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See detailSymposium - Echec scolaire, redoublement ou décrochage : les croyances des enseignants sous la loupe…
Fagnant, Annick ULg; Poncelet, Débora

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailComment favoriser la régulation interactive lors d’activités de résolution de problèmes en petits groupes ?
Demonty, Isabelle ULg; Dupont, Virginie ULg; Fagnant, Annick ULg

Conference (2013, August)

De nombreuses recherches ont mis en évidence les difficultés importantes rencontrées par les élèves face aux problèmes complexes. En vue d’éclairer ces difficultés et de rechercher des pistes didactiques ... [more ▼]

De nombreuses recherches ont mis en évidence les difficultés importantes rencontrées par les élèves face aux problèmes complexes. En vue d’éclairer ces difficultés et de rechercher des pistes didactiques susceptibles de soutenir les apprentissages, la présente recherche s’intéresse aux régulations interactives entre élèves dans trois modalités de travaux de groupes proposant différents « outils » susceptibles de favoriser les démarches autorégulatrices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe « boring billion » : an exciting time for early eukaryotes !
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Beghin, Jérémie ULg; Houzay, JP et al

Conference (2013, August)

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See detailComparison of three NDT techniques for the inspection of aeronautic composite structures
Dubé, Robin; Scheed, Laurent; Lewandoswki, Jacques et al

Conference (2013, July 28)

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See detailScience and the Belgian Dynasty during the reign of Albert I
Pirot, Pascal ULg

Conference (2013, July 27)

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See detailLalande on Africa: science policies in late eighteenth-century France and the growing interest for the exploration of the continent's inner regions
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2013, July 27)

In his Mémoire sur l’intérieur de l’Afrique (An III de la République, 1794-95) the influential French scholar Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (1732-1807) outlines the goals of a project which directly ... [more ▼]

In his Mémoire sur l’intérieur de l’Afrique (An III de la République, 1794-95) the influential French scholar Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (1732-1807) outlines the goals of a project which directly links scientific exploration to the needs of the State, urging both men of learning and state officials to work closely together in the organization of research missions that enhance man’s knowledge of the geography, natural history and commerce of Africa’s yet unknown inner regions – in particular the vast area between Senegal and the Sudan. This paper analyzes Lalande’s aims, arguments and claims against the background of scientific, commercial, political and military tensions between France and Britain. It situates Lalande’s discourse within the broader context of the competing “science policies” of both states in the second half of the eighteenth century. The notion of “science policy” as a working hypothesis refers to the way a government applies the knowledge and expertise provided by the scientific world according to the needs of the country. It is an investigation of the sudden re-emergence of Africa as an object of knowledge in the relationship between power and science. The paper focuses on the continuous interaction between France and Britain in African affairs, and highlights the shift from a mere “enlightened” exploration from the 1720s to the 1780s – a period which saw, on the one hand, the progressive integration of useful knowledge gathered by explorers in African coastal regions into the French “colonial” system, and, on the other hand, the installation of an informal structure of knowledge transfer at the British side – towards Lalande’s revolutionary time – the 1790s – when Africa became the subject of a “Banksian” takeover, enhancing British interest in the “unknown” interior of the African continent by setting up large-scale, interrelated research missions with practical goals (the expeditions organized by the African Association, e.g. Mungo Park), but also provoking reactions from the French side, a reflection of which can be found in Lalande’s dissertation, thus stimulating a new wave of French initiatives in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailLocal order, dynamics and stability of C and N doped phase change materials
Hippert, Françoise; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Noé, Pierre et al

Conference (2013, July 26)

Doping Chalcogenide Phase Change Materials, such as Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe used in non-volatile phase change memories, was shown to improve the stability of the amorphous phase and to strongly increase the ... [more ▼]

Doping Chalcogenide Phase Change Materials, such as Ge2Sb2Te5 and GeTe used in non-volatile phase change memories, was shown to improve the stability of the amorphous phase and to strongly increase the crystallization temperature. We combined total X-ray scattering experiments [1], Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy and ab initio Molecular Dynamics simulations to address the stabilization of the amorphous phase of GeTe doped with Carbon or Nitrogen. The comparison between the simulation and exp erimental results allows in depth understanding of the role of dopants. They deeply modify the structure of the amorphous phase by introducing tetrahedral units centered on C or N, triangular environments and short C chains in C-doped GeTe, N-Ge3 pyramids and N2 molecules in N-doped GeTe. One major difference between N and C doping is the fact that C can form short bonds with Te, although in smaller proportion than C-Ge, while short N-Te bonds are absent in N-doped GeTe. The inclusion of C or N leads to an increase in high frequency vibrational modes, to a reduction of the density of floppy vibrational modes that drive the crystallization and to an increase of the rigidity. This stabilization mechanism could apply more generally to various GST materials as well as to other iono-covalent glasses. [1] G.E. Ghezzi, J.Y.Raty, S. Maitrejean, A. Roule, E. Elkaim and F. Hippert, Appl. Phys. Lett. 99 (2011) 151906 [less ▲]

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See detailSaussure's contribution to Hjelmslev's notion of "subconscious"
Cigana, Lorenzo ULg

Conference (2013, July 26)

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See detailSynthesis and new definition of the areas included in the urban-rural gradient
Andre, Marie ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2013, July 26)

Every scientific studies should begin with the delimitation of the studied system. Ours aims at evaluating and quantifying the resistence of landscape classes and ecosystems to the urbanization process ... [more ▼]

Every scientific studies should begin with the delimitation of the studied system. Ours aims at evaluating and quantifying the resistence of landscape classes and ecosystems to the urbanization process. This is done by studying a dozen cities in sub-Saharan Africa, conducting a diachronic (2000 - 2010) landscape evolution analysis from SPOT satellite imagery. Paradoxaly, when tackling this subject, one must recognize that no consensus exists about the definition and localization of the areas included in the urban-rural gradient. This prevents from comparing the results of different cities. A bibliography analysis has been conducted in order to 1) identify the different areas in the urban-rural gradient, the characteristics and types of characteristics used to define the most cited ones (i.e. urban, suburbs, sprawl, exurban, rurban, periurban and rural) ; 2) Through citation frequency indexes, evaluate the relative importance of characteristics and types of characteristics for every area and then for the whole gradient; 3) Evaluate the principal characteristics according to a series of criteria (the best characteristic is supposed to be quantitative, integrative, marking a consensus, discriminative and easy to apply on the field); 4) On the basis of retained characteristics, propose single and simple definitions to the most cited areas. These new definitions aim at enable areas identification on the field and on satellite images. These new definitions have been applied to the field study of the city of Lubumbashi (D.R.C) and seem to be convenient. Retained characteristics have then been translated into landscape composition indexes for the future study of the following cities on basis of satellite imagery, without field research. Indeed, such indexes are commonly used in landscape ecology because they allow the description of the urban landscape pattern or structure which, according to the central hypothesis of landscape ecology, i.e. “pattern-process paradigm”, influence landscape ecological processes. [less ▲]

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See detailPiranesi's Haunt: the fascination for paradoxical spaces in the aesthetics of architecture today.
Dawans, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2013, July 24)

Rem Koolhaas, a major provocative figure on the global scene of architecture theory since 1978—when he published Delirious New York—clearly bases his rhetorics on obsessive patterns such as the loop or ... [more ▼]

Rem Koolhaas, a major provocative figure on the global scene of architecture theory since 1978—when he published Delirious New York—clearly bases his rhetorics on obsessive patterns such as the loop or intertwined spaces claimed as Piranesian. This is notably the case in Euralille, this large urban complex meant to revive the old French industrial city, where the reference to the 18th-century engraver is most obvious in a large destructured hall, in an accumulation of stairs, footbridges and escalators which, on the way out of the railway station, are deliberate reminders of the engravings of imaginary jails that emerged from the Venetian artist’s brain. Of course engraving, painting, photography and cinema have been using similar processes for quite some time to create a dizzying sensation with the spectator. Those high and low angle views of entangled planes based on seemingly paradoxical geometry denote a willingness to use the features of the sublime to create mixed feelings of fascination and anguish or to remind mankind of their mortal condition, in other words, of their finite nature. Romanticism is known to have been quite inspired by this dramatic force. Yet what appeals to us in this revival of an aesthetics of the sublime is that it now crosses a new border as it imposes itself into public space, into city life. If films or 3ds digital games attract informed and consenting viewers, Piranesian spaces—Koolhaas also speaks of Junkspace—impose themselves to all and dramatize the modern man’s anguish without the slightest concern for his opinion. What kinds of ethos and of pathos underlie this contemporary theory of architectural and urban spaces inspired by Piranesi’s or Escher’s engravings? What literary strategies are at play? Why can the same obsessive spatial leitmotivs be found in plane puzzles, in films and in the new urban scenery? What does this aesthetics tell us about man in the 21st century? Can we talk of post-humanism? These are some of the basic questions this paper wishes to address in relation to the symposium’s theme Architecture and Urban Space. [less ▲]

