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See detailL’impact des modèles de Lambert Lombard et de son entourage sur la sculpture sur pierre à Liège au XVIe siècle
Warnauts, Samuelle ULg

Conference (2012, August 23)

La montée d’un courant esthétique italianisant à Liège, au XVIe siècle, est bien perceptible dans l’art de la sculpture sur pierre, et plus particulièrement dans la production des reliefs dits en marbre ... [more ▼]

La montée d’un courant esthétique italianisant à Liège, au XVIe siècle, est bien perceptible dans l’art de la sculpture sur pierre, et plus particulièrement dans la production des reliefs dits en marbre noir de Theux. L’installation, dans la cité épiscopale, d’un sculpteur d’origine italienne, Nicolas Palardin, a sans doute eu un effet catalyseur, mais l’apport de cet artiste demeure difficile à cerner précisément, parce qu’aucune œuvre ne peut lui être attribuée avec certitude. En revanche, une étude attentive et systématique des reliefs conservés permet de mesurer l’empreinte profonde de la figure dominante de la Renaissance liégeoise, Lambert Lombard, et de son entourage. Nous proposerons des rapprochements inédits, jetant sur la question un éclairage nouveau. De manière plus large, nous présenterons une synthèse critique des données relatives à la production dite en marbre noir de Theux. [less ▲]

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See detailNovas tecnologias e Resiliência
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg

Conference (2012, August 22)

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See detailLe problème de Prouhet
Rigo, Michel ULg

Conference (2012, August 22)

Si on pense aux nombres, à leur théorie et à l'arithmétique, on fait rapidement face à de nombreuses questions simples à énoncer (elles ne font intervenir que des sommes, des produits ou des puissances de ... [more ▼]

Si on pense aux nombres, à leur théorie et à l'arithmétique, on fait rapidement face à de nombreuses questions simples à énoncer (elles ne font intervenir que des sommes, des produits ou des puissances de nombres entiers) mais leurs éventuelles solutions peuvent s'avérer redoutables. Dans cet exposé, on s'intéressera à un problème accessible dû à Prouhet (1851) : "partitionner l'ensemble {0,1,2,...,2^N-1} en deux sous-ensembles A et B de même taille de telle sorte que les sommes des éléments de A et B soient égales, les sommes des carrés des éléments de A et B soient égales, ..., les sommes des puissances (N-1)-ièmes des éléments de A et B soient égales ". Par exemple, pour N=3, on trouve 0+3+5+6=1+2+4+7 et 0^2+3^2+5^2+6^2=1^2+2^2+4^2+7^2. On en présentera une solution reposant de façon élégante sur les écritures en base 2 et on s'autorisera quelques digressions : produit de sinus, répétition et chevauchement, jeu d'échecs, généralisations, pavages colorés, composition musicale, tours de Hanoï, cubes magiques, ... Cet exposé est construit pour être une balade arithmétique amusante et inattendue, pouvant montrer à des élèves ouverts, un peu comme le prétend André DELEDICQ, que les mathématiques peuvent être jubilatoires. [less ▲]

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See detailVertical stratification and functional guilds in the bacterial community of Lake Kivu (East Africa)
Garcia-Armisen, T; Inceoglu, O; Llirós, M et al

Conference (2012, August 19)

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See detailUsing hurdle models to create maps of prey densities in southeastern of Norway
Bouyer, Yaëlle ULg; Rigot, Thibaud; Panzacchi, Manuela et al

Conference (2012, August 15)

Knowing prey distribution and density in areas where carnivores are present is an important condition to have a better understanding of carnivore movements (Karanth et al. 2004 ; Herfindal et al. 2005 ... [more ▼]

Knowing prey distribution and density in areas where carnivores are present is an important condition to have a better understanding of carnivore movements (Karanth et al. 2004 ; Herfindal et al. 2005). Southeastern of Norway has recently been recolonized by the European Lynx (Lynx lynx) and the wolf (Canis lupus) and in order to be able to predict these carnivore movements, it is important to produce detailed models of their prey abundance and habitat use. Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces) and mountain hare (Lepus timidus) are commonly hunted by lynx and wolf in Norway (Odden et al. 2006, Wikenros 2001, Müller 2006) but even if these species are well present in the southeastern, no distribution maps are available yet. Using hurdle models, we create the prey maps and test the extent of predictive modeling. Finally, we discuss the limits existing when trying to develop and use predictive maps at large scale. [less ▲]

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See detailRanging behaviour and sleeping sites of Macaca fascicularis in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULg; Maslarov, Cindy; Dosogne, Thibaut et al

Conference (2012, August 15)

Ranging behaviour and sleeping site selection are important primate behavioural traits likely to vary under environmental changes. We tested the role of ecological (predation avoidance) and anthropic ... [more ▼]

Ranging behaviour and sleeping site selection are important primate behavioural traits likely to vary under environmental changes. We tested the role of ecological (predation avoidance) and anthropic (human proximity) factors in Macaca fascicularis range use, an edge species known to prefer living along forests borders and in the vicinity of human settlements. Data result from 56 day follows of one group of Macaca fascicularis exploiting a human-modified landscape within Bali Barat National Park (Indonesia). Observations allowed identifying and describing 17 sleeping sites and the characteristics of 37 sleeping trees. Despite a large forest area available, the group’s home range centred around human settlements. The home range size, average daily range and daily travel decreased over the study period, while the human presence inside the park increased over the corresponding months. The proximity with humans also influenced the pattern of sleeping sites use; macaques slept more than expected close to human settlements and this tendency increased over the study period. In contradiction with the predation avoidance assumption, macaques did not choose sleeping trees significantly taller and larger than other trees available. We conclude that the observed sleeping site strategy (sleeping near humans) could be advantageous in terms of predator avoidance and proximity with human food, but additional influences should not be neglected. [less ▲]

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See detailA framework and approaches to develop an in-house CAT with freeware and open sources
Kimura, Tetsuo; Han, Kyung; Kosinski, Michal et al

Conference (2012, August 13)

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See detailRecepción actual de los manuscritos de Ferdinand de Saussure. Perspectivas teóricas e históricas.
Sofia, Estanislao ULg

Conference (2012, August 01)

Se le ha atribuido a Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), a lo largo del siglo XX, la responsabilidad de más de una “revolución” [sobre la de los anagramas, ver Prosdocimi1894, p. 233]. Célebre en su época ... [more ▼]

Se le ha atribuido a Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913), a lo largo del siglo XX, la responsabilidad de más de una “revolución” [sobre la de los anagramas, ver Prosdocimi1894, p. 233]. Célebre en su época gracias a sus trabajos sobre el vocalismo indo-europeo (Saussure, 1879), cuyo estudio, precisamente, habría contribuido a revolucionar (Béguelin, 2003), Saussure alcanzó una difusión masiva póstumamente. El Cours de linguistique générale (1916) es así considerado por la tradición como el punto de inflexión que revolucionó (una vez más) las ciencias del lenguaje, al asumir y/o permitir un cambio de enfoque radical: el objeto de la lingüística sería no ya (o no ya solamente) la historia y la evolución de las lenguas, sino también (y sobre todo) la lengua en tanto sistema autónomo de signos (Saussure, 1916) cuya función esencial es la comunicación. Acentuando la importancia de este gesto, se erigió a Saussure en “fundador” no solamente de una escuela – el estructuralismo europeo – sino también, y más generalmente, de la lingüística moderna (cf. Culler, 1986, p. 15 ; Lyons, 1968, p. 38 ; Calvet, 1995, p. 507). El descubrimiento en 1996 de un nuevo fondo de manuscritos, parcialmente publicado en 2002 en los Écrits de linguistique générale, proporcionó a algunos lingüistas la ocasión de postular una nueva revolución: los manuscritos de Saussure, desenterrados un siglo después de haber sido escritos, contendrían potencial suficiente para conmocionar y restructurar (“bouleverser”) no sólo la lingüística contemporánea (Bouquet, 2004; Rastier, 2009), sino también las bases de la metafísica occidental (cf. Rastier, 2009). El propósito de este trabajo es el de revisar críticamente (si no de desactivar) los argumentos subyacentes a tal posición, para intentar de ese modo establecer cuáles son los criterios (¿biográficos, históricos, teóricos, filológicos?) que la sostienen. Intentaremos mostrar, en particular, que la apreciación de la importancia de un fondo de manuscritos científicos, como lo son en gran medida los de Saussure, no puede prescindir de una aproximación histórica, cuya carencia es evidente, justamente, en gran parte de los partidarios saussureanos (incluidos Rastier y Bouquet) de una nueva (o potencial) “revolución”. [less ▲]

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See detailCDS and financial stability
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Mattar, Jamal ULg

Conference (2012, August 01)

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See detailanswer to a question from the general reporter in session B2, question 1.6
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference (2012, August)

Technology to forecast up to 2 days ahead the ampacity of power lines is now mature owing to european project TWENTIES

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See detailMicroeconometric Evidence of Financing Friction and Innovative Activity
Tiwari, Amaresh Kumar ULg

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailProbing single molecules with AFM: force, dynamics, and function
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailWeak localization with interacting Bose-Einstein condensates
Schlagheck, Peter ULg

