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See detailExposer l'exposé
Dispy, Micheline ULg; Van Beveren, Julien ULg; Rikir, Fabienne

Conference (2010, August 26)

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See detailThe indirect effect of reading social practices on reading achievement.
Baye, Ariane ULg; Schillings, Patricia ULg

Conference (2010, August 25)

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See detailSoil-plants relations diversity in extreme ecsystems and implications for restoration: the case of the cupriferous vegetation, in Katanga, D.R. Congo
Seleck, Maxime ULg; Guillaume, Arielle; Lebrun, Julie ULg et al

Conference (2010, August 25)

Katangan copper and cobalt hills in the D. R. Congo are isolated ecosystems on highly toxics substrates (>10.000 ppm Cu, with strongly marked gradients). As a result, those outcrops host singular vegetal ... [more ▼]

Katangan copper and cobalt hills in the D. R. Congo are isolated ecosystems on highly toxics substrates (>10.000 ppm Cu, with strongly marked gradients). As a result, those outcrops host singular vegetal communities – with a diversity of specialized metallophytes species – related to soil metals content. Recent resumption of mining activities in the area threatens those ecosystems. To allow the restoration of those communities a fine understanding of the relationship maintained with the edaphic factors is required, as well as a characterization of the intra and inter sites variation. Three outcrops have been studied on the basis of a systematic grid, following the a priori trace elements gradient. In 1m² quadrats, a composite soil sample (0-15 cm depth) was taken and the cover (%) of each species of vascular plants was recorded. Soils were analyzed for pH, C, N, and bioavailables Cu, Co, Zn, Mn, Fe, K, Mg, Ca and P. The cluster analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis show that different sites present different soil conditions and vegetation. Concentrations in Cu are an important explicative factor of the flora’s variation but gradients in others edaphic parameters (pH, Mg, Mn, K, Ca) appear to be essential. However, parameters explaining the diversity of communities vary from one site to another indicating a great diversity of those ecosystems and the need to develop restoration strategies relevant for each site. [less ▲]

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See detailWeorðan ‘become’ and begin as indicators of the unbounded to bounded shift in English
Petré, Peter ULg

Conference (2010, August 25)

In this talk I contrast the developments of the disappearing copula and passive auxiliary (ge)weorðan ‘be(come)’ with the increasingly popular group of inchoative ‘gin-verbs’ (begin(nen), agin(nen), gin ... [more ▼]

In this talk I contrast the developments of the disappearing copula and passive auxiliary (ge)weorðan ‘be(come)’ with the increasingly popular group of inchoative ‘gin-verbs’ (begin(nen), agin(nen), gin(nen), ongin(nen)) during the period 950-1500. The frequency of weorðan (underlined) in Old English is illustrated in (1). This fragment also shows that Old English language use was bounded. Bounded language use construes situations as completed sub-events, emphasizing narrative progress, and makes abundant use of time adverbials (Carroll, Stutterheim & Nuese 2004), which split up an event chronologically and often take up the first position in a verb-second system. (1) Ða he hig hæfde ealle amyrrede þa wearð mycel hunger & he wearð wædla. Þa beþohte he hine & cwæð, Ic fare to minum fæder. & þa gyt þa he wæs feorr his fæder he hyne geseah & wearð mid mildheortnesse astyrod. “When he had everything wasted, then a great hunger arose and he became a beggar. Then he thought by himself and said: ‘I (will) travel to my father.’ And then, when he was still far , his father saw him and was stirred by mercy.” (c1025) The high frequency of weorðan in bounded language use is explained by its change-of-state semantics that denotes completed events. By 1400, however, time adverbials of narrative progress had heavily decreased (for þa: Kemenade & Los 2006) and the verb-second-syntax they trigger had become confused (Los 2009). Weorðan, being highly entrenched in these constructions, disappears as a consequence of their breakdown. Simultaneously, inchoative ginnen-verbs became more frequent. For instance, instead of he wearð wædla ‘he became a beggar’, as in (1), the Wycliffe Bible (c1384) has he began to have need. I argue that these gin-verbs signal the early development of unbounded construal. Unbounded language use construes situations as open-ended. While this is done most clearly through progressive aspect (he was walking), inchoative constructions are also partly open-ended, and provide, for past-tense narrative, a parallel to the progressive (Carroll, von Stutterheim & Nuese 2004: 206). In general, I contribute to the hypothesis that the loss of verb-second syntax (and of time adverbs) affected event construal, and triggered the development of new, unbounded, constructions including the progressive, rather than that the development of the progressive constituted the trigger after which the unbounded system first developed. References Carroll, Mary, Christiane von Stutterheim & Ralf Nuese. 2004. The language and thought debate: A psycholinguistic approach. In Thomas Pechmann and Christopher Habel (eds.), Multidisciplinary approaches to language production (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 157), 183-218. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Kemenade, Ans van & Bettelou Los. 2006. Discourse adverbs and clausal syntax in Old and Middle English. In Ans van Kemenade & Bettelou Los (eds.), The Handbook of the History of English, 224–48. Oxford: Blackwell. Los, Bettelou. 2009. The consequences of the loss of verb-second in English: Information structure and syntax in interaction. English Language and Linguistics 13(1), 97-125. [less ▲]

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See detailQt'a al-bhar bach toulli rajl (Crossing the sea to become a man): imagined trips of aspiring migrants from Morocco to Italy.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2010, August 25)

Addressing aspiring migrants' dreams planning to move from Khouribga (Morocco) to Italy , I will focus on the construction of the imagined "away from home" and "back home" versus an experienced and ... [more ▼]

Addressing aspiring migrants' dreams planning to move from Khouribga (Morocco) to Italy , I will focus on the construction of the imagined "away from home" and "back home" versus an experienced and symbolized "staying", and I will point out how they converge. A context of crisis perceived inside Moroccan society, concerning lack of working opportunities and diffuse nepotism, pushes many people of Khouribga to imagine a life elsewhere. The steady contact with images and goods coming from Italy presents this country as a land where to fulfil oneself. An imagined life becomes a migration project, though one which seems to turn into a trip "without moving". To face these dynamics, the local context shapes its actions as to let people go away by, actually, forcing them to realize their trip "at home". [less ▲]

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See detailParliamentary Technology Assessment Institutions Challenged by Reflexive Modernization in Action
Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Conference (2010, August 24)

The emergence and evolutions of Parliamentary Technology Assessment offices (PTAs) are an indication of our Western modernity becoming more reflexive. This perspective sheds light on recent evolution of ... [more ▼]

The emergence and evolutions of Parliamentary Technology Assessment offices (PTAs) are an indication of our Western modernity becoming more reflexive. This perspective sheds light on recent evolution of PTAs, but also contributes to the discussion of reflexive modernization generally. Ulrich Beck’s diagnosis of reflexive modernization, undermining high modernity since the 1980s, has been widely discussed, but there have been few attempts to map and analyse these complex processes empirically in order to show reflexive modernization in action (Delvenne and Rip 2009). From that perspective, reflexive modernization is seen as a challenge for the institutions of modernity. PTAs are recent institutions that had to span boundaries from the beginning, and might thus have more incentives to follow reflexive modernization while at the same time their progression will be bounded by strong modernist institutional patterns or elements of political culture. We offer case studies of European PTAs based on literature research, participatory observation, official document analysis and qualitative data collection (through semi-structured interviews with academics and TA practitioners). We are particularly interested in how much reflexivity is visible in their institutional path. After formulating two main dimensions of reflexive modernization, openness to plurality and blurring of boundaries, we map the paths of these institutions over time along these two dimensions. There appears to be an overall reflexivity pathway, on which some PTAs have moved farther than others, but their progress is fractured by the resilience of modern institutions. This is due to various institutional factors ¬— like the link with a Parliament — and external factors — like the dynamics of institutionalisation, the cultural meanings and traditions, the historical processes or the structure and the state of the innovation regime — all of which affect the way institutionalised TA embraces a more or less reflexive approach. The identification of an overall reflexivity pathway allows us to highlight new trends in (parliamentary) Technology Assessment as not just interesting ad-hoc novel approaches, but as indications of a new and broader generation of TA. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational treatment of the error distribution in nonparametric regression with right-censored and selection-biased data
Laurent, Géraldine ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

Conference (2010, August 24)

Consider the regression model Y = m(X) + σ(X) Ɛ , where m(X) = E[Y|X] and σ²(X) = Var[Y|X] are unknown smooth functions and the error Ɛ (with unknown distribution) is independent of X. The pair (X;Y) is ... [more ▼]

Consider the regression model Y = m(X) + σ(X) Ɛ , where m(X) = E[Y|X] and σ²(X) = Var[Y|X] are unknown smooth functions and the error Ɛ (with unknown distribution) is independent of X. The pair (X;Y) is subject to generalized selection bias and the response to right censoring. We construct a new estimator for the cumulative distribution function of the error Ɛ , and develop a bootstrap technique to select the smoothing parameter involved in the procedure. The estimator is studied via extended simulations and applied to real unemployment data. [less ▲]

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See detailSteam explosion pretreatment and thermal degradation of cellulose fibers
Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Quiévy, Nicolas; Vanderghem, Caroline ULg et al

Conference (2010, August 20)

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See detailCariaco basin dynamics: Study of the thermocline depth variability and its relation with open ocean conditions
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Weisberg, Robert H. et al

Conference (2010, August 11)

The Cariaco basin (Venezuela) is a semi-enclosed trench located along the coast of Venezuela, with maximum depths of about 1400 m. It is connected to the open ocean by two shallow passages of less than ... [more ▼]