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See detailUQ benchmark problems for multiphysics modeling
Arnst, Maarten ULg

Conference (2013, July 23)

Multiphysics problems are found in numerous areas of science and engineering. They can take the form of a single equation that tightly couples different types of physical behavior or the form of a system ... [more ▼]

Multiphysics problems are found in numerous areas of science and engineering. They can take the form of a single equation that tightly couples different types of physical behavior or the form of a system of equations wherein the solution to certain equations is passed to other equations to determine physical properties or loadings or both. Further, there are multiphysics problems that couple different types of physical behavior with fundamentally different descriptions at different scales, as well as multiphysics problems that couple physical behavior in different regions of space through a shared interface. Uncertainty quantification for multiphysics problems raises various conceptual, mathematical, and numerical challenges. Modeling challenges arise in the characterization of parametric uncertainties and modeling errors that may exist either within subsidiary components or at their interfaces. Further, once these parametric uncertainties and modeling errors are modeled, mathematical challenges arise in the analysis of the local and global existence, uniqueness, regularity, and stability of solutions. Finally, both the use of monolithic solution methods and the use of partitioned solution methods raise numerical challenges relevant to error analysis, stability, convergence, and computational efficiency. This presentation will report on interactions with the USACM community to set up one or more benchmark problems for multiphysics modeling. The ultimate goal of uncertainty quantification in these benchmark problems will be discussed, and the conceptual, mathematical, and numerical challenges in addressing these benchmark problems will be described. [less ▲]

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See detailEquivalence of weighted likelihood and Jeffreys modal estimation of proficiency under polytomous item response models
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2013, July 23)

This talk focuses on two proficiency level estimators in item response theory (IRT) framework: the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) and the Jeffreys modal estimator (JME), that is, the usual Bayes ... [more ▼]

This talk focuses on two proficiency level estimators in item response theory (IRT) framework: the weighted likelihood estimator (WLE) and the Jeffreys modal estimator (JME), that is, the usual Bayes modal estimator with Jeffreys’ non-informative prior. With dichotomously scored items, the WLE and the JME are completely equivalent under the two-parameter logistic model, while remarkable relationships were established under the three-parameter logistic model. The purpose of this talk is to extend such comparison to polytomously scored items. It is shown that both WLE and JME are also equivalent for two broad classes of polytomous IRT models, including, among others, the (modified) graded response model, the (generalized) partial credit model, the rating scale model and the nominal response model. Parallelisms with dichotomously scored items are drawn. An example from a real data set is used to illustrate this finding. [less ▲]

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See detailHeat transfer characterization in a shallow aquifer using heat and dye tracer tests
Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg; Hermans, Thomas ULg et al

Conference (2013, July 22)

Very low enthalpy geothermal systems (open or closed) are increasingly considered for heating or cooling houses and offices using groundwater energy combined with heat pumps. However, the design and the ... [more ▼]

Very low enthalpy geothermal systems (open or closed) are increasingly considered for heating or cooling houses and offices using groundwater energy combined with heat pumps. However, the design and the impact of current shallow geothermal systems are often set up and assessed in a semi-empirical way. In our country, this situation seems accepted by most of the private partners but not by the authorities and responsible administrations evaluating the impact on groundwater with a mid- to long-term perspective. A rigorous methodology is needed based on a physically based estimation of heat transfer parameters. In this study, the simultaneous use of heat and dye tracers allows estimating simultaneously heat transfer and solute transport parameters in an alluvial aquifer. The experimental field site, located near Liege (Belgium), is equipped with 21 piezometers drilled in the alluvial deposits of the Meuse River. These alluvial deposits are composed of a loam layer (3 m) overlying a sand and gravel layer which constitutes the alluvial aquifer (7 m). The tracing experiment consisted in injecting simultaneously heated water and a dye tracer in a piezometer and monitoring the evolution of groundwater temperature and tracer concentration in a series of control panels set perpendicularly to the main groundwater flow. Results showed drastic differences between heat transfer and solute transport due to the main influence of thermal capacity of the saturated porous medium. The tracing experiment was then simulated using a numerical model and the best estimation of heat transfer and solute transport parameters is obtained by calibrating this numerical model using inversion tools. The developed concepts and tests may lead to real projects of various extents that can be now optimized by the use of a rigorous and efficient methodology at the field scale. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of non-polyQ regions on the aggregation of polyQ proteins into amyloid fibrils triggered by polyQ expansions
Huynen, Céline ULg

Conference (2013, July 21)

Ten neurodegenerative diseases, referred to as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, are associated with the aggregation into amyloid fibrils of ten different proteins containing a polyQ expansion higher than a ... [more ▼]

Ten neurodegenerative diseases, referred to as polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases, are associated with the aggregation into amyloid fibrils of ten different proteins containing a polyQ expansion higher than a pathological threshold comprised between 35 to 45Q (1, 2). A large body of evidence indicate that the polyQ expansion is the critical determinant for the aggregation of these polyQ proteins. The aggregation process of polyQ proteins is, however, still not well understood. To better understand this mechanism at a molecular level, we have characterized model polyQ proteins made of the β-lactamase BlaP from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C and a polyQ tract of 0 to 79Q inserted either at position 197 or position 216 of BlaP. Those chimeras recapitulate the same aggregation behaviours than that of disease-associated polyQ proteins: there is a glutamine threshold for the aggregation into amyloid fibrils and the anticipation phenomenon. Most importantly, the threshold critically depends on the structural integrity of BlaP (3) which would impose some conformational and/or sterical constraints to the polyQ tract. Moreover the position of the polyQ insertion into BlaP modifies the aggregation propensity of BlaP chimeras. The present work aims to further investigate (i) how the protein context affects the different phases of the aggregation phenomenon (i.e. the nucleation and elongation phases) and (ii) the role of the oligomers formed during the early time of the aggregation process. The techniques used are mainly (1) quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the elongation step of amyloid fibril formation and (2) dynamic light scattering (DLS) to study the evolution of the different populations formed during the aggregation time course. The results of these experiments indicate that the native conformation of BlaP197(Gln)55 interferes mainly with the nucleation but not with the elongation step of amyloid fibril formation. Moreover, these results demonstrate that the sequences flanking the polyQ tract significantly influence its propensity to elongate amyloid fibrils. Finally, they clearly indicate that the oligomers of BlaP197(Gln)79 observed at the early stage of the aggregation process are on the pathway of amyloid fibril formation, and likely constitute the aggregation nucleus. [less ▲]

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See detailSound Characteristics and Complex Sonic Apparatus Morphologies in Two Ophidiiformes: Ophidion rochei (Ophidiidae) and Onuxodon fowleri (Carapidae)
Kever, Loïc ULg; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Lecchini, David et al

Conference (2013, July 14)

Ophidiiformes show complex and highly diverse sonic apparatus morphologies allowing them a great variety of calls. Some Ophidion (Ophidiidae) and all Onuxodon (Carapidae) species have in common, at the ... [more ▼]

Ophidiiformes show complex and highly diverse sonic apparatus morphologies allowing them a great variety of calls. Some Ophidion (Ophidiidae) and all Onuxodon (Carapidae) species have in common, at the front of the swimbladder, a mineralized structure called rocker bone. According to morphological observations, it probably results from adaptive convergence. Its evolutionary advantage remains however to be determined. Sonic apparatus morphology and sound characteristics were examined in Ophidion rochei from Dùlce-Glàva (Croatia) and in Onuxodon fowleri from Makemo (French Polynesia). The rocker bone is only present in males in O. rochei but in both sexes in O. fowleri. Onuxodon fowleri and male O. rochei produce calls that often last more than 1 s. Calls are composed of 1 to 41 pulses lasting for 21±10 ms in O. fowleri and 1 to 55 pulses lasting for 16±13 ms in O. rochei. Mean pulse periods are also relatively long, ca. 95 ms and 125 ms, respectively. Females of O. rochei produce short (ca. 20 ms) hum-like sounds that are characterized by shorter pulses (mean duration: 0.7±0.2 ms) and higher pulse rates (mean pulse period: 4±1 ms). Differences in sound characteristics are likely due to the rocker bone that most probably evolved in response to mechanical constraints acting on the swimbladder in O. fowleri and male O. rochei. Its presence suggests a sustained sound production was crucial in their evolutionary success. However, the sexual dimorphism observed in O. rochei but not in O. fowleri suggests differences in way of life. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolated transient UV auroral structures at Jupiter: possible signatures of magnetospheric injections 
Dumont, Maïté ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2013, July 11)

We investigate transient ultraviolet auroral features located equatorward of the main emission (130 features) based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the northern and southern Jovian ... [more ▼]

