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See detailThe Fractions 1/3 and 2/3 in the Šakkanakku Period and their Genesis
Colonna d'Istria, Laurent ULg

Conference (2015, June 26)

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See detailTowards the identification of cis-elements responsible for the high expression of HMA4, an essential gene for Zn hyperaccumulation in Arabidopsis halleri.
Spielmann, Julien ULg; Nouet, Cécile ULg; Scheepers, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 26)

A. halleri is a Zn and Cd hypertolerant and hyperaccumulator plant which stores metals in shoot vacuoles. One key step for hyperaccumulation is a highly efficient root-to-shoot translocation of metals ... [more ▼]

A. halleri is a Zn and Cd hypertolerant and hyperaccumulator plant which stores metals in shoot vacuoles. One key step for hyperaccumulation is a highly efficient root-to-shoot translocation of metals. The Zn/Cd plasmamembrane pump HMA4 (heavy metal ATPase 4) plays a central role in this process and is involved in xylem loading/unloading. Moreover, HMA4 is overexpressed in A. halleri compare to its non-tolerant and non-hyperaccumulator sister, Arabidopsis thaliana. The HMA4 overexpression is determined by a combination of gene triplication and cis-regulatory changes increasing transcription levels of each three HMA4 copies. In this study, we are focusing on the two most active HMA4 promoters and we aim to identify the cis-elements underlying high expression of HMA4 in A. halleri using promoter-reporter constructs. Through deletion analysis, two important regions for a high expression have been identified. Ongoing analysis of more detailed deletions will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of terroir on the fungal assemblages associated to common bean seed
Klaedtke, Stephanie ULg; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Chable, Véronique et al

Conference (2015, June 25)

Plants have evolved in association with microbial assemblages, also known as microbiota, which can affect plant growth and health. In contrast with other plant habitats, microbiota associated to seeds ... [more ▼]

Plants have evolved in association with microbial assemblages, also known as microbiota, which can affect plant growth and health. In contrast with other plant habitats, microbiota associated to seeds have only recently become an object of research. First surveys reveal that seed-associated microbial assemblages are composed of 50 to 1000 bacterial and fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (Barret et al., 2015), including plant pathogens. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is affected by several seed-borne pathogens representing a phytosanitary challenge for common bean seed production. In a participatory research project (Farm Seed Opportunities, a European FP6 project), small scale organic seed producers emitted the hypothesis that seed microbiota in their integrity, including pathogens, play a role in shaping the crop as it adapts to local environments, leading to more resilience (Döring et al., 2014). As a first step to investigating this hypothesis, we analyzed 27 bean seed samples to assess whether the seed microbiota are indeed site-dependant or in contrary transmitted from on plant generation to the next within each cultivar. [less ▲]

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See detailBenthic-Planktonic age biases: theoretical and modeling studies
Mouchet, Anne ULg; Deleersnijder, Eric; Delhez, Eric ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 25)

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See detailIs western lowland gorilla a good gardener? Effect of fecal matrix and deposition at nest sites on seedling growth
Haurez, Barbara ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Petre, Charles-Albert ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 25)

The Western lowland gorilla is a key dispersal agent, which disperses viable seeds of various size. In consequence of its nesting behavior, gorilla deposits half of its feces, and therefore about half of ... [more ▼]

The Western lowland gorilla is a key dispersal agent, which disperses viable seeds of various size. In consequence of its nesting behavior, gorilla deposits half of its feces, and therefore about half of dispersed seeds, at nest sites. This study was conducted in a logging concession of southeast Gabon where 78 % of the observed nest sites (n=183) were installed in open canopy terra firma forest. The aim of this research was to assess if seed deposition by gorillas (i) in fecal matrix and (ii) at nest sites is advantageous for seedling growth. To assess the effect of fecal matrix, seeds of Santiria trimera (Burseraceae), Chrysophyllum lacourtianum (Sapotaceae) and Plagiostyles africana (Euphorbiaceae) collected in gorilla feces were sown with and without fecal matrix in a nursery at the study site. The impact of seed deposition at nest sites on seedling growth was evaluated in situ. Seedlings of Santiria trimera and Dacryodes normandii (Burseraceae) were installed at nest sites and at closed canopy terra firma forest sites. For both type of trials, seedling growth was monitored. [less ▲]

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See detail'En fonction du futur': la fonction publique régionale wallonne sous contrainte d'innovation
Claisse, Frédéric ULg; Guyot, Jean-Luc

Conference (2015, June 25)

Au départ d'une réflexion prospective entamée par l'IWEPS, la communication s'interroge sur les futurs possibles de la fonction publique régionale wallonne, considérée comme un environnement en ... [more ▼]

Au départ d'une réflexion prospective entamée par l'IWEPS, la communication s'interroge sur les futurs possibles de la fonction publique régionale wallonne, considérée comme un environnement en transformation soumis à de fortes pressions (budgétaires, institutionnelles, démographiques), mais aussi à des contraintes d'innovations multiples: recomposition du métier de fonctionnaire, modes de gestion à réinventer, e-government, concurrence de nouveaux offreurs de services au public, changements dans les attentes des usagers. [less ▲]

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See detailLes complications rénales du diabète
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2015, June 24)

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See detailDUSP3 Phosphatase Deficiency or Inhibition Limits Platelet Activation and Arterial Thrombosis
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; MUSUMECI, Lucia ULg; Kuijpers, Marijke J et al

Conference (2015, June 24)

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See detailQuality and Innovation, key factors for laboratory evolution
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg

Conference (2015, June 23)

Today the laboratory has to face many challenges: constant increase of number of tests to be run, private labs that competes in reaching a lower TAT, disease outbreak that arises without the possibility ... [more ▼]

Today the laboratory has to face many challenges: constant increase of number of tests to be run, private labs that competes in reaching a lower TAT, disease outbreak that arises without the possibility of human control, like the recent mumps outbreak, the need to provide fast results in case of emergency or for transplants, the request to keep high level of traceability of all results, the accreditation of the lab are just some examples. With the same number of operators, year after year, new clinical needs have to be satisfied in a timely manner, with efficiency and without compromise in quality. The solution for us has been, across several year, to look for innovation. Moving from Elisa to chemiluminescence and therefore from open systems to close and state of the art systems, it has allowed us to face with success all those challenges. The availability of more and more infectious disease markers on fully automated analyzers, with good level of performance, have let us to cope with all the changes that have happened across more than a decade. Indeed innovation and quality are fundamental to support properly the laboratory evolution that occurred since today and it is still occurring. Innovation in our laboratory it is also represented by the introduction of automatized tests not only on serum and plasma specimens, but also on CSF (for Lyme disease diagnosis) and on stool matrix. In 2013 in fact we have introduced, among the assays already tested in our laboratory, two assays performed on this matrix, the C. difficile Toxin A&B and GDH, due to the possibility offered by the LIAISON® systems to run all of them on the same serology platform, without crosscontamination. New markers will be available in the near future, and our laboratory will be always able to meet the next clinical needs. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Parliament within the global governance of culture: voice and influence
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

Conference (2015, June 23)

Abstract: The paper deals with the international actorness of the European Parliament (EP) within the global governance of cultural industries, and in particular with its ability to promote the ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The paper deals with the international actorness of the European Parliament (EP) within the global governance of cultural industries, and in particular with its ability to promote the Convention on diversity of cultural expressions (CDCE) on its international relations and on the EU international agreements. In this respect, it attempts to analyse empirically not only the EP’s interests and strategies about the CDCE and its place within the EU external relations, but also the ways that the EP shapes the process of the global governance of cultural industries, challenging its political asymmetries and hierarchies. In this sense, the paper draws five main conclusions: a. it illustrates a recent multiplication of EP resolutions and of written parliamentary questions towards the culture in EU external relations, and especially the link between trade agreements and culture; b. the EP seeks to promote a more normative position for the global governance of cultural industries, taking cultural concerns seriously into account; c. the negotiations between EU and United States reveal that the EP does not follow the pro-liberalization agenda of the European Commission and especially of DG Trade. On the contrary, the EP sided with the French government and the cultural professional organizations and it interpreted the CDCE as a normative tool protecting and promoting the cultural policies in the context of the trade negotiations; d. the EP’s votes towards the culture in EU external relations follow more the national cleavages existing within the European Council rather than a left-right divide, showing that the national lines seem to be a substantial factor in order to understand the EP’s preferences; e. despite the establishment of an international normative framework towards the cultural sector and the inclusion of the culture as a component of the EU foreign policy, the EP’s diplomacy has not yet fully integrated the culture among its priorities. In this sense, the different aspects of the cultural sector such as the cultural and creative industries or the tangible, natural and intangible cultural heritage are absent from the discussions of the EP with national and other regional parliaments. [less ▲]

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See detailAging mechanisms in amorphous phase-change materials
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, June 23)

Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have ... [more ▼]

Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. The direct melt-and-quench DFT based Molecular Dynamics approach leads to models with a few hundred atoms, and, hence a small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, and bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. GST alloys are known to display complex bonding that does not follow the chemist’s “octet-rule”. This lead to many controversies, especially concerning the local structure around Ge atoms. We overcome this problem by using state of the art non local DFT-MD, including the so-called van der Waals corrections. This leads to more clearly defined environments that are thoroughly analyzed. We can then identify their fingerprints in the available structural experimental data and assess their stability to find the driving forces leading to the structural relaxation. The calculated electronic properties nicely match the most recent photothermal deflection spectroscopy experiments. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal (by getting rid of homopolar bonds), and an evolution of its electronic properties that drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous [1]. [1] J.Y Raty, W. Zhang, J. Luckas, C. Chen, R. Mazzarello, C. Bichara and M. Wuttig, Nature Comm. To appear. [less ▲]

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See detailLi4Ti5O12 powders by spray-drying: influence of the solution concentration and particle size on the electrochemical properties
Jamin, Claire; Brisbois, Magali; Caes, Sébastien ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 23)

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See detailDistributive contact lattices with nontangential part-of relations
Raskin, Julien ULg

Conference (2015, June 23)

In a Boolean algebra, the "contact" and "nontangential part-of" relations are linked and interdefinable thanks to the complement. These relations yield on the Stone dual of the algebra two closed ... [more ▼]

In a Boolean algebra, the "contact" and "nontangential part-of" relations are linked and interdefinable thanks to the complement. These relations yield on the Stone dual of the algebra two closed relations that appear to be the same. In a distributive lattice, the contact and nontangential part-of relations also yield dual closed relations on the Priestley dual. However, as the link between them is lost, these relations are not equal anymore. We explore the conditions linking the contact and nontangential part-of relations one should add in order to recover these relations knowing the intersection of their dual. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational routes for hyper-local practices. Homemade food of Moroccan migrant women in Italy.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, June 22)

Stemming from a doctoral research on the culinary practices of a group of Moroccan migrant women living in the north of Italy, this paper will focus on some narratives and habits concerning homemade food ... [more ▼]

Stemming from a doctoral research on the culinary practices of a group of Moroccan migrant women living in the north of Italy, this paper will focus on some narratives and habits concerning homemade food. This food was the result of the combination of hyper-local and transnational practices. In fact, preparing some food at home instead of buying it (bread, for example) was possible also thanks to the use of some ingredients that were bought in or coming from Morocco. The issue at stake was that of control: a control exerted at a hyper-local level (in one’s home) on procedures and at a transnational level (by personally knowing ingredients’ producers) on food elements. This combination let women prepare some representative food of their memory by using the traditional techniques learnt from their mothers and by excluding intermediations. Homemade food translated the reassuring utopia of keeping a link with a cultural belonging in spite of migration and of reducing the fear of being contaminated by the unknown products of the diversity. Some ethnographic data will be presented to show these dynamics, and they will be supported by the visual material collected through participant observation. [less ▲]