The Cariaco basin (Venezuela) is a semi-enclosed trench located along the coast of Venezuela, with maximum depths of about 1400 m. It is connected to the open ocean by two shallow passages of less than 150 m depth. Limited basin ventilation, coupled with a small vertical mixing results in anoxic conditions from about 250 m to the bottom. The dynamics of the Cariaco Basin are studied by means of a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The numerical model has a resolution of 1/60 degree and is an implementation of the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) nested in the global HYCOM solution from the Naval Research Laboratory. Of particular interest are the mechanisms that link the basin's interior to the Caribbean Sea, which can lead to the ventilation of the basin's anoxic sub-surface waters. To assess the influence of the open ocean on the basin, the spatial and temporal evolution of the thermocline depth and width is studied, as well as its relationship with wind variability and chlorophyll-a concentration: at seasonal scales, the interior of the basin reacts to easterly winds intensification with a rising of the thermocline, resulting in a coastal upwelling response, with the consequent increase in chlorophyll-a concentration. Outside the Cariaco basin, where an open-ocean, oligotrophic regime predominates, wind intensification increases mixing of the surface layers and induces therefore a deepening of the thermocline. At shorter time scales (i.e. days), it is shown that other processes, such as the influence of the meandering Caribbean Current, can also influence the thermocline variability within the Cariaco basin. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of the night weather parameters and their use in forecasting model of leaf rust.
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

Conference (2010, August 07)

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See detailTime spray strategies for Septoria Leaf Blotch disease progress on winter wheat: the use of forecasting model
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Giraud, Frédéric; Delfosse, Philippe et al

Conference (2010, August 07)

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See detailGenetic parameters of mastitis-correlated milk components in first parity dairy cows
Gillon, Alain ULg; Bastin, Catherine ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

Conference (2010, August 06)

Ind. of lactoferrin content, ind. of Na content, and lactose content were the three most correlated milk components with somatic cell score among available milk components predicted by mid-infrared ... [more ▼]

Ind. of lactoferrin content, ind. of Na content, and lactose content were the three most correlated milk components with somatic cell score among available milk components predicted by mid-infrared spectrometry on 590,083 test-day records from Walloon Region of Belgium collected between 2007 and 2009. Mean daily heritabilities and mean genetic correlations of these four traits were estimated using Gibbs sampling methodology applied to a multi-trait random regression test-day model with a subset of these records. Mean daily heritabilities of ind. lactoferrin content (0.34), ind. Na content (0.37) and lactose content (0.42) were higher then SCS (0.16) and mean genetic correlations were moderate (from -0.18 to -0.73), showing that these traits could be used together to describe udder health in genetic evaluations instead of SCS alone when clinical mastitis data are not available. [less ▲]

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See detailLes grenats dans l’orfèvrerie mérovingienne
Mathis, François ULg; Vrielynck, Olivier; Annaert, Henrica et al

Conference (2010, August)

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See detailCan we restore natural habitats after plant invasion? Lessons from years of management
Frisson, Gwenn ULg; Halford, Mathieu ULg; Delbart, Emmanuel ULg et al

Conference (2010, August)

Negative impacts of invasive plants on natural habitats have been widely demonstrated. Hence, the management of invasive plants, aiming at eradicating, or at least controlling their spread, is being more ... [more ▼]

Negative impacts of invasive plants on natural habitats have been widely demonstrated. Hence, the management of invasive plants, aiming at eradicating, or at least controlling their spread, is being more and more developed. For this purpose, we need to identify the most efficient management techniques which could lead to the restoration of invaded ecosystems. Up to now, management methods mentioned in literature were pragmatic tools and often lacked scientific assessment. For several years, we have tested similar mechanical and chemical management techniques in the field on highly invasive plant species, representative of different life forms and invaded habitats: herbaceous rhizomatous perennial Fallopia japonica, ligneous rhizomatous Spiraea spp., ligneous root suckering Acer rufinerve and ligneous stoloniferous Cotoneaster horizontalis. We investigated the efficiency, cost and feasibility of these techniques, and their effects on the restoration of invaded ecosystems. The best performing management technique was found to be highly species specific and was also influenced by the invaded habitat type. For these perennial species, long-term management must be considered, to reduce their competitive capacities with repeated mechanical or chemical techniques (cutting or pulling out several times a year, injection combined with mechanical methods, etc.). For species with sexual reproduction, like Acer rufinerve and Cotoneaster horizontalis, seed bank and seed dispersal must also be taken into account to avoid dissemination when managing. We can conclude invasion plant management is usually expensive and hard to implement but some results are encouraging and show the importance to carry on research on invasive plant management methods. [less ▲]

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See detailScientific Imagination and Magical Ingredients: Towards an Anthropology of Technofood
Hendrickx, Kim ULg

Conference (2010, August)

2010 promises to be a pivotal year for producers of food, since the European Food Safety Authority is to publish a list of accepted health claims made on industrial food products. The production of such a ... [more ▼]

2010 promises to be a pivotal year for producers of food, since the European Food Safety Authority is to publish a list of accepted health claims made on industrial food products. The production of such a list, however, goes not without trouble. In the first section, this paper will outline the controversies and scientific uncertainties accompanying the development of a technological food category (allegedly) providing physical or psychological health benefits 'beyond basic nutrition'. In the second section, food will be looked at through the lens of power. Throughout human history, different authorities have prescribed what one should (not) eat. What is at stake then, when health claims and food become technological? Finally, it will be argued that an anthropology of 'technofood' is possible, by translating the discourse of market, competitiveness and 'optimized health' in terms of techno-scientific imagination, magical thinking and (bio)power. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal effects of muscular hypertrophy allele on milk production traits during the lactation using a novel equivalent model when molecular information is limited
Colinet, Frédéric ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2010, August)

Given that the mh allele causes the double muscling phenotype, this allele could also influence milk production traits of the dual purpose Belgian Blue cattle. However, all dual purpose Belgian Blue ... [more ▼]

Given that the mh allele causes the double muscling phenotype, this allele could also influence milk production traits of the dual purpose Belgian Blue cattle. However, all dual purpose Belgian Blue animals could not be genotyped. So, a new alternative strategy for the prediction of gene effects and especially their smooth integration into genetic evaluations based on an equivalent method was developed from existing theory. Developed equations were modified to allow that not all animals were genotyped. As expected, the mh allele had negative effects on milk production traits. For the first three lactations, the average estimated allelic substitution effects were -0.074 % fat content and -158.7 kg milk per lactation (305 days). Moreover, effects of mh allele were not constant during the lactation. [less ▲]

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See detailOxidation Mechanism in SiCO: First-Principles Study of O2 Diffusion and Reaction
Xu, Bin ULg; Kroll, Peter

Conference (2010, August)

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See detailPredicting Energy Balance Status of Holstein cows using Mid-Infrared Spectral data
Mc Parland, Sinead; Banos, Georgios; Wall, Eileen et al

Conference (2010, August)

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See detailNew insights into aphid isoprenoid pathway
Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Cusson, Michel; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Conference (2010, August)

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See detailHow to use existing power lines to evacuate twice as much wind power ?
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference (2010, August)

smart sensors to develop dynamic line rating

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See detailSoil seed bank of calamine sites in Belgium: what could be learned for original metallophytes communities restoration?
Bizoux, Jean-Philippe ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg

Conference (2010, August)

Metalliferous sites often host rare, ecologically endemic taxa adapted to high levels of heavy metals in soils. In Belgium, these sites correspond to Calamine sites. They are often considered as waste ... [more ▼]

Metalliferous sites often host rare, ecologically endemic taxa adapted to high levels of heavy metals in soils. In Belgium, these sites correspond to Calamine sites. They are often considered as waste ground dangerous for human health and public authorities are inclined to promote site remediation by fertilization, ground supply or removal, building ... In the present study, we analysed the seed bank of two ancient calamine sites in order to precise strategies for restoration of calamine original communities by top soil removal and perturbation. Composite soil samples were taken in 5 facies in two sites corresponding to different association. Cores were divided in three layers: litter, 0-5 cm, 5-10 cm. The total number of taxa was 24 taxa at Theux and 15 at Schmalgraf. The most abundant species (68%) are Agrostis capillaries and Viola calaminaria. Seed bank composition appeared different between facies except for three species. The seed bank was dominated by pseudo metallophytes species in Schmalgraf and by metallophytes or other species in Theux. The majority of the species didn’t present significant difference of number of seed between the three layers, except seven species (A. capillaries, V. calaminaria, Silene vulgaris, Minuertia verna, ...) with significant lower number of seed in the layer 5-10 cm. Our result showed that soil seed bank composition reflect well vegetation communities of the two sites. In addition, because pseudo-metallophyte species as Agrostis capillaries dominated seed bank when they were present in the vegetation, soil removal must be used with parsimony to restore original communities. [less ▲]

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See detailLes noms de mois à l’époque des šakkanakkū de Mari
Colonna d'Istria, Laurent ULg

Conference (2010, July 27)

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See detailConfigurando los territorios de pueblos en aislamiento voluntario: cómo hacer participar a un público oculto?
Escobar Jimenez, Kelly ULg

Conference (2010, July 21)

El problema que nos preocupa es la participación de las comunidades locales en los procesos de delimitación, demarcación y gestión de las áreas protegidas. Estos procesos comparten algunas características ... [more ▼]