We investigate transient ultraviolet auroral features located equatorward of the main emission (130 features) based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the northern and southern Jovian hemispheres (2000-2007). Several properties of the auroral emissions are analyzed, such as their position in auroral region, power and brightness. Additionally, we magnetically map the auroral structures to the equatorial plane using VIPAL model and we compare their observed properties with those of magnetospheric injections observed by Galileo. We suggest that these transient auroral structures could be related to magnetospheric injections. The mapped radial position and system III longitude of the observed auroral features are in good agreement with those of the injections observed in the equatorial plane by Galileo. Based on power and brightness of the auroral features, we discuss the mechanisms involved in the ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling injections. This comparative study demonstrates that the structures under study are related to magnetospheric injections and sheds light to the mechanism involved in the magnetosphere-ionosphere dynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability of the Jovian aurorae: focus on a selection of recent results
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2013, July 11)

The aurorae at Jupiter can be separated into four main components: the satellite footprints, the outer emissions, the main emissions and the polar emissions. Each of these components displays some form of ... [more ▼]

The aurorae at Jupiter can be separated into four main components: the satellite footprints, the outer emissions, the main emissions and the polar emissions. Each of these components displays some form of variability in location, brightness and/or shape. The nature and the timescale of these changes is particularly revealing of the processes at play. The footprints of Io and Ganymede are often made of several spots. The distance between these spots and their brightness essentially varies as the planetary magnetic dipole rotates relative to the moons and as the plasma torus or plasma sheet wobble across the satellite orbital plane. However, the spots brightness can also considerably vary on a timescale of minutes as well as from one year to another. The outer emissions are made of diffuse, patchy or arc-shaped emissions. Two different sources have been proposed to explain these features: injections of hot plasma from the outer magnetosphere and the pitch angle scattering boundary. These features usually last for a few Jovian rotations, but their occurrence rate appears to be related to the global dynamics of the inner magnetosphere on timescales of months. The main emissions sometimes appear as a complete oval, but they usually have a more chaotic appearance, with broken arcs, gaps and forks. Their brightness and morphology respond to changes in the solar wind characteristics. Nevertheless, the dawn portion of the main emissions sometimes displays spectacular brightening apparently unrelated to the solar wind: the dawn storms. Moreover, on timescales of several months, the statistical location of the main emissions also evolves as the material input from Io increases or decreases. Globally speaking, the polar emissions also respond to the solar wind input. However, the term “polar emissions” encompasses many different auroral features obviously driven from different mechanisms. Spots and arcs, located just inside the main emissions on the dawn and night side and lasting for a few tens of minutes, have been seen to re-occur every 2 to 3 days. They have thus been associated with night-side reconnection related to the Vasyliũnas cycle. On the other hand, the dusk-side of the polar region is the locus of quasi-periodic UV flares on timescales of 2 to 3 minutes, while periodicities of 20 to 45 minutes have been identified for their X-ray counterpart. The central part of the polar region is very dynamic, with patches of emissions constantly appearing, moving and disappearing within minutes. However, along with these patches, elongated auroral arcs dubbed “polar auroral filaments” may remain present for several consecutive days. As we will see in this review talk, the current data set of UV images from the Hubble Space Telescope, including the brand new time-tag sequences from the latest 2012-2013 campaign, gives access to a wide range of auroral phenomena that only begin to reveal their secrets. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Local and Global Outliers in Spatial Data
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

Conference (2013, July 11)

Spatial data are characterized by statistical units, with known geographical positions, on which non spatial attributes are measured. Two types of atypical observations can be defined: global and/or local ... [more ▼]

Spatial data are characterized by statistical units, with known geographical positions, on which non spatial attributes are measured. Two types of atypical observations can be defined: global and/or local outliers. The attribute values of a global outlier are outlying with respect to the values taken by the majority of the data points while the attribute values of a local outlier are extreme when compared to those of its neighbors. Classical outlier detection techniques may be used to find global outliers as the geographical positions of the data is not taken into account in this search. The detection of local outliers is more complex especially when there are more than one non spatial attribute. In this talk, existing techniques were outlined and two new procedures were defined. The first approach is to adapt an existing technique using in particular a regularized estimator of the covariance matrix. The second technique measures outlyingness using depth function. [less ▲]

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See detailOù et comment publier ? Présentation de la revue Territoire(s)
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2013, July 10)

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See detailGenetic analysis of pig survival in a crossbred population
Dufrasne, Marie ULg; Misztal, Ignacy; Tsuruta, Shogo et al

Conference (2013, July 09)

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See detailDouble-objective Economic Statistical Design of the Adaptive T2 Control Charts
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Saniga, Erwin et al

Conference (2013, July 09)

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See detailModelling the excavation damaged zone in claystone with strain localisation using coupled second gradient model and the influence of gallery ventilation
Pardoen, Benoît ULg; Levasseur, Séverine ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2013, July 09)

Drilling of galleries induces stress perturbations that trigger damage propagation in the surrounding medium. The excavation process creates then the so-called excavation damaged zone around the galleries ... [more ▼]

Drilling of galleries induces stress perturbations that trigger damage propagation in the surrounding medium. The excavation process creates then the so-called excavation damaged zone around the galleries. The prediction of the extension and of the fracture structure within this zone remains nowadays a major issue especially in the context of underground storage. Since localised deformation in shear band mode is frequently observed in experimental works, the excavation damaged zone can be modelled by considering the development of shear strain localisation bands. To correctly model this behaviour, an enhanced model with a regularisation method is required. In underground structures, air ventilation inside the galleries induces a rock-atmosphere interaction that may lead to drainage and to rock desaturation close to the gallery wall. Such desaturation may influence the damage zone structure and needs to be studied. A hydro-mechanical modelling of a gallery excavation including air ventilation is thus performed and the numerical results provide information about the damaged zone extension, the strain localisation bands pattern and the influence of rock desaturation. [less ▲]

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See detailInnovative analytical strategy using ion-mobility shifting additive for isobaric selenium compound identification in selenomethionine standards by IMS
Kune, Christopher ULg; Far, Johann ULg; Eppe, Gauthier ULg et al

Conference (2013, July 09)

Selenium (Se) is a trace element which is both essential and toxic depending on its concentration and its chemical form. Selenomethionine (SeMet) is one of the widely used selenium standard during ... [more ▼]

Selenium (Se) is a trace element which is both essential and toxic depending on its concentration and its chemical form. Selenomethionine (SeMet) is one of the widely used selenium standard during Selenium speciation studies. This work was focused on the elaboration of an analytical strategy for the detection and the structural elucidation of an isobaric Se interference, which is found in standard solutions of SeMet by high resolution mass spectrometry (Rm/Δm > 20.000). The structural elucidation of these compounds requires the isolation of the respective parent ion. Nevertheless, the mass difference between SeMet and its interference is less than 0.02Da which is well below the window selection of conventional techniques in mass spectrometry (Quadripole, ion trap). The empirical formula and double bound equivalent (DBE) of these ions suggest different tridimensional structures which lead to a discrimination depending on the ion mobility. This separation is observed, both in gaseous and liquid phase, by Ion Mobility Spectrometry (IMS), Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) and Liquid Chromatography (LC) which are hyphenated to mass spectrometry as detector. The separation efficiency of these ions by IMS and CE is improved by using specific shifting agents (18-Crown-6 Ether) selective to only one of these ions. This strategy has successfully separated the two isobaric ions present and leads to the structural elucidation of the isobar contaminant of SeMet. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Service Start Time for an Elementary Shortest Path Problem
Kucukaydin, Hande ULg; Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2013, July 08)

We are concerned with an elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints (ESPPRC), where there is a capacitated single vehicle at the depot for serving a set of delivery and backhaul customers ... [more ▼]

We are concerned with an elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints (ESPPRC), where there is a capacitated single vehicle at the depot for serving a set of delivery and backhaul customers with a time window. On a given route, the vehicle can visit a backhaul customer only after all its delivery customers are visited, where the delivery and backhaul customers are considered to be two disjoint sets. Split deliveries and pick-ups are not allowed. In this problem, the vehicle may be assigned to several routes. In addition, the vehicle can begin servicing the customers at any desired time and can be used for at most a fixed amount of time that depends on the shift duration of the assigned driver. Distance and time based variable costs are incurred by serving the customers. Namely, the total cost depends on the total distance traveled and the total amount of time that the vehicle spends by performing the assigned multiple trips. On the other hand, serving a customer yields also a revenue. Therefore, the objective is to determine the optimal service start time of the vehicle from the depot along with the trips to be performed in order to minimize the total of the distance and time costs minus the collected revenues. Such a problem can be faced as the pricing subproblem in branch-and-price algorithms for vehicle routing problems with additional constraints, where the revenues are equivalent to the dual prizes of the visited vertices. In general, ESPPRC can be solved to optimality by using a dynamic programming algorithm. However, since the vehicle can start the service at any point in time and is paid based on the total time during which it has been used, our ESPPRC has to take an infinite number of Pareto-optimal states into account. Therefore, we adapt the well-known dynamic programming algorithm according to this feature and develop piecewise linear time functions that represent total traveling and waiting time depending on a variable start time at the depot. Consequently, we propose appropriate dominance rules to discard feasible paths that cannot lead to the optimal solution. Finally, computational results are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between attitude towards physical activity and physical activity level at school
Naik, Shraddha; Pethkar, Vishnu; Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2013, July 07)

