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See detailGenetic parameters for methane indicator traits based on milk fatty acids in cows
Kandel, Purna Bhadra ULg; Vanlierde, Amélie ULg; Dehareng, Frédéric et al

Conference (2012, July 18)

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See detailBayesian integration of external information into the single step approach for genomically enhanced prediction of breeding values
Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Misztal, Ignacy; Faux, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 17)

An assumption to compute unbiased estimated breeding values (EBV) is that all information, i.e. genomic, pedigree and phenotypic information, has to be considered simultaneously. However, current ... [more ▼]

An assumption to compute unbiased estimated breeding values (EBV) is that all information, i.e. genomic, pedigree and phenotypic information, has to be considered simultaneously. However, current developments of genomic selection will bias evaluations because only records related to selected animals will be available. The single step genomic evaluation (ssGBLUP) could reduce pre-selection bias by the combination of genomic, pedigree and phenotypic information which are internal for the ssGBLUP. But, in opposition to multi-step methods, external information, i.e. information from outside ssGBLUP, like EBV and associated reliabilities from Multiple Across Country Evaluation which represent a priori known phenotypic information, are not yet integrated into the ssGBLUP. To avoid multi-step methods, the aim of the study was to assess the potential of a Bayesian procedure to integrate a priori known external information into a ssGBLUP by considering simplifications of computational burden, a correct propagation of external information and no multiple considerations of contributions due to relationships. To test the procedure, 2 dairy cattle populations (referenced by “internal” and “external”) were simulated as well as milk production for the first lactation of each female in both populations. Internal females were randomly mated with internal and 50 external males. Genotypes of 3000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms for the 50 males were simulated. A ssGBLUP was applied as the internal evaluation. The external evaluation was based on phenotypic and pedigree external information. External information integrated into the ssGBLUP consisted to external EBV and associated reliabilities of the 50 males. Results showed that rank correlations among Bayesian EBV and EBV based on the joint use of external and internal data and genomic information were higher than 0.99 for the 50 males and internal animals. The respective correlations for the internal evaluation were equal to 0.50 and 0.90. Thereby, the Bayesian procedure can integrate external information into ssGBLUP. [less ▲]

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See detailFeasibility of genomic prediction of fatty acids composition in milk of dairy cattle from Luxembourg using single-step procedure
Faux, Pierre ULg; Arnould, Valérie ULg; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 16)

Milk composition in fatty acids (FA) portrays a class of novel traits of interest for both human health and animal robustness. With the exception of Wallonia, Luxembourg is currently the only place in the ... [more ▼]

Milk composition in fatty acids (FA) portrays a class of novel traits of interest for both human health and animal robustness. With the exception of Wallonia, Luxembourg is currently the only place in the world where, using mid-infrared spectrometry, milk composition in 29 FA is routinely recorded for dairy cows. Since 2007, spectral data has been recorded so far on 87,368 cows from 690 different herds, by 2 main control methods (T-method: one sample of only one milking, morning or evening, and S-method: proportionate sample of all daily milkings). Additionally, milk, fat and protein yields are available since 1990. The availability of FA allows many options for management use and animal breeding but requires advanced modeling (e.g., adapted to the testing methods). In the context of animal breeding, genomic selection has been widely developed in dairy cattle, where single-step approach (ssGBLUP) is particularly well suited for small-sized populations, as the dairy cattle population of Luxembourg (365,892 animals currently in pedigree) and is completely integrated into mixed modeling of phenotypic data. The objectives of this study were: (1) to assess the potential benefits of a single-step genomic evaluation on milk FA composition in a small-sized population and in particular (2) to quantify the impact of genomic information on reliability (REL) of estimated breeding values (EBV) of FA in Luxembourg. In a preliminary study for a single FA, oleic acid (C18:1 cis 9) genetic evaluations were performed on 47,613 milk records; collected by S-method, from 8,000 cows in first parity with a random regression test-day model using second order Legendre polynomials. For this sample, molecular data was simulated for 422 AI sires, ancestors of recorded cows. Prediction error variances (PEV) were used to compute REL and effective daughter contributions (EDC). First results showed a low increase in REL and EDC. Extension of this research to all sampling methods and research on the optimum structure of the reference population (bulls, cows) will be done to fit the Luxembourg-specific situation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa caméra et l'ouvrier: des "Sorties d'usine" à "Oeil/Machine III"
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2012, July 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg)
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See detailStress et santé des dirigeants de PME
Angenot, Arnaud ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg; Eubelen, Isabelle et al

Conference (2012, July 12)

Comme l’atteste l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale ([INSERM], 2011), il est aujourd’hui devenu nécessaire de pouvoir mieux identifier les sources de stress chez les travailleurs ... [more ▼]

Comme l’atteste l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale ([INSERM], 2011), il est aujourd’hui devenu nécessaire de pouvoir mieux identifier les sources de stress chez les travailleurs indépendants. Parmi ceux-ci, les dirigeants de Petites et Moyennes Entreprises (PME) sont fréquemment victimes de problèmes de santé liés à une charge physique et mentale élevées (Bournois, Duval-Hamel, Scarengella & Roussillon, 2007 ; Gunnarsson, Vingard & Josephson, 2007). S’appuyant sur ces constats, cette étude a eu pour objectif d’évaluer leur sentiment d’épuisement professionnel et de déterminer les causes de stress spécifiques au milieu entrepreneurial. Pour ce faire, une enquête par questionnaire écrit a été menée à la demande de différentes organisations patronales belges du secteur de la construction et de la vente. [less ▲]

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See detailA research project : young children in situation of handicap taking an active part in their everyday life
Camus, Pascale ULg

Conference (2012, July 12)

Despite the fact that Belgium has ratified the Convention on the Rights of theCchild in 1992, few children with special needs, aged 0-3, are effectively taken care in ECEC services. When it appears that ... [more ▼]

Despite the fact that Belgium has ratified the Convention on the Rights of theCchild in 1992, few children with special needs, aged 0-3, are effectively taken care in ECEC services. When it appears that they have access to services, care is focused on their deficiency, professionals often consider access as a favour done to the child and its family who is seen first as having special needs (instead of being first a child with competences). The workshop has proposed to explore and question the nature and the extent of participation for those children that are taken care in ECEC services (out of their families). Some questions have been explored and discussed: - Is little children's participation more rhetoric than reality? What are the representations about rights of children in situation of handicap to participate? What if we compare to protection and provision rights? - What does “participation” mean for little children in situation of handicap in an ECEC service? - How the representations adults have can work on conditions to participate? The necessity to adopt a thinking where the focus is placed on each child’s competences and interests … [less ▲]

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See detailMicrowave-treatment of frozen wood packaging material
Henin, Jean-Marc; Bauduin, Aline; Leyman, Michaël ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 12)

As part of the wood packaging material (WPM) regulation in international trade, the dielectric heating (DH) is soon to be included in ISPM15 (IPPC 2009) as an approved phytosanitary treatment. It has been ... [more ▼]

As part of the wood packaging material (WPM) regulation in international trade, the dielectric heating (DH) is soon to be included in ISPM15 (IPPC 2009) as an approved phytosanitary treatment. It has been considered that when using dielectric radiation (i.e. microwaves or radiofrequencies), reaching 60°C or more throughout the entire profile of the wood during at least 60s (i.e. 60°C/60s) ensures the eradication of any noxious organism present in the wood. Regarding the treatment itself, the main requirements mentioned in the draft of ISPM15 Annex 1 (IPPC 2011) concern the way to achieve “uniformity of heating” as well as the treatment duration, which must not exceed 30min. Concerning wood characteristics, the only restriction to the DH concerns the thickness of the wood pieces, which must not exceed 20cm; no other restriction exists regarding wood moisture content, density or initial temperature. As reported in the draft of ISPM15 Annex 1, it is generally considered that “when using microwaves as a heating source, the coldest part of the wood is the surface”. This statement implies that achieving 60°C (or more) during 60s at the surface of the wood should guarantee compliance with IPPC requirements (i.e. 60°C throughout the profile of the wood). However, since ice and liquid water exhibit very different properties towards microwaves, initially frozen wood (9cmX9cm and 17cmX17cm in cross-section) was irradiated in a 28.8 kW microwave oven (2.45GHz) in order to assess whether achieving 60°C/60s at the surface of less than 20cm-thick planks ensures higher core temperatures. The temperature pattern observed after the treatment was compared with the one observed after the treatment of initially thawed wood pieces. It was observed that, in some conditions, initially frozen pieces exhibit inside temperature (much) lower than 60°C, despite complying with 60°C/60s all over the surface of the wood. These results show that when wood is heated with microwaves, its coldest part may not be the surface. Our results also strongly suggest that the impact of wood properties on post-treatment temperature pattern should be further investigated in order to better identify the limits of the DH (at least on frozen wood). [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of growth rate and radial position on the natural durability of Douglas-fir
Pollet, Caroline; Henin, Jean-Marc; Jourez, Benoît ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 11)

In terms of natural durability, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) fame owns to the favourable characteristics of centuries-old trees harvested in old-growth North American forests. The ... [more ▼]

In terms of natural durability, Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) fame owns to the favourable characteristics of centuries-old trees harvested in old-growth North American forests. The properties of wood coming from plantations harvested between 50 and 100 years-old are likely to be different. In such stands, plantation density and thinning intensity may have a large impact on the trees growth rate. Since this parameter is known to affect some properties of the wood, it was decided to assess to what extent an increase in Douglas fir growth rate affects the natural durability of its wood. This issue is indeed poorly documented in the scientific literature. This parameter was evaluated on standardized heartwood specimens taken from 60 trees originating from 10 stands in Wallonia (Southern Belgium). In all these stands, the average girth of the trees ranged between 140 and 160cm, whilst their age (from plantation) ranged from 38 to 66 years old: These stands are thus representative of very contrasted silvicultural management practices. In terms of individual growth, the Mean Ring Width of the trees ranges between ca 3 and 7mm. Globally, 600 tests specimens were taken from two radial positions in the heartwood of each tree. Half of the specimens were taken in the heartwood at the border of the sapwood; the other half encloses the 20 years old ring, counting from the pith. The mass losses caused by the wood decaying fungus Poria placenta were assessed according to Cen/ts 15083-1 (2005).The natural durability of the wood is discussed as affected by sites, trees, radial positions in tree and tree growth rate. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the West vs rest of world dichotomy. Introduction to a world-system approach of national innovation systems
Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Conference (2012, July 11)

In this paper we want to think of science, technology and innovation policies from a perspective that would transcend the West vs rest of world dichotomy. We suggest that this will help to reintroduce a ... [more ▼]

In this paper we want to think of science, technology and innovation policies from a perspective that would transcend the West vs rest of world dichotomy. We suggest that this will help to reintroduce a critical perspective in Science and Technology Policy (STP) studies because the asymmetry of power relations will be made more salient than in the dominant but often implicit elite-framed narrative of “innovation for development”. Power is indeed in the very heart of innovation: when the latter is performed, it means that power has been unequally distributed amongst a number of actors that took part to a complex systemic process including natural resources extraction, fundamental and applied research, industrial applications and economic competitiveness leading to further benefits. With evidence from Latin America, we find that developing countries fall victim of a dominant narrative which is actually entrenched in an hegemonic structure, a consistent pattern that reflects the coloniality of power. We intend to challenge this merely ethnocentric perspective that still prevails using the theory of world-systems as a resource which enables a renewal of a critique over recent developments with national innovation systems (NIS) in so-called developing countries. We conclude by investigating what the implications would be for better STP studies to open NIS to cosmopolitan criticism. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative photosynthetic electron pathways in symbiotic dinoflagellates of reef-building corals
Roberty, Stéphane ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg; Franck, Fabrice ULg

Conference (2012, July 11)

The high productivity of coral reef ecosystems is largely attributed to the mutualistic symbiosis between reef-building corals and their intracellular dinoflagellate in the genus Symbiodinium. In the ... [more ▼]

The high productivity of coral reef ecosystems is largely attributed to the mutualistic symbiosis between reef-building corals and their intracellular dinoflagellate in the genus Symbiodinium. In the natural environment the holobiont have to cope with significant daily variations in light intensities that sometimes exceed Symbiodinium photosynthetic capacity. Fortunately, photosynthetic organisms possess regulatory features that help to ensure that high light intensities can be endured without the accumulation of photodamage. Thus, the regulation of photosynthesis can be viewed as a dynamic balance between photosynthetic efficiency (photochemical quenching) and photoprotection processes (i.e. non-photochemical quenching). In addition to the linear electron flow (LEF) operating during oxygenic photosynthesis, alternative electron flows (AEF) have been widely described in higher plants and microalgae but not in Symbiodinium. The present study aimed to highlight the existence of the Mehler ascorbate peroxidase pathway (reduction of oxygen by PSI), chlororespiration (oxidation by molecular O2 of the PQ pool) and cyclic electron flow around PSI. We report that the presence of particular AEF and/or their amplitude vary from one clade to another. These processes could play a key role under particular environmental conditions when sinks for photosynthetic electrons are scarce. Indeed, they could sustain significant levels of photosynthetic electron flux by initiating the ΔpH formation and of NPQ, regulating the ratio of ATP/NADPH to match the requirements of carbon reduction and reducing the excitation pressure over the photosynthetic apparatus. [less ▲]

