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See detailLe journal des apprentissages, une archéologie des savoirs des élèves?
Scheepers, Caroline ULiege

Conference (2013, September)

Quelles traces sémiotiques donneront une image la plus proche de l’élève qui apprend (ou pas) et se développe ? Telle est l’une des questions qui a émergé lors du symposium qui s’est tenu à Louvain-la ... [more ▼]

Quelles traces sémiotiques donneront une image la plus proche de l’élève qui apprend (ou pas) et se développe ? Telle est l’une des questions qui a émergé lors du symposium qui s’est tenu à Louvain-la-Neuve en 2011. Telle est la question qui s’inscrit au cœur de cette contribution. Une multitude de traces pourraient donner à voir l’activité de l’élève occupé à (dés/ré-)apprendre : ses cahiers de brouillons, ses notes de cours, ses copions, ses interros ou examens, ses portfolios, ses annotations au tableau, ses prises de parole, ses devoirs, ses graffitis sur le banc... Parmi ces données, le journal des apprentissages parait, de prime abord en tout cas, occuper une place de choix. Équivalent du learning log, du learning for the journey, du learning diary, il consiste en un cahier dans lequel l’élève est invité à opérer très régulièrement un retour réflexif sur ses apprentissages : il s’agit donc de faire état des savoirs résistants, nouvellement acquis ou en cours de construction, de ses processus d’apprentissage, de ses attitudes ou opinions. L’élève se désigne en tant qu’apprenant, il évoque ses pairs, sa famille ou ses enseignants, comme autant de partenaires ou d’obstacles à sa propre activité à l’école. Souvent, le journal est tissé de dialogues multiples : l’élève dialogue d’abord avec lui-même, avec le cahier, ainsi personnifié, avec les savoirs, avec son enseignant ou de futurs enseignants, lesquels font ici office de tuteurs supposés étayer l’écriture réflexive en cours . [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal design of composite structures with design rules and manufacturing constraints, based on continuous design variables
Bruyneel, Michaël ULiege; Craveur, Guillaume; Beghin, Clément

Conference (2013, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (0 ULiège)
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See detailFemoral Facial Syndrome: Long term follow-up and associated Müllerian aplasia.
JACQUINET, Adeline ULiege; VALDES SOCIN, Hernan Gonzalo ULiege; LIBIOULLE, Cécile ULiege et al

Conference (2013, September)

Daentl femoral-facial syndrome (FFS) includes bilateral femoral hypoplasia and particular facial features: long philtrum with thin upper lip, micrognathia with or without cleft palate, upward-slanted ... [more ▼]

Daentl femoral-facial syndrome (FFS) includes bilateral femoral hypoplasia and particular facial features: long philtrum with thin upper lip, micrognathia with or without cleft palate, upward-slanted palpebral fissures, and hypoplastic alae nasi with a broad tip. The syndrome is clinically heterogeneous, and other malformations have been associated. Psychomotor and cognitive developments are usually normal. Etiology of this syndrome remains currently unknown. Most of the cases are sporadic. Non-genetic factors as maternal diabetes mellitus have been associated. Reports of familial cases have otherwise suggested autosomal dominant inheritance. Our patient was the first child of unrelated parents. Very short femora were detected at fourth month of pregnancy. Birth height was 40 cm at term. FFS was diagnosed at birth, based on severe bilateral femoral hypoplasia and characteristic facial features with Pierre Robin sequence. Early psychomotor development was normal and walking alone was acquired at age two despite the absence of hip joints. At age seventeen, she was investigated for primary amenorrhea and was shown to have uterine aplasia, and thus Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome. Endocrine workup noted hyperandrogenism due to both ovarian and adrenal androgen overproduction. Recently, array CGH investigation identified a 1485 kb duplication at 9q31.1, including the gene SMC2, and a 853 kb deletion at 12q24.33 including the genes P2RX2, PEGAM5, GOLGA3, POLE1, CHFR, ZNF26, ZNF140, ZNF10 and ZNF268. Unfortunately, samples of parents were not available. Long term follow up of our patient underlined orthopedic problems as the major handicap in the FFS syndrome, cognitive development being normal. Unexpected discover was the association with mullerian agenesis. Both may reflect different defects in the primary axial mesodermal development, being the consequences of same environmental or/and genetic factors during blastogenesis. Among these genetic factors, we suggest the possible involvement of the two copy number variants reported here. Reports of other patients would be required to confirm this. [less ▲]

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See detailDrought-related vulnerability and risk assessment of groundwater resources under temperate conditions
Verbeiren, Boud; Huysmans, Marijke; Tychon, Bernard ULiege et al

Conference (2013, September)

Drought hazards are usually associated with (semi-)arid regions. Due to the assumed insignificance of drought hazards under temperate conditions this field remains poorly studied. This study aims at ... [more ▼]

Drought hazards are usually associated with (semi-)arid regions. Due to the assumed insignificance of drought hazards under temperate conditions this field remains poorly studied. This study aims at filling this gap by: (1) Increasing understanding of influencing factors determining drought in a temperate context; (2) Developing a methodology and quantitative tools aimed at planning and decision support with respect to groundwater management. In the first place drought is a phenomenon caused by deficient precipitation for a large area and significant duration and as such it is mainly a meteorological-related hazard. In case the temporary water deficiency affects groundwater bodies, the term groundwater drought is used. Groundwater droughts develop slowly but can have considerable socio-economic and environmental consequences. Groundwater drought is a complex phenomenon. Three main variables are important: groundwater recharge, groundwater level and groundwater discharge. Groundwater recharge is important as it is the source (inflow) of all groundwater. The groundwater table gives an indication of the storage, while groundwater discharge represents the outflow from the groundwater system. Next to natural meteorological variations also human induced factors play a role. In the Belgian context the main influencing factors determining the inflow and potentially resulting in a recharge deficit and an overall deterioration of groundwater resources are climate and land use/land cover. Groundwater demand for human activities has a direct effect on groundwater storage (level). The combined effect of these factors makes that some groundwater bodies are under pressure. In these groundwater bodies the outflow exceeds the inflow generating a reduction in storage and hence an unsustainable situation. A thorough knowledge of all three influencing factors and their interaction or combined effect is essential for a reliable estimate of the groundwater budget and a sustainable management. Hence, there is a need for an improved understanding of groundwater drought and the human-induced factors influencing the groundwater balance. This should form the basis for an integrated approach which allows tackling these negative effects and safeguarding sustainability of groundwater resources. [less ▲]

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See detailMonsieur Pain: A Metaphysical Detective Story?
Dechêne, Antoine ULiege

Conference (2013, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULiège)
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See detailQuel est l'avenir de la profession de perfusionniste?
BLAFFART, Francine ULiege

Conference (2013, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 72 (3 ULiège)
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See detailCross-cultural differences in teaching strategies, opportunities-to-learn and achievement in reading
Lafontaine, Dominique ULiege; Monseur, Christian ULiege; Baye, Ariane ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 31)

Using the PISA 2009 data from 43 education systems, the present study aimed at exploring to what extent is reading achievement of 15 year-olds explained by variations in reading curriculum. Factorial ... [more ▼]

Using the PISA 2009 data from 43 education systems, the present study aimed at exploring to what extent is reading achievement of 15 year-olds explained by variations in reading curriculum. Factorial analyses have been performed on the “reading for school” (RFS) variables. Four factors were extracted; configural, metric and scalar invariance were checked for, showing that configural and metric invariance were met, whereas scalar invariance was not. Correlations in each country were then computed between the 4 RFS factors and reading achievement score. Finally, Multi-level analyses were used to estimate the school and student level variance in reading achievement explained in each country by the 4 RFS factors and the students’ socioeconomic and cultural background. Two of the factors (interpretation of literary texts and use of non-continuous texts) were positively related to reading achievement and one (use of functional texts) was negatively related to reading in most of the countries. Interestingly, the factor Traditional literature course was negatively linked with achievement in many countries, but positively related to reading in a number of Asian countries. The multilevel analyses showed that more than half of the between-school variance on average could be explained by the RFS factors (uniquely or jointly with background variables). The between-school variance explained by the RFS factors was larger in tracked educational systems, suggesting that curricular variations in the language courses linked to tracking might have an impact on reading even if reading is not usually taught as a specific subject to 15-year-olds students. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly retention in kindergarten: risk factors and pathways in primary education
Lafontaine, Dominique ULiege; Chenu, Florent ULiege; Dupont, Virginie

Conference (2013, August 31)

In French-speaking Belgium, about 4% of the children are retained in kindergarten. What are the pupils’ characteristics and the school context variables predictive of the retention in kindergarten? What ... [more ▼]