It would be interesting to determine if students’ attitude towards physical activity (PA) is linked to the students’ level of PA during school time as well as to verify if the school time contributes ... [more ▼]

It would be interesting to determine if students’ attitude towards physical activity (PA) is linked to the students’ level of PA during school time as well as to verify if the school time contributes significantly to the daily PA of the youth. A descriptive survey was carried out on 480 children from grade 6 (120 boys & 120 girls and grade 9 (120 boys & 120 girls randomly selected from 8 schools in Pune city (India). Their attitude towards PA and physical fitness were measured using SAPAPF (Pethkar, 2012). Pedometer determined number of steps accumulated through the school hours were measured for a week and averaged to find out the amount of PA during school-hours. Data analysis revealed that students in all four groups had positive attitude towards PA (175.20±19.32, 173.93±15.21, 173.98±17.94, 181.03±12.67) while the number of steps averaged from 3566.6 (±604.28), 4065.93 (±615.77), 2938.75 (±583.79) and 3145.95 (±588.65) for girls and boys in grade 6 and 9, respectively. A significant positive correlation between the attitude and the PA level has been found (Spearman rho correlation coefficients of .497, .623, .578, .705; p ≤0.05). However, the number of steps accumulated through the school hours was particularly far from the objectives recommended by public health bodies. Confirming findings from other contexts, comparison between school PA of girls and boys revealed that boys were more active than girls, younger students being more active than their older counterparts. The findings show that students who have a positive attitude towards PA find opportunities to be more active at school than those with a poor attitude. Moreover, school could play a more important role in providing to the students more opportunities to be physically active and to improve the attitude of some students towards PA. PE should become the corner stone of such mission. [less ▲]

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See detailLong Term household waste management : Insignhts from the policymaking process
Bakkour, Darine; Berthomé, Karim; Mormont, Marc ULg et al

Conference (2013, July 05)

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See detailNumerical and experimental investigation of fiber drawing process
Chouffart, Quentin ULg; Simon, Philippe; Terrapon, Vincent ULg

Conference (2013, July 05)

The manufacturing process of glass fibers used for the reinforcement of composite material consists in drawing liquid glass at high temperature into fibers. This process is very complex and sensitive to ... [more ▼]

The manufacturing process of glass fibers used for the reinforcement of composite material consists in drawing liquid glass at high temperature into fibers. This process is very complex and sensitive to numerous disturbances that can cause the breaking of the forming fibers. Breaks have a strong negative impact on the process efficiency. It is thus very important to understand the mechanisms of fiber breaking in order to optimize the manufacturing process. As a first step towards elucidating the causes of these failures, we investigate here the underlying physics of the forming of a single fiber through numerical simulations. In particular, we focus on the region from the hole tips at the bushing plate to the glass transition point. The influence of key parameters (e.g., glass flow rate, drawing velocity, external environment, glass properties) on the fiber radius attenuation and the internal stresses is investigated through a sensitivity analysis. Finally, these numerical studies are compared with experimental data measurements obtained from a dedicated fiberization unit for a single fiber. These experimental results also serve as additional insight into the forming process and as validation of the physical models, such as glass rheology or heat transfers. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results show a good agreement and demonstrate that simulations can provide a useful tool to gain insight into the underlying physics and to devise new strategies for adjusting the process operating window. [less ▲]

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See detailSpecific caring for overweight students in physical education : Implementation of teaching strategies identified during an interdisciplinary meeting
Cloes, Marc ULg; Gianquinto, Joseph ULg; Mouton, Alexandre ULg

Conference (2013, July 05)

Literature shows that the number of overweight/obese youth grows irreparably since several decades. Their increasing presence in PE classes implies that PE teachers need to adapt their lessons, which ... [more ▼]

Literature shows that the number of overweight/obese youth grows irreparably since several decades. Their increasing presence in PE classes implies that PE teachers need to adapt their lessons, which seems not to be an easy challenge. It appeared that they lack of knowledge about the specific topic of obesity while professionals working with the people affected by weight problems are not aware about the characteristics of the teaching context. This paper is a part of a bigger study aiming to provide lines of action to the PE teachers. Based on the recommendations suggested through a half day meeting gathering physical educators and specialists of obesity, six PE teachers – five females, one male, all volunteers – agreed to implement freely teaching strategies in order to deal with their overweight/obese students. During three months, they had to fulfill a diary. At the half of this period, they were interviewed in order to explain how they were coping. At the end of this period, they attended to a track report meeting in order to share their experiences with the specialists. All teachers underlined that writing in the diary was a hard task (lack of time, difficulty to recall all events or to identify interesting information). However, the analysis of the diaries, interviews, and last interdisciplinary meeting showed that PE teachers implemented six main categories of actions: ‘Adapted endurance activities’; ‘Guidance of the adolescents to out-of-school sports activities’; ‘Contact with physicians and medical certificates’; ‘Contact with the psycho-medico-social centers of the schools’; ‘Nutrition aspects’; ‘Activities that enhance the student’. A large inter individual variability has been identified. Reported actions are divided in ‘little’ interactive decisions relying on opportunities, and projects that need a real involvement of the teacher. All actions were not effective but exchange between the subjects was hailed by each of them. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Politics of Independence and Neutrality: The Dismantling of the Flemish Institute for Society and Technology, IST
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

Conference (2013, July 04)

In 2011, the Flemish Parliament announced that it would restructure three of four “paraparliamentary institutes” (PPIs) that advise and inform its Members of Parliament. This paper explores how the ... [more ▼]

In 2011, the Flemish Parliament announced that it would restructure three of four “paraparliamentary institutes” (PPIs) that advise and inform its Members of Parliament. This paper explores how the institutional restructuring of the PPIs was achieved. Taking the Flemish PPI for Society and Technology (IST) as primary focus, it indicates how a political working group decided on the agency’s future behind closed doors and the media paid considerably more attention to the plight of the other PPIs. Drawing on interviews with key actors (politicians, PPI staff members, journalists, among others) and public and private documentary sources, the paper offers a range of possible explanations for why the IST remained out of the public spotlight, as well as why, in the end, the IST was the only PPI to be abolished. It ties these considerations into a larger debate about the principles of political independence and neutrality, which all PPIs are assumed to uphold, but which PPIs interpret and enact differently. It argues that to earn and sustain a reputation as an independent agency, the IST repeatedly steered away from taking a stance on technoscientific issues. As a consequence, and in spite of its mission of opening science and scientific processes to public debate, the IST was unable to develop and articulate a critique of the politics of science policy. Nor did it position itself in relation to the discourses and mechanisms that sought to contain it, including neoliberal narratives and the IST’s strong connection to parties on the left side of the political spectrum. By rendering these narratives and connections explicit, the paper draws attention to the multiple, potentially conflicting institutional identities that defined the IST throughout its thirteen-year existence. [less ▲]

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See detailLa décision de traitement des risques dans l’entreprise sociale : le rôle de la perception des dirigeants à l’égard du risque, de l’incertitude et de la sécurité
Kamto Kenmogne, Marius ULg; Van Caillie, Didier ULg

Conference (2013, July 04)

Recent developments in the fields of research focused on risk management plea for moving from a silo-perspective (focused on a separate and cross-sectional management of risks) to an holistic and ... [more ▼]

Recent developments in the fields of research focused on risk management plea for moving from a silo-perspective (focused on a separate and cross-sectional management of risks) to an holistic and integrated view of the risk management function (called Enterprise Risk Management or ERM), in which risks, uncertainties and resources are considered globally as a whole. Despite the numerous papers focused on risks and risk management in firms, no specific study appears to be devoted to the strategies implemented in order to manage risks in social enterprises. Our paper aims to fulfill this absence and discusses the results of an empirical study that analyses the impact of the perception of the concepts of risk, uncertainty and security on the decision for managing risks in social enterprises. [less ▲]

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See detailApproximation Algorithms for Multi-Dimensional Vector Assignment Problems
Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2013, July 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
See detailA two-stage stochastic programming model for a comprehensive disaster management problem
Döyen, Alper ULg; Arda, Yasemin ULg

Conference (2013, July 03)

A periodic disaster preparedness model that incorporates mitigation, response, and recovery related decisions is proposed. The objective is to minimize the total cost of relief item transportation and ... [more ▼]

A periodic disaster preparedness model that incorporates mitigation, response, and recovery related decisions is proposed. The objective is to minimize the total cost of relief item transportation and shortage as well as recovery costs of buildings and links under a limited retrofitting budget. The problem is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming model. While retrofitting decisions are the binary first-stage variables, relief flows and shortage amounts constitute continuous second-stage variables. An efficient solution approach that employs the integer L-shaped method is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneral lotsizing in a closed-loop supply chain with uncertain returns
Amand, Guillaume ULg; Arda, Yasemin ULg

