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See detailVariation des traits fonctionnels le long d’un gradient de cuivre et cobalt : contribution du remplacement d’espèces et de la variabilité intraspécifique
Delhaye, Guillaume; Violle, Cyril; Seleck, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2014, April)

Les collines cuprocobaltifères du Katanga sont des lieux privilégiés pour étudier la variation des traits fonctionnels le long de gradients de stress métallique. Nous avons étudié la variation de six ... [more ▼]

Les collines cuprocobaltifères du Katanga sont des lieux privilégiés pour étudier la variation des traits fonctionnels le long de gradients de stress métallique. Nous avons étudié la variation de six traits à l’échelle des espèces et de la communauté le long d’un gradient de cuivre et cobalt. D’autres paramètres tels que la concentration en phosphore et l’humidité du sol covarient positivement avec la teneur en métal du sol. Les contributions relatives du remplacement d’espèces et de la variabilité intraspécifique à la variabilité totale des traits dans les communautés ont été déterminées. A l’échelle de la communauté, la hauteur et la surface foliaire diminuent alors que les valeurs des quatre autres traits augmentent le long du gradient. Les espèces montrent des réponses variées, généralement non significatives. Pour tous les traits, le remplacement d’espèce est le moteur principal de la variation au sein des communautés. La concentration en métal du sol implique des réponses variées sur les différents traits et les différentes espèces. Nous montrons que la concentration croissante en métal privilégie le remplacement d’espèce par rapport à la variation intraspécifique et que les espèces répondent par différentes stratégies de tolérance à la concentration en métal du le sol. La variation des traits à l’échelle des communautés est essentiellement le reflet d’un changement dans les abondances des différentes formes de vie. Les espèces à xylopodes sont dominantes sur sol pauvre en métal alors que les annuelles sont dominantes sur sol très enrichi. [less ▲]

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See detailMeta-Cognitive Mystery Tales
Dechêne, Antoine ULg

Conference (2014, April)

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See detailINFLUENCE OF WHEY PROTEIN DENATURATION ON ADHERENCE
Toure, Yetioman ULg; Rouxhet, G. Paul; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine et al

Conference (2014, April)

This work reports on the influence of -lactoglobulin (β-LGB) and of its denaturation on the adherence of quartz particles, taken as a model of particulate soil, on stainless steel AISI 304 with mirror ... [more ▼]

This work reports on the influence of -lactoglobulin (β-LGB) and of its denaturation on the adherence of quartz particles, taken as a model of particulate soil, on stainless steel AISI 304 with mirror finish. The substrate was soiled with quartz suspensions in water or in β-LGB solutions as such or previously heated at 75°C, and dried at room temperature or in an oven at 75°C. Cleanability was evaluated after exposure to water in a radial flow chamber. Auxiliary characterizations were the surface tension and protein concentration of the solution, surface analysis of the substrate by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements. The contact of stainless steel with -LGB led to adsorption of the protein, which dominated the composition of the organic layer with respect to contaminants initially present, and was not markedly desorbed upon rinsing. The presence of β-LGB at the quartz particle/substrate interface slightly increased the adherence, which was further increased when the protein was denatured. On the other hand, denaturation of -LGB enhanced its surfactant effect at the water/air interface. Comparison with systems investigated before suggests that the influence of protein via droplet spreading and soiling particles aggregation may be of minor importance compared to direct effects on the substrate/quartz interface. Stainless steel does not behave as a hydrophilic substrate owing to its surface contamination with organic compounds. It appears suitable to examine the influence of the initial surface state of stainless steel on its behavior regarding soiling and cleaning. [less ▲]

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See detailA new methodological approach for error distributions selection in Finance
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

Conference (2014, April)

In this article, we propose a robust methodology to select the most appropriate error distribution candidate, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the ... [more ▼]

In this article, we propose a robust methodology to select the most appropriate error distribution candidate, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the traditional approach, we don't use any GARCH-type estimation of the conditional variance. Instead, we propose to use a recently developed nonparametric procedure (Mercurio and Spokoiny, 2004): the Local Adaptive Volatility Estimation (LAVE). The motivation for using this method is to avoid a possible model misspecification for the conditional variance. In a second step, we suggest a set of estimation and model selection procedures (Berk-Jones tests, kernel density-based selection, censored likelihood score, coverage probability) based on the so-obtained residuals. These methods enable to assess the global fit of a given distribution as well as to focus on its behavior in the tails. Finally, we illustrate our methodology on three time series (UBS stock returns, BOVESPA returns and EUR/USD exchange rates). [less ▲]

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See detailSTI narratives in Wallonia: A complex interplay
Charlier, Nathan ULg

Conference (2014, April)

It is widely acknowledged that scientific research and science, technology and innovation (STI) policies within the US and the EU have gone through deep changes for about 30 years. Many scholars from ... [more ▼]

It is widely acknowledged that scientific research and science, technology and innovation (STI) policies within the US and the EU have gone through deep changes for about 30 years. Many scholars from science and technology studies and innovation studies have investigated these policy changes, and the publication of “The New Production of Knowledge” (Gibbons et al., 1994) paved the way for vigorous debates on regimes of knowledge production (Hessels & Van Lente, 2008). While different general models were proposed to describe a transition (see, e.g. “mode 2 production of knowledge”, “post normal science”, “strategic science”, “academic capitalism”), these models often posit a dichotomous history, stating that a new regime simply succeeded the previous one (Rip, 2000). In a nutshell, the old regime characterized by strong public intervention and a linear conception of innovation is replaced by a new regime where research and innovation are conceived in systemic terms, regarding their strategic interest for the economy and their societal relevance. This dichotomous conception of STI policy change has been criticized regarding its historical accuracy, e.g. with Pestre (2003), showing that the autonomy of research that characterizes the old regime, or “mode 1” is While the diagnosis of these various science and technology policy studies is not to be dispraised concerning the different effects they emphasize, These macro-perspectives are of little use when it comes to study a local situation they lack acuteness to properly describe and compare empirical observation of such policy changes. This issue is even more salient for empirical work to be conducted in states where multi-level policies are crafted on different, sometimes overlapping national and regional polities. In Belgium, the case in point in my PhD researches, the above-mentioned studies are of little use to characterize the actual state and interplay of Walloon and Flemish STI systems. Hence, there is a need to develop theoretical approaches paying greater attention to local specificities and nuances. My proposal builds on an analysis of STI policies based on coexisting, and sometimes competing “narratives”. In the vein of Stone (1989) and Radaelli (2000), this paper aims at comparing the different policy narratives that circulates as rationale for STI policies in Wallonia, to identify their variants and to study their interplay. Policy narratives give meaning to complex realities, they help making sense of things, but they also contain a plot; they are articulating elements in a logical sequence (with, e.g., causalities, cf. Stone, 1989). As such, they are resources for action: they are descriptive and prescriptive. The broad literature of innovation studies, and its diffusion through the EU or the OECD already provides the Walloon STI stakeholders with different master-narratives (Sum & Jessop, 2013). So far, I could distinguish four different master-narratives in the literature as well as in Walloon stakeholders ‘discourses: • “The Knowledge-based economy” (KBE). KBE seems to be the “dominant” master-narrative today. In a nutshell, this narrative runs as follow (see OECD, 1996): knowledge is the source of economic growth. Since innovation and market success are better encountered through network management and the intertwinement of industry and university, STI institutions must be organized accordingly, in order to achieve a sustained growth and a “better competitiveness” o Variants of this narrative are, e.g. the triple-helix model (Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff, 2000), or National innovation system (Freeman, 1987, Lundvall, 1988). • Grand societal challenges: This recent master-narrative is being promoted by the OECD and the EU (see, e.g., Lund Declaration, 2009). It states that scientific research should benefit of high (public) funding in certain areas, or regarding certain issues. High means for strategic research should help to solve major problems such as climate change, ageing population, energy supply and consumption, cancer, etc. This narrative calls for mission oriented STI policy, so the concern here is not (solely/primarily) economic (Kallerud et al 2013). • “Science, the endless frontier” - continued: famously reported by V. Bush (1945), this master-narrative is still of common use among STI stakeholders. With this narrative, science is considered a public good, the state has to fund it because the linear conception of innovation and serendipity assure technological and economic progress in the end – the rationale is based on economic aspects (the state must fund research because it is a special kind of good and the market efficiency will not work, and basic research is the source of marketable innovation). • “Science for the sake of science”: in this narrative, science is considered as common good regardless of the potential economic impacts (and usefulness to address other societal issues) – we can make a parallel with the idea that artistic creation is worth it: for the beauty, for the critique, science here is considered as a superior activity that brings rationality and knowledge to the society as long as it is independent from “external influences” (Bonneuil & Joly, 2013) – cf. “mertonian Ethos” of Communalism, Universalism, Disinterestedness, Originality and Skepticism. Other examples / variants of this narrative include the idea that science contributes to the greatness of Nation, that science fights obscurantism, and so on and so forth. (examples : peer review, excellence, Copernican revolution are compatible storylines with science for the sake of science : a self-supporting system) While these master-narratives are present in international, academic literature, this paper focuses on their local manifestations. This study compares three critical moments: in different situations, various STI stakeholders (government, researchers, administrative staff, journalists, academic authorities, etc.) publicly expressed their views on the organization and funding of scientific research and innovation activities, and the role of STI within the region. I analyzed the discourses in press articles, policy documents, public statements, allocutions and opinion paper, blogs, etc. I intentionally sampled for heterogeneity since I’m looking for variations and multiple use of narratives. The analysis of the Walloon case permits to overcome the double dichotomy of dominant vs. counter narrative and old vs. new regime. The different narratives, in context, are concurrent but they are not mutually exclusive: while the narratives purport different ideologies, different visions of the role of science and of the state intervention, one is not being erased by the advent of another. Rather, I could find out that narratives “overlap”, and one narrative does not constitute the only resource of a (group of) actors. In situation, the actors use one or multiple narratives, regarding the context, the public, the goal of a policy, etc., in a dynamic of conflict or compromise. This description of the transition is more accurate than the one provided with a sequence of two regimes, since the flexible use of multiple narratives accounts for the continuity of certain institutions (justified by, e.g., a version of “science for the sake of science”) as well as for certain reforms in STI policy (that are inspired by the KBE narrative, for example). [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model
Dury, Marie ULg; Hambuckers, Alain ULg; Trolliet, Franck ULg et al