El problema que nos preocupa es la participación de las comunidades locales en los procesos de delimitación, demarcación y gestión de las áreas protegidas. Estos procesos comparten algunas características: se relacionan la conservación biológica y la cultural, se propone el desarrollo sostenible, son procesos científicamente informados y abiertos a la participación de las poblaciones concernidas. Pero, de qué forma es posible cumplir con los objetivos de la gestión participativa, si las poblaciones concernidas de los territorios en cuestión son “pueblos en aislamiento voluntario”. Algunos Estados de América latina han creado zonas intangibles, por ejemplo, la Zona Intangible Tagaeri-Taromenane, implantada en 1999 en la Amazonía ecuatoriana. Estas iniciativas pueden ser una solución, pero han provocado a su vez preguntas como: ¿quién debe respetar los límites de estas zonas, la sociedad nacional y/o los “pueblos ocultos”, que los desconocen por completo? El caso del Ecuador y sus pueblos en aislamiento voluntario se replica en varios países que confluyen en la Amazonía y el Gran Chaco. Frente a este problema, los científicos (geógrafos, antropólogos, ingenieros, etc.) y los movimientos indígenas (la CONAIE en El Ecuador, por ejemplo) tienden a convertirse en representantes de los “silenciosos pueblos”. En este contexto, el argumento es que en la configuración de los territorios de pueblos en aislamiento, los científicos y los movimientos indígenas compiten por ser representantes legítimos de los “pueblos ocultos”. De un punto de vista metodológico, analizamos la acumulación progresiva de conocimientos sobre los pueblos en aislamiento voluntario. Esto lo hacemos a partir del primer Encuentro Internacional sobre los Pueblos Indígenas Aislados de la Amazonía y el Gran Chaco (2005), y de las comunicaciones y redes que se han producido en consecuencia. Movilizamos la sociología de la traducción (Actor Network Theory), para comprender cómo se estabiliza la identidad de territorios y de seres humanos en medio de negociaciones y conflictos entre el “mundo científico” y el “mundo indigenista”. Concluimos, por una parte, que los mundos “científico” e “indigenista” movilizan útiles de naturaleza similar para representar los territorios y los pueblos ocultos: narraciones, fotografías, huellas y “trofeos de guerra” (lanzas, por ejemplo). Sin embargo, durante esta “competencia” se construye, a múltiples niveles, la identidad de todas las entidades que entran en juego, incluyendo la de los científicos e indigenistas mismos [less ▲]

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See detailA Full Discontinuous Galerkin Formulation Of Euler Bernoulli Beams In Linear Elasticity With Fractured Mechanic Applications
Becker, Gauthier ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

Conference (2010, July 21)

A full discontinuous Galerkin method is used to predict the fracture of beams thanks to insertion of an extrinsic cohesive element. In fact, The formulation developed originally by G. Wells etal. to ... [more ▼]

A full discontinuous Galerkin method is used to predict the fracture of beams thanks to insertion of an extrinsic cohesive element. In fact, The formulation developed originally by G. Wells etal. to guarantee weakly the high order derivatives of plates with only displacement field unknown and extended by L. Noels etal. for shells is derived for beam with full discontinuous elements. This new formulation can be advantageously combined, as shown first by J. Mergheim etal. , with an extrinsic cohesive approach as there is no need to modify dynamically the mesh, which is the major drawback of this approach. The pre-fractured stage is modeled by full discontinuous elements in a manner which is proved stable and consistent and the fracture is modeled by a cohesive law applied on stress resultant an stress couple defined by J.C. Simo etal. The suggested study produces two type of results. On one hand, it is shown analytically and verified by numerical examples that the presented framework has got the properties of consistency and convergence expected for a numerical scheme. On the other hand, it is proved by some test cases that the energy released during fracture process is equal to the fracture energy except in the case where the difference of internal energy between not fractured and fractured configurations is bigger than the fracture energy. In this case, the fracture occurs in one time step. The presented work proposed a novel interesting manner to take into account fracture in thin bodies. The verification made on the particularized case of beams suggested great perspectives for plates and shells which allow to simulate more complex problems. [less ▲]

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See detailDemographic changes and behavioural ecology of a commensal long-tailed macaque population at Padangtegal, Bali (Indonesia)
Brotcorne, Fany ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Wandia, I. Nengah et al

Conference (2010, July 20)

The current anthropic pressures lead to a growth of the commensalism phenomenon with primates and humans interacting and competing for space and food. As these situations generate inter-specific conflicts ... [more ▼]

The current anthropic pressures lead to a growth of the commensalism phenomenon with primates and humans interacting and competing for space and food. As these situations generate inter-specific conflicts, an extensive analysis seems essential for primate conservation issues. Bali (Indonesia) is characterized by a high density of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) living in association with humans. The macaque population of the Padangtegal Monkey Forest (Ubud) has been the focus of successive studies since 1986 (Wheatley, 1986; Fuentes et al., 2007). Here, we present updated data (September-December 2009) on demography, activity budget and diet of this population while analyzing variations over time. The macaques at Padangtegal showed a substantial population growth over the last thirty years (34% average growth every 6 years). In 2009, we listed 498 individuals split in 5 groups with an average adult sex ratio of 1:4.5. The home range size also increased over time (7ha in 1986 vs. 30ha in 2009) but was finally limited by surrounded human infrastructures. Consequently, the population density doubled in the course of the last 8 years and counted 16.6 macaques per hectare in 2009. On the other hand, the activity budget pattern appeared quite stable over time with a large proportion of time spent inactive and socializing and a relatively small proportion of time spent in feeding activities. This activity pattern is characteristic of provisioned primate populations. Finally, the diet composition slightly varied over time except for the radical decrease of provisioned carbohydrate-rich food proportions, following some management decisions. Macaques at Padangtegal thus show some stability in their behavioural ecology despite considerable changes in demography. Nevertheless, these positive population trends do not protect macaques from some long term risks tied to commensalism, such as inbreeding depression and increased probability of disease transmission. [less ▲]

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See detailPour une sociologie des possessions : Le rôle des techniques dans la reconnaissance identitaire
Melard, François ULg

Conference (2010, July 20)

Souvent la reconnaissance d’un mode d’existence passe par la médiation de dispositifs techniques. Nous le verrons au travers de deux cas de figure : celui de riverains (« vigies ») qui, pour défendre la ... [more ▼]

Souvent la reconnaissance d’un mode d’existence passe par la médiation de dispositifs techniques. Nous le verrons au travers de deux cas de figure : celui de riverains (« vigies ») qui, pour défendre la qualité (ici olfactive) de leur environnement, s’allient à un dispositif de mesure afin d’objectiver la nuisance, et celui de demandeurs d’asile pour lesquels l’épreuve linguistique devient le passage obligé pour la reconnaissance de leur région géographique d’origine. Que se passe-t-il lorsque la source n’est pas (encore) reconnue comme problématique (les nuisances olfactives) ou devient défaillante (absence de garantie administrative) ? Comment témoigner de son vécu lorsque les preuves habituelles manquent. Dans ces deux cas, la reconnaissance par les autorités gouvernementales de ces identités passe par des tentatives d’objectivation d’expériences sensorielles ou langagières éminemment subjectives. La question identitaire est ici traitée – d’un point de vue pragmatique – c’est-à-dire au travers des moyens concrets mobilisés par les acteurs afin d’attester d’une appartenance problématique. À cette fin, l’auteur mobilisera deux ressources théoriques et méthodologiques complémentaires : la sociologie de la traduction (Actor-Network Theory) et la sociologie des possessions (Gabriel Tarde). L’argument porte sur ces situations identitaires non stabilisées qui constituent autant d’angles morts pour une sociologie des représentations sociales. Les controverses techniques qui émaillent chacune de ces deux expertises fournissent des occasions (souvent controversées) de mise en débat sur les moyens de l’expression identitaire ou d’appartenance. Cette dernière ne s’exprimant pas au travers d’un positionnement binaire dans une structure préétablie (statut, rôle, etc.), mais au travers de la manifestation d’un degré de possessions réciproques entre humains et non-humains (en l’occurrence des odeurs ou des éléments linguistiques). Dans cette optique, tant les molécules odorantes que les éléments linguistiques participent – par leurs caractérisations – à la constitution précaire des sujets. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnological and Institutional Innovations Triggered by Farmer-to-Farmer Rice Parboiling Video in Central Benin
Zossou, Enangnon ULg

Conference (2010, July 19)

In Africa, rice production and processing tasks are allocated on gender basis, with women being responsible for much of the drudgery involved in processing. Parboiling rice is an important processing ... [more ▼]

In Africa, rice production and processing tasks are allocated on gender basis, with women being responsible for much of the drudgery involved in processing. Parboiling rice is an important processing activity in the north and the centre of Benin. Good parboiling reduces the breakage rate during milling and greatly enhances the nutritional quality of rice. Parboiling is mainly done by women in and around rice production areas and is an important income-generating activity. The traditional rice parboiling method is still dominant and does not yield quality rice. To address this, an improved rice parboiling technology was introduced in central Benin through two training methods: conventional training workshops and farmer-to-farmer video (initiated by Africa Rice Center). To compare these two methods in changing women’s rice processing practices, we interviewed 160 women and 17 women’s groups who had been exposed to both or one of the learning approaches in 16 villages. In addition, we interviewed 40 women processors in 4 control villages which had received no intervention at all. The video was well appreciated by both the NGOs and the target population as a good learning tool in rural areas and had reached three times more women than conventional training. While conventional training was biased by participant selection, stakes in per-diem payment and monopoly by the elite class, video helped to overcome local power structures and reduced conflict at the community level. Women who watched the video enhanced their creativity and adapted their learning to their environment by developing appropriate technologies. They improved their rice parboiling, leading to better quality rice. Apart from triggering local NGOs to improve their training methodology, farmer-to-farmer video also strengthened NGO relations with rural communities, and relationships between the women rice processors and input and output markets. [less ▲]

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See detailNerves’ impact on voice of 26 students in a music exam situation.
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Ficarrotta, Eva

Conference (2010, July 17)

