, the chromatograms processed at operating conditions within the DS will assuredly show high quality, with well separated peaks and short run time, for instance. This Design Space can thus be defined as the subspace, necessarily encompassed in the experimental domain (i.e. the knowledge space), within which the probability for the criterion to be higher than an advisedly selected threshold is higher than a minimum quality level. Precisely, the DS is defined as “the multidimensional combination and interaction of input variables (e.g., material attributes) and process parameters that have been demonstrated to provide assurance of quality” [1]. Therefore, this DS defines a region of operating conditions that provide prediction of assurance of quality rather than only quality as obtained with traditional mean response surface optimisation strategies. For instance, in the liquid chromatography there is a great difference in e.g. predicting a resolution (RS) higher than 1.5 vs. predicting that the probability for RS to be higher than 1.5 (i.e. P(RS> 1.5)) is high. The presentation of this global methodology will be illustrated for the robust optimisation and DS definition of several liquid chromatographic methods dedicated to the separation of different mixtures: pharmaceutical formulations, API and impurities/degradation products, plant extracts, separation of enantiomers, … [less ▲]

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See detailProcédés et enjeux de l'écriture polémique dans le dossier épistolaire anti-adoptianiste du concile de Francfort (794)
Close, Florence ULg; Veyrard-Cosme, Christiane

Conference (2013, June 06)

Nous proposons une relecture à deux voix – historico-littéraire – des pièces du dossier épistolaire de Francfort attribué à Alcuin. Nous envisagerons les stratégies littéraires et oratoires mises en ... [more ▼]

Nous proposons une relecture à deux voix – historico-littéraire – des pièces du dossier épistolaire de Francfort attribué à Alcuin. Nous envisagerons les stratégies littéraires et oratoires mises en œuvres par Alcuin au nom des évêques francs, d’une part, et de Charlemagne, de l’autre, pour tenter de ramener l’épiscopat espagnol dans le giron romain. Nous tenterons d’affiner notre lecture des positions de chacun, perçues à travers le prisme des mots du diacre anglo-saxon. La confrontation de ces lettres synodales à celles qui ont été envoyées par les évêques espagnols, emmenés par l’archevêque Élipand de Tolède, devrait nous permettre de nourrir une réflexion sur le rôle, l’importance et la puissance stylistique du genre épistolaire, hérité de l’Antiquité, dans deux foyers importants de haute culture de l’époque – la péninsule ibérique et le monde insulaire – ainsi que sur l’impact de cette querelle épistolaire dans le processus de re-développement du genre dans le cadre de la renaissance carolingienne. [less ▲]

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See detailLe financement rural du Niger, élément clé du développement
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2013, June 06)

The Niger economy is mainly based on the rural sector such as the agricultural and breeding activities. Indeed, 80 percent of population is rural. The agricultural financing is a necessary condition to ... [more ▼]

The Niger economy is mainly based on the rural sector such as the agricultural and breeding activities. Indeed, 80 percent of population is rural. The agricultural financing is a necessary condition to increase the livelihood of the rural populations. The paper establishes a typology of the rural financing mode. This typology identifies the strengths and weaknesses of the financing actors (public and private). In conclusion, the real demand isn’t satisfied because the rural financing stay weak on account of the high risk and the higher costs linked with the agricultural activities. [less ▲]

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See detail« Et, moi, je paraphe » : hexis littéraire et figuration photographique
Durand, Pascal ULg

Conference (2013, June 06)

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See detailLes microalgues: un défi énergétique
Franck, Fabrice ULg

Conference (2013, June 06)

Les microalgues sont des micro-organismes photosynthétiques dont la culture commerciale en masse est pratiquée depuis les années '60. Les rendements en biomasse de la culture de microalgues sont ... [more ▼]

Les microalgues sont des micro-organismes photosynthétiques dont la culture commerciale en masse est pratiquée depuis les années '60. Les rendements en biomasse de la culture de microalgues sont supérieurs à ceux de cultures traditionnelles, et elle peut s'effectuer sur des terrains impropres à l'agriculture traditionnelle. Les perspectives d'utilisation de la biomasse microalgale pour la production de biocarburants ont suscité d'importants efforts de recherche au cours des années récentes. Les recherches en cours visent à améliorer les souches d'algues utilisables ainsi que différents aspects des procédés de production, de traitement et d'extraction de la biomasse algale afin d'aboutir à moyen terme à un procédé durable et économiquement viable. [less ▲]

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See detailSplendeurs et misères des minorités
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2013, June 05)

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See detailComposition and Thickness Dependence of GeSn Growth by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Wang, Wei; Shimura, Yosuke; Nieddu, Thomas ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 04)