Conference (2014, April)

The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are ... [more ▼]

The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are interesting alternatives to study those regions even if the lack of data often prevents sharp calibration and validation of the model projections. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models that simulate shifts in potential vegetation and its associated biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in response to climate. Initially run at the global scale, DVMs can be run at any spatial scale provided that climate and soil data are available. In the framework of the BIOSERF project (“Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure”), we use and adapt the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) to study the Congo basin vegetation dynamics. The field campaigns have notably allowed the refinement of the vegetation representation from plant functional types (PFTs) to individual species through the collection of parameters such as the specific leaf area or the leaf C:N ratio of common tropical tree species and the location of their present-day occurrences from literature and available database. Here, we test the model ability to reproduce the present spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks (e.g. biomass, soil carbon) and fluxes (e.g. gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP)) as well as the observed distribution of the studied species over the Congo basin. In the lack of abundant and long-term measurements, we compare model results with time series of remote sensing products (e.g. vegetation leaf area index (LAI), GPP and NPP). Several sensitivity tests are presented: we assess consecutively the impacts of the level at which the vegetation is simulated (PFTs or species), the spatial resolution and the initial land cover (potential or human-induced). First, we show simulations over the whole Congo basin at a 0.5◦ spatial resolution. Then, we present high-resolution simulations (1 km) carried out over different areas of the Congo basin, notably the DRC part of the WWF Lake Tele – Lake Tumba Landscape. Studied in the BIOSERF project, this area is characterized by a forest-savannah mosaic but also by swamp and flooded forest. In addition, forward transient projections of the model driven with the outputs of about thirty global cli- mate models (GCMs) from the new Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) will permit to outline the likely response of carbon pools to changing climate over the Congo basin during the 21th century. [less ▲]

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See detailSaturn’s elusive transpolar arc
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2014, April)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
See detailHepatitis E virus infection in suids and cervids in southern Belgium
Thiry, Damien ULg; Mauroy, Axel ULg; Fett, Thomas ULg et al

Conference (2014, April)

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See detailThe role of segmentation and investor recognition through the lens of cross-listing activity
Mouchette, Xavier ULg; Muller, Aline ULg; Carrieri, Francesca

Conference (2014, April)

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See detailL'impact de la charge vocale sur la rééducation
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; REMACLE, Angélique ULg

Conference (2014, March 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (6 ULg)
See detailFrom the Gymnasium to the Agora: Hermes and his Cult-Epithets
Paul, Stéphanie ULg

Conference (2014, March 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)
See detailApport des examens biologiques en pratique allergologique
GADISSEUR, Romy ULg

Conference (2014, March 29)

Apport des examens biologiques en pratique allergologique

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See detailLa charge vocale
REMACLE, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg

Conference (2014, March 29)

Detailed reference viewed: 41 (3 ULg)
See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transaction
Tharakan, Joseph ULg

Conference (2014, March 28)

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See detailMethodological approach of identity construction & strategies of allophones in Belgium
Dassargues, Alix ULg; Perrez, Julien ULg

Conference (2014, March 28)

In België bestaat er een nauwe band tussen talen (Nederlands-Frans) en regionale identiteiten (Vlaming-Waal). Echter, de aanwezigheid van Franstaligen in Vlaanderen en van Nederlandstaligen in Wallonië ... [more ▼]

In België bestaat er een nauwe band tussen talen (Nederlands-Frans) en regionale identiteiten (Vlaming-Waal). Echter, de aanwezigheid van Franstaligen in Vlaanderen en van Nederlandstaligen in Wallonië laat zien dat deze band niet automatisch is. Deze twee (onder)bevolkingsgroepen lijken dus een ideaal studiemateriaal om de ingewikkelde relatie tussen taal (talen) en identiteit(en) te bestuderen. Ondanks de belangstelling van verschillende disciplines (onder meer politieke wetenschappen, geschiedenis, sociologie en taalkunde) voor dit onderwerp, valt het toch op dat deze bevolkingsgroepen nog nooit onderzocht werden. In dit onderzoeksproject willen we daarom aan de hand van biografische gesprekken nagaan (i) hoe deze minoriteitsgroepen in een anderstalige context hun identiteit opbouwen, en (ii) in hoeverre ze identiteitsstrategieën gebruiken naargelang van de communicatiecontext waarin ze zich bevinden. Om deze vragen te beantwoorden, zullen biografische gesprekken verzameld worden die die vanuit het interdisciplinaire perspectief van de sociologie, de sociale psychologie, de sociolinguïstiek en de taalkunde geanalyseerd zullen worden. In deze bijdrage zullen we specifieker ingaan op de methodologie die wij zullen gebruiken om deze biografische gesprekken te analyseren. We zullen meer bepaald uitgaan van een tweeledige analyse van identiteitsmarkeerders. Ten eerste zullen we een semantische studie van de identiteitscategorieën verrichten, door de lexicale eenheden te bestuderen die door de informanten gebruikt worden om hun identiteit te omschrijven. Het is hiermee de bedoeling om de sociale categorieën die de respondenten gebruiken verder in kaart te brengen. Ten tweede zullen wij een psychosociale studie van de identiteitsstrategieën van de informanten verrichten. Vanuit dit perspectief kan een identiteit beschouwd worden als het resultaat van de interactie tussen een “identiteit voor zichzelf” en een “identiteit voor de anderen”. In dit onderdeel van onze studie willen we de persoonlijke identiteitsstrategieën van de informanten aan het licht brengen onder meer door hun identiteitskeuzes, zoals bijvoorbeeld de keuze voor een taalvariëteit in een bepaalde communicatiecontext, nauwkeurig te bestuderen. Deze tweedelige methode zal het mogelijk maken om de relatie tussen taal en identiteit in België beter te begrijpen en nauwkeuriger te kunnen omschrijven. [less ▲]

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See detailSpanish Saints in the Spanish Netherlands
Delfosse, Annick ULg

Conference (2014, March 27)

In the seventeenth century, the Roman proclamations of beatification or canonization generated a large number of festivities and spectacular events in many parts of the Monarchy of Spain. Yet, in the ... [more ▼]

In the seventeenth century, the Roman proclamations of beatification or canonization generated a large number of festivities and spectacular events in many parts of the Monarchy of Spain. Yet, in the Netherlands, they received a fainter echo and left a limited number of sufficiently documented testimonies. Two cases, however, are exceptions: the canonization of Ignatius of Loyola and Francis Xavier triumphantly celebrated by the Belgian Jesuits in 1622, and the beatification of Francisco Borgia in 1624, i.e., the elevation to the Catholic pantheon of three Spanish saints rejoiced by an order marked by its hispanophile nature, in provinces recently returned to the Spanish Crown. I will seek to define the Hispanic features of these events and I will particularly stress the very noticeable way how the Spanish communities, present in the Low Countries, committed themselves in these festivities. [less ▲]

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See detailQuaternary rainforests of the Northern Congo Basin: contribution of charcoal analysis
Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Bremond, Laurent; Gillet, Jean-François ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 27)

In comparison with the wood charcoals uncovered in the soils of the temperate regions, charcoals from the tropical regions remain little studied yet, in particular those from the dense humid forests of ... [more ▼]

In comparison with the wood charcoals uncovered in the soils of the temperate regions, charcoals from the tropical regions remain little studied yet, in particular those from the dense humid forests of Central Africa. Here we aim at showing the interest of the analysis of soil charcoals so as to understand the current environments through some examples of taxonomical identifications conducted on charcoals sampled in several soil pits in Cameroon and in the Republic of the Congo. These charcoals were hand-split then observed under an incident light microscope. The anatomical features that are hold in the charcoals and described according to a standard method were compared to wood samples from the reference collection of the RMCA. Results demonstrated that the identified species are still present in the vegetal environment today and that only limited changes occurred over the past two millennia. Charcoal analysis can thus allow a better understanding of the past history of the forests in relationship with the ancient disturbances. The temporal and spatial framework of human settlements as well as the impact of the colonial period on the evolution of the forest is also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailVan het klassieke China naar het moderne Amsterdam: oosterse invloeden in de poëzie van Hans Faverey
Dieu, Véronique ULg