The manifestations of the nerves are physical, cognitive and behavioural. They vary according to the genre, the task and the public. According to the literature, many vocal parameters are influenced by ... [more ▼]

The manifestations of the nerves are physical, cognitive and behavioural. They vary according to the genre, the task and the public. According to the literature, many vocal parameters are influenced by the exam nerves. Our goal is to study the manifestations of the nerves in 26 students (10 men and 16 women, mean age: 33.3 y) during their musical examination. They sang a score “a cappella”. We recorded the musical performance 4 months before examination (T1), the day before (T2) and the examination's day (T3). Each student evaluated his global degree of nervousness, filled in the Cungi’s scales (stress scale) and explained his strategy of coping. 2 expert judges noted the students at the T3. A speech therapist also evaluated them on the basis of 4 objective criteria. Moreover, we measured the frequency parameters, jitter, intensity, duration and HNR with Praat. The comparison of the results at each time shows that the men and the women obtain results significantly higher at T3 for their degrees of nervousness and their level of intensity. In the same way, the note evaluated by the judges for the whole of the subjects is correlated with that of the speech therapist (rho: 0.71; 0.79). For the women at T3, we observe five positive correlations and one negative. The more the women evaluate their degree of stress strongly, the more judge n°2 evaluates it strongly (rho: 0.84). The more the scores on the scales of Cungi are high, the higher are the degrees of perfectionism (rho: 0.87; 0.81; 0.57). Both judges evaluated the exam nerves in the same way (rho: 0.59). The longer the execution time of the musical score, the more the evaluations by the speech therapist and both judges are weak (rho: -0.69). For the men at T3, we observe six positive correlations and two negative. The more the men have a high degree of nervousness, the higher the judges evaluated exam nerves, the higher level of Cungi scores the more the degree of perfectionism is high (rho: 0.69; 0.65; 0.72; 0.68). The more the jitter increases, the more the perception of the exam nerves by judge n°2 is high (rho: 0.68). The more the HNR increased, the more the degree of exam nerves evaluated by the judges is important (rho: 0.71) and the more the note of the speech pathologist is weak (rho: -0.71). The higher the jitter is, the weaker are the notes of the judges and of the speech pathologist (rho: -0.78; -0.79). 17 students, including only one man, employed strategies of coping to decrease their nerves: 73% a coping cognitive behavioural and 16% a medical strategy. In our study, the nerves affect the men and the women differently. The management of the nerves is an interesting topic to study in order to contribute to the development of coping strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes Retirement Affect Cognitive Functioning?
Bonsang, Eric; Adam, Stéphane ULg; Perelman, Sergio ULg

Conference (2010, July 16)

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See detailA new method to measure residual stresses in veneering ceramic
Mainjot, Amélie ULg; Van Heusden, Alain ULg; Sadoun, Michael

Conference (2010, July 16)

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See detailPrediction of individual methane emission by dairy cattle from mid-infrared spectra
Vanlierde, Amélie ULg; Delfosse, Camille; Dehareng, Frédéric et al

Conference (2010, July 14)

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See detailReflexive modernization in action: the institutional pathway of parliamentary Technology Assessment
Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Conference (2010, July 13)

Ulrich Beck’s diagnosis of reflexive modernization, undermining high modernity since the 1980s, has been widely discussed, there have been few attempts to map and analyse these complex processes ... [more ▼]

Ulrich Beck’s diagnosis of reflexive modernization, undermining high modernity since the 1980s, has been widely discussed, there have been few attempts to map and analyse these complex processes empirically in order to show reflexive modernization in action. Being based on literature research, participatory observation, official document analysis and qualitative data collection (through interviews), we claim that the emergence and developement of Parliamentary Technology Assessment offices (PTAs), to address science and technology (S&T) issues and to provide intelligence on technological innovations, embody a relevant indication of our Western modernity becoming more reflexive. We offer case studies of PTAs and we are particularly interested in how much reflexivity is visible. After formulating two main dimensions of reflexive modernization, openness to plurality and blurring of boundaries, we map the paths of these institutions over time along these two dimensions. There appears to be a reflexivity pathway, on which some PTAs have moved farther than others. This is due to various institutional and external factors like the socio-technical landscape, the power of lobbies, the cultural meanings and traditions, the historical processes or the structure and the state of the innovation regime that can affect the way institutionalised TA may embrace a more or less reflexive approach. More broadly speaking, we will consider that S&T are linked to issues that have global (but unequal) effects, while they are addressed by different local and institutional settings. Our concluding remarks will rely on Eisenstadt’s concept of multiple modernities to test our research’s validity in non European contexts, especially Latin America. [less ▲]

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See detailChildcare centres open to every child and his family : a guarantee to increase quality
Camus, Pascale ULg

Conference (2010, July 13)

Everyone should have the possibility to benefit from an ECEC service where his / her needs are recognized and given individual attention. For the last years, several laws have been issued to facilitate ... [more ▼]

Everyone should have the possibility to benefit from an ECEC service where his / her needs are recognized and given individual attention. For the last years, several laws have been issued to facilitate inclusion of children with special needs in the French Community of Belgium, but laws are not sufficient. The point is to think about constructive conditions necessary to welcome daily every child and family. A group of professionals has gathered to share experiences and define options to share competencies, knowledge and experiences in order to give opportunities to everybody to feel welcome in the service, in regards to his / her competencies, interests, possibilities. A main hypothesis that has been examined: an individual care to a child with special needs can transform positively the whole ECEC service and improve quality conditions for everybody. Indeed quality depends both on pedagogical choices made (what is daily proposed to children and their family ?) and on the beneficiaries of the service (who are the children and the family welcomed ?). In the part of the symposium focused on the French Community of Belgium, the results of worshops (increasing partnership with families, giving a place to each child, building a network …) have been discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstruction of missing data in satellite and in situ data sets with DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions)
Alvera Azcarate, Aïda ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2010, July 12)

DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions), a method to reconstruct missing data in geophysical data sets, is presented. Based on a truncated Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) basis ... [more ▼]

DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions), a method to reconstruct missing data in geophysical data sets, is presented. Based on a truncated Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) basis, DINEOF uses an iterative procedure to calculate the values at the missing locations. A clear advantage of DINEOF is that no aprioriate knowledge about the statistics of the data set being reconstructed is needed (such as covariance or correlation length): the EOF basis is used internally to infer necessary information about the data, so no estimation of those parameters is needed. This characteristic is specially interesting for heterogeneous data distributions for which is difficult to derive this information. Also obtained are estimations of the error covariance of the reconstructed field, and outliers, i.e. data that present anomalous values with respect to the surrounding information in the original data, for which the residuals are larger than the statistically expected misfit calculated during the analysis. When very few data is available, the estimated covariance between two successive images used in the EOF calculation might not sufficiently robust. As a consequence, spikes appear in the temporal EOFs, which result in unrealistic discontinuities in the reconstruction. A temporal filter has been applied to the covariance matrix used to determined the EOFs, which effectively enhance temporal continuity. This has been applied to a SST data set of the Black Sea and the reconstruction error is estimated by cross-validation. On-going work includes the development of a merging capability within DINEOF that will allow to blend data from different platforms (satellite and in situ data). [less ▲]

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See detailWorking on a Method to Compute Inverse of Genomic Relationship Matrix from Sparse Matrices
Faux, Pierre ULg; Misztal, Ignacy; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2010, July 12)

Genomic relationships matrix (G) are dense matrices used in genomic prediction of dairy cattle. As the number of genotyped animals will increase, an approximation of the inverse of genomic relationships ... [more ▼]

Genomic relationships matrix (G) are dense matrices used in genomic prediction of dairy cattle. As the number of genotyped animals will increase, an approximation of the inverse of genomic relationships matrix is needed. We have developed a method based on a decomposition of G similar to decomposition of additive relationships matrix A. The method of inversion is tested on a set of simulated data. [less ▲]

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See detailA simulation approach for analyzing genomic data using a package of specific FORTRAN90 functions
Faux, Pierre ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2010, July 12)

A panel of FORTRAN 90 functions was developed to simulate the distribution of bi-allelic (e.g., SNP) genetic markers along a defined genome and the distribution of their alleles in a given population. The ... [more ▼]

A panel of FORTRAN 90 functions was developed to simulate the distribution of bi-allelic (e.g., SNP) genetic markers along a defined genome and the distribution of their alleles in a given population. The simulation program used 3 parameters, those related to the species studied (number of autosomes, average length of autosomes, average number of crossovers by chromosome), the number of markers and those related to the studied population (pedigree). The simulation proceeds in 3 steps: a) random choice of marker positions and allelic frequencies for the minor allele of each marker (range: 0.05 to 0.475), b) simulation of genotypes of the ancestors in the pedigree based on randomly chosen allelic frequencies and c) planned mating of the ancestors according to the pedigree and according to the average crossover rate as a genetic recombination parameter. The simulation returns a fully-genotyped population. This method is flexible because it can be applied to a wide range of cases (not restricted to a single species) and the FORTRAN functions can be extended and used to simulate phenotypes. It is also realistic, because it performs mating plans and selection of animals based on real pedigrees. Development of this simulation panel was the first step in research around advanced methods to compute and invert genomic relationship matrices. [less ▲]

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See detailA Bilevel Competitive Facility Location Model with Competitor’s Response
Kucukaydin, Hande ULg; Aras, Necati; Altinel, I. Kuban

Conference (2010, July 11)

We are concerned with a problem in which a new entrant leader firm aims at finding the location and attractiveness of each new facility to maximize its profit where there are existing facilities belonging ... [more ▼]