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See detailFull discontinuous Galerkin formulation of shells in large deformations with parallel and fracture mechanics applications
Becker, Gauthier ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

Conference (2012, July 11)

Fracture mechanical problems can be solved by coupling the finite elements with a cohesive approach. Unfortunately, the classical cohesive methods suffer from severe limitations. Indeed, on one hand, the ... [more ▼]

Fracture mechanical problems can be solved by coupling the finite elements with a cohesive approach. Unfortunately, the classical cohesive methods suffer from severe limitations. Indeed, on one hand, the intrinsic approach, which inserts the cohesive elements at the beginning, has to model the prefracture stage. This requires an initial slope in the traction separation law that should tend toward infinity to avoid lack of consistency leading to obvious numerical problems. On the other hand, the extrinsic cohesive method inserts the cohesive elements during the simulation when a fracture criterion is reached. This insertion requires topological mesh modifications and therefore a very complicated implementation, especially in a parallel code. To overcome these limitations, new methods were developed and in particular, an approach based on discontinuous Galerkin formulation (DG) has been pioneered by R. Radovitzky (Radovitzky cmame2011). The use of the DG principle allows to formulate the problem with discontinuous elements and the continuity between them is ensured weakly by terms integrated on the elements interface . These interface elements can be easily replaced by a cohesive element during the simulation. We have recently developed this approach for shells (Becker cmame2011) to obtain a full DG method. Moreover, a new cohesive law based on the reduced stresses of the thin bodies formulation is developed to propagate a fracture through the thickness. This cohesive model dissipates the right amount of energy during crack phenomena. These developments are implemented in parallel and validated by the study the blast of a notched cylinder, for which experimental and numerical (by XFEM method) data are reported in the literature by R. Larsson (Larsson ijnme2011). Finally, as thin structures are often made of ductile materials, which show large deformations before fracture, the formulation is extended to the non linear case with hyperelastic material law. This one can take into account the damage and a criterion based on the work of Huespe (Huespe plasticity2009) is developed to localize the damage leading to the apparition and propagation of cracks. [less ▲]

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See detailDissolved primary production and heterotrophic prokaryote reassimilation in a large oligotrophic tropical lake (Lake Kivu, Eastern Africa)
Morana, Cédric; Sarmento, Hugo; Bouillon, Steven et al

Conference (2012, July 11)

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See detailMise en réseau et désacralisation de l'image d'archives: 'Le fond de l'air est rouge' (Marker) et 'Guerre et paix' (Kluge e.a.)
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULg

Conference (2012, July 10)

Au contact de quelques séquences de Guerre et paix (1982) et de Le fond de l’air est rouge (1977), nous identifions d’abord une pratique commune à A. Kluge et Ch. Marker, qui s’apparente à une ... [more ▼]

Au contact de quelques séquences de Guerre et paix (1982) et de Le fond de l’air est rouge (1977), nous identifions d’abord une pratique commune à A. Kluge et Ch. Marker, qui s’apparente à une désacralisation de l’image d’archives. Détruisant la solennité de plusieurs représentations historiques, Kluge ôte aux images leur capacité d’émouvoir et « d’impressionner » le spectateur, pour les projeter dans une succession d’associations. En soulignant un ensemble de liens visuels entre différentes représentations et postures, Marker introduit également une distance discrète entre la représentation historique et l’investissement politico-affectif auquel elle prêtait le flanc. Nous interrogeons ensuite les démarches de nos deux auteurs à partir d’un point de vue plus politique : si les associations klugiennes peuvent mettre le spectateur au travail, lui apprendre à prendre conscience des similitudes de différentes représentations dans le but avoué d’en faire un analyste critique du monde qui l’entoure, si Marker révèle visuellement certains « moments d’histoire » comme autant de parties intégrantes d’un réseau autonome de représentations, les deux auteurs ne maintiennent-ils pas par conséquent le spectateur dans le registre de la représentation ? Ne reportent-ils pas sans cesse un possible investissement affectif et émotionnel (politique) de la représentation sur d’autres représentations ? Et la conscience politique du spectateur n’est-elle pas subordonnée alors au spectacle de l’histoire dont elle ne peut s’émanciper? Enfin, si tel est le cas, cette conscience ne risque-t-elle pas de déboucher sur un état proprement mélancolique, le spectateur comprenant que le spectacle de l’histoire conservé dans l’archive, détermine à lui seul son rapport au monde ? [less ▲]

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See detail(Re-)Assessing Political Careers Patterns in Multi-level systems. Insights from Wallonia
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

The establishment of regional Parliaments in Western Europe has renewed the study of political careers. Since the beginning of the 21st century, an increasing number of – conceptual and empirical – ... [more ▼]

The establishment of regional Parliaments in Western Europe has renewed the study of political careers. Since the beginning of the 21st century, an increasing number of – conceptual and empirical – studies have been published on political careers in multi-level systems. Despite the richness of the novel analytical approaches proposed, I argue that the current trend in the literature that consists to label a whole region (or even a country) as illustrations of integrated, alternative, or hierarchical careers pattern (might) produce an imperfect picture of the reality – or even worse, could lead to a misleading conclusion. I rather hypothesize that, within a single region, the possibility of multiple careers patterns has to be a priori considered: distinct professional political classes might co-exist. In this respect, two methodological elements must be integrated into the research design. Firstly, from a heuristic point of view, researchers should move from the (mere) analysis of level-hopping movements between two elections and rather adopt a microscopic point of view through the study of every single individual political careers (internal validity). Secondly, the cases under investigation should be selected only if they display a critical amount of legislatures in order to observe robust and non-contingent career patterns (external validity). For the sake of parsimony and clarity of my demonstration, I recourse to an in-depth case study – Walloon political careers – but cross-sectional research are certainly determinant to (in-)valid this hypothesis. [less ▲]

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See detailBiotechnologies agricoles et coopération Sud-Sud: les défis liés aux OGM dans la politique brésilienne d’exportation de produits agricoles à destination de la Chine
Wintgens, Sophie ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

Dans un contexte de libéralisation et d’interdépendance accrues, la commercialisation des biotechnologies agricoles représente une opportunité de rattrapage économique pour les pays en développement ... [more ▼]

Dans un contexte de libéralisation et d’interdépendance accrues, la commercialisation des biotechnologies agricoles représente une opportunité de rattrapage économique pour les pays en développement engagés dans un processus d’ouverture et d’intégration aux marchés mondiaux. Leur coopération dans le domaine de l’innovation biotechnologique constitue de surcroît une marge de manœuvre potentielle face aux puissances occidentales. Toutefois, la confusion règlementaire prévalant en la matière soumet ces prémices de coopération Sud-Sud au risque de l’instrumentalisation stratégique. À travers le prisme du partenariat sino-brésilien dans le secteur de l’agro-business, cet article se focalise sur le cas du soja transgénique afin de comprendre comment se construit une relation d’interdépendance dissymétrique entre un leader agricole brésilien et un challenger chinois. [less ▲]

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See detailRéinventer l´Archive : naissance de la collection
Thonon, Jonathan ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

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See detailStudy of the alteration processes of Prussian blue in laboratory-prepared and genuine paint layers
Samain, Louise ULg; Sanyova, Jana; Strivay, David ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

The necessity of understanding degradation and alteration processes in a painting's materials is well established for preservation and art history issues. The task is complex because of the highly ... [more ▼]

The necessity of understanding degradation and alteration processes in a painting's materials is well established for preservation and art history issues. The task is complex because of the highly heterogeneous character of an ancient paint layer. In this context we focus on a particular pigment, Prussian blue. Prussian blue is a hydrated ferric ferrocyanide complex, first synthesized in 1704 in Berlin. It has been widely used by artists until the 1970s. However, the permanence of Prussian blue had already been questioned by the mid-eighteenth century, because it exhibits a tendency to fade in light and to turn green. To date, little attention has been devoted to the understanding of the degradation processes of Prussian blue in paint layers. We induced discoloration upon light exposure in commercial and laboratory-synthesized Prussian blue watercolor and oil paint layers by accelerated ageing. Pure Prussian blue painted in a dark shade appears to be extremely light fast but fades when either painted in a lighter shade or mixed with white pigments. We analyzed the paint layers by various techniques, i.e., UV-visible, Fourier transform infrared, Raman, Mössbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We attributed the fading of Prussian blue to a reduction of the iron(III) ions at the surface of the paint layers. We also observed a partial oxidation of Prussian in the entire paint layer. Finally we confirmed these results by analyzing works of art containing Prussian blue, i.e., a polychrome sculpture, wallpapers and mural decoration sample. [less ▲]

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See detail"L'archive comme espace de re-création (II) : du recyclage d'images disqualifiées"
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2012, July 09)

This paper examines the archive as a space of re-creation for contemporary artists. More specifically, it deals with contemporary found footage films recycling aesthetically discredited material ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the archive as a space of re-creation for contemporary artists. More specifically, it deals with contemporary found footage films recycling aesthetically discredited material (industrial film, medical footage, porn, etc.). In particular, this paper focuses on Peter Tscherkassky’s latest work, "Coming Attractions" (2010). In this film, the Austrian filmmaker reworks and repurposes various advertising films and stresses the multiple connections he can identify between contemporary experimental film, the avant-garde (Fernand Léger, Henri Chomette, among others), the aesthetics of publicity and, allusively, the cinema of attractions (Lumière, Méliès, R. W. Paul). [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pesticide application method efficiency by high-speed image analysis
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Denis, Thierry; Perriot, Benjamin et al

Conference (2012, July 08)

This paper investigates if increased blackgrass weeding efficiency by reduced volume per hectare observed during 2010 Arvalis field trials may be related to increased pesticide application method ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates if increased blackgrass weeding efficiency by reduced volume per hectare observed during 2010 Arvalis field trials may be related to increased pesticide application method efficiency. Retention on blackgrass leaves was assessed by an image analysis method. The setup consists of a high-speed camera shooting drop impact on horizontal leaf target. An herbicide (Archipel® [125 g/ha] + Actirob® [1 l/ha]) was sprayed at the usual volume of 150 l/ha and at a reduced volume of 65 l/ha. Adjuvants use (Epsotop® [1%] + Heliosol® [0.5%]) was also evaluated at 65 l/ha to highlight the effect of mixture surface tension modification. Drop properties before impact were extracted by image analysis and a phase diagram derived. Volumetric proportions of impact types are determined inside 11 energy classes to assess the effect of formulation and application method. The volume median diameter (VMD) before impact was slightly decreased by the reduction to 65 l/ha because of nozzle and pressure changes and also by the use of the adjuvants leading to the reduction of surface tension. Without adjuvants the reduction to 65l/ha increased the proportion of adhesion while rebound remained unchanged and fragmentation decreased. With adjuvants, drop fragmentation occurs for a lower energy class but the proportion of fragmentation also decreases with because of reduced VMD. A slight effect on the transitions between impact classes was observed because of formulation concentration change at reduced volume/hectare. A major effect of adjuvants on retention was highlighted as bouncing disappeared. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Tana River Basin, Kenya
Tamooh; Meysman, F; Van den Meersche, K et al

Conference (2012, July 08)

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See detailIs "translational research" reshaping health policy ?
Fallon, Catherine ULg

Conference (2012, July 08)

Biomedical research is an area of fast evolving development. Although biomedical research occurs in internationally nested research laboratories, application development occurs in local settings, such as ... [more ▼]

Biomedical research is an area of fast evolving development. Although biomedical research occurs in internationally nested research laboratories, application development occurs in local settings, such as hospitals, which are central instruments for health policies. Much translation work occurs to build new forms of cooperation between biomedical researchers and medical doctors. The first group works in an international competitive environment, acting as research entrepreneurs with connection to the pharmaceutical industry in the logics of "open innovation". Members of the second group are embedded in hospital systems, within a web of constrains, being accountable as well to their patients as to their managers, and to their professional constrains which are most of the time defined within specific institutions at national level, in close relation to public health authorities. These links at micro-meso-macro levels between medics and their environment are put under constrains by biomedical innovations (as was shown in Europe during the controversy around the breast cancer products from Myriad Genetics). In order to organise new forms of cooperation and to dismantle frontiers between the "bench world" and the "bed world", a new concept was put at the fore : "translational research" which is supporting new forms of cooperation "from bench to bed" with all associated partners, ensuring enrolment of the individual patient and the policy makers. Starting with the presentation of the new science production regime in French speaking Belgium, the paper proposes to deconstruct the conditions of emergence of the new instruments of science production in biomedical research to understand institutional reorganisation and new power balances. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Ἐρωτικὰ Παθήματα de Parthénios de Nicée: entre passions et raison
Vandersmissen, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July 07)