In French-speaking Belgium, about 4% of the children are retained in kindergarten. What are the pupils’ characteristics and the school context variables predictive of the retention in kindergarten? What are the pathways in primary education of “retained” pupils compared to their peers who started 1st grade “on time”? How can this early retention be explained? A broad database with entire cohorts has been used for studying the risk factors and the pupils’ school careers in primary education. Moreover, teachers’ beliefs about retention, learning and teaching have been investigated through a questionnaire administered to a representative sample of preschool and 1st grade teachers. The multilevel regression analyses show that the following variables are significantly predictive of retention in kindergarten: month of birth, gender, socioeconomic status, country of birth and at the school level, mean school social intake. Investigation about teachers’ belief shows that the vast majority of teachers are convinced that retention in kindergarten is beneficial for later achievement and not detrimental at a psychological level. Preschool and 1st grade teachers share some mutual expectations about the level of prerequisites for entering 1st grade. Even if they are no formal instructions or benchmarks, kids who are not “ready” should not enter 1st grade, but rather stay one more year in kindergarten. Those results can be related to the “culture” of the education system in Belgium, a non-comprehensive one: pupils with learning difficulties are kept apart from their age group or peers through grade retention, early tracking and special education. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly retention in kindergarten: risk factors and school career in French-speaking Belgium primary education
Lafontaine, Dominique ULiege; Chenu, Florent ULiege; Dupont, Virginie ULiege

Conference (2013, August 31)

In French-speaking Belgium, about 4% of the children are retained in kindergarten. What are the pupils’ characteristics and the school context variables predictive of the retention in kindergarten? What ... [more ▼]

In French-speaking Belgium, about 4% of the children are retained in kindergarten. What are the pupils’ characteristics and the school context variables predictive of the retention in kindergarten? What are the pathways in primary education of “retained” pupils compared to their peers who started 1st grade “on time”? How can this early retention be explained? A broad database with entire cohorts has been used for studying the risk factors and the pupils’ school careers in primary education. Moreover, teachers’ beliefs about retention, learning and teaching have been investigated through a questionnaire administered to a representative sample of preschool and 1st grade teachers. The multilevel regression analyses show that the following variables are significantly predictive of retention in kindergarten: month of birth, gender, socioeconomic status, country of birth and at the school level, mean school social intake. Investigation about teachers’ belief shows that the vast majority of teachers are convinced that retention in kindergarten is beneficial for later achievement and not detrimental at a psychological level. Preschool and 1st grade teachers share some mutual expectations about the level of prerequisites for entering 1st grade. Even if they are no formal instructions or benchmarks, kids who are not “ready” should not enter 1st grade, but rather stay one more year in kindergarten. Those results can be related to the “culture” of the education system in Belgium, a non-comprehensive one: pupils with learning difficulties are kept apart from their age group or peers through grade retention, early tracking and special education. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (6 ULiège)
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See detailEstablishment of a sedimentation monitoring system of irrigation dams in Burkina Faso: The PADI project
Hallot, Eric ULiege; Guyon, Francis; de Thysebaert, Didier et al

Conference (2013, August 31)

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See detailCurrent developments in the improvement of PE teachers’ action with overweight students
Cloes, Marc ULiege

Conference (2013, August 30)

Globally, researchers regularly note the growing prevalence of weight excess and obesity among all population groups (Sassi, 2010). This trend is now considered a real epidemic. Weight gain and obesity ... [more ▼]

Globally, researchers regularly note the growing prevalence of weight excess and obesity among all population groups (Sassi, 2010). This trend is now considered a real epidemic. Weight gain and obesity are associated with several endogenous and exogenous factors among which inappropriate nutrition and sedentary lifestyle are clearly emphasized (Gahagan, 2004). Beyond the harmful consequences on individual health, the increasing proportion of overweight/obese individuals is already contributing to an increase in health care costs that will reach unmanageable proportions in few decades. Therefore, an increasing number of national and international bodies underline the need to implement effective programs designed to improve the citizen’s lifestyle. Over the last decade, the literature is replete with studies that demonstrate the positive effects of local and/or broader programs designed to address the issue of weight control and obesity prevention/treatment. Despite the encouraging data, it seems that the real impact on the society lacks consistency. It appears that multi-sectoral approaches are required. In such models, the School is identified as a determining component that should be implemented but cannot be considered as the magic remedy of a complex challenge like obesity (Fridlund Dunton et al., 2011; Lee et al., 2006). In fact, at school, each child is expected to acquire competences and knowledge that she/he will be able to use lifelong. Nevertheless, without the support of the other pillars of the society, any action undertaken at school would be a sword strike into water. Moreover, within the school, the fight against obesity needs the combined action of several partners in a multidimensional intervention. As a result of its links to the promotion of physical activity and health, physical education (PE) is logically presented as a key element in the strategies to be implemented (Tappe & Burgeson, 2004). However, for PE teachers, the growing number of overweight/obese students seems to represent a real challenge. Indeed, these students require specialized attention that, in the same time, cannot result in a stigmatization of the students’ characteristics. It first appears that PE teachers experience some difficulties in clearly identifying those students who need real intervention. Moreover, PE teachers express real concern over what can be done without causing harm to the overweight/obese student, this situation being especially relevant with the adolescent student (Cloes & Ziant, 2009; Rukavina et al., 2010). The presentation will focus on the current state of the research on PE teachers’ potential actions with overweight/obese students. The aim is to illustrate the avenues that are currently being explored. The presentation will offer a review of the steps of a research program addressing student obesity in PE developed at the University of Liege over the past several years. [less ▲]

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See detailStream incision and sediment wave consecutive to three centuries of timber floating in the Morvan Massif (Central France)
Gob, Frédéric ULiege; Jacob-Rousseau, Nicolas; Le Drezen, Yann et al

Conference (2013, August 30)

The upper catchment of the Yonne River is nowadays usually considered as having been scarcely impacted by human activity. At the Seine basin scale, the gravel bed streams flowing down the small forested ... [more ▼]

The upper catchment of the Yonne River is nowadays usually considered as having been scarcely impacted by human activity. At the Seine basin scale, the gravel bed streams flowing down the small forested massif of the Morvan are even considered as of high ecological quality. However, this perception of the river changes completely once one looks back to the recent past. Indeed, these streams have been subject to intensive industrial activity for more than 300 years, between the 16th and early 20th centuries, as Paris’ need for timber fuel amplified. The Yonne River and all of its tributaries were heavily modified to facilitate the transportation of timber logs towards Paris through floating on the Morvan’s dense network of streams and the Yonne’s and Seine’s main channel. This activity has led to intense modifications of sediment flux still easily observable on the present river morphology, 90 years after the floating activity ended. Every single stream of the upper Yonne catchment was equipped with small ponds allowing the generation of water releases, flushing the logs downstream. Historical archives allowed the discharges and the frequency of these flushes to be calculated. Artificial floods developing specific stream powers of over 250 W/m² were generated several times per week during wintertime in steep-sided streams that were 4 to 5 m wide. Such energy generated a drastic increase in sediment transport and led to erosion and massive incision of the beds. A few kilometers downstream, when the small tributaries joined the main valley, the Yonne River had a larger bed and gentler slope. Artificial floods were thus less powerful there (specific stream powers lower than 80 W/m²) and sediment transport conformed more to natural conditions. Considering the huge amount of sediment supply from upstream and the slowing down of the sediment flux, the Yonne river bed aggrades. A perched riverbed today lies up to 1.5m higher than the floodplain and may be seen on more than 25 km of the course. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatocholecystitis due to Salmonella Dublin in a crossbred calf
Ronzoni, Anna ULiege; Bayrou, Calixte ULiege; Evrard, Laurence ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 73 (20 ULiège)
Peer Reviewed
See detailJeux et enjeux en atelier-théâtre: un engagement tout au présent
Brahy, Rachel ULiege

Conference (2013, August 30)

Cette contribution interroge les modalités d’engagement de soi dans l’action théâtrale. Les questions suivantes guident l’analyse. Comment les participants s’engagent dans l’atelier-théâtre? Quels ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution interroge les modalités d’engagement de soi dans l’action théâtrale. Les questions suivantes guident l’analyse. Comment les participants s’engagent dans l’atelier-théâtre? Quels rapports instaurent-ils vis-à-vis d’eux-mêmes et d’autrui? Quelles sont les manières d’être et d’agir qui paraissent pertinentes en situation? Quel est le travail du comédien-animateur? Comment encadre-t-il l’action? Cela nous mènera à décrire des situations concrètes d’ateliers et à ressaisir les ajustements, cadrages et "mode de coordination" (Thévenot, 2009) qui président dans le dispositif. En nous référant à la sociologie des régimes d’engagement de Laurent Thévenot (2006), on verra alors comment se décline une modalité d’engagement propre à l’atelier-théâtre. Cette dernière imposerait un rapport particulier à soi, fondé sur la recherche d’une expérience dans un mouvement de convergence avec autrui. En effet, dans le dispositif, une importance particulière est accordée à la formation d’un collectif qui s’instaure, tout en douceur, au travers de jeux et exercices théâtraux. Nous appellerons cet engagement, "engagement en présence". [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 58 (12 ULiège)
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See detailZnO/PVA Macroscopic Fibers Bearing Anisotropic Photonic Properties
Kinadjian, Natacha ULiege; Achard, Marie-France; Julian-Lopez, Beatriz et al

Conference (2013, August 30)

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See detailAssessing the success of river restoration projects through Geomorphology
Peeters, Alexandre ULiege; Verniers, Gisèle; De le Court, Bernard et al