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailGrave Soils Analysis by TD-GCxGC-TOFMS
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Scotsmans, E. M.J.; Wilson, A. S. et al

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailInterstitial kinetic parameters for a 2-compartment insulin model with saturable clearance
Pretty, Christopher ULg; Le Compte, Aaron J.; Shaw, Geoffrey M. et al

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailÊtre femme en contexte postcolonial africain et être confronté à la succession : au-delà des aspects juridiques, vécu et gestion psychosociaux.
Bomda, Joseph ULg

Conference (2012, August)

L’Afrique postcoloniale francophone vit le cinquantenaire de son indépendance dans un contexte de dualité de normes successorales (tradition vs. modernité). Si l’expert du droit dit comment les conflits ... [more ▼]

L’Afrique postcoloniale francophone vit le cinquantenaire de son indépendance dans un contexte de dualité de normes successorales (tradition vs. modernité). Si l’expert du droit dit comment les conflits (résiduels, virtuels et habituels) qui en résultent sont gérés, le vécu intrinsèque des victimes lui importe peu. Cette communication, issue de nos travaux de thèse (Ph.D) en psychologie sociale sur l’éveil, le vécu et la gestion de la dissonance cognitive en contexte postcolonial africain, rend compte d’une sélection de réponses des femmes camerounaises, 382, victimes de l’opposition entre les normes du droit moderne et celles du droit traditionnel en rapport avec la jeune fille et la veuve. À l’occasion, les différences anthropologiques fondatrices des visions du monde traditionnelle et moderne de la succession permet d’identifier les points de contrastes entre les deux normes et de comprendre le malaise qui en résulte socioculturel. Au terme des analyses statistiques, les résultats indiquent que ces femmes souffrent de l’inconfort psychologique, des affects négatifs liés à soi, des affects liés à l’anxiété, des affects négatifs liés à soi et aux autres et, curieusement des affects positifs. La gestion de ces affects passe entre autres par la revalorisation de la tradition et de la modernité, l’évitement des situations aggravantes, le partage social des émotions, le prosélytisme et la confusion entre la tradition et la modernité. L’embarras place ainsi la gent féminine dans un embarras qui déteint sur leur rapport à elle et sur leurs rapports aux autres. Il urge conséquemment de voir le projet de code de la famille et des personnes prendre corps en partant d’un effort de conciliation des différences relevées entre les deux en jeu. [less ▲]

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See detailProteomics of aphid salivary proteins
Francis, Frédéric ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Vandermoten, Sophie ULg et al

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailDifferences in bovine milk fat composition among dairy breeds in The Netherlands
Maurice-Van eijndhoven, Myrthe; Bovenhuis, Henk; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailEvaluation of the social impact of HPAI surveillance network at the community level in Vietnam.
Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas ULg; Delabouglise, Alexis; Binot, Aurélie et al

Conference (2012, August)

The need to set up efficient and sustainable surveillance networks is a major concern which must be continually placed at the heart of the overall issue of development. In developing countries, the ... [more ▼]

The need to set up efficient and sustainable surveillance networks is a major concern which must be continually placed at the heart of the overall issue of development. In developing countries, the political priority to reduce poverty means that it is vital to include social aspects in public decision making on health management in general. This focus on social aspects can be considered all the more important regarding surveillance as it is deeply embedded in agents’ everyday life. The flow of information about animal health involves different non-monetary costs, ensuing from stigmatization or from social pressure to withhold or disclose information. Understanding, measuring and alleviating these social costs of information is required to ensure the effectiveness and viability of surveillance. The present study considers the case of highly pathogenic avian influenza surveillance in Vietnam. It aims at establishing a protocol allowing for understanding and quantifying social costs incurred by surveillance agents at the community level. In this prospect, tools and concepts from anthropology, participative epidemiology and experimental economics were combined. More particularly, social network analysis, participatory observation, companion modeling and stated preference surveys were applied for the thorough examination of constraints and costs of health information flows. The opportunity for the scaling-up of such methodologies and for the inclusion of the so-elicited quantitative values in socio-economic evaluation of surveillance systems are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailUV radiation effects on liquid crystal variable retarders for aerospace applications
Garcia Parejo, Pilar; Alvarez-Herrero, Alberto; Uribe-Patarroyo, Nestor et al

Conference (2012, August)

Liquid-Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs)1 are optical devices that provide a variable optical retardance accomplished by the application of electric fields. Traditionally, they have been used as light ... [more ▼]

Liquid-Crystal Variable Retarders (LCVRs)1 are optical devices that provide a variable optical retardance accomplished by the application of electric fields. Traditionally, they have been used as light polarization modulators for polarimetric applications in ground telescopes2, and more recently they took part in the polarisation modulation package of the Imaging Magnetograph eXperiment (IMaX)3, where the LCVRs were launched successfully on-board the Sunrise mission, a stratospheric balloon that was flown from Antarctica to study the solar magnetic fields. This mission was the precursor of the Solar Orbiter mission of the European Space Agency (ESA), where the liquid crystals will be used as polarisation modulators onboard a space mission for the first time in two instruments: the Polarimetric and Helioseismic Imager (SO/PHI) and the Multi-Element Telescope for Imaging and Spectroscopy (METIS). Any on-board element used for aerospace applications must be able to survive the harsh environmental space conditions including UV radiation, gamma radiation, vibrational tests, thermal-vacuum... In this sense, LCVRs have been recently validated to be used under the space conditions of the Solar Orbiter mission, in the framework of the ESA project: “Validation of LCVRs for the Solar Orbiter Polarisation Modulation Package”. In this project, a set of LCVRs with different design parameters has been analyzed under the different space environmental conditions. These design parameters include the architecture of the LCVR cell, using Anti-Parallel Aligned Nematic (APAN) and Hybrid Aligned Nematic (HAN) architectures, the type of liquid crystal molecules, using different commercial nematic liquid crystal mixtures with high and low birefringence and positive and negative dielectric anisotropy, different homogeneous and homeotropic polyimide alignment layers and different glass plates. Among the space environmental components, the UV radiation needs special consideration due to the organic nature of the liquid crystal molecules and the alignment layers that consisted of rubbed polyimide layers. In this work, we present the main results of the UV radiation test campaign carried out in the LCVRs consisting of the performance of a thorough optical characterization of the LCVRs, including optical retardance and response times measurements at different voltages performed by the ellipsometry technique, and optical transmission measurements, before and after irradiating the LCVRs with UV light at different doses, in two different spectral ranges: 200 -400 nm and 160-200 nm. The main degradation effects observed in the LCVRs was a progressive reduction of the retardance range of the LCVRs which points out a decrease of the birefringence of the liquid crystal molecules or the increase of the pretilt angle due to the degradation of the polyimide layers, and an increase of the response times of the cells. Nevertheless, the changes observed do not involve the destruction of the LCVRs and they keep fulfilling the requirements for the Solar Orbiter mission becoming in a promising technology for aerospace applications. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of the composition of cryolitic melts involved in the Hall-Heroult process by Raman spectroscopy
Malherbe, Cédric ULg; Gilbert, Bernard ULg

Conference (2012, August)

Considering our experience in the study of such highly corrosive media by Raman spectroscopy and since the bath spectrum is function of the molar NaF/AlF3 ratio and the Al2O3 content, we have proposed in ... [more ▼]

Considering our experience in the study of such highly corrosive media by Raman spectroscopy and since the bath spectrum is function of the molar NaF/AlF3 ratio and the Al2O3 content, we have proposed in the past to apply that technique to the direct determination of the melt composition . Recent instrumental developments on CCD based spectrometers have made the proposed method more feasible. This presentation will first demonstrate that, employing an updated instrument provided with new optical filters and a more sensitive CCD detector, better quality spectra are obtained. Afterward, new results relevant to the development of our analytical method for the direct determination of the molar NaF/AlF3 ratio and the Al2O3 content in cryolitic melt will be discuss. Different aspects of the calculation procedure will be illustrated:  Estimation and subtraction method of the Rayleigh decay from melt spectra;  Development of an internal normalisation procedure based on equilibria in the melt and assisted by home-made software;  Establishment of calibration curves for the determination of the molar ratio NaF/AlF3 in the melt;  Establishment of calibration curves for the determination of oxide content in the melt;  Overall procedure for the composition determination. [less ▲]

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See detailA study on the ecology of northern pigtail macaque (Amcaca nemestrina) in Khao Yai National PArk
Savini, Tommaso ULg; albert, aurélie; José Dominguez, Juan Manuel et al

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailThe Proterozoic record of early eukaryotes
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailOptimization of a formic/acetic acid treatment of beech wood for lignin extraction
Simon, Mathilde ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

Conference (2012, August)

Lignocellulosic substrates are a promising alternative resource for the sustainable production of energy (biofuels), bio-based products and organic compounds. In the past, the extraction and recycling of ... [more ▼]