Conference (2014, March 27)

That a modern Dutch poet should have found inspiration in Classical Chinese poetry and philosophy may seem rather unlikely. Yet, the contents of his personal library and a number of statements made in ... [more ▼]

That a modern Dutch poet should have found inspiration in Classical Chinese poetry and philosophy may seem rather unlikely. Yet, the contents of his personal library and a number of statements made in interviews reveal how Hans Faverey (1933-1990) had a great interest in oriental literature, art and thought (especially Taoism and Buddhism). Although many articles have been devoted to the use and function of intertext in Faverey’s poetry, scant attention has been paid to the possible influence of Chinese philosophers and poets on his work. I will argue that Faverey’s obsession with themes like emptiness, stillness and silence may be interpreted as an attempt to integrate some fundamental Taoist and Buddhist ideas into his writing. Taking Faverey’s oriental library as my starting point, and contextualizing it with reference to Tang dynasty poets such as Wang Wei and Li Shang-Yin, and quotations from Kung Sun Lung and the School of Names, I aim to shed a clearer light on those possible connections. The first part of my paper will focus on a number of general concepts from Chinese literature and philosophy, and discuss how Faverey assimilated these concepts into his own poems. The second part of my presentation will be devoted to a comparison between the Tao as text and a selection of Faverey’s work in order to highlight possible parallels in their use of symbols and imagery. Since Faverey, as a poet, was constantly working with and thinking about the written word, he may have been struck not only by Chinese philosophy itself but also by the way in which these thoughts had found their expression in language. The structure of the Chinese language and its penchant for paradoxical turns of phrase may have held an additional appeal for the Amsterdam poet, renowned for his pithy, hermetic writing style that abounds in paradoxes and uncommon allusions. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailProgramming of neuroendocrine self-tolerance in the thymus and its defect in the development of neuroendocrine autoimmunity
Geenen, Vincent ULg

Conference (2014, March 27)

The thymus may be compared to a computer highly specialized in the programming of central immunological self-tolerance. A unique thymus first appeared some 500 million years ago in cartilaginous fishes ... [more ▼]

The thymus may be compared to a computer highly specialized in the programming of central immunological self-tolerance. A unique thymus first appeared some 500 million years ago in cartilaginous fishes, at the same time or shortly after the emergence of the adaptive immune system. A new paradigm of neuroendocrine self-peptides has been proposed, together with the definition of neuroendocrine self. Neuroendocrine self-peptides are secreted by thymic epithelial cells (TECs) not according to the classic model of neurosecretion, but are processed for presentation by the thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) machinery. The autoimmune regulator (AIRE) gene/protein controls the transcription of neuroendocrine genes in TECs. Presentation of neuroendocrine self-peptides in the thymus is responsible for the clonal deletion of self-reactive T cells directed toward neuroendocrine antigens, which emerge during the random recombination of gene segments encoding variable parts of the T cell receptor for the antigen (TCR). Quite paradoxically, neuroendocrine self-peptide presentation in the thymus also generates regulatory T (tTreg) cells that inhibit, in the periphery, those self-reactive T cells having escaped thymic negative selection. Several arguments indicate that the origin of autoimmunity directed against neuroendocrine glands results from a primary defect in the intrathymic programming of self-tolerance to neuroendocrine principles. This defect may be genetic or acquired, for example during a viral infection. This novel knowledge of normal and pathologic functions of the thymus constitutes a solid scientific basis for the development of a novel type negative self-vaccination against type 1 diabetes. (Supported by NFSR of Belgium, Wallonia and FP6 Eurothymaide.) [less ▲]

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See detailÂgisme et jeunisme : conséquences trop méconnues …!
Adam, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, March 27)

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See detailValuation and price expectation mismatch in SME business transfer
Lambert, Marie ULg

Conference (2014, March 26)

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See detailInternational Law's Belgian Jurists and WWI. Cosmopolitanism of an Elite, Globalization of a Country (Montreal International Colloquium, March 2014)
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference (2014, March 26)

Our doctoral research is conducted at the University of Liege, under the supervision of Professor Philippe Raxhon (Contemporary History). This work falls within the interuniversity and interdisciplinary ... [more ▼]

Our doctoral research is conducted at the University of Liege, under the supervision of Professor Philippe Raxhon (Contemporary History). This work falls within the interuniversity and interdisciplinary project “commemorating WWI” launched by the Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles (French Community), the Steering Group of which is led by Professor Laurence Van Ypersele (Université Catholique de Louvain). The research focuses on the following topic: Experiences and remembrance of Belgian jurists on issues of international law during the First World War (1914-1918). Belgium, that had been neutral since its independence in 1831, soon became an active reflection centre and a land of innovation for international law, as shown by the foundation of the Institute of International Law (IDI) in Ghent in 1873. Belgium’s neutrality was violated in August 1914 and its territory, the only one, was occupied at 90% by the Germans, putting the country in a unique position that encouraged its International Law experts to revise their practices in view of their experiences and their remembrance of war. As a matter of fact, between 1918 and 1940, they held a prominent position on a global scale (LN, etc.). How the field of these law experts, its practices, its networks (European/American) and its international influence (1873-1940) evolved as a result of WWI lies at the heart of our thesis. [less ▲]

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See detailA new multifractal formalism based on wavelet leaders: detection of non concave and non increasing spectra (Part II)
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Esser, Céline ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, March 25)

This talk follows "A new multifractal formalism based on wavelet leaders: detection of non concave and non increasing spectra (Part I)" given by Céline Esser. For real-life signals, it is impossible to ... [more ▼]

This talk follows "A new multifractal formalism based on wavelet leaders: detection of non concave and non increasing spectra (Part I)" given by Céline Esser. For real-life signals, it is impossible to compute the spectrum of singularities by using its definition. A multifractal formalism is used to approximate this spectrum. We present a new multifractal formalism for non concave and non increasing spectra based on wavelet leaders. In this talk, an implementation of this formalism is given and several numerical examples are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout the Multifractal Nature of Cantor's Bijection
Simons, Laurent ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, March 25)

In this talk, we present the Cantor's bijection between the irrational numbers of the unit interval [0,1] and the irrational numbers of the unit square [0,1]². We explore the regularity and the fractal ... [more ▼]

In this talk, we present the Cantor's bijection between the irrational numbers of the unit interval [0,1] and the irrational numbers of the unit square [0,1]². We explore the regularity and the fractal nature of this map. This talk is based on a joint work with S. Nicolay. [less ▲]

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See detailAgisme : quelles conséquences pour nos aînés?
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Marquet, Manon ULg

Conference (2014, March 25)

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See detailCompact quadratizations of nonlinear binary optimization problems
Crama, Yves ULg; Rodriguez Heck, Elisabeth ULg

Conference (2014, March 25)

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See detailA multifractal-based climate analysis
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, March 25)

This work consists of a multifractal analysis of surface air temperature in Western and Eastern Europe. The wavelet leaders method enables us to exhibit the monofractal nature of these signals. Then, we ... [more ▼]

This work consists of a multifractal analysis of surface air temperature in Western and Eastern Europe. The wavelet leaders method enables us to exhibit the monofractal nature of these signals. Then, we define a climate classification relying on the Zygmund-Hölder spaces and show that it matches the Köppen classification. By doing so, we evidence the existing relation between the regularity of the temperature data (obtained through functional spaces) and the type of climate. Finally, we give a climatic interpretation of these results. [less ▲]

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See detailA Weak Local Irregularity Property in $S^\nu$ spaces
Clausel, Marianne; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, March 25)

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See detailA new multifractal formalism based on wavelet leaders : detection of non concave and non increasing spectra (Part I)
Esser, Céline ULg; Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 25)

Multifractal analysis is concerned with the study of very irregular signals. For such functions, the pointwise regularity may change widely from a point to another. Therefore, it is more interesting to ... [more ▼]

Multifractal analysis is concerned with the study of very irregular signals. For such functions, the pointwise regularity may change widely from a point to another. Therefore, it is more interesting to determine the spectrum of singularities of the signal, which is the Hausdorff dimension of the set of points which have the same Hölder exponent. The spectrum of singularities of many mathematical functions can be determined directly from its definition. However, for many real-life signals, the numerical determination of their Hölder regularity is not feasible. Therefore, one cannot expect to have a direct access to their spectrum of singularities and one has to find an indirect way to compute it. A multifractal formalism is a formula which is expected to yield the spectrum of singularities from quantities which are numerically computable. Several multifractal formalisms based on the wavelet coefficients of a signal have been proposed to estimate its spectrum. The most widespread of these formulas is the so-called thermodynamic multifractal formalism, based on the Frish-Parisi conjecture. This formalism presents two drawbacks: it can hold only for spectra that are concave and it can yield only the increasing part of the spectrum. This first problem can be avoided using Snu spaces. The second one can be avoided using a formalism based on wavelet leaders of the signal. In this talk, we propose a new multifractal formalism, based on a generalization of the Snu spaces using wavelet leaders. It allows to detect non concave and non increasing spectra. An implementation of this method is presented in the talk "A new multifractal formalism based on wavelet leaders: detection of non concave and non increasing spectra (Part II)" of T. Kleyntssens. [less ▲]

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See detailRèglement Successions (650/2012) - aperçu général
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Conference (2014, March 24)

This presentation gives a very general overview of the main principles on which the Succession Regulation is based.