Conference (2013, August 30)

In the context of the Water Framework Directive’s goal of attaining “good ecological status”, a LIFE+ project (called Walphy), co-funded by the European Union and the Service Public de Wallonie, was ... [more ▼]

In the context of the Water Framework Directive’s goal of attaining “good ecological status”, a LIFE+ project (called Walphy), co-funded by the European Union and the Service Public de Wallonie, was launched in 2009. It aims to undertake experimental river restoration projects and to assess their success on the basis of ecological and geomorphological monitoring. Geomorphological monitoring differs depending on the type of restoration project: improvement of longitudinal continuity or transversal continuity. Restoration projects involving longitudinal continuity concern courses where obstacles impede the free movement of fish and sediment. In the Bocq basin, many of these obstacles (old weirs between 1 and 3 m high) have been removed. The release of sediment was studied using traced pebbles (PIT tags), which enable the recovery of bedload transport to be highlighted. Additional monitoring is based on the comparison of topographic surveys and cross-sections carried out pre- and post-removal. This can show a recovery of the natural transport of sediment when stream bed aggradation is observed downstream from the removed dam. Restoration projects involving transversal continuity concern straightened courses with artificial banks and therefore poor stream-floodplain connectivity. These works consist of enhancing river channels and restoring meanders or banks. Geomorphological monitoring is also based on surveys conducted pre- and post-restoration work. Some reaches have been improved by the reintroduction of spawning gravel. Several methods were used to characterize the clogging of this gravel reintroduction (hydraulic conductivity, wooden stakes). In addition, the mobility of this gravel was monitored using traced pebbles (PIT tags). Finally, restoration works and their stability and resistance to erosion are considered in relation to flood characteristics (discharge, recurrence, specific stream power and shear stress). [less ▲]

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See detailUsing drones to count the elephants: a new approach of wildlife inventories
Linchant, Julie ULiege; Vermeulen, Cédric ULiege; Lisein, Jonathan ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 29)

The use of UASs (Unmanned Aerial Systems) in wildlife survey is still recent but the fast development of this technology shows great possibilities and it could soon become an inevitable tool in wildlife ... [more ▼]

The use of UASs (Unmanned Aerial Systems) in wildlife survey is still recent but the fast development of this technology shows great possibilities and it could soon become an inevitable tool in wildlife management. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of inventories by UAS to survey large mammals in the Nazinga Game Ranch in the south of Burkina Faso. The Gatewing X100TM equipped with a Ricoh GR III camera was used to test the animal reaction as it passed, and their visibility on the images. A set of more than 7000 images was collected and observations revealed that only elephants (Loxodonta africana) were easily visible while medium and small sized mammals were not. At a height of 100 m the easy observation of elephant allows experts to enumerate them on images and no reaction was recorded as the UAS passed. We therefore implemented an aerial strip sample count along transects used for the annual wildlife foot count. A total of 34 elephants has been recorded on 4 transects, each overflown twice. The elephant density was estimated at 2.47 elephants/km2 with a coefficient of variation (CV%) of 36.10 %. UAS inventory of elephants is promising but improvements need to be done. The main drawback of our UAS was its autonomy. If we wish to replace manned aircraft survey of large areas (about 1000 km of transect per day vs 40 km for our UAS), increased endurance of small UAS is a requirement and the monitoring strategy should be adapted according to the sampling plan. Also, the UAS is as expensive as a second-hand light aircraft. However the logistic and flight implementation are easier, the running costs are lower and its use is safer. With technological evolution making civil UASs more efficient, they will be able to compete with light aircrafts for aerial wildlife surveys. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-infrared prediction of cheese yield from milk and its genetic variability in first-parity cows
Colinet, Frédéric ULiege; Troch, Thibault ULiege; Vanden, Bossche et al

Conference (2013, August 29)

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See detailGenetic effects of heat stress on milk yield and MIR predicted methane emissions of Holstein cows
Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULiege; Gengler, Nicolas ULiege; Kandel, Purna Bhadra ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 28)

Dairy cows both contribute to and are affected by climate change. Breeding for heat tolerance and reduced methane (CH4) emissions is a key requirement to mitigate interactions between dairy cows and ... [more ▼]

Dairy cows both contribute to and are affected by climate change. Breeding for heat tolerance and reduced methane (CH4) emissions is a key requirement to mitigate interactions between dairy cows and climate change. This study was aimed to estimate genetic variation of milk yield and CH4 emissions over the whole trajectory of temperature humidity index (THI) using a reaction norm approach. A total of 257,635 milk test-day (TD) records and milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra from 51,782 Holstein cows were used. Data were collected between January 2007 and December 2010 in 983 herds by the Walloon Breeding Association (Ciney, Belgium). The calibration equation developed by Vanlierde et al. (Abstract submitted to EAAP 2013; R² of cross-validation=0.70) was applied on the spectral data in order to predict CH4 emissions values (g CH4/d). These values were divided by fat and protein corrected milk yield (FPCM) defining a new CH4 trait (g CH4/kg of FPCM). Daily THI values were calculated using the mean of daily values of dry bulb temperature and relative humidity from meteorological data. Mean daily THI of the previous 3 days before each TD record was used as the THI of reference for that TD. Bivariate (milk yield and a CH4 trait) random regression TD mixed models with random linear regressions on THI values were used. Estimated average daily heritability for milk yield was 0.17 and decreased slightly at extreme THI values. However, heritabilities of MIR CH4 traits increased as THI values increase: from 0.10 (THI=28) to 0.14 (THI=75) for MIR CH4 (g/d) and from 0.14 (THI=28) to 0.21 (THI=75) for MIR CH4 (g/kg of FCPM). Genetic correlations between milk yield and MIR CH4 (g/d) ranged from -0.09 (THI=28) to -0.12 (THI=75) and those between milk yield and MIR CH4 (g/kg of FPCM) from -0.75 (THI=28) to -0.71 (THI=75). These results showed that milk production and CH4 emissions of dairy cows seemed to be influenced by THI. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 114 (42 ULiège)
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See detailHolocene dust record in a NW European peat bog: A multiproxy approach
Allan, Mohammed ULiege; Le Roux, Gael; Verheyden, Sophie et al

Conference (2013, August 28)

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic bog. The analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic element concentrations as well as Nd ... [more ▼]

Dust deposition in southern Belgium is estimated from the geochemical signature of an ombrotrophic bog. The analyses of Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic element concentrations as well as Nd isotopes were performed by HR-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS respectively, in a  6 m peat section representing 5300 years, from 30 BC to 5300 BC dated by the 14C method. REE concentration variations in peat samples were used as a dust proxy and the Nd isotopes to trace the sources. Peat humification and testate amoebae were used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. The range of dust deposition varied from 0.03 to 4 g m-2 yr-1. The highest dust fluxes were observed from 800 to 600 BC, and from 3200 to 2800 BC and correspond to cold periods. The Nd values show large variability, between -5 and –13, identifying three major sources of dust: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. By comparing our results with the dust recorded in other peat bogs and ice cores from different latitudes, we evidence that the Misten peat is a valid archive for dust deposition. [less ▲]

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See detailDocument/text relationship in Ramses: the principles
Sojic, Nathalie ULiege

Conference (2013, August 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (8 ULiège)
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See detailA small overview of available computer software to support computerized adaptive testing
Magis, David ULiege

Conference (2013, August 27)

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is becoming a central tool for testing and assessment. It offers many advantages over fixed (“paper-and-pencil”) methods, such as individualized assessment, reduction ... [more ▼]

Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) is becoming a central tool for testing and assessment. It offers many advantages over fixed (“paper-and-pencil”) methods, such as individualized assessment, reduction of fraud, and straightforward estimation of proficiency levels. CAT has been studied for decades and remains an up-to-date research field in psychometrics and educational science. Practical CAT administration, however, is less frequently considered in such studies. Assigning CAT to respondents requires both the sufficient availability of computer machines, and the use of a powerful and easy-to-use CAT software. With the fast increase of computer resources at moderate cost, the availability of computer machines is becoming a less central, yet important, issue in the practical assessment of CAT tests. The choice of an accurate CAT software, on the other hand, should be guided by its flexibility, its underlying statistical modeling, and its user-friendly potential. According to the type of research or data analysis, some CAT software might be preferred to another. It is therefore important for the researcher or the clinician to know about the current availability of such software, in line with current research and practice in the CAT framework. Moreover, these software should allow enough flexibility to incorporate updates and new theoretical developments, such as e.g., new rules for next item selection. This talk proposes a simple and user-oriented presentation of several CAT software that are currently available. The software to be presented are: the Firestar software (Choi, 2009), the R package catR (Magis & Raîche, 2012), the R package catIrt (Nydick, 2012) and the CAT web-platform Concerto (Kosinski & Rust, 2011). The first three are non-commercial software, while Concerto is a web interface between end users (willing to develop computerized assessment tests) and catR (as underlying routine software). Both R packages are written to be most useful for researchers, without end-user interface, and are therefore less appealing for applied researchers who are not familiar with R. Yet, they offer flexible solutions by means of many options to optimize the design of the test and generate many response patterns for further analyses. Also, they can be easily integrated as sub-routines for more sophisticated CAT software. Firestar provides a user interface and makes all necessary computations with underlying R code. This talk aims at focusing on freely available CAT software. For this reason, only the four aforementioned programs will be presented, although it exists other, commercial CAT software such as e.g., the CATSim software (Assessment Systems Corporation, 2012). The different CAT software are briefly presented and their advantages and drawbacks, flexibility and usefulness are compared, mostly from the point of view of the applied researcher and clinician. The following criteria were retained for objective comparison: (a) their main goal of application; (b) the type of data and IRT modeling they can deal with; (c) the type of users they are focusing on; (d) their operating options; (e) their availability and flexibility for further improvements. A small demonstration of the R package catR will be proposed optionally, depending on time limitation. References Assessment Systems Corporation (2012). CATSim: Comprehensive simulation of computerized adaptive testing. St. Paul, MN. URL: http://www.assess.com/. Choi , S. W. (2009). Firestar: Computerized adaptive testing simulation program for polytomous item response theory models. Applied Psychological Measurement, 33, 644-645. Kosinski, M., & Rust, J. (2011). The development of Concerto: An open source online adaptive testing platform. Paper presented at the International Association for Computerized and Adaptive Testing (IACAT), Pacific Grove, CA. Magis, D., & Raîche, G. (2012). Random generation of response patterns under computerized adaptive testing with the R package catR. Journal of Statistical Software, 48, 1-31. Nydick, S. W. (2012). catIrt: An R package for simulating IRT-based computerized adaptive tests. R package version 0.3-0. [less ▲]

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See detailSea floor morphology of north-western Gulf of Corinth (Greece): combined impacts of Late Quaternary eustatism and active tectonics
Beckers, Arnaud ULiege; Beck, Christian; Hubert, Aurelia ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 27)

Two high-resolution seismic reflection surveys (single channel sparker) were performed in the western part of the Gulf of Corinth. aboard HCMR’s R/V ALKYON, within the frame of SISCOR ANR Project. This ... [more ▼]

Two high-resolution seismic reflection surveys (single channel sparker) were performed in the western part of the Gulf of Corinth. aboard HCMR’s R/V ALKYON, within the frame of SISCOR ANR Project. This intra-continental marine basin is related to Late Cenozoic to Present extension separating “continental” Greece from Peloponnese. The connection of this active rift with the Ionian Sea (Mediterranean) is nowadays a 62 m deep sill, a situation which implies possible separations during low stands of global sea level, especially the last ones (MIS 2 and MIS 6). The western part of the Gulf, which is the most seismo-tectonically active part, appears as a transfer zone with both normal and strike slip faulting, identified through a dense grid of seismic lines. As a consequence, the offshore northern edge between the Mornos River delta and the Trizonia island shows a complex morphology due to the interaction between these structures, huge terrigenous feeding, deltaic development and sediment failures. Pre-Quaternary basement (Hellenids) was partly submitted to aerial erosion and paleodeltas are superimposed on the induced relief, visible at a depth of 110 m below Present sea level. The paleovalleys are filled with onlapping layered sediments, affected by several WSW-ENE and W-E oriented faults, part of them still active. An attempt to decipher both sources of relief genesis and evolution is presented. Beside, location and slip rate of active faults are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailBedload dynamics in gravel bed rivers
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULiege; Hallot, Eric ULiege; Peeters, Alexandre ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 27)

The aim of this research was threefold: 1) to improve the values of bedload mobilisation discharge in gravel bed rivers, 2) to determine the bedload velocity over the short and long term and 3) to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this research was threefold: 1) to improve the values of bedload mobilisation discharge in gravel bed rivers, 2) to determine the bedload velocity over the short and long term and 3) to quantify bedload transport and to examine bedload discharge in relation to the stream power and to the excess stream power. Since 2006, we used the PIT-tag technique in order to mark pebbles from Ardennian rivers. Ten rivers of different geomorphological properties were fitted out with PIT-tags (in 18 different sites) and 67 surveys were carried out after hydrological events. These data allow a valuable relationship between the stream power during floods and the size of the biggest elements mobilised to be proposed. This relation is obtained for medium sized rivers (50-200 km²) with bed material composed of gravel (D50 between 2 and 10 cm). Furthermore, we also obtained good relationships between the average transport distance and the excess of stream power reached during the hydrological events. In order to estimate the bedload virtual velocity over a longer time scale, we applied these relationships to the hydrological events recorded by gauging stations over more than 30 years. We obtained values of virtual velocity which are between 2 km/century for a low energy river with a sinuous bed and well developed riffle-pool sequences (Rulles River – 20 W/m² at Qb) and 11 km/century in a more powerful river with a straight channel (Aisne River – 100 W/m² at Qb) and a sub-flat bed. The propagation velocity of bedload is therefore influenced by the energy available. However, it is also necessary to take into account the river pattern, the characteristics of the armoured layer and the presence of potential trapping sites. [less ▲]

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See detailMULTIPHYSICS MODELING OF CELL/MATRIX GROWTH ON 3D STRUCTURES.
Guyot, Yann ULiege; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Chai, Yoke Chin et al

Conference (2013, August 26)

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See detailGenetic evaluation of calving ease for Walloon Holstein dairy cattle
Vanderick, Sylvie ULiege; Troch, Thibault ULiege; Gillon, Alain et al

Conference (2013, August 25)

Calving complications have an incidence on the economic profitability of dairy herds. In the Walloon Region of Belgium, calving ease data recording is being done on voluntary basis since 2000. This allows ... [more ▼]

Calving complications have an incidence on the economic profitability of dairy herds. In the Walloon Region of Belgium, calving ease data recording is being done on voluntary basis since 2000. This allows now the implementation of a genetic evaluation of Holstein dairy cattle addressing the need of dairy breeders to select bulls in order to reduce frequency of calving problems. Calving ease scores were analyzed using univariate animal linear models, which were fitted with the genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive genetic effects either estimated or constrained to zero. Variance components and related genetic parameters were estimated from a dataset including 33,155 calving records. Included in the models were fixed season effects, fixed herd effects and fixed sex of calf*age of dam classes*group of calvings interaction effects, random herd*year of calving effects, random maternal permanent environment effects, and random animal direct and maternal additive genetic effects. For both models, direct and maternal heritabilities for calving ease were about 8% and about 2%, respectively. Genetic correlation between direct and maternal additive effects was found to be non-significantly different from zero. So, an animal linear model with genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects constrained to zero was adopted for the routine genetic evaluation of calving ease for Walloon Holstein dairy cattle. This model was validated by Interbull in January 2013 and, since April 2013, the Walloon Region of Belgium has officially participated to the international MACE evaluation for calving traits. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the influence of oxygen in delayed bone fracture healing.
Carlier, Aurélie ULiege; Geris, Liesbet ULiege; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

Conference (2013, August 25)

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See detailNA2RE Project—The new atlas of amphibians and reptiles: new compilation and online system
Sillero, Neftalí; Campos, João; Oliveira, Marco Amaro et al

Conference (2013, August 24)

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See detailDoes foraging plasticity favours adaptation to new habitats in fire salamanders? Preliminary data
Manenti, Raoul; Denoël, Mathieu ULiege; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

Conference (2013, August 23)

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See detailEnvironmental correlates of paedomorphosis and metamorphosis in palmate newts
Denoël, Mathieu ULiege; Ficetola, G. Francesco

Conference (2013, August 23)

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See detailEnergetical aspects of solar-like oscillations in red giants
Grosjean, Mathieu ULiege; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULiege

Conference (2013, August 23)

CoRoT and Kepler observations of red giants reveal a large variety of spectra of non- radial solar- like oscillations. Up to now we understood pretty well the frequency patterns for the different global ... [more ▼]

CoRoT and Kepler observations of red giants reveal a large variety of spectra of non- radial solar- like oscillations. Up to now we understood pretty well the frequency patterns for the different global properties or different evolutionary stages of the stars. Here we are interested in the theoretical predictions for the two other components of a power spectra (the linewitdths and the heights). The study of energetic aspects of these oscillations is of great importance to predict the peak parameters in the power spectrum. I will discuss under which circumstances mixed modes are detectable for a large variety of red-giant stellar models, with emphasis on the effect of the evolutionary status of the star along the red-giant branch, for a wide range of stellar masses (from 1 to 2M⊙ ) on theoretical power spectra. [less ▲]

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See detailHow do music experts and non-experts evaluate the vocal accuracy of operatic singing voices?
Larrouy, Pauline ULiege; Nowak, Marion; Morsomme, Dominique ULiege

Conference (2013, August 22)

Professional singers are expected to sing in tune. However, when an operatic singing technique is employed, the objective measurement of the vocal accuracy (i.e. pitch interval deviation) shows ... [more ▼]