Lignocellulosic substrates are a promising alternative resource for the sustainable production of energy (biofuels), bio-based products and organic compounds. In the past, the extraction and recycling of cellulose (into fermentable glucose) constituted the central axis of lignocellulosic biorefinery processes. Degraded hemicelluloses and lignins were recovered as side-products with no possibilities of high-added value applications. Within the context of an integrated biorefinery, and for economic reasons, the recovery and the non-energetic valorization of lignins have opened recently new horizons. Lignin is a cross-linked phenolic polymer and is considered as potential alternative to petrochemical polymers or as a source of antioxidants for cosmetics and food industry, resins, chelating agent... As the final application of lignin depends on both extraction process and type of lignocellulosic sources, the development of fast and efficient physicochemical characterization methods is thus a prerequisite to optimize extraction processing conditions. In this study, beech wood particles (Fagus sylvatica L.) are delignified at atmospheric pressure by a formic acid/acetic acid/water mixture. Firstly, response surface methodology is used to optimize cooking time and temperature for delignification, pulp yield and concentration of degradation products (2-furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural). The results highlight that best delignification is obtained in the highest cooking times and temperatures and that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is produced during the formic/acetic acid treatment but is also degraded into 2-furfural. With the aim to develop an integrated biorefinery approach, multi-criteria optimization is used to find ideal cooking time and temperature (5h07, 104.2°C) leading to the maximization of delignification and pulp yield and to the minimization of 2-furfural production Finally, physicochemical and chemical structures of extracted lignins are found dependent on treatment conditions harshness. [less ▲]

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See detailConfesser le Prince : l’exemple de la cour de Bruxelles durant la première moitié du dix-septième siècle.
Pirlet, Pierre-François ULg

Conference (2012, August)

Durant l'époque moderne, la spiritualité des souverains et des puissants catholiques est associée à l'action de confesseurs. Ces religieux ont la charge d'administrer le sacrement de confession et d ... [more ▼]

Durant l'époque moderne, la spiritualité des souverains et des puissants catholiques est associée à l'action de confesseurs. Ces religieux ont la charge d'administrer le sacrement de confession et d'officier en tant que directeurs de conscience. Logés dans l'ombre du pouvoir, il échoit à ces ministres ecclésiastiques d'être les discrets garants de l'orthodoxie catholique du Prince. La responsabilité qui leur incombe les distingue des confesseurs de l'ordinaire, tandis que la singularité de la charge pose des questions quant à l'aménagement des pratiques pénitentielles : le Prince bénéficie-t-il d'une confession ad hoc dans le fond ou dans la forme ? Son statut dicte-t-il le modus operandi de son confesseur ? Ce dernier, en sus de ses compétences en matière de conseil politique, était-il choisi à l'aune de la spiritualité de son pénitent ? S'appuyant sur le dépouillement d'un large corpus de sources de la première moitié du xviième siècle – archives de diverses institutions religieuses et laïques, traités relatifs à la spiritualité et à la confession, écrits et méditations spirituelles composés par les confesseurs eux-mêmes – cette communication visera à dégager les contours et les particularités de la confession des souverains catholiques, en prenant comme objet d'étude les religieux chargés de la guidance spirituelle des princes et gouverneurs-généraux espagnols en poste à Bruxelles durant la première moitié du Grand Siècle. [less ▲]

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See detailInsulin Kinetics during Hyper-Insulinemia Euglycemia Therapy (HIET)
Penning, Sophie ULg; MASSION, Paul ULg; Le Compte, Aaron J. et al

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailLes portails occidentaux de la cathédrale d’Amiens : bilan historiographique
Lekane, Marie ULg

Conference (2012, August)

Depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle, les portails occidentaux amiénois ont régulièrement fait l’objet de publications. Jusque récemment, les études consacrées aux sculptures se bornaient à décrire les sujets ... [more ▼]

Depuis le milieu du XIXe siècle, les portails occidentaux amiénois ont régulièrement fait l’objet de publications. Jusque récemment, les études consacrées aux sculptures se bornaient à décrire les sujets iconographiques, comme si les statues étaient l’illustration stricte des Ecritures Saintes. Cette manière de faire est symptomatique d’une approche conférant aux programmes sculptés une fonction didactique. Si la notion de « Bible des illettrés » n’est pas unanimement rejetée, elle est largement remise en question par la communauté scientifique en raison de la complexité des programmes, souvent conjuguée à un éloignement physique des statues, comme c’est le cas à Amiens. Depuis une vingtaine d’années, la fonction des images en général, et des sculptures en particulier, est revue et élargie. Les historiens de l’art mènent des études comparées entre sculptures et sources liturgiques ou théologiques (en ce qui concerne Amiens : W. Schlink, 1991; S. Murray, 1996 ; B. Boerner, 2010). Parmi les fonctions de l’image, on peut également citer le lien étroit entre sculpture et prédication, mis en lumière, pour Amiens, par S. Murray en 2005. De plus, les spécialistes utilisent d’autres approches pour affiner leur connaissance matérielle de l’œuvre. Parmi celles-­‐ci, l’archéologie du bâti, ou Baugeschichte, l’analyse technique des pigments ainsi que l’étude stylistique ont permis d’alimenter les débats sur la chronologie, la mise en place des portails et les transferts artistiques afin de se faire une idée globale des portails. La statuaire amiénoise n’a cependant pas encore profité d’une étude globale, circonstanciée et renouvelée. Il s’agit pour nous de la mettre en œuvre dans le cadre de notre thèse afin de mieux saisir son rôle dans la sculpture du XIIIe siècle. [less ▲]

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See detailMaturation du raisonnement biomédical évalué par la discussion d’une vignette clinique multidisciplinaire : étude longitudinale et relation avec la capacité de délimitation des connaissances
Collard, Anne ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

Conference (2012, August)

Contexte: Dans un curriculum médical comprenant des séminaires PBL, un Test de Concordance de Script nous avait permis de démontrer la maturation de la capacité de raisonnement, corrélée positivement avec ... [more ▼]

Contexte: Dans un curriculum médical comprenant des séminaires PBL, un Test de Concordance de Script nous avait permis de démontrer la maturation de la capacité de raisonnement, corrélée positivement avec la capacité de délimiter le champ de ses connaissances. L’objectif de la présente étude est de tester ces observations dans le contexte certificatif d’évaluation orale du raisonnement, sur base d’une vignette clinique discutée avec un collège d’enseignants. Résumé des travaux: Les données longitudinales d’évaluation de 279 étudiants ont été utilisées de la 2ème à la 5ème année du curriculum. Elles comprenaient les scores à l’examen oral de raisonnement ainsi que les degrés de certitude aux tests de connaissances (QCM). La capacité de délimitation du champ des connaissances a été calculée sur base de la différence entre les degrés de certitudes aux réponses correctes et les degrés de certitude aux réponses incorrectes au QCM. Résumé des résultats: Les résultats montrent, chez 213 étudiants qui réussissent d’emblée, une augmentation significative des performances à l’examen oral de raisonnement et une augmentation de la capacité de délimitation du champ des connaissances au cours des 4 années. Chez 66 étudiants qui échouent en 2ème année, cette capacité est plus faible et augmente l’année suivante après réussite de la 2ème année. Une corrélation positive entre les 2 indices étudiés est observée. Conclusions: Cette étude confirme, dans un contexte certificatif longitudinal au cours du curriculum médical, la maturation du raisonnement et celle de la capacité de délimiter le champ de ses connaissances. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of sensor and measurement timing errors on model-based insulin sensitivity
Pretty, Christopher ULg; Le Compte, Aaron J.; Shaw, Geoffrey M. et al

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailAutomates et systèmes de numération
Charlier, Emilie ULg

Conference (2012, August)

Ce cours d'1h30 est accessible à un grand public de mathématiciens, y compris les enseignants du secondaire. Je commencerai par définir ce que sont les automates finis. J'introduirai les systèmes de ... [more ▼]

Ce cours d'1h30 est accessible à un grand public de mathématiciens, y compris les enseignants du secondaire. Je commencerai par définir ce que sont les automates finis. J'introduirai les systèmes de numération en général. Je m'attarderai sur le cas des bases entières, et montrerai les propriétés remarquables de calculs dans ces bases, notamment le calcul de l'addition et de la multiplication par une constante par automate fini. Ensuite, j'étendrai ces considérations à des numérations dites non-standard et aux systèmes de Pisot. Enfin, je définirai les numérations abstraites. [less ▲]

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See detailAgriculture Urbaine, un métier d'avenir
Fiers, Marie; Claeys, Jean-Paul; Jijakli, Haissam ULg

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailOverview of smallholders’ local rice post-harvest activities in Benin: Gender, practices, commercialization and rice processors livelihoods
Zossou, Enangnon ULg; Vodouhe, Davo Simplice; Diagne, Aliou et al

Conference (2012, August)

Rice is a primary food source, vital vehicle in dealing with food security and eradicating poverty. In Benin rice is becoming increasingly important and its production and processing tasks are divided on ... [more ▼]