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See detailCLEC-2 is required for the activation of mouse platelets by bacterial DNA mimetics
Delierneux, Céline ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg; LECUT, Christelle ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 22)

Aims: To evaluate whether CpG ODNs affect platelet activation and thrombus formation via CLEC-2 and TLR9. Methods: We incubated washed platelets or whole blood from TLR9-, MyD88- or CLEC-2- deficient mice ... [more ▼]

Aims: To evaluate whether CpG ODNs affect platelet activation and thrombus formation via CLEC-2 and TLR9. Methods: We incubated washed platelets or whole blood from TLR9-, MyD88- or CLEC-2- deficient mice with CpG ODNs. We performed platelet aggregometry, flow cytometric binding and platelet activation assays as well as signal transduction analyses. Thrombus formation and fibrin generation were also analyzed by intravital microscopy in mouse microcirculation upon intravenous injection of CpG ODNs. Results: We show that CpG ODNs bind on platelet surface and are internalized. They activate platelets and induce their aggregation. TLR9- or MyD88-deficient platelets aggregated normally in response to CpG ODN. Interestingly, platelets deficient for the C-type lectin receptor CLEC-2 were unable to capture and internalize CpG ODN. CLEC-2 deficiency abolished CpG ODN-induced platelet activation and aggregation. CpG ODN stimulated CLEC-2 dependent tyrosine kinase pathway and Syk phosphorylation. In vivo, intravenously injected CpG ODN interacted with platelets adhered to laser injured arteriolar endothelia and promoted fibrin generation and thrombus growth. Conclusion: CLEC-2 mediates CpG ODN uptake and subsequent platelet activation, independently of TLR9, which may serve an important role in the interplay between platelets and immunity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of hunting pressure and forest fragmentation on seed dispersal of Staudtia kamerunensis (Myristicaceae) in the Western Congolian forest-savanna mosaic
Trolliet, Franck ULg; Forget, Pierre-Michel; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 22)

Numerous studies have investigated the impact of hunting and forest fragmentation on seed dispersal processes, but few of them in Africa. The African continent, however, holds the greatest abundance of ... [more ▼]

Numerous studies have investigated the impact of hunting and forest fragmentation on seed dispersal processes, but few of them in Africa. The African continent, however, holds the greatest abundance of large frugivores on Earth and is subject to increasing levels of hunting and forest fragmentation. Frugivory and seed dispersal in the pan-tropical family Myristicaceae has been well studied in the Neotropics, but remain barely known in Afro-tropical forests. Here we investigated how hunting, forest cover, and fruit availability influence the dispersal capacities of Staudtia kamerunensis in a mosaic composed of forest patches and savannas in D.R. Congo. We selected 34 fertile female S. kamerunensis trees distributed, at a landscape scale (300 km²), across 5 sites characterized by a gradient of hunting pressures and density of the study trees. The trees varied in size and surrounding forest cover (patch and corridors). We quantified the percentages of seed dispersal failure using litter trap and fruit remains during the entire 2013 fruiting season, and identified fruit eaters through focal observations. The most frequently observed frugivore was the White-thighed Hornbill (Bycanistes albotibialis). Our GLMM analyses show that increasing hunting pressure, decreasing abundance of B. albotibialis and decreasing forest cover near focal trees significantly increased dispersal failure. The limited forest cover of some patches, resulting from the highly fragmented feature of the landscape, and hunting pressure, are likely to impact negatively the abundance of B. albotibialis. Consequently, we suggest the dispersal system reached saturation because of a lack of effective seed dispersal away from parent trees. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an “integrated conservation” : the contribution of R.M. Lemaire and Piero Gazzola during the first decade of ICOMOS (1965-1975)
Houbart, Claudine ULg

Conference (2015, June 22)

Respectively elected first President and first Secretary General during the first general assembly of ICOMOS in Cracow in 1965, Piero Gazzola and Raymond M. Lemaire have deeply contributed to the success ... [more ▼]

Respectively elected first President and first Secretary General during the first general assembly of ICOMOS in Cracow in 1965, Piero Gazzola and Raymond M. Lemaire have deeply contributed to the success of the newly born organisation. During the first years, they didn’t only provoke the creation of numerous national committees around the world, but they also positioned ICOMOS as a major actor of the international conservation scene, through the organisation of conferences and an active participation in the debates initiated by Unesco and the Council of Europe, for which ICOMOS acted as a consultant. The study of Raymond M. Lemaire’s archive, kept at the KU Leuven in Belgium, clearly shows that one of the major concerns of both Lemaire and Gazzola, who had been, in 1964, amongst the main authors of the Venice Charter, was to broaden the scope of the document in order to address the issue of pre-industrial city centres, threatened by late reconstruction or development projects mostly promoting functionalist approaches. Depending on the time available, this presentation will address one or various aspects of Lemaire’s and Gazzola’s contribution to the emergence of integrated conservation, consecrated by the European Charter and the Amsterdam Declaration of 1975, that is: the new ideas (social value of heritage for example) developed during the expert meetings organised by the Council of Europe in 1965-1968, where they both represented ICOMOS. These ideas are synthesised in the report “Saving the face of Europe” in 1973, the relation between these theoretical contributions and Lemaire and Gazzola’s contemporary field experience, the role of Eastern Europe experiences (D. Libal in Prague and M. Horler in Budapest) in the development of an appropriate methodology to address urban issues, the differences between the concept of “integral planning” proposed by Lemaire in 1973 and the “integrated conservation” that was promoted by the 1975 Council of Europe charters, an epilogue could mention the revision projects of the Venice Charter between 1975 and 1981. Based on my PhD about R.M. Lemaire, recently presented at the KU Leuven (Belgium), this presentation aims at clarifying and illustrating the shift from monument restoration towards city “reanimation” or “rehabilitation” during the late sixties and seventies, as well as paying tribute to the action of two of the most important figures of the beginnings of ICOMOS. [less ▲]

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See detailCLEC-2 is required for the activation of mouseplatelets by bacterial DNA mimetics
Delierneux, Céline ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg; LECUT, Christelle ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 22)

Background: Short nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate synthetic CpG motif-bearing oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs) mimicking bacterial DNA display potent immunostimulatory activity and are therefore being used ... [more ▼]

Background: Short nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate synthetic CpG motif-bearing oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs) mimicking bacterial DNA display potent immunostimulatory activity and are therefore being used in clinical trials as vaccine adjuvants. Cellular uptake and activation depends on the interaction of CpG ODNs with the C-type lectin receptor DEC-205 and subsequent stimulation of the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling cascade. Platelets express TLR9, MyD88, and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). However, the impacts of CpG ODNs on platelet function have been elusive. Aims: To evaluate whether CpG ODNs affect platelet activation and thrombus formation via CLEC-2 and TLR9. Methods: We incubated washed platelets or whole blood from TLR9-, MyD88- or CLEC-2- deficient mice with CpG ODNs. We performed platelet aggregometry, flow cytometric binding and platelet activation assays as well as signal transduction analyses. Thrombus formation and fibrin generation were also analyzed by intravital microscopy in mouse microcirculation upon intravenous injection of CpG ODNs. Results: We show that CpG ODNs bind on platelet surface and are internalized. They activate platelets and induce their aggregation. TLR9- or MyD88-deficient platelets aggregated normally in response to CpG ODN. Interestingly, platelets deficient for the C-type lectin receptor CLEC-2 were unable to capture and internalize CpG ODN. CLEC-2 deficiencyabolished CpG ODN-induced platelet activation and aggregation. CpG ODN stimulated CLEC-2 dependent tyrosine kinase pathway and Syk phosphorylation. In vivo, intravenously injected CpG ODN interacted with platelets adhered to laser injured arteriolar endothelia and promoted fibrin generation and thrombus growth. Conclusion: CLEC-2 mediates CpG ODN uptake and subsequent platelet activation, independently of TLR9, which may serve an important role in the interplay between platelets and immunity. [less ▲]

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See detailDiaspora Contributions to Democratic Processes at Home: The External Vote of Andean Migrants
Bermudez Torres, Anastasia ULg; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (2015, June 22)

This paper focuses on the external vote and wider transnational political participation of Andean migrants from Colombia and Bolivia. Its main aim is to discuss the contributions of these diasporas to ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the external vote and wider transnational political participation of Andean migrants from Colombia and Bolivia. Its main aim is to discuss the contributions of these diasporas to democratic and wider political processes in the home countries. The two cases considered offer a good opportunity to do so, since in the last few decades they have put forward new mechanisms for the political inclusion of their nationals abroad, but in different historical, socioeconomic and political contexts. Key amongst these initiatives has been the extension of voting rights to nationals abroad. One of the objectives is thus to compare the different reasons and mechanisms used by states to implement external voting policies, as well as migrant participation in elections. Migrants from the three countries have participated to a lesser or greater degree in the development of such policies and the practice of voting from abroad. A comparison of their participation rates in each case and the reasons for voting or not might allow us to find out more about the success or failure of such processes. Equally, different governments, parties and other state and political institutions in the home countries have related differently to the diasporas, often based on the supposed political allegiances or ideological inclinations of these groups. Based on all this, the two national communities abroad studied have played different roles in key recent political processes in their home countries, such as the emergence of an ethno- nationalist-left government in Bolivia, and efforts for greater democracy and the end of the armed conflict in Colombia. This paper is based on quantitative and qualitative data, as well as secondary information, obtained by the authors through different research projects carried out over the last few years with migrants from the two countries studied. The text looks next at the theoretical framework for the research, before analysing in detail the two cases considered. The last develops a comparative discussion and presents concluding perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the spirit to the letter of the charters : mind the gap for the future
Houbart, Claudine ULg; Dawans, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2015, June 22)

Since the 1960’s and the foundation of ICOMOS, charters have been considered as a sort of conservation gospel. In this presentation, we would like to question this fact, in the light of the very ... [more ▼]

Since the 1960’s and the foundation of ICOMOS, charters have been considered as a sort of conservation gospel. In this presentation, we would like to question this fact, in the light of the very particular production and reception conditions of the documents. What may be perceived as a mostly provocative approach seems to us a constructive basis for future reflections. When we read and use charters – in this presentation, we will mainly focus on the Venice Charter, the Nara document and the Riga Charter – , we forget too often that they have been written by human beings, sometimes very tired, in a hurry, and even arguing with each other. The study of the archival material related to the writing of the Venice Charter and the Nara document very clearly illustrates that these documents are rather a conceptual “bricolage” than indisputable normative texts as if they had been written by lawyers. In the case of the Venice Charter, the archive as well as the records of Raymond M. Lemaire, Paul Philippot or Gertrud Tripp make clear that the document has been written at the last moment and adopted too rapidly by an assembly too glad to finally have a updated version of the Athens charter. As a consequence, only a few years later, Raymond Lemaire and Piero Gazzola already questioned the validity of the new text in the light of the extension of heritage debates to the city centers. On the other hand, the fact that a French and an English version of the Nara document were written in parallel by Raymond M. Lemaire and Herb Stovel in 1994 has had immediate consequences on the content and the formulation of the text, which logically left both of them unsatisfied with the result. Even so, the Venice charter and the Nara document still have force of law today. Yet, besides the particular circumstances of their writing, we must keep in mind that these texts answered specific questions, closely linked to the context: a critical answer to postwar reconstruction for the first, and apparently opposed visions of authenticity between East and West for the second. As far as the Riga charter is concerned, the influence of the delicate context of the Eastern bloc collapse is evident. For this reason, using such documents today requires at least a critical reading, going back to the spirit beyond the text. Our presentation will illustrate ad absurdum, through recent case studies, how a cynical reading of such documents can lead to interventions dangerously in conflict with this spirit and the fundamental ideals of conservation philosophy. In the era of late capitalism and heritage globalization, are we allowed to forget the conditions and the context in which our doctrinal documents have been written to justify anything and everything and to meet, for example, the “tourist gaze”, the “nouveaux riches” taste or the architect’s egomania? Do architects really want to know what the writers of the Venice charter’s article 9 meant by the “contemporary stamp”? What are the limits of the tolerance towards reconstruction first expressed by the Nara document, and a few years later, the charter of Riga? So many questions that ICOMOS must face if it wants to pursue its guiding mission in a mostly financial world. [less ▲]