Professional singers are expected to sing in tune. However, when an operatic singing technique is employed, the objective measurement of the vocal accuracy (i.e. pitch interval deviation) shows particularly low scores, whatever the melody performed. This study focuses on the perceptual judgment of operatic voices in order to observe the evaluation process of singing voice accuracy by music experts and non-experts. In addition, this study aims to better understand the relationship between the subjective and objective measurements of operatic singing voices. 22 music experts and 22 non-experts paired in age and gender participated in a test and a retest (8 to 15 days in between). Fourteen sung performances performed by professional operatic singers were presented with a pairwise comparison paradigm. The participants were asked to indicate the most “in tune” melody for each pair (N = 91). The performances obtained thus a ranking by each judge. In addition, the 14 sung performances were objectively analyzed in order to confront the objective measurement of singing voice accuracy with the perceptual rating of the judges. Computing the variances of rank differences between the test and the retest, we observed that 20 music experts and 16 non-experts were consistent in their judgments. Among each group, the correlations between consistent raters were positive. However, 67.38% of these correlations were significant (p < .05) for the music experts whereas only 42.10% were significant for the non-experts. In addition, no relationship occurred between the objective measurements (from 9.5 to 115.5 cents, M = 40.57, SD = 34.42) and the perceptual ratings, except for two music experts. This study highlights the consistency of a judge when rating operatic singing voices and the difference between music experts and non-experts concerning the inter-judges reliability. Despite the fact that the majority of the music experts used similar strategies to evaluate the vocal accuracy of operatic voices, their judgment was obviously not linked with the objective measurement of vocal accuracy. This finding supports the tolerance of music expert listeners regarding the singing voice accuracy of operatic singers. Furthermore, this study provides some directions about the perception of operatic singing voices, which are particularly complex. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics of Economically Designed CUSUM and \bar{X} Control Charts
Saniga, Erwin; Davis, Darwin; Faraz, Alireza ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 22)

In this paper we investigate the characteristics of economic control chart designs for both Shewhart (¯X ) and CUSUM control charts. Authors in the past have made some suggestions regarding the design of ... [more ▼]

In this paper we investigate the characteristics of economic control chart designs for both Shewhart (¯X ) and CUSUM control charts. Authors in the past have made some suggestions regarding the design of these charts, where design is defined as finding the values of sample size, intersample interval and control limit (Shewhart chart) or control parameters (k and h) for the CUSUM chart. Here, we run a large number of experiments consisting of many configurations of the parameters and describe and model the results in terms of the actual economic designs. [less ▲]

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See detailTailor made amphiphilic copolymers for the design of smart drug delivery systems
Riva, Raphaël ULiege; Cajot, Sébastien; Jérôme, Christine ULiege

Conference (2013, August 21)

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See detailAnalytical Orbit Propagator Based on Vectorial Orbital Elements
Condurache, Daniel; Martinusi, Vladimir ULiege

Conference (2013, August 20)

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See detailExtent of intra-population functional variability along a local environmental gradient for four calcareous grasslands species
Harzé, Mélanie ULiege; Monty, Arnaud ULiege; Mahy, Grégory ULiege

Conference (2013, August 19)

In the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the role of functional traits as reliable predictors of species resistance to disturbance and response to environmental gradients ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, an increasing body of evidence has highlighted the role of functional traits as reliable predictors of species resistance to disturbance and response to environmental gradients. However, most studies focused on functional comparisons at the interspecific level while intraspecific functional trait variation has received remarkably little attention. As intraspecific traits variability is a necessary condition for species to adapt to environmental changes, studying intraspecific functional traits variation along environmental gradients is a major issue in a context of global change. The aim of our study was to evaluate the extent of intraspecific functional variability of four species along an environmental gradient of water stress at a local scale and to compare species response to the gradient. Calcareous grasslands species are present along a xeric gradient from mesophilous to xerophilous grasslands. Changes of exposure, slope and soil depth lead to differences of water availability for plants along the gradient. We measured the maximum vegetative height (MVH), the specific leaf area (SLA, one side area of a fresh leaf divided by its oven-dry mass) and the leaf dry matter content (LDMC, leaf oven-dry mass divided by its water-saturated fresh mass) on randomly selected individuals along a gradient of xericity on three study sites located in south Belgium. Functional traits were measured on about 60 individuals per site and per species. The soil depth was measured around each individual. The exposure and the slope were measured in order to calculate a heat load index for each individual. The extent of local intraspecific functional variability of our data was compared to data covering the species European range. Results are species dependent but for some study species intraspecific functional variability at local scale is not negligible compared to European data. Species functional responses to the gradient (soil depth and heat load index) showed a decrease in SLA and MVH and an increase in LDMC with increasing xericity for all study species. Response extent was species dependent. Main implications for species resistance to disturbance and climate change adaptation will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailBalancing the freedom of academia and security interests : an impossible objective ?
Michel, Quentin ULiege

Conference (2013, August 19)

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See detailEvolutionary history of Leopoldamys neilli, a karst endemic rodent in Southeast Asia, and implications for its conservation
Latinne, Alice ULiege; Waengsothorn, Surachit; Michaux, Johan ULiege

Conference (2013, August 15)

In this study, we have investigated the phylogeography of Leopoldamys neilli, a Murinae rodent species endemic to limestone karsts in Southeast Asia, on the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear markers ... [more ▼]

In this study, we have investigated the phylogeography of Leopoldamys neilli, a Murinae rodent species endemic to limestone karsts in Southeast Asia, on the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Both mitochondrial and nuclear markers support a large-scale population structure of four main groups within L. neilli and a strong finer structure within each of these groups. A deep genealogical divergence among geographically close lineages is observed and denotes a high population fragmentation. Our findings suggest that the current phylogeographic pattern of this species results from the fragmentation of a widespread ancestral population and that vicariance has played a significant role in the evolutionary history of L. neilli during Plio-Pleistocene. This study revealed an unexpected high level of intraspecific diversity within L. neilli. Consequently, the four main L. neilli population groups should be considered as four distinct Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) and require appropriate management and conservation plans. [less ▲]

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See detailPitch analysis workshop
Larrouy, Pauline ULiege

Conference (2013, August 13)

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See detailInfluence of circadian rhythm and PER3 genotype on executive discriminative ability under sleep deprivation during a constant routine
Jaspar, Mathieu ULiege; Meyer, Christelle ULiege; Muto, Vincenzo ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 12)

Maintaining optimal performance during a working memory task requires not only to detect target items but also to discard fillers. Following signal detection theory, the ability to discriminate target ... [more ▼]

Maintaining optimal performance during a working memory task requires not only to detect target items but also to discard fillers. Following signal detection theory, the ability to discriminate target from non-target stimuli is estimated by d prime (d'). Here we assessed whether d' was modulated by the oscillating circadian signal during a 42-hour constant routine while participants performed 13 sessions of auditory 3-back task. We also tested whether the individual vulnerability to sleep loss predicted by the PERIOD3 gene polymorphism would influence this cognitive modulation imposed by sleep/wake regulation. From a sample of about 400 screened volunteers, thirty-five healthy young volunteers (age 19-26; 17 females) were recruited based on the PER3 polymorphism (twelve 5/5 and twenty-three 4/4 homozygotes). A linear mixed model tested on d’ the effect of circadian rhythmicity (based on melatonin level) and PER3 polymorphism. Given that 3back sessions were not administered at equidistant points, we used ranges to center each individual performance on dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Analyses on d’ showed an effect of circadian oscillation (F(12,302) = 16.05, p< 0.0001), but also an interaction between gene and circadian oscillation (F(12,302)=1,88, p = 0.0362). This interaction was mainly characterized by a worst d’ in PER35/5subjects in the range covering a period between 21 and 23 hours after the DLMO (W=47; p = 0.0426). These results showed that circadian rhythm influence the discriminative ability under constant routine condition. Interestingly, we observed a better performance in PER34/4in the phase preceding the DLMO, but only in situation of high sleep pressure. Those results show that discriminative ability is differently affect by sleep homeostasis in PER3 polymorphism at the same circadian phase. We interpret this as a bigger vulnerability to sleep loss in PER35/5individuals in the period just before the wake maintenance zone. [less ▲]

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See detailPitch matching, melodic singing, and vocal-motor control
Hutchins, Sean; Larrouy, Pauline ULiege; Peretz, Isabelle

Conference (2013, August 08)

Poor singing ability can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Many prior studies have tried to examine this relationship, but one factor that often fails to be taken into ... [more ▼]

Poor singing ability can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Many prior studies have tried to examine this relationship, but one factor that often fails to be taken into account is the timbre of the target to be matched. Here, we compare accuracy in instrumental and vocal pitch matching paradigms, designed such that each participant’s own voice serves as both the target and the response. Participants (nonmusicians) matched their previously recorded voice on a slider, designed to play back their voice at different pitch levels depending on the location of a finger press on a continuous dimension. They also matched single pitches with their voice, and sang a familiar melody (“Happy Birthday”) for comparison to the single pitch matching tasks. The nonmusicians were significantly better at instrumental pitch matching than vocal pitch matching, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. There were significant correlations between the melodic singing ability and vocal pitch matching, but not instrumental pitch matching. People with higher quality voices tended to be more accurate with pitch in melodies. These results demonstrate that single pitch matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities, and further confirm the importance of vocal-motor control in determining singing ability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe evaluation of singing voice accuracy: Are we good judges even if we are not musicians?
Larrouy, Pauline ULiege; Roig-Sanchis, Virginie; Morsomme, Dominique ULiege