We are concerned with a problem in which a new entrant leader firm aims at finding the location and attractiveness of each new facility to maximize its profit where there are existing facilities belonging to a competitor. The competitor reacts to the leader by adjusting the attractiveness levels of its existing facilities to maximize its profit. We first formulate a bilevel mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. Then, we convert it into an equivalent single level mixed-integer nonlinear program and solve it using global optimization methods. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of highly loaded Pt/carbon xerogel catalysts prepared by Strong Electrostatic Adsorption method
Job, Nathalie ULg; Maillard, F.; Chatenet, M. et al

Conference (2010, July 11)

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See detailUtilité des composés organiques volatils (COVs) émis par les Diptères nécrophages dans l’estimation de l’intervalle post mortem.
Frederickx, Christine ULg; Dekeirsschieter, Jessica ULg; Verheggen, François ULg et al

Conference (2010, July 09)

L’entomologie forensique s’intéresse à l’étude des insectes et d’autres arthropodes permettant d’estimer la période écoulée entre le décès d’une victime et la découverte du corps, encore appelée ... [more ▼]

L’entomologie forensique s’intéresse à l’étude des insectes et d’autres arthropodes permettant d’estimer la période écoulée entre le décès d’une victime et la découverte du corps, encore appelée intervalle post mortem ou IPM. Actuellement, cet intervalle post mortem est estimé après élevage en laboratoire des œufs, des larves et des pupes des Diptères nécrophages prélevés sur la scène de crime. Afin d’éviter cette mise en élevage, il est possible d’estimer l’âge des pupes de Diptères. A cette fin, nous avons prélevé par microextraction sur phase solide (SPME) les composés organiques volatils émis par les pupes de Diptères tout au long de leur pupaison. Ces composés organiques volatiles sont ensuite analysés par chromatographie en phase gazeuse couplée à la spectrométrie de masse (GC-MS). Ces analyses permettront d’une part d’estimer l’IPM plus justement et d’autre part de visualiser l’évolution des composés organiques volatiles émis par les pupes de Diptères nécrophages au cours de leur pupaison. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluer les compétences : la place du contexte.
Bertrand, Françoise ULg; Tibax, V.; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2010, July 09)

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See detailAgrifutur : se former pour demain.
Babic, Audrey ULg; Peters, Stéphanie ULg; Côte, Virginie et al

Conference (2010, July 09)

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See detailSurveillance de l'entomofaune des associations culturales prenant en compte le safoutier (Dacryodes edulis, (G. Don) H.J. Lam ; Burseraceae) dans le haut-Ogooué au Gabon
Poligui, René Noël ULg

Conference (2010, July 08)

Malgré le nombre assez élevé d’études sur les insectes des cultures au niveau de l’Afrique centrale, il y a peu d’informations sur l’entomofaune des associations culturales intégrant le safoutier ... [more ▼]

Malgré le nombre assez élevé d’études sur les insectes des cultures au niveau de l’Afrique centrale, il y a peu d’informations sur l’entomofaune des associations culturales intégrant le safoutier (Dacryodes edulis, Burseraceae). Dans ce contexte, pendant seize semaines continues, nous avons effectué des observations diverses sur le terrain au niveau du Haut-Ogooué, au du Gabon. Les associations culturales des jardins des cases ont été caractérisées. Des insectes ont été évalués, respectivement 8611 individus pour 74 familles au moyen du contrôle visuel hebdomadaire sur le safoutier, 21753 individus pour 181 familles à partir des collectes hebdomadaires des pièges autour du safoutier, et 19196 individus pour 178 familles à partir des pièges des espaces témoins. Les résultats de ce travail révèlent que la diversité et les abondances de l’entomofaune de ce milieu évoluent en fonction des conditions climatiques, de la phénologie floricole du safoutier et de la nature de l’écosystème. Les pièges autour des safoutiers capturent plus d’insectes que ceux des espaces sans safoutiers. La diversité et les abondances sont plus importantes en milieu rural qu’en milieu urbain. Selon leur statut alimentaire, les insectes nuisibles sont les plus nombreux, viennent ensuite les insectes utiles et les insectes associés. Des espèces ayant une importance économique sur le safoutier ont été observées. Des observations ultérieures permettront de confirmer et de mieux cerner les ravageurs majeurs de ces associations, et de réaliser des investigations scientifiques sur les techniques de lutte biologique. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainable steel constructions – Life-cycle inventory, methods and applications
Rossi, Barbara ULg

Conference (2010, July 07)

This document gives an overview of the challenges and issues related to a sustainable use of steel in the construction sector. After an introduction that concerns the challenges associated to the use of ... [more ▼]

This document gives an overview of the challenges and issues related to a sustainable use of steel in the construction sector. After an introduction that concerns the challenges associated to the use of steel as a sustainable material, the principles of a life-cycle analysis are presented. The paper then focuses on the life-cycle inventory data of several products: finished cold-rolled coil, electro-galvanized steel, section rolling and rebar. The data are presented for two (sometimes three) different recycling rates. Indeed, since steel is recycled to more than 85% at the end of its life and recyclable and indefinite number of times, the presented inventory includes allocation for scrap inputs and outputs using the closed material loop recycling methodology developed by the International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI). A description of the method principles is also provided. The influence of the end-of-life credit method will be discussed. Corrosion and subsequently maintenance of steel products will be treated afterwards and a brief comparison of the life-cycle inventory will be provided for electro-galvanized steel and finished steel. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ramses Project: Review and Perspectives
Honnay, Anne-Claude ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg; Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2010, July 07)

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See detailUne intervention de formation examinée et développée à l’aide d’un cadre conceptuel issu du croisement des approches ergonomiques et psychosociologiques
Burlet, Géraldine; Faulx, Daniel ULg

Conference (2010, July 06)

La contribution étudie les effets d’une intervention de formation fondée sur l’articulation des cadres conceptuels de la psychologie sociale et du socio-constructivisme, en l’occurrence un « dispositif ... [more ▼]

La contribution étudie les effets d’une intervention de formation fondée sur l’articulation des cadres conceptuels de la psychologie sociale et du socio-constructivisme, en l’occurrence un « dispositif d’immersion structuré » (DIS). L’analyse de l’impact de cette intervention, qui poursuit à la fois des objectifs cognitifs, identitaires et comportementaux, est fondée sur l’analyse thématique et structurale de contenu de 25 entretiens, et montre que le DIS a eu des effets conformes aux objectifs poursuivis par l’intervention, et cela aux trois niveaux : (1) des apprentissages sur les manières de fonctionner et de travailler d’autres services, (2) l’accroissement des comportements de coopération entre services, (3) le développement du sentiment d’appartenance organisationnelle. [less ▲]

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See detailLe manque de variabilité des schémas de construction comme facteur explicatif des difficultés morphosyntaxiques chez les enfants dysphasiques
Leroy, Sandrine ULg; Moulin, Mélissa; Parisse, Christophe et al

Conference (2010, July 06)

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See detailImpact de la longueur des énoncés et de la fréquence lexicale sur la compréhension d’énoncés chez des enfants
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg

Conference (2010, July 06)

Introduction En psychologie cognitive, plusieurs modèles théoriques considèrent que le système de traitement de l’information humain a une capacité limitée (notamment, Just & Varma, 2007). L’efficacité ... [more ▼]

Introduction En psychologie cognitive, plusieurs modèles théoriques considèrent que le système de traitement de l’information humain a une capacité limitée (notamment, Just & Varma, 2007). L’efficacité lors d’activités recrutant un grand nombre de traitements cognitifs serait dépendante de la quantité de ressources disponibles pour les réaliser. En particulier, l’activité de compréhension d’énoncés nécessite la réalisation rapide et quasi simultanée d’un grand nombre de traitements, dont l’analyse morphosyntaxique à proprement parler, mais également le décodage phonologique et l’accès lexical. En outre, d’autres processus cognitifs interviennent, comme l’attention portée à la tâche ou la mémoire de travail qui permet la coordination entre le traitement de l’énoncé et le stockage des produits partiels de celui-ci. Selon le modèle de compréhension d’énoncés de Just & Carpenter (1992), les ressources disponibles doivent être réparties entre le stockage des éléments traités et l’analyse et l’intégration des éléments à traiter. Selon ces auteurs, certaines opérations sont plus coûteuses que d’autres. Par exemple, le traitement de lexèmes de basse fréquence lexicale serait plus coûteux que le traitement de lexèmes fréquents, car le niveau d’activation de base de leurs représentations lexicales serait inférieur à celui des derniers. De même, comme chaque élément à traiter consume des ressources, les ressources cognitives disponibles pour le traitement de chaque morphème sont proportionnellement moindres dans des énoncés longs que dans des énoncés courts. Ce nécessaire compromis lors du partage des ressources entre les opérations de stockage et de traitement peut donc se traduire par une chute des performances en compréhension d’énoncés, soit par oubli des premiers éléments traités, soit par manque de ressources pour traiter les derniers éléments présentés. Objectif Cette étude évalue l’impact de la longueur des énoncés et de la fréquence lexicale des lexèmes sur les performances en compréhension d’énoncés d’enfants de 4, 6, 8 et 10 ans. Méthodologie Participants : Enfants de 4, 6 et 8 ans (N=30 dans chaque groupe) et 15 enfants de 10 ans Tâche : Compréhension d’énoncés présentés oralement (structure = S + V transitif + COD + Proposition relative sujet avec verbe intransitif). Manipulation de la fréquence lexicale (4 niveaux) et de la longueur des énoncés par ajout d’éléments redondants (4 niveaux) Résultats Les effets de fréquence lexicale et de longueur se marquent en termes de réponses correctes de 4 à 6 ans, et en termes de rapidité de réponse de 6 à 10 ans. Conclusions La longueur des énoncés et la fréquence lexicale des termes utilisés sont des facteurs de complexité dans la compréhension d’énoncés, qui se manifestent par un échec de la compréhension chez les enfants les plus jeunes, et par un allongement du temps de traitement chez les enfants plus âgés. [less ▲]