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See detailDouble hydrophilic polyphosphoester containing copolymers as efficient templating agnets for calcium carbonate microparticles
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Calvignac, Brice et al

Conference (2015, June 22)

The design of drug delivery systems (DDS) often requires biodegradable and biocompatible materials that allow safe retention and controlled drug release. In this respect, CaCO3 particles are appropriate ... [more ▼]

The design of drug delivery systems (DDS) often requires biodegradable and biocompatible materials that allow safe retention and controlled drug release. In this respect, CaCO3 particles are appropriate drug carriers that have excellent properties such as low density, high specific surface areas and porosity for drugs and proteins encapsulation. Here, degradable synthetic copolymers based on polyphosphoester (PPE) were used to template CaCO3 particles. PPE is a promising candidate due to its biocompatibility, biodegradability and low toxicity of its degradation products such as phosphates. In particular, PPE copolymers with carboxylic acid pendant groups and negatively charged polyphosphodiester-based copolymers were prepared by organocatalyzed ring opening polymerization (ROP) initiated from poly(ethylene oxide). The moieties introduced along the polymer chains enhance the calcium affinity and so the ability of the copolymers to tune the morphology of the CaCO3 particles. The copolymers were tested as templating agents for the preparation of CaCO3 particles by the classical chemical pathway and the supercritical CO2 (Sc-CO2) route. The morphology of the resulting particles was then compared to the one of particles obtained using hyaluronic acid (HA) as a templating agent. The synthesis involving Sc-CO2 and the copolymer with pendant carboxylic groups was particularly interesting and led to smaller (~1.5 µm) and non-aggregated particles. In the future, the impact of the copolymer structure and of the particle size on the encapsulation and release processes will be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailEngager le littéraire : le cas Sartre/Fanon
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2015, June 20)

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See detailBrain plasticity after implanted drop foot stimulator in chronic stroke
Thibaut, Aurore ULg

Conference (2015, June 20)

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See detailSaint Genet, les aventures de la subjectivité morale
Caeymaex, Florence ULg

Conference (2015, June 19)

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See detailScreening for Osteonecrosis in children treated for ALL : Why bother?
Geurten, Claire ULg; Hoyoux, Claire

Conference (2015, June 19)

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See detailResiliency of a Community of Buildings to Fire Following Earthquake
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Garlock, Maria

Conference (2015, June 19)

Cascading multi-hazard events, such as fires following an earthquake, can trigger progressive collapse of structures. In cascading earthquake and fire events, buildings that may have already experienced ... [more ▼]

Cascading multi-hazard events, such as fires following an earthquake, can trigger progressive collapse of structures. In cascading earthquake and fire events, buildings that may have already experienced damage due to a primary earthquake hazard, should cope with a secondary extreme event. This work provides a methodology to evaluate the risk of fire ignitions after an earthquake and building responses in a community. The work has two components: In the first part, a model is developed for predicting the probability of ignition in a building due to an earthquake. This probabilistic model relies on the data from seven significant earthquakes that took place in the U.S. between 1983 and 2014. The main parameters influencing the probability of ignition are found to be the peak ground acceleration, the type of building material, and the main features of the environment in which the buildings are located (i.e. the total square footage and the population density). In the second part of this work, fragility curves are developed for performance of structures under fire, to quantify the probability of exceeding a damage state given a fire scenario. The probabilistic ignition model is implemented in Ergo/Maeviz, a GIS based risk assessment software platform developed at the Mid-America Earthquake Center at UIUC. Ergo/Maeviz provides the probability of ignition after an earthquake for each building in a region of study, and the overall risk for the community. The developed package in Ergo/Maeviz is validated against number of historical fire following earthquake events. For the future work, the developed fragility curves for buildings under fire will be implemented in Ergo/Maeviz to integrate the probability of ignition and possible damage states of the buildings. This research integrates multi-hazard analysis and risk management to plan mitigation and recovery strategies, and to obtain resilient communities. [less ▲]

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See detailQui sait ce que je veux dire ? Externalisme sémantique versus phénoménologie
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

Conference (2015, June 19)

L’objectivisme sémantique de Bolzano et Frege se présente d’abord comme une critique du psychologisme des théories modernes de la signification entendue comme idée, représentation ou image mentale ... [more ▼]

L’objectivisme sémantique de Bolzano et Frege se présente d’abord comme une critique du psychologisme des théories modernes de la signification entendue comme idée, représentation ou image mentale. Quoique solidaire de cette critique, Husserl entend bien, quant à lui, montrer que les significations sont néanmoins constituées dans des actes mentaux, les « intentions de signification ». En cela, il s’oppose au platonisme autant qu’au psychologisme. Or il en va exactement de même des thèses de Wittgenstein et Quine, qui, rejetant le(s) mythe(s) de la signification, insistent sur la constitution du sens dans les pratiques linguistiques. Mais l’assimilation du sens à l’usage social dépsychologise aussi les intentions de signification (le « vouloir dire » (meinen, mean)) ainsi que la « compréhension » (le « saisir » (begreifen, grasp)). A l’heure de l’externalisme (social mais aussi indexical), y a-t-il alors encore une place pour la phénoménologie en philosophie du langage ? [less ▲]

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See detailL'atteinte de la branche externe du nerf laryngé supérieur: les conséquences fonctionnelles
Finck, Camille ULg

Conference (2015, June 19)

description détaillée des signes d'atteinte post thyroïdectomie du nerf laryngé supérieur, atteinte très invalidante , souvent méconnue et sans possibilité thérapeutique efficace. cette atteinte conduit à ... [more ▼]

description détaillée des signes d'atteinte post thyroïdectomie du nerf laryngé supérieur, atteinte très invalidante , souvent méconnue et sans possibilité thérapeutique efficace. cette atteinte conduit à une perte complète de la voix chantée. [less ▲]

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See detailDes co-enquêteurs coriaces. Quand l'explicitation du travail de terrain complique les choses
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2015, June 18)

La souplesse et la plasticité des problématiques abordées sont sans doute parmi les attraits majeurs que peuvent présenter les recherches qualitatives. Cette ouverture à une reconfiguration permanente des ... [more ▼]

La souplesse et la plasticité des problématiques abordées sont sans doute parmi les attraits majeurs que peuvent présenter les recherches qualitatives. Cette ouverture à une reconfiguration permanente des questions de recherches réside (entre autres) dans la place que l'on accorde aux acteurs. Plus que des « informateurs », ceux-ci peuvent participer véritablement à l'enquête, et sont alors en fait à la manoeuvre autant que le chercheur. D'acteurs, ils gagnent alors le statut de co-enquêteur. En nous renvoyant nos propres questions, en les reformulant, en les faisant apparaître sous un angle différent, les acteurs contribuent à (re)dessiner nos recherches. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacteristics and implementation of Hybrid Fire Testing (HFT)
Sauca, Ana ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Robert, Fabienne et al

Conference (2015, June 18)

This presentation is dedicated to real time hybrid testing of building members subjected to the action of fire. It will be shown why, whereas pseudo-dynamic testing is possible in other fields, real time ... [more ▼]

This presentation is dedicated to real time hybrid testing of building members subjected to the action of fire. It will be shown why, whereas pseudo-dynamic testing is possible in other fields, real time hybrid testing is the only possible option for the evaluation of fire performance (except, perhaps, for pure metallic unprotected structures). For some structures subjected to fire, the load bearing mechanism in the physical component is completely modified during the test and this modification can take place within a very short period of time. Because of that, the computational demand can be very challenging if the simulated element is simulated in a fully nonlinear computer model, especially if the thermal problem (temperature distribution in the structure) and the mechanical problem have both to be solved within each time step. In order to avoid these difficulties, a possible solution may be to calculate the stiffness matrix that dictates the reaction of the simulated element on the tested element before the test. This matrix can be constant or vary as a function of the displacements measured at the interface during the test. This procedure is very robust but it also has some shortcomings and limitations. The main topic of this paper is the discussion of the advantages and limitations of this procedure applied to hybrid fire testing. A series of three tests which is now under preparation to be performed in the furnace PROMETHEE of CERIB, in France, will also be described in this respect. Preliminary results will be presented if some or all of the tests have been performed at the date of the conference. [less ▲]

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See detailNos amis, les immigrants! Les acteurs non-etatiques et ses discours
Da Silva, Amanda Carolina ULg

Conference (2015, June 18)

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See detailRhizobacterial volatiles influence root system architecture, biomass production and allocation of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon (L.) P. Beauv.
Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Ormeño-Lafuente, Elena; Delory, Benjamin ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 18)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly considered as a complement of conventional inputs in agricultural systems. Their effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile ... [more ▼]

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly considered as a complement of conventional inputs in agricultural systems. Their effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile-mediated growth enhancement. The present study aims at assessing the effects of bacterial volatile production on the biomass production and the root system architecture of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. (line Bd-21). An in vitro experimental set-up allowing plant-bacteria interaction through the gaseous phase without any physical contact was used to screen 19 bacterial strains for their growth promotion ability over a 10-day cocultivation period. Using principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering and two-way analysis of variance, five groups of bacteria were defined and characterized based on their combined influence on biomass production and root system architecture. The observed effects range from unchanged to highly increased biomass production coupled with increased root length and branching. Primary root length was only increased by the volatile compounds emitted by Enterobacter cloacae JM22 and Bacillus pumilus T4. Overall, the most significant results were obtained with Bacillus subtilis GB03 which induced a 81% increase in total biomass and enhanced total root length, total secondary root length and total adventitious root length by 88, 196 and 473% respectively. The analysis of the emission kinetics of bacterial volatile organic compounds is underway and should lead to the identification of volatile compounds candidates responsible for the observed growth promotion effects. Taking into account the inherent characteristics of our in vitro system, the next experimental steps are identified and discussed from a fundamental and applied viewpoint. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting quarries biodiversity through partnerships: a Belgian case study
Seleck, Maxime ULg; Lussis, Benoit; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 17)

Throughout the life cycle of quarries, a large diversity of temporary habitats is generated, sometimes left to evolve to more permanent ones. In many cases, the biological roles of quarries are neglected ... [more ▼]

