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See detailValorisation action of plastic member capacity of semi-compact steel sections - a more economic design
Greiner, Richard; Lechner, Andreas; Kettler, Markus et al

Conference (2011, October 12)

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See detailImmunoassay using a biofunctionnalized alumina-coated capacitive biosensor: towards a microfluidic detection of the H5N1 Influenza virus
Overstraeten-Schlögel, Nancy; Dupuis, Pascal; Lefévre, Olivia et al

Conference (2011, October 12)

Influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that spread worldwide. The nucleoprotein is essential for the survival of this virus and is thus well-conserved. We developed a ... [more ▼]

Influenza A viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics that spread worldwide. The nucleoprotein is essential for the survival of this virus and is thus well-conserved. We developed a quantitative electronic biosensor displaying a protein recognition thanks to the covalent grafting of anti-nucleoprotein antibodies. The detection device lies on interdigitated array microelectrodes (IDAM), covered with alumina (Al2O3) to protect the underlying aluminum and enhance the electrical coupling. As the dimensions of the IDAM can determine the sensitivity of the sensor, we processed 4 structures with varying electrode widths and spacings in the same silicon chip and assessed their individual performance. The sensing area of each sensor is 200*200 µm2 and the overall chip-size is 3*3 mm2. The sensor is mounted in a DIL-16-package partially encapsulated by resin. [less ▲]

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See detailThe adaptive efficiency of planning systems: the control of residential sprawl in the Netherlands, Belgium and Poland
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Marcinczak, S.; van der Krabben, E.

Conference (2011, October 12)

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See detailMethod of assembly of capacitive bio-sensor for bio-molecules detection
Stoukatch, Serguei ULg; Van Overstraeten-Schlögel, Nancy; Van Loo, Stéphanie ULg et al

Conference (2011, October 11)

We developed a method of assembly for electrical micro-bio-sensor. The system is a part of a micro-fluidic device based on a capacitive biosensor. The bio-sensor is designed for bio-molecules ... [more ▼]

We developed a method of assembly for electrical micro-bio-sensor. The system is a part of a micro-fluidic device based on a capacitive biosensor. The bio-sensor is designed for bio-molecules (specifically DNA and protein) detection, quantification and recognition. Using the developed method we assembled series of fully functional demonstrators. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust DIF analysis
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2011, October 11)

This talk focuses on the issue of differential item functioning in psychometrics. An item is said to function differently if examinees from different groups, but with the same ability levels, have ... [more ▼]

This talk focuses on the issue of differential item functioning in psychometrics. An item is said to function differently if examinees from different groups, but with the same ability levels, have nevertheless different probabilities of endorsing this item. Many methods were proposed to detect DIF, either based on statistical methods (such as logistic regression) or on IRT models. The talk is divided into three parts. In the first part, a brief overview of the DIF framework and methods is proposed. In the second part, a recent, conceptually different approach to DIF will be introduced. It consists basically in flagging as DIF, the items that are outlying withb respect to other items. This approach is based on robust statistical tools for outlier identification. It cancels the issue of Type I error inflation and the need for purification of the anchor set. In the third part, it is briefly outlined how this approach easily extends to the simultaneous comparison of more than two groups of examinees; multivariate robust estimators of location and scale are required, but their use might overcome the standard methods for simultaneous pairwise comparisons. [less ▲]

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See detailDisulfide bond assignement and folding characterization of peptide toxins by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry
Echterbille, Julien ULg; Quinton, Loïc ULg; Rosu, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2011, October 11)

Main component of animal venoms is peptide toxins, which are highly structured by several disulfide bridges. Disulfide bridges fill different roles as increasing the toxins efficiency by lowering their ... [more ▼]

Main component of animal venoms is peptide toxins, which are highly structured by several disulfide bridges. Disulfide bridges fill different roles as increasing the toxins efficiency by lowering their immunogenicity or providing the adequate conformation to efficiently bind to the biological receptor. The sequencing and the determination of the cysteine pairing is still challenging and therefore an important step in structural analysis. In this work, we present a new strategy to sequence structured toxins and assign S-S bridges using ion mobility resolved MS/MS. The method relies on the analysis of partially reduced multiple-disulfide peptide. The mixture of the different forms is resolved by ion mobility, followed by MS/MS acquisition on each mobility separated species. The proof of concept has been successfully conducted on α-CnI, a toxin purified from the venom of Conus consors marine snail. The toxin’s sequence contains four cysteines linked together with two disulfide bridges. α-CnI was partially reduced by a small excess of tris(carboxyethyl)phosphine (10:1). The resulting mixture was purified before analysis by infusion nanoESI-Synapt-G2. Fragmentation was performed after the mobility cell, to obtain specific fragments of each species. Partial reduction of α-CnI results in a mixture of oxidized (the two disulfides are formed), reduced (the two disulfides have been reduced) and partially reduced forms (one of the two disulfides has been reduced). The arrival time distribution of triply charged ions reveals the presence of 4 different species, characterized by different relative cross sections in the gas-phase. Mass matching allows identifying the species: the first mobility (the most compact structure) was identified to be the oxidized folded toxin (M). The latest peak, corresponding to the larger cross-section, was identified as the fully reduced toxin (M+4Da). The second and the third mobility peaks were attributed to the two partially reduced forms in which only one disulfide bridge was reduced (M+2Da). The change in ion mobility depends on which S-S bridge is reduced. Ion mobility separated species give characteristic fragment ions upon fragmentation in the transfer cell (i.e. after ion mobility separator). Interestingly, fragment ions coming from partially reduced species, especially the C-S or S-S bond cleavages, clearly indicates that the disulfide linkage of α-CnI is (Cys1-Cys3) and (Cys2-Cys4) as expected from literature. The method is now being applied with success to more complex systems containing 3 or 4 disulfide bridges. The influence of the charge state on the mobility separation is systematically analyzed in terms of structural implications. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich factors might explain the divergence between clinic and out-of-clinic blood pressure (BP) in kidney transplantation (KT): the EPARA study?
Gellner, Karen; Saint-Remy, Annie ULg; BONVOISIN, Catherine ULg et al

Conference (2011, October 08)

Differences between clinic and out-of-clinic BP, defined as white coat effect (WCE), white coat hypertension (WCH) or masked hypertension (MH), can leat to misdiagnosis and -handling when decisions are ... [more ▼]

Differences between clinic and out-of-clinic BP, defined as white coat effect (WCE), white coat hypertension (WCH) or masked hypertension (MH), can leat to misdiagnosis and -handling when decisions are solely based on clinic BP measurement. One aim of the study was to examine the risk factors of WCE and MH in late KT. Conclusion:Out-of-clinic BP monitoring should be encouraged to be applied more often in high risk-populations such as KT, especially when risk factors for WCE or MH are present. [less ▲]

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See detailthe use of equine epidemiosurveillance systems
Van Galen, Gaby ULg

Conference (2011, October 08)

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See detailEquine Emerging Diseases
Van Galen, Gaby ULg

Conference (2011, October 08)

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See detailReproducibility of blood pressure (BP) measurement techniques in late kidney transplantation (KT): the EPARA study
Gellner, Karen; Saint-Remy, Annie ULg; WEEKERS, Laurent ULg et al

Conference (2011, October 08)

There has been a long debate about appropriate BP measurement techniques for evaluating the quality of BP control, especially in kidney transplantation (KT). Thus, one aim of the present study was to ... [more ▼]

There has been a long debate about appropriate BP measurement techniques for evaluating the quality of BP control, especially in kidney transplantation (KT). Thus, one aim of the present study was to examine 3 methods of BP measurement and their reproducibility over a short period of 8 weeks. Conclusion: Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) should be applied more often also in KT, among others for reasons of better reproducibility over time than office blood pressure monitoring (OBPM). [less ▲]