Rice is a primary food source, vital vehicle in dealing with food security and eradicating poverty. In Benin rice is becoming increasingly important and its production and processing tasks are divided on the basis of gender, with women being responsible for much of the drudgery involved in processing. To have an overview of gender and socio-economic dimensions of local rice processing in Benin, a study was conducted in the north and south of Benin with 240 smallholder rice processors randomly selected. In addition to structured interviews and weekly report sheets, the participatory assessment on sustainable livelihood approach was used to appreciate the different states of their financial, social, human, natural and physical capitals assets. Rice processors are mostly women (67% in the whole sample). Men are more representative in white rice processing while women are more representative in parboiled rice processing. Women rice processors have less acces to formal learning source and have bad practices during white rice processing. The traditional rice parboiling methods that don’t lead to good quality rice is prevalence. The main actors of local rice commercialization are the rice producers; the bodies of the Ministry of Agriculture; Famers Organisation and smallholder local rice processors who are generally young women. During local rice commercialization, women are more representative in the sale without contract in the processing village while men are more representative in the sale under a contract. The overall state of capitals is low with better scores in human, physical and natural capitals stocks for men and in social capital for women. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Mutual Fund Investors Still Trust Standard Risk-Adjusted Performance Measures?
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Bodson, Laurent ULg; Cave, Arnaud

Conference (2012, August)

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See detailCoparenting alliances assessment in heterosexual and same-sex parents triads
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Pardo, Seth; Favez, Nicolas

Conference (2012, July 27)

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See detailL’avenir du français dans le monde ? Le cœur et la raison
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July 24)

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See detailTHE ADDITIONAL VALUE OF HYPERSPECTRAL DATA FOR SMART FARMING
Migdall, Silke; Klug, Philipp; Denis, Antoine ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 22)

The spectral information contained in hyperspectral data allows for a more detailed crop and soil parameter retrieval, in turn making possible to derive precise information about plant health (nutrient ... [more ▼]

The spectral information contained in hyperspectral data allows for a more detailed crop and soil parameter retrieval, in turn making possible to derive precise information about plant health (nutrient deficiencies, water stress, crop diseases) but also about soil status (from soil moisture to humus content). Thus, smart farming, that is farming practice that wants to account for the whole ecosystem on the field and react precisely to any challenges, can be supported by hyperspectral data with exactly the spatial information it needs. [less ▲]

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See detailIntersubjectivity and intersubjectification: typology and operationalisation
Brems, Lieselotte ULg; Ghesquière, Lobke; van de velde, Freek

Conference (2012, July 19)

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See detailExtension of Bayesian procedures to integrate and to blend multiple external information into genetic evaluations
Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2012, July 18)

Current genetic evaluations are mostly based on local data, potentially followed by an international second step, as it is performed by INTERBULL (Uppsala, Sweden) for dairy breeds. However, reliability ... [more ▼]

Current genetic evaluations are mostly based on local data, potentially followed by an international second step, as it is performed by INTERBULL (Uppsala, Sweden) for dairy breeds. However, reliability of estimated breeding values (EBV) for animals with few local data may be limited. Furthermore, the current development of genomic selection makes this issue more important and the blending of those multiple sources more necessary. Current methods are based on selection index and Bayesian procedures were proposed for a single external source. The aim of this research was to extend these methods to integrate information from multiple sources outside a given evaluation system, i.e. external information, into this genetic evaluation, i.e. internal evaluation, and to assess its potential to blend multiple sources of information when only external information is available. To allow simplifications of the computational burden and the propagation of all external information through the whole pedigree, all animals were considered as animals associated to external information thanks to the prediction of external information from available one for internal animals, i.e. animals with no external information. Multiple considerations of contributions due to relationships among animals were also taken into account. Two dairy cattle populations were simulated across 5 generations. Internal females were randomly mated with internal and 50 external males. Milk production for the first lactation for each female was simulated in both populations. Results for 100 replicates showed that average rank correlations among Bayesian EBV and EBV based on the joint use of external and internal data were close to 1 for both external and internal animals. The respective correlations for the internal evaluation were equal to 0.54 and 0.95. Mean squared error, expressed as a percentage of the internal mean squared error, was close to 0% for both external and internal animals. Thereby, the Bayesian procedure has the potential to integrate and to blend multiple sources of external information to evaluate animals more reliably. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of milk recording schemes on milk and milk components genetic parameters in Luxembourg
Arnould, Valérie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg

Conference (2012, July 18)

A particularity of the Luxembourg milk recording is the use of different schemes. Two principal schemes are applied: the scheme “S” applied on 69.1% of the total herds (n=712) and consisting in one ... [more ▼]

A particularity of the Luxembourg milk recording is the use of different schemes. Two principal schemes are applied: the scheme “S” applied on 69.1% of the total herds (n=712) and consisting in one proportionate sample of all daily milkings, and the scheme “T” (21.6% of the total herds) which consists in one sample of only one milking (morning or evening milking) (and alternating milking time from month to month). The problematic is that application of different schemes could influence the milk components (protein and fat yield) and the milk fat components (saturated and unsaturated groups of fatty acids) genetic parameters estimation and to prevent all comparisons between dairy population under different milk recording schemes. A total of 47,613 and 44,833 test-day records were obtained, respectively for schemes “S” and “T” from Holstein cows in first lactation in Luxembourg dairy herds. The used model included as fixed effects: herd x date of test, class of age, and month x year. Random effects were permanent environmental, additive genetics, and residual effects. The main objective of this work is to study the effect the choice of milk recording schemes (“S” or “T” schemes) on milk yield and milk components genetic parameters. A solution could be to add a fixed effect taking in account the milking time. The second objective is to study the effect of milking time (morning or evening) on genetic parameters estimated in the case of scheme “T”. According to the results, genetic parameters were statistically different between the schemes “S” and “T” for milk yield (P value < 0.0001). Further, the classifications of bulls according to their breeding values were very different when values were estimated on basis of scheme “S” or “T” (Spearman correlation value of 0.51 for milk yield for example). In conclusion, using several milk recording schemes do not allow any comparison of genetic parameters between dairy cattle’s. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of genetic parameters for birth weight, pre-weaning mortality and hot carcass weight in a crossbred population of pigs
Dufrasne, Marie ULg; Misztal, Ignacy; Tsuruta, Shogo et al

Conference (2012, July 18)

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See detailGenetic parameters for methane indicator traits based on milk fatty acids in cows
Kandel, Purna Bhadra ULg; Vanlierde, Amélie ULg; Dehareng, Frédéric et al

Conference (2012, July 18)

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See detailBayesian integration of external information into the single step approach for genomically enhanced prediction of breeding values
Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Misztal, Ignacy; Faux, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 17)

An assumption to compute unbiased estimated breeding values (EBV) is that all information, i.e. genomic, pedigree and phenotypic information, has to be considered simultaneously. However, current ... [more ▼]

An assumption to compute unbiased estimated breeding values (EBV) is that all information, i.e. genomic, pedigree and phenotypic information, has to be considered simultaneously. However, current developments of genomic selection will bias evaluations because only records related to selected animals will be available. The single step genomic evaluation (ssGBLUP) could reduce pre-selection bias by the combination of genomic, pedigree and phenotypic information which are internal for the ssGBLUP. But, in opposition to multi-step methods, external information, i.e. information from outside ssGBLUP, like EBV and associated reliabilities from Multiple Across Country Evaluation which represent a priori known phenotypic information, are not yet integrated into the ssGBLUP. To avoid multi-step methods, the aim of the study was to assess the potential of a Bayesian procedure to integrate a priori known external information into a ssGBLUP by considering simplifications of computational burden, a correct propagation of external information and no multiple considerations of contributions due to relationships. To test the procedure, 2 dairy cattle populations (referenced by “internal” and “external”) were simulated as well as milk production for the first lactation of each female in both populations. Internal females were randomly mated with internal and 50 external males. Genotypes of 3000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for the 50 males were simulated. A ssGBLUP was applied as the internal evaluation. The external evaluation was based on phenotypic and pedigree external information. External information integrated into the ssGBLUP consisted to external EBV and associated reliabilities of the 50 males. Results showed that rank correlations among Bayesian EBV and EBV based on the joint use of external and internal data and genomic information were higher than 0.99 for the 50 males and internal animals. The respective correlations for the internal evaluation were equal to 0.50 and 0.90. Thereby, the Bayesian procedure can integrate external information into ssGBLUP. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of genomic prediction of fatty acids composition in milk of dairy cattle from Luxembourg using single-step procedure
Faux, Pierre ULg; Arnould, Valérie ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 16)

Milk composition in fatty acids (FA) portrays a class of novel traits of interest for both human health and animal robustness. With the exception of Wallonia, Luxembourg is currently the only place in the ... [more ▼]

Milk composition in fatty acids (FA) portrays a class of novel traits of interest for both human health and animal robustness. With the exception of Wallonia, Luxembourg is currently the only place in the world where, using mid-infrared spectrometry, milk composition in 29 FA is routinely recorded for dairy cows. Since 2007, spectral data has been recorded so far on 87,368 cows from 690 different herds, by 2 main control methods (T-method: one sample of only one milking, morning or evening, and S-method: proportionate sample of all daily milkings). Additionally, milk, fat and protein yields are available since 1990. The availability of FA allows many options for management use and animal breeding but requires advanced modeling (e.g., adapted to the testing methods). In the context of animal breeding, genomic selection has been widely developed in dairy cattle, where single-step approach (ssGBLUP) is particularly well suited for small-sized populations, as the dairy cattle population of Luxembourg (365,892 animals currently in pedigree) and is completely integrated into mixed modeling of phenotypic data. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the potential benefits of a single-step genomic evaluation on milk FA composition in a small-sized population and in particular (2) to quantify the impact of genomic information on reliability (REL) of estimated breeding values (EBV) of FA in Luxembourg. In a preliminary study for a single FA, oleic acid (C18:1 cis 9) genetic evaluations were performed on 47,613 milk records; collected by S-method, from 8,000 cows in first parity with a random regression test-day model using second order Legendre polynomials. For this sample, molecular data was simulated for 422 AI sires, ancestors of recorded cows. Prediction error variances (PEV) were used to compute REL and effective daughter contributions (EDC). First results showed a low increase in REL and EDC. Extension of this research to all sampling methods and research on the optimum structure of the reference population (bulls, cows) will be done to fit the Luxembourg-specific situation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa caméra et l'ouvrier: des "Sorties d'usine" à "Oeil/Machine III"
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2012, July 13)