Throughout the life cycle of quarries, a large diversity of temporary habitats is generated, sometimes left to evolve to more permanent ones. In many cases, the biological roles of quarries are neglected though they are playing a significant role as stepping-stones and regulating green infrastructure in landscapes. In highly urbanized and controlled landscapes, quarries are an exceptional opportunity to maintain rare and threatened transient habitats hosting fugitive species. Such ephemeral biodiversity is hard to manage through a site legal protection status. As exploitation progresses, more permanent, biodiverse habitats settle in abandoned areas but the biologic potential could also be maximized by optimized groundwork through the whole exploitation process. Exploitation plans taking into consideration biodiversity could allow maximizing quarry biodiversity hosting capacity during the exploitation phase and in further rehabilitation schemes. In 2012, FEDIEX - the Belgian federation of extractive industries - committed itself to a sectorial charter on “Quarries and Biodiversity”. The charter defines an action plan based on three main axes: i) raising members’ awareness; ii) promoting the integration of practical recommendations for the protection and management of biodiversity in exploitation plans; iii) quarries’ personnel trainings. Since 2012 FEDIEX engaged in a partnership with Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (University of Liège). Our presentation will trace realizations undertaken under this collaboration, among which the “Mr/Ms Biodiversity” training organized in 2013, 2014 and 2015, the publication of folders popularising the management and enhancement of nature in active quarries and the collaboration in the redaction of a “LIFE in Quarries” project (LIFE Biodiversity) submitted for the 2014 LIFE call. [less ▲]

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See detailLa flexicurité revisitée : analyse qualitative interdisciplinaire du discours de travailleurs à l'aide d'un logiciel collaboratif »
Beuker, Laura ULg; DE CIA, Julie ULg; Orianne, Jean-François ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 17)

La flexicurité constitue un oxymore qui prône la recherche d’un équilibre entre besoins de flexibilité et de sécurité sur le marché du travail. Cet équilibre est avant tout un objectif politique, mais il ... [more ▼]

La flexicurité constitue un oxymore qui prône la recherche d’un équilibre entre besoins de flexibilité et de sécurité sur le marché du travail. Cet équilibre est avant tout un objectif politique, mais il reste fragile aux yeux des acteurs concernés. En cherchant à croiser le regard analytique de trois disciplines – psychologie, gestion et sociologie –, nous avons recouru au logiciel Cassandre (Lejeune, 2008) pour dégager des tensions discursives autour des notions de flexibilité et de sécurité dans un corpus de vingt entretiens qualitatifs. L’article permet ainsi de concrétiser l’intérêt et les limites de l’utilisation d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative dans le cadre d’un travail interdisciplinaire. [less ▲]

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See detailConcept of robustness
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2015, June 16)

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See detailDenjoy-Carleman classes and lineability
Esser, Céline ULg

Conference (2015, June 16)

The Denjoy-Carleman classes are spaces of smooth functions which satisfy growth conditions on their derivatives defined through weight sequences. In this talk, given a Denjoy-Carleman class E of Beurling ... [more ▼]

The Denjoy-Carleman classes are spaces of smooth functions which satisfy growth conditions on their derivatives defined through weight sequences. In this talk, given a Denjoy-Carleman class E of Beurling type that strictly contains another non-quasianalytic class F of Roumieu type, we handle the question of knowing how large the set of functions in E that are nowhere in the class F is. In particular, we prove the dense-lineability of the set of functions of E which are nowhere in F. Consequences for the Gevrey classes are also given. We extend then these results to the case of classes of ultradifferentiable functions defined using weight functions. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustimpact project - System design
Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2015, June 16)

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See detailA generalization of the Snu spaces: getting rid of dyadic scales
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2015, June 16)

The Snu spaces have been introduced by S. Jaffard to develop a new multifractal formalism that allows to improve the study of irregular functions. This type of formalism is connected to Besov spaces. From ... [more ▼]

The Snu spaces have been introduced by S. Jaffard to develop a new multifractal formalism that allows to improve the study of irregular functions. This type of formalism is connected to Besov spaces. From a theoretical point of view, the Snu spaces gave birth to counterexamples in functional analysis. In this talk, I present the first results on a generalization of these spaces. I also present some links between these new spaces and the generalized Besov spaces defined with wavelet coefficients. [less ▲]

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See detailLes postérités du cynisme : esthétiques, politiques, philosophiques ?
Caeymaex, Florence ULg

Conference (2015, June 15)

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See detailAnatomie chirurgicale du plancher pelvien chez la femme.
Bonnet, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, June 13)

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See detailProblèmes liés aux dosages de PTH
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2015, June 12)

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See detailBuilding the future of European sustainability governance: a critical self-reflexive approach to a participatory Technology Assessment exercise
Claisse, Frédéric ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Macq, Hadrien et al

Conference (2015, June 12)

Europe Wide Views (EWV) on Sustainable Consumption is a cross-European citizen consultation providing unique insights into the views of ordinary citizens across Europe on sustainable consumption and ... [more ▼]

Europe Wide Views (EWV) on Sustainable Consumption is a cross-European citizen consultation providing unique insights into the views of ordinary citizens across Europe on sustainable consumption and policies connected to this complex issue. The consultation took place simultaneously in 11 EU member states on October 25th 2014 and involved 1035 European citizens. Throughout the day, the participating citizens deliberated with fellow citizens and voted on issues relating to future policy-making on sustainable consumption. Overall, EWV was framed as a participatory Technology Assessment (pTA) exercise. Following the hypothesis that TA practitioners do not enough question the design of their projects’ and their own normative assumptions, we suggest to put the consultation we organised in Wallonia (Belgium) to the test. The aggregated results of the consultations point to the fact that “citizens are [now, after the EWV] strongly in favour of policy-makers taking ambitious steps in order to foster a more sustainable consumption in society, and want to personally take action in this process”. Relying on our previous work on dystopia as empowerment, we suggest a self-reflexive experiment to inquire into how much the design of the consultation (including the materials that were circulated) and the messages that we conveyed pictured a threatening present that would lead to an apocalyptic future ‘if nothing was done’, thereby potentially biasing the results that will are to be translated into political recommendations. Our analysis will benefit from cross-breeding future studies and science and technology studies to think afresh invisible normativities induced by pTA of sustainable governance. [less ▲]

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See detailPaul Philippot et la fortune de la Teoria de Cesare Brandi
Verbeeck, Muriel ULg

Conference (2015, June 12)

Même si le propos peut sembler iconoclaste, Cesare Brandi est un auteur plus souvent cité que lu, du moins, en dehors de l'Italie. On note en effet un hiatus important entre la première publication de la ... [more ▼]

Même si le propos peut sembler iconoclaste, Cesare Brandi est un auteur plus souvent cité que lu, du moins, en dehors de l'Italie. On note en effet un hiatus important entre la première publication de la Teoria, en 1963, et les rééditions et traductions qui vont permettre de diffuser le texte original. Pendant près de trente ans, la dissémination de la pensée de Brandi sur le plan international sera le fait de Paul Philippot. Il fut plus qu'un traducteur, un génial interprète de la pensée brandienne au sein des Institutions et et son promoteur au sein des formations de restaurateurs. Sa place demeure essentielle dans l'actualisation de la Teoria. [less ▲]

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See detailAnatomie chirurgicale du plancher pelvien et du rétropéritoine chez la femme
Bonnet, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, June 12)

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See detailRecent ethane increase above North America: comparison between FTIR measurements and model simulations
Franco, Bruno ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 11)

Ethane (C2H6) has a large impact on tropospheric composition and air quality because of its involvement in the global VOC (volatile organic compound) – HOx – NOx chemistry responsible for generating and ... [more ▼]

Ethane (C2H6) has a large impact on tropospheric composition and air quality because of its involvement in the global VOC (volatile organic compound) – HOx – NOx chemistry responsible for generating and destroying tropospheric ozone. By acting as a major sink for tropospheric OH radicals, the abundance of C2H6 influences the atmospheric content of carbon monoxide and impacts the lifetime of methane. Moreover, it is an important source of PAN, a thermally unstable reservoir for NOx radicals. On a global scale, the main sources of C2H6 are leakage from the production, transport of natural gas loss, biofuel consumption and biomass burning, mainly located in the Northern Hemisphere. Due to its relatively long lifetime of approximately two months, C2H6 is a sensitive indicator of tropospheric pollution and transport. Using an optimized retrieval strategy (see Franco et al., 2014), we present here a 20-year long-term time series of C2H6 column abundance retrieved from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) solar spectra recorded from 1994 onwards at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 3580 m a.s.l.), part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, see http://www.ndacc.org). After a regular 1994 – 2008 decrease of the C2H6 amounts, which is very consistent with prior major studies (e.g., Aydin et al., 2011; Simpson et al., 2012) and our understanding of global C2H6 emissions, trend analysis using a bootstrap resampling tool reveals a C2H6 upturn and a statistically-significant sharp burden increase from 2009 onwards (Franco et al., 2014). We hypothesize that this observed recent increase in C2H6 could affect the whole Northern Hemisphere and may be related to the recent massive growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs. This hypothesis is supported by measurements derived from solar occultation observations performed since 2004 by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument and at other NDACC sites, namely Toronto (44° N) and Thule (77° N). Indeed, the recent rates of changes characterizing these data sets are consistent in magnitude and sign with the one derived from the FTIR measurements at Jungfraujoch. In contrast, the ethane time series form Lauder (45° S) shows a monotonic decrease over the last two decades. Investigating both the cause and impact on air quality of the C2H6 upturn should be a high priority for the atmospheric chemistry community. [less ▲]

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See detailHigher Octonions
Kreusch, Marie ULg

Conference (2015, June 11)

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See detailExact and Heuristic Solution Methods for a VRP with Time Windows and Variable Service Start Time
Michelini, Stefano ULg; Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 10)

We consider a VRP with time windows in which the total cost of a solu- tion depends on the total duration of the vehicle routes, and the starting time for each vehicle is a decision variable. We first ... [more ▼]

We consider a VRP with time windows in which the total cost of a solu- tion depends on the total duration of the vehicle routes, and the starting time for each vehicle is a decision variable. We first develop a Branch- and-Price (BP) algorithm considering the related pricing subproblem, an elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints (ESP- PRC). We discuss past, present and planned research on this exact so- lution methodology, based on a bidirectional dynamic programming approach for the ESPPRC, and on the design of a matheuristic. [less ▲]

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See detailLes genres médiatiques de l’anticipation : des usages comiques du futur
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Conference (2015, June 10)

La petite presse multiplie volontiers les usages comiques de la prédiction, tantôt en empruntant ses effets à l’almanach, tantôt en traitant au second degré les marronniers trop familiers, tantôt encore ... [more ▼]