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See detailEquine Biosecuity in Practice
Van Galen, Gaby ULg

Conference (2011, October 08)

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See detailUltrathin EUV Filters Testing and Characterization under High Flux (13 SC) for Solar Orbiter EUI Instrument
Jacques, Lionel ULg; Halain, Jean-Philippe ULg; Rossi, Laurence ULg et al

Conference (2011, October 07)

The test setup and characterization parameters of ultrathin EUV filters under high solar flux are presented. These 150nm thick aluminium filters are used at the entrance of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager ... [more ▼]

The test setup and characterization parameters of ultrathin EUV filters under high solar flux are presented. These 150nm thick aluminium filters are used at the entrance of the Extreme Ultraviolet Imager (EUI) payload, which is developed at the Centre Spatial de Liège for the Solar Orbiter ESA M-class mission. The solar flux that they shall have to withstand will be as high as 13 solar constants when the spacecraft reach its 0.28AU perihelion. A specific design based on additional ribs has therefore been developed to enhance the thermal behaviour and heat evacuation while preserving its optical properties. It is essential to assess the design performances under the Solar Orbiter high solar flux. Therefore, thermal vacuum test under 13 solar constants will be performed. The filters temperature profiles will be measured during the tests through infrared imaging. A thermal correlation of the test will then be performed to deduce the filters actual thermal properties to be used in the global instrument geometrical and thermal mathematical models. [less ▲]

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See detailDermacentor reticulatus as vector of Anaplasma phagocytophilum ?
Wirtgen, M; Heyman, P; Cochez, C et al

Conference (2011, October 07)

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See detailLa propagande culturelle française à destination de la Flandre, 1944-1960
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

Conference (2011, October 07)

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See detailPhase Change Material Device for Spacecraft Thermal Control
Collette, J.P., ; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Peyrou-Lauga, R. et al

Conference (2011, October 07)

On board a satellite, the experiments and subsystems have to be maintained within specified temperature limits. Phase Change Materials (PCM) offer the possibility to store thermal energy directly as ... [more ▼]

On board a satellite, the experiments and subsystems have to be maintained within specified temperature limits. Phase Change Materials (PCM) offer the possibility to store thermal energy directly as latent heat of fusion. Usually, the melting PCM can easily be used in reversible, closed systems. Two advantages of a PCM device are the stability of temperature control and the absence of moving parts. The heat-storage requirement is mainly defined by the duty cycle along the orbital period. A trade-off is presented for typical missions, which takes into account the temperature range, the weight and thermal conductivity of the PCM device together with the specific design of the container. Candidates PCM for space applications are reviewed according to their main characteristics such as latent heat, phase transition temperature, conductivity, density but also corrosion potential, hysteresis and ageing. Potential weight and power gains are finally presented for selected missions. [less ▲]

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See detailLes écoquartiers, une alternative à l'étalement urbain ?
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2011, October 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (10 ULg)
See detailBiophysical valuation of ecosystem services in the VOTES project: use of a dynamic vegetation model
Jacquemin, Ingrid ULg; François, Louis ULg; Fontaine, Corentin M. et al

Conference (2011, October 04)

The VOTES project (Valuation Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Services in a multifunctional peri-urban space) aims to develop a framework to evaluate ecosystem services from a social, economic and environmental ... [more ▼]

The VOTES project (Valuation Of Terrestrial Ecosystem Services in a multifunctional peri-urban space) aims to develop a framework to evaluate ecosystem services from a social, economic and environmental point of view, where local stakeholders and end-users have a central role in the valuation process, as they are the direct beneficiaries of the provision of services. Within this project, the framework is applied to a case study in central Belgium, known for its strong peri-urban character, due to the proximity to Brussels. To the end, this quantitative tool designed for a sustainable landscape management is also designed for the evaluation and the monitoring of ecosystem services for policy makers. The originality is that this framework will provide an integrated valuation of ecosystem services in a spatially and temporally explicit way, based on different steps in which we find biophysical valuation and landscape modelling: the valuation of the biophysical environment is an essential component of the VOTES framework. To carry through this biophysical valuation, we use the CARAIB model (CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere), a dynamic vegetation model (DVM) adapted for the valuation of the ecosystem services. This model is combined with another spatial model, an agent-based model (ABM), used to project land use change into the future. Initially, CARAIB was designed to describe (non-managed) natural ecosystems dynamics over large spatial domains and at coarse resolution. In consequence, the model had to be adapted to the VOTES smaller scale case study (including a higher resolution) but, mainly, the model had to be modified to quantify key ecosystem services, e.g., through the addition of a module dedicated to (manage) crops. This new version of the model thus provides direct outputs on the biophysical values of ecosystem services, e.g., productivity (food/fodder, wood production, etc) or carbon storage, which leads to a mapping of these ecosystem services not only for the present, but also for the future until 2050. Indeed, the coupled DVM-ABM is used to construct future (dynamic) scenarios that include the major driving forces of the system (e.g., global socio-economic context, climate change, urbanization pressure, etc) together with adapted management. The computed scenarios will provide the changes in the biophysical system consistent with the socio-economic evolution, including changes in ecosystem structure and function. This will allow an estimate of a change in the provision of ecosystem service through time, so that the sustainability of ecosystem services under the studied scenarios can be assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailSmart networks for biomedical applications
Jérôme, Christine ULg

Conference (2011, October 04)

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See detailLes biomarqueurs de la lésion rénale: limites actuelles et perspectives
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2011, October 03)

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See detailRestauration hydromorphologique : Les échelles de travail optimales ?
Hallot, Eric ULg; Peeters, Alexandre ULg; Verniers, Gisèle et al

Conference (2011, October 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (9 ULg)
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See detailAnálise semiótica das relações entre imagens e discursos em astrofísica
Sturnack, Lionel ULg

Conference (2011, October 03)

Este trabalho considera um caso particular de relação entre as imagens e os textos nas ciências ditas “exatas”. A relação que pretendemos abordar é o vínculo que existe entre as chamadas imagens simples ... [more ▼]

Este trabalho considera um caso particular de relação entre as imagens e os textos nas ciências ditas “exatas”. A relação que pretendemos abordar é o vínculo que existe entre as chamadas imagens simples ou imagens compostas e suas legendas, num corpus restrito de artigos da área de pesquisas em astrofísica. A principal questão deste estudo consiste em analisar as modalidades de articulação entre dois tipos de expressão que fazem parte de semióticas diferentes, ainda que relacionadas entre si. Neste caso, questionaremos a relação entre texto e imagem em um contexto peculiar, já que o propósito é de analisar a determinação acabada de uma imagem, ou seja, sua legenda. Além disso, esta apresentação pretende considerar dois tipos de articulações, analisando duas inscrições discursivas que pertencem a dois gêneros distintos: o artigo científico e o artigo de vulgarização. Assim, demonstramos um duplo interesse. Por um lado, desejamos entender as articulações específicas entre texto e imagem em um determinado gênero. Por outro lado, este breve estudo propõe insistir sobre a necessidade de um estudo mais geral e mais sistemático das relações variáveis entre as imagens e os discursos de que uma ciência se utiliza para se constituir. [less ▲]

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See detailComic and Art Brut: the last refuges of the story?
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

Conference (2011, October 01)

La communication traite des liens entre bande dessinée et les créations plastiques qualifiées d'art brut et d'outsider art. Cet exposé tente de montré que certaines de ces oeuvres "en marges ... [more ▼]