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See detailStress et santé des dirigeants de PME
Angenot, Arnaud ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg; Eubelen, Isabelle et al

Conference (2012, July 12)

Comme l’atteste l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale ([INSERM], 2011), il est aujourd’hui devenu nécessaire de pouvoir mieux identifier les sources de stress chez les travailleurs ... [more ▼]

Comme l’atteste l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale ([INSERM], 2011), il est aujourd’hui devenu nécessaire de pouvoir mieux identifier les sources de stress chez les travailleurs indépendants. Parmi ceux-ci, les dirigeants de Petites et Moyennes Entreprises (PME) sont fréquemment victimes de problèmes de santé liés à une charge physique et mentale élevées (Bournois, Duval-Hamel, Scarengella & Roussillon, 2007 ; Gunnarsson, Vingard & Josephson, 2007). S’appuyant sur ces constats, cette étude a eu pour objectif d’évaluer leur sentiment d’épuisement professionnel et de déterminer les causes de stress spécifiques au milieu entrepreneurial. Pour ce faire, une enquête par questionnaire écrit a été menée à la demande de différentes organisations patronales belges du secteur de la construction et de la vente. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowave-treatment of frozen wood packaging material
Henin, Jean-Marc; Bauduin, Aline; Leyman, Michaël ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 12)

As part of the wood packaging material (WPM) regulation in international trade, the dielectric heating (DH) is soon to be included in ISPM15 (IPPC 2009) as an approved phytosanitary treatment. It has been ... [more ▼]

As part of the wood packaging material (WPM) regulation in international trade, the dielectric heating (DH) is soon to be included in ISPM15 (IPPC 2009) as an approved phytosanitary treatment. It has been considered that when using dielectric radiation (i.e. microwaves or radiofrequencies), reaching 60°C or more throughout the entire profile of the wood during at least 60s (i.e. 60°C/60s) ensures the eradication of any noxious organism present in the wood. Regarding the treatment itself, the main requirements mentioned in the draft of ISPM15 Annex 1 (IPPC 2011) concern the way to achieve “uniformity of heating” as well as the treatment duration, which must not exceed 30min. Concerning wood characteristics, the only restriction to the DH concerns the thickness of the wood pieces, which must not exceed 20cm; no other restriction exists regarding wood moisture content, density or initial temperature. As reported in the draft of ISPM15 Annex 1, it is generally considered that “when using microwaves as a heating source, the coldest part of the wood is the surface”. This statement implies that achieving 60°C (or more) during 60s at the surface of the wood should guarantee compliance with IPPC requirements (i.e. 60°C throughout the profile of the wood). However, since ice and liquid water exhibit very different properties towards microwaves, initially frozen wood (9cmX9cm and 17cmX17cm in cross-section) was irradiated in a 28.8 kW microwave oven (2.45GHz) in order to assess whether achieving 60°C/60s at the surface of less than 20cm-thick planks ensures higher core temperatures. The temperature pattern observed after the treatment was compared with the one observed after the treatment of initially thawed wood pieces. It was observed that, in some conditions, initially frozen pieces exhibit inside temperature (much) lower than 60°C, despite complying with 60°C/60s all over the surface of the wood. These results show that when wood is heated with microwaves, its coldest part may not be the surface. Our results also strongly suggest that the impact of wood properties on post-treatment temperature pattern should be further investigated in order to better identify the limits of the DH (at least on frozen wood). [less ▲]

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See detailA research project : young children in situation of handicap taking an active part in their everyday life
Camus, Pascale ULg

Conference (2012, July 12)

Despite the fact that Belgium has ratified the Convention on the Rights of theCchild in 1992, few children with special needs, aged 0-3, are effectively taken care in ECEC services. When it appears that ... [more ▼]

Despite the fact that Belgium has ratified the Convention on the Rights of theCchild in 1992, few children with special needs, aged 0-3, are effectively taken care in ECEC services. When it appears that they have access to services, care is focused on their deficiency, professionals often consider access as a favour done to the child and its family who is seen first as having special needs (instead of being first a child with competences). The workshop has proposed to explore and question the nature and the extent of participation for those children that are taken care in ECEC services (out of their families). Some questions have been explored and discussed: - Is little children's participation more rhetoric than reality? What are the representations about rights of children in situation of handicap to participate? What if we compare to protection and provision rights? - What does “participation” mean for little children in situation of handicap in an ECEC service? - How the representations adults have can work on conditions to participate? The necessity to adopt a thinking where the focus is placed on each child’s competences and interests … [less ▲]

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See detailFull discontinuous Galerkin formulation of shells in large deformations with parallel and fracture mechanics applications
Becker, Gauthier ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

Conference (2012, July 11)

Fracture mechanical problems can be solved by coupling the finite elements with a cohesive approach. Unfortunately, the classical cohesive methods suffer from severe limitations. Indeed, on one hand, the ... [more ▼]

Fracture mechanical problems can be solved by coupling the finite elements with a cohesive approach. Unfortunately, the classical cohesive methods suffer from severe limitations. Indeed, on one hand, the intrinsic approach, which inserts the cohesive elements at the beginning, has to model the prefracture stage. This requires an initial slope in the traction separation law that should tend toward infinity to avoid lack of consistency leading to obvious numerical problems. On the other hand, the extrinsic cohesive method inserts the cohesive elements during the simulation when a fracture criterion is reached. This insertion requires topological mesh modifications and therefore a very complicated implementation, especially in a parallel code. To overcome these limitations, new methods were developed and in particular, an approach based on discontinuous Galerkin formulation (DG) has been pioneered by R. Radovitzky (Radovitzky cmame2011). The use of the DG principle allows to formulate the problem with discontinuous elements and the continuity between them is ensured weakly by terms integrated on the elements interface . These interface elements can be easily replaced by a cohesive element during the simulation. We have recently developed this approach for shells (Becker cmame2011) to obtain a full DG method. Moreover, a new cohesive law based on the reduced stresses of the thin bodies formulation is developed to propagate a fracture through the thickness. This cohesive model dissipates the right amount of energy during crack phenomena. These developments are implemented in parallel and validated by the study the blast of a notched cylinder, for which experimental and numerical (by XFEM method) data are reported in the literature by R. Larsson (Larsson ijnme2011). Finally, as thin structures are often made of ductile materials, which show large deformations before fracture, the formulation is extended to the non linear case with hyperelastic material law. This one can take into account the damage and a criterion based on the work of Huespe (Huespe plasticity2009) is developed to localize the damage leading to the apparition and propagation of cracks. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of growth rate and radial position on the natural durability of Douglas-fir
Pollet, Caroline; Henin, Jean-Marc; Jourez, Benoît ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 11)

In terms of natural durability, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) fame owns to the favourable characteristics of centuries-old trees harvested in old-growth North American forests. The ... [more ▼]

In terms of natural durability, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) fame owns to the favourable characteristics of centuries-old trees harvested in old-growth North American forests. The properties of wood coming from plantations harvested between 50 and 100 years-old are likely to be different. In such stands, plantation density and thinning intensity may have a large impact on the trees growth rate. Since this parameter is known to affect some properties of the wood, it was decided to assess to what extent an increase in Douglas fir growth rate affects the natural durability of its wood. This issue is indeed poorly documented in the scientific literature. This parameter was evaluated on standardized heartwood specimens taken from 60 trees originating from 10 stands in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). In all these stands, the average girth of the trees ranged between 140 and 160cm, whilst their age (from plantation) ranged from 38 to 66 years old: These stands are thus representative of very contrasted silvicultural management practices. In terms of individual growth, the Mean Ring Width of the trees ranges between ca 3 and 7mm. Globally, 600 tests specimens were taken from two radial positions in the heartwood of each tree. Half of the specimens were taken in the heartwood at the border of the sapwood; the other half encloses the 20 years old ring, counting from the pith. The mass losses caused by the wood decaying fungus Poria placenta were assessed according to Cen/ts 15083-1 (2005).The natural durability of the wood is discussed as affected by sites, trees, radial positions in tree and tree growth rate. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative photosynthetic electron pathways in symbiotic dinoflagellates of reef-building corals
Roberty, Stéphane ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg; Franck, Fabrice ULg

Conference (2012, July 11)

The high productivity of coral reef ecosystems is largely attributed to the mutualistic symbiosis between reef-building corals and their intracellular dinoflagellate in the genus Symbiodinium. In the ... [more ▼]