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See detailElectrical Activity of Threading Dislocations and Defect Complexes in GeSn Epitaxial Layers
Gupta, Somya; Simoen, Eddy; Asano, Takanori et al

Conference (2013, June 04)

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See detailStructure, dynamical properties and topology of GST phase change materials
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Bichara, Christophe

Conference (2013, June 04)

Ge-Sb-Te alloys (GST) have been successfully used as Phase Change Materials for data recording applications. They exhibit a unique collection of properties that make them adequate for high performance non ... [more ▼]

Ge-Sb-Te alloys (GST) have been successfully used as Phase Change Materials for data recording applications. They exhibit a unique collection of properties that make them adequate for high performance non-volatile RAM memories. Indeed, their crystalline phase(s) are extremely contrasted, both optically and electrically, against their easily generated amorphous phase(s). Understanding the fast switching mechanisms and the amorphous phase properties remains however quite challenging. In particular, the stability of the amorphous phase against phase separation, recrystallization, and drift of the electronic properties with time and cycling remain problematic. In this work, we generate models of a series of amorphous GST alloys using DFT molecular dynamics and simulated annealing. The obtained structures are compared and generic patterns are described. A new algorithm to determine the topological constraints, based on the analysis of the fluctuations of interatomic bond lengths and bond angles, has been proposed and applied to seven alloy compositions in the GeSbTe phase diagram [1]. A constraint map could then be drawn for the whole ternary system. According to this, the most commonly used GST amorphous phases are shown to be in the stressed rigid region [1]. In order to estimate the effect of rigidity on the recrystallization temperature (Tc), we performed a similar study for Carbon and Nitrogen doped GeTe [2]. The increase of the number of constraints upon doping is shown to be correlated with an increase of the recrystallization temperature and a reduction of the low frequency, or floppy, vibrational modes [3]. The generality of this stabilization mechanism is finally tested on other systems. [1] M. Micoulaut, J.Y. Raty, C. Otjacques, and C. Bichara, Physical Review B 81 (2010) 174206 [2] G. Ghezzi, J.Y. Raty, S. Maitrejean, A. Roule, E. Elkaim and F. Hippert, Applied Physics Letters, 99 (2011) 151906. [3] J.Y. Raty, P. Noe, G.Ghezzi, S. Maitrejean, C. Bichara and F. Hippert. To be published. [less ▲]

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See detailVente directe et circuits courts : état des lieux et promotion dans la Province de Namur (Belgique)
Rouchet, François ULg; De Fays, Maud

Conference (2013, June 04)

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See detailBandgap Measurement by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry for Strained Ge1-xSnx
Shimura, Yosuke; Wang, Wei; Nieddu, Thomas ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (3 ULg)
See detailSocial Security and Economic Integration
Artige, Lionel ULg; Dedry, Antoine ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, June 03)

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See detailApproche de la Complexité en Génie des Procédés
Crine, Michel ULg

Conference (2013, June 02)

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See detailSocial Rights, Civil Rights : Addressing Disability Discrimination in the United States and in Sweden
Lejeune, Aude ULg

Conference (2013, June 02)

Some scholarly works have highlighted the diffusion of the US disability rights model in Europe, considering that a disability rights’ revolution was underway. They have also identified sources of ... [more ▼]

Some scholarly works have highlighted the diffusion of the US disability rights model in Europe, considering that a disability rights’ revolution was underway. They have also identified sources of resistance to the diffusion of this “civil rights’ frame” to address disability issues in Europe (Burke, 2004; Heyer, 2002; Vanhala, 2011; Waldschmidt, 2009). Focusing on legal mobilizations against disability discrimination in the workplace, I analyze and compare how government agencies (the Swedish Ombudsman against discrimination and the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission), as well as non-governmental organizations in both countries, address these issues. How do the structures of national institutions frame legal mobilizations against disability discrimination in each country? Do they tend to converge in the way they mobilize the law to address these issues? Through investigative techniques consisting primarily of open-ended interviews with lawyers working in NGOs and in government agencies for equality in the United States and in Sweden, I highlight several challenges faced by studies on disability rights, especially when they describe and explain convergence of legal mobilizations, and try to offer suggestions for overcoming these challenges. More broadly, this contribution aims to call into question the processes of transnationalisation and policy transfer from one country to another. [less ▲]

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See detailLes semences non-industrielle en quête de qualification
Hecquet, Corentin ULg

Conference (2013, June 01)

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See detailVocal impact of a prolonged reading task at two intensity levels : Perceptual analysis
Remacle, Angélique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg; Schoentgen, Jean et al

Conference (2013, June 01)