Conference (2013, July 03)

We consider a multi-product capacitated lotsizing and scheduling prob- lem with sequence-dependent setups and stochastic product returns. The returned products accumulate in an input inventory and can be ... [more ▼]

We consider a multi-product capacitated lotsizing and scheduling prob- lem with sequence-dependent setups and stochastic product returns. The returned products accumulate in an input inventory and can be sold as new items after a remanufacturing process. The determinis- tic demand of end items can also be satisfied through a manufacturing process that is fed by an unlimited source of raw materials. An ap- proximate dynamic algorithm is developed to solve both single-item and multi-items cases. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Airline Container Loading Problem with Pickup and Delivery
Lurkin, Virginie ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg

Conference (2013, July 02)

We address the problem of allocating containers into predefined positions of a carrier, in this case aircraft, under several realistic structural and safety constraints. The originality of our approach is ... [more ▼]

We address the problem of allocating containers into predefined positions of a carrier, in this case aircraft, under several realistic structural and safety constraints. The originality of our approach is to allow multi-trips with pickup and delivery at some intermediate locations. The objective is to minimize the economic and environmental costs including the impact of the intermediate operations. We resort to an integer linear model. Numerical experiments have been performed using a standard B\&C library. Heuristics are developed to speed up the process. [less ▲]

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See detailResurrecting an old body of literature to define the performance of social enterprises
Mouchamps, Hugues ULg

Conference (2013, July 02)

This speech aims to address two theoretical challenges to which every scholar interested in the performance of social enterprises is confronted: the problem of defining what performance exactly is and the ... [more ▼]

This speech aims to address two theoretical challenges to which every scholar interested in the performance of social enterprises is confronted: the problem of defining what performance exactly is and the integration of the complexity inherent to social enterprises in the definition of performance (Speckbacher, 2003; Meadows and Pike, 2010; Samples and Austin, 2009; Polonsky and Grau, 2008). Our point is that the performance literature does not currently provide satisfying answers to these challenges. The first challenge identified is the confusion in the literature surrounding the definition of organizational performance (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). Performance scholars contributed to this confusion by each using an own definition of performance unrelated to any wider theoretical framework or by even bypassing the definition issue (Campbell, 1977). As they rarely share common definitions of performance, the accumulation of a body of common knowledge remains illusionary. In any case, performance scholars stick to isolated definitions and hardly recognize that multiple contingent definitions of performance can coexist in a consistent framework. The second challenge is closely related to the first one as it also concerns the definition of performance. For social enterprises, the performance definition step is an essential issue because, unlike for-profit corporations often do, relying only on straightforward performance indicators such as financial ratios would not be sufficient. Therefore they have to work on with a more complex definition of performance, which forces them to deepen the definition issue even more carefully. These challenges are addressed in the two sections of this paper. The first challenge is tackled in the first section of the paper, in which we compare the relative advantages of two bodies of literature likely to serve as basis for the definition of performance for social enterprises. This first section concludes with the relevance of rejuvenating an old body of literature, namely “organizational effectiveness” , which is likely to provide answers to the confusion plaguing the definition issue in the performance literature. Based on that theoretical finding, we develop a second section in which we review the OE literature to deal with the second challenge. This body of literature can potentially offer strong theoretical bases to integrate the complexity of social enterprises, except that the interrelationships between the existing OE approaches have never been explicitly stressed up to now. Therefore we address this research gap by setting up a framework articulating the existing OE approaches, which can open the way to integrate the complexity of social enterprises. [less ▲]

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See detailThe professionalization of HR management: towards an analytical framework for social enterprises
Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Pichault, François ULg

Conference (2013, July 02)

At the present time, the social enterprise sector is undergoing important changes: increased activity, diversification of social demands, increased complexity of legal framework and institutional ... [more ▼]

At the present time, the social enterprise sector is undergoing important changes: increased activity, diversification of social demands, increased complexity of legal framework and institutional landscape, transformation of public funding mechanisms (contractualisation setting up competition between providers in a quasi-market) (Dees & Elias, 1998; Mertens, 2010). At the same time, we may observe a trend towards the professionalization of social enterprises (Bode, Evers, & Schulz, 2006; Comeau & Davister, 2008; Davister, 2010; Petrella & Richez-Battesti, 2010). This movement toward professionalization brings changes, among others, with regard to evolutions in human resources management (HRM) practices (Davister, 2010; McCandless Baluch, 2012; Theuvsen, 2004): increasing formalization of procedures, developments of senior staff training, a changeover from a militant attitude on the part of directors toward a managerial attitude, development of pay-for-performance plans, etc. That concept of professionalization knows a large echo in the working world, not only in the social enterprise sector. Wilensky (1964) was already talking about the « professionalization of everyone? ». But what does professionalization mean? Various understandings of that concept co-exist. Indeed, according to Wittorski (2008), the notion refers either to the constitution of a group of people sharing the same activity (professionalization-profession), to the development of competences of a professional by its education (professionalization-training), or to the fact of “putting in movement” individuals within work contexts (professionalization-efficiency). The tendencies to professionalize have been studied but in a quite heterogeneous and fragmented way (Le Naëlou, 2004; Maier, Steinbereithner, & Meyer, 2012) with various dimensions and forms of the concept being possible. This paper intends to apprehend the professionalization of human resource management in all its complexity. Relying on the model proposed by Hatchuel and Weil (1992), we develop a nuanced approach of the professionalization of HRM, by declining the concept in three major dimensions: a technical substrate, a vision of the actors’ roles, and a managerial philosophy (Gilbert, 2012; Hatchuel & Weil, 1992; Oiry, 2006). Each of those three dimensions knows different degrees of elaboration, going from a human resource management qualified as few professionalized to one strongly professionalized. This model has to be understood as an “ideal type”, in the Weberian sense, an intellectual construction obtained by accentuation of certain traits of the considered subject (Coenen-Huther, 2003). That ideal type, that model in three dimensions, constitutes a measurement standard from which the comparison between various situations of HRM professionalization in different organisations is made possible. Two questions resume our approach: what means professionalization of human resource management (conceptual approach)? And what is the scope of the professionalization of HRM in the social enterprises sector in Wallonia (empirical results)? To answer those questions, a twofold research design is necessary. To understand more precisely what professionalization of HRM is, a strong analysis of the literature on professionalization, managerial devices and HRM allows constructing an analytical framework to apprehend the concept. But, the model also allows designing a broad picture of the human resource management in the social enterprises’ sector. For that second question, the data collection is accomplished through the administration of an online questionnaire given to a sample containing 2000 social enterprises, chosen from an exhaustive database of Belgian social enterprises . A first statistical analysis allows constructing a descriptive picture of what happen in the social enterprise sector in terms of HRM in Wallonia. In order to determine the influence of contextual elements such as the size of the organization, its level of subvention, its sector of activity, etc, cross tabulation is necessary. We will use the method of descriptive analysis by clusters that is often used in order to constitute typologies. It will enable us to isolate profiles of social enterprises in terms of their human resource management and its professionalization. By the construction of a conceptual model on the HRM professionalization, our paper contributes to enrich the understanding of that concept while apprehending its complexity. Gathering data on HRM in social enterprises is useful to design the scope of HRM professionalization. Though, that kind of data has not yet been collected and mobilized in Belgium. Our research will also contribute to better understand the influences of the organization’s size, level of subvention or sector of activity on the HRM professionalization. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EMES "ideal-type" social enterprise as a compass
Defourny, Jacques ULg

Conference (2013, July 01)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg)
See detailQuadratic reformulations of nonlinear binary optimization problems
Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2013, July 01)

We consider the problem of minimizing a pseudo-Boolean function f(x), i.e., a real-valued function of 0-1 variables. Several authors have recently proposed to reduce this problem to the quadratic case by ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of minimizing a pseudo-Boolean function f(x), i.e., a real-valued function of 0-1 variables. Several authors have recently proposed to reduce this problem to the quadratic case by expressing f(x) as min{g(x,y): y in {0,1}}, where g is a quadratic function of x and of additional binary variables y. We establish lower and upper bounds on the number of additional y-variables needed in such a reformulation, both for the general case and for the special case of symmetricfunctions like positive or negative monomials, k-out-of-n majority functions, or parity functions. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison Between Morningstar Ratings and Traditional Performance Measures Ratings
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Bodson, Laurent ULg

Conference (2013, July 01)

We compare Morningstar ratings and ratings obtained using the same methodology of rating attribution with a set of commonly used performance measures. We study three types of investment horizons : 3-year ... [more ▼]