The high productivity of coral reef ecosystems is largely attributed to the mutualistic symbiosis between reef-building corals and their intracellular dinoflagellate in the genus Symbiodinium. In the natural environment the holobiont have to cope with significant daily variations in light intensities that sometimes exceed Symbiodinium photosynthetic capacity. Fortunately, photosynthetic organisms possess regulatory features that help to ensure that high light intensities can be endured without the accumulation of photodamage. Thus, the regulation of photosynthesis can be viewed as a dynamic balance between photosynthetic efficiency (photochemical quenching) and photoprotection processes (i.e. non-photochemical quenching). In addition to the linear electron flow (LEF) operating during oxygenic photosynthesis, alternative electron flows (AEF) have been widely described in higher plants and microalgae but not in Symbiodinium. The present study aimed to highlight the existence of the Mehler ascorbate peroxidase pathway (reduction of oxygen by PSI), chlororespiration (oxidation by molecular O2 of the PQ pool) and cyclic electron flow around PSI. We report that the presence of particular AEF and/or their amplitude vary from one clade to another. These processes could play a key role under particular environmental conditions when sinks for photosynthetic electrons are scarce. Indeed, they could sustain significant levels of photosynthetic electron flux by initiating the ΔpH formation and of NPQ, regulating the ratio of ATP/NADPH to match the requirements of carbon reduction and reducing the excitation pressure over the photosynthetic apparatus. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the West vs rest of world dichotomy. Introduction to a world-system approach of national innovation systems
Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Conference (2012, July 11)

In this paper we want to think of science, technology and innovation policies from a perspective that would transcend the West vs rest of world dichotomy. We suggest that this will help to reintroduce a ... [more ▼]

In this paper we want to think of science, technology and innovation policies from a perspective that would transcend the West vs rest of world dichotomy. We suggest that this will help to reintroduce a critical perspective in Science and Technology Policy (STP) studies because the asymmetry of power relations will be made more salient than in the dominant but often implicit elite-framed narrative of “innovation for development”. Power is indeed in the very heart of innovation: when the latter is performed, it means that power has been unequally distributed amongst a number of actors that took part to a complex systemic process including natural resources extraction, fundamental and applied research, industrial applications and economic competitiveness leading to further benefits. With evidence from Latin America, we find that developing countries fall victim of a dominant narrative which is actually entrenched in an hegemonic structure, a consistent pattern that reflects the coloniality of power. We intend to challenge this merely ethnocentric perspective that still prevails using the theory of world-systems as a resource which enables a renewal of a critique over recent developments with national innovation systems (NIS) in so-called developing countries. We conclude by investigating what the implications would be for better STP studies to open NIS to cosmopolitan criticism. [less ▲]

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See detailDissolved primary production and heterotrophic prokaryote reassimilation in a large oligotrophic tropical lake (Lake Kivu, Eastern Africa)
Morana, Cédric; Sarmento, Hugo; Bouillon, Steven et al

Conference (2012, July 11)

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See detailMise en réseau et désacralisation de l'image d'archives: 'Le fond de l'air est rouge' (Marker) et 'Guerre et paix' (Kluge e.a.)
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULg

Conference (2012, July 10)

Au contact de quelques séquences de Guerre et paix (1982) et de Le fond de l’air est rouge (1977), nous identifions d’abord une pratique commune à A. Kluge et Ch. Marker, qui s’apparente à une ... [more ▼]

Au contact de quelques séquences de Guerre et paix (1982) et de Le fond de l’air est rouge (1977), nous identifions d’abord une pratique commune à A. Kluge et Ch. Marker, qui s’apparente à une désacralisation de l’image d’archives. Détruisant la solennité de plusieurs représentations historiques, Kluge ôte aux images leur capacité d’émouvoir et « d’impressionner » le spectateur, pour les projeter dans une succession d’associations. En soulignant un ensemble de liens visuels entre différentes représentations et postures, Marker introduit également une distance discrète entre la représentation historique et l’investissement politico-affectif auquel elle prêtait le flanc. Nous interrogeons ensuite les démarches de nos deux auteurs à partir d’un point de vue plus politique : si les associations klugiennes peuvent mettre le spectateur au travail, lui apprendre à prendre conscience des similitudes de différentes représentations dans le but avoué d’en faire un analyste critique du monde qui l’entoure, si Marker révèle visuellement certains « moments d’histoire » comme autant de parties intégrantes d’un réseau autonome de représentations, les deux auteurs ne maintiennent-ils pas par conséquent le spectateur dans le registre de la représentation ? Ne reportent-ils pas sans cesse un possible investissement affectif et émotionnel (politique) de la représentation sur d’autres représentations ? Et la conscience politique du spectateur n’est-elle pas subordonnée alors au spectacle de l’histoire dont elle ne peut s’émanciper? Enfin, si tel est le cas, cette conscience ne risque-t-elle pas de déboucher sur un état proprement mélancolique, le spectateur comprenant que le spectacle de l’histoire conservé dans l’archive, détermine à lui seul son rapport au monde ? [less ▲]

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See detail(Re-)Assessing Political Careers Patterns in Multi-level systems. Insights from Wallonia
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

The establishment of regional Parliaments in Western Europe has renewed the study of political careers. Since the beginning of the 21st century, an increasing number of – conceptual and empirical – ... [more ▼]

The establishment of regional Parliaments in Western Europe has renewed the study of political careers. Since the beginning of the 21st century, an increasing number of – conceptual and empirical – studies have been published on political careers in multi-level systems. Despite the richness of the novel analytical approaches proposed, I argue that the current trend in the literature that consists to label a whole region (or even a country) as illustrations of integrated, alternative, or hierarchical careers pattern (might) produce an imperfect picture of the reality – or even worse, could lead to a misleading conclusion. I rather hypothesize that, within a single region, the possibility of multiple careers patterns has to be a priori considered: distinct professional political classes might co-exist. In this respect, two methodological elements must be integrated into the research design. Firstly, from a heuristic point of view, researchers should move from the (mere) analysis of level-hopping movements between two elections and rather adopt a microscopic point of view through the study of every single individual political careers (internal validity). Secondly, the cases under investigation should be selected only if they display a critical amount of legislatures in order to observe robust and non-contingent career patterns (external validity). For the sake of parsimony and clarity of my demonstration, I recourse to an in-depth case study – Walloon political careers – but cross-sectional research are certainly determinant to (in-)valid this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the alteration processes of Prussian blue in laboratory-prepared and genuine paint layers
Samain, Louise ULg; Sanyova, Jana; Strivay, David ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

The necessity of understanding degradation and alteration processes in a painting's materials is well established for preservation and art history issues. The task is complex because of the highly ... [more ▼]

The necessity of understanding degradation and alteration processes in a painting's materials is well established for preservation and art history issues. The task is complex because of the highly heterogeneous character of an ancient paint layer. In this context we focus on a particular pigment, Prussian blue. Prussian blue is a hydrated ferric ferrocyanide complex, first synthesized in 1704 in Berlin. It has been widely used by artists until the 1970s. However, the permanence of Prussian blue had already been questioned by the mid-eighteenth century, because it exhibits a tendency to fade in light and to turn green. To date, little attention has been devoted to the understanding of the degradation processes of Prussian blue in paint layers. We induced discoloration upon light exposure in commercial and laboratory-synthesized Prussian blue watercolor and oil paint layers by accelerated ageing. Pure Prussian blue painted in a dark shade appears to be extremely light fast but fades when either painted in a lighter shade or mixed with white pigments. We analyzed the paint layers by various techniques, i.e., UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared, Raman, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We attributed the fading of Prussian blue to a reduction of the iron(III) ions at the surface of the paint layers. We also observed a partial oxidation of Prussian in the entire paint layer. Finally we confirmed these results by analyzing works of art containing Prussian blue, i.e., a polychrome sculpture, wallpapers and mural decoration sample. [less ▲]

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See detailRéinventer l´Archive : naissance de la collection
Thonon, Jonathan ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

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See detailBiotechnologies agricoles et coopération Sud-Sud: les défis liés aux OGM dans la politique brésilienne d’exportation de produits agricoles à destination de la Chine
Wintgens, Sophie ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

Dans un contexte de libéralisation et d’interdépendance accrues, la commercialisation des biotechnologies agricoles représente une opportunité de rattrapage économique pour les pays en développement ... [more ▼]

Dans un contexte de libéralisation et d’interdépendance accrues, la commercialisation des biotechnologies agricoles représente une opportunité de rattrapage économique pour les pays en développement engagés dans un processus d’ouverture et d’intégration aux marchés mondiaux. Leur coopération dans le domaine de l’innovation biotechnologique constitue de surcroît une marge de manœuvre potentielle face aux puissances occidentales. Toutefois, la confusion règlementaire prévalant en la matière soumet ces prémices de coopération Sud-Sud au risque de l’instrumentalisation stratégique. À travers le prisme du partenariat sino-brésilien dans le secteur de l’agro-business, cet article se focalise sur le cas du soja transgénique afin de comprendre comment se construit une relation d’interdépendance dissymétrique entre un leader agricole brésilien et un challenger chinois. [less ▲]

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See detail"L'archive comme espace de re-création (II) : du recyclage d'images disqualifiées"
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