Our goal is to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the ... [more ▼]

Our goal is to evaluate the impact on voice of both duration and intensity level of 2 hours of continuous oral reading. Fifty normophonic women underwent two sessions of voice loading in which the required intensity level of voice varied: 60-65 dB(A) for the first session, and 70-75 dB(A) for the second session. Objective measurements and subjective self-ratings were presented in a previous study (Remacle, Finck, Roche & Morsomme, 2012). Here are the results of perceptual analysis based on comparative judgments. Ten expert listeners evaluated the pressedness and the breathiness of one sentence recorded before and after each loading session. Pairs of stimuli were presented randomly to listeners who were asked to designate the most pressed sample at a first listening and the most breathy sample at a second listening. Each pair of stimuli was presented twice in order to evaluate the reliability. Results indicate that inter-judges and intra-judges reliability was poor to fair. Concerning the duration effect of vocal loading, results showed a significant decrease of breathiness but no change of pressedness after reading in both sessions. The decreased breathiness represents a voice improvement which could be interpreted as an adaptation of voice to loading. When comparing the two intensity levels, no difference was found for breathiness and pressedness after vocal loading. Similarly to objective measurements and self-ratings, perceptual assessments suggest that the duration of vocal loading has more effects on voice than its intensity level. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (9 ULg)
See detailLes acteurs civils dans la conservation de la biodiversité au Sud Sri Lanka : Ethnographie d'une ONG environnementale locale
Rosillon, Caroline ULg

Conference (2013, June)

L’article se centre sur les résultats d’une enquête ethnographique menée au sein d’une ONG locale menant des projet de développement « durable » dans un village du Sud du Sri Lanka. À partir de cet ... [more ▼]

L’article se centre sur les résultats d’une enquête ethnographique menée au sein d’une ONG locale menant des projet de développement « durable » dans un village du Sud du Sri Lanka. À partir de cet exemple, la question posée est la suivante : « Comment les politiques locales et globales de la conservation de la biodiversité structurent-elles l’arène locale du village, s’intègrent aux formes de gouvernance locale et/ou participent à leur reconfiguration ?». [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailTime Controlled Cryogenic Zone Compression (t-CZC) GC-HRMS - A Novel Tool for Target Analyses at Ultra Trace Levels
Krumwiede, D; Mehlman, H; Focant, Jean-François ULg et al

Conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg)
See detailThe Upper Paleolithic of the Ikh Tulberin Gol (Northern Mongolia): new excavation at the Tolbor 16 site
Zwyns, N.; Gladyshev, S.A.; Gunshinsuren, B. et al

Conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDetermination of activation yield curves for fusion escaping particle diagnostics
Strivay, David ULg; Bonheure, George; Delvigne, Thierry et al

Conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg)
See detailTrees communities and filters to restoration along a periurban gradient of tropical forest degradation
Hick, Aurélie ULg; Tooth, Martin; Tshibungu, Alain et al

Conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (13 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDeveloping sustainable competences through the whole professional life
Dujardin, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)
See detailDéveloppement de méthodes de quantification en milieu complexe par chromatographie liquide microfluidique couplée à la spectrometrie de masse
Houbart, Virginie ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2013, June)

L’hepcidine est un biomarqueur peptidique dont l’intérêt tant comme outil de diagnostic que de suivi de pathologies est de plus en plus solidement établi. Il existe donc une demande forte d’outils ... [more ▼]