La communication traite des liens entre bande dessinée et les créations plastiques qualifiées d'art brut et d'outsider art. Cet exposé tente de montré que certaines de ces oeuvres "en marges" entretiennent des liens étroits avec nombres de bandes dessinées récentes caractérisées par leur caractère expérimental, par leur volonté de rompre avec les modèles canoniques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (6 ULg)
See detailVolonté humaine, volonté divine. Les deux bandeaux du Peintre de Darius.
Morard, Thomas ULg

Conference (2011, October 01)

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See detailLe XVIIIe siècle culinaire : vers l’art et la science du goût
Von Hoffmann, Viktoria ULg

Conference (2011, October 01)

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See detailThe empirical mass distributions of hot B subdwarfs derived by asteroseismology
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Fontaine, Gilles; Brassard, Pierre et al

Conference (2011, October)

Detailed asteroseismic analyses of 15 pulsating B subdwarfs have been published since a decade, including estimates of the masses of these stars. We present in this talk the empirical mass distribution ... [more ▼]

Detailed asteroseismic analyses of 15 pulsating B subdwarfs have been published since a decade, including estimates of the masses of these stars. We present in this talk the empirical mass distribution for hot B subdwarfs on the basis of this sample. We find a sharp mass distribution with a mean mass of 0.470 Msun, a median value of 0.471 Msun, and 68.3% of the stars fall in the narrow range of mass 0.441-0.499 Msun. In a second experiment, we augment our sample with the addition of 5 hot B subdwarfs components of eclipsing binaries, with masses reliably determined by light curve modeling and spectroscopy. The new mass distribution is very similar to the former one with a mean mass of 0.469 Msun, a median value of 0.471 Msun, and a range 0.436-0.501 Msun containing 68.3% of the stars. We also discuss in this talk how these empirical mass distributions, although still based on small-number statistics, compare with the expectations of stellar evolution theory. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transactions
Lefevre, Mélanie ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailWhat results can be expected from the agenda for aid effectiveness?
Paul, Elisabeth ULg; Ireland, Megan; Martini, Jessica et al

Conference (2011, October)

Introduction: Currently there is a climate of high expectations with regard to producing demonstrable results of aid effectiveness in the health sector. Yet, commitments to aid effectiveness have only ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Currently there is a climate of high expectations with regard to producing demonstrable results of aid effectiveness in the health sector. Yet, commitments to aid effectiveness have only partially been implemented so far. Existing evaluation frameworks developed in the context of the Paris Declaration and International Health Partnership (IHP+) are not sufficiently geared toward whether and how practices have changed at donor, central and operational levels, and thus how reforms have actually been implemented. Measuring their impact also presents methodological challenges. Methods: This communication aims to present an outline of how to measure results from the agenda for aid effectiveness. It argues that it should be carried out at three levels. A first, critical step for evaluating the results from the Paris Declaration and IHP+ is to evaluate its implementation process and the direct effects it has had on changes in behaviour for all stakeholders (donors, government, service providers, etc.). A second level of evaluation is to assess how far donor support and implementation of Paris principles have contributed to health system strengthening (HSS) up to the level of service delivery. The third level where improvement is expected and should be measured is at health outcome/status level. Qualitative methods can help to understand what constraining factors are, what reforms have led to improvements and why, and finally the impact on population health. Results: This three-level assessment was made in Mali. We found that some progress and positive changes have been observed in recent years that can be attributed to the agenda for aid effectiveness; outcome and impact indicators have also improved in the past years. However, donors have not fulfilled all their commitments. Conclusion: Whilst changes in behaviour and practices are occurring, adherence to the principles of aid effectiveness is far from complete, thus expectations should be realistic. [less ▲]

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See detailPoor Management in Small Firms: Three Typical Failure Patterns
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg

Conference (2011, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (10 ULg)
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See detailThe OH Venus nightglow : morphology and relation to ozone in the upper atmosphere
Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Piccioni, G. et al

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailComparative analysis of two different approaches to putting IHP+ into practice: Mali and Benin
Paul, Elisabeth ULg; Berthé, Issa; Samaké, Salif

Conference (2011, October)

Introduction: The International Health Partnership and related initiatives (IHP+) seeks to achieve better results by mobilising development partners around a single country-led national health strategy ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The International Health Partnership and related initiatives (IHP+) seeks to achieve better results by mobilising development partners around a single country-led national health strategy, guided by the principles of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. At country level, the IHP+ materializes through the preparation, signature, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation of a "Country Compact" – a negotiated and signed agreement in which partners commit to implement and uphold the priorities outlined in the national health strategy. Some of the main determining features of the IHP+ are the leadership of the recipient government over the preparation and implementation process of the Compact, broad domestic ownership of the national health plan, and mutual accountability for results. Methods: In this communication, we perform a comparative analysis of two very different approaches that have been followed in Mali and Benin. It is based on authors' experience in the IHP+ process in Mali, extensive document review and interviews with most significant stakeholders involved in the process both in Mali and Benin. Results: Mali has prepared its country Compact on the grounds of its 10-year experience in leading a sector-wide approach (SWAp) in the health sector. It has therefore benefited from improved donor coordination, MoH leadership in piloting the national programme, trust capital between partners and broad ownership of the health plan. It has succeeded in making the IHP+ process even more inclusive. On the contrary, Benin had no health SWAp to start with. The preparation process of the Compact was much less inclusive and country-led, resulting in narrow ownership and vague commitments. Nevertheless, it is hoped that the IHP+ can help launch a new partnership dynamic within the health sector. Conclusion: Beyond common principles, the IHP+ is put into practice in different ways from country to country according to their context. [less ▲]

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See detailL’image des femmes entrepreneures dans la presse d’affaires en Belgique
Cornet, Annie ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailResponse of plankton communities of the Bay of Calvi (northwestern Mediterranean) to climate variation over the past three decades
Goffart, Anne ULg; Collignon, Amandine ULg; Hecq, Jean-Henri ULg

Conference (2011, October)

Long-term changes of surface plankton dynamics are studied from three decades at a permanent station in the oligotrophic Bay of Calvi (Corsica, northwestern Mediterranean) where water quality is unbiased ... [more ▼]

Long-term changes of surface plankton dynamics are studied from three decades at a permanent station in the oligotrophic Bay of Calvi (Corsica, northwestern Mediterranean) where water quality is unbiased by terrestrial inputs. As a distinctive feature of the Bay, a plurimodal plankton bloom occurs generally between January and April, with very large interannual variability reaching one order of magnitude from one year to another. Later in the season, the plankton biomass remains very low from May to December. Contrarily to the 1979 - 1998 period where a continuous decrease of phyto- and zooplankton biomasses was observed, observations from the last decade (1999 - 2011) emphasize abrupt changes in plankton biomass and bloom duration from one year to another in response to succession of mild and rigorous winters. Studies conducted to understand mechanisms controlling plankton variability emphasize a close relationship between winter wind stress intensity, water temperature, nutrient inputs and phytoplankton biomass. Total phytoplankton biomass is maximum during years characterized by high winter wind stress and low winter water temperature. From a specific point of view, flagellates are always the dominant component of the winter - spring phytoplankton communities. However, diatoms tend to be more abundant during rigorous winter years. Shifts in phytoplankton community structure contribute to control the dynamics of zooplankton that rely on phytoplankton as food and influence the temporal succession of zooplankton assemblages. Time-series results indicate the high sensitivity of the plankton ecosystem to climate change and confirm that the Bay of Calvi reacts rapidly to external perturbations, which are driven by climate variation. [less ▲]

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See detailBi-directional electron distributions as tracers for the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn’s magnetosphere
Krupp, Norbert; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Roussos, Elias et al

Conference (2011, October)

In this presentation we use bi-directional energetic electron distributions from the MIMI-LEMMS instrument onboard Cassini, auroral observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and data from the ... [more ▼]