Conference (2013, August 08)

A previous study highlighted that objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy are highly correlated when the rating is done by musicians and that 81% of their variance was explained by the ... [more ▼]

A previous study highlighted that objective and subjective measurements of vocal accuracy are highly correlated when the rating is done by musicians and that 81% of their variance was explained by the pitch interval deviation and the number of tonality modulations (Larrouy-Maestri, Lévêque, Schön, Giovanni, & Morsomme, 2013). However, the general audience is not expert in music. This study aims to observe the vocal accuracy assessment done by non musicians. Eighteen non musicians were asked to rate on a 9-point scale the global pitch accuracy of 166 vocal performances sung by untrained singers. This database was presented two times (T1 and T2) in a random order. The sung performances were objectively analyzed regarding three criteria: pitch interval deviation, number of tonality modulations and number of contour errors. The results show an intraclass correlation coefficient of .89 (p < .01) among the non experts and a mean intra-judges Spearman correlation of .66 (SD = .06) between T1 and T2. There is also a significant correlation between the acoustic measurements and the mean ratings (r(166) = .809; p < .01), with higher scores for accurate performances. Confronted with the music experts of the previous study, the judgment of the non experts correlated with the musicians ratings (r(166) = .840; p < .01). However, a Mann Whitney test showed that the rating of non experts was globally more severe than the experts one (p = 009). In addition, the regression analysis showed that only the pitch interval deviation criterion was considered in their judgment, explaining 66% of the variance of the judges. This study highlights the reliability and the objectivity of non musicians in the vocal accuracy assessment. Moreover, an effect of music expertise is observed concerning the severity of the rating and the vocal accuracy assessment process. [less ▲]

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See detailTaste analysis. How practice in an industrial and scientific context shapes sturdy sensory categories.
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULiege

Conference (2013, August 08)

Sensory analysis presents the particular characteristic to be placed in a crossroad, especially when it is about taste. Sensory, which is the most of the time the space of subjective and hedonic judgments ... [more ▼]

Sensory analysis presents the particular characteristic to be placed in a crossroad, especially when it is about taste. Sensory, which is the most of the time the space of subjective and hedonic judgments, meets Science, which has the main goal to establish an objective truth, through sturdy and stable categories. I followed several types of sensory expert panels, and among them a panel who has the mission to discriminate different sorts of carrots and define their respective sensory profile. The judges were specifically teached and trained to taste and analyze carrots. I was interested to observe the period of training to understand how those people had acquired their expertness. In this presentation, I would tempt an analysis of how participants build themselves the tools and tricks to perform a best organoleptic perception, and how they go beyond the rules and formal process to answer to the forms. [less ▲]

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See detailReference populations for shoulder studies should be selected carefully
Schwartz, Cédric ULiege; Denoël, Vincent ULiege; Bruls, Olivier ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 06)

To assess various shoulder pathologies / treatments, non pathological populations are often used as references. However, some factors may influence significantly the scapular kinematics within a healthy ... [more ▼]

To assess various shoulder pathologies / treatments, non pathological populations are often used as references. However, some factors may influence significantly the scapular kinematics within a healthy population and consequently alter the final kinematic evaluation. Results of 3D shoulder assessment found in this study show that small (≈5°) but significant differences exist between gender and between the dominant and non-dominant arms. Therefore the populations used for referential data should be selected carefully. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuities in Kamau Brathwaite's Latest Published Collection Eleggas
Pagnoulle, Christine ULiege

Conference (2013, August 05)

Continuity is a key word in Brathwaite’s work, especially after the ‘Rift Years’ of his first ‘Salt period’ at the end of the 1980s. Whatever the publishing format, even in interviews, Brathwaite’s ... [more ▼]

Continuity is a key word in Brathwaite’s work, especially after the ‘Rift Years’ of his first ‘Salt period’ at the end of the 1980s. Whatever the publishing format, even in interviews, Brathwaite’s writing can no longer be divided into verse and prose, poems and essays. It runs as one powerful and tumultuous river, including lyrical and reflexive moments, fluctuating between the syncopated rhythm of jazz and the halting flow of a breathless prose. Re-using former poems is part of an almost manic strategy of incorporation, which also includes mythological and literary references, and working on multiple meanings and on porte-manteau words. I propose to examine the versatility of forms in his latest collection, Eleg guas (Wesleyan UP, 2010). Bringing various elements together begins with the title of the collection, which consists of ten chapters, three of which are differently laid-out excerpts from his elegy to his first wife, The Zea Mexican Diary (1987). Other sections are re-cycled from earlier collections such as ‘Poem for Walter Rodney’ (from Third World Poems), ‘Stone’ (from Middle Passages), ‘Défilée’ and ‘Ark’ (from Born to Slow Horses). However, they are never reproduced as such, they have been slightly or radically changed, and tracing such changes will be part of my enquiry. The last chapter but one is dedicated to the sea, to Yemanjaa, to Sycorax, to a ‘simple woman’, who beyond the violence of the Middle Passage presides over a gentle reconciliation under the sign of love and seals, also in the combination of languages, another recurrent continuity in Brathwaite’s work, that between Africa and the Caribbean. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecies richness and speciation in the genus Lepilemur in northwestern Madagascar
Wilmet, Leslie ULiege; Vermeulen, Cédric ULiege; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline et al

Conference (2013, August 05)

Sportive lemurs of the genus Lepilemur are small, nocturnal folivorous lemurs that are exclusively arboreal and generally have small distribution ranges. Owing to these characteristics, they are ... [more ▼]

Sportive lemurs of the genus Lepilemur are small, nocturnal folivorous lemurs that are exclusively arboreal and generally have small distribution ranges. Owing to these characteristics, they are particularly negatively affected by deforestation and habitat fragmentation, which is reflected by the recent uplisting of many of the 26 Lepilemur species into one of the threatened categories of the IUCN Red List. The main aim of this study is to understand the evolutionary mechanisms underlying species richness and speciation processes of the genus Lepilemur in northwestern Madagascar, and to test the predictions of the Inter-River-System biogeographic model of lemur distribution patterns proposed by Olivieri et al. (2007). This study focuses particularly on three Lepilemur taxa: L. sahamalazensis, L. dorsalis and L. mittermeieri, which have their distribution ranges in the northwestern regions of Sofia and Diana. The objectives are to determine their exact distributions, currently unknown; to assess the allopatry or parapatry for L. dorsalis and L. mittermeieri; and to explain the barrier between these two taxa if it exists. A second fundamental aspect of the project consists in the development of noninvasive tools, based on species-specificity of bio-acoustic structures, which will allow species identification in the field. This paper discusses the results from a two-month preliminary field season, conducted from 1st April to 31st May 2013 in order to explore the mainland forests located between the Andranomalaza (Maetsamalaza) and Maevarano rivers. We established the presence/absence of Lepilemur in different forest fragments of this poorly-known area and collected information about land use classes and land use change using remote sensing techniques. [less ▲]

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See detail"Bi-textual" Poetics: Investigating Form in Chris Abani's Becoming Abigail
Tunca, Daria ULiege

Conference (2013, August 05)

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See detailLake Kivu: food web structure and energy flows
Descy, J-P; Sarmento, H; Isumbisho, P et al

Conference (2013, August 04)

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See detailOmbrotrophic peat records of mercury deposition in Europe
Le Roux, Gael; Enrico, Maxime; Allan, Mohammed ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August 02)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULiège)
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See detailDetection of Mycobacterium celatum in wild boars in Southern Belgium
Ceuleers, V; Vionnet, A; Grégoire, F et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailGenetics of mastitis in the Walloon Region of Belgium
Bastin, Catherine ULiege; Vandenplas, Jérémie ULiege; Laine, Aurélie ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailInfection of mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis and mycobacterium avium hominissuis in a wild red deer
Volpe, Rosario ULiege; Paternostre, Julien ULiege; Ceuleers, Virginie et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailPratiques argumentatives dans les blogs adolescents : quelle didactisation?
Scheepers, Caroline ULiege

Conference (2013, August)

Les travaux de Penloup (1999) ont montré la nécessité de prendre en compte les pratiques scripturales extrascolaires des élèves. Mais l’enquête menée à l’époque ne donnait pas vraiment à voir des ... [more ▼]