La petite presse multiplie volontiers les usages comiques de la prédiction, tantôt en empruntant ses effets à l’almanach, tantôt en traitant au second degré les marronniers trop familiers, tantôt encore en infléchissant vers la prospective le principe de la revue de fin d’année. Ainsi, il est fréquent que les petits journaux satiriques feignent d’imaginer les événements à venir sous la forme de « prédictions pour l’année » et de « coups d’œil prophétiques ». Après certaines pages du Charivari dans les années 1830 et 1840, l’humour d’un Albert Robida dans la Caricature a contribué à populariser ces procédés dans les années 1880. Si de telles éphémérides parodiques ne bénéficient pas de la stabilité d’une rubrique spécifique, elles sont toutefois appelées, au siècle suivant, à prendre l’ampleur de numéros complets qui témoignent d’une postérité intéressante (Illustration, Lectures pour tous, VU, Sciences et voyages) et d’une créativité iconotextuelle qui peut aller jusqu’au faux reportage photographique d’anticipation. Aussi fréquentes que polymorphes et éparpillées, ces prédictions comiques composent une microforme médiatique inhérente à la modernité de la petite presse, et ce par deux aspects au moins. D’une part, leur discursivité porte sur des données socioculturelles présentées comme remarquables et novatrices, censées incarner la quintessence de leur époque tout entière tendue vers l’avenir, ce qu’appuie encore l’intertextualité avec le merveilleux scientifique issu des pages de vulgarisation scientifique. D’autre part, leur poétique affiche une temporalité méta-médiatique renvoyant aux fonctions rituelles et référentielles du périodique, occasion de déployer une fiction publicitaire qui fait double office de support fantasmatique de projection et de vecteur autopromotionnel du journal. Cette communication a proposé une première recension et des éléments de poétique historique pour mieux cerner dans sa variété un sous-genre médiatique encore peu considéré. On a examiné, outre les procédés privilégiés (numéro circonstanciel d’étrennes, éphéméride parodique, revue de fin d’année détournée, billet d’humeur, recension culturelle, déclinaison médiatique de la féérie, etc.) et les transformations discursives que leur applique le second degré de la petite presse, les réalités socioculturelles sur lesquelles porte principalement l’anticipation (mode, progrès techniques, avancées sociales, produits de l’industrie), afin de définir quels objets médiatiques sont ainsi construits en discours et en représentations par le journal dans un commentaire qui veut cerner les promesses de modernité dans l’actualité. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoriographie, cultures et régimes d'historicité en France au XVIIe siècle
Saal, Caroline ULg

Conference (2015, June 10)

Le XVIIe siècle est parfois présenté comme le « chaînon manquant » de la pensée historique moderne. Le XVIe siècle serait le temps d’une historiographie novatrice et intelligente, comme l’illustrent La ... [more ▼]

Le XVIIe siècle est parfois présenté comme le « chaînon manquant » de la pensée historique moderne. Le XVIe siècle serait le temps d’une historiographie novatrice et intelligente, comme l’illustrent La méthode de Jean Bodin et Les recherches de la France d’Étienne Pasquier, tandis que la philosophie des Lumières marquerait la distanciation accélérée et définitive du récit historique avec le providentialisme et la fable. Bien que la définition de l’acte historiographique se soit élargie au-delà du discours des historiens ces vingt dernières années, le XVIIe siècle traîne la réputation tenace de période d’accalmie méthodologique où l’histoire, genre littéraire plutôt que discipline, se contenterait de se plier au service de la royauté. Si cette intellection de l’histoire au XVIIe siècle est loin d’être sans fondement, elle dépend néanmoins d’un état d’esprit a posteriori qui voudrait que le récit du passé suive une courbe ascendante vers la notion actuelle, scientifique, d’histoire. Dans Les Lieux de l’histoire, Christian Amalvi et une série d’historiens incorporaient à la fabrique de l’histoire ces « espaces plus difficiles à cerner, mais qui jouent un rôle capital dans la diffusion du passé » : ces derniers relèvent des pratiques de sociabilité liées au partage de savoirs, au-delà de celles d’une corporation historienne strictement définie. Ces espaces montrent au XVIIe siècle la cohabitation de régimes d’historicité passéiste et futuriste, entre perpétuation de l’historia magister vitae et revendications modernes, qui mettent le passé en discussion de manière plurielle. Ils dévoilent également un rapport au passé très différent du nôtre, et transforment la lecture du XVIIe siècle historiographique. Le but de cette communication sera de dresser l’état de la question de l’approche du récit du passé au XVIIe siècle en montrant l’influence des choix de concepts historiques et de référents temporels sur l’image globale d’une période, voire sur son statut historiographique. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cultural Other’s ways of eating. On embodied subjectivities, diets and inclusion of diversity.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, June 09)

The notion of subjectivation is employed in the human and social sciences to define the dynamic and complex process of definition of the self. In this process, several factors interact, both rising from ... [more ▼]

The notion of subjectivation is employed in the human and social sciences to define the dynamic and complex process of definition of the self. In this process, several factors interact, both rising from those which appear as inner needs and from cultural and social expectations. This occurs at different levels of the individual’s everyday life’s experience, one of which is the material one. At this level we find diets, which actively perform on corporeality meant as embodied self. The materiality of food habits and culinary practices is the site where the stratified definition of individual subjectivity take place and where cultural and social belongings are represented and negotiated. In order to support this statement, I will present the life history of the key informant of my doctoral research that was devoted to the culinary practices of a group of Moroccan women living in context of migration. The ethnographic data were collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted in Milan hinterland (Italy). Through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, I studied the way of eating of this woman and her family. Their diet was influenced by several factors, among which the most relevant one was the illness of one of the children, a young girl suffering from diabetes mellitus. The (micro)materiality of food choices made by her mother for her nourishment, played a crucial role in the definition of the girl’s body and of its representation. In fact, this woman negotiated her culinary practices, stemming from her embodied memory, with medical prescriptions and instruments in order to restore her child’s body to health and thus shaping it as socially acceptable. We see a double-direction movement involving food and the body: the incorporation of appropriate nourishment, assured by a strict measurement of food biological components, and the excorporation of some physiological functions delegated to external medical devices. Such dynamics are aimed at making the child’s body comply with those biomedical norms that control the individuals’ access to the “healthy collectivity”. The medical work on the body through food corresponds to the normalization of the cultural Other’s ways of eating, a process that seems to be fundamental to migrants’ integration in the host society. In this paper I will discuss these issues focusing on food practices as material culture which actively participates to the embodied process of subjectivation. I will support my presentation with visual materials. [less ▲]

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See detailDual actions of neuroestrogens on the regulation of behavior
Cornil, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2015, June 08)

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See detailTopology optimization of mechanical and aerospace components subject to fatigue stress constraints
Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Collet, Maxime ULg; Bauduin, Simon ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 08)

While topology optimization has been based mostly on compliance type formulations, industrial applications call for more elaborated formulations including several restrictions on the local displacements ... [more ▼]

While topology optimization has been based mostly on compliance type formulations, industrial applications call for more elaborated formulations including several restrictions on the local displacements and the stress constraints in some critical zones. Topology optimization with stress constraints was initially considered in Duysinx & Bendsoe (1998). Later the stress constraint formulation was further extended to consider non equal stress constraints limits Bruggi & Duysinx (2012) and to improve the solution efficiency using different strategies such as global stress constraint formulations (Duysinx & Sigmund, 1998, Le et al. 2010). In the present work, the authors are investigating the formulations of stress constraint topology optimization to support the redesign of structural components that have to be fabricated using additive manufacturing. In this perspective, design problem requirements include tackling fatigue constraints during stress constrained topology optimization. The work investigates different formulations of fatigue resistance which could be appropriate in a topology approach. At first the classical approach of mechanical engineering based on SN curves and Goodman or Soderberg lines. The treatment of these fatigue restrictions can take advantage of former work developed for unequal stress constraints by considering mean and alternating components of the stress state. In a second step our research is now focussing on more complex situations (3D stress states) which require resorting to more advanced criteria. Dang Van fatigue theory (Dang Van, Griveau, Message, 1989) has been selected but calls for a more elaborated procedure that is currently validated. Topology optimized structural layouts predicted using classical stress criteria, Goodman and Dang Van theories are compared. [less ▲]

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See detailA level set approach for the structural optimization of flexible mechanisms
Tromme, Emmanuel ULg; Tortorelli, Daniel; Bruls, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 08)

With the evolution of virtual prototyping, mechanical systems are commonly analyzed using a multibody system (MBS) approach to study the behavior of the entire system and notably the dynamic interactions ... [more ▼]

With the evolution of virtual prototyping, mechanical systems are commonly analyzed using a multibody system (MBS) approach to study the behavior of the entire system and notably the dynamic interactions between the components. Modern structural optimization of mechanical systems considers the dynamic loading exerted on the individual flexible components. The consideration is an essential feature and can be implemented in two ways. Firstly, one can consider a strong coupling wherein the component’s optimization is performed using the time dependent loading conditions coming directly from the MBS simulation. Secondly, one can consider a weak coupling wherein the component’s optimization is performed using a series of static load cases that do not fully account for the interactions between the components of the MBS. Rather this approach performs a MBS simulation to evaluate the loads for the initial design and then optimizes the component assuming the loads do not change. The process of evaluating the loads and then performing the optimization is repeated until suitable convergence criteria is satisfied, assuming convergence is possible. The present paper focuses on the strong coupling method wherein the flexible MBS dynamic analysis is based on a nonlinear finite element formalism [1]. A level set (LS) description of the component geometry is used to enable a generalized shape optimization. The LS approach combines the advantages of shape and topology optimizations. Moreover, since the component boundaries are defined by CAD features, the manufacturing process is facilitated as no post-processing step of a rasterized design is required. The design sensitivity analysis for MBS is revisited in order to facilitate its implementation. The optimization of a slider-crank mechanism and a 2-dof robot is provided to exemplify the procedure. [1] Géradin M., Cardona A. (2001) Flexible Multibody Dynamics: A Finite Element Approach. John Wiley & Sons, New York. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of metal hyperaccumulation: gene regulation in Arabidopsis halleri
Hanikenne, Marc ULg

Conference (2015, June 08)

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See detailRole of double stranded DNA in allergic inflammation.
Marichal, Thomas ULg

Conference (2015, June 06)

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See detailStatistical analysis and multi-instrument overview of the quasi-periodic 1-hour pulsations in the Saturn's outer magnetosphere
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULg; Roussos, Elias; Krupp, Norbert et al

Conference (2015, June 05)

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See detailUse and utility of combined solute and heat tracer tests for characterizing hydrogeothermal properties of an alluvial aquifer
Klepikova, Maria; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 05)

Using heat as a tracer together with a solute tracer is interesting for characterizing hydrogeothermal properties of the underground. These properties are particularly needed to dimension any low ... [more ▼]

Using heat as a tracer together with a solute tracer is interesting for characterizing hydrogeothermal properties of the underground. These properties are particularly needed to dimension any low temperature geothermal project using an open doublet system (pumping-reinjection) in a shallow aquifer. The tracing experiment, conducted in the alluvial aquifer of the River Meuse (Hermalle near Liège), consisted in injecting simultaneously heated water at 40°C and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring the evolution of temperature and tracer concentration in the recovery well and in nine monitoring piezometers located in three transects with regards to the main groundwater flow direction. The breakthrough curves measured in the recovery well showed that heat transfer in the alluvial aquifer is slower. All measured results show also that the heat diffusivity is larger than the solute dispersion. These contrasted behaviours are stressed in the lower permeability zones of the aquifer. Inverse modelling is applied for calibrating the numerical simulation of the groundwater flow, heat and solute transport. First results are presented showing that the density effect must be taken into account and that, as expected, the most important parameter to be calibrated accurately is the hydraulic conductivity. [less ▲]

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See detailLes paralysies récurrentielles chez l'adulte
Finck, Camille ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

diagnostic et prise en charge thérapeutique des paralysies laryngées

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See detailRenewable and non-renewable intermittent energy sources: Friends and foes?
Jacqmin, Julien ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

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See detailLe vocabulaire médical attesté dans les lettres privées grecques de l’Égypte byzantine (284-641 apr. J.-C.)
Ricciardetto, Antonio ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

Parmi les centaines de milliers de papyrus découverts dans les sables d’Égypte, une cinquantaine de lettres privées écrites en grec et datées entre le règne de Dioclétien (284-305) et le VIIe siècle font ... [more ▼]