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See detailThe last Neanderthals in North-West Europe and the Lincombian-Ranisian-Jerzmanowician
Flas, Damien ULg

Conference (2014, March 21)

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See detailNew fossils at the “Troisième caverne” of Goyet (Belgium) and the mortuary practices of late Neandertals
Rougier, H.; Crevecoeur, I.; Beauval, C. et al

Conference (2014, March 21)

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See detailMSC in clinics: Liver Transplantation
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference (2014, March 21)

For several years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated in vivo and in vitro for their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti- ischemia-reperfusion injury and “tissue repair” properties ... [more ▼]

For several years, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been evaluated in vivo and in vitro for their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti- ischemia-reperfusion injury and “tissue repair” properties. These characteristics could make them interesting in various clinical applications, and particularly in organ transplantation. Taking advantage of our centre expertise and experience concerning MSC use in graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation and using already functioning GMP-compliant laboratory able to produce clinical-grade MSC, we initiated in 2011 a first trial exploring safety and tolerability of third party MSC infusions after kidney or liver transplantation in a prospective phase I-II study. In this study, after successful transplantation, 10 liver and 10 kidney transplant recipients under standard immunosuppressive treatment (tacrolimus, mycophenolate, steroids) receive an intravenous infusion of 1.5 - 3x106/kg of third-party MSC, on post-operative day 3+/-2. These patients are prospectively compared to the same number of liver and kidney transplant recipients who meet inclusion criteria but do not receive MSC infusion. Safety is assessed by recording side effects, including opportunistic infections and cancers. Immunosuppressive potential is evaluated by rejection episode rates, graft/patient survivals, immunohistology of 3-month (kidney) and 6-month (liver) graft biopsies, and in vitro evaluation of recipient immunity profile. In a second step, reduction (kidney) and progressive weaning (liver) of immunosuppression is attempted in recipients who received MSC. Inclusion of liver patients is now complete, and to date 3 kidney patients received MSC. Primary results will be presented, and complete 6-month liver results are expected for the end of 2014. The next step will be to assert the immunosuppressive potential of MSC after organ transplantation, and the opportunity to develop larger randomised, controlled, phase III trials. [less ▲]

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See detailInsight into the ecology of Neandertals in North-West Europe: stable isotopes and their palaeobiological implications
Wissing, C.; Bocherens, H.; Crevecoeur, I. et al

Conference (2014, March 21)

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See detailLes enseignants à l'image. Représentations iconographiques et audiovisuelles du mouvement enseignant (1995-1996)
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

Conference (2014, March 20)

Les réformes institutionnelles de 1988-1989 ont transféré aux Communautés les compétences en matière d’enseignement. Pour la Communauté française, cette responsabilisation a très vite rimé avec la ... [more ▼]

Les réformes institutionnelles de 1988-1989 ont transféré aux Communautés les compétences en matière d’enseignement. Pour la Communauté française, cette responsabilisation a très vite rimé avec la nécessité de réaliser d’importantes économies et donc d’importantes réformes structurelles. Une première vague de protestation secoue Bruxelles et la Wallonie en 1990 mais, cinq ans plus tard, un nouveau plan d’économies préparé par la socialiste Laurette Onkelinx, Ministre-Présidente de la Communauté française, en charge notamment de l’Education, donne naissance à un long et douloureux mouvement de protestation. Celui-ci semble matérialiser la rupture entre une base enseignante proche, selon les réseaux, du PS ou du PSC, et un Exécutif au sein duquel ces deux partis fonctionnent en coalition. Réduction des dépenses, suppression de trois mille postes, fusions d’écoles, tous les ingrédients sont réunis pour que la situation soit explosive. Elle va l’être d’autant plus – et cela marquera d’ailleurs durablement les esprits – que certaines manifestations de mécontentement vont s’exprimer avec violence, s’attaquer à des symboliques fortes (la Fête de la Communauté française en septembre 1995, le 1er mai 1996) et perturber la vie privée de la Ministre et de son entourage. Notre contribution s’inscrit dans le volet « images produites ». Elle s’interrogera sur le rôle des images dans la représentation que la presse écrite généraliste a donnée du mouvement enseignant et des enseignants eux-mêmes durant ce conflit. Grâce à certaines archives numérisées, le traitement du mouvement par l’audiovisuel public pourra, lui aussi, être abordé. La photographie de presse, la caricature et le reportage ont-ils contribué à présenter le mouvement enseignant de manière objective et dépassionnée ? Ont-ils au contraire – et jusqu’à quel point ? - intégré les clichés traditionnels véhiculés sur cette catégorie socio-professionnelle (conservatisme, attachement à de supposés « privilèges »…). Quelle image est renvoyée du syndicalisme enseignant ? Comment est mise en scène la relation triangulaire entre grévistes, ministre et public de l’école (parents et élèves) ? Quels sont le poids et le rôle dévolus à chacun ? Quelle est, spécifiquement, le traitement réservé au mouvement par un journal comme La Wallonie ? Comment a-t-il accompagné en images la rupture entre le monde enseignant, la CGSP et le parti socialiste, culminant le 1er mai 1996 ? [less ▲]

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See detailLe vécu de l'ICSI du côté de l'homme
Barbillon, Adrien ULg; Naziri, Despina ULg

Conference (2014, March 20)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
See detailChildren’s perspectives on their working lives and on public action against child labour in Burkina Faso
Wouango, Joséphine ULg

Conference (2014, March 20)

Since the end of 1990’s, there has been a growing interest to combat child labour in Burkina Faso. State actors as well as civil society organisations have started to engage themselves to urgently combat ... [more ▼]

Since the end of 1990’s, there has been a growing interest to combat child labour in Burkina Faso. State actors as well as civil society organisations have started to engage themselves to urgently combat the worst forms of child labour. The 2006 National Statistical Survey found that 41.1 % of children aged 5 to 17 years were economically active. Compared to other West African countries, Burkina Faso is said to have the highest rate of children involved in hazardous work, which is one working child out of two. In this context of renewed interest regarding child labour, working children have their say. Based on a qualitative survey, this paper is focused on the perspectives of children working in two of the eleven hazardous sectors of activity identified by the 2009 National Decree: a stone quarry located in the capital Ouagadougou and an artisanal gold mine in a northern rural area. The paper aims to better understand the experience and opinions of children at work, to describe what work means to them, the role and the benefits of work in their lives and the difficulties they encounter. The focus is also on what children (and their families) think about public action against child labour and what are their aspirations regarding the current interventions. The analysis shows that if economic reasons lead children to work in in these two sectors of activity, this not the only determinant. The wish of a large number of children (and their parents) to find other less difficult work reopens the debate on children’s right to work. The results of this study reveal that there is a need to better understand how working children and their fmailies negotiate everyday life within the socio-cultural and economic context of Burkina Faso. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of supercritical carbon dioxide to prepare drug-loaded polymeric sutures
Champeau, Mathilde; Tassaing, Thierry; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 19)

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See detailPrésentation de l'Action de Recherches Concertée EpistolART
Delfosse, Annick ULg; Allart, Dominique ULg; Moreno, Paola ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 19)

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See detailImpact des matériaux biosourcés sur le climat intérieur : Un outil de calcul flexible à l'échelle de la pièce
Dubois, Samuel ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2014, March 19)

L'impact de l'utilisation de matériaux d'origine végétale sur le climat intérieur, et donc sur le confort des occupants ainsi que la performance énergétique du bâtiment, n'est établi que partiellement ... [more ▼]

L'impact de l'utilisation de matériaux d'origine végétale sur le climat intérieur, et donc sur le confort des occupants ainsi que la performance énergétique du bâtiment, n'est établi que partiellement. Ces produits présentent des propriétés hygroscopiques et capillaires causant des phénomènes spécifiques liés aux changements de phase dynamiques au sein de la matrice poreuse. Les modèles mathématiques utilisés pour étudier leur comportement hygrothermique de manière détaillée sont souvent des modèles de paroi (dits modèles HAM - Heat Air Moisture). Cela sous-tend qu'ils nécessitent d'imposer des conditions aux limites à toutes les frontières de l'élément étudié, et ne permettent donc pas de connaître les flux de chaleur et de masse réels qu'offrent l'assemblage de matériaux vers le volume d'air intérieur. Pour y accéder, il convient d'intégrer ces modèles à la description de bilans thermique et hydrique de zones. Dans cette communication, nous présentons un modèle hygrothermique capable de simuler l'évolution temporelle du climat intérieur d'une ou de plusieurs pièces ("zones thermiques"). Il est composé d'un module HAM basé sur des équations aux dérivées partielles et caractérisant les transferts dans les matériaux de construction et développé au sein de l'environnement numérique COMSOL Multiphysics. Les équations qui le composent sont flexibles et facilement adaptables au cas expérimental modélisé ainsi qu'aux propriétés des matériaux composant les parois. En outre, on y trouve un traitement complet des phénomènes de changement de phase qui prend en compte l'impact de la température sur la capacité de stockage d'humidité du matériau. Ce premier module, est couplé à un outil caractérisant les bilans chaleur/masse au niveau de la zone à l'aide d'équations aux dérivées ordinaires. Le couplage des modèles est effectué au sein de SIMULINK, un outil de MATLAB destiné à l'étude des systèmes dynamiques. Nous appliquons ensuite ce modèle à l'étude d'un mur en ballots de paille séparant une enceinte climatique de grande taille en deux volumes d'air. Les données d'une expérience simple, un choc thermique imposé à un des volumes d'air, sont comparées aux sorties du modèle numérique. [less ▲]