Les travaux de Penloup (1999) ont montré la nécessité de prendre en compte les pratiques scripturales extrascolaires des élèves. Mais l’enquête menée à l’époque ne donnait pas vraiment à voir des pratiques scripturales numériques, alors que Donnat (2008) insiste sur le phénomène « d’enrichissement du parc informatique domestique » qui se serait produit entre deux enquêtes qu’il a menées en 1997, puis en 2008. Ainsi, depuis 1999, les pratiques numériques ont connu un essor sans précédent chez les adolescents. Comme l’affirme Fluckiger (2008), l’école est en butte aux pratiques personnelles des apprenants, lesquels mobilisent les TIC au service d’un processus de construction identitaire et d’individualisation de leurs pratiques culturelles et communicatives. Le chercheur insiste : la culture numérique des élèves, et le langage afférent, s’élaborent en dehors de l’école (Fluckiger, 2008). Partant, sans doute faut-il supposer une cloison relativement étanche entre les pratiques scripturales numériques personnelles des élèves et leurs pratiques scolaires, alors que le lien entre le langage et la scolarisation a fait l’objet de très nombreuses études (Bautier, 2001). La problématique qui sous-tend mon intervention se décline en deux questions de recherche. Primo, quelles sont les pratiques argumentatives des adolescents lorsqu’ils utilisent des outils numériques en dehors du cadre scolaire ? Secundo, quelle didactisation proposer au départ de ce bilan ? En effet, la question de l’argumentation me paraît centrale dès lors qu’il s’agit d’examiner les écrits numériques, qu’ils soient le fait d’adultes ou non. Il n’est qu’à voir les commentaires divers et variés postés par les internautes en réaction à des sujets polémiques (le mariage pour tous…)… La lecture des opinions émises pose des questions en termes d’éthique du débat, de formulation d’une thèse, de l’étayage d’un avis, de l’interactivité et de la virtualité des échanges… Seront étudiées les modalités d’utilisation de l’argumentation dans ce cadre : que nous donnent-elles à voir ? Des tendances fortes se dessinent-elles ? Quels liens établir avec les travaux des chercheurs qui ont pris en compte des discours argumentatifs plus traditionnels (Amossy, 2009; Plantin, 1995, 1996 ; Scheepers, 2013) ? Comment se construit l’ethos des adolescents ? Quelle image de l’auditoire se donne à voir dans leurs énoncés ? Modalisent-ils leur discours et si oui, comment ? Comment sont formulées leurs thèses ? Les étayent-ils et dans l’affirmative, comment, au moyen de quels types d’arguments ? Contre-argumentent-ils ? [less ▲]

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See detailThe « boring billion » : an exciting time for early eukaryotes !
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULiege; Beghin, Jérémie ULiege; Houzay, JP et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailAujesky's disease virus seroprevalence in wild boar, Southern Belgium, 2012
Jouant, Ludovic; Wayet, J.; Volpe, Rosario ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailOut-of-Himalaya: evolutionary history of the Dipodoidea (Rodentia) evidence the impact of past Asian environmental changes
Pisano, Julie ULiege; Condamine, Fabien L.; Lebedev, Vladimir et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailReaching the 1% accuracy level on stellar mass and radius determinations from asteroseismology. The case of hot B subdwarfs
Van Grootel, Valérie ULiege; Charpinet, Stephane; Fontaine, Gilles et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailReforming the Postal Universal Service
Gautier, Axel ULiege; Poudou, Jean-Christophe

Conference (2013, August)

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution ... [more ▼]

The postal sector has undergone dramatic changes over the recent years under the double effect of ongoing liberalization and increased competition with alternative communication channels (e-substitution). As a result, the mail volume handled by the historical operator has declined sharply while the latter's ability to match the same standard of universal service may be under threat. Thus, a reform of the postal universal service is on the agenda. This paper examines possible reforming options ranging from keeping universal service within the postal sector to redefining universal service as spanning postal and electronic technologies. [less ▲]

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See detailProperty, inheritance conflicts and family dynamics in Benin
Andreetta, Sophie ULiege

Conference (2013, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULiège)
See detail'There is no family left': Inheritance conflicts and family dynamics in South Benin
Andreetta, Sophie ULiege

Conference (2013, August)

Over the last few years, the number of inheritance disputes handled by the Beninese state courts has drastically increased. In Cotonou, State of Persons courtrooms are so crowded that people even have to ... [more ▼]

Over the last few years, the number of inheritance disputes handled by the Beninese state courts has drastically increased. In Cotonou, State of Persons courtrooms are so crowded that people even have to stand outside during registration. What are those people fighting about, why and how do they proceed? For the purpose of this paper, I will follow Beninese families' itineraries throughout inheritance disputes. When a parent dies, how are commodities managed or shared? What are the discussions and the conflicts resulting from those? What causes people to cease the courts? I will look into the arguments that are raised and the means that are mobilized by the parties, but also by their relatives. What does the 'extended family' have to say about children fighting in court? Those conflicts are about property, about who it belongs to and whether it should be sold. They are about the economic and symbolic value of land and houses. They are about family norms or "traditions" and the individualistic notion that "no one can be forced to remain in joint ownership" (CPF, art 752). Inheritance conflicts are now settled by a new Code on Persons and Family (2004) promoting gender and generational equality. How is it appropriated by both the Beninese families and the judicial officials tasked to enforce it? In short, what are the different steps and justifications behind inheritance disputes, how are they eventually settled and what does it mean with regards to family dynamics in contemporary urban West Africa? [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring the influence of light intensity on the growth and mortality of duckweed (Lemna minor) through digital images processing
Tangou Tabou, Thierry ULiege; Baya, Dehenould Trésor; Musibono Eyul'anki, Dieudonné et al

Conference (2013, August)

The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor), depending on biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. temperature, light intensity, photoperiod, pH, nutrients), is an important compartment of the treatment process in ... [more ▼]

The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor), depending on biotic and abiotic factors (i.e. temperature, light intensity, photoperiod, pH, nutrients), is an important compartment of the treatment process in wastewater floating macrophytes ponds. Excess or shortage of this biomass might be responsible of the dysfunction of such ponds. Modeling these duckweed ponds through mass balances based on Petersen’s matrix should help in an optimal management of such facilities. This article focused on (i) the influence of light intensity on the growth, and (ii) the mortality of Lemna minor under a constant temperature. Experiments were carried out in a growth chamber using a pilot consisting of transparent cubic tanks, with an initial fresh Lemna minor biomass. In order to monitor Lemna minor biomass, digital image processing was achieved in addition to fresh weight and dry weight measurements methods. The results showed that Lemna minor reached a maximum growth rate (0.19 d-1) for light intensities ranging between 250 μmol.m-².s-1 and 300 μmol.m-². s-1. Light intensities from 300 μmol.m-².s-1 to 400 μmol.m-².s-1 induced a slight growth inhibition. This inhibition was strongly marked at 450 μmol.m-².s-1. As for mortality, very low levels (< 0.05 d-1) were determined. These results thus provide a contribution in the modeling of duckweed waste stabilization ponds. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Accelerated Failure Time Model with Endogeneity and Heterogeneity: a Control Function approach
Tiwari, Amaresh Kumar ULiege; Heuchenne, Cédric ULiege

Conference (2013, August)

We develop a control function method to estimate an Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) model with multiple states, where we account for state dependence, heterogeneity, and endogeneity of covariates. In ... [more ▼]

We develop a control function method to estimate an Accelerated Failure Time (AFT) model with multiple states, where we account for state dependence, heterogeneity, and endogeneity of covariates. In accounting for state dependency in the structural AFT model and endogeneity of covariates through control functions, we are faced with predetermined covariates in the first stage treatment choice equation, which is a system of regressions for panel data. A concentrated likelihood method has been proposed to estimate a system of regressions with predetermined covariates. The control functions are based on "expected a posteriori" (EAP) values of the correlated random effects, and unlike alternative control function approaches, our approach allows for general instruments. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Postmodern City and the Search for Meaning
Dechêne, Antoine ULiege

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailHeat and mass transfer coefficient analysis during rock convective drying
Prime, Noémie ULiege; Housni, Zakarya; Fraikin, Laurent ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August)

This paper presents some experimental investigations about convective drying of rocks. Cylindrical samples made of limestone are dried from one their bases submitted to an air flow, while the other ... [more ▼]

This paper presents some experimental investigations about convective drying of rocks. Cylindrical samples made of limestone are dried from one their bases submitted to an air flow, while the other surfaces are hermetically covered. All other factors being equal, the influence of two parameters is looked after: the cylinder height, equivalent to the volume/surface ratio of the samples, and the direction of the air flow. The tests are interpreted both from the drying curves and from the values of water and heat transfer coefficients. Results first highlight that air flow incidence on the dried surface changes the kinetics and the transfer coefficient values. It can thus be supposed that the air flow direction would modify the thickness of the transfer limit layer at the surface and/or would make invalid the hypothesis of such a limit layer model for some flow configurations. Besides, the volume/surface ratio is shown to be correlated to the evaporation flux on the constant drying phase, and thus to the transfer coefficients. Nonetheless, this link tends to disappear from sufficiently high values of the volume/surface ratio since, in this case, the transfer coefficients reach constant values. This effect, in addition to other observations made on the drying curves, well fits with the hypothesis of a hydraulically connected layer below the drying surface, which would maintain during the constant drying rate phase. In the present case, this layer would have a thickness of around 20 to 30 mm. [less ▲]

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See detailEffort consenti par les élèves et performance aux évaluations externes à faibles enjeux : illustration au départ des données PISA
Dierendonck, Christophe; Burton, Réginald; Baye, Ariane ULiege

Conference (2013, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULiège)
See detailEgalité hommes-femmes: gender mainstreaming et genderbudgeting
Cornet, Annie ULiege