Les Ἐρωτικὰ Παθήματα de Parthénios de Nicée est l’unique œuvre conservée d’un auteur grec aujourd’hui peu connu malgré son évident succès au Ier siècle av. J.-C. Cet écrivain lettré originaire de Nicée ... [more ▼]

Les Ἐρωτικὰ Παθήματα de Parthénios de Nicée est l’unique œuvre conservée d’un auteur grec aujourd’hui peu connu malgré son évident succès au Ier siècle av. J.-C. Cet écrivain lettré originaire de Nicée, ramené comme esclave à Rome lors des guerres contre Mithridate puis libéré grâce à son talent littéraire était surtout apprécié pour sa poésie. Le hasard de la tradition manuscrite ne nous a cependant transmis que ce petit recueil en prose dédié au célèbre poète latin, Cornélius Gallus. L’opuscule a l’originalité de rassembler trente-six résumés d’histoire d’amour à l’issue malheureuse voire tragique. Au fil des récits, l’auteur raconte les conséquences funestes d’émotions démesurées comme la folie amoureuse sur les protagonistes, symboles du genre humain. Sur base d’une analyse philologique et sémantique minutieuse, l’exposé aura donc pour but de présenter le traitement littéraire de la passion et de son opposé, la raison dans cet ouvrage si particulier de Parthénios. [less ▲]

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See detailThe metaphors of the Belgian political crisis: evidence from citizens' discourse and the parties' manifestos
Perrez, Julien ULg; Reuchamps, Min ULg

Conference (2012, July 07)

Since 2009 Belgium has been through an unprecedented political and institutional crisis, which has come to an end with the forming of a new federal government in December 2011. This crisis can partly be ... [more ▼]

Since 2009 Belgium has been through an unprecedented political and institutional crisis, which has come to an end with the forming of a new federal government in December 2011. This crisis can partly be explained by the victory of the Flemish nationalist party (N-VA) in the federal elections of 2009 and by the diverging views of the two main parts of the country on the functioning and the future of the federal state. In this presentation, we try to assess to what extent this political crisis can be explained on the metaphorical level by analysing the use of conceptual metaphors in different types of political discourse for the period 2007-2010. While politics constitutes an abstract and complex domain of experience in which metaphors play a prominent role (Lakoff 2002, De Landtsheer 2009, Semino 2008), little attention has been paid to the use of conceptual metaphors in actual political discourse (see Authors to appear, De Landtsheer 2009, Koller 2009, L’Hôte & Lemmens 2009 for some examples). In this contribution we propose to study political conceptual metaphors in two types of corpora, which have traditionally been left out of the analysis, namely political party programmes on the one hand and citizens’ discourse on the other. Our first research goal is to identify the conceptual metaphors the main Flemish (Groen!, SP.a, CD&V, Open VLD, N-VA, Vlaams Belang) and Walloon (Ecolo, PS, CDH, MR) political parties developed in their programmes and to study their level of circularity, that is to what extent they are present in the other parties’ programmes. This will allow us to determine which were the dominant metaphors of the campaign leading to the federal elections of 2009 and the victory of the Flemish nationalist party (N-VA). In a second stage, we will analyse citizens’ discourse, which was collected during two citizen panels on Belgian federalism, and evaluate to what extent these dominant metaphors determined the citizens’ perception and comprehension of the Belgian political situation. [less ▲]

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See detailVideo multitracking to study the fish behaviour
Delcourt, Johann ULg; Ylieff, Marc ULg; Bolliet, Valérie et al

Conference (2012, July 07)

With the development of digital imaging techniques over the last decade, there are now new opportunities to study complex behavioural patterns and rhythms in fish (from individual to collective group) and ... [more ▼]

With the development of digital imaging techniques over the last decade, there are now new opportunities to study complex behavioural patterns and rhythms in fish (from individual to collective group) and to track a very large number of individuals. These new technologies and methods provide valuable information to fundamental and applied science disciplines such as ethology, animal sociology, animal psychology, veterinary sciences, animal welfare sciences, statistical physics, pharmacology, as well as neuro- and ecotoxicology. Specifically in situations where a large number of individuals are involved, the use of video tracking data is essential, as manual analyses would be complicated, time-consuming and sometimes even impossible. Today, multitracking allows us to observe directly the behaviours of groups, and to determine the real interaction rules by sampling data collected in nature or in the laboratory, without any a posteriori rules as it was and is frequently the case in computer simulation of collective behaviours. With these technologies, the quantitative measures of collective behaviours is now easily accessible, and allow to define social behaviours with more accuracy than just qualitative criteria as is always the case for instance with the definition of shoaling and schooling behaviours. Firstly will be introduced a review of fish video multitracking techniques. This review describes the possibilities of tracking individuals and groups at different scales, but also outlines the advantages and limitations of the different detection methods. The problem of occlusions, during which errors of individual identifications are very frequent, will be discuss. Secondly, our recent contribution in colour-based multitracking will be introduced, notably the new application of fluorescent VIE (Visible Implant Elastomer) tags in automatic tracking technology to study the behaviour of transparent animals like glass eels (Anguilla anguilla) in dim light or in darkness. The method makes it possible to measure the activity (notably distance and speed) of four individuals as a function of tidal and nycthemeral rhythms in the same flume (circular aquarium simulating the river or estuarine conditions) across a wide time scale (from seconds to weeks) in the context of migration in estuary. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Belgium soil survey project: A heritage to preserve
Legrain, Xavier ULg; Dondeyne, Stefaan; Deckers, Jozef et al

Conference (2012, July 06)

Between 1947 and 1991, soils of Belgium were mapped to establish a systematic inventory of the country soil resources. Field observations were done by soil auger to a standard depth of 1.25 m and at a ... [more ▼]

Between 1947 and 1991, soils of Belgium were mapped to establish a systematic inventory of the country soil resources. Field observations were done by soil auger to a standard depth of 1.25 m and at a mean density of 2 points per hectare. Cadastral plans at scale 1:5,000 where used for georeferencing field observations and for delimiting map units, subsequently generalized on the 1:10,000 topographic base map. The final map was published on sheets at scale 1:20,000 along with descriptive texts. Besides, data on about 15,000 described and analyzed soil profiles were reported in technical annexes. With the advent of computers, data on soil profiles have been transfered into relational databases and soil sheets have been digitized. Coding of the data rendered them more accessible, but inevitably implied a standardization and hence a reduction of some information. Still most of the soil surveyors have already passed away, besides their intangible expert knowledge, a wealth of information is also being lost when their field notes, unpublished reports, minutes of meetings and draft maps are being disregarded. The map legend was developed during the first decade of the survey, reflecting state of knowledge on soil formation and their relative importance for agricultural land-use in the 1950s. To guarantee that future generations will be able to appreciate the value and concepts underpinning the soil information, it is important that at least a minimum set of such historical documents would be preserved, analyzed and documented. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonnes vulnérables en création collective. Une intervention théâtrale comme outil face à l’incertain ?
Brahy, Rachel ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

Lorsque l’incertitude se décline dans les parcours de vie, elle se traduit souvent par un sentiment diffus de mal-être. Or, l’incertitude quant à l’avenir toucherait plus durement encore les personnes ... [more ▼]

Lorsque l’incertitude se décline dans les parcours de vie, elle se traduit souvent par un sentiment diffus de mal-être. Or, l’incertitude quant à l’avenir toucherait plus durement encore les personnes qu’on qualifie aujourd’hui de «vulnérables» (Soulet, 2005) : ces femmes et ces hommes qui, à un moment donné, font appel à un Centre Public d’Action Sociale pour obtenir un revenu d’intégration sociale ; celles et ceux qui suivent inlassablement des formations dans l’espoir d’accéder un jour à l’emploi. En Belgique francophone, il existe une série de dispositifs qui touchent directement à cette question du sens ; abordant de manière inédite une «question sociale» ainsi reformulée. Parmi ces dispositifs «innovants», notre analyse s’attachera aux ateliers-théâtre (animés par des comédiens-animateurs issus de compagnies de théâtre-action). Partant de ce terrain d’investigation spécifique, nous interrogerons la façon dont s’opère la mise au travail du sujet sur lui-même (Vrancken, Macquet, 2006). Trois questions retiendront notre attention : tout d’abord, l’outil théâtral s’offre-t-il comme une modalité «alternative» de travail social ? Ensuite, en quoi est-il (ou non) à même de se faire «support» (Martuccelli, 2002) face à cette question du sens et de l’incertain ? Et finalement, un tel dispositif ne se présente-t-il pas comme une voie féconde pour une meilleure connaissance des «politiques de la subjectivité» ; elles-mêmes largement incertaines et difficiles à cerner ? [less ▲]

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See detailSpectral modelling of massive binary systems: The example of LZ Cep
Palate, Matthieu ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

Despite their importance for many astrophysical processes, massive stars are still not fully understood. Massive binaries offer an attractive way to improve our knowledge of the fundamental properties of ... [more ▼]

Despite their importance for many astrophysical processes, massive stars are still not fully understood. Massive binaries offer an attractive way to improve our knowledge of the fundamental properties of these objects. However, some secondary effects are known to generate variations in the spectra of massive binaries, rendering their analyses more difficult. We present here a new approach to the computation of synthetic spectra of massive binaries at different phases of their orbital cycle. Our model starts with the Roche potential modified by radiation pressure and accounts for the influence of the companion star on the shape and physical properties of the stellar surface. We further account for gravity darkening and reflection effects to compute the surface temperature. Once the local gravity and temperature are determined, we interpolate in a grid of NLTE plan-parallel atmosphere model spectra to obtain the local contribution to the spectrum at each surface points. Then we sum all the contributions, accounting for the Doppler shift, and limb-darkening to obtain the total spectrum. The computation is repeated for different orbital phases and can be compared to the observations to determine the best parameters. We illustrate our method through the example of the LZ Cep system (O9III + ON9.7V). [less ▲]

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See detailUsage de l’agriculture dans le social : dispositifs, pratiques et formes d’engagement
Muramatsu, Kenjiro ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

La vulnérabilité en tant que risque incertain mais permanent de désaffiliation et d’exclusion auquel les individus sont exposés, fait appel à de nouveaux modes de reconnaissance et d’action collective. Le ... [more ▼]

La vulnérabilité en tant que risque incertain mais permanent de désaffiliation et d’exclusion auquel les individus sont exposés, fait appel à de nouveaux modes de reconnaissance et d’action collective. Le problème des risques de perte d’autonomie chez les personnes, thème central des nouvelles politiques du social étudiées, ne peut être totalement abordé ni par la logique de la responsabilité individuelle, ni par la garantie indifférenciée du droit social, ni par des traitements d’urgence et locaux, mais nécessite une remise en question du rapport entre l’économique et le social à travers les effets des dispositifs d’action collective et les changements dans les styles de vie des personnes. Les deux cas d’études ont été mis en comparaison : un dispositif japonais de services de formation agricole citoyenne, visant à allier l'agricole (revalorisation de friches agricoles) et le social (« Ikigai », sens de la vie, des seniors) ; un dispositif belge d’insertion visant à allier le social (insertion) et l'économique (maraîchage bio avec la vente de paniers). Ils montrent l’importance de deux formes d’engagement spécifiques d’un côté le « régime de compassion » chez les opérateurs, de l’autre le régime que nous avons qualifié d’ « autonomie sociale » chez les usagers. L’activité agricole, liée profondément à la nature, au corps, à l’esprit et à la sociabilité, y offre un espace intermédiaire et réflexif entre l’autonomie des individus, l’aide institutionnelle et la territorialité. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la recherche de la médiation scolaire
Dethier, Baptiste ULg; Dubois, Christophe ULg; Gérard, Julie ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 06)

Dans nos sociétés en réseaux, on peut faire société sans partager des valeurs communes. Le fonctionnement des institutions scolaires illustre les nouveaux modes de régulation des tensions, de la diversité ... [more ▼]

Dans nos sociétés en réseaux, on peut faire société sans partager des valeurs communes. Le fonctionnement des institutions scolaires illustre les nouveaux modes de régulation des tensions, de la diversité, de l'intégration, de l’incertitude… C'est dans ce contexte que le concept de médiation a fait son apparition dans nos écoles, comme dispositif d'apaisement ou de maintien du lien social. Sa diffusion doit beaucoup à la création de services centraux puis locaux de médiation, tout comme au travail de nombreux médiateurs qui ont peu à peu investi le champ scolaire comme les champs familiaux, judiciaires, sanitaires, administratifs et sociaux les plus divers. Cette communication présente les résultats d’un travail empirique exploratoire mené dans six écoles secondaires belges francophones. L’enquête s’appuie sur une double méthodologie, à savoir des études de cas basées sur des entretiens semi-directifs (n=56) réalisés avec des acteurs internes et externes aux établissements, ainsi que sur des focus groups sectoriels (n=14) (enseignants, personnel éducatif, élèves). L’étude consiste à décrire et analyser divers dispositifs inspirés par différents référentiels (restauration, reliance, intégration, concertation…) et transposés en une multitude de pratiques concrètes souvent qualifiée de travail de « médiation ». La dimension fondamentalement imprévisible de ce travail et l’incertitude quant à ses résultats interrogent les modalités de production d’un pluralisme normatif. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil carbon budget of a 50-year residue management experiment in a Belgian cropland.
Buysse, Pauline ULg; Roisin, Christian; Aubinet, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July 06)