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See detailGreen and bio-inspired processes for the functionalization of surfaces
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, March 18)

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See detailEstimation de la sédimentation des retenues hydro -agricoles de Kierma et de Wedbila : Méthodologie et résultats obtenus.
Guyon, Francis; Hallot, Eric ULg; Kima, Etienne et al

Conference (2014, March 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
See detailEvaluation et planification des ressources en eau des petites retenues hydro -agricoles : Application du modèle WEAP aux retenues de Kierma et de Wedbila (Burkina Faso).
Razanamahandry Lovasoa, Christine; Hallot, Eric ULg; Guyon, Francis et al

Conference (2014, March 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
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See detailTypological perspectives on learner's descriptions of spatial scene
Perrez, Julien ULg; Lemmens, Maarten

Conference (2014, March 16)

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See detailPRP and tendinopathy, from in vitro to clinical trials
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2014, March 15)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg)
See detailRetour au travail après une absence de longue durée
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014, March 14)

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See detailUne brochure, trois langues, trois cultures ?
Letawe, Céline ULg; Rasier, Laurent ULg

Conference (2014, March 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (9 ULg)
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See detailOpen-source CAT software: R packages and Concerto
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2014, March 12)

Together with the investigation of new or updated CAT procedures, it is of primary importance to ensure development of appropriate, flexible and useful CAT software. Open-source CAT algorithms have been ... [more ▼]

Together with the investigation of new or updated CAT procedures, it is of primary importance to ensure development of appropriate, flexible and useful CAT software. Open-source CAT algorithms have been recently proposed and are offering very promising tools for future practical CAT implementations, though yet under development. After a brief overview of available (commercial) software, I will present and compare the characteristics of some open-source R packages as CAT solutions: catR (Magis, & Raîche, 2012), catIrt (Nydick, 2013) and MAT (Choi, 2011), as well as the R-based software Firestar (Choi, 2009). A more complete description of catR will be given and (depending on time and computer constraints) a short illustrative session will be proposed. Finally, the web platform Concerto (Kosinski & Rust, 2011) will be shortly introduced. References: Choi, S. W. (2009). Firestar: Computerized adaptive testing simulation program for polytomous item response theory models. Applied Psychological Measurement, 33, 644-645. Choi, S. W. (2011). MAT: Multidimensional Adaptive Testing (MAT). R package version 0.1-3. Kosinski, M., & Rust, J. (2011). The development of Concerto: An open source online adaptive testing platform. Paper presented at the International Association for Computerized Adaptive Testing, Pacific Grove, CA. Magis, D., & Raîche, G. (2012). Random generation of response patterns under computerized adaptive testing with the R package catR. Journal of Statistical Software, 48 (8), 1-31. Nydick, S. W. (2013). catIrt: An R package for simulating IRT-based computerized adaptive tests. R package version 0.4-1. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the role of the VLTI in the study of particle acceleration in massive binaries?
De Becker, Michaël ULg

Conference (2014, March 12)

Among massive binaries, a fraction is known to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies. The acceleration process is believed to take place in the wind-wind interaction region, and most of these ... [more ▼]

Among massive binaries, a fraction is known to accelerate particles up to relativistic energies. The acceleration process is believed to take place in the wind-wind interaction region, and most of these systems are identified through the production of synchrotron radiation in the radio domain. Considering the crucial role played by binarity in the physics of particle acceleration, tools such as the VLTI appear to be highly relevant to explore the basic properties of this population of objects. A few recent results and prospects for future studies will be briefly presented. [less ▲]

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See detailOndes de choc et tendinopathies : expérience clinique du CHU de Liège
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2014, March 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (3 ULg)
See detailPerforming Emotions at the Canonization of St. Ignatius and St. Xavier
Delfosse, Annick ULg; Vermeir, Koen; Delbeke, Maarten et al

Conference (2014, March 08)

This paper will approach the celebrations of the canonization of St. Ignatius and St. Xavier in different localities of the Southern Netherlands over the course of 1622 as performances of emotion. We will ... [more ▼]

This paper will approach the celebrations of the canonization of St. Ignatius and St. Xavier in different localities of the Southern Netherlands over the course of 1622 as performances of emotion. We will analyze little known visual and textual testimonials of festivals and theatrical representations in Antwerp, Douai, Brussels, Dunkerque and Leuven to examine which means were used to represent, convey and enhance emotions, which actors were involved, how emotions were meant to address and affect the audience, and to what end emotions were activated. The double canonization of 1622 consecrated the Jesuits as stalwarts of the Roman papacy. In the Southern Netherlands, the celebrations of 1622 were a key moment in confirming the legitimacy of the order by displaying both how it was embedded in the local political and religious arena, and how it mastered the most advanced artistic means to support its mission. After a sketch of the celebrations and their political and religious context, we will analyze how and why emotion was performed in three steps. The sources attach enormous attention to the material, architectural and urban setting of the celebrations, by emphasizing the splendor and artistic sophistication of the events, and by pointing out the prestigious patronage that had accrued around them. We will examine whether and how the sources charged the material context of the celebration with emotion. What was the intended effect of this context on the audience? How did this context enable the performance of emotion in different forms of public display (pageantry, performances, …)? In order to answer this last question, in a second step we will have a closer look at the Triumphus dedicated to St Ignatius and St. Xavier performed in Brussels. We will examine how, in this ensemble, the material context is activated by the movement of the viewer. The description of the Triumphus singles out moments of transition as instances of heightened emotivity, suggesting that emotions are not mobilized by singular details but by overall views that impress themselves when the beholder crosses a treshold. In a third step we will describe the intended effect of the performance of emotions as a sacer horror, the bodily manifestation of religious awe, the organic sensation of respect mixed with fear and wonder felt in the presence of gods or cosmic forces. The performance of emotions, engendered by multiple layers of transformation (of the material context by means of ephemeral architecture, of the views and the experiences of the viewer, and ultimately, of their affective state) was directed at effectuating a lasting change of heart. [less ▲]

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See detailModes intentionnels
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2014, March 07)

Je dresse le bilan de la situation des recherches actuelles en théorie de la perception (entre représentationalisme et relationalisme), et je suggère que la voie d'investigations la plus prometteuse est l ... [more ▼]

Je dresse le bilan de la situation des recherches actuelles en théorie de la perception (entre représentationalisme et relationalisme), et je suggère que la voie d'investigations la plus prometteuse est l'intentionalisme modal. D'après l'intentionalisme modal, un état mental est individualisé par son contenu intentionnel et par son mode intentionnel. En m'appuyant sur la méthode descriptive de Franz Brentano, je propose alors un argument en faveur de cette conception: l'argument de la complétude. [less ▲]

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See detailL'intentionnalité comme expérience
Seron, Denis ULg

Conference (2014, March 07)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailMicroplastics caught in herring gill rakers: illustration by scanning electron microscopy
Collard, France ULg; Das, Krishna ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

Conference (2014, March 07)

Plastics are produced in huge quantity (280 million of tons in 2012) and more than 10% end up in the oceans. It is estimated that between 60 and 80% of all marine debris are plastics. Plastics are ... [more ▼]

Plastics are produced in huge quantity (280 million of tons in 2012) and more than 10% end up in the oceans. It is estimated that between 60 and 80% of all marine debris are plastics. Plastics are persistent and have accumulated in the oceans for several decades. Plastics may adverse wildlife in many ways: they can be ingested by marine vertebrates and cause internal wounds in the digestive tract. Plastics are also vectors of organic pollutants including. Once ingested, plastics may release these pollutants in the organism. Plastics present in the marine environment fragment in small pieces by mechanical stress and UV radiation leading to the so-called microplastics smaller than 5 mm. Little is known about microplastics ingestion and toxicity in planktivorous fish such as the herring, Clupea harengus. Planktivorous fish have gill rakers, which may function as a trap for microplastics. This study aims to describe and characterise microplastics present on gill rakers of the herring, Clupea harengus. Ten gill cavities were sampled in January 2013 in the Channel and the North Sea during a fishery campaign organized by the IFREMER. Gills cavities were placed in a fixating solution until preparation for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM was used in order to detect microplastics which are too small to be observed by a dissection microscope, to compare them with the distance between gill rakers and to characterise the surface and the shape of microplastics. Scanning electron microscopy revealed large variety of microplastics, which lengths ranged from 0.05 to 5mm. Relationship between microplastics length and distance between gill rakers was analysed on the same branchial arch. The present study revealed the presence of microplastics in an edible species of high economic value and raise question about potential impact on the herring and its consumers, including human beings. [less ▲]