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See detailRepeated thermal treatments applied to ordered TiO2 mesoporous thin film: Effect on the film crystallization and surface area
Henrist, Catherine ULg; Dubreuil, Olivier; Krins, Natacha ULg et al

Conference (2010, July 06)

Ordered, mesoporous films are prepared by template-assisted sol-gel techniques such as dip-coating from a precursors solution. However, monolayer films are only a few hundred nanometers thick and present ... [more ▼]

Ordered, mesoporous films are prepared by template-assisted sol-gel techniques such as dip-coating from a precursors solution. However, monolayer films are only a few hundred nanometers thick and present a limited surface area of active material resulting in poor photovoltaic performances. Therefore it is needed to increase the film thickness. A multilayer deposition process for anatase mesoporous film has been reported in the literature in 2005 by Zukalova and all. Unfortunately, later researches have shown a surface area limitation despite the increase of film thickness due to the repeated thermal treatments applied to the layers. In this study, we have investigated the microstructural evolution of a single mesoporous TiO2 layer submitted to repeated thermal treatments. The modifications are discussed in terms of film thickness, surface area, anatase crystals size and global crystallinity. Besides, we propose an alternative thermal treatment designed in an attempt to overcome the limitations induced by repeated calcinations. We have followed and compared the properties of mesoporous films submitted to both thermal treatments by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and environmental poroellipsometry (EEP). Those results show the importance of the tuning of thermal treatment when multilayers films are envisaged for DSSC applications. Indeed, this study quantifies the maximum perturbation encountered by the first layer during the preparation of a multilayer (up to 12) coating, which is submitted to a multistep calcination. Finally, the photovoltaic performances of assembled cells have been evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailCorps scéniques vs corps écraniques. Les spectacles de Beaubois et Kuypers
Tomasovic, Dick ULg

Conference (2010, July 05)

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See detailCounterparty Risk in Credit Default Swaps Markets
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Mattar, Jamal ULg

Conference (2010, July 04)

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See detailMisery loves company beauty contest dynamics in exchange rates expectations
Muller, Aline ULg; Pancotto, Francesca

Conference (2010, July 02)

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See detailEvaluation of a hydro-alcoholic solution as pre-surgical hand antisepsis in a veterinary setting.
Verwilghen, Denis ULg; Mastrocicco, Emilie; Mainil, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2010, July 02)

Introduction: Despite the fact that presurgical antiseptic hand treatment of surgical staff has since become a worldwide accepted procedure, surgical site infection is still one of the most frequent types ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Despite the fact that presurgical antiseptic hand treatment of surgical staff has since become a worldwide accepted procedure, surgical site infection is still one of the most frequent types of nosocomial infections. Many products have been used for hand antisepsis, but the popularity of alcoholic rubs amongst human surgeons is increasing as they have shown to provide a rapid and immediate action, are considerably faster than disinfecting soap scrubs and cause less skin damage after repeated use. The purpose of this study was 1) to identify surgical hand antisepsis habits amongst veterinary surgery specialists in Europe (ECVS) and the United States (ACVS), 2) to compare povidone iodine and chlorhexidine gluconate scrubs with a hydro-alcoholic rub hand antisepsis protocol and 3) to evaluate the usefulness of a hydro-alcoholic rub solution in a veterinary surgical setting. Materials and Methods: Emails were sent to 1300 Diplomates to invite them to participate to an online survey in order to obtain an idea about pre-surgical hand disinfection techniques. In a preliminary trial the efficiency of 4% chlorhexidine gluconate, 7.5 % PVP-iodine and an alcoholic solution containing 45% 2-propanol, 30% 1-propanol, 0.2% mecetronium ethylsulphate (Sterillium®) in bacterial reduction on hands was compared. In a clinical trial, the suitability of Sterillium® was assessed in an equine and small animal set up during surgery procedures. Fingertips were pressed on blood agar plates and Gassner plates prior to hand antisepsis (PHA), after handantisepsis (AHA) and three hours after wearing sterile gloves (AG) in the preliminary trial or at the end of surgery (AS) in the clinical trial. Bacterial counts (colony forming units : CFU’s) were obtained after 24 h of incubation of the plates. The obtained values of CFU from PHA, AHA, AG and AS were expressed as log10 values. For each sample, a reduction factor (RF) was obtained from the difference of log10 pre-value and log10 post-value. An ANOVA comparison between the effects of the different antisepsis protocols on the mean log10 CFU values and RF’s in function of the different steps was established. Results: A 42.6% response rate was obtained for the survey. Most surgeons’ still use a disinfecting soap only (79.9%) for hand antisepsis prior to surgery, the majority based on chlorhexidine gluconate (81.4%). Significant differences were found between immediate and sustained activities of the different products tested. Sterillium® was shown to have significantly lower LSM log10 CFU at AG compared to both other products. At AHA, povidone iodine revealed to have significantly higher LSM log10 CFU than Sterillium® and chlorhexidine gluconate, with the last two products having comparable activities. Reduction factors for the Sterillium® were significantly greater than for the other products. Only RF1 was comparable between Sterillium® and chlorhexidine gluconate. In the clinical trial, no significant differences were found between surgeons regarding LSM log10 CFU after hand antisepsis, neither between RF from samples taken at the small animal versus the equine surgery theatre. Discussion: This study confirms that Sterillium® is more effective in reducing bacterial counts on hands prior to surgery in a veterinary setting as are chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and povidone iodine soap. Moreover, they provide better tolerance and compliance to surgical hygiene protocols. Despite this, veterinary surgeons from all over the world still prefer the use of CHX soap, which has far more disadvantages than commonly accepted. Apart from the better skin tolerance and the absence of known resitance to the product, the use of Sterillium® offers the advantage of a fast (1.5 minute) surgical handantisepsis. This study shows that, as previously reported for human medicine, Sterillium® can safely be used in a veterinary surgical setting. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnofonctionalité des lipides alimentaires
Danthine, Sabine ULg

Conference (2010, July 01)

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See detailBiomimetic coatings with robust antibacterial properties
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Cécius, Michaël; Faure, Emilie ULg et al

Conference (2010, July 01)

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See detailThe RMI Space Weather and Navigation Systems (SWANS) project
Warnant, René ULg; Lejeune, Sandrine; Wautelet, Gilles ULg et al

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailEvaluation of odour impact from a landfill area and a waste treatment facility through the application of two atmospheric dispersion models.
Ubeda, Yolanda; Ferrer, M.; Sanchis, E. et al

Conference (2010, July)

Odour emission from landfill areas has a high potential to cause significant annoyance to people living in their surroundings. In order to avoid odour nuisance, it is crucial to select the best location ... [more ▼]

Odour emission from landfill areas has a high potential to cause significant annoyance to people living in their surroundings. In order to avoid odour nuisance, it is crucial to select the best location in the project phase of these facilities. In the present work, two different atmospheric dispersion models were employed to predict odour impact from a projected landfill area and a waste treatment facility. The first model used was a simplified Gaussian Atmospheric Dispersion model developed by the authors. Calculated odour concentrations were represented using GIS tools (Esri ®ArcMapTM software). Regarding to the second model, it was a commercial bi-Gaussian Atmospheric Dispersion one. The odour impact of the waste treatment facility is expected to be low, because of the high efficiency of air biofiltration treatments and the dispersion effect of the stack. The shape and the reach of odour percentile contours were quite similar, providing coherent results between two models. Concerning the landfill installation, odour concentrations were modelled for the prevailing winds. The results obtained with both models differ in the reach of odour. The maximum distance obtained by the simple dispersion model was 1.5 km, compared with the almost 5 km modelled by the commercial bi-Gaussian one. The reasons of this disparity could be caused by the difference in the dispersion coefficients employed in the two models and also an error related to ground level emission. In addition, the meteorological conditions in the Mediterranean typically present a high proportion of calm winds, which provided worse dispersion results and did not reflect the real odour dispersion. Odour emission rate seems to be overestimated, and this could explain the high distance reached by odour. Field measurements are required when landfill installation becomes operational, in order to determine the real impact of odour. Bi-Gaussian Dispersion Models may not be appropriate to quantify the odour impact from agricultural sources. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude du lien entre traumatisme et addiction en relation avec les conditions de travail dans une population professionnelle à risque : Analyse quantitative et qualitative au sein d’un échantillon de pompiers
Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Perick, T.