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in ... [more ▼]

Within the context of Climate Change, crop management exerts a strong influence on the soil carbon (C) balance. This study aims (1) to estimate the C loss by soil heterotrophic respiration (SHR) in different residue management treatments through the establishment of their soil C budgets and (2) to compare these estimations with field SHR measurements. Three contrasted treatments were considered: Residue Export (RE), Farm Yard Manure addition (FYM) and Residue Restitution after harvest (RR). They were established in 1959 and continuously applied since then at an experimental field located in the Hesbaye region in Belgium. The soil C budget was calculated for each treatment on the basis of total soil organic C content measurements and C input data compiled since the beginning of the experiment. This allowed estimating the C loss by SHR in the different treatments. SHR measurements were performed in 2010 and 2011 to compare them with the budget-based estimations and to assess SHR sensitivity to temperature in the different treatments. The soil C budgets showed that the soil under the RR treatment was likely to undergo the biggest C loss by SHR since the beginning of the experiment. The SHR field measurements, performed 50 years after the experiment had begun, did however not show any significant difference between the SHR rates in the three treatments. Laboratory investigations (microbial biomass, basal respiration, metabolic diversity and soil fractionation) will be performed to better understand the effects of long-term residue management on soil C dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailLe chargé de relations partenariales et ses clients : premières pistes d'analyse
Remy, Céline ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

Depuis quelques années en Belgique, SPE et opérateurs privés de placement sont invités, à la demande des institutions européennes, à collaborer étroitement dans le cadre de « partenariats publics-privés » ... [more ▼]

Depuis quelques années en Belgique, SPE et opérateurs privés de placement sont invités, à la demande des institutions européennes, à collaborer étroitement dans le cadre de « partenariats publics-privés », suivant une logique de gestion mixte du marché de l’emploi. Ainsi, les SPE ont récemment développé une nouvelle ligne de services spécialisés dans la construction et la gestion de partenariats d’insertion et de formation. Au sein de ces nouveaux services, des « chargés de relations partenariales » ont pour mission de sélectionner des projets de collaboration et de suivre les actions réalisées, dans le cadre de ces projets, par les partenaires (privés et associatifs) en charge des demandeurs d’emploi. L’objectif de cette communication est de décrire les différentes manières dont se nouent et se développent ces relations partenariales. Plus précisément, nous nous centrerons sur les formes par lesquelles la confiance s’exprime dans les interactions entre chargés de relations partenariales et opérateurs d’insertion socioprofessionnelle. Nous nous appuierons sur une recherche de terrain menée conjointement dans deux services publics de l’emploi belges. Le matériau empirique se compose principalement d’entretiens semi-directifs de chargés de relations partenariales et d’opérateurs d’insertion, ainsi que de nombreuses observations d’interactions. Ces deux études de cas seront analysées à l’aune d’une sociologie de la confiance et de la sociologie des groupes professionnels. Nous tenterons de mettre en évidence les significations et usages multiples de la confiance comme autant d’éléments qui constituent et régulent les interactions entre le professionnel et son client. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of African plants traditionally used to treat malaria
Frederich, Michel ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

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See detailThe "New Science" and the Sea - Academies, Learned Societies and Marine Knowledge in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

Academies and learned societies were the main tools for the application of the “new science” in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This paper aims to contribute to the research on marine science ... [more ▼]

Academies and learned societies were the main tools for the application of the “new science” in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This paper aims to contribute to the research on marine science, nautical knowledge and empire building by studying academies and learned societies in their role of bureaus of investigation of the colonial reality. As a fact, institutions such as the Académie Royale des Sciences in Paris and the Royal Society of London played an important role as mediators in the development of various models of “science policies”. This paper focuses on the implication of these institutions in overseas scientific exploration in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. It stresses the specific importance of “academic” voyages for the development of navigational techniques, from Huygens and Hooke to Maskelyne and Harrison. This comparative study thus tries to show how through these new centers of knowledge production a scholarly interest for day-to-day nautical practices influenced the scientized perfection of navigational techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailZwischen Kosmos und Chaos. Emotionen und Gerüchte in Arthur Schnitzlers Erzählung "Frau Beate und ihr Sohn"
Leyh, Valérie ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

Mon projet de doctorat intitulé "Fama currit. Les rumeurs comme procédé littéraire dans les textes narratifs de Theodor Storm et Arthur Schnitzler" vise à étudier le phénomène des rumeurs sous les aspects ... [more ▼]

Mon projet de doctorat intitulé "Fama currit. Les rumeurs comme procédé littéraire dans les textes narratifs de Theodor Storm et Arthur Schnitzler" vise à étudier le phénomène des rumeurs sous les aspects narratologiques, psychologiques, sociologiques et poétologiques. Or d’une part, les rumeurs sont étroitement liées à des sentiments comme la peur, l’envie et la jalousie ou même le plaisir ; d’autre part, les représentations littéraires de sentiments servent souvent à la compréhension même de ces sentiments. Par une analyse détaillée du récit "Frau Beate und ihr Sohn" (1913) d’Arthur Schnitzler, il s’agira d’identifier les liens entre la propagation de rumeurs et les émotions ainsi que d’étudier, d’un point de vue plus général, les différents rapports entre les émotions représentées dans le texte narratif, le contexte historico-culturel et les normes de l’époque. La présentation devrait donc pouvoir dégager des conclusions sur la narration des émotions dans la littérature du modernisme viennois et sur l’ambivalence du phénomene des rumeurs. [less ▲]

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See detailPlants and algae metal homeostasis in Liège
Hanikenne, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 ULg)
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See detailAs relações imagem/legenda na astrofísica à luz da semiótica tensiva
Sturnack, Lionel ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

PROPOREMOS NESTE TRABALHO EFETUAR A ANÁLISE TENSIVA DE TRÊS TIPOS DE TEXTOS QUE PERTENCEM AO DISCURSO CIENTÍFICO LATO SENSU DA ÁREA ASTROFÍSICA: O DISCURSO DA CIÊNCIA EM LABORATÓRIO, DA CIÊNCIA EM ARTIGOS ... [more ▼]

PROPOREMOS NESTE TRABALHO EFETUAR A ANÁLISE TENSIVA DE TRÊS TIPOS DE TEXTOS QUE PERTENCEM AO DISCURSO CIENTÍFICO LATO SENSU DA ÁREA ASTROFÍSICA: O DISCURSO DA CIÊNCIA EM LABORATÓRIO, DA CIÊNCIA EM ARTIGOS ESPECIALIZADOS E DA CIÊNCIA EM ARTIGOS DE VULGARIZAÇÃO. OS TRÊS DISCURSOS PERTENCEM À MESMA VONTADE DE CONSEGUIR DESCREVER AS IMAGENS, SEGUNDO VÁRIAS MODALIDADES. POR ISSO SE PODEM CHAMAR DISCURSOS DE LEGENDA. ISSO SIGNIFICA QUE PARTICIPAM DO MESMO MOVIMENTO QUE TENTA DEFINIR A COMPOSIÇÃO E O SENTIDO DAS IMAGENS. O PROCESSO É MAIS AMPLO NO CASO DO DISCURSO DE LABORATÓRIO, JÁ QUE CORRESPONDE À PRIMEIRA TENTATIVA DE INTERPRETAÇÃO DAS IMAGENS, ENQUANTO OS DEMAIS, SENDO ESCRITOS EM ARTIGOS, ESTÃO NUM ESTÁGIO POSTERIOR, NO QUAL AS FORMAS ESTÃO ESTABILIZADAS. O PROPÓSITO É DE ANALISAR OS TRÊS DISCURSOS COM AS FERRAMENTAS PROPOSTAS PELA SEMIÓTICA TENSIVA, TAL COMO FOI DESENVOLVIDA POR CLAUDE ZILBERBERG E JACQUES FONTANILLE. O OBJETIVO CORRESPONDE A ESTABELECER OS CRITÉRIOS TENSIVOS SOBRE OS QUAIS PODERÍAMOS EFETUAR UMA DIFERENCIAÇÃO GENÉRICA ENTRE OS DISCURSOS ANALISADOS, DIFERENCIAÇÃO ESTABELECIDA SOBRE UMA BASE TENSIVA. UM OUTRO OBJETIVO, QUE SERIA MAIS LATERAL, SERÁ TAMBÉM RECONHECER ALGUMAS PERGUNTAS ESPECÍFICAS QUE PROPÕE O OBJETO À SEMIÓTICA TENSIVA. PRETENDEMOS ENTÃO DESEMBOCAR EM UMA SISTEMATIZAÇÃO DAS DIFERENÇAS ENTRE ESTES DISCURSOS, QUE ESTARIA ALÉM DAS CONSIDERAÇÕES ARGUMENTATIVAS OU FIGURATIVAS, E SUSTENTARIA POR CONSEGUINTE OS MAIS RECENTES DESENVOLVIMENTOS DA SEMIÓTICA, APLICADA À IMAGEM CIENTÍFICA. UMA CARACTERIZAÇÃO TENSIVA DESSES TEXTOS AJUDARIA A COMPREENSÃO DO CAMPO DISCURSIVO ASTROFÍSICO QUE IRIA ALÉM DA DISTINÇÃO A PRIORI, BASEADA NO LUGAR DE ENUNCIAÇÃO E NO TIPO DE RECEPÇÃO. UMA ANÁLISE MAIS PROFUNDA DAS ESTRUTURAS TENSIVAS DE CADA UM LEVARIA EM CONSIDERAÇÃO OS TIPOS DE APRESENTAÇÃO E DE DINAMISMO DOS CONTEÚDOS PRÓPRIOS PARA CADA TIPO, OFERECENDO UMA BASE ESTÁVEL DE DIFERENCIAÇÃO. POR ISSO, USAREMOS CINCO CONCEITOS FUNDAMENTAIS DA SEMIÓTICA TENSIVA: OS MODOS DE PRESENÇA, OS MODOS DE EFICIÊNCIA, OS MODOS DE EXISTÊNCIA, OS MODOS DE JUNÇÃO E A FIDÚCIA. O ÂMBITO SEMIÓTICO NO QUAL SE COLOCA A NOSSA PESQUISA, JÁ BASTANTE DESENVOLVIDO, É O DA SEMIÓTICA DA IMAGEM CIENTÍFICA. APOIANDO-NOS EM DONDERO, BORDRON E LATOUR, ESCLARECEREMOS O LUGAR DO NOSSO TRABALHO ENTRE AS QUESTÕES RELATIVAS AO CAMPO DE ESTUDO SEMIÓTICO DAS IMAGENS E DOS DISCURSOS CIENTÍFICOS. O ÂMBITO PARTICULAR NO QUAL NOS SITUAMOS NA SEMIÓTICA DAS IMAGENS CIENTÍFICAS É O DAS CHAMADAS “PRÁTICAS DE INSTANCIAÇÃO” EM QUE SE RECONHECEM TRÊS ETAPAS QUE ESTRUTURAM AS PESQUISAS CIENTÍFICAS EM GERAL: INTERROGAÇÃO, ESTABILIZAÇÃO E INSTITUCIONALIZAÇÃO (DONDERO, 2010). AS ANÁLISES QUE FAREMOS PRETENDEM DESCREVER E DISTINGUIR OS PROCESSOS DO DINAMISMO DOS CONTEÚDOS IMPLICADOS NESTES TRÊS NÍVEIS DO FLUXO DA PESQUISA. SOB OS PREÂMBULOS DA ANÁLISE TENSIVA, PRETENDEMOS EXPLICITAR EM PRIMEIRO LUGAR ALGUMAS TENDÊNCIAS DOS DISCURSOS NO NÍVEL MACROSCÓPICO DA PESQUISA E ALGUMAS ORIENTAÇÕES PARTICULARES DOS DISCURSOS ISOLADOS NO NÍVEL MICROSCÓPICO. POR FIM, CONSEGUIREMOS ORGANIZAR O CAMPO DISCURSIVO ANALISADO EM FUNÇÃO DE DOIS ELEMENTOS. POR UM LADO, SEGUINDO LOUIS HÉBERT (2009), DISTINGUIREMOS ENTRE CARÁTER ANALÍTICO OU SINTÉTICO DA COMPOSIÇÃO DO VALOR DOS OBJETOS. POR OUTRO LADO, EFETUAREMOS A DIFERENCIAÇÃO ENTRE DOIS CAMPOS, O SABER E O CRER, NOS QUAIS DE DESENVOLVEM A IMPLICAÇÃO E A CONCESSÃO, AS OPERAÇÕES LÓGICAS RECONHECIDAS PELA SEMIÓTICA TENSIVA. FINALMENTE SERÃO IDENTIFICADAS OS MOVIMENTOS TENSIVOS PRÓPRIOS PARA CADA DISCURSO. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional degradable polymers for advanced drug delivery systems
Jérôme, Christine ULg