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See detailIntentionalisme et représentationalisme de Brentano à Crane
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

Conference (2014, March 06)

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See detailEarly neuropsychological detection of Alzheimer's disease
Bastin, Christine ULg

Conference (2014, March 06)

Considering that brain pathology due to Alzheimer’s disease starts many years before the clinical symptoms become evident, subtle cognitive changes may exist already in the predementia phase. Different ... [more ▼]

Considering that brain pathology due to Alzheimer’s disease starts many years before the clinical symptoms become evident, subtle cognitive changes may exist already in the predementia phase. Different approaches have been used to detect initial cognitive impairments indicative of Alzheimer’s disease. One approach is the assessment of the predictive power of neuropsychological tools in characterizing patients with stable mild cognitive impairment (MCI) versus MCI patients who subsequently develop Alzheimer’s disease. Another approach is the longitudinal evaluation of large cohorts of older adults in population-based studies. Findings from several studies suggest that a memory test that ensures deep encoding of information and assesses retrieval with free as well as cued recall is a useful tool to distinguish patients at an early stage of Alzheimer disease from MCI non-converters. Impaired semantic memory has also been proposed as a neuropsychological marker of predementia Alzheimer’s disease. Beyond the memory domain, category verbal fluency has been shown to predict progression to Alzheimer’s disease. Moreover, combining neuropsychological scores of memory and executive functions and neuroimaging data allows a better discrimination between stable MCI and converters than neuroimaging data alone. Altogether, it is possible to detect cognitive changes that are predictive of the typical form of probable Alzheimer’s disease already in the predementia stage. Such at risk people are thought to be the best target for therapeutic interventions. [less ▲]

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See detailEquations fantaisistes : l'argent comme ressort burlesque dans l'œuvre de Pierre La Police
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2014, March 06)

Conçue comme une vaste parodie du discours médiatique en général et de la presse quotidienne en particulier, la série "Véridique !" (Cornélius, 1999-2002) du dessinateur français Pierre La Police met ... [more ▼]

Conçue comme une vaste parodie du discours médiatique en général et de la presse quotidienne en particulier, la série "Véridique !" (Cornélius, 1999-2002) du dessinateur français Pierre La Police met volontiers en scène des questions ou des rapports d’argent. Le plus souvent lié à la sphère politique, le thème de l’argent autorise l’auteur à jeter un regard narquois et particulièrement acéré sur des événements qui firent grand bruit dans la France des années 1990 (l’affaire Roland Dumas, le scandale de l’ARC, l’affaire des emplois fictifs à la ville de Paris, etc.). Ma communication étudie au plus près les mises en scène de l’argent dans l’œuvre de Pierre La Police et s'efforce de porter au jour les véritables équations mises au point à cet égard par l’auteur. Toutes à leur manière, ces équations concourent à faire du thème de l’argent un ressort burlesque à part entière ; elles participent également d’une esthétique générale de la distorsion et de l’approximation, qui est comme la marque de fabrique de Pierre La Police. [less ▲]

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See detailA vision-based autonomous inter-row weeder
Krishna Moorthy Parvathi, Sruthi Moorthy ULg; Detry, Renaud ULg; Boigelot, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 05)

Autonomous robotic weed destruction plays a significant role in crop production as it automates one of the few unmechanized and drudging tasks of agriculture i.e. manual weed destruction. Robotic ... [more ▼]

Autonomous robotic weed destruction plays a significant role in crop production as it automates one of the few unmechanized and drudging tasks of agriculture i.e. manual weed destruction. Robotic technology also contributes to long-term sustainability with both economic and environmental benefits, by minimising the current dependency on chemicals. The aim of this study is to design a small low-cost versatile robot allowing the destruction of weeds that lie between the crop rows by navigating in the field autonomously and using a minimum of a priori information of the field. For the robot to navigate autonomously, necessary and sufficient information can be supplied by a machine vision system. One important issue with the application of machine vision is to develop a system that recognises the crop rows accurately and robustly which is tolerant to problems such as crops at varying growth stages, poor illumination conditions, missing crops, high weed pressure, etc. Aiming at accurate and robust real-time guidance of autonomous robot through the field, the plethora of image processing algorithms like Ostu’s threshold method and hough transform will be explored for two main processes namely the image segmentation and crop row detection respectively. In order to overcome the issue of large variabilities encountered in agriculture such as varying weather conditions, intelligent stochastic data fusion and machine learning algorithms will be used to combine data from heterogeneous sensors. Besides crop row detection, other major challenges foreseen are: mapping the unknown geometry of the field, high-level planning of efficient and complete coverage of the field, controlling the low-level op- erations of the robot, and ensuring security. Specialised sensors such as GPS will be considered to generate the map of the field enabling Simultaneous Localisation And Mapping (SLAM) in real time on a mobile platform. The generated map will be exploited along with the sensorial in- formation from crop row detection to efficiently plan and execute the guidance of the robot au- tonomously in the field, thereby enabling weed elimination. [less ▲]

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See detailWildflower strips: a help for crop protection ?
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2014, March 05)

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See detailHow do we perceive vocal pitch accuracy during singing?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Pfordresher, Peter Q

Conference (2014, March 03)

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See detailDimethyl sulfide and dimethylsulfoniopropionate profiles in sea ice during winter in the Weddell Sea
Uhlig, C.; Tison, J.-L.; Rintala, J. et al

Conference (2014, March)

This study presents profiles of the organic sulphur components dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in sea ice cores collected during the AWECS (Antarctic Winter Ecosytem Climate ... [more ▼]

This study presents profiles of the organic sulphur components dimethylsulfide (DMS) and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in sea ice cores collected during the AWECS (Antarctic Winter Ecosytem Climate Study) cruise on RV Polarstern (ANT29-6) in the Weddell Sea. DMS is a semi-volatile sulfur component and under discussion to be climate active, as its oxidation products might act as cloud condensation nuclei - thus cooling the atmosphere. It is produced by enzymatic cleavage of the precursor DMSP, which is synthesized by various types of phytoplankton and serves for example as compatible solute and cryoprotectant. Due to the physico-chemical conditions given, i.e. the high salinity and the icy matrix, sea ice as habitat favors production of high levels of DMSP by the inhabiting microalgae. DMSP and DMS are frequently found in high concentrations in sea ice during spring and summer. The aim of this study was to investigate DMS(P) levels in winter sea ice as data for the winter season is yet scarce, but is of importance for global budgeting. Preliminary results of our study show that DMS(P) production in sea ice in the Weddell Sea is also significant during winter. This stands in contrast to previous measurements in Arctic winter sea ice (CFL-IPY cruise in the Circumpolar Flaw Lead Polynya), where DMS(P) concentrations were very low. Possible explanations for the differences between DMS(P) levels in the Arctic and Antarctic might be the different snow cover and thus insulation, light regimes and also microbial community structure within the ice. DMS(P) levels were generally correlated with chlorophyll a concentrations, although the details are complex and seem to be influenced by species composition and species specific DMSP/Chla ratios. The DMS profiles mirrored the permeability of the sea ice following DMSP in the impermeable areas while showing losses to the ice surface and ice-water interface in the more permeable regions. Winter DMS(P) profiles are furthermore compared to data collected during the following spring cruise of RV Polarstern (ANT29-7) in the Weddell Sea. [less ▲]

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See detailL'analyse par séquençage à haut débit révèle la variabilité génétique et la pression de sélection dans différentes régions génomiques du norovirus murin durant sa réplication in vitro
Mauroy, Axel ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Nezer, Carine et al

Conference (2014, March)

Le norovirus murin (MuNoV), un virus à ARN de polarité positive appartenant à la famille des Caliciviridae, est considéré comme un modèle adéquat pour les infections humaines à norovirus, une des causes ... [more ▼]