Parmi les centaines de milliers de papyrus découverts dans les sables d’Égypte, une cinquantaine de lettres privées écrites en grec et datées entre le règne de Dioclétien (284-305) et le VIIe siècle font référence à une maladie survenue à un particulier, qui peut être identifié, soit à l'expéditeur ou au destinataire de la lettre, soit à une tierce personne. Comment ces lettres, qui, en principe, n'émanent pas du monde médical, désignent-elles et décrivent-elles la maladie, son évolution et son issue ? C'est à cette question que l'on s'efforcera de répondre, en soulignant l'apport de ces documents à l'histoire de la santé et des maladies dans l’Égypte byzantine. [less ▲]

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See detailAgressions sexuelles et processus sociocognitifs d’acceptation de la transgression au sein d’une population d’étudiants Universitaires.
Eloy, Noémie ULg; Garcet, Serge ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

La question des violences sexuelles au sein des populations étudiantes suscite de plus en plus d’attention. L’actualité nous rapporte que pas moins de 85 universités américaines dont Princeton et Harvard ... [more ▼]

La question des violences sexuelles au sein des populations étudiantes suscite de plus en plus d’attention. L’actualité nous rapporte que pas moins de 85 universités américaines dont Princeton et Harvard sont placées sous surveillance fédérale en raison des agressions sexuelles vécues par 17 à 25 % des étudiantes. Toujours Outre-Atlantique, près de 40 % des violences sexuelles perpétrées touchent des jeunes filles âgées de 18 à 24 ans. De nombreuses études dans différents pays, dont la Belgique, rendent compte de la présence d’une multitude de facteurs de risques rendant l’analyse de ce phénomène complexe. Parmi ceux-ci, on évoque notamment l’alcoolisation importante tant des auteurs que des victimes. On relève des abus de substance pour 74 % des auteurs et 55 % des victimes et la surconsommation de boissons alcoolisées entraîne des agressions sexuelles d’intensité variables chez 25 % des étudiantes aux prises avec ce type de situations festives ou folkloriques. En Belgique, les recherches rapportent également que 10 à 13 % des rapports sexuels dans ces moments de consommation font l’objet de regrets de la part des jeunes victimes alcoolisées. Mais d’autres facteurs sont également à prendre en compte pour appréhender la question des violences sexuelles dans les milieux estudiantins. En effet, celles-ci ne sont pas uniquement perpétrées durant des moments d’excès mais également dans des situations quotidiennes et essentiellement par des proches (80 % des victimes connaissent leur agresseur). Il faut dès lors se pencher sur la complexité des représentations sous-jacentes aux comportements d’abus sexuels tant chez l’auteur que chez la victime et s’interroger sur la dynamique du consentement. L’idéal d’un consentement libre et éclairé est souvent mis à mal et internalisé tant par l’auteur que par la victime en fonction de la multiplicité des réalités subjectivement apprises. Il apparaît que cette forme de violence sexuelle intra-universitaire est avant tout une violence de genres. Du point de vue des agresseurs, le « laddism », la « culture des mecs », comme elle est parfois appelée, se révèle être une approche machiste et ludique des rapports de genres. Ceux-ci véhiculent une multiplicité de stéréotypes sexuels qui tendent à réduire la jeune femme au rang d’objet sexuel pouvant être le moteur de jeux ou de paris comme le «underhanding» par lequel les étudiants « s’amusent » à glisser la main dans les sous vêtement de victimes féminines non consentantes, ou encore amenant les auteurs à comptabiliser le nombre de rapports sexuels durant une soirée festive sur un campus. A l’inverse, du point de vue des victimes féminines, dont seulement 12 % portent plainte, la récurrence des comportements d’agressions sexuelles engendre une banalisation des formes mineures de sexualisation de relations telles que des remarques ou des blagues sexistes, des regards appuyés sur des parties anatomiques, des attouchements,… Notre recherche poursuit deux objectifs. Le premier est de constituer un état des lieux actualisé des comportements connotés sexuellement pouvant être vécus comme intrusifs au sein de populations étudiantes de diverses universités. Cet état des lieux vise à rendre compte du caractère multiforme des violences sexuelles, leurs caractéristiques allant de la simple remarque sexiste à l’agression sexuelle proprement dite ainsi que leurs prévalences. Nous étudions également différentes variables susceptibles d’influer sur la perception des comportements sexuels et sur la tolérance vis-à-vis de ceux-ci et pouvant constituer des facteurs de risques de passage à l’acte chez l’auteur autant que de victimisation. Le second objectif est d’analyser, selon une perspective sociocognitive, les systèmes de représentations qui sous-tendent le point de rupture entre le consentement et l’agression sexuelle définissant le caractère transgressif de l’acte tant chez l’auteur que la victime. La méthodologie s’appuie sur l’administration, auprès d’un panel mixte de plusieurs centaines d’étudiants universitaires, toutes facultés confondues, d’un questionnaire de victimisation et de délinquance auto-révélée. Dans cette communication, nous présentons la première phase de résultats de la recherche réalisée au sein de l’Université de Liège sur une population de plusieurs centaines d’étudiants. [less ▲]

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See detailApports de l’analyse d’unités médiatrices sociocognitives tels que les schémas précoces inadaptés sur la compréhension et la prédiction de comportements d’agressions sexuelles.
Garcet, Serge ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

Face à la complexité de la problématique de l’agression sexuelle, la compréhension du phénomène s’appuie pour certains modèles explicatifs sur l’agresseur sexuel et ses caractéristiques propres tant ... [more ▼]

Face à la complexité de la problématique de l’agression sexuelle, la compréhension du phénomène s’appuie pour certains modèles explicatifs sur l’agresseur sexuel et ses caractéristiques propres tant internes au niveau d’éventuels troubles de personnalité, de distorsions cognitives, de fantaisies imaginatives sous-jacentes notamment, qu’externes en envisageant par exemple l’environnement familial, l’adaptation sociale ou encore d’éventuels traumatismes précoces,... D’autres modèles encore proposent une analyse catégorielle basée sur une lecture criminologique structurée autour des modes d’agressions et des caractéristiques de l’acte (violence, désinhibition,…). Ces différentes caractéristiques sont régulièrement envisagées conjointement lors de l’évaluation en expertise, d’une éventuelle dangerosité et du risque de récidive mais trop souvent au travers d’une lecture statique des interactions. Il est cependant maintenant scientifiquement bien établi que nos comportements résultent d’un déterminisme réciproque entre nos actions, nos processus de traitements sociocognitifs et notre environnement. Il est également bien étayé dans la littérature que ce que nous appelons « la personnalité » implique différents mécanismes autoréflexifs et autorégulateurs qui déterminent autant notre façon de nous représenter le monde qui nous entoure que nos façons d’interagir au travers de nos comportements. C’est pourquoi il nous paraît important de prendre en compte ces unités médiatrices de traitement sociocognitif lorsque nous sommes confrontés à l’évaluation d’agresseurs sexuels. Dans une perspective théorique de compréhension des mécanismes sous-jacents aux actes d’agression sexuelle et expertale autant que clinique d’appréhender la réalité singulière du délinquant sexuel dans ses interactions avec le monde qui l’entoure, notre communication vise à montrer l’intérêt d’une approche psychocriminologique qui prenne en compte ces processus de traitement de l’information des auteurs pour comprendre les comportements d’agressions sexuelles et prédire un éventuel risque de récidive. Nous considérons qu’une analyse basée sur des unités médiatrices sociocognitives plus réduites, impliquées dans la construction de schémas ou de scripts comportementaux permet d’apporter un surcroit d’information sur les auteurs. En effet, les unités médiatrices sociocognitives impliquées dans les différents processus d’autorégulation se rapprochent davantage de la signature idiosyncrasique de la personne et affinent la compréhension que nous pouvons avoir des modes comportementaux spécifiques de l’individu dans son interaction avec son environnement. Dans un premier temps, nous avons intégré le concept de schémas selon la classification de YOUNG au modèle du Cognitive-affective personality system (CAPS) développé par MISCHEL & SHODA . Dans un effort d’intégration théorique nous avons comparé cette lecture sociocognitive que nous avons élargie avec différents modèles théoriques en matière d’agression sexuelle. Dans un second temps, nous avons analysé les profils individuels d’auteurs d’infractions à caractères sexuels rencontrés dans un cadre d’expertises et une population témoin. Après avoir analysé les caractéristiques sociodémographiques propres à chaque groupe expérimental, nous avons étudié la prévalence de différentes représentations précoces inadaptées (schémas) ainsi que le caractère dysfonctionnel de ceux-ci parmi les populations étudiées. Au côté de l’approche des schémas, nous avons également évalué les manifestations de personnalités selon les classifications DSM-IV/V. Nous avons comparé les groupes expérimentaux sur ces deux dimensions, des schémas et des caractéristiques de personnalité. Nous avons également observé les éventuels modes préférentiels de schémas et de personnalités selon le type d’infraction à caractère sexuelle. Nous avons évalué les liens existants entre les unités médiatrices sociocognitives que sont les schémas, les troubles de personnalité et les types de comportements sexuels manifestés afin d’évaluer la valeur descriptive et diagnostique de ces différents critères. Enfin, nous avons cherché à voir si la spécificité de ces unités médiatrices, pouvait contribuer à l’évaluation du risque de dangerosité et de récidive par une mise en perspective de nos résultats avec les prédictions du risque obtenues au moyen de la statique-99 de HANSON & THORNTON . [less ▲]

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See detailENMG du pied
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

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See detail"Only Questions, No Answers": Chris Abani's Dog Woman
Tunca, Daria ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

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See detailDe la victimisation à l’agression sexuelle à l’adolescence : dynamiques des Trans-Missions intra et inter-générationnelles
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

Parmi les facteurs étiologiques du passage à l’acte sexuel, la clinque et de nombreuses études mettent en exergue l’expérience antérieure de victimisation sexuelle chez les auteurs d’infraction à ... [more ▼]

Parmi les facteurs étiologiques du passage à l’acte sexuel, la clinque et de nombreuses études mettent en exergue l’expérience antérieure de victimisation sexuelle chez les auteurs d’infraction à caractère sexuel (AICS). Même si le taux de victimisation sexuelle chez les adolescents AICS est extrêmement variable d’une étude à l’autre, un vécu de victimisation, sans pour autant être le seul facteur étiologique, pourrait être considéré comme un des facteurs de risque dans une constellation plurifactorielle, et ce dans un contexte affectif et social particulier. La méta-analyse de Paolucci, Genuis et Violato (2001) révélait qu’un antécédent d’AS augmentait seulement de 8% le risque de perpétuer le cycle de victime à agresseur. Plutôt que de se centrer sur le débat portant sur les taux de prévalence existant, il nous a semblé intéressant de comprendre comment s’activent les dynamiques transmissives inter et intra-générationnelles. Le concept de cycle intergénérationnel, englobant toute forme de victimisation vécue dans l’enfance du parent et de l’enfant, a surtout été étudié chez l’enfant qui subit un abus sexuel ; notre exposé réactualisera ce concept dans le contexte de l’agression sexuelle commise par l’adolescent. Nous aborderons le cycle et la transmission de l’abus sexuel, d’une part au travers de la victimisation sexuelle d’un parent de l’adolescent commettant une agression sexuelle, et d’autre part, au travers d’un vécu de victimisation sexuelle par l’adolescent qui prend sens au niveau des agressions qu’il va commettre. C’est à partir de trois cas d’adolescent de 14 ans ayant commis des agressions sexuelles sur des enfants de jeune âge (en intra et/ou extrafamilial) que les dynamiques de transmission vont être décodées à partir d’hypothèses psycho-développementales et systémiques. Une première situation se caractérise par la levée du secret de la victimisation de la mère lors du dévoilement de l’agression sexuelle que son adolescent a commise, qui mène à envisager les dynamiques de trans-missions indirectes et de délégation par la mère, s’appuyant sur son incapacité à se connecter et à verbaliser son vécu d’abus et la rage associée, se révélant comme un des médiateurs du processus de transmission. La deuxième situation concerne un adolescent qui, tout comme sa sœur, a subi des abus sexuels par son père, et qui, à son tour, a commis de multiples abus sexuels sur sa sœur. Les dynamiques de transmission par répétition au travers du processus d’identification à l’agresseur et de légitimité destructrice seront développées. Une troisième situation d’un adolescent ayant subi des abus sexuels par un tiers extrafamilial et agissant à son tour à 14 ans des agressions sexuelles sur tous les enfants de la fratrie, nous permettra d’envisager le contexte psycho-affectif familial et de fratrie comme facilitateur de transmission intra-générationnelle. Ces trois situations illustreront la vulnérabilité de l’adolescent qui a été confronté directement ou indirectement dans son histoire personnelle et familiale à un vécu de victimisation, durant cette étape développementale qu’est l’adolescence caractérisée par des enjeux identitaires, relationnels et sexuels. [less ▲]