In this presentation we use bi-directional energetic electron distributions from the MIMI-LEMMS instrument onboard Cassini, auroral observations from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and data from the UVIS instrument onboard Cassini to characterize the open-closed field line boundary in Saturn’s magnetosphere. The high-latitude open-closed field line boundary at Saturn is thought to be related to the main auroral ring of emission of the planet varying in location, intensity and latitudinal extent as well as in its homogeneity. This study extends the work on the plasmapause/open-closed field line boundary published by [1] by covering a larger data set at different local times and comparing the electron distributions with auroral observations. Based on energetic electron data we characterize the open-closed field line boundary in terms of temporal, local time variations and other parameters and we correlate the Cassini in-situ measurements to the observations of the main auroral ring at Saturn. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurostimulation dans l’algie vasculaire de la face.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; FONTAINE, Denys

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailEnjeux des pôles de compétitivité: une réponse par le développement de pratiques de gouvernance appropriées
Lisein, Olivier ULg; Rondeaux, Giseline ULg

Conference (2011, October)

Les réseaux d’innovation, pôles de compétitivité et autres clusters d’entreprises constituent un terrain de recherche particulièrement prisé ces derniers temps, dans le prolongement notamment des ... [more ▼]

Les réseaux d’innovation, pôles de compétitivité et autres clusters d’entreprises constituent un terrain de recherche particulièrement prisé ces derniers temps, dans le prolongement notamment des nombreuses initiatives politiques visant à encourager ces formes de regroupements territorialisés d’organisations pour soutenir l’entrepreneuriat, l’innovation et le développement économique local. Entre autres thématiques d'études, la question des pratiques de gouvernance à mettre en œuvre au sein de ces structures réticulaires constitue un enjeu central, qui appelle le développement de travaux analytiques dédiés et l'apport de recommandations managériales appropriées. La réalisation d'une recherche exploratoire axée sur la compréhension des modes de gestion et de fonctionnement des pôles de compétitivité promus en Belgique dans le cadre du Plan Marshall – initiative mise en œuvre par les pouvoirs politiques pour accentuer le développement économique de la Région Wallonie-Bruxelles – s'inscrit dans ce cadre. Elle nous permet de mettre en évidence plusieurs pratiques clés en matière de gouvernance des pôles de compétitivité. Nous les articulons autour de six axes, qui constituent autant de défis majeurs de la gestion et du pilotage de cette forme de groupement territorialisé d'organisations : (1) composer le partenariat de sorte à constituer un réel réseau d’innovation ; (2) développer un objectif commun partagé à travers une fédération des intérêts des parties prenantes ; (3) favoriser l’implication et la collaboration effectives des différentes catégories d’acteurs ; (4) adopter un modèle de coordination évolutif et partagé par les parties ; (5) assurer le monitoring du réseau ; (6) pérenniser le réseau au delà des périodes couvertes par les financements publics initiaux. Sans pour autant être des « key succes factors » immuables, les pratiques de gouvernance que nous mettons en exergue au travers de ces six axes offrent différents éléments de réflexion utiles aux gestionnaires de projets amenés à coordonner tout ou partie des activités d’un pôle de compétitivité, tout en proposant par ailleurs des éléments de réponses aux appels de la communauté scientifique soucieuse de voir se développer les recherches permettant d’appréhender plus finement les pratiques de gouvernance à l’œuvre au sein des réseaux d'innovation. [less ▲]

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See detailCase report discussion.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailLa dysarthrie parkinsonienne
FINCK, Camille ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailThe Current Challenges on the Belgian Federalism
Reuchamps, Min ULg

Conference (2011, October)

Since 1993, Belgium is officially a federal state, composed of – three – communities and – three – regions, as the – new at the time – first article of the Constitution proclaims. The history of ... [more ▼]

Since 1993, Belgium is officially a federal state, composed of – three – communities and – three – regions, as the – new at the time – first article of the Constitution proclaims. The history of federalism in Belgium is therefore quite recent. Nevertheless, the story is – much – longer since it starts with the independence of Belgium from the United Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830 . The very beginning of a state and the underlying causes of its creation, as well as its place on the map, the timing of its creation and the characteristics of the elites who take the lead and define the new state’s nature are of crucial importance and these elements shape the country’s political development for centuries . Nonetheless, although the beginning of any state sets up a path dependency , there are also critical junctures along its political development which in turn influences the course of history. This is especially true for Belgium . Here, history and politics are intrinsically interrelated. Indeed, the current challenges on the Belgian federalism find their roots in the country’s history. Three main challenges face Belgian federalism: an ethno-territorial challenge, a socio-economic challenge and a political challenge, that is to say the future of the country itself. In this endeavour to assess the current challenges on the Belgian federalism, three variables have to be taken into account. The first variable is the territorial principle vs. personal principle debate, which constitutes the backbone of the so-called Belgian community question; it is also intrinsically related to the first challenge: the ethno-territorial challenge. The second variable is the political parties because they have played and play the major role in Belgian politics and therefore in the Belgian federal dynamics. The third variable is made of the people; that is, at the individual level, the inhabitants or the citizens or the voters and, at the collective level, the language groups of Belgium. These three variables are at the heart of Belgium’s past, present and future and continuously interact with one another. In order to offer a clear picture of these interactions, Belgium’s history is conceptually divided into three periods: before federalism (1830-1960), federalism (1960-2007) and after federalism (2007-onwards). These three periods shed light on the background of the current challenges on the Belgian federalism. On this basis, the recent institutional agreement which gives Belgium her sixth reform of the state is analyzed as it provides – tentative – answers to the first two challenges. This all leads to the last challenge – the end of Belgium? – dealt with in the conclusion. [less ▲]

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See detailUV and visible planetary auroral emissions: Jupiter and Saturn
Grodent, Denis ULg

Conference (2011, October)

In the giant planets upper atmosphere, collisions of auroral electrons with atmospheric H atoms and H2 molecules, following acceleration along magnetic field lines, give rise to excitation of these ... [more ▼]

In the giant planets upper atmosphere, collisions of auroral electrons with atmospheric H atoms and H2 molecules, following acceleration along magnetic field lines, give rise to excitation of these primary neutrals. Excited H and H2 almost immediately loose part of (~15%) their excess energy through radiative decay processes implying emission of FUV, EUV, NUV and visible light. An observer located near Earth orbit will only see the sunlit portion of the giant planets for which the reflected sunlight outshines a large portion of the hydrogen auroral emissions. Fortunately, the solar spectrum drops by several orders of magnitude in the FUV-EUV bandpass and is further attenuated by low altitude hydrocarbon haze produced in the polar regions. This makes it possible to observe Jupiter and Saturn EUV and FUV auroras from Earth orbit with, for example, the UV cameras onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. These cameras provided numerous fantastic views of Jupiter and Saturn's polar auroral emissions. By contrast, the dimmer NUV and visible auroral emissions cannot compete with the solar light and can only be observed on the night side hemisphere of Jupiter and Saturn; out of visibility from Earth orbit. This region is accessible to in situ spacecraft, like Galileo, Cassini or NewHorizons, which have to share their precious observing time among several different scientific topics. As a result, images of the NUV and visible auroral emissions are rare, in comparison with the huge HST database. Nevertheless, the fact that they are only captured in the night side implies that the origin of the energetic particles that gave rise to them is principally found in the immense magnetospheric tail; a vast region where energetic electromagnetic processes and plasma motions are still poorly documented. This makes these emissions invaluable in terms of scientific return. [less ▲]

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See detailEndogenous mode of competition in general equilibrium
Tharakan, Joseph ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailTWENTIES : EU project Massive integration of renewable T&D Smartgrids How cable dynamics may help ?
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference (2011, October)