Le norovirus murin (MuNoV), un virus à ARN de polarité positive appartenant à la famille des Caliciviridae, est considéré comme un modèle adéquat pour les infections humaines à norovirus, une des causes étiologiques les plus importantes dans les cas de gastroentérite épidémique ou sporadique dans le monde entier. Quatre cadres de lecture ouverts (ORF) sont décrits au sein de son génome : l’ORF1 code les protéine non structurales (NS), dont l’ARN polymérase ARN dépendante virale (RdRp) ; l’ORF2 code l’unique protéine de capside (VP1), dans laquelle sont décrites deux régions : une relativement conservée (domaine « shell ») et une autre beaucoup plus variable (domaine « protruding ») ; l’ORF3 code une protéine structurale mineure ; et l’ORF4, actuellement uniquement décrit chez les virus génétiquement apparentés au MuNoV, code un facteur de virulence. Dans cette étude, nous démontrons par séquençage à haut débit que, durant des passages successifs du MuNoV en culture cellulaire, les taux de substitution, estimés par inférences Bayésiennes, n’ont pas significativement différé au travers des cinq régions génomiques ciblées à l’exception d’une région bien précise. Ces taux étaient similaires pour quatre régions englobant des séquences partielles codant les protéines non structurales NS1-2, NS5, NS6 et NS7 (RdRp) et VP1 dans sa région conservée (incluant également l’ORF4). Dans la région codant partiellement la protéine structurale mineure, ce taux de substitution, exprimé en substitution/site/jour, a été cependant estimé être plus élevée d’au moins une unité logarithmique. La localisation précise des mutations ponctuelles détectées (substitution, délétion et insertion) est rapportée ainsi que l’augmentation ou la diminution quantitative du nombre des séquences qui les présentaient au cours de dix passages successifs en culture cellulaire. Les localisations des mutations non silencieuses ont aussi été représentées dans une modélisation tridimensionnelle de quatre des cinq régions étudiées. Ces résultats ont d’importantes implications pour différents champs de recherche sur les norovirus, spécialement en termes de diagnostic, de méthodologie de classification et d’évolution génétique. [less ▲]

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See detailSnow cover and short-term synoptic events drive biogeochemical dynamics in winter Weddell Sea pack ice (AWECS cruise - June to August 2013)
Tison, J.-L.; Delille, Bruno ULg; Dieckmann, G. et al

Conference (2014, March)

This paper presents the preliminary results of an integrated multidisciplinary study of pack ice biogeochemistry in the Weddell Sea during the winter 2013 (June-August). The sea ice biogeochemistry group ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the preliminary results of an integrated multidisciplinary study of pack ice biogeochemistry in the Weddell Sea during the winter 2013 (June-August). The sea ice biogeochemistry group was one of the components of the AWECS (Antarctic Winter Ecosystem and Climate Study) cruise (Polarstern ANTXXIX-6). A total of 12 stations were carried out by the sea ice biogeochemistry group, which collected a suite of variables in the fields of physics, inorganic chemistry, gas content and composition, microbiology, biogeochemistry, trace metals and the carbonate system in order to give the best possible description of the sea ice cover and its interactions at interfaces. Samples were collected in the atmosphere above (gas fluxes), in the snow cover, in the bulk ice (ice cores), in the brines (sackholes) and in the sea water below (0m, 1m, 30 m). Here we present the results of basic physico-chemical (T°, bulk ice salinity, brine volumes, brine salinity, Rayleigh numbers) and biological (Chla) measurements in order to give an overview of the general status of the Weddell Sea winter pack ice encountered, and discuss how it controls climate relevant biogeochemical processes. Our results from the first set of 9 stations, mainly sampled along the Greenwich meridian and the easternmost part of the Weddell Sea definitively refute the view of a biogeochemically “frozen” sea ice during the Winter. This has already been demonstrated for the Spring and Summer, but we now see that sea ice sustains considerable biological stocks and activities throughout the Winter, despite the reduced amount of available PAR radiation. Accretion of the snow cover appears to play an essential role in driving biogeochemical activity, through warming from insulation, thus favouring brine transport, be it through potential convection, surface brine migration (brine tubes) or flooding. This results in a “widening” of the internal autumn layer (quite frequent in this rafting-dominated sea ice cover) and increase of the chla burden with age. Results from the second set of 3 stations in the western branch of the Weddell Sea gyre confirm that it comprises a mixture of older fast/second year ice floes with younger first-year ice floes. The older ice had the highest Chla concentrations of the entire cruise (>200 mgl-1), in an internal community enclosed within desalinized impermeable upper and lower layers. The first-year ice differs from that in the eastern Weddell Sea as it is dominated by columnar ice and (weak) algal communities are only found on the bottom or near the surface (no internal maximum). [less ▲]

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See detailSubspace and maximum likelihood identification of nonlinear mechanical systems
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Schoukens, Johan; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

Conference (2014, March)

The present work focuses on a recent nonlinear generalisation of the existing (linear) frequency-domain, discrete-time subspace methods applicable to mechanical systems. The proposed estimator, termed ... [more ▼]

The present work focuses on a recent nonlinear generalisation of the existing (linear) frequency-domain, discrete-time subspace methods applicable to mechanical systems. The proposed estimator, termed FNSI method, is interesting because it benefits from the numerical robustness and efficacy of subspace algorithms, while maintaining an acceptable computational burden. However, it derives estimates of the model parameters, namely the modal properties of the underlying linear system and the coefficients of the nonlinearities, based on deterministic arguments and one has thus no guarantee that the estimates still behave well in the presence of disturbing noise. A possible alternative is to embed the identification problem in a stochastic framework through the minimisation of a well-chosen cost function incorporating noise information. In particular, the maximum likelihood cost function is attractive because it yields estimates of the model parameters with optimal stochastic properties, and simplifies to a weighted least-squares expression in the frequency domain. However, the maximum likelihood suffers from issues typically encountered in optimisation problems, especially related to initialisation. The contribution of this work lies in the utilisation of the model parameter estimates provided by the FNSI method to serve as starting values for the minimisation of the maximum likelihood cost function. This initialisation strategy possesses the important advantage that the FNSI method generates a fully nonlinear model of the system under test, while classical approaches commonly use a linear model of the nonlinear system as starting point. This ensures that the resulting maximum likelihood model performs at least as good as the nonlinear subspace model. The complete methodology is demonstrated using experimental data measured on the Silverbox benchmark, an electronic circuit emulating the behaviour of a mechanical system with cubic nonlinearity. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating iron and organic matter incorporation in growing sea ice
Janssens, J.; Delille, Bruno ULg; de Jong et al

Conference (2014, March)

High concentration of exopolysacharides (EPS) and iron have been found in sea ice surrounding the Antarctic continent. However, the mechanisms leading to that enrichment remain unclear. Scavenging of iron ... [more ▼]

High concentration of exopolysacharides (EPS) and iron have been found in sea ice surrounding the Antarctic continent. However, the mechanisms leading to that enrichment remain unclear. Scavenging of iron by organic matter in seawater and entrainment during sea ice formation are thought to be responsible for the accumulation of iron in sea ice. EPS could also play a role in the iron passive chelative scavenging process in sea ice and in the increase of iron bioavailability. Our study investigates the processes responsible for the accumulation of iron (dissolved, particulate and total dissolvable iron), EPS, dissolved and particulate organic matter, macro-nutrients (silicic acid, nitrate and nitrite, phosphoric acid and ammonium), chlorophyll a and sea ice algae in young sea ice during an Australian-lead spring voyage off East Antarctica (SIPEX II September – November 2012) and a German-lead winter voyage to the Weddell Sea (AWECS June – August 2013). We used a combination of field- (“in situ”) and laboratory- based sea ice growth time-series experiments. In addition different types of newly formed sea ice as pancake ice, grey ice, frost flowers and slush were collected during both voyages as a means to compare and validate the experimental data. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the biogeochemical properties of newly formed Antarctic pack ice samples in the winter. Ice temperature, salinity and textures are also presented to support the biogeochemical observations at the onset of sea ice formation. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors driving pCO2 dynamics in sea ice during a large-scale ice tank experiment
Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Delille, Bruno ULg; Tison, J.-L. et al

Conference (2014, March)

According to previous studies, pCO2 fluxes measured over Arctic sea ice are higher than those measured over Antarctic sea ice. We hypothesized that this was due to enhanced respiration in Arctic sea ice ... [more ▼]

According to previous studies, pCO2 fluxes measured over Arctic sea ice are higher than those measured over Antarctic sea ice. We hypothesized that this was due to enhanced respiration in Arctic sea ice, as a consequence of higher riverine inputs of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into Arctic seawater. We tested this hypothesis during the Interice V experiment at the HSVA (Hamburg) environmental test basin facility. We reproduced the growth and decay cycle of sea ice in replicate mesocosms (1 m3) filled with North Sea water (NSW series), and compared these with another series of mesocosms to which humic-rich river water had been added (10%) to increase the DOC concentration (R series). Primary producers were excluded from the experiment. The evolution of the temperature, salinity, DOC, pCO2 and bacterial biomass and production were measured in ice sampled at regular intervals throughout the experiment, as well as in the under-ice water. In addition, ice-air pCO2 fluxes were continuously monitored over both NSW and R mesocosms. pCO2 values in ice were higher in the R ice than in the NSW ice. This is attributed to the DOC content and bacterial respiration, rather than to the ice physical properties (i.e., ice permeability constrained by the ice temperature and salinity). Indeed, R ice had higher DOC content and bacterial production than the NSW ice while both showed similar physical properties. The evolution of the ice-air pCO2 fluxes was consistent with the evolution of pCO2 in ice. The fluxes were, as expected, positive (from sea ice to the atmosphere) during ice growth and negative (from the atmosphere to the ice) during ice melt. [less ▲]

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See detailLand-fast sea ice of McMurdo Sound as a source of bio-essential trace metals for primary productivity in the Ross Sea, Antarctica
Schoemann, V.; de Jong, J.T.M.; Tison, J.L. et al