Conference (2012, July 05)

Nowadays, polymer micelles have attracted an increasing interest in pharmaceutical research because they could be used as efficient drug delivery systems. Micelles of amphiphilic block copolymers are ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, polymer micelles have attracted an increasing interest in pharmaceutical research because they could be used as efficient drug delivery systems. Micelles of amphiphilic block copolymers are supramolecular core-shell type assemblies of several tens of nanometers in diameter. In principle, the micelle core is usually constructed with biodegradable hydrophobic polymers such as aliphatic polyesters, e.g. poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), which serves as a reservoir for the incorporation of various lipophilic drugs. Water soluble poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) is most frequently used to build the micelle corona because it is very efficient in preventing protein adsorption at surfaces and in stabilizing micelles in the blood compartment, making particles invisible to the body defence system. Even if micelles get a high stability in aqueous media thanks to their low critical micellar concentration, micelle dissociation is not always preserved when they are injected in the blood compartment. A way to provide the micelle stability during their administration is to cross-link them. Different kinds of cross-linked micelles can be investigated depending on the localisation of the cross-linking. Shell cross-linked micelles or nanocage structures with a degradable core have the great advantage to reach drug encapsulation with a high loading rate. However, cross-linking the hydrophilic shell may affect the stealthiness of the carrier. Thus, we have designed reversibly cross-linked micelles by introducing the cross-linking bridges in the hydrophobic segment of the block copolymer, rather than in the hydrophilic one, leading so to more internal cross-linking and thus preserving the mobility of the hydrophilic segment. Three different localizations of the cross-linking has been targeted; (i) loose core cross-linking of a core-corona system, (ii) tight core cross-linking of a core-shell-corona system (the shell and the core being both hydrophobic and the corona hydrophilic) and (iii) tight shell cross-linking of a similar core-shell-corona system. To reach this goal, three types of amphiphilic copolymers have been used bearing pendent azide groups in the hydrophobic segment. These copolymers have been obtained by starting the ring-opening polymerization of ε-CL and a functional CL, either as a mixture or sequentially from a poly(ethylene oxide) macroinitiator leading to the three targeted architectures. The azide groups located along the PCL backbone have then been used to cross-link the micelles by the Huisgens cycloaddition with a bis-alkyne cross-linker. The choice of this cross-linker has also taken into account the requirement to make the cross-linking reversible. For that purpose, disulfide bridges have been selected in order to impart reversibility to the cross-linking by intracellular reduction. Indeed, the marked concentration difference of glutathione between extra- and intra-cellular environments has already been used to trigger drug release by intracellular disulfide bond cleavage. Accordingly, a bis-alkyne disulfide molecule has been chosen as cross-linker. The micellization and cross-linking of these amphiphilic azido macromolecules have been studied. The reversibility of the cross-linking in reductive environment and the cross-linked micelles stealthiness have been tested. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial distribution of metallic trace elements in soils contaminated by atmospheric fallouts. Case study: Sclaigneaux (Belgium)
Liénard, Amandine ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Dere, Christelle ULg

Conference (2012, July 03)

The valleys of Sambre and Meuse in Wallonia hosted numerous metal ore treatment factories. They engendered a contamination of soils by metallic trace elements that may migrate in the landscape through ... [more ▼]

The valleys of Sambre and Meuse in Wallonia hosted numerous metal ore treatment factories. They engendered a contamination of soils by metallic trace elements that may migrate in the landscape through erosion, lixiviation, biological transportation, aso. We investigated the spatial distribution of some metallic trace elements in soils around a former zinc-ore treatment plant to a distance of 3km. The sampling strategy aimed at (i) verifying that the main source of trace elements was the plant chimney, (ii) assessing the impact of the wind directions on fallout dispersion and (iii) evaluating whether there were differences of contents according to soil types and to soil occupation. Two hundred and fifty topsoil samples were collected according to a stratified design dealing with distance to the chimney, direction of dominant winds, soil type, and land use. Pseudo-total contents in inorganic elements, pH, TOC, and N were determined in the laboratory. Besides, classical statistical analysis (i) ANCOVA (three-way ANOVA with the distance as a co-variate) and (ii) Principal Component Analysis were also performed. First results show that (i) zinc, lead and cadmium contents are closely correlated to each other and (ii) negatively correlated with the distance. If the geographical location is the major driving factor of trace elements contents in soils, significant differences were also found between soil type and land use (p-value<0.05). The highest MTE concentrations were associated with North-East winds, forest cover and pebbles rich soils. Further investigations will concern the vertical and toposequential distributions, and the speciation of MTE. [less ▲]

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See detailGarantir la démocratie locale en s'appuyant sur les pouvoirs locaux en Europe ?
Behrendt, Christian ULg

Conference (2012, July 03)

Exposé donné lors d'une conférence organisée par le Comité des Régions de l'Union européenne, et le Congrès des Pouvoirs locaux et régionaux du Conseil de l'Europe, Bruxelles, Bâtiment du Comité des ... [more ▼]

Exposé donné lors d'une conférence organisée par le Comité des Régions de l'Union européenne, et le Congrès des Pouvoirs locaux et régionaux du Conseil de l'Europe, Bruxelles, Bâtiment du Comité des Régions de l'EU, 3 juillet 2012. [less ▲]

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See detailLes interventions pontificales dans les affaires religieuses franques antérieures à l’alliance franco-pontificale : Aldebert et Clément entre Boniface, Zacharie, Carloman et Pépin III
Close, Florence ULg

Conference (2012, July 03)

Cette communication se proposait de revenir sur les interventions de la papauté dans les affaires religieuses franques de la première moitié du VIIIe siècle et, plus particulièrement, sur le procès et la ... [more ▼]

Cette communication se proposait de revenir sur les interventions de la papauté dans les affaires religieuses franques de la première moitié du VIIIe siècle et, plus particulièrement, sur le procès et la condamnation par un concile franc (743/44) puis romain (745) du prêtre Adalbert et de l’évêque Clément, passés à la postérité en tant qu’exemples malheureux de l’entreprise bonifacienne de correction des mœurs et des pratiques du clergé franc. Ce fut l’occasion de poser la question de la définition de la foi et de la revendication de l’autorité religieuse par les princes, par les missionnaires anglo-saxons, par le concile ecclésiastique régional/ national et pontifical avant la consécration de l’alliance franco-pontificale par l’onction royale (sacre ?) de 754. [less ▲]

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See detailConverting the legend of the Soil Map of Belgium into the World Reference Base for Soil Resources: Strenght and constraints of using WRB as a map legend
Dondeyne, Stefaan; Bouhon, Antoine; Legrain, Xavier ULg et al

Conference (2012, July 03)

Within the European Union, there is a general interest to prepare joint soil maps at a 1:250000 scale in order to harmonise agricultural and environmental policies. The World Reference Base for Soil ... [more ▼]

Within the European Union, there is a general interest to prepare joint soil maps at a 1:250000 scale in order to harmonise agricultural and environmental policies. The World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB) has been adopted as the common soil classification system within the EU. As soil surveys in most member states were conducted independently, the challenge is now to convert the national legends into a common WRB legend. Based on our experiences from converting the legend of the Soil Map of Belgium to WRB, we discuss the strengths and constraints of using WRB for both large scale (1:50000) and small scale (1:250000) maps. By using WRB Reference Soil Groups with one or two main qualifiers, the principal soil information of the original 1:20000 scale Soil Map of Belgium can be represented. Inevitably the conversion to WRB leads to some loss of information as details on soil texture, drainage and substratum get generalised into broader categories in WRB. This generalisation however can be neatly presented on 1:50000 scale maps. Being less complex than the original maps, these maps have the advantage to provide better insights into the regional soil geography. Moreover, as they are built on international classification concepts, the historical soil maps are made accessible to a wider audience. The conversion into WRB units also allowed for a straightforward generalisation and production of small scale maps (1:250000) which should be suitable for producing a soil map at European level. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo issues in differential item functioning and two recently suggested solutions
Magis, David ULg; Facon, Bruno; De Boeck, Paul

Conference (2012, July 03)

Two issues of current interest in the framework of differential item functioning (DIF) are considered. First, in the presence of small samples of respondents, the asymptotic validity of most traditional ... [more ▼]

Two issues of current interest in the framework of differential item functioning (DIF) are considered. First, in the presence of small samples of respondents, the asymptotic validity of most traditional DIF detection methods is not guaranteed. Second, even with large samples of respondents, test score based methods such as Mantel-Haenszel) are affected by Type I error inflation when the true underlying model is not the Rasch model and in the presence of impact. To deal with small samples of respondents, Angoff’s Delta plot may be considered as a simple and straightforward DIF method. An improvement is proposed, based on acceptable assumptions, to select an optimal classification threshold rather than fixing it arbitrarily (as with the standard Delta plot). This modified Delta plot was compared to its standard version and to the Mantel-Haenszel method by means of simulations. Both, Mantel-Haenszel and the modified Delta plot outperform Angoff’s proposal, but the modified Delta plot is much more accurate for small samples than Mantel-Haenszel. For the second issue, a robust outlier approach to DIF was developed, by considering DIF items as outliers in the set of all tests items, and flagging the outliers with robust statistical inferential tools. This approach was compared with the Mantel-Haenszel method using simulations. Stable and correct Type I errors are observed for the robust outlier approach, independent of the underlying model, while Type I error inflation is observed for the Mantel-Haenszel method. The robust outlier method may therefore be considered as a valuable alternative. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtude des médiations sur le marché du travail : l'apport de la nouvelle sociologie économique à l'économie des conventions.
Beuker, Laura ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2012, July 03)

Cette communication s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une recherche traitant des médiations sur le marché du travail, et plus précisément du rôle des intermédiaires dans la fluidification des appariements et la ... [more ▼]

Cette communication s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une recherche traitant des médiations sur le marché du travail, et plus précisément du rôle des intermédiaires dans la fluidification des appariements et la sécurisation des parcours professionnels. La nouvelle sociologie économique (NSE) et l’économie des conventions (EC) offrent des pistes intéressantes pour comprendre le fonctionnement de marchés concrets, comme celui du travail. Néanmoins, ces courants présentent tous deux des limites qu’une articulation théorique permettrait, selon nous, de dépasser. A la conception néoclassique d’un « marché autorégulateur », la NSE substitue une analyse des facteurs économiques, culturels et politiques qui contribuent à l’émergence d’une configuration particulière d’échange de biens et de services. Les théoriciens de l’EC quant à eux, portent un intérêt tout particulier pour l’analyse de l’activité de médiation sur le marché du travail et de la pluralité des modes d’évaluation des compétences. Cependant, l’EC ne cherche pas à expliquer l’émergence des conventions constitutives, considérées dans l’analyse comme variables indépendantes. En outre, l’EC présente une conception « sous-socialisée » des intermédiaires du marché du travail. Il nous semble que la NSE pourrait considérablement enrichir l’analyse des méditations à l’aide de notions clés telles que l’encastrement ou encore la construction sociale des activités économiques, restituant de la sorte au monde social toute son épaisseur. [less ▲]

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See detailBridging the Gap: A Theoretical Model of Mechanotransduction Through ERK Signalling
Kerkhofs, Johan ULg; Geris, Liesbet ULg; Bosmans, Bart et al

Conference (2012, July 02)

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See detailPrison Service’ s modernization versus Prison governors’ professionalization. Discourse, tools and practices in Belgium
Dubois, Christophe ULg

Conference (2012, July 02)

Considering their intermediary position between central policy and local practices, but also the impact of new discourses and knowledge on their profession (Abbott, 1988; Freidson, 2001), this ... [more ▼]

Considering their intermediary position between central policy and local practices, but also the impact of new discourses and knowledge on their profession (Abbott, 1988; Freidson, 2001), this presentation will focus on prison governors’ work. This research strategy aims at posing a de-centred glance on the policy and organizational processes through which new discourses related to New Public Management [NPM] are translated (Callon, 1986) within Belgian prisons. The focus will be put on the devices and local practices through which NPM discourses are translated and (re)shape prison governors’ profession. [less ▲]

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See detailTip cells at the top: a multiscale model of sprouting angiogenesis.
Carlier, Aurélie ULg; Geris, Liesbet ULg; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