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailLe maintien en maternelle. Analyse des causes et des conséquences
Dupont, Virginie ULiege; Chenu, Florent ULiege; Baye, Ariane ULiege et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailComparison of three NDT techniques for the inspection of aeronautic composite structures
Dubé, Robin; Scheed, Laurent; Lewandoswki, Jacques et al

Conference (2013, July 28)

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See detailScience and the Belgian Dynasty during the reign of Albert I
Pirot, Pascal ULiege

Conference (2013, July 27)

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See detailLalande on Africa: science policies in late eighteenth-century France and the growing interest for the exploration of the continent's inner regions
Vandersmissen, Jan ULiege

Conference (2013, July 27)

In his Mémoire sur l’intérieur de l’Afrique (An III de la République, 1794-95) the influential French scholar Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (1732-1807) outlines the goals of a project which directly ... [more ▼]

In his Mémoire sur l’intérieur de l’Afrique (An III de la République, 1794-95) the influential French scholar Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (1732-1807) outlines the goals of a project which directly links scientific exploration to the needs of the State, urging both men of learning and state officials to work closely together in the organization of research missions that enhance man’s knowledge of the geography, natural history and commerce of Africa’s yet unknown inner regions – in particular the vast area between Senegal and the Sudan. This paper analyzes Lalande’s aims, arguments and claims against the background of scientific, commercial, political and military tensions between France and Britain. It situates Lalande’s discourse within the broader context of the competing “science policies” of both states in the second half of the eighteenth century. The notion of “science policy” as a working hypothesis refers to the way a government applies the knowledge and expertise provided by the scientific world according to the needs of the country. It is an investigation of the sudden re-emergence of Africa as an object of knowledge in the relationship between power and science. The paper focuses on the continuous interaction between France and Britain in African affairs, and highlights the shift from a mere “enlightened” exploration from the 1720s to the 1780s – a period which saw, on the one hand, the progressive integration of useful knowledge gathered by explorers in African coastal regions into the French “colonial” system, and, on the other hand, the installation of an informal structure of knowledge transfer at the British side – towards Lalande’s revolutionary time – the 1790s – when Africa became the subject of a “Banksian” takeover, enhancing British interest in the “unknown” interior of the African continent by setting up large-scale, interrelated research missions with practical goals (the expeditions organized by the African Association, e.g. Mungo Park), but also provoking reactions from the French side, a reflection of which can be found in Lalande’s dissertation, thus stimulating a new wave of French initiatives in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal order, dynamics and stability of C and N doped phase change materials
Hippert, Françoise; Raty, Jean-Yves ULiege; Noé, Pierre et al

Conference (2013, July 26)

Doping Chalcogenide Phase Change Materials, such as Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe used in non-volatile phase change memories, was shown to improve the stability of the amorphous phase and to strongly increase the ... [more ▼]

Doping Chalcogenide Phase Change Materials, such as Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe used in non-volatile phase change memories, was shown to improve the stability of the amorphous phase and to strongly increase the crystallization temperature. We combined total X-ray scattering experiments [1], Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy and ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations to address the stabilization of the amorphous phase of GeTe doped with Carbon or Nitrogen. The comparison between the simulation and exp erimental results allows in depth understanding of the role of dopants. They deeply modify the structure of the amorphous phase by introducing tetrahedral units centered on C or N, triangular environments and short C chains in C-doped GeTe, N-Ge3 pyramids and N2 molecules in N-doped GeTe. One major difference between N and C doping is the fact that C can form short bonds with Te, although in smaller proportion than C-Ge, while short N-Te bonds are absent in N-doped GeTe. The inclusion of C or N leads to an increase in high frequency vibrational modes, to a reduction of the density of floppy vibrational modes that drive the crystallization and to an increase of the rigidity. This stabilization mechanism could apply more generally to various GST materials as well as to other iono-covalent glasses. [1] G.E. Ghezzi, J.Y.Raty, S. Maitrejean, A. Roule, E. Elkaim and F. Hippert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 (2011) 151906 [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and new definition of the areas included in the urban-rural gradient
Andre, Marie ULiege; Mahy, Grégory ULiege; Lejeune, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2013, July 26)

Every scientific studies should begin with the delimitation of the studied system. Ours aims at evaluating and quantifying the resistence of landscape classes and ecosystems to the urbanization process ... [more ▼]

Every scientific studies should begin with the delimitation of the studied system. Ours aims at evaluating and quantifying the resistence of landscape classes and ecosystems to the urbanization process. This is done by studying a dozen cities in sub-Saharan Africa, conducting a diachronic (2000 - 2010) landscape evolution analysis from SPOT satellite imagery. Paradoxaly, when tackling this subject, one must recognize that no consensus exists about the definition and localization of the areas included in the urban-rural gradient. This prevents from comparing the results of different cities. A bibliography analysis has been conducted in order to 1) identify the different areas in the urban-rural gradient, the characteristics and types of characteristics used to define the most cited ones (i.e. urban, suburbs, sprawl, exurban, rurban, periurban and rural) ; 2) Through citation frequency indexes, evaluate the relative importance of characteristics and types of characteristics for every area and then for the whole gradient; 3) Evaluate the principal characteristics according to a series of criteria (the best characteristic is supposed to be quantitative, integrative, marking a consensus, discriminative and easy to apply on the field); 4) On the basis of retained characteristics, propose single and simple definitions to the most cited areas. These new definitions aim at enable areas identification on the field and on satellite images. These new definitions have been applied to the field study of the city of Lubumbashi (D.R.C) and seem to be convenient. Retained characteristics have then been translated into landscape composition indexes for the future study of the following cities on basis of satellite imagery, without field research. Indeed, such indexes are commonly used in landscape ecology because they allow the description of the urban landscape pattern or structure which, according to the central hypothesis of landscape ecology, i.e. “pattern-process paradigm”, influence landscape ecological processes. [less ▲]

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See detailSaussure's contribution to Hjelmslev's notion of "subconscious"
Cigana, Lorenzo ULiege

Conference (2013, July 26)

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See detailPiranesi's Haunt: the fascination for paradoxical spaces in the aesthetics of architecture today.
Dawans, Stéphane ULiege

Conference (2013, July 24)

Rem Koolhaas, a major provocative figure on the global scene of architecture theory since 1978—when he published Delirious New York—clearly bases his rhetorics on obsessive patterns such as the loop or ... [more ▼]

Rem Koolhaas, a major provocative figure on the global scene of architecture theory since 1978—when he published Delirious New York—clearly bases his rhetorics on obsessive patterns such as the loop or intertwined spaces claimed as Piranesian. This is notably the case in Euralille, this large urban complex meant to revive the old French industrial city, where the reference to the 18th-century engraver is most obvious in a large destructured hall, in an accumulation of stairs, footbridges and escalators which, on the way out of the railway station, are deliberate reminders of the engravings of imaginary jails that emerged from the Venetian artist’s brain. Of course engraving, painting, photography and cinema have been using similar processes for quite some time to create a dizzying sensation with the spectator. Those high and low angle views of entangled planes based on seemingly paradoxical geometry denote a willingness to use the features of the sublime to create mixed feelings of fascination and anguish or to remind mankind of their mortal condition, in other words, of their finite nature. Romanticism is known to have been quite inspired by this dramatic force. Yet what appeals to us in this revival of an aesthetics of the sublime is that it now crosses a new border as it imposes itself into public space, into city life. If films or 3ds digital games attract informed and consenting viewers, Piranesian spaces—Koolhaas also speaks of Junkspace—impose themselves to all and dramatize the modern man’s anguish without the slightest concern for his opinion. What kinds of ethos and of pathos underlie this contemporary theory of architectural and urban spaces inspired by Piranesi’s or Escher’s engravings? What literary strategies are at play? Why can the same obsessive spatial leitmotivs be found in plane puzzles, in films and in the new urban scenery? What does this aesthetics tell us about man in the 21st century? Can we talk of post-humanism? These are some of the basic questions this paper wishes to address in relation to the symposium’s theme Architecture and Urban Space. [less ▲]

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See detailEquivalence of weighted likelihood and Jeffreys modal estimation of proficiency under polytomous item response models
Magis, David ULiege

Conference (2013, July 23)

This talk focuses on two proficiency level estimators in item response theory (IRT) framework: the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) and the Jeffreys modal estimator (JME), that is, the usual Bayes ... [more ▼]

This talk focuses on two proficiency level estimators in item response theory (IRT) framework: the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) and the Jeffreys modal estimator (JME), that is, the usual Bayes modal estimator with Jeffreys’ non-informative prior. With dichotomously scored items, the WLE and the JME are completely equivalent under the two-parameter logistic model, while remarkable relationships were established under the three-parameter logistic model. The purpose of this talk is to extend such comparison to polytomously scored items. It is shown that both WLE and JME are also equivalent for two broad classes of polytomous IRT models, including, among others, the (modified) graded response model, the (generalized) partial credit model, the rating scale model and the nominal response model. Parallelisms with dichotomously scored items are drawn. An example from a real data set is used to illustrate this finding. [less ▲]

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