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See detailLe problème du primat de la pratique : entre Althusser et Foucault
Oulc'hen, Hervé ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

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See detailStrategy for financing foundations: how do they create value?
Mernier, Amélie ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

Traditionally, the research on strategy has rather focused on profit-seeking organizations whose primary objective is to generate revenues through the price mechanism. Nevertheless, all organizations ... [more ▼]

Traditionally, the research on strategy has rather focused on profit-seeking organizations whose primary objective is to generate revenues through the price mechanism. Nevertheless, all organizations benefit from developing a strategic approach (Moore 2000). This paper focuses on financing foundations, non-profit organizations that are private, non-membership based, self-governing and serving a public purpose (Anheier 2001) and that make grants, give loans or hold equity. The core activity of a financing foundation is to finance operating intermediaries, for example non-profit association, NGOs or social enterprises, which will then implement projects and programs directly in line with the mission of the financing foundation. During the last decades, these organizations have made a breakthrough by establishing themselves as private actors that will look after the public interest. For long, strategic thinking has been impeded in foundations because the essence of the philanthropic action was giving without any expectation in terms of social impact. Today, the legitimacy of these organizations is challenged and there is a stronger demand for efficiency reinforced by the emergence of a new philanthropy inspired by corporate management principles (e.g. venture philanthropy considered as the more advocated strategic approach (Gautier et Pache 2014) ) and the question of strategy really matters. This paper aims at designing a conceptual strategic framework for financing foundations whose ultimate goal is to create value for society. To justify the development of a specific strategic framework for financing foundations, I first compare financing foundations with other financing organization according to six dimensions: ultimate goal, sources of resources, nature of the contribution, means, logic of action and accountability. Then, I review the academic literature in the field of philanthropy having a strategy focus in order to highlight the current gaps in the literature. Only few authors give a comprehensive view of the strategic question for this type of organization. Existing papers focus only on fragments of strategy and tackle two strategic issues: the mission statement and the evaluation. The decision-making processes by which the initial objectives are achieved are ignored; the strategic choices which philanthropic organizations make to fulfill their mission have not yet been identified. Based on the identification of key strategic commitments (in terms of scope and mechanisms) underlying the implementation of the predefined social mission and two crucial trade-offs (impact expectation and level of mission objectivity), the strategic dimensions of a financing foundations, leading to value creation for the society, are conceptualized. Two processes of value creation are distinguished: direct and indirect value creation. The course of actions chosen by a financing foundation is closely connected to its ultimate goal that is, increase the utility of a target group of beneficiaries (i.e. direct value creation). In addition, even if the very objective of the financing foundation is not to increase the utility of its donors and founders, it is effectively what happens (i.e. indirect value creation). The empirical research that will be conducted based on the strategic conceptual framework is then described and additional research questions are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailTSP model for electric vehicle deliveries, considering speed, loading and road grades
Bay, Maud ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Conference (2015, June 05)

The objective usually considered in sustainable transportation is to minimize pollution due to emissions, and equivalently energy consumption. Turning to electric mobility, pollution is related to ... [more ▼]

The objective usually considered in sustainable transportation is to minimize pollution due to emissions, and equivalently energy consumption. Turning to electric mobility, pollution is related to electricity production technology, not considered in this research; driving range is the major concern nowadays, due to the limited capacity of batteries and long recharge times . Maximizing the driving range or the level of energy (state of charge of the battery) at destination leads to consider the main factors of energy consumption which are : vehicle weight, engine efficiency and consumption models, drive speed and acceleration, drive pattern, road grade, and payload. We define the electric vehicle travelling salesman problem (EV-TSP) and the electric vehicle routing problem (E-VRP) based on the classical TSP and on the Pollution Routing Problem (PRP) and present models and preliminary results for those problems. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of dimeric ligands for the benzothiadiazine dioxide allosteric binding site of the AMPA receptors
Drapier, Thomas ULg; Francotte, Pierre ULg; Pirotte, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 04)

L-glutamic acid is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It exerts its effects through metabotropic and ionotropic receptors. Among the latter, three subtypes have been identified: NMDA ... [more ▼]

L-glutamic acid is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. It exerts its effects through metabotropic and ionotropic receptors. Among the latter, three subtypes have been identified: NMDA, AMPA and KA receptors. It is now well established that a deficit in glutamatergic signaling may be responsible for neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, depression, mild cognitive impairment and ADHD. Enhancement of the signal through positive allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors might be a therapeutic issue for these diseases. These compounds are expected to exert a fine tuning of the signal. Since they require the presence of the endogenous ligand to be active, they are expected to induce less toxicity than agonists. In this context, based on the structure of known allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors such as cyclothiazide (1) and IDRA 21 (2), the Laboratory of Medicinal Chemistry (University of Liège) has developed a series of 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides with high potency as AMPA receptor potentiators, among which compounds (3) and (4). Crystallographic data obtained by the Department of Medicinal Chemistry (University of Copenhagen) highlighted that (3) and (4) bind to two contiguous sites at the dimer interface of the ligand binding domain of the AMPA receptor1,2. From these data, we may expect that the synthesis of dimeric molecules could lead to further improvement in affinity and activity. Our work consists in the development of a family of dimeric benzothiadiazine dioxides and their evaluation in a pharmacological assay. Several structural parameters such as the position of the bridge on the aromatic ring between the two heterocycles as well as its nature and length will be studied in order to determine their impact on the activity and thus the affinity. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dimension adaptative du fonctionnement pervers : une question complexe
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Mazaleigue-Labaste, Julie; Mormont, Christian ULg

Conference (2015, June 04)

Après avoir rappelé la différence entre perversion et fonctionnement psychologique pervers, nous proposerons une réflexion éthologique et écologique qui s’appuiera sur une pratique clinique en hôpital ... [more ▼]

Après avoir rappelé la différence entre perversion et fonctionnement psychologique pervers, nous proposerons une réflexion éthologique et écologique qui s’appuiera sur une pratique clinique en hôpital sécuritaire avec plusieurs patients au fonctionnement psychologique pervers. Dans un raisonnement où nous distinguons la signification d’un comportement de sa fonction, il apparaît que la maîtrise du territoire et du rang social sont des « facultés » perverses observables. Nous suggérons de concevoir le pervers comme un individu hyper-adapté à un environnement social (la prison, par exemple, mais pas seulement) dont il maîtrise remarquablement l’art de la relation et de la « territorialisation ». Nous mettrons également en évidence les grandes compétences perceptives de ces patients (notamment via une réponse au test de Rorschach) et la maitrise fulgurante de l’intuition relationnelle. L’ensemble de ces caractéristiques font du pervers un être très « compétent » d’un point de vue social. Ceci explique, lorsqu’ils s’expriment sur le terrain de la délinquance, la dimension « imparable » des actes criminels de ces individus. Au-delà de cette adaptation sociale performante et remarquable, surviennent néanmoins des moments paradoxaux où la « désadaptation » est complète. Ces « moments pervers », qui sont rencontrés dans la clinique avec ces patients et qui apparaissent inexplicables d’un point de vue éthologique et adaptatif, sont des phénomènes essentiels à mettre en évidence dans un processus d’évaluation diagnostique. Dès lors, le pervers doit être considéré comme un être dont le fonctionnement adaptatif est complexe, fluctuant sur un continuum entre hyper-adaptation (la plupart du temps) et inadaptation (s’exprimant sous la forme d’un hiatus). Précisons, en outre, que ce modèle adaptatif suggère clairement que le fonctionnement psychologique pervers n’est pas l’apanage du sujet délinquant sexuel, pas plus qu’il n’est celui du délinquant en règle général. Ce mode de fonctionnement est également à identifier dans de nombreuses situations sociales où l’exercice du pouvoir sur autrui est accepté voire encouragé. Pour conclure, nous insisterons sur le fait qu’un fonctionnement psychologique pervers est complexe à mettre en évidence, notamment parce qu’il demande du temps et le développement de qualités d’observation parfois difficilement opérationnelles dans certaines situations cliniques ou d’expertise. Pour pouvoir améliorer la connaissance de ce fonctionnement, cette entité demande une reconnaissance nosographique et diagnostique propre. Notre hypothèse d’une hyper-adaptation pourrait être éprouvée par des méthodes cognitives. Nous pensons, par exemple, à un dispositif proposant des tâches de résolutions de problèmes sans issue. Cependant, l’on peut se demander s’il est raisonnable d’envisager d’avoir une connaissance nomothétique de la personnalité perverse. Le nombre restreint de sujets « disponibles » pour une évaluation, leur logique insaisissable, leur tendance au refus de collaborer à une étude s’ils n’y trouvent pas avantage, etc. Ces arguments font que le sujet pervers échappe presque par principe aux méthodes de recherche conventionnelles. Cela ne veut évidemment pas dire que l’entité nosographique n’existe pas. Tout en connaissant le lourd tribut que peut représenter le fait d’apposer ce diagnostic à propos d’un sujet, nous estimons, néanmoins, qu’il est important de pouvoir le mettre en évidence lorsqu’il est présent (comme il est, par ailleurs, essentiel de se garder de le poser lorsqu’il est absent). Pour ce faire, la répétition et l’observation sont les seuls moyens de parvenir à objectiver ce type de fonctionnement en réduisant le risque d’identifier des faux positifs. La difficulté essentielle est et restera de parvenir à parler à écrire sur le pervers. Pointer une dynamique perverse et parvenir à la faire comprendre aux autres relève presque de l’impossible car, d’une certaine manière, le pervers est toujours dans le juste. Il n’a pas toujours une bonne excuse, il a toujours une bonne raison. Le principe pervers dépasse le dicible, la dynamique perverse est difficilement verbalisable. [less ▲]

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See detailQuiproquo et personnalité perverse
Mormont, Christian ULg; Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Mazaleigue-Labaste, Julie

Conference (2015, June 04)

De la perversion, comme modalité d’accès au plaisir sexuel terminal, à la personnalité perverse, comme structure fonctionnelle, il y a un pas franchi sans même que l’on s’en rende compte, comme si l’une ... [more ▼]