Conference (2012, July 01)

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See detailEvolution of the Antarctic surface mass balance by high-resolution downscaling and impact on sea-level change for the next centuries
Agosta, Cécile ULg; Favier, Vincent; Krinner, Gerhard et al

Conference (2012, July)

Most of the IPCC-AR4 Atmospheric Global Circulation Models (AGCM) predict an increase of the Antarctic Surface Mass Balance (SMB) during the 21st century that would mitigate global sea level rise. Present ... [more ▼]

Most of the IPCC-AR4 Atmospheric Global Circulation Models (AGCM) predict an increase of the Antarctic Surface Mass Balance (SMB) during the 21st century that would mitigate global sea level rise. Present accumulation and predicted change are largest at the ice sheet margins because they are driven by snowfall, which mostly comes from warm, moist air arising over the land slopes. The coastal belt is also where complex processes of sublimation, melt and refreezing occur. Thus, high-resolution modelling is necessary to adequately capture the effects of small-scale variations in topography on the atmospheric variables in this area, but limitations in computing resources prevent such resolution at the scale of Antarctica in full climate models. We present here a downscaling method leading to 15-km SMB resolution for century time-scales over Antarctica. We compute the effect of the fine topography on orographic precipitation and on boundary layer processes that lead to sublimation, melt and refreezing. We first display the SMB downscaled from ERA-Interim and show that the downscaling improves the agreement between modelled and observed SMB for the end of the 20th century. We then present hi-resolution features of the Antarctic SMB evolution during the 21st century downscaled from LMDZ4 for different scenarios. We show that a higher resolution induce at the same time more run-off but a significantly higher mitigation of sea level rise. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale Simulations of Composites with Non-Local Damage-Enhanced Mean-Field Homogenization
Wu, Ling ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2012, July)

The mean-field homogenization (MFH) approach is an attractive framework for multiscale methods, as it provides predictions of the macroscopic behavior of particle or fiber reinforced composites at a ... [more ▼]

The mean-field homogenization (MFH) approach is an attractive framework for multiscale methods, as it provides predictions of the macroscopic behavior of particle or fiber reinforced composites at a reasonable computational cost. Efficient MFH methods have been available for a long time for linear elastic problems, using for example the Mori-Tanaka scheme [2], but they can also be extended in the non-linear regime after linearization of the constitutive behavior at the current strain state, as for the incremental approach, e.g. [1]. In this work, the application of ductile-damage theories to a multiscale analysis of continuous fiber reinforced composites is considered. Toward this end, the incremental MFH approach is extended to account for the damage behavior happening in the matrix material at the microscale and to derive the effective properties of particle or fiber reinforced composites. However, capturing the degradation, damage or failure of material happening at the microscopic scale could lead to loss of uniqueness in the solution as the governing partial differential equations may lose ellipticity at a given level of loading corresponding to the strain-softening onset. Thus, in order to avoid the strain/damage localization caused by matrix material softening, the gradient-enhanced formulation [3] is adopted to describe the material behavior of the matrix during the homogenization process, as we have recently proposed [4]. As illustration, the behavior of a fiber re-enforced elasto-plastic matrix is considered. The properties of the matrix correspond to an elasto-plastic material experiencing damage, with a non-local form of Lemaitre Chaboche model. The fibers are assumed linear elastic, see [4] for details. A loading-unloading cycle is applied in the direction transverse to the fibers. A maximal deformation of 10 % is reached before the unloading proceeds to zero-transverse deformation. The effective behavior predicted by the MFH models is compared to the solutions obtained by finite element computations performed on a unit periodic cell and on RVE where the micro-structure is fully meshed. The results for three fiber volume ratios are presented in Fig. 1. For the three fiber volume ratios, the homogenized property is dominated by the properties of the matrix, with an obvious elasto-plastic behavior exhibiting softening. For vI = 15% and 30%, rather good predictions are given by the MFH model, with, as expected, higher macroscopic stress and damage predicted by the MFH due to the incremental formulation. However for vI = 50%, the MFH model overestimates the macroscopic stress considerably. This error comes from the assumption of Mori - Tanaka based MFH. As it is shown to be an efficient multi-scale approach, the developed gradient enhanced MFH formulation presented can now be used to model the behavior of composite laminates experiencing damage. [less ▲]

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See detailSyntactic complexity of ultimately periodic sets of integers
Vandomme, Elise ULg

Conference (2012, July)

We compute the cardinality of the syntactic monoid of the language 0^∗rep_b(mN) made of base b expansions of the multiples of the integer m. We also give lower bounds for the syntactic complexity of any ... [more ▼]

We compute the cardinality of the syntactic monoid of the language 0^∗rep_b(mN) made of base b expansions of the multiples of the integer m. We also give lower bounds for the syntactic complexity of any (ultimately) periodic set of integers written in base b. We apply our results to some well studied problem: decide whether or not a b-recognizable sets of integers is ultimately periodic. [less ▲]

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See detailASSESSMENT LAND DEGRADATION USING OPTICAL REMOTE SENSING AND GIS IN SALOUM ESTUARY, SENEGAL
Dieng, Ndeye Maguette ULg

Conference (2012, July)

The present study aims at assessing consequences of salinization during the last three decades in this estuary with regard to land, biodiversity and water degradation. In this respect, Landsat images ... [more ▼]

The present study aims at assessing consequences of salinization during the last three decades in this estuary with regard to land, biodiversity and water degradation. In this respect, Landsat images (1984, 1992, 1999 and 2010) were used to investigate regional time series land use/land cover. These were classified into six land-use/land-cover types: water bodies, high mangrove, low mangrove, denuded and salty soils (locally called “Tan”), savannah/rainfed agriculture and forestland. Change detection analysis of land and mangrove degradation was assessed using GIS techniques. Spectral analysis indicated that from 1984 to 2010, mangroves and savannah/rainfed agriculture are converted to “tan” (denuded and salty soils). In addition, these results showed that significant changes in land-use/land-cover occur within the whole estuary system and reflecting therefore environmental degradation, such as land desertification and salinization, and vegetation degradation which reflect the advanced of salinity [less ▲]

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See detailExploring ancient charcoal archives in Central Africa
Hubau, Wannes; Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Van den Bulcke, Jan et al

Conference (2012, July)

Fossil pollen and charcoal fragments are preserved in lake sediments, in forest soils and in ancient human settlements, were they can be accompanied by artifacts. As such, vegetation history is remarkably ... [more ▼]

Fossil pollen and charcoal fragments are preserved in lake sediments, in forest soils and in ancient human settlements, were they can be accompanied by artifacts. As such, vegetation history is remarkably well archived and sometimes closely linked to cultural history. Direct evidence for Central African vegetation history has been mainly derived from pollen analysis, while the charcoal archive remains hardly explored. However, analysis of charred wood remains has proven worthwhile for palaeovegetation reconstructions in temperate and arid regions. One of the main challenges for charcoal identification in tropical regions is species diversity. Therefore we developed and present a transparent charcoal identification protocol within an umbrella database of species names and metadata, compiled from the on-line database of wood-anatomical descriptions (InsideWood), the database of the world’s largest reference collection of Central African wood specimens (RMCA, Tervuren, Belgium) and inventory and indicator species lists. We applied the protocol on radiocarbon dated charcoal collections sampled in the Mayumbe forest (Bas-Congo, DRCongo), in human settlements along the Aruwimi and Lomami rivers (Province Orientale, DRCongo), along the Sangha river (Sangha department, Republic of the Congo) and in Pallisco logging concessions (East Province of Cameroon). First charcoal identification results are promising and sometimes seem to be taxonomically more precise than pollen identification. However, next to opportunities, we also present some pitfalls when exploring ancient charcoal archives. [less ▲]

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See detailNutrient fluxes and soil microbial processes under tree species after conversion from Norway spruce
Carnol, Monique ULg; Bazgir, Masoud

Conference (2012, July)

The biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems is highly dependent on the interactions between plants and soil. Tree species affect element cycling through deposition in throughfall, litter composition ... [more ▼]

The biogeochemical cycling in forest ecosystems is highly dependent on the interactions between plants and soil. Tree species affect element cycling through deposition in throughfall, litter composition, microbial activities in soil and rhizosphere processes. Species diversification has been suggested for maintaining forest ecosystem services and uniting provisioning and supporting services within multifunctional and sustainable forestry. However, most information on species impacts has been derived from studies performed at different sites, where the influence of cofactors cannot be accounted for. Here we synthesize results from a study performed 11 years after conversion of a Norway spruce stand (Picea abies (L.) KARST.) to a mixed stand composed of Norway spruce, common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) GAERTN.), european beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), silver birch (Betula pendula ROTH.), goat willow (Salix caprea L.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.). As stand closure was not achieved yet, the impact of individual species could be evaluated. We measured fresh leaf element composition, element return to the soil via throughfall and litterfall (leaves, twigs, reproductive parts), forest floor chemical characteristics, microbial biomass and microbial activities (N mineralization, potential nitrification, respiration) in the forest floor under the different tree species. Our results suggested that (1) foliar element concentrations differed between species and were highest for rowan, (2) high base cation litterfall and throughfall fluxes under rowan lead to better soil quality, (3) input of acidifying cations was reduced under broadleaves, (4) potential nitrification increased under the N2 fixing alder. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial reform and federalist option in an early 1920s’ Zionist pre-State regional planning scheme
Fisher, Axel ULg

Conference (2012, July)

In Israeli architectural history, both the official dominant position and the emerging critique usually trace the birth of Zionist comprehensive regional planning policy back to the 1930s and to the rise ... [more ▼]

In Israeli architectural history, both the official dominant position and the emerging critique usually trace the birth of Zionist comprehensive regional planning policy back to the 1930s and to the rise of the so-called Bauhaus-style modernist architecture and urban planning. Looking back to the early 1920s, the Jewish colonization of British Mandate Palestine experienced a major shift, turning from a sporadic and experimental phenomenon to a conscious mass strategy. The Zionist Organization and its many agencies gained a hegemonic role in driving the “Return of the Jewish people to the (Promised) Land” and to agriculture. Hence, Zionism faced for the first time the problem of establishing the forms and features of the Israeli Nation-Space.A key figure in this process was the German-born Jewish architect Richard Kauffmann (1887-1958), which planned most of the new agricultural and urban settlements promoted by the Zionist Organization in Palestine.Placing side by side each of Kauffmann’s plans, an early pre-State regional planning scheme emerges. One that envisioned the Jezreel Valley as the future “core” of the Israeli nation-state shaped as complex polycentric urban network. There, a new national identity based on social reform, agrarianism and the reinterpretation of local geographic possibilities would have developed along an “ancient-modern” transcontinental route between the Mediterranean and the Middle East. Discussing Kauffmann’s contribution to the architectural and landscape expression of this ambitious and controversial resettlement project against geopolitical, agricultural and ideological issues, an alternative narrative of Zionist modern architecture and planning might open up and present-day architectural and planning practice’s “lost of the centre” can be usefully questioned. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of mirative no wonder-constructions
Brems, Lieselotte ULg; Davidse, Kristin; Matthijs, Lennart

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailA “start to swim” program for health-enhancement purpose: a Delphi study
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Warnotte, Josie; Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July)

Introduction Popularity of “start to run” or “start to cycle” programs increases with the evidence that regular physical activity contributes to the prevention and management of a wide range of chronic ... [more ▼]

Introduction Popularity of “start to run” or “start to cycle” programs increases with the evidence that regular physical activity contributes to the prevention and management of a wide range of chronic diseases (Rippe and Angelopoulos, 2010). Nevertheless, start to swim programs could lead to even more health-enhancing outcomes (Chase et al., 2008). The aim of this study was to obtain a “start to swim” model program by means of a two-round Delphi study. Methods In the first round, 10 key-experts in sport physiology (n=4) or in swimming coaching (n=6) outlined possible relevant components of the “start to swim” program in a semi-structured interview. Initial exclusion criterion, program set-up, program key principles, program progression and final goals were interrogated. Then, a facilitator provided an anonymous summary of the experts’ suggestions from the previous round as well as the arguments they provided for their choice. In the second round, experts were asked to comment on this summary before providing a final form to this program. Results After two rounds, the experts agreed on a collective and coached intervention with 2 sessions per week and a progressive replacing of the coach by a group leader during a 4 months program. People without medical contraindication and able to swim 25 meters could take part to this program. The final goal-setting is personal and based on each individual progression and motivation. Sessions are endurance-oriented and divided between traditional swimming sessions and diversified aquatic activities. In order to support this active lifestyle in a long-term basis, referring to swimming clubs or other aquatic activities associations are performed by the coach at the end of the program. Discussion The start to swim program take into consideration behavioural and social aspects necessary for a successful adoption and maintenance of physical activity (Khan et al, 2002). Consistent with previous findings, a group-based program (Cox et al., 2008) with individually adapted-goals (Marcus and Forsyth, 2003) could lead to a long-term adherence to exercise. Future studies should include systematic evaluation of the “start to swim” program before translation into the community. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting e-participation : A case of e-voting system in Belgium
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Parotte, Céline ULg