We compare Morningstar ratings and ratings obtained using the same methodology of rating attribution with a set of commonly used performance measures. We study three types of investment horizons : 3-year, 5-year and 10-year ratings. Our analysis focuses on Open-End US Mutual Funds available in Morningstar Direct Database from which we create three sets of 16,617, 13,505 and 7,992 funds corresponding respectively to the three investment horizons analyzed. Our results show that Morningstar ratings are very close ( correlation around 80%) to ratings obtained with Sharpe's alpha, Jensen's alpha, Four-factor alpha and Excess returns. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-Based Practice et orthophonie : application aux troubles développementaux du langage
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Durieux, Nancy ULg

Conference (2013, July 01)

L’objectif de cet atelier est de familiariser les orthophonistes avec l’Evidence-Based Practice (EBP). Chaque clinicien est de façon régulière confronté à des incertitudes quant aux choix thérapeutiques ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cet atelier est de familiariser les orthophonistes avec l’Evidence-Based Practice (EBP). Chaque clinicien est de façon régulière confronté à des incertitudes quant aux choix thérapeutiques ou aux décisions cliniques à prendre pour un patient particulier. L’EBP est une approche méthodologique qui permet de réduire cette incertitude. Elle préconise d’associer les résultats cliniquement pertinents issus de la recherche scientifique à la compétence clinique du praticien et à la situation d’un patient correctement et complètement informé (Sackett et al., 1996). L’EBP est une démarche complexe qui nécessite de maîtriser les outils de recherche d’informations, de pouvoir accéder à la littérature, d’avoir une approche critique des données disponibles et de les confronter aux caractéristiques d’un patient cible. Nous partirons de situations cliniques concrètes liées aux troubles développementaux du langage pour illustrer la démarche et aider le participant à se l’approprier. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transactions
Tharakan, Joseph ULg

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailFoundations in Belgium: for what? And how?
Mernier, Amélie ULg

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailBeyond philanthropy : When philanthropy becomes social entrepreneurship
Defourny, Jacques ULg; Nyssens, Marthe; Thys, Séverine ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (8 ULg)
See detailQuestioning regional science, technology and innovation policies: the consensual case of the Marshall Plan for Wallonia.
Charlier, Nathan ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This paper examines the implementation of the “Marshall Plan for Wallonia” (MP), a 2005 strategic policy program that aims to enhance the Walloon region’s competitiveness and generate innovation-driven ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the implementation of the “Marshall Plan for Wallonia” (MP), a 2005 strategic policy program that aims to enhance the Walloon region’s competitiveness and generate innovation-driven economic growth. Actively marketed by the government, the MP’s rationale is endorsed by labor unions and employers’ organizations, leaving no room for political controversy. The absence of outspoken conflict is remarkable since the MP (1) reconfigures the relationship between science, technological innovation and the market, (2) encompasses a fifth of regional budget resources, and (3) picks few winners, i.e. those belonging to what the Plan conveys as strategic R&D domains for Wallonia. In other policy fields, such as employment, taxes and labor costs, opposition is more pronounced and protracted. The paper asks how a strong consensus among these actors is constructed and sustained, given the potential for considerable disagreement among involved parties / stakeholders. To address the reasons for a broad consensus, the paper specifically examines the master narratives at play in Wallonia’s STI policies. These narratives are locally enacted through regional policies and embedded in the existing STI regime (Pestre 2003, Delvenne 2011), and confronted with future-oriented socio-technical imaginaries associated with active exercises of state power (Jasanoff and Kim 2009). In the case of the MP, we observe a phenomenon of “narrative salience” (Claisse and Delvenne 2012), which characterizes situations that attest to the domination and prominence (at the discursive level, in the institutions and actors' repertoires and routines) of one storyline, acting as a well-routinized script that is accepted and enacted rather than questioned. [less ▲]

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See detailMacrophytes : limitations of using them to assess reservoir status according to the water framework directive
Sossey Alaoui, Khadija ULg; Rosillon, Francis ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Macrophytes are among the major groups of organisms that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) recommends should be used in assessing the status of reservoirs. The use of macrophytes in reservoir monitoring ... [more ▼]

Macrophytes are among the major groups of organisms that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) recommends should be used in assessing the status of reservoirs. The use of macrophytes in reservoir monitoring is still fairly limited and studies are needed on their inter-calibration and sources of variation. Many status assessment methods based on macrophyte communities have been defined for lakes, Nevertheless few of them have been tested for reservoirs. The purpose of the study is to highlight the limitations of using macrophytes to assess reservoir status according to the Water Framework Directive. An assessment of macrophyte composition and abundance and of water quality was carried out in seven Walloon reservoirs between 2010 and 2012. The main limitations of the macrophyte approach for assessing these reservoirs were: i) geographical features, ii) physical variables, iii) water chemistry and iiii) lack of ecological information on the various macrophytic groups, such as helophytes, algae and mosses. Few of the taxa occurring in the Walloon reservoirs have an indicator score for status assessment based on macrophyte communities. We used two assessment methods to test the relevance of using macrophyte communities to assess reservoir status: the Flanders (Belgium) method (BE-FL method) and the United Kingdom method (UK-method). The relationships between macrophyte metrics for both methods and nutrient enrichment were examined. Highly significant correlations were found between the chemical variables (O-P [mg P/l]); P tot (μg P/l); total hardness (°F), conductivity (μS/cm) and the trophic UK-metric (LMNI); and between it and the abundance of ‘Bl-FL disturbance indicators’ metric (V). The ‘UK group of macrophyte species’ metric does not provide direct information on the quality or degree of degradation of the environment from which the sample was taken. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Performance DSSC Based on Semiconducting Oxides Prepared Through Soft Chemistry Processes
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Schrijnemakers, Audrey ULg; Thalluri, Venkata Visveswara Gopala Kris ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

DSSCs have been reported by O’Regan and Grätzel in the early nineties as a very promising alternative to conventional photovoltaic silicon devices. Main benefits of these cells are their low cost as well ... [more ▼]

DSSCs have been reported by O’Regan and Grätzel in the early nineties as a very promising alternative to conventional photovoltaic silicon devices. Main benefits of these cells are their low cost as well as their mild manufacturing process. In most of the specific literature, DSSCs are made of TiO2 films prepared by doctor-blade or screen-printing of anatase nanoparticles paste. However, due to the random organization of the nanoparticles, pore accessibility by the dye and electrolyte could be incomplete. Moreover, some anatase crystallites could suffer from a lack of connectivity, leading to electron transfer issues. The strategy adopted by our group to improve photovoltaic efficiencies involves a templating-assisted process allowing the preparation of highly porous layers with well-ordered and accessible pores as well as improved crystallites connectivity. The main goal is to increase the film surface area and to perfectly control the mesostructure in order to maximize the adsorption of active dye and the electrolyte infiltration inside the porous network. This talk especially focuses on the templating-assisted synthesis of TiO2 and ZnO semiconducting layers used as photoelectrode in DSSCs. Besides, due to the surface area improvement as well as the perfect control of the pore organization and the pore size, the templating strategy can be an effective solution to overcome light harvesting and solid electrolyte filling limitations encountered in solid-state DSSCs. Special effort is paid to the tuning of the TiO2 and ZnO semiconducting layers mesostructure in order to match with solid-state DSSC applications. [less ▲]

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See detailThe number of structures compatible with any correlation function
Gommes, Cédric ULg

Conference (2013, July)

A two-point correlation function provides a crucial yet an incomplete characterization of a microstructure because distinctly different microstructures may have the same correlation function. We address ... [more ▼]

A two-point correlation function provides a crucial yet an incomplete characterization of a microstructure because distinctly different microstructures may have the same correlation function. We address here the microstructural degeneracy question: What is the number of microstructures compatible with a specified correlation function? We compute this degeneracy in the framework of reconstruction methods, which enables us to map the problem to the determination of ground-state degeneracies. Since the configuration space of a reconstruction problem is a hypercube on which a Hamming distance is defined, we can calculate analytically the energy profile of any reconstruction problem, corresponding to the average energy of all microstructures at a given Hamming distance from a ground state. The steepness of the energy profile is a measure of the roughness of the energy landscape associated with the reconstruction problem, which can be used as a proxy for the ground-state degeneracy. The relationship between this roughness metric and the ground-state degeneracy is calibrated using a Monte Carlo algorithm for determining the ground-state degeneracy of a variety of microstructures (e.g., realizations of hard disks and Poisson point processes at various densities), as well as with microstructures with a known degeneracy (e.g., single disks of various sizes and a particular crystalline microstructure). We show that our results can be expressed in terms of the information content of the two-point correlation functions. From this perspective, the a priori condition for a reconstruction to be accurate is that the information content, expressed in bits, should be comparable to the number of pixels in the unknown microstructure. We provide a formula to calculate the information content of any two-point correlation function, which makes our results directly applicable by other researchers in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailA branch and price approach for an airport vehicle routing problem
Schyns, Michael ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This project has been initiated by a main European freight airport. The goal is to optimize the aircraft refueling process which relies on a given set of trucks. The underlying process can be defined as a ... [more ▼]