Conference (2014, March)

Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient. Its low abundance limits primary productivity in more than 30% of the oceans, including the Southern Ocean, and has a crucial impact on the biogeochemical cycles ... [more ▼]

Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient. Its low abundance limits primary productivity in more than 30% of the oceans, including the Southern Ocean, and has a crucial impact on the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and other elements with ultimate influence on the Earth climate system. Other trace metals, like Mn, Zn, Co and Cu are also required for microorganisms cell metabolism and may be (co-) limiting. Previous data on dissolved and particulate Fe concentration data showed that Fe is 10-100 times more concentrated in the sea ice than in underlying seawater and that sea ice melt can deliver up to 70% of the daily Fe supply to the surface waters. According to budget estimates in East Antarctica and in the Weddell Sea, accumulated Fe would largely derive from the underlying seawater rather than from atmospheric inputs. Most of the available data of trace metals in the sea ice concern pack ice and Fe. Only very scarce data exist on land-fast ice and on other trace metal concentrations. In this presentation, the general objective is to assess the role of land-fast ice as a source of Fe and other bio-essential trace metals (e.g. Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo, Cd), its impact on primary productivity and on the biological pump. Samples of sea ice, brines and seawater as well as dusts samples have been collected during the land-based sampling program YROSIAE at Cape Evans (Scott Base, McMurdo Sound, Ross Sea, Antarctica) from Nov 2011 to Dec 2011 and from Aug 2012 to Dec 2012. Dissolved and particulate trace metals concentrations have been measured by a recently developed method, which combines multiple element isotope dilution with preconcentration using the Nobias Chelate PA1 resin and ICP-MS analysis. Concentrations of trace metals in snow collected during the present study are one to up to five orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations previously observed in snow from East Antarctica, showing a much stronger dust input of these metals in McMurdo Sound. When comparing the concentrations obtained in the under-ice seawater with those obtained in the snow at McMurdo Sound, concentrations of Fe, Al, Mn, Co are much lower, whereas concentrations of Cu, Zn and Pb are similar and the concentrations of Ni, Mo and Cd are higher. Inventories of these trace metals in the land-fast sea ice give insights on its role as a source of bio-essential trace metal for the fuelling of the seasonal Ross Sea bloom. Other sources of these trace metals will be addressed and compared. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Hunt for Observable Signatures of Terrestrial Planetary Systems (HOSTS)
Defrere, D.; Hinz, P.; Bryden, G. et al

Conference (2014, March)

The presence of large amounts of exozodiacal dust around nearby main sequence stars is considered as a potential threat for the direct imaging of Earth-like exoplanets and, hence, the search for ... [more ▼]

The presence of large amounts of exozodiacal dust around nearby main sequence stars is considered as a potential threat for the direct imaging of Earth-like exoplanets and, hence, the search for biosignatures (Roberge et al. 2012). However, it is also considered as a signpost for the presence of terrestrial planets that might be hidden in the dust disk (Stark and Kuchner 2008). Characterizing exozodiacal dust around nearby sequence stars is therefore a crucial step toward one of the main goals of modern astronomy: finding extraterrestrial life. After briefly reviewing the latest results in this field, we present the exozodiacal dust survey on the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI). The survey is called HOSTS and is specifically designed to determine the prevalence and brightness of exozodiacal dust disks with the sensitivity required to prepare for future New Worlds Missions that will image Earth-like exoplanets. To achieve this objective, the LBTI science team has carefully established a balanced list of 50 nearby main-sequence stars that are likely candidates of these missions and/or can be observed with the best instrument performance (see companion abstract by Roberge et al.). Exozodiacal dust disk candidates detected by the Keck Interferometer Nuller will also be observed. The first results of the survey will be presented. To precisely detect exozodiacal dust, the LBTI combines the two 8-m primary mirrors of the LBT using N-band nulling interferometry. Interferometric combination provides the required angular resolution (70-90 mas) to resolve the habitable zone of nearby main sequence stars while nulling is used to subtract the stellar light and reach the required contrast of a few 10-4. A Kband fringe tracker ensures the stability of the null. The current performance of the instrument and the first nulling measurements will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbodying the divine: herms in Greek vase-painting
Collard, Hélène ULg

Conference (2014, March)

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See detailBiological and physical controls on DMS,P dynamics in ice-shelf-influenced fast ice
Carnat, G.; Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Papakyriakou, T. et al

Conference (2014, March)

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a volatile sulphur compound produced by the degradation of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), a metabolite synthesized by microalgae as i.a. cryoprotectant and osmoregulator. It ... [more ▼]

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is a volatile sulphur compound produced by the degradation of dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), a metabolite synthesized by microalgae as i.a. cryoprotectant and osmoregulator. It is also an important climate-active gas, being the primary source of marine-derived sulphate aerosols which play an important role in the earth-atmosphere radiation balance. In the last two decades, there has been an increasing interest in the role of the marine cryosphere in the DMS,P cycle, motivated by repeated observations of very high DMS,P concentrations in sea ice. However, our understanding of the factors driving the spatiotemporal variations of these high concentrations, and hence the fate of the sea ice DMS pool, remains limited. To date, studies have essentially focused on biotic factors, attributing the high DMS,P concentrations to the high biomass of the sympagic communities, and to their strong physiological response to the low temperature and high salinity stresses of the brine habitat. We present here an approach integrating both biotic and abiotic factors, as we investigate the influence of sea ice growth processes and brine dynamics on the DMS,P cycle. We focus on a fast ice site (Cape Evans, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica) under the influence of ice-shelf waters, and provide measurements covering a full cycle of ice growth. We show a good correspondence between isolated maxima of DMS,P in interior ice and the occurrence of platelet crystals in the ice texture. We develop the idea that platelet ice formation in May strongly modifies the production of DMS,P by (1) favoring the incorporation of strong DMSP producers and by (2) exposing these producers to stronger environmental stresses. We then show the influence of the development and decline of a strong diatom bloom from October to November on bottom ice DMS,P concentrations. Finally, we show that the increase in brine volume fraction (permeability) on warming in early December triggers (1) an important release of DMS to the ocean through brine convection, and (2) a vertical redistribution of DMSP across the ice. [less ▲]

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See detailMatrimonial property and Succession under EU Private International Law : a Happy Marriage?
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Conference (2014, March)

In this presentation, I attempt to examine the relationship between the Succession Regulation (650/2012) and matrimonial property. I do so by looking at the difficulties which could arise both from a ... [more ▼]

In this presentation, I attempt to examine the relationship between the Succession Regulation (650/2012) and matrimonial property. I do so by looking at the difficulties which could arise both from a practical perspective as well as from a more fundamental angle. Attention is given to the future Matrimonial Property Regulation and the need to coordinate it with the Succession Regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailYear Round survey of Ocean-Sea Ice-Air Exchanges – the YROSIAE survey
Delille, Bruno ULg; Haskell, T.; Champenois, Willy ULg et al

Conference (2014, March)

YROSIAE survey aimed to carry out a year-round survey of land-fast sea ice focusing on the study of sea ice physics and biogeochemistry in order to a) better understand and budget exchanges of energy and ... [more ▼]

YROSIAE survey aimed to carry out a year-round survey of land-fast sea ice focusing on the study of sea ice physics and biogeochemistry in order to a) better understand and budget exchanges of energy and matter across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere interfaces during sea ice growth and decay and b) quantify their potential impact on fluxes of climate gases (CO2, DMS, CH4, N2O) to the atmosphere and on carbon and macro- nutrients and micro-nutrients export to the ocean. Ice cores, sea water, brines and exported material were collected at regular intervals about 1 km off cape Evans from November 2011 to December 2011 and from September 2012 to December 2012 in trace-metal clean conditions. Samples are processed to characterize both the vertical distribution and temporal changes of climate gases (CO2, DMS, CH4, N2O), CO2-related parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and CaCO3 amount), physical parameters (salinity, temperature, texture, 18O), biogeochemical parameters (macro-nutrients, particulate and dissolved organic carbon, δ13C, δ30Si and δ15N, micro-nutrients - including iron) and biological parameters ( chlorophyll a, primary production within sea ice derived from O2:Ar and O2:N ratios, autotrophic species determination, bacterial cell counts a.s.o.). In addition, we deployed a micro-meterological tower and automatic chambers to measure air-ice CO2 fluxes. Continuous measurements of ice temperature and ice accretion or melting, both at the ice-ocean and the ice-atmosphere interfaces were provided by an “Ice-T” ice mass balance buoy. Sediment traps collected particles below the ice between 10 and 70 m, while dust collectors provided a record of a full suite of trace metal and dust at different levels above the ground. We will present the aims, overall approach and sampling strategy of the YROSIAE survey. In addition we will also discuss CO2 dynamics within the ice and present temporal air-ice CO2 fluxes over the year. We will provide a first budget of air-ice CO2 fluxes during ice growth for Antarctica sea ice and discuss the impact of the snow cover on air-ice CO2 fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detailDissection artérielle cérébrale chez l'enfant
BARREA, Christophe ULg; RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; OTTO, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2014, March)

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (6 ULg)