Conference (2012, July)

E-participation has been increasingly used to enhance participation and deliberation, and ultimately the quality of democracy. In the case of the development of new technologies, participative design ... [more ▼]

E-participation has been increasingly used to enhance participation and deliberation, and ultimately the quality of democracy. In the case of the development of new technologies, participative design defenders underline the importance of integrating final users into the product elaboration process. In this case, e-participation tools permit not only to include a large number of future users but also to better incorporate their expectations. In Belgium, such participative approach has precisely been mobilized for the design of an e-voting system for trade unions’ elections. This case study provides thus a fertile field to test the assumption that e-participation effectively leads to a ‘better’ participation and deliberation. How is it a pertinent way to enhance democracy? How does it reflect the actual fears and expectations of users? What are the limits and potentialities of this participative approach? Based on this e-participation experience (Delphi method), i.e. an online qualitative survey submitted to 200 future users, we seek to give tentative answers to those questions. Overall, we demonstrate that this kind of method may produce fruitful participative inputs to e-voting system design. Nevertheless, final decision-making process leading to the adoption of the system remains complex and the e-participative input can display second-order issues. [less ▲]

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See detailQualitative analysis of the interactive decisions of three coaches involved in a “start to run” session
Cloes, Marc ULg; Dethioux, Sébastien

Conference (2012, July)

Introduction. A growing number of programs are implemented to enable a smooth resumption of physical activity. “Start to run” is a running program promoted by the athletics federation that has gained a ... [more ▼]

Introduction. A growing number of programs are implemented to enable a smooth resumption of physical activity. “Start to run” is a running program promoted by the athletics federation that has gained a great notoriety in Belgium. It proposes sessions of 10 weeks during which participants are trained to run 5 km without stop (10 km for those who are not beginners). No data seems to be available about the coaching process in this specific context of active leisure. The purpose of this study was to enlarge knowledge on this topic. Methods. Based on the principles of the qualitative research, we analyzed three sites: three groups involved in a Start to run session in different communities of the Liege’s area (Wallonia, Belgium). In all sites, data were collected before, during, at the end and 12 weeks after the session. They provided information on the context as well as on the process (coaches and participants behaviors and perceptions), and participants’ achievement and maintenance. In this paper, we will focus our analysis on the interactive decisions of the coaches. It will be based on the observation of three lessons in each site (2d, 5th and 8th weeks): one of the authors attended to the training session as participant observer. Moreover, we will also use data collected through interviews (description of the organization and content of the program) and questionnaires (feelings about the lessons). Participants were also requested to provide their perceptions about the lessons. As evidenced above, the validity of the analysis is guaranteed by the triangulation of the data. Results. The three coaches described a similar teaching model but only subject #2 pointed out technical drills. Only subject #3 respected the “official” program developed by the athletics federation. The two other adapted it according to their experience and purposes of their groups. All of them considered that they were providing enough feedback and were active. On the other hand, they thought themselves as needing to encourage more and to be more effective in group management. Globally, participants confirmed the opinions of their respective coaches but they seemed more critical in group #3, showing a lower satisfaction about the motivational behaviors and feedback. The observation pointed out some problems in the clarity of the explanations (subject #1) and some divergences were reported with the actors. Discussion. The triangulation of the data allows us to consider that the three coaches are doing a very good job and adapt themselves to the expectations and needs of the participants. The identification of the positive and negative aspects in each subject provides a basis to propose some recommendations. Moreover, we pointed out that encouraged to speak about their own teaching process, all coaches modified spontaneously their interactive decisions during the study. This underlines the interest of this systematic analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailA one-field formulation of elasto-plastic shells with fracture applications
Becker, Gauthier; Noels, Ludovic ULg

Conference (2012, July)

The main feature of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods is their ability to take into account discontinuities of the unknown field in the interior domain of studied problems. In such formulations the ... [more ▼]

The main feature of Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods is their ability to take into account discontinuities of the unknown field in the interior domain of studied problems. In such formulations the integration by parts is realized on the elements leading to boundary integral terms These terms between elements ensure the continuity and compatibility of the solution in a stable manner, which makes DG attractive to ensure weakly the C0 continuity and/or the C1 continuity. For non-linear Kirchhoff-Love shells, the C0/DG formulation - the C0 continuity is ensured as usual by considering continuous shape functions and the C1 continuity is weakly ensured by DG interface terms in a stable and consistent way - leads to a one-field formulation, where the displacements are the only unknowns of the problem [5]. DG methods have also an advantage when it comes to simulate fracture with a cohesive approach. Indeed, the classical cohesive methods suffer from severe limitations. The intrinsic approach, which inserts the cohesive elements at the beginning, requires an initial slope in the traction separation law and suffers from lack of consistency, while the extrinsic cohesive method, which inserts the cohesive elements during the simulation when a fracture criterion is reached, suffers from difficult parallel implementation due to the topological mesh modifications happening during the simulations. To overcome these limitations, new methods were developed and in particular, an approach based on a C0-discontinuous Galerkin formulation where continuity between elements is ensured weakly by the interface elements. These interface elements can be easily replaced by a cohesive element during the simulation, leading to an efficient fracture framework [4, 6]. We have recently extended this approach for linear shells [1] to obtain a full DG formulation of thin bodies, where discontinuities in the C0 and C1 fields are weakly enforced using consistent interface elements, and where the interface elements can be used to integrate the cohesive law when a fracture criterion is met. Moreover, a new cohesive law based on the reduced stresses of the thin bodies formulation is developed to propagate a fracture through the thickness. This cohesive model dissipates the right amount of energy during crack initiations and/or propagations. These developments are extended to non-linear elasto-plastic shells and are implemented in parallel, which allows to simulate complex fracture problems. As a validation example, the study of a blasted notched-cylinder is performed, for which experimental and numerical (by XFEM method) data are reported in the literature by [3]. Figure 1 illustrates the results obtained at different times. It can be seen that the simulation allows to model crack propagation, as well as the bifurcation happening when the crack reaches the top of the cylinder. Also, it appears that with the elasto-plastic framework, the crack speed numerically predicted matches the experimental measures [2]. [less ▲]

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See detailIs secularism so good for women ?
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Conference (2012, July)

The paper reverse the famous question of Susan Möller Okin "Is multiculturalism bad for women" and asks the question of the supposed "natural alliance" between secularism and democracy. It takes as an ... [more ▼]

The paper reverse the famous question of Susan Möller Okin "Is multiculturalism bad for women" and asks the question of the supposed "natural alliance" between secularism and democracy. It takes as an illustration the relation between secularist movement and women's claims in the history of Belgium from the Belgian revolution until now. It presents a first, sketchy description of the alliance, trying to show that three periods can be distinguished : until the end of the schoolwar, the relations between the secularist movement and women's claim are rather weak and the secularists tend to distrust women, they consider as allied of the clerics; during the period of 1960-2000, the alliance is stonger over the claim of "self-disposal of one's body'" ; then, from 2000 until now, there is a strong division between both secularist and feminist movements, and so there are two alliances : radical secularism and mainstream feminist movement are allied against islam while, radical feminist and tolerant secularism are allied against neo-colonialist position. [less ▲]

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See detailDivergences institutionelles et convergences mimétiques
Renard, Hugues ULg; Petit Jean, Maxime

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailIntersubjectivity and intersubjectification: Typology and operationalization
Ghesquière, Lobke; Brems, Lieselotte ULg; Van de Velde, Freek

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailAssessing the environmental potential of carbon dioxide utilization: A graphical targeting approach
Dumont, Marie-Noëlle ULg

Conference (2012, July)

Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) has the potential to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use. However, the conversion of CO2 is intrinsically difficult due to its low energetic state ... [more ▼]

Carbon Capture and Utilization (CCU) has the potential to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use. However, the conversion of CO2 is intrinsically difficult due to its low energetic state. Thus, a positive environmental effect of a CO2-consuming reaction cannot be taken for granted. In this work, we therefore present a graphical method to identify promising reaction schemes using CO2 as a feedstock. Reactant mixtures leading to minimal life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are determined. The optimal reaction schemes strongly depend on the reactants’ global warming potential (GWP); in the case of CCU, the future GWP values of CO2 and H2 are particularly critical and subject to major uncertainty today. The graphical method therefore provides GWP targets for CO2 capture and H2 production technologies. The method is demonstrated for the production of methanol. Five optimal reaction schemes are identified depending on the GWP values of CO2 and H2. Thus, four threshold relations for the GWP of CO2 and H2 are derived showing directly under which conditions the utilization of CO2 as a feedstock is environmentally preferential. [less ▲]

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See detailAnt-aphid mutualism - Implication of honeydew microflora
Fischer, Christophe ULg; Piraux, Olivier; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

Conference (2012, July)

Some ant and aphid species can present a mutualistic relationship, ants using aphid honeydew as sugar source and in exchange providing the aphid colony cleaning and protection. From a behavioral point of ... [more ▼]

Some ant and aphid species can present a mutualistic relationship, ants using aphid honeydew as sugar source and in exchange providing the aphid colony cleaning and protection. From a behavioral point of view, this phenomenon has been well studied from decades. However, its chemistry and semiochemical mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study aims to identify semiochemicals involved in the establishment of this relation, using both chemical and behavioral approaches. Bioassays revealed that the greatest part of ant attraction toward aphid colonies is due to honeydew volatile compounds; enabling ant scouts to find more quickly aphid colonies and distantly recognize myrmecophilous species. Many of those VOCs seeming to have microbial origins, the main honeydew microorganisms have been isolated and their roles in VOCs production and ant attraction have been investigated. It appeared that honeydew microflora holds a key role in the establishment of ant-aphids mutualistic relationship. [less ▲]

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See detailA decision problem for ultimate periodicity in non-standard numeration systems
Charlier, Emilie ULg

Conference (2012, July)

In the first part of the talk, I will overview some results on state complexity of ultimately periodic sets in various numeration systems. In the second part of the talk, I will present some applications ... [more ▼]

In the first part of the talk, I will overview some results on state complexity of ultimately periodic sets in various numeration systems. In the second part of the talk, I will present some applications of these methods to the following decidability question: given a DFA recognizing a set of integers represented in a fixed numeration system, decide whether this set is ultimately periodic. The techniques presented in this talk could be extended to other classes of sets of integers, and thus, could be applied to new decidability questions. [less ▲]

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See detail"Quand les surveillants sortent". Négociations autour de la fermeture de la prison de Verviers
Megherbi, Salim ULg; Dubois, Christophe ULg

Conference (2012, July)

Le thème du dialogue social en milieu carcéral est rarement étudié par les sociologues francophones en général (Froment, 1994) et belges en particulier. Paradoxalement, la Belgique connaît une solide ... [more ▼]

Le thème du dialogue social en milieu carcéral est rarement étudié par les sociologues francophones en général (Froment, 1994) et belges en particulier. Paradoxalement, la Belgique connaît une solide tradition syndicale d’une part et, d’autre part, le pouvoir des organisations syndicales est reconnu par de nombreux acteurs du terrain carcéral (managers de l’administration pénitentiaire, directeurs de prison, surveillants, personnels socio-éducatifs, détenus, etc.). Aussi, les grèves au sein des prisons belges se sont multipliées ces dernières années, portant diverses revendications liées au « bien-être » des surveillants (sécurité au travail, horaires, rémunération, etc.) et réclamant une étude circonstanciée. Notre communication présente une étude empirique menée de juillet à octobre 2011 à la prison de Verviers (N = 25), qui fut alors le théâtre d’un mouvement social conclu par la fermeture de cet établissement. Cet événement permet de saisir concrètement les stratégies et discours des organisations syndicales, de l’administration pénitentiaire et des pouvoirs locaux. Cette étude de cas, en plus de combler un « vide » sociologique, vise à décrire et analyser les processus de négociation et de qualification à l’œuvre dans une situation de crise et à mettre en lumière les tentatives de réduction des incertitudes inhérentes au sort des surveillants (de Verviers et d’ailleurs) et à considérer les incertitudes (méconnues) liées au sort des détenus. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular phylogeny and evolutionary history of Dipodoidea (Rodentia, Mammalia)
Pisano, Julie ULg; Pagès, Marie; Condamine, Fabien et al

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailTransport Methods for the Numerical Computation of Nonlinear Normal Modes
Renson, Ludovic ULg; Blanc, François; Touzé, Cyril et al

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailA beam lattice model to investigate basic aspects of bone remodeling
Ruffoni, Davide ULg; Maurer, Manfred; Weinkamer, Richard et al

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailPreliminary study aiming to identify the conditions of implementation of a project integrating physical activity for 10-16 year-old children with cancer in a hospital context
Cloes, Marc ULg; Del Giudice, Angela