This project has been initiated by a main European freight airport. The goal is to optimize the aircraft refueling process which relies on a given set of trucks. The underlying process can be defined as a vehicle routing problem with capacity and time windows. We resort to a branch and price approach for which we first analyze the impact of different parameters on the performance of the algorithm. Due to the stochastic nature of the demand and time windows in this context, we are also working on a priori (split delivery) and a posteriori (efficient re-optimization) measures. [less ▲]

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See detailModels and prospects for a sustainable suburban transition.
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This paper addresses the challenges, transformations and conditions of a sustainable suburban transition. Two powerful levers are used: (1) urban form, which is considered in addition to the individual ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the challenges, transformations and conditions of a sustainable suburban transition. Two powerful levers are used: (1) urban form, which is considered in addition to the individual building scale, and (2) mobility, because sprawl spatially separates activities, resulting in an increase in travel distances and energy used in transportation. Two main indicators (the heating needs of different types of suburban forms and a commute performance index) are developed and discussed. Three scenarios focused on the evolution of the existing building stock are modelled and assessed (the retrofitting of existing neighbourhoods, an increase in the built density and demolition / reconstruction) to answer two main questions: "how to intervene in suburban areas?" and" where to intervene? ". These main results focused on energy efficiency are then studied in a larger framework to highlight the opportunities, limitations, constraints and feasibility of each strategy. Concrete prospects and guidelines for policy makers are finally proposed to operationalize a "sustainable suburban renewal". These findings show that, beyond the traditional polarization of the debates on energy efficiency of our built environment between the “compact city” and the “sprawled city”, a new pragmatic paradigm, focused on the transition of suburban areas by densification, can make suburban areas evolve towards more sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailMiddle management under pressure: sensemaking activities around the implementation of new managerial devices in the General interest
Pichault, François ULg; Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2013, July)

The paper is structured around three sections. The first one will help to highlight the way in which the scientific literature documents the appropriation of management control systems by middle or local ... [more ▼]

The paper is structured around three sections. The first one will help to highlight the way in which the scientific literature documents the appropriation of management control systems by middle or local managers. It leads us to develop a first hypothesis expressed in institutional terms. In a second step, three case studies are presented, where the relationship to the notion of general interest — supposed to reflect public action— is contrasted: a “pure” public service (Judicorps), a private organisation acting on behalf of a public service (Federmut) and a formerly public but now privatised company (National Telecom). In a third step, we discuss the results gathered, invalidating our initial hypothesis, and propose an alternative explanation of the phenomena observed, referring to the actor-network theory (Akrich, Callon & Latour, 2006), the sensemaking activities of local managers (Weick, 1995) and the disciplinary power of managerial devices (Foucault, 1994). [less ▲]

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See detailThe determinants of charitable giving in Belgium
Mernier, Amélie ULg; Dufays, Frédéric ULg; Dal Fior, Catherine

Conference (2013, July)

Charitable giving is a research topic that has largely been addressed in the U.S.-context. However, there exist only very few studies on Belgian donating behavior. This paper aims to fill this gap using a ... [more ▼]

Charitable giving is a research topic that has largely been addressed in the U.S.-context. However, there exist only very few studies on Belgian donating behavior. This paper aims to fill this gap using a combination of fiscal, demographic and political data. OLS regressions and Fixed effects regressions are performed and show a positive effect of age and income on the probability to donate. In addition, age and income increase the average donation amount, whereas gender and declaring jointly tend to decrease it. Further, the region and the political party to which belongs the mayor of the municipality in which one lives also affect the likelihood of charitable giving and the donated amount. This paper has implications both for researchers and charity practitioners. The latter are likely to pay attention to the factors that increase the probability to donate and the average donated amount, especially in times of economic crises as charities may rely less and less on the state to cover their financial resource needs. [less ▲]

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See detailReaching the 1% accuracy level on stellar mass and radius determinations from asteroseismology. The case of hot B subdwarfs
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles et al

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailPhysico-chemical properties and photocatalytic activity of P/Ag-doped TiO2 xerogels
Bodson Céline; Pirard, Sophie ULg; Pirard René et al

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailJupiter's conjugate ultraviolet aurora
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailChemical imaging of small molecules from simple to complex matrices: Quantitative approaches based on Surface Enhanced Raman scattering
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Chavez, Pierre-François ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

Surface Enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) allows to dramatically exalt the Raman diffusion of molecules absorbed or very closed to rough metallic surfaces while keeping their structural information. SERS ... [more ▼]

Surface Enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) allows to dramatically exalt the Raman diffusion of molecules absorbed or very closed to rough metallic surfaces while keeping their structural information. SERS chemical imaging, presenting a high specificity and sensibility, allows acquiring a visual representation of samples combining spectral and spatial measurements. This technique could become a powerful tool in pharmaceutical and biological analysis enabling to identify and quantify molecules thanks to chemometric evaluation while looking at their distribution or their interactions. In this context, SERS chemical imaging is investigated in detection or quantitative determination of molecules in pharmaceutical and biological matrices. The feasibility of making quantitative measurements using SERS is evaluated on small target molecules models such as 4-aminophenol and lactate. Firstly, a SERS method to quantify 4-aminophenol which is the primary impurity of acetaminophen coming from its degradation during the storage or from its synthesis was developed on a real pharmaceutical formulation. The standard addition method was selected as calibration method in order to take into account the matrix effect coming from the different components of the latter. Despite the well-known stability and repeatability problems of SERS, the method was thoroughly validated by means of accuracy profiles as decision tool. Moreover, this validation methodology allowed to define a first estimation of the real analytical performance of the technique. Secondly, the detection of lactate, which is a critical metabolite implicated in several metabolic disorders, was successfully tested in the physiological concentration in a simple matrix. Preliminary results for the determination of this metabolic biomarker were also very promising allowing to consider more complex matrices. Based on these results, SERS chemical imaging was implemented to detect 4-aminophenol in a pharmaceutical tablet formerly pulverised by a SERS substrate. Through this imaging technique, it was not only possible to detect the presence of the impurity at the limit of specification of 0.1% (w/w) but it was also possible to differentiate tablets comprising different concentrations of the latter. These promising results represent the first step towards quantitative measurements using SERS chemical imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter’s elusive bald patch
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

The detailed morphology of Jupiter’s UV auroral emissions is definitely very complex. To some extent, this complexity depicts the zoo of processes taking place inside, and sometimes, outside Jupiter’s ... [more ▼]

The detailed morphology of Jupiter’s UV auroral emissions is definitely very complex. To some extent, this complexity depicts the zoo of processes taking place inside, and sometimes, outside Jupiter’s enormous magnetosphere. One is naturally more inclined to focus on the bright emissions, but recent progresses in cosmology teach us that there is also important information in the darkness. In this present, preliminary study, we are exploring a dark region of Jupiter’s polar aurora -“Jupiter’s bald patch”- located poleward of the main emission (oval). It appears to be bordered by patchy features belonging to auroral regions often referred to as the swirl and flare regions. These regions contain the poleward most auroral features. Therefore, it is legitimate to ask whether this dark region, even closer to the pole, is actually the polar cap, implying some level of reconnection of Jupiter’s strong magnetic field with the interplanetary magnetic field. An ongoing HST campaign is providing stunning high temporal and spatial (and spectral) resolution time tagged images of Jupiter’s northern and southern aurora. They show that the bald patch is conspicuous on some images but much less obvious in others. They also suggest that it is not always completely devoid of emission, possibly alluding to a weak, intermittent, Dungey-like cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the definitions and interpretations of Entropy in Landscape ecology: A review
Vranken, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Landscape ecology studies the structure of landscapes as interacting ecosystems over space and time. Thanks to Turner's Pattern / process paradigm, it allows inferring ecological impacts of disturbances ... [more ▼]

Landscape ecology studies the structure of landscapes as interacting ecosystems over space and time. Thanks to Turner's Pattern / process paradigm, it allows inferring ecological impacts of disturbances observable through land use change. The purpose of this research is to use landscape ecology techniques based on remote sensing to assess the ecological impacts of anthropogenic effects such as urban growth and agriculture extension on subtropical African landscapes, characterised by fast unplanned growth and subsequent prevailing menace on the rich local environmental resources and biodiversity. Taken from information theory and generally used to assess disturbances of any kind, the concept of entropy is important in landscape ecology and also used in many other disciplines for other purposes. It turns out however that it is used in many different ways and interpreted within various, sometimes opposed definitions and that the context in which it is used is not always explicit. The purpose of the present intervention is therefore to review the different interpretations and applications of entropy in landscape ecology and sort them into different clearly defined categories. Forty landscape ecology articles and book chapters using or discussing entropy have been surveyed and classified by keywords, variables and indexes mentioned to relate entropy. The connection relevance between those interpretations has also been examined through this literature sample and other reference works on entropy. Particularly, the thermodynamic component of entropy in landscape ecology and its different interpretations as for landscape structure and evolution is questioned. This fundamental research issue represents a preliminary survey to researches on the structural impact of anthropogenic disturbances. Indeed, according to the Naiman habitat heterogeneity hypothesis, a higher spatial heterogeneity within the landscape would have a positive influence on species diversity. This has important outcomes to study ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbances and combine human development with biological conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman impacts on Antarctic ecosystems: do not forget the microorganisms!
Hughes, Kevin; Verleyen, Elie; Vyverman, Wim et al