This paper examines the archive as a space of re-creation for contemporary artists. More specifically, it deals with contemporary found footage films recycling aesthetically discredited material ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the archive as a space of re-creation for contemporary artists. More specifically, it deals with contemporary found footage films recycling aesthetically discredited material (industrial film, medical footage, porn, etc.). In particular, this paper focuses on Peter Tscherkassky’s latest work, "Coming Attractions" (2010). In this film, the Austrian filmmaker reworks and repurposes various advertising films and stresses the multiple connections he can identify between contemporary experimental film, the avant-garde (Fernand Léger, Henri Chomette, among others), the aesthetics of publicity and, allusively, the cinema of attractions (Lumière, Méliès, R. W. Paul). [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Tana River Basin, Kenya
Tamooh; Meysman, F; Van den Meersche, K et al

Conference (2012, July 08)

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See detailAssessment of pesticide application method efficiency by high-speed image analysis
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Denis, Thierry; Perriot, Benjamin et al

Conference (2012, July 08)

This paper investigates if increased blackgrass weeding efficiency by reduced volume per hectare observed during 2010 Arvalis field trials may be related to increased pesticide application method ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates if increased blackgrass weeding efficiency by reduced volume per hectare observed during 2010 Arvalis field trials may be related to increased pesticide application method efficiency. Retention on blackgrass leaves was assessed by an image analysis method. The setup consists of a high-speed camera shooting drop impact on horizontal leaf target. An herbicide (Archipel® [125 g/ha] + Actirob® [1 l/ha]) was sprayed at the usual volume of 150 l/ha and at a reduced volume of 65 l/ha. Adjuvants use (Epsotop® [1%] + Heliosol® [0.5%]) was also evaluated at 65 l/ha to highlight the effect of mixture surface tension modification. Drop properties before impact were extracted by image analysis and a phase diagram derived. Volumetric proportions of impact types are determined inside 11 energy classes to assess the effect of formulation and application method. The volume median diameter (VMD) before impact was slightly decreased by the reduction to 65 l/ha because of nozzle and pressure changes and also by the use of the adjuvants leading to the reduction of surface tension. Without adjuvants the reduction to 65l/ha increased the proportion of adhesion while rebound remained unchanged and fragmentation decreased. With adjuvants, drop fragmentation occurs for a lower energy class but the proportion of fragmentation also decreases with because of reduced VMD. A slight effect on the transitions between impact classes was observed because of formulation concentration change at reduced volume/hectare. A major effect of adjuvants on retention was highlighted as bouncing disappeared. [less ▲]

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See detailIs "translational research" reshaping health policy ?
Fallon, Catherine ULg

Conference (2012, July 08)

Biomedical research is an area of fast evolving development. Although biomedical research occurs in internationally nested research laboratories, application development occurs in local settings, such as ... [more ▼]

Biomedical research is an area of fast evolving development. Although biomedical research occurs in internationally nested research laboratories, application development occurs in local settings, such as hospitals, which are central instruments for health policies. Much translation work occurs to build new forms of cooperation between biomedical researchers and medical doctors. The first group works in an international competitive environment, acting as research entrepreneurs with connection to the pharmaceutical industry in the logics of "open innovation". Members of the second group are embedded in hospital systems, within a web of constrains, being accountable as well to their patients as to their managers, and to their professional constrains which are most of the time defined within specific institutions at national level, in close relation to public health authorities. These links at micro-meso-macro levels between medics and their environment are put under constrains by biomedical innovations (as was shown in Europe during the controversy around the breast cancer products from Myriad Genetics). In order to organise new forms of cooperation and to dismantle frontiers between the "bench world" and the "bed world", a new concept was put at the fore : "translational research" which is supporting new forms of cooperation "from bench to bed" with all associated partners, ensuring enrolment of the individual patient and the policy makers. Starting with the presentation of the new science production regime in French speaking Belgium, the paper proposes to deconstruct the conditions of emergence of the new instruments of science production in biomedical research to understand institutional reorganisation and new power balances. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Ἐρωτικὰ Παθήματα de Parthénios de Nicée: entre passions et raison
Vandersmissen, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July 07)

Les Ἐρωτικὰ Παθήματα de Parthénios de Nicée est l’unique œuvre conservée d’un auteur grec aujourd’hui peu connu malgré son évident succès au Ier siècle av. J.-C. Cet écrivain lettré originaire de Nicée ... [more ▼]

Les Ἐρωτικὰ Παθήματα de Parthénios de Nicée est l’unique œuvre conservée d’un auteur grec aujourd’hui peu connu malgré son évident succès au Ier siècle av. J.-C. Cet écrivain lettré originaire de Nicée, ramené comme esclave à Rome lors des guerres contre Mithridate puis libéré grâce à son talent littéraire était surtout apprécié pour sa poésie. Le hasard de la tradition manuscrite ne nous a cependant transmis que ce petit recueil en prose dédié au célèbre poète latin, Cornélius Gallus. L’opuscule a l’originalité de rassembler trente-six résumés d’histoire d’amour à l’issue malheureuse voire tragique. Au fil des récits, l’auteur raconte les conséquences funestes d’émotions démesurées comme la folie amoureuse sur les protagonistes, symboles du genre humain. Sur base d’une analyse philologique et sémantique minutieuse, l’exposé aura donc pour but de présenter le traitement littéraire de la passion et de son opposé, la raison dans cet ouvrage si particulier de Parthénios. [less ▲]

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See detailVideo multitracking to study the fish behaviour
Delcourt, Johann ULg; Ylieff, Marc ULg; Bolliet, Valérie et al

Conference (2012, July 07)

With the development of digital imaging techniques over the last decade, there are now new opportunities to study complex behavioural patterns and rhythms in fish (from individual to collective group) and ... [more ▼]

With the development of digital imaging techniques over the last decade, there are now new opportunities to study complex behavioural patterns and rhythms in fish (from individual to collective group) and to track a very large number of individuals. These new technologies and methods provide valuable information to fundamental and applied science disciplines such as ethology, animal sociology, animal psychology, veterinary sciences, animal welfare sciences, statistical physics, pharmacology, as well as neuro- and ecotoxicology. Specifically in situations where a large number of individuals are involved, the use of video tracking data is essential, as manual analyses would be complicated, time-consuming and sometimes even impossible. Today, multitracking allows us to observe directly the behaviours of groups, and to determine the real interaction rules by sampling data collected in nature or in the laboratory, without any a posteriori rules as it was and is frequently the case in computer simulation of collective behaviours. With these technologies, the quantitative measures of collective behaviours is now easily accessible, and allow to define social behaviours with more accuracy than just qualitative criteria as is always the case for instance with the definition of shoaling and schooling behaviours. Firstly will be introduced a review of fish video multitracking techniques. This review describes the possibilities of tracking individuals and groups at different scales, but also outlines the advantages and limitations of the different detection methods. The problem of occlusions, during which errors of individual identifications are very frequent, will be discuss. Secondly, our recent contribution in colour-based multitracking will be introduced, notably the new application of fluorescent VIE (Visible Implant Elastomer) tags in automatic tracking technology to study the behaviour of transparent animals like glass eels (Anguilla anguilla) in dim light or in darkness. The method makes it possible to measure the activity (notably distance and speed) of four individuals as a function of tidal and nycthemeral rhythms in the same flume (circular aquarium simulating the river or estuarine conditions) across a wide time scale (from seconds to weeks) in the context of migration in estuary. [less ▲]

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See detailThe metaphors of the Belgian political crisis: evidence from citizens' discourse and the parties' manifestos
Perrez, Julien ULg; Reuchamps, Min ULg

Conference (2012, July 07)

Since 2009 Belgium has been through an unprecedented political and institutional crisis, which has come to an end with the forming of a new federal government in December 2011. This crisis can partly be ... [more ▼]

Since 2009 Belgium has been through an unprecedented political and institutional crisis, which has come to an end with the forming of a new federal government in December 2011. This crisis can partly be explained by the victory of the Flemish nationalist party (N-VA) in the federal elections of 2009 and by the diverging views of the two main parts of the country on the functioning and the future of the federal state. In this presentation, we try to assess to what extent this political crisis can be explained on the metaphorical level by analysing the use of conceptual metaphors in different types of political discourse for the period 2007-2010. While politics constitutes an abstract and complex domain of experience in which metaphors play a prominent role (Lakoff 2002, De Landtsheer 2009, Semino 2008), little attention has been paid to the use of conceptual metaphors in actual political discourse (see Authors to appear, De Landtsheer 2009, Koller 2009, L’Hôte & Lemmens 2009 for some examples). In this contribution we propose to study political conceptual metaphors in two types of corpora, which have traditionally been left out of the analysis, namely political party programmes on the one hand and citizens’ discourse on the other. Our first research goal is to identify the conceptual metaphors the main Flemish (Groen!, SP.a, CD&V, Open VLD, N-VA, Vlaams Belang) and Walloon (Ecolo, PS, CDH, MR) political parties developed in their programmes and to study their level of circularity, that is to what extent they are present in the other parties’ programmes. This will allow us to determine which were the dominant metaphors of the campaign leading to the federal elections of 2009 and the victory of the Flemish nationalist party (N-VA). In a second stage, we will analyse citizens’ discourse, which was collected during two citizen panels on Belgian federalism, and evaluate to what extent these dominant metaphors determined the citizens’ perception and comprehension of the Belgian political situation. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral modelling of massive binary systems: The example of LZ Cep
Palate, Matthieu ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