Conference (2012, July)

Introduction. Today, it is considered that, in children with serious illnesses such as cancer, physical activity during treatment has beneficial effects (physical and mental well-being, self-confidence ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Today, it is considered that, in children with serious illnesses such as cancer, physical activity during treatment has beneficial effects (physical and mental well-being, self-confidence and self-esteem ...)(INSERM, 2008). However, it is important to notice that physical activity has to be appropriate according to the circumstances (Herbinet, 2002). If some programs begin now to be offered in some hospitals, a lack of resources suitable for children and adolescents appears to be the norm. This study aimed to identify needs and resources for the implementation of a project like this in the department of Hematology Oncology at a hospital in the region of Liege (Wallonia, Belgium). Methods. In this perspective, we interviewed various members of the medical and paramedical staff (n = 20), young patients (n = 8) and their parents (n = 5). This triangulation process aimed to guarantee the validity of the data. The semi-structured interviews were focused on the representations of these subjects about physical activity at the hospital in young people with cancer (definition of physical activity, opportunities and habits of the young patients to exercise, benefits and risks of being active) as well as about their opinions about the characteristics of the actions to implement (type of activities, recommendations, needed resources and conditions). Respecting the principles of the qualitative research, a content analysis of the answers has been conducted. Results. Most of the subjects supported this type of project. Five categories of activities have been identified (adapted ball games, soft gymnastics, group fitness classes, relaxation activities, outdoor activities). A daily medical monitoring has been emphasized while precautionary measures have been listed, as well as the resources of the human, material, organizational and financial aspects that would be needed. [less ▲]

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See detailDEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A LC-UV METHOD FOR THE DOSAGE OF A TRACER IN AN IMPROVED TRADITIONAL MEDICINE
Tshisekedi Tshibangu, Pascal; Kalenda Dibungi T., Pascal; Wauters, Jean-Noël ULg et al

Conference (2012, July)

According to World Health Organisation, 80% of the African populations use Improved Traditional Medicines (ITM) to threat several diseases. Even if some of these ITM are nowadays registered with local ... [more ▼]

According to World Health Organisation, 80% of the African populations use Improved Traditional Medicines (ITM) to threat several diseases. Even if some of these ITM are nowadays registered with local health authorities, the knowledge of their qualitative and quantitative composition still remains a challenge for ensuring health security of populations. In this context, an analytical method using liquid chromatography technique with UV detection was developed to allow the dosage of a tracer (major compound) in an ITM (syrup containing extract plants) registered in D.R. Congo by the “Centre de Recherche en Médecine Traditionnelle Améliorée” and marketed for use against malaria. For that purpose, a simple and rapid experimental plan considering a Plackett-Burman design was applied by testing simultaneously two significant factors, temperature of analytical column (T°) and gradient time (TG) for eluting acetonitrile (ACN) from 5% to 95%, while focusing on the separation of the tracer and an adjacent unknown compound (critical peak pairs). Suitable separation (resolution of 1.5) was obtained between these latter with T° of 15°C and TG of 60 min (20% to 65% of ACN). Prior to routine use, the analytical method was validated following the total error strategy described by the SFSTP guidelines and according to the ISO norm 17025:2005. Specificity/selectivity of the method was demonstrated by the absence of interference at the retention time of the major compound comparing to the syrup matrix. Very interesting results were observed for trueness (relative biases below 0.9%), for precision (RSD mostly below 2.2% for repeatability and time-different intermediate precision), for accuracy (beta tolerance intervals below 10% of the acceptance limits) and linearity. Finally, the method was applied to quantify the major compound in several batches of syrups ITM as well as for stability studies. [less ▲]

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See detailRe-Drawing Belgium: Do Identities Matter More than Party Interests in Multinational Federations?
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Reuchamps, Min ULg; Sinardet, Dave

Conference (2012, July)

In multinational federations, identities are a chief variable of the political life. By definition, the ethno-linguistic identities play(ed) an important role in the federal dynamics of the country. In ... [more ▼]

In multinational federations, identities are a chief variable of the political life. By definition, the ethno-linguistic identities play(ed) an important role in the federal dynamics of the country. In most cases, the institutional design is in fact adapted or has been adapted to the ethno-linguistic divisions of the country. According to quite a few scholars, it is especially true for political elites who are not only shaped by this variable but also use this variable to legitimate their attitudes and actions. Therefore political elites of each ethno-linguistic group appeared to behave as monolithic blocks, standing against each other along ethno-linguistic lines. Nonetheless, this view neglects the role of party interests in explaining the behaviors of political elites. An important question for multinational federations can be raised: do identities matter more that party interests? The current reform of the Belgian state provides a fertile ground to test this hypothesis. To what extent, party interests can account for political elites’ position in the debate about the 6th Belgian constitutional reform? To explore these questions, we surveyed every representative of Belgium’s seven legislative assemblies with a standardized questionnaire (Summer 2011). This research will help us apprehend the rationale behind political elites’ attitudes – be it identities, party interests or a mix of them – negotiating the new boundaries of the state. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes intergroup deliberation foster intergroup appreciation? Evidence from two deliberative experiments in deeply divided Belgium
Caluwaerts, Didier; Reuchamps, Min ULg

Conference (2012, July)

In this paper, we set out to determine whether the link between deliberation and transformation (or between process and outcome) is as straightforward as deliberative democracy assumes. More specifically ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we set out to determine whether the link between deliberation and transformation (or between process and outcome) is as straightforward as deliberative democracy assumes. More specifically, our research question is threefold: (1) whether a high quality of deliberation does indeed lead to changes in attitudes, (2) whether a high quality of deliberation can lead to a higher appreciation of the members of the outgroup, and above all (3) whether group composition matters. We thus want to push the research on the transformative effects a little further, into political psychology grounds, and see whether these effects can also take place in deliberation between diametrically opposed groups. Our aim is thus not only to test the link between deliberation and transformation, but also to see whether deliberation can have its transformative effects in high conflict settings, i.e. in more real-life settings. Based on findings from two deliberative experiments organized in deeply divided Belgium, we argue that the quality of deliberation (and the perceived quality of deliberation) are only weakly linked to changes in outgroup attitudes, and that the main variable explaining shifts towards more positive outgroup feelings is actually the group composition. Participants who are confronted with the other side are less likely to hold more negative views of the outgroup after the deliberation. [less ▲]

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See detailDissonance cognitive en contexte postcolonial africain: contradictions dans les valeurs et normes juridiques de succession
Bomda, Joseph ULg; Vaidis, David

Conference (2012, July)

La communication fait suite à la doléance de Leon Festinger de voir les recherches psychosociologiques sur la dissonance cognitive sortir des laboratoires pour aller au contact du réel dans le monde réel ... [more ▼]

La communication fait suite à la doléance de Leon Festinger de voir les recherches psychosociologiques sur la dissonance cognitive sortir des laboratoires pour aller au contact du réel dans le monde réel. (Festinger, 1999). Le cas des conflits de normes successorales (tradition vs. modernité) en rapport avec la veuve et la jeune fille dans le contexte postcolonial camerounais est considéré. L’existence d’un processus de dissonance (vécu et gestion) différencié est postulée. Cependant, il diffère selon l’état matrimonial des parents et l’âge des victimes. Trois-cent-quatre-vingt-deux camerounaises victimes du conflit de normes successorales entre la tradition et la modernité ont rendu compte de leur vécu et de la gestion psychologiques de ce vécu. Un questionnaire d’affects et de stratégies de gestion auto-rapportés a été utilisé à cet effet. Les résultats confirment l’influence de l’état matrimonial des parents et de l’âge des enfants filles comme des facteurs étiologique et de vulnérabilité à la dissonance cognitive. [less ▲]

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See detailComment le handicap se montre ou se cache. Observabilité, badges et représentations sociales de l'a-normalité
Fontaine, Sébastien ULg; Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Conference (2012, July)

Avant l'activation des stéréotypes, s'opère le repérage, la détection, l'identification et la qualification de comportements anormaux au sein de l'espace public. L'intérêt de ces questions est double ... [more ▼]

Avant l'activation des stéréotypes, s'opère le repérage, la détection, l'identification et la qualification de comportements anormaux au sein de l'espace public. L'intérêt de ces questions est double : non seulement tout cela conditionne l'activation des représentations sociales du handicap, mais cela requiert en outre une participation active de celui qui observe le comportement et de celui qui le produit. Le handicap n'entraîne en effet pas automatiquement des comportements observables et descriptibles comme comportements "handicapés". C'est dans des circonstances particulières que ces comportements se révèlent, par contraste, par rapport au comportement typiquement attendu par la plupart des passants ordinaires. À partir d'entretiens approfondis auprès d'aidants non professionnels (essentiellement des proches de personnes handicapées), nous avons identifié comment les acteurs manifestent délibérément leur condition particulière. Nous mettons également en évidence que cette manifestation peut s'appuyer sur un équipement, plus que sur des actes. La canne blanche, par exemple, agit comme un badge ; elle signale aux autres que celui qui la porte est aveugle. À l'opposé, enfin, certains regrettent l'invisibilité d'un handicap comme la surdité, qui ne se voit pas et qui rend problématiques les interactions avec des acteurs qui ne comprennent pas l'inadéquation des réactions de leur interlocuteur. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the interaction of xylose-based bolaamphiphiles with biomimetic membrane systems
Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Legrand, Vincent; Gatard, Sylvain et al

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailSuperior laryngeal nerve monitoring: modération de séance
FINCK, Camille ULg

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailExtraintestinal lesions associated with Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis in wild cervids.
Volpe, Rosario ULg; Grégoire, Fabien; Wirtgen, Marc et al

Conference (2012, July)

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See detailStress et stimulation au sein des centres de contact: Etude sur le bien-être au travail.
DE CIA, Julie ULg; Naedenoen, Frédéric ULg; Pepermans, Roland et al

Conference (2012, July)

Problématique: De nombreux travaux tendent à considérer l’organisation du travail dans les centres de contact sous les traits d’un taylorisme moderne (Buscatto, 2002; Zapf, Isic, Bechtoldt & Blau, 2003 ... [more ▼]

Problématique: De nombreux travaux tendent à considérer l’organisation du travail dans les centres de contact sous les traits d’un taylorisme moderne (Buscatto, 2002; Zapf, Isic, Bechtoldt & Blau, 2003). L'usage de technologies permettant de produire un flux constant d'activités couplé à des dispositifs visant à un contrôle précis des activités a fortement contribué à l'image de nouvelles "télé-usines du tertiaire" et a attiré nombre de critiques. L’objectif de cette étude est d’identifier les risques psychosociaux spécifiques au secteur des centres de contact en Belgique, en déclinant ces risques en fonction de diverses variables liées au contexte (type de centres de contact, type d’activité, etc.) et de proposer des pistes d’amélioration concrètes des conditions de travail vécues par ces opérateurs. Méthodologie: Un questionnaire d’évaluation des risques psychosociaux a été construit sur base d’une revue de la littérature sur le secteur et d’un modèle théorique expliquant le bien-être au travail : le Job Demands-Resources Model (Demoureti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001). Ce questionnaire visait à évaluer les demandes auxquelles les travailleurs sont confrontés ainsi que les ressources disponibles dans ce contexte de travail particulier. L’impact de cet équilibre demandes-ressources sur différentes mesures du vécu au travail a également été évalué par des échelles validées mesurant le stress, la stimulation et des conséquences en termes de bien-être comme l’implication, la satisfaction au travail et l’intention de quitter, notamment. Les données ont été récoltées auprès de 393 opérateurs de centres de contact représentant la diversité de ce secteur (centres de contact externes et internes, couvrant diverses activités et traitant différents types d’appels). Résultats: Les résultats montrent que le stress est important dans les centres de contact mais ils soulignent surtout le faible niveau de stimulation dans ce secteur. Certaines ressources permettent de prédire la stimulation des travailleurs comme les possibilités de développement personnel en termes d’épanouissement dans l’activité et de perspective d’évolution de carrière. Une mauvaise gestion de la relation client et la routine perçue dans le travail sont des contraintes qui par contre, diminuent la stimulation et augmentent le stress perçu. Des différences entre les différents types de centres de contact ont également été mises en évidence. Les opérateurs des centres de contact «outsourcés», réalisant plutôt de la gestion des plaintes et du support technique, rapportent une mauvaise perception de leurs conditions de travail et un mal-être plus important au travail. Le secteur des télécommunications semblent être le secteur d’activité le plus problématique en Belgique. Implications: Cette étude permet de suggérer une série d’actions d’amélioration des conditions de travail qui seront détaillées lors de la conférence. [less ▲]

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See detailA case of meningitis and orchitis in a hare (Lepus europaeus) due to Francisella tularensis.
Grégoire, Fabien; Wirtgen, Marc; Volpe, Rosario ULg et al

Conference (2012, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (2 ULg)