How dynamic line rating may be used for massive introduction of renewable in power systems

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See detailSprachliche Identität, Spracheinstellungen und Sprachwahrnehmung in der deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens.
Weber, Sandra ULg

Conference (2011, October)

If you have a look on the media in the German-speaking Community of Belgium (GC), you will find how prevalent the subject of language is in the minds of the German-speaking Belgians. East Belgian ... [more ▼]

If you have a look on the media in the German-speaking Community of Belgium (GC), you will find how prevalent the subject of language is in the minds of the German-speaking Belgians. East Belgian linguistic characteristics are frequently treated in the media (cf. e.g. the radio competition “Ostbelgien lernt Deutsch – der germanistische Adventskalender“) and just recently, a popular scientific dictionary of East Belgian everyday language has been published. This suggests that in the GC, there is a feeling that German as it is spoken in East Belgium differs from German spoken in the Federal Republic of Germany. This project asks the question of how East Belgian linguistic characteristics in everyday language are perceived and judged by the German-speaking Belgians, and to what extent they are part of their linguistic identity. Special attention is paid to the question of how far linguistic identity, language attitudes and language perception in the GC are influenced by the political and cultural situation of the region. The German-speaking Community is a partly independent political entity within the Belgian federal system. The eventful history of the region (3 changes in nationality within 25 years) and the minority situation have made it difficult for the inhabitants of the GC to find their own identity and a sense of “we-ness”. The inhabitants of the GC speak a language whose “mother country” is neighbouring Germany and they are closely linked to German culture through the media – nevertheless, they do not feel German. At the same time, within the state of Belgium, they are a linguistic minority, but they are also linked to Belgian culture through intensive contacts. Within Belgium, the German-speaking Belgians can use the German language to claim uniqueness (cf. the term “German-speaking Community”), but this does not work on the international level. But can dissociation from the German citizens happen on a linguistic level nevertheless, through regional variants and varieties? Since there are basically great similarities between the linguistic situation in the GC and in the bordering German areas (both on the level of the traditional dialects and regional linguistic features as well was in the vertical structure of variety use), while the extra-linguistic situations are very different, a comparative survey across the Belgian-German border is especially enlightening. The most important questions I want to raise are thus: How strong is the feeling that the regional everyday speech differs from that spoken on the other side of the national border? To which degree do these beliefs correspond to reality? What is in the eyes of the local population on both sides of the frontier typical of this variety? How do they evaluate it? And which functions do occurring regional features of German have for the identity of the people on both sides of the frontier? [less ▲]

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See detailCLUPI, a high-performance imaging system on the roverof the 2018 mission to discover biofabrics on Mars
Josset; Westall; Hoffmann et al

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailImportance of light spectral composition for brain activity
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailvisaTICE : des objectifs, une didactique, des matières
Henry, Julie ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailTroubles de voisinage
Lecocq, Pascale ULg

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailCauses of mortality in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Southern Belgium : results of the passive surveillance 2010.
Grégoire, Fabien; Wirtgen, Marc; Volpe, Rosario ULg et al

Conference (2011, October)

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See detailManagers en quête de sens: l'identité organisationnelle comme boussole?
Rondeaux, Giseline ULg; Pichault, François ULg

Conference (2011, October)

Les multiples évolutions auxquels est soumise toute organisation contraignent celle-ci à se transformer sans cesse. Ces changements, de fréquence et d’amplitude variées, peuvent entraîner une modification ... [more ▼]