Despite their importance for many astrophysical processes, massive stars are still not fully understood. Massive binaries offer an attractive way to improve our knowledge of the fundamental properties of ... [more ▼]

Despite their importance for many astrophysical processes, massive stars are still not fully understood. Massive binaries offer an attractive way to improve our knowledge of the fundamental properties of these objects. However, some secondary effects are known to generate variations in the spectra of massive binaries, rendering their analyses more difficult. We present here a new approach to the computation of synthetic spectra of massive binaries at different phases of their orbital cycle. Our model starts with the Roche potential modified by radiation pressure and accounts for the influence of the companion star on the shape and physical properties of the stellar surface. We further account for gravity darkening and reflection effects to compute the surface temperature. Once the local gravity and temperature are determined, we interpolate in a grid of NLTE plan-parallel atmosphere model spectra to obtain the local contribution to the spectrum at each surface points. Then we sum all the contributions, accounting for the Doppler shift, and limb-darkening to obtain the total spectrum. The computation is repeated for different orbital phases and can be compared to the observations to determine the best parameters. We illustrate our method through the example of the LZ Cep system (O9III + ON9.7V). [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la recherche de la médiation scolaire
Dethier, Baptiste ULg; Dubois, Christophe ULg; Gérard, Julie ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 06)

Dans nos sociétés en réseaux, on peut faire société sans partager des valeurs communes. Le fonctionnement des institutions scolaires illustre les nouveaux modes de régulation des tensions, de la diversité ... [more ▼]

Dans nos sociétés en réseaux, on peut faire société sans partager des valeurs communes. Le fonctionnement des institutions scolaires illustre les nouveaux modes de régulation des tensions, de la diversité, de l'intégration, de l’incertitude… C'est dans ce contexte que le concept de médiation a fait son apparition dans nos écoles, comme dispositif d'apaisement ou de maintien du lien social. Sa diffusion doit beaucoup à la création de services centraux puis locaux de médiation, tout comme au travail de nombreux médiateurs qui ont peu à peu investi le champ scolaire comme les champs familiaux, judiciaires, sanitaires, administratifs et sociaux les plus divers. Cette communication présente les résultats d’un travail empirique exploratoire mené dans six écoles secondaires belges francophones. L’enquête s’appuie sur une double méthodologie, à savoir des études de cas basées sur des entretiens semi-directifs (n=56) réalisés avec des acteurs internes et externes aux établissements, ainsi que sur des focus groups sectoriels (n=14) (enseignants, personnel éducatif, élèves). L’étude consiste à décrire et analyser divers dispositifs inspirés par différents référentiels (restauration, reliance, intégration, concertation…) et transposés en une multitude de pratiques concrètes souvent qualifiée de travail de « médiation ». La dimension fondamentalement imprévisible de ce travail et l’incertitude quant à ses résultats interrogent les modalités de production d’un pluralisme normatif. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonnes vulnérables en création collective. Une intervention théâtrale comme outil face à l’incertain ?
Brahy, Rachel ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

Lorsque l’incertitude se décline dans les parcours de vie, elle se traduit souvent par un sentiment diffus de mal-être. Or, l’incertitude quant à l’avenir toucherait plus durement encore les personnes ... [more ▼]

Lorsque l’incertitude se décline dans les parcours de vie, elle se traduit souvent par un sentiment diffus de mal-être. Or, l’incertitude quant à l’avenir toucherait plus durement encore les personnes qu’on qualifie aujourd’hui de «vulnérables» (Soulet, 2005) : ces femmes et ces hommes qui, à un moment donné, font appel à un Centre Public d’Action Sociale pour obtenir un revenu d’intégration sociale ; celles et ceux qui suivent inlassablement des formations dans l’espoir d’accéder un jour à l’emploi. En Belgique francophone, il existe une série de dispositifs qui touchent directement à cette question du sens ; abordant de manière inédite une «question sociale» ainsi reformulée. Parmi ces dispositifs «innovants», notre analyse s’attachera aux ateliers-théâtre (animés par des comédiens-animateurs issus de compagnies de théâtre-action). Partant de ce terrain d’investigation spécifique, nous interrogerons la façon dont s’opère la mise au travail du sujet sur lui-même (Vrancken, Macquet, 2006). Trois questions retiendront notre attention : tout d’abord, l’outil théâtral s’offre-t-il comme une modalité «alternative» de travail social ? Ensuite, en quoi est-il (ou non) à même de se faire «support» (Martuccelli, 2002) face à cette question du sens et de l’incertain ? Et finalement, un tel dispositif ne se présente-t-il pas comme une voie féconde pour une meilleure connaissance des «politiques de la subjectivité» ; elles-mêmes largement incertaines et difficiles à cerner ? [less ▲]

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See detailSoil carbon budget of a 50-year residue management experiment in a Belgian cropland.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Roisin, Christian; Aubinet, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in ... [more ▼]

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in different residue management treatments through the establishment of their soil C budgets and (2) to compare these estimations with field SHR measurements. Three contrasted treatments were considered: Residue Export (RE), Farm Yard Manure addition (FYM) and Residue Restitution after harvest (RR). They were established in 1959 and continuously applied since then at an experimental field located in the Hesbaye region in Belgium. The soil C budget was calculated for each treatment on the basis of total soil organic C content measurements and C input data compiled since the beginning of the experiment. This allowed estimating the C loss by SHR in the different treatments. SHR measurements were performed in 2010 and 2011 to compare them with the budget-based estimations and to assess SHR sensitivity to temperature in the different treatments. The soil C budgets showed that the soil under the RR treatment was likely to undergo the biggest C loss by SHR since the beginning of the experiment. The SHR field measurements, performed 50 years after the experiment had begun, did however not show any significant difference between the SHR rates in the three treatments. Laboratory investigations (microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic diversity and soil fractionation) will be performed to better understand the effects of long-term residue management on soil C dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailUsage de l’agriculture dans le social : dispositifs, pratiques et formes d’engagement
Muramatsu, Kenjiro ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

La vulnérabilité en tant que risque incertain mais permanent de désaffiliation et d’exclusion auquel les individus sont exposés, fait appel à de nouveaux modes de reconnaissance et d’action collective. Le ... [more ▼]

La vulnérabilité en tant que risque incertain mais permanent de désaffiliation et d’exclusion auquel les individus sont exposés, fait appel à de nouveaux modes de reconnaissance et d’action collective. Le problème des risques de perte d’autonomie chez les personnes, thème central des nouvelles politiques du social étudiées, ne peut être totalement abordé ni par la logique de la responsabilité individuelle, ni par la garantie indifférenciée du droit social, ni par des traitements d’urgence et locaux, mais nécessite une remise en question du rapport entre l’économique et le social à travers les effets des dispositifs d’action collective et les changements dans les styles de vie des personnes. Les deux cas d’études ont été mis en comparaison : un dispositif japonais de services de formation agricole citoyenne, visant à allier l'agricole (revalorisation de friches agricoles) et le social (« Ikigai », sens de la vie, des seniors) ; un dispositif belge d’insertion visant à allier le social (insertion) et l'économique (maraîchage bio avec la vente de paniers). Ils montrent l’importance de deux formes d’engagement spécifiques d’un côté le « régime de compassion » chez les opérateurs, de l’autre le régime que nous avons qualifié d’ « autonomie sociale » chez les usagers. L’activité agricole, liée profondément à la nature, au corps, à l’esprit et à la sociabilité, y offre un espace intermédiaire et réflexif entre l’autonomie des individus, l’aide institutionnelle et la territorialité. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Belgium soil survey project: A heritage to preserve
Legrain, Xavier ULg; Dondeyne, Stefaan; Deckers, Jozef et al

Conference (2012, July 06)

Between 1947 and 1991, soils of Belgium were mapped to establish a systematic inventory of the country soil resources. Field observations were done by soil auger to a standard depth of 1.25 m and at a ... [more ▼]

Between 1947 and 1991, soils of Belgium were mapped to establish a systematic inventory of the country soil resources. Field observations were done by soil auger to a standard depth of 1.25 m and at a mean density of 2 points per hectare. Cadastral plans at scale 1:5,000 where used for georeferencing field observations and for delimiting map units, subsequently generalized on the 1:10,000 topographic base map. The final map was published on sheets at scale 1:20,000 along with descriptive texts. Besides, data on about 15,000 described and analyzed soil profiles were reported in technical annexes. With the advent of computers, data on soil profiles have been transfered into relational databases and soil sheets have been digitized. Coding of the data rendered them more accessible, but inevitably implied a standardization and hence a reduction of some information. Still most of the soil surveyors have already passed away, besides their intangible expert knowledge, a wealth of information is also being lost when their field notes, unpublished reports, minutes of meetings and draft maps are being disregarded. The map legend was developed during the first decade of the survey, reflecting state of knowledge on soil formation and their relative importance for agricultural land-use in the 1950s. To guarantee that future generations will be able to appreciate the value and concepts underpinning the soil information, it is important that at least a minimum set of such historical documents would be preserved, analyzed and documented. [less ▲]

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