De la perversion, comme modalité d’accès au plaisir sexuel terminal, à la personnalité perverse, comme structure fonctionnelle, il y a un pas franchi sans même que l’on s’en rende compte, comme si l’une engendrait naturellement l’autre et vice-versa. Pourtant Freud déjà soulignait que le fait de présenter une perversion sexuelle n’impliquait en rien ni une personnalité particulière ni une pathologie mentale quelconque. Mais alors, que désigne-t-on comme personnalité perverse en l’absence de perversion sexuelle? Quel isomorphisme entre le fonctionnement sexuel et le fonctionnement psychique permet-il cette assimilation? En bref, on peut proposer que la non perception de l’objet désiré entraîne une déception à laquelle certains sont incapables de se résigner. Sur le plan sexuel, le fétiche remplirait, par substitution, cette fonction d’objet désiré déniant l’absence du « véritable » objet attendu (le pénis). De façon plus globale, le non renoncement à l’objet désiré mais défaillant induirait une double réaction, consistant l’une en l’inversion de la situation de privation vécue passivement en conduite active de quête d’une réparation, l’autre en un investissement de tout élément par lequel une satisfaction indue vient signifier le triomphe sur la déception. Ce modèle se défausse quelque peu du modèle freudien fondé sur l’angoisse de castration pour favoriser un modèle plus fondamental, moins spécifique centré sur l’intolérance à la limitation et sur la recherche systématique du dépassement des limites comme moyen de s’assurer contre le manque. La transgression n’est qu’un cas particulier du dépassement des limites, et la transgression de la loi, un cas particulier de transgression. Le modèle suppose que l’on admette l’hypothèse du quiproquo (qui pro quo) en tant qu’opération par laquelle le désir « préfère » se satisfaire d’un substitut, d’un ersatz (qui) qui entretient son illusion d’omnipotence et évite l’angoisse du manque (du pénis ou de tout autre objet désiré) en le prenant pour (pro) l’objet désiré (quo), plutôt que d’admettre la réalité décevante de l’absence de l’objet. Cette approche semble pouvoir rendre compte des aspects cliniques tant des perversions sexuelles que de la personnalité perverse, en ce que l’une et l’autre sont des formes d’insoumission à la réalité, avec les aspects problématiques mais aussi créatifs qu’elles impliquent. Les notions de déni et de clivage du moi sont, dans un langage théorique ou un autre, nécessaires pour rendre compte de la coexistence d’attitudes différentes et incompatibles vis-à-vis de la réalité. Elles devraient amener à avoir une lecture moins moralisatrice et stéréotypée de ce qui est qualifié de manipulation, insincérité, malignité chez les « pervers ». [less ▲]

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See detailLe statut politique d’une énonciation médiatique “transparente” : révélation – monstration – apparition
Servais, Christine ULg

Conference (2015, June 04)

Il s’agit de se demander quelles peuvent être, dans le cas des discours médiatiques, les conséquences d’une logique de la transparence sur la constitution de l’espace public, en partant d’une analyse de ... [more ▼]

Il s’agit de se demander quelles peuvent être, dans le cas des discours médiatiques, les conséquences d’une logique de la transparence sur la constitution de l’espace public, en partant d’une analyse de l’énonciation journalistique. Les discours médiatiques sont considérés comme opérant une médiation, c’est-à-dire une “mise au monde” (Mouillaud et Tétu, 1989) des individus destinataires, cette “mise au monde” impliquant une proposition de monde et un appel à un collectif susceptible d’en répondre, sur le modèle du jugement de goût kantien tel qu’il est analysé dans sa dimension politique par Arendt (1991). Cette position théorique a pour corollaire de considérer que l’énonciation médiatique est inachevée et ne peut être achevée que par celui (journaliste ou public) qui en répond ; la question de la responsabilité y est par conséquent susceptible de témoigner d’une inscription politique des discours. Les médias d’information se modèlent depuis quelques décennies sur un idéal d’objectivité (ou d’impartialité) qui les conduit à préférer des formes discursives opérant un effacement des marques énonciatives (Koren, 2006). Parallèlement, l’un de leurs discours de légitimité repose sur un devoir de révélation, entendue comme lutte contre l’obscurité ou le secret, et s’exprimant dans le genre “noble” de l’investigation. Si la révélation peut en soi renvoyer à un principe de publicité porteur de normes, de droits, de valeurs, l’idéal d’objectivité mène au contraire à refuser d’assumer un point de vue et, du même coup, à refuser d’assumer que le discours soit porteur de principes normatifs sujets à discussion. Or, on peut estimer qu’objectivité et révélation se rencontrent dans une forme énonciative propre, qui doit en partie son expansion aux innovations technologiques récentes : la monstration. Il s’agira d’analyser cette forme énonciative particulière de la transparence que constitue la monstration, en la confrontant d’une part au principe de révélation, et d’autre part à la notion d’apparition formalisée par Rancière (1995). Si la révélation est fondée sur une logique du dévoilement et l’apparition sur une logique de l’apparence (Rancière, 1995), la monstration relève d’une logique de l’évidence. Son mode d’adresse au destinataire, la manière dont elle “met en corps son lectorat” (Muhlmann, 2004) et les collectifs qu’elle configure ou dont elle se soutient sont par conséquent très différents. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironnement incertain et passage à l'acte violent à l'adolescence
Boulard, Aurore ULg; Gavray, Claire ULg

Conference (2015, June 04)

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See detailPertes et Conflits de Loyauté dans les Nouvelles Familles
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

Conference (2015, June 04)

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See detailLa perversion dans la nosographie : Analyse conceptuelle et historique, pistes de réflexion pour la clinique
Mazaleigue-Labaste, Julie; Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Mormont, Christian ULg

Conference (2015, June 04)

Nous souhaitons proposer une approche conceptuelle de la perversion à partir de son histoire au XIXe et au XXe siècle dans la psychiatrie européenne et américaine. Il apparaît en effet que Ce type ... [more ▼]

Nous souhaitons proposer une approche conceptuelle de la perversion à partir de son histoire au XIXe et au XXe siècle dans la psychiatrie européenne et américaine. Il apparaît en effet que Ce type d’analyse épistémologique clarifiera nombre de problèmes inhérents au concept de perversion, et sera en mesure de fournir des pistes de réflexion pour la clinique. En nous appuyant sur un travail de sources approfondi et sur l’exposition des grands moments de l’histoire du concept de perversion du XIXe siècle à aujourd’hui, nous proposerons trois pistes d’analyse critique. (1) La première consiste à mettre en évidence, à l’encontre de toute une tradition intellectuelle et historiographique, que la question originairement posée par la perversion n’est pas de l’ordre du dysfonctionnement psychosexuel, ou sexuel. Il apparaît plutôt que c’est à partir d’un autre type de problème rencontré précocement par les psychiatres français (1820-30), notamment dans l’exercice médico-légal, que le concept de « perversion » a été forgé, et par la suite appliqué à la sexualité comme à un sous-domaine clinique parmi d’autres. La connaissance psychiatrique se distinguant du savoir sexologique, les tentatives de construire un concept psychopathologique de perversion qui soit non sexuel apparaissent donc comme pertinentes a priori. C’est le chemin qu’ont pris un certain nombre de théories sur la perversion au XXe siècle qui ont mené à la « dé-sexualiser » (relativement), que nous nous proposons de retracer. (2) La seconde piste concerne le problème qu’ont rencontré les premiers psychiatres dans leur exercice médico-légal face à la grande criminalité, puis la délinquance. C’est en effet dans le cadre de la première psychiatrie criminelle en France (1820-1830) qu’a été construit le concept psychopathologique de perversion dont nous sommes toujours les héritiers, en vue de répondre à un problème cardinal : l’attribution de la responsabilité pénale face à des actes pervers difficilement compréhensibles (en raison de l’absence de motif décelable chez leurs auteurs), et donc, dans le contexte légal de l’époque, la distinction entre malades irresponsables et individus pleinement responsables et punissables. Le concept de perversion pathologique, opposé par les psychiatres au mal moral volontaire (la perversité dans le vocable du XIXe siècle), a alors d’emblée posé la question du rapport de l’acte pervers à son sujet (ou son auteur) : est-ce qu’un comportement pervers signe une subjectivité perverse, défini par un fonctionnement spécifique de l’esprit ? Ou au contraire, l’acte pervers est-il sous-déterminé, ne nous disant rien de la « personnalité » du sujet ? Cette oscillation n’a pas véritablement trouvé de consensus depuis l’apparition du concept de perversion. (3) Corollaire de la question précédente, l’on peut se demander quel est le rapport de la perversion au mal (le mal moral) ? Est-ce un rapport accidentel, comme le pensaient les premiers psychiatres (la perversion pathologique mène le sujet à commettre des actes moralement pervers sans qu’il soit lui-même pervers) ? Ou une relation intrinsèque, comme on l’affirme très souvent depuis 1850 (il y aurait une recherche du mal pour le mal dans la perversion) ? Ces trois questions nous mèneront à interroger trois points dans la conception contemporaine de la perversion. (1) Les deux premières permettent de remettre en perspective la thèse de l’adaptation du pervers, telle qu’elle est posée par Jérôme Englebert. En effet, les conceptions déficitaires de la perversion la comprenant comme désadaptation, voire inadaptabilité (Dupré, 1912/1925) ont longtemps dominé (en particulier dans la psychiatrie francophone), pour des raisons relevant à la fois du contexte matériel de la clinique délinquante et socio-politique à travers la question de la gestion de la dangerosité sociale et pénale. Il s’agit donc de comprendre dans quelle mesure penser aujourd’hui la perversion en termes d’adaptation à l’environnement représente une rupture et une nouveauté en regard de toute une tradition psychiatrique. (2) La disparition du diagnostic de perversion au profit de celui de paraphilies dans le DSM. En réalité, le concept de perversion tel que manié dans la psychiatrie francophone s’est diffracté dans la psychiatrie américaine dans différentes catégories de troubles de la personnalité et de la préférence sexuelle. Il s’agit donc d’analyser cette diffraction (et donc de proposer une analyse comparatiste), et d’interroger de manière critique le champ d’application du concept de « paraphilie ». Il semble en effet que l’erreur du DSM soit à la fois de prétendre à une classification qui reste, au fond, de type sexologique descriptive, tout en cherchant à pointer les troubles sous-jacents aux comportements sexuels qui forment le principe de la classification des paraphilies (sadisme, exhibitionnisme, etc.). Or, cela ne permet pas de définir un concept consistant de perversion : d’une part, les critères diagnostiques sont multiples et oscillants; de l’autre, à l’image des catégories de perversion sexuelle de la fin du XIXe siècle qu’ils continuent à faire fonctionner en l’état, le champ clinique couvert par chaque catégorie de paraphilies est hétérogène, ne permettant pas, par exemple, d’opérer la distinction entre des passages à l’acte de type obsessionnel (type exhibitionnisme de Lasègue) et pervers. (3) Enfin, l’oscillation entre critères diagnostiques comportementaux et psychologiques, dont le concept de perversion a été originellement affecté, perdure aujourd’hui, sous plusieurs formes qui affectent tant le diagnostic que la clinique expertale, et qu’il s’agit d’analyser : dans quelle mesure est-il possible de penser le comportement pervers sans sujet pervers, et, à l’inverse, d’isoler un fonctionnement ou une structure perverse au delà des comportements ? [less ▲]

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