L’hepcidine est un biomarqueur peptidique dont l’intérêt tant comme outil de diagnostic que de suivi de pathologies est de plus en plus solidement établi. Il existe donc une demande forte d’outils sensibles et robustes afin de la doser au sein de milieux biologiques tels que le plasma ou le sérum. Une méthode analytique a été développée à l’aide d’un système chromatographique miniaturisé (nanoLC-chip) couplé à un spectromètre de masse permettant d’assurer un dosage de l’hepcidine à la fois sensible et fiable. Lors du développement de cette méthode, il a été constaté que la composition de l’échantillon avait une influence majeure sur la réponse analytique. Or, l’utilisation de systèmes chromatographiques miniaturisés implique souvent l’injection de volumes proportionnellement très importants par rapport aux dimensions du système, ce qui amplifie encore l’impact de sa composition. C’est pourquoi il est capital d’avoir une bonne compréhension des phénomènes qui ont lieu entre l’injection de l’échantillon dans le système chromatographique et la détection par spectrométrie de masse, et particulièrement lors du développement de méthodes analytiques quantitatives. Dans cette étude, nous avons utilisé la planification expérimentale afin de mieux comprendre le comportement chromatographique des peptides, ainsi que les facteurs qui influencent la sensibilité de la méthode développée. Un mélange de peptides a été sélectionné, varié tant du point de vue du poids moléculaire que du point isoélectrique et de l’hydropathie. Un plan de criblage a permis de délimiter le domaine expérimental ainsi que les facteurs significatifs parmi la composition de la phase mobile (proportion et nature de l’agent de paire d’ions) et de l’échantillon en lui-même (nature de l’agent de paire d’ions et proportion de solvant organique). Ensuite, un plan d’expériences factoriel complet a été mis en œuvre afin d’observer plus finement le rôle de chaque facteur ainsi que les interactions éventuelles qui les lient. Certains facteurs ont montré un effet très marqué tant sur l’intensité de la réponse que sur la rétention. Entre autres, la composition de l’échantillon, facteur parfois négligé lors du développement de méthodes, a démontré son importance capitale, en particulier sur les phénomènes de rétention des peptides. Les données obtenues ont également permis de dégager des conditions optimales d’analyse en termes de rétention et de sensibilité. Enfin, une analyse en composantes principales a également été réalisée sur le grand nombre de données récoltées dans le but de mettre en évidence d’éventuels propriétés physicochimiques des peptides qui pourraient avoir un impact significatif sur les réponses étudiées. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailCadaveric VOC Profiles for Forensic Investigations
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Stadler, S; Forbes, S et al

Conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailDetermination of activation yields for fusion plasma escaping charged particles diagnostics
Chene, Grégoire ULg; Bonheure, George; Delvigne, Thierry et al

Conference (2013, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (4 ULg)
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See detailA micro-model of the intra-laminar fracture in fiber-reinforced composites based on a discontinuous Galerkin/extrinsic cohesive law method
Wu, Ling ULg; Tjahjanto, Denny; Makradi, Ahmed et al

Conference (2013, June)

The hybrid discontinuous Galerkin (DG)/extrinsic cohesive law (ECL) method was recently proposed [1] to circumvent the drawbacks of the cohesive element methods. With the DG/ECL method, prior to fracture ... [more ▼]

The hybrid discontinuous Galerkin (DG)/extrinsic cohesive law (ECL) method was recently proposed [1] to circumvent the drawbacks of the cohesive element methods. With the DG/ECL method, prior to fracture, the flux and stabilization terms arising from the DG formulation at interelement boundaries are enforced via interface elements in a way that guarantees consistency and stability, contrarily to traditional extrinsic cohesive zone methods. At the onset of fracture, the traction–separation law (TSL) governing the fracture process becomes operative without the need to modify the mesh topology since the cohesive elements required to integrate the TSL are already present. This DG/ECL method has been shown to be an efficient numerical framework that can easily be implement in parallel with excellent scalability properties to model fragmentation, dynamic crack propagation in brittle and small-scale yielding materials, both for 3D problems and for thin structures [1, 2]. In this work, following the developments in [3], the DG/ECL method is extended to the study of composite materials failures at the micro-scale. The method is applied to study the transverse traction of composite materials in characteristic micro-volumes of different sizes. The method captures the debonding process, assimilated to a damaging process before the strain softening onset. It is shown that the density of dissipated energy resulting from the damage (debonding) remains the same for the different studied cell sizes. During the strain softening phase, a micro-crack initiates and propagates, in agreement with experimental observations. After strain softening onset, the extracted macroscale cohesive law, obtained by the method proposed in [4], is ultimately shown to converge for the different cell sizes. The predicted behaviors are then compared to experimental results obtained from laminate tests, and are found to be in good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailLe juge, la loi et la nationalité belge - Quel rôle et quelle marge de manoeuvre pour le juge?
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Conference (2013, June)

Cette présentation a formé le support d'une intervention lors d'une conférence consacrée à la réforme du Code de la nationalité belge. L'intervention avait pour objectif de mesurer la marge de manoeuvre ... [more ▼]

Cette présentation a formé le support d'une intervention lors d'une conférence consacrée à la réforme du Code de la nationalité belge. L'intervention avait pour objectif de mesurer la marge de manoeuvre et d'appréciation du juge dans l'examen des demandes fondées sur le Code. L'analyse montre que la réforme de décembre 2012 a introduit un système limitant de manière importante la liberté d'appréciation du juge. Ceci apparaît clairement dans les demandes fondées sur l'acquisition de la nationalité par déclaration. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
See detailVenus night side measurements of winds at 115 km altitude from NO bright patches tracking.
Bertaux, J.-L.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg et al

Conference (2013, June)

N and O atoms produced by photo-dissociation of CO2 and N2 on the day side of Venus are transported to the night side in the thermospheric circulation. When the air parcel is descending, the recombination ... [more ▼]