Conference (2010, July)

Plusieurs populations professionnelles sont confrontées à des situations traumatiques de façon répétée et quotidienne (polices, pompiers, ambulanciers). Ces professionnels constituent donc une population ... [more ▼]

Plusieurs populations professionnelles sont confrontées à des situations traumatiques de façon répétée et quotidienne (polices, pompiers, ambulanciers). Ces professionnels constituent donc une population particulièrement exposée au risque de développer des états de stress post-traumatiques, ce qui est attesté par de nombreuses études qui en recensent plusieurs cas. De manière générale, c’est plus souvent suite aux diverses interventions et à leur accumulation que les intervenants développent des symptômes pathologiques. Cela représente donc un processus sur le long terme. Les réponses face aux symptômes de cet état sont de plusieurs ordres. On relève des stratégies de coping, d’évitement, du refoulement, des conversions, des troubles obsessionnels mais aussi des conduites addictives. C’est cette dernière réponse en particulier que nous investiguons au sein d’une population de pompiers-ambulanciers à travers une analyse quantitative et qualitative. Une forte association entre le PSTD et les conduites addictives a été mise en évidence par de nombreuses études (Acierno et al., 2000 ; Beckham et al., 1997 ; Breslau et al., 2003, 2004 ; Chilcoat & Breslau, 1998 ; Deykin & Buka, 1997 ; Hapke et al., 2005 ; Kessler et al., 1995 ; Kilpatrick et al., 2000 ; Lasser et al., 2000, Shalev et al., 1990) : les individus souffrant d’un PTSD présentent un risque élevé de développer des dépendances à différents produits psychotropes. Cependant, la plupart de ces études se sont basées sur des personnes qui ne travaillaient plus et les analyses sont donc réalisées en dehors de toute situation de travail. Afin de mieux comprendre le lien entre les conduites addictives et la présence de traumatisme chronique au sein d’un contexte professionnel, 60 pompiers ont participé individuellement à un entretien semi-structuré et ont répondu à plusieurs questionnaires portant sur l’existence d’un traumatisme (Traumaq), le bien-être (GHQ-28), la consommation de drogues (DAST-20) et d’alcool (Audit). Notre analyse quantitative montre que 16,67% (10 sujets) de l’échantillon présente un traumatisme psychique (9 des sujets présentent un traumatisme léger tandis que le dernier présente un traumatisme modéré). Nous obtenons les mêmes fréquences pour les consommations de drogues douces ou de médicaments sans ordonnance médical. Cependant, il n’existe aucun lien entre les addictions mises en évidence et la présence d’un traumatisme. En effet, les régressions linéaires montrent que le traumatisme n’explique pas les comportements d’addiction dans notre échantillon. Il intervient par contre dans près de 50% de l’explication du bien-être psychologique des pompiers. L’analyse qualitative du discours met en évidence la nécessité d’un soutien psychologique post-intervention (19%) ainsi que l’impact important des problèmes organisationnels (12,3%) et du manque de soutien et de considération de la hiérarchie (15,8%) sur le développement d’un traumatisme psychologique. En conclusion, si on ne peut pas travailler sur l’existence des événements potentiellement traumatiques, il est nécessaire de travailler en amont et en aval par une prise en charge psychologique pré et post-intervention. Ceci pourrait être favorisé par l’évolution positive des mentalités au sein des casernes à ce sujet. Cette étude et d’autres articles (Blavier, in press) insistent également sur l’importance de la reconnaissance des faits et la nécessité d’un comportement empathique de la part de la hiérarchie. Les ressources pré et post-interventions pourront ainsi diminuer l’apparition des psycho-traumatismes et leurs conséquences telles que l’absentéisme ou les addictions. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovements and validation of mid-infrared predictions of milk fatty acid
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; McParland, Sinead; Donagh, Berry et al

Conference (2010, July)

The development of mid-infrared equations to predict the milk fatty acid (FA) content of milk allows prompt analysis of large numbers of samples. The first aim was to improve these predictions by ... [more ▼]

The development of mid-infrared equations to predict the milk fatty acid (FA) content of milk allows prompt analysis of large numbers of samples. The first aim was to improve these predictions by comparing 6 statistical approaches. The second one was to validate the new equations using an independent sample set. The calibration set contained 239 spectrally different Belgian milk samples collected for over 2 years from several cows and breeds. FA were quantified by gas chromatography (GC). Statistical approaches tested were 1) partial least squares regression (PLS), 2) PLS and first derivative, 3) PLS and repeatability file (RF), 4) PLS, first derivative and RF, 5) PLS, second derivative, and 6) PLS, second derivative and RF. This last file contained spectra obtained from the same samples using 5 spectrometers. Cross-validation (CV) used 20 groups from the calibration set. Methods were compared using the ratio of the standard deviation of GC values to the standard error of CV (RPD). An external validation permitted a second comparison and was done using 362 samples collected for one year from multiple breeds and cows in Belgium, Ireland, and Scotland. Different RPD values were obtained by the 6 methods. Generally the equations developed using method 4 gave better results suggesting the adaptation of the methodology to the studied FA. It confirms by the obtained validation coefficients of determination. Highest values were observed for the equations with the highest RPD values except for C18:0. The ability to predict FA using method 4 gave superior results to those shown in previous publications. [less ▲]

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See detailLife cycle inventory of stainless steel – A review of challenges, methods and applications.
Rossi, Barbara ULg

Conference (2010, July)

This document gives an overview of the challenges and issues related to a sustainable use of steel in the construction sector. After an introduction that concerns the challenges associated to the use of ... [more ▼]

This document gives an overview of the challenges and issues related to a sustainable use of steel in the construction sector. After an introduction that concerns the challenges associated to the use of steel as a sustainable material, the principles of a life-cycle analysis are presented. The paper then focuses on the life-cycle inventory data of several products: finished cold-rolled coil, electro-galvanized steel, section rolling and rebar. The data are presented for two (sometimes three) different recycling rates. Indeed, since steel is recycled to more than 85% at the end of its life and recyclable and indefinite number of times, the presented inventory includes allocation for scrap inputs and outputs using the closed material loop recycling methodology developed by the International Iron and Steel Institute (IISI). A description of the method principles is also provided. The influence of the end-of-life credit method will be discussed. Corrosion and subsequently maintenance of steel products will be treated afterwards and a brief comparison of the life-cycle inventory will be provided for electro-galvanized steel and finished steel. [less ▲]

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See detailLe contrat leasing en droit belge au regard de l'harmonisation UNIDROIT
Kohl, Benoît ULg

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailMultidimensional fluctuation, pseudo-guessing and carelessness IRT person parameters with polytomous item response models
Raîche, Gilles; Magis, David ULg; Béland, Sébastien

Conference (2010, July)

Frequently, candidates at aptitude multiple choice test miss attention, motivation or preparation and show underachievement or overachievement. Similarly, at surveys respondents show frequently misfitting ... [more ▼]

Frequently, candidates at aptitude multiple choice test miss attention, motivation or preparation and show underachievement or overachievement. Similarly, at surveys respondents show frequently misfitting patterns of responses. Their result does not correspond any more to their true aptitude or attitude, an inappropriate response pattern being obtained. New multidimensional models specific to polytomous responses circumvent these situations and diminish considerably the associated person bias. Multidimensional polytomous item response models adding new person parameters to the trait of the candidate are proposed. In the spirit of previous Raiche’s dichotomous responses IRT propositions, like the discrimination and don’t know item parameters, these models offer fluctuation and don’t know person parameters. Estimation methods, results from simulation showing the efficacy of these models and recommendations for the design of testing situations will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailKnee model using articular shape knowledge
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; de Zee, Mark; Rasmussen, John et al

Conference (2010, July)

In motion capture, a standard procedure to obtain the bone motion is the use of skin markers. However, because of the relative motion of the skin and the bones, so-called soft tissue artefacts (STA), the ... [more ▼]

In motion capture, a standard procedure to obtain the bone motion is the use of skin markers. However, because of the relative motion of the skin and the bones, so-called soft tissue artefacts (STA), the recorded motion does not accurately describe the movement of the bones. To compute joint reaction forces and perhaps limit STA, most musculo-skeletal models use underlying joint models. The knee is usually modeled as a simple hinge joint. However such approaches do not lead to a better estimation of the real motion1. In this work the hinge joint is improved by taking into account the morphological features of the joint surfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailGlass eel swimming behaviour during their estuarine migration: new insights from video tracking analysis
Delcourt, Johann ULg; bolliet, Valérie; Ylieff, Marc ULg et al

Conference (2010, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (8 ULg)
See detailUse of image appraisal tools and covariance matrix
Caterina, David ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailContract renewal as an incentive device: An application to the French urban transport sector
Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2010, July)

In the French urban public transport industry, operations are often delegated and periodically putted out forto tender. Thus, operators’ incentives to reduce costs come from both profit maximization ... [more ▼]

In the French urban public transport industry, operations are often delegated and periodically putted out forto tender. Thus, operators’ incentives to reduce costs come from both profit maximization during the current contract and from the perspective of contract renewal. We have constructed a dynamic incentive regulation model that captures these features and we show that both the level of cost-reducing effort and its repartition during the contracting period depend on the contract type (cost-plus, gross cost or net cost contract). We then estimated a cost frontier model for an eight-year panel of French bus companies (677 company-year observations) to test our predictions. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing Snijders’ approach to standardize some parametric person fit indexes with estimated ability levels: a simulation study
Béland, Sébastien; Magis, David ULg; Raîche, Gilles

Conference (2010, July)

Several authors (Molenaar & Hoijtink, 1990; Meijer & Sijtsma, 2001) have shown that several person-fit statistics present some important limitations. One issue is that the distribution of some parametric ... [more ▼]

Several authors (Molenaar & Hoijtink, 1990; Meijer & Sijtsma, 2001) have shown that several person-fit statistics present some important limitations. One issue is that the distribution of some parametric person-fit statistics is unknown. Another important issue is that the distribution of person-fit indexes is most often derived under the true ability level. In this situation, replacing the true ability by some estimate can seriously affect the distribution of these indexes. Snijders (2001) proposed a method to correct the mean and the variance of many parametric person-fit statistics to be approximately standard normally distributed, and derived the corrected version of the lz index. The purpose of this paper is to apply this correction to other well-known parametric indexes, and to compare them with their classical versions. The simulation results indicate that the standardized indexes have empirical type I errors close to the nominal significance level, and that the corrected indexes outperform their classical versions in this regard. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle molecule interactions of bio-adhesive-inspired polymers with inorganic and organic surfaces
Willet, Nicolas ULg; Giamblanco, Nicoletta ULg; Faure, Emilie ULg et al

Conference (2010, July)

Numerous living creatures have developed adhesion strategies to stick to inorganic or organic surfaces in wet environments. A classic example of permanent bioadhesion is exemplified by mussels, which ... [more ▼]