Les multiples évolutions auxquels est soumise toute organisation contraignent celle-ci à se transformer sans cesse. Ces changements, de fréquence et d’amplitude variées, peuvent entraîner une modification de divers aspects de l’organisation : ses modes d’organisation, sa politique de GRH, ses stratégies, sa manière de concevoir et de remplir ses missions, ses structures, ses valeurs, ses systèmes et réseaux, ses référents, etc. En situation de crise ou de bouleversement profond, la question de l’identité organisationnelle apparaît au-devant de la scène (Albert et Whetten, 1985, Alvesson et Empson, 2008, Dutton et al, 1994). Celle-ci ne peut être considérée comme une dimension monolithique : chaque stade de l’évolution d’une organisation est en effet marqué par différentes interactions (différentes logiques identitaires dont certaines prédominent d’autres à certains moments). Ainsi, même si au sein d’une identité organisationnelle, une logique identitaire particulière semble prévaloir, d’autres logiques identitaires sont néanmoins présentes, ou apparaissent, en mode officieux. L’identité organisationnelle se conçoit donc comme hybride, composée de deux dimensions étroitement reliées et inscrites dans le contexte spécifique de chaque organisation : d’une part la logique identitaire dominante, qui est institutionnalisée et enactée (au sens de réalisée, mise en œuvre), notamment décelable dans le discours managérial et la vision stratégique affichée par l’organisation ; d’autre part, d’autres logiques identitaires présentes dans l’organisation, perceptions des acteurs constituées de points de vue alternatifs (sur ce qui est stable, central et distinctif dans l’organisation), de différentes visions de l’organisation (ses valeurs, ses principes de fonctionnement), d’autres manières de comprendre et de définir ce « qui sommes-nous, en tant qu’organisation ? ». Ainsi, la logique identitaire dominante s’apparente à une série d’affirmations institutionnelles (Ravasi et Schultz, 2006 : 435) qui représente le cadre identitaire collectif dans lequel les membres de l’organisation développent leurs propres perceptions de l’identité organisationnelle. Les managers, en raison de leur autorité formelle et de leur accès aux ressources, jouent en effet un rôle particulièrement important dans le façonnage des processus d’identification organisationnelle (Brickson, 2000 ; Scott et Lane, 2000). Les tentatives d’induction de l’identification des membres de l’organisation à celle-ci prennent souvent la forme de stratégies basées sur la communication de la part du management (Cheney, 1983). Si le désir des membres de l’organisation est fondé sur la recherche de signification, la communication de l’organisation peut en effet constituer un excellent moyen de fournir cette signification (Chreim, 2001). Ainsi, la communication peut contribuer au développement d’un ensemble commun de compréhensions relatives à l’organisation et à la relation des membres à celle-ci. Larson et Pepper (2003) mettent cependant un bémol à la portée de l’action managériale : les employés ne sont pas des récepteurs passifs des efforts de l’entreprise pour façonner leur identification mais ils participent activement à la (re)construction de leurs identités dans la mesure où ils évaluent la compatibilité et la compétition entre les cibles et sources identitaires pertinentes (Scott, 1997). La littérature en stratégie des organisations (Dunford et Jones, 2000; Gioia et Thomas, 1996; Hill et Levenhagen, 1995) se concentre sur la manière dont les managers créent du sens autour d’un changement délibéré et le négocient avec les membres de l’organisation, opération que ces travaux désignent sous le terme de sensegiving . Alors qu’une telle approche mettra l’accent sur le rôle des leaders organisationnels (porteurs de la logique identitaire dominante) dans un processus cognitif où il s’agit pour ces derniers de prodiguer aux membres de l’organisation un récit cohérent et légitime visant à construire un sens du soi collectif (Albert et Whetten, 1985; Whetten, 2006), l’approche orientée vers le sensemaking (au sens de Weick, 1995 ) adopte pour sa part un autre point de vue : les compréhensions partagées des membres à propos de ce qu’est l’organisation sont le résultat de processus cognitifs menés par les membres de l’organisation lorsque ceux-ci s’interrogent sur les caractéristiques centrales et distinctives de leur organisation ; compréhensions partagées qui sont périodiquement renégociées entre les membres de l’organisation, à la lumière des environnements changeants (Gioia, Schultz et Corley, 2000). Nous proposons ainsi, dans le cadre de cet article, de nous inspirer de cette deuxième perspective. Au travers d’une étude de cas menée en 2010 au sein d’une grande entreprise de télécommunications en mutation, nous proposons d’illustrer empiriquement la signification donnée par les membres de l’organisation à différentes dimensions constitutives de l’identité organisationnelle, multiple et complexe: valeurs, buts de l’organisation, sens de la mission, principes fondamentaux, attentes de rôles, légitimité de l’action managériale etc. La confrontation de la logique identitaire dans laquelle s’inscrivent les membres de cette organisation et de leur perception du contexte conduit soit à une situation de congruence (par analogie avec les travaux de Rogers, 1951), dans laquelle la perception du contexte apparaît en continuité avec la logique identitaire dont on se réclame, soit à une situation de dissonance (Festinger, 1965), référant à une rupture entre la logique identitaire que les individus adoptent et leur perception du contexte. Ces positionnements adoptés par les membres de l’organisation sont désignés sous les termes de « profil identitaire » , produit du croisement des logiques identitaires en présence et de la perception du contexte (congruente ou dissonante) des membres de l’organisation. Nous montrerons au travers de nos données comment s’expriment ces différents positionnements dans l’entreprise étudiée, qui présente une particularité intéressante : une identité organisationnelle dominante à la fois éclatée en différentes versions, et marquée par une prédominance de positionnements en dissonance. Outre les effets dommageables qu’entraîne la dissonance tant sur le plan individuel qu’organisationnel (en termes de turnover, de satisfaction, d’implication au travail, de coopération, ou encore d’acceptation du changement, voir notamment Foreman et Whetten, 2002 ; Ashforth et Mael, 1989 ; Dutton et al., 1994 ; Reger et al., 1994), la présence de celle-ci au plus haut niveau de l’organisation se révèle d’autant plus problématique que, en vertu de leur position, les acteurs en position stratégique jouent un rôle de sensegivers, sens qu’ils semblent eux-mêmes peiner à trouver. On peut dès lors présumer que cette pénombre de sens se propage dans l’ensemble de l’organisation, en l’absence de signaux clairs relatifs à l’orientation de l’entreprise. La littérature tant académique (Brown et Starkey, 2000 ; Gronstedt et Thorson ; 1996 ; Scott et Lane, 2000) que managériale (Ackerman, 2000 ; Collins et Porras ; 1996) s’accorde à dire que l’un des principaux fondements du leadership est de proposer une identité organisationnelle unifiée que les membres de l’organisation peuvent comprendre et suivre. En conséquence, il va sans dire qu’une identité organisationnelle dominante se présentant à la fois comme éclatée et marquée par la dissonance, peut entraîner d’importantes difficultés au sein de l’organisation (problèmes de communication, d’implication organisationnelle, difficultés dans la prise de décision, désidentification) (Albert et Whetten, 1985; Jehn et al., 1997, 1999 ; Foreman et Whetten, 2002). Les travaux de Jehn et al. (1999), en particulier, établissent que les désaccords identitaires entre leaders sont susceptibles d’entraîner des conséquences organisationnelles négatives. L’étude de cas que nous proposons vient confirmer cette tendance, et illustre en particulier le déboussolement des managers d’équipe, tiraillés entre des injonctions paradoxales et une identité organisationnelle dominante éclatée en provenance du sommet de l’organisation, et la confrontation permanente à un contexte organisationnel en profonde mutation, en perte de sens, sens qu’ils ont du mal à construire avec et pour les équipes dont ils ont la charge. Il en résulte pour leur part des positionnements identitaires marqués par l’hybridité et la transition. Lorsqu'une situation de cette nature est constatée, quelles actions managériales peuvent être entreprises? Notre visée, dans cet article, est de mettre en évidence l’intérêt d’une approche polyphonique de la gestion du changement (Pichault, 2009), et de proposer quelques pistes de réflexion sur le développement d’un sensemaking articulé sur la diversité identitaire au sein de l’organisation et sur l’intégration de ce souci de la diversité identitaire dans les pratiques de GRH de l’entreprise. La diversité des profils identitaires amène aussi à réfléchir à des actions managériales différenciées, suivant l’idée qu’il n’existe pas un seul modèle de réduction de la dissonance, et que les leviers à mobiliser pour favoriser la congruence sur le plan identitaire et la création de sens dans un contexte de changement varieront d’un profil à l’autre. Nous conclurons ainsi sur une réflexion sur les outils de communication généralement mobilisés avec plus ou moins de pertinence dans le cadre de processus de changements, et sur le rôle du manager d’équipe comme sensemaker. Il s’agira ainsi de parvenir à concilier, dans la mesure du possible, les différentes logiques identitaires en présence, notamment en s’appuyant sur les convergences qu’il y a entre elles afin de donner un sens à ce contexte en évolution, et de refléter celui-ci dans les pratiques effectives de l’entreprise. [less ▲]

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See detailDosages de la PTH et de la vitamine D: en est-on enfin au bout du tunnel?
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2011, September 30)

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See detailHigh sensitive troponin: pratical guidelines
Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2011, September 29)

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See detailSpecificity of E. coli PBP1b for the substrate and inhibition of its GT activity.
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Herdewijn; Bumbre, S

Conference (2011, September 29)

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See detailNeither private, nor public. Resilient school in DRC : from primary education to University
Poncelet, Marc ULg; Mpiana, Jean-Pierre ULg

Conference (2011, September 29)

The presentation analyses the resilient and ambiguous evolution of "public-official" school in DRC during crises and wars. It underlines the key role of teachers unions, directors-managers and churches ... [more ▼]

The presentation analyses the resilient and ambiguous evolution of "public-official" school in DRC during crises and wars. It underlines the key role of teachers unions, directors-managers and churches. The authors conclude on the hybrid reality of institutions in the concessional african State [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the 2003 heatwave on Eryngium alpinum demography under different management regimes
Bizoux, Jean-Philippe ULg; Andrello, Marco; Till-Bottraud, Irène

Conference (2011, September 28)

In the summer of 2003, Europe was impacted by an extreme heatwave that altered ecosystem productivity and increased plant mortality in natural areas. We analyse the effect of this extreme climatic event ... [more ▼]

In the summer of 2003, Europe was impacted by an extreme heatwave that altered ecosystem productivity and increased plant mortality in natural areas. We analyse the effect of this extreme climatic event on the demography of the protected alpine plant Eryngium alpinum in relation to local ecological conditions and management regimes (mowing, grazing and unmanaged). Spatiotemporal variation in the vital rates of different plant life-stages (seedlings, juveniles, vegetative and reproductive adults) was estimated in seven sites of E. alpinum in the French Alps between 2001 and 2010. The effects on population dynamics (deterministic and stochastic population growth rates, λ and a) were studied using matrix population models and life table response experiments. Reductions in survival rates were observed following the extreme 2003 summer. λ was smaller during the heatwave and a decreased in simulations where the occurrence probability of a 2003-like event was increased. Adult survival rates and fecundity were negatively affected by heavy spring grazing, leading to lower λ and a. There were few differences in population dynamics between mowed and unmanaged sites. While greater rates of heatwave occurrence did increase extinction probability, only heavily grazed sites showed considerable extinction risk. As a consequence, heavy spring grazing must be discouraged in sites where the conservation of E. alpinum is a priority, while it is important to quantify acceptable levels of grazing in semi-natural areas where plant conservation has to be achieved in accordance with human development needs. [less ▲]

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See detailVerifying Programs on Relaxed Memory Models with a Focus on x86-TSO
Linden, Alexander ULg

Conference (2011, September 28)