Conference (2013, July)

The tiny and microscopic creatures that are the permanent inhabitants of the Antarctic continent are often overlooked in environmental impact assessments and when new management and protection strategies ... [more ▼]

The tiny and microscopic creatures that are the permanent inhabitants of the Antarctic continent are often overlooked in environmental impact assessments and when new management and protection strategies are designed. This lack of consideration is probably due to their small size and the need of sophisticated molecular methods to study their diversity, evolution and geographic distribution. However, considerable progress has been made in the field of molecular diversity in the last two decennia, and is still ongoing for Antarctic bacteria, cyanobacteria, protists, fungi, etc. Recent studies have shown the presence of highly diverse microbial communities and the existence of species endemic to Antarctic in some taxonomic groups. With the emergence of High Throughput Sequencing methodologies that are able to detect ‘rare’ taxa, it becomes crucial to find Antarctic locations that have not yet been impacted by human presence. These ‘pristine’ areas are essential to serve as reference sites and allow to distinguish the true Antarctic organisms from the imported ones. Indeed, recent studies have shown that humans unintentionally disperse their own microbial flora but may also spread organisms from other locations. In the extreme biotopes with a reduced diversity that are currently found in Antarctica, such contaminations might have a profound impact. It is important to raise the awareness of scientists, environmental managers and policy makers about the necessity to single out some areas that are kept untouched, or where stringent biosecurity measures are taken. The purpose is not to hinder scientific research, but to weigh carefully, when exploring a new area, the importance of the acquired piece of knowledge in relation to the possibility of hindering future microbiological research. Some parallels with other fields of research are interesting to consider. Archeologists are used to keeping some parts of the explored caves untouched because they foresee that technological progress will allow better analyses in future. The COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection makes recommendations to avoid the contamination of other planets with microbes from Earth, which would obscure any discovery of extraterrestrial indigenous life forms. These examples illustrate the essential need to integrate the delineation of reference areas for future analyses in the design and execution of scientific research. In fact, the Madrid Protocol foresees the possibility to designate ‘inviolate areas’ (Annex V, Article 3), though this tool has rarely been used. It would be useful if scientists of all disciplines would reflect how to use this management option. [less ▲]

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See detailAn overview of the foundations sector in Belgium
Mernier, Amélie ULg

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailA multirate approach to combine electromagnetic transients and fundamental-frequency simulations
Plumier, Frédéric ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Abstract--- A new multi-rate technique is proposed to combine fundamental-frequency simulation (typical of stability studies) with electromagnetic transients simulation. The objective of this hybrid ... [more ▼]

Abstract--- A new multi-rate technique is proposed to combine fundamental-frequency simulation (typical of stability studies) with electromagnetic transients simulation. The objective of this hybrid approach is to obtain more accurate simulations than with the fundamental-frequency approximation, while saving computing time by applying the detailed model to a subsystem only, in some neighbourhood of the disturbance. It also allows to remove some limitations of fundamental-frequency simulation, such as the difficulty of simulating unbalanced faults. A relaxation technique is used to iterate between both models with simple interfacing. Preliminary results obtained with a 74-bus test system are presented, together with a comparison with full electromagnetic transients simulation. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the way to the hybrid organization? When worlds collide through collective entrepreneurship
Dufays, Frédéric ULg; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This communication presents a model of collective entrepreneurship process, drawing on institutional theory (institutional logics) and on the sociology of social networks (structural hole). It argues that ... [more ▼]

This communication presents a model of collective entrepreneurship process, drawing on institutional theory (institutional logics) and on the sociology of social networks (structural hole). It argues that entrepreneurship might result from the association of bridge-builders, both in terms of structural hole bridging and in terms of institutional logics bridging. Individual as well as structural factors will influence the entrepreneurial outcome, in particular in the way the new organisation deals with the distinct logics. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation and optimization of a CHP biomass plant and district heating network
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems ... [more ▼]

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. However, as CHP plants are not optimized for electricity production, their operation is profitable only if a sufficient heat demand is available throughout the year. Most of the time, pre-feasibility studies are based on peak power demand and business plans only assume monthly or yearly consumption data. This approach usually turns out to overestimate the number of operating hours or oversize the plant capacity. This contribution presents a methodology intended to be simple and effective that provides accurate estimations of economical, environmental and energetic performances of CHP plants connected to district heating networks. A quasi-steady state simulation model of a CHP plant combined with a simulation model of the district heating network installed on the Campus of the University in Liège (Belgium) is used as an application framework to demonstrate the effectiveness of the selected approach. Based on the developed model and actual consumption data, several scenarios for energy savings are considered and ranked. The potential energy savings and resulting energy costs are estimated enabling more general conclusions to be drawn on the opportunity of using district heating networks in urban districts for Western Europe countries. [less ▲]

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See detailMassive Depletion of Bovine Leukemia Virus Proviral Clones Located in Genomic Transcriptionally Active Sites During Primary Infection
Gillet, Nicolas ULg; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodriguez, Sabrina et al

Conference (2013, June 29)

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See detailBeyond the verb: constructions at work in the expression of static location in Dutch and French
Perrez, Julien ULg; Lemmens, Maarten

Conference (2013, June 28)

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See detailThe Support of Children by the Family and the State: Institutional Configurations in a Comparative Perspective in the North and South
Wouango, Joséphine ULg; Turcotte, Daniel

Conference (2013, June 28)

This paper analyzes the social policies that have been implemented since countries have been obliged to implement the human rights of children as recognized at the International level. If these rights are ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes the social policies that have been implemented since countries have been obliged to implement the human rights of children as recognized at the International level. If these rights are given to all children without distinction, their implementation occurs in a context of cultural, social and economic diversity. The nature of the laws and actions to be implemented will depend on the relative importance that a society will give to these rights. Focused on a doctorate research on policies relating to child protection in Burkina Faso (West Africa) and a postdoctoral research on child protection in Québec [in progress], this presentation seeks to put into perspective the contemporary challenges of child protection involving greater State intervention and family responsibilities. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of a sanitarian public-private partnership in Benin. An ethnographic study case.
Schnitzler, Marie ULg

Conference (2013, June 28)

While private clinics are generally recognized as important care givers in current African cities, the sector remains under-studied in the social sciences. The research for my master thesis focused on the ... [more ▼]

While private clinics are generally recognized as important care givers in current African cities, the sector remains under-studied in the social sciences. The research for my master thesis focused on the creation of a hospital anchored to a public-private partnership, including the World Bank, the Beninese Health Ministry and a private non-governmental association. The main purpose of my enquiry is to understand how the status of this hospital influences (or not) its organization and its use by clients. Therefore, I firstly analyze the emergence and the diversity of the Beninese private health sector as well as the connotations of the notion of public-private partnership. These two points help to understand the particular context of creation of the studied public-private partnership and how it was imposed to the Ministry by the World Bank. Secondly, my research shows how the creation is nowadays read in different ways by the various actors in order to claim their rights on the management of the hospital. Thirdly, focusing on collaboration between the different categories of workers and their relationships with clients, I describe formal and informal organization of this private hospital. This part underlines the particularities of private direction in comparison with well-known studies of public centers. Using these data, I also try to understand why clients come to this specific hospital. I argue that status is not as important in their choice. [less ▲]

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See detailPréfaces et collections, figures du collectif
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2013, June 28)

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See detailExamining Managers' careers at the crossing of gender and age
Grodent, Françoise ULg; Peere, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2013, June 28)

This paper reviews the literature with a view to grounding empirical comparative research on male and female managers' careers with regard to three age categories: managers aged up to 35, between 35 and ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews the literature with a view to grounding empirical comparative research on male and female managers' careers with regard to three age categories: managers aged up to 35, between 35 and 50 and above 50. It considers both men and women as professional careers are influenced by gender as well as by stereotyped gender roles. Hence, distinguishing these age categories affords consideration of evolving contextual factors such as gender-specific roles upheld throughout time. Indeed social perceptions with regard to gender can vary from one generation to another and sensibly affect career choices. Thus considering age in correlation with gender leads up to broaching "intersectionality", a concept which in diversity management consists in crossing the target groups concerned. This theoretical overview of the literature relating to the careers of managers yields a theoretical frame of reference along with qualitative propositions to be tested subsequently in the field. [less ▲]

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