Numerous living creatures have developed adhesion strategies to stick to inorganic or organic surfaces in wet environments. A classic example of permanent bioadhesion is exemplified by mussels, which secrete adhesive proteins containing a high concentration of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) 1, 2. The catechol species of DOPA are thought to be responsible for the strong adhesion to inorganic surfaces, whereas the oxidized o-quinone species trigger the cross-linking of the glue, ensuring cohesion. The unoxidized form of DOPA is known to adhere to a large variety of inorganic surfaces, although the adhesion mechanism is not yet fully understood.3, 4 A clear understanding is however essential for the design of synthetic adhesive polymers required in many surface science applications. Here we investigate at the single-molecule level the interaction forces between AFM tips coated with bio-inspired polymers and a variety of inorganic and organic surfaces. We prepared polymers bearing several amounts of DOPA units and covalently attached them to AFM tips following our previously published strategy.5, 6 They were homo-or co-polymers and were cross-linked or not. These original bio-inspired tips were used to perform single-molecule force spectroscopy on a range of model, as well as industrial such as stainless and galvanized steel, substrates. The specific interaction forces measured in water were compared with the ones exerted by the same polymers without DOPA. It was found that, depending on the nature of the substrate, the presence of DOPA strongly, or only slightly, increases the interaction forces with the surface. We also investigated the influence of the oxidation state of the catechol species on the intensity of the interaction forces. Again, this influence is strongly related to the nature of the substrate. Finally, we studied the effect of polymer cross-linking on the adhesive interactions. 1. Waite, J. H.; Tanzer, M. L. Science 1981, 212, 1038. 2. Waite, J. H.; Housley, T. J.; Tanzer, M. L. Biochemistry 1985, 24, 5010. 3. Lee, H.; Scherer, N. F.; Messersmith, P. B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2006, 103, 12999. 4. Wang, J.; Nawaz Tahir, M.; Kappl, M.; Tremel, W.; Metz, N.; Barz, M.; Theato, P.; Butt, H.-J. Adv. Mater. 2008, 20, 3872. 5. Gabriel, S.; Jérôme, C; Jérôme, R.; Fustin, C.-A.; Pallandre, A.; Plain, J.; Jonas, A. M.; Duwez, A.-S. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 8410. 6. Cecchet, F.; Lussis, P.; Jérôme, C.; Gabriel, S.; Silva-Goncalves, E.; Jérôme, R.; Duwez, A.-S. Small 2008, 4, 1101. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluer et renforcer l’efficacité des formations professionnelles. Etude dans une entreprise du secteur non-marchand belge
Peters, Stéphanie ULg; Liégeois, Arnaud; Faulx, Daniel ULg

Conference (2010, July)

Avec la concurrence croissante, les entreprises misent sur la formation pour être efficientes. Une littérature abondante permet aujourd’hui d’évaluer l’impact des programmes de formation. Comment cette ... [more ▼]

Avec la concurrence croissante, les entreprises misent sur la formation pour être efficientes. Une littérature abondante permet aujourd’hui d’évaluer l’impact des programmes de formation. Comment cette littérature est-elle utilisée par les praticiens ? Quels en sont les enseignements pour chercheurs ? Une étude est menée dans une entreprise du secteur non-marchand belge. Nous en présentons les fondements théoriques et l’appareillage méthodologique. Les quatre niveaux de l’évaluation selon Kirkpatrick (1998) constituent une référence : les personnes formées sont-elles satisfaites, ont-elles appris, ont-elles transféré les acquis de formation en situation réelle et, in fine, quel est le résultat de cette formation pour l’organisation. Depuis une vingtaine d’années, de nombreuses études ont permis l’identification des variables influençant ces quatre niveaux, et plus singulièrement le transfert : les variables liées à l’apprenant, les variables liées au contexte et les variables liées au design pédagogique. Elles ont été combinées dans des modèles complexes, dont le « Flawed Four-Level Evaluation Model » de Holton (1996). C’est sur ce modèle que s’appuie cette étude. Une attention particulière est accordée au climat de transfert, défini comme « la perception qu’a l’employé des facteurs qui l’aident ou au contraire l’empêchent d’exploiter ce qu’il a appris en situation de travail » (Bennett & Lehman, 1999, p. 193). Afin de préciser davantage l’impact du climat de transfert sur le transfert lui-même, nous avons envisagé le rôle médiateur de variables organisationnelles comme le préconisent Carr, Schmidt, Ford, et DeShon (2003) : la satisfaction au travail et l’implication organisationnelle. Une enquête par questionnaires est en cours auprès du personnel suivant une formation entre mars et novembre 2010 (N=554). Deux temps de mesure sont prévus : (1) à l’issue de la formation (mesure de la satisfaction, de l’apprentissage et du climat de transfert), (2) un mois après la formation (mesure du transfert auto-rapporté, de la satisfaction au travail et de l’implication organisationnelle). Les données récoltées vont permettre d’envisager le transfert comme un véritable processus dynamique. Il s’agit là d’un apport majeur pour les recherches futures en matière d’évaluation, dans la mesure où la tendance de ces dernières années a été d’appréhender le transfert comme une variable fixe et statique. Pour les praticiens, cette étude fournira de nombreuses pistes d’interventions en vue de renforcer l’efficacité de leurs programmes de formation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes prényltransférases et leurs rôles biologiques chez les pucerons
Vandermoten, Sophie ULg; Cusson, Michel; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailGenomic expression evaluation: introduction and perspectives
Ramery, Eve ULg; Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Guyot, Hugues ULg et al

Conference (2010, July)

In a way, disease could be considered as the result of gene expression deregulation. Knowing what genes are expressed in a particular cell or tissue and how they are regulated allow to better understand ... [more ▼]

In a way, disease could be considered as the result of gene expression deregulation. Knowing what genes are expressed in a particular cell or tissue and how they are regulated allow to better understand disease mechanisms. Transcriptomic is the study of the expression of the entire genome. This technical challenge has been rendered possible as different species’ genomes began to be sequenced. Several techniques have rendered efficient this process of measuring simultaneously the expression level of a large number of genes. To date, micro-array technology is probably the best known. However, with the development of more affordable techniques, sequencing/ resequencing could compete with microarrays in the future. All together, these techniques open new ways for early diagnosis and prognosis for the practioner ‘in the field’. [less ▲]

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See detailTotal Solution for Rapid Sample Preparation
Focant, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailAbout time and judges: How do magistrates face the question of quickness, efficiency and delays?
Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg; Delvaux, David ULg; Mouhanna, Christian et al

Conference (2010, July)

This paper will present a research in progress which aims to study the organisation of courts and the changes in the work of magistrates. More precisely it describes the different ways in which judges and ... [more ▼]

This paper will present a research in progress which aims to study the organisation of courts and the changes in the work of magistrates. More precisely it describes the different ways in which judges and prosecutors face the question of quickness, efficiency and delays in the different fields of judicial activity. Justice is usually seen as an institution in which judges take time in order to decide on cases – and is frequently criticized for being slow and inefficient. However, we now witness a rapid change: the management of cases, as well as the pressures exerted by media and political actors have profoundly affected the operations of courts. In all matters, civil as well as criminal, the main concern is now to give quick answers to every situation submitted to the court. As the time given to the treatment of each case decreases, one can ask what is the impact on the way cases are dealt with and the effect on the work of judges. The study presented will compare this issue of time and judging using the data collected in five courts in two countries, Belgium and France. [less ▲]

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See detailPigtailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina leonina): the pest and the gardener
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Albert, Aurélie; Savini, Tommaso ULg

Conference (2010, July)

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See detailFeasibility of a genetic evaluation for milk fatty acids in dairy cattle
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Arnould, Valérie ULg; Vanderick, Sylvie ULg et al

Conference (2010, July)

Recent development of equations based on mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry for the prediction of milk fatty acid (FA) contents allows their measurement on a large scale during performance recording. The ... [more ▼]

Recent development of equations based on mid-infrared (MIR) spectrometry for the prediction of milk fatty acid (FA) contents allows their measurement on a large scale during performance recording. The objective was to show that a genetic evaluation for milk FA in dairy cattle is feasible in the Walloon region of Belgium and to report first results. Estimated breeding values (EBV) and associated reliabilities (REL) were computed using a multi-trait test-day animal model similar to the one used for the routine genetic evaluation for yield traits. Studied traits were first lactation test-day milk, fat and protein yields, fat (FAT) and protein contents, and content of saturated fatty acids in milk (g/100g of milk, SAT). More than 6,700,000 records were available for common production and content traits and 194,000 records were used for SAT. Used variance components were estimated using REML. The average SAT content was 2.79% with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.50%. A total of 1,707 Holstein bulls used in Walloon Region had REL superior to 0.49 for all studied traits. REL for SAT ranged from 0.53 to 0.99. A total of 1,217 bulls had REL superior to 0.74. SD of EBV for SAT was 0.20%. The maximum and minimum SAT EBV values were 0.89% and -0.69%, respectively. In order to have a direct measure of the part of FAT that is not due to SAT, a new trait (dSAT) was post-evaluated and defined as difference between expected SAT EBV for a given FAT EBV and the estimated EBV for SAT. This new trait can be assumed to be a direct predictor of the content of unsaturated fatty acids in fat. The interest is that this trait cannot be accurately predicted directly by MIR. The maximum and minimum EBV for dSAT for the 1,707 bulls were -0.28% and 0.24%, respectively. Based on these results, a genetic evaluation for milk fatty acids is feasible. In the bull population used recently, a genetic variability for dSAT exists and could be used to improve the milk fat composition. [less ▲]

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