Model-checking tools classicaly verify concurrent programs under the traditional Sequential Consistency (SC) memory model, in which all accesses to the shared memory are immediately visible globally ... [more ▼]

Model-checking tools classicaly verify concurrent programs under the traditional Sequential Consistency (SC) memory model, in which all accesses to the shared memory are immediately visible globally. However, modern multiprocessor architectures implement relaxed memory models, such as Total Store Order (TSO) (or its extension with locks x86-TSO), which allow many more possible executions and thus can introduce errors that were not present in SC. Of course, one can force a program executed in the context of TSO to behave exactly as in SC by adding synchronization operations after every memory access. But this totally defeats the performance advantage that is precisely the motivation for implementing relaxed memory models, rather than SC. Thus, when moving a program to an architecture implementing a relaxed memory model (which includes most current multi-core processors), it is essential to have tools to help the programmer check if correctness (i.e. a safety property) is preserved and, if not, to minimally introduce the necessary synchronization operations. The proposed verification approach uses an operational store-buffer based semantics of the chosen relaxed memory model and proceeds by using finite automata for symbolically representing the possible contents of the buffers. Store, load, commit and other synchronization operations then correspond to operations on these finite automata. The advantage of this approach is that it operates on (potentially infinite) sets of buffer contents, rather than on individual buffer configurations, and that it is compatible with partial order reduction techniques. This provides a way to tame the explosion of the number of possible buffer configurations, while preserving the full generality of the analysis. It is thus possible to check even designs that exploit the relaxed memory model in unusual ways, and that may contain cycles. We have also proposed a memory fence insertion algorithm that finds how to preserve the correctness of a program when it is moved from SC to TSO. Its starting point is a program that is correct for the usual sequential consistency memory model (with respect to a given safety property), but that might be incorrect under x86-TSO. This program is then analyzed for this relaxed memory model and when errors are found (a broken safety property), memory fences are inserted in order to avoid these errors. The approach proceeds iteratively and heuristically, inserting memory fences until correctness is obtained, which is guaranteed to happen. In future work, we will investigate how to adapt our techniques to other common memory models, such as Partial Store Order (PSO), as well as how to optimally use the partial order reduction techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean sensitive items trade: Infomation exchange
Paile, Sylvain ULg; Tsukanova, Maryna ULg

Conference (2011, September 27)

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See detailPotential use of GFP microbial biosensors for the detection of mixing imperfections and cell viability in bioreactors
Delvigne, Frank ULg; Delafosse, Angélique ULg; Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Conference (2011, September 25)

The dynamics of microbial stress response in intensive cultivation conditions remains misunderstood. In this work, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been used as ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of microbial stress response in intensive cultivation conditions remains misunderstood. In this work, two green fluorescent protein (GFP) transcriptional reporters have been used as biosensors of the heterogeneities generated in a two-compartment scale-down reactor. The stress promoters have been chosen for their responsiveness to carbon limitation corresponding to the global substrate profiles encountered in intensive fed-batch cultures. From our results, it can be concluded that the exposure of microbial cells to substrates heterogeneities tends to decrease the GFP expression level in fed-batch mode. Fluorescence intensities have been monitored at the single cell level by using flow cytometry. During the course of the fed-batch culture, a drop at the level of the intracellular GFP content has been observed for the two scale-down operating conditions and for the two promoters sensitive to substrate limitation (rpoS and csiE). The fluorescence drop can be attributed to the repression of these promoters but also to the release of GFP to the extracellular medium according to the increase of the fluorescence level of the supernatant. This leakage has been observed for all the operating conditions, i.e. the scale-down reactors and the culture operating in the normal mode. Interestingly, GFP leakage is more pronounced in the case of the cultures operated in the normal mode. Indeed, staining by propidium iodide (PI) tends to be more elevated for the microbial cells cultured under the normal mode by comparison with those cultured in scale-down conditions, indicating a higher permeability of the membrane. These results are in accordance with previously published ones (Hewitt and co-workers) suggesting that microbial cells cultivated in heterogeneous bioreactors (scale-down and large-scale bioreactors) exhibits a higher viability level. These results suggest that GFP microbial biosensors could be used to detect simultaneously mixing imperfections and their impact on the viability of microorganisms. [less ▲]

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See detailGrille d'analyse sociotechnique pour l'analyse des races
Gérard, Marie ULg

Conference (2011, September 24)

La communication propose une méthode, inspirée de la théorie de l'acteur réseau, d'une race locale comme produit de la rencontre entre des dynamiques socio-économiques et des potentialités naturelles.

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See detailEuropean Union Victim Policy. A new victims' rights package has arrived.
Lauwaert, Katrien ULg

Conference (2011, September 24)

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See detailMULTIOBJECTIVE DESIGN OF CONTROL CHARTS
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

Conference (2011, September 24)

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See detailClassification trees based on infrared spectroscopic data to discriminate between genuine and counterfeit medecines
Deconinck, Eric; Sacré, Pierre-Yves ULg; De Beer, Jacques

Conference (2011, September 23)

Classification trees built with the Classification And Regression Tree algorithm were evaluated for modelling infrared spectroscopic data in order to discriminate between genuine and counterfeit drug ... [more ▼]

Classification trees built with the Classification And Regression Tree algorithm were evaluated for modelling infrared spectroscopic data in order to discriminate between genuine and counterfeit drug samples and to classify counterfeit samples in different classes following the RIVM classification system. Models were built for two data sets consisting of the Fourier Transform Infrared spectra, the Near Infrared spectra and the Raman spectra for genuine and counterfeit samples of respectively Viagra® and Cialis®. Easy interpretable models were obtained for both models. The models were validated for their descriptive and predictive properties. The predictive properties were evaluated using both cross validation as an external validation set. The obtained models for both data sets showed a 100% correct classification for the discrimination between genuine and counterfeit samples and 83.3% and 100% correct classification for the counterfeit samples for the Viagra® and the Cialis® data set respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailMigratory interneurons express functional glycine receptors during early development of the cerebral cortex
Avila Macaya, Ariel Salvatore ULg

Conference (2011, September 22)

The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. In the adult, the GlyR is known to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord ... [more ▼]

The strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR) is a member of the ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. In the adult, the GlyR is known to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and in the brainstem. The GlyR has also been described in the embryonic cortex from embryonic day 19 (E19) where it could participate in developmental processes, but its presence at earlier stages has not been documented. Since other neurotransmitter systems, i.e. GABA and its receptors, are known to be present during corticogenesis, we wondered if this could also be the case for glycine and its GlyR. In this study, we analyze the presence and physiological relevance of GlyR in the early development of the cortex using in vitro and ex vivo cultures of slices, patch-clamp, two photon microscopy for time lapse and for calcium imaging, immunocytochemistry and western-blot. Electrophysiological experiments confirmed the presence of GlyR mediated currents in migrating interneurons during early stages of development (E13-E15). Using in vitro labeling of interneurons we have described the pharmacological properties of glycinergic currents present in interneurons born at E13. The concentration-response curve showed an EC50 of 69 ± 12 micro M for glycine. All these currents were fully blocked by strychnine with an IC50 of 0.10 ± 0.02 micro M. Picrotoxinin and picrotin also blocked these currents, but with different potency, remaining 20 % of the current when 10 micro M of picrotin was used. Similar glycinergic currents were also observed in ex vivo preparations from Dlx5/6-Cre EGFP transgenic animals, where it was clear that GlyR expressing cells are a subpopulation of migratory interneurons. Consequently, immunostainings directed against the alpha 2 subunit of GlyR showed that 29 ± 2 % of cortical migrating interneurons, which were mainly born in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) at E13, express GlyR. All this evidences shows that GlyR appears earlier than ever described during cortex development and it is composed, mainly, by alpha 2 homomeric channels. It also shows that GlyR is not homogenously expressed and it is only present in a subpopulation of migrating interneurons born at a defined space-temporal window during brain development. In search for the physiological function of GlyR, two photon time lapse analysis for cell migration and calcium imaging was performed on ex vivo slices. All these studies were complemented by gain and loss of function experiments. As it has been previously described for the GABA system, we show here that GlyR play a role acting on the migratory behavior of interneurons and its effects are linked to modulation of calcium dynamic and the activity of calcium downstream targets. More in detail molecular mechanisms were analyzed by western-blot. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a waste heat recovery orc prototype using an oil-free scroll expander
Declaye, Sébastien ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2011, September 22)

The world is facing a historical increase in energy demand and energy consumption. As consequence the conventional fossil fuels are depleting faster with an inherent pollution causing severe damages to ... [more ▼]

The world is facing a historical increase in energy demand and energy consumption. As consequence the conventional fossil fuels are depleting faster with an inherent pollution causing severe damages to our environment. Renewable energy sources are considered as a solution to both environmental issue and energy demand. At the same time a lot of waste heat is witnessed in processes in industries. Our objective is to contribute to the development of ORC systems, that appear to us as a good solution to recover this wasted heat. In such waste heat applications, depending on the heat source flow rate and temperature, electrical power output can be as low as a few kilowatts. In this power range, there is no cost effective expansion machine available on the market. On existing prototypes, expansion devices are usually retrofitted volumetric compressors originally designed for refrigeration or air compression applications. Air compressors have the advantage to handle higher inlet temperature but tightness is often an issue in ORC application since the fluids used have a non negligible environmental impact. This paper presents the development of a small-scale WHR ORC unit at the Thermodynamic Laboratory of the University of Liège: the prototype uses a scroll expander, plate heat exchangers, a diaphragm piston pump and a liquid receiver. This system was tested with different working fluids (R123, R245fa and HFE7000) and a thermal efficiency close to 8% was obtained for a net output power of about 2 kWe. The specificity of the proposed prototype is the absence of lubrication: in order to avoid oil circulation in the ORC loop, an oil-free scroll expander is developed. This expander is originally an air scroll compressor that was modified using a magnetic coupling to ensure tightness. The experimental results highlight the good efficiency of the device, despite a relatively high internal leakage due to absence of lubrication. The necessity of using magnetic coupling is also justified by comparing the experimental results with previous ones obtained using mechanical sealing. [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêt des AINS dans les pathologies ostéo-articulaires chroniques
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2011, September 22)

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See detailSociétal Vulnerability and self-control : do Violent Values mediate this relation for boys and girls?
Gavray, Claire ULg; Vettenburg, Nicole; Pauwels, Lieven et al

Conference (2011, September 22)

no gender difference was found in the psycho-social dynamic , even if girls are in average less concerned by a bad self-control and by violent values

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See detailPourquoi les "nanotechnologies" sont-elles importantes?
Thoreau, François ULg

Conference (2011, September 22)

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See detailEtudes Bardoxolone, CCX et néphropathie diabétique
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2011, September 20)

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See detailA first approach to “Learning Dashboards” in formal learning contexts
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Westera, W; Specht, M

Conference (2011, September 20)

This position paper introduces to “learning dashboards”, flagged as a new breed of eLearning interfaces. Following an observation of 3 instances of these structures for regulative support, it suggests ... [more ▼]

This position paper introduces to “learning dashboards”, flagged as a new breed of eLearning interfaces. Following an observation of 3 instances of these structures for regulative support, it suggests possible effects on attention to the learning experience, reflective learning and sense of personalisation. The paper concludes with the identification of research challenges associated with the mirroring of tracked data, inherent to these displays. [less ▲]

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See detailParticipation à une table ronde
Henneau, Marie-Elisabeth ULg

Conference (2011, September 20)

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See detailImproving groundwater flow model conceptualisation and calibration with electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential methods
Robert, Tanguy ULg; Therrien, René; Lemieux, Jean-Michel et al

Conference (2011, September 19)

Developing a conceptual model for groundwater flow requires knowledge on the distribution of geological materials, which generally comes from geological observations on outcrops and boreholes, from the ... [more ▼]

Developing a conceptual model for groundwater flow requires knowledge on the distribution of geological materials, which generally comes from geological observations on outcrops and boreholes, from the interpretation of hydraulic tests or from geophysical surveys. The identification of spatial structures in the subsurface, such as preferential flow paths created by fractured zones, is also critical in developing a reliable conceptual model but it is difficult to achieve. Geophysical methods have been widely used to map the subsurface distribution of geological materials. Recent developments in geophysics, such as the increased use of joint inversion of geophysical and hydrogeological data, have further allowed to quantify the hydraulic conductivity of geological materials. The objective of our work is to demonstrate that the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and the self-potential (SP) methods can improve both the conceptual model developed for groundwater flow systems and the calibration of the corresponding groundwater flow model. The use of the two geophysical methods, combined with a groundwater flow model, is presented for a fractured limestone aquifer. The self-potential method relies on passive measurements of the ambient electrical potential at ground surface or in boreholes. One of the mechanisms responsible for the measured signal measured is the transport of dissolved ions with groundwater flow. When this electrokinetic effect is the dominant contribution, the resulting signal is called the streaming potential and it contains information about groundwater fluxes that can be useful to calibrate groundwater flow models. The solution to the SP forward problem was added to the HydroGeoSphere model, which simulates 3D groundwater flow and solute transport in porous media, including fractured geological formations. With this addition, the model can calculate the self-potential signal associated with groundwater flow, given the distribution of Darcy fluxes resulting from the forward flow solution and the electrical resistivity that is, for example, outputted by ERT data inversion. Darcy fluxes are transformed into sources of electrical current by using the streaming potential coupling coefficient. This parameter can be measured either in the laboratory or in-situ from the self-potential signal between two locations where the depth of the water table is known, such as observation wells. We used here both ERT and SP to develop a conceptual model for groundwater flow in a typical carboniferous limestone syncline in South Belgium. The rolling topography in the investigated area results from a succession of calcareous valleys (synclines) and sandstone crests (anticlines). The calcareous synclines form aquifers that are very complex since they are highly fractured and even karstified. A typical calcareous syncline has a width of about 800 m and, using ERT, we could subdivide the syncline into zones of different hydraulic conductivity, based on the degree of fracturation. The zones are oriented along the axis of the syncline and their width ranges between 10 and 40 m. The ERT profiles showed that there is a highly conductive zone, in terms of electrical conductivity, near the syncline fold axis. That zone is interpreted as being highly fractured. Other conductive zones are located symmetrically along both flanks of the calcareous syncline, with respect to the syncline fold axis. The main flow direction is along the axis of the syncline, towards a nearby river. The SP raw signals also showed that, locally, there is a second flow component perpendicular to the axis of the syncline, with groundwater flowing from the flanks of the syncline towards the axis. The conceptual groundwater flow model developed here includes the zones identified with ERT, which were then incorporated into the numerical model. The SP signals were inverted with PEST to calibrate the hydraulic conductivity value of the different zones. HydroGeoSphere was therefore used to simulate first groundwater flow and then the associated self-potential signals in an iterative process. At the start of an iteration, HydroGeoSphere solves the groundwater flow equation given one particular set of hydraulic conductivities and calculates the resulting Darcy fluxes. These fluxes are transformed into sources of electrical current assuming that the electrokinetic effect is the dominant contribution of the SP signals. HydroGeoSphere then calculates the distribution of self-potential given the sources of electrical current and the distribution of electrical resistivity. The hydraulic conductivity values of the zones are then modified and the iteration continues until the model reproduces the measured self-potential signal. [less ▲]

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