N and O atoms produced by photo-dissociation of CO2 and N2 on the day side of Venus are transported to the night side in the thermospheric circulation. When the air parcel is descending, the recombination N+O→ NO produces the famous γ and δ bands of NO emission. Pioneer Venus (1978) suggested that the statistical center of the emission is off from the anti-solar point, about one- two hours in Local time after midnight. This is confirmed from SPICAV/VEX results, and the explanation generally accepted is the influence of retrograde super rotation. However, the emission takes place at 115 km, while VIRTIS/VEX, with maps of O2 emission (peak altitude 95 km) in the night side of Venus (recombination of O+O coming from the day side), has shown that the maximum of emission is statistically centered on the antisolar point. Therefore, there is no influence of super-rotation at 95 km. One way to explain this paradox is that the cause of the super rotation is different at 115 km and in the lower atmosphere. Alternately, some gravity waves could propagate from below, crossing the altitude 95 km with minimal interaction, and breaking around 115, depositing their momentum. Another consideration is that the altitude of N2 photo-dissociation is higher in the thermosphere than CO2, therefore the thermospheric circulation pattern may be different for the transport of N atoms, and O atoms. We have started building maps of the NO emission by moving around the spacecraft along its orbit on the night side. The idea is that NO emission is concentrated generally in rather well defined patches of light. Therefore, by comparing maps taken at 1 hour or 24 hr interval, we can make a “bright patch tracking”, and derive directly the velocity of the moving air parcel containing N and O (we are aware that a part of the motion could be due to a phase shift of a gravity wave, if it has some influence on the NO emission). Preliminary results from this exercise with Venus Express will be presented and discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
See detailCompétences durables et transférables, clés pour l’employabilité
Dujardin, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2013, June)

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See detailNon-local multiscale analyzes of composite laminates based on a damage-enhanced mean–field homogenization formulation
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2013, June)

Properties of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates are studied using an anisotropic gradient–enhanced continuum damage model embedded in a mean–field homogenization (MFH) procedure. The fibers are ... [more ▼]

Properties of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates are studied using an anisotropic gradient–enhanced continuum damage model embedded in a mean–field homogenization (MFH) procedure. The fibers are assumed to remain elastic, and the matrix material obeys an elasto–plastic behavior enhanced by the proposed damage model. The resulting multi– scale model is then applied to study the damage process at the meso–scale of laminates, and in particular the damaging of plies in a composite stack. By using the gradient–enhanced continuum damage model, the problem of losing uniqueness and strain localization, which happens in classical finite element simulations when strain softening of materials is involved, is avoided. As a demonstration a stack with a hole is studied and it is shown that the model predicts the damaging process in bands oriented with the fiber directions, accordingly to the conducted experimental results. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailA ligament influences the diversification of damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Olivier, Damien ULg; Litsios, Glenn et al

Conference (2013, June)

The Pomacentridae (damselfishes) is one of the most successful families of reef-associated fishes (386 species). In 1981, Stiassny described a synapomorphic trait of the Pomacentridae: the cerato ... [more ▼]

The Pomacentridae (damselfishes) is one of the most successful families of reef-associated fishes (386 species). In 1981, Stiassny described a synapomorphic trait of the Pomacentridae: the cerato-mandibular ligament (CML) joining the hyoid bar (ceratohyal) to the internal part of the mandible (coronoid process of the articulo-angular). Here, we highlight that this ligament is lacking in at least 18 damselfish species from different subclades (i.e. Chrominae, Abudefdufinae and Pomacentrinae) and we explore the impact of its disappearance on lineage, morphological and ecological diversification through their evolutionary history. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny including 208 species, we found no support for different rates of lineage diversification between species that lack the CML and the others. Yet, the CML clearly governs a part of the morphological diversity in damselfishes. Indeed, the body and mandible shapes differ significantly between species without CML and the others. Evolutionary modeling of some phenotypic traits (i.e. body and mandible shape) mainly supports models with two rates of morphological diversification across the time-tree with the species without CML having a higher rate of morphological diversification than the others. Mapping the diet of all studied species illustrates that damselfishes lacking CML are highly zooplanktivorous species. Their shapes suggest they feed on planktonic copepods with a higher contribution of ram-feeding (i.e. predator movement towards prey) in comparison with the other planktivorous damselfishes. Finally, the CML could have promoted easy shifts among the three main trophic guilds in damselfishes (i.e. grazers, zooplanktivorous and omnivorous) during evolution but the disappearance of the CML allowed a functional specialization linked to prey-capture strategies. These results support the primary role of the CML in the evolution and diversification of pomacentrids. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg)