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See detailUn panorama du temps. Robida chroniqueur des Expositions universelles
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Conference (2014, June 19)

Robida est familier des Expositions universelles. Sa carrière de dessinateur-journaliste est en grande partie rythmée par les événements sociaux qu’elles constituent. Il illustre le démontage de ... [more ▼]

Robida est familier des Expositions universelles. Sa carrière de dessinateur-journaliste est en grande partie rythmée par les événements sociaux qu’elles constituent. Il illustre le démontage de l’Exposition de Paris de 1867 dans le Journal Amusant du 9 novembre 1867. Il est envoyé à Vienne comme dessinateur-correspondant du Monde illustré pour celle de 1873. Il visite l’Exposition de 1889 et en rend compte en double-page dans La Vie Parisienne du 11 mai 1889 (« Demandez, l’inauguration officielle de la Tour ! »). Enfin, il participe activement à l’Exposition de 1900 avec la reconstitution minutieuse, pendant près de deux ans, du « Vieux Paris », une attraction à succès située entre le Pont de l’Alma et la passerelle Debilly. En tant que manifestation très fréquentée, qui fait l’objet d’une abondante publicité et qui engage l’image d’une ville à dimension internationale, l’exposition dans ses diverses formes (universelle, internationale, industrielle) constitue un nouveau mode de communication et un lieu de sociabilité spécifique dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Le chroniqueur, le journaliste et le dessinateur sont amenés à commenter et à représenter ce type d’événement célébratif qui implique tout à la fois une esthétique de la monstration, une rhétorique publicitaire et une réflexivité patrimoniale sur le siècle. Lieu de présentation de l’innovation, animé par un imaginaire du progrès technique et industriel, l’exposition a pu ainsi constituer une matrice féconde pour l’œuvre d’anticipation de Robida. Cette communication propose d’examiner ce que la production de Robida doit aux discours et aux représentations liés aux Expositions universelles dans les deux décennies de 1880 et 1890. Des thématisations explicites, des visites fictives en mots et en images, ainsi qu’un abondant intertexte d’actualité témoignent de ce rapport à un discours social qui traverse une œuvre conjecturale ambiguë. Si les liens thématiques du Vingtième Siècle à l’Exposition Internationale d’Électricité de 1881 sont bien connus, il faut aussi envisager les aspects de la production de Robida qui impliquent le support journalistique. C’est le cas des dessins de presse qui préparent de manière critique la réception des Expositions, comme le montre la couverture de La Caricature du 16 juin 1886 faisant, trois ans à l’avance, l’éloge paradoxal du projet de métro aérien coupable d’encombrer le ciel parisien. C’est aussi le cas des inventions moquées dans sa correspondance fictive avec le dessinateur Christophe entre 1896 et 1901 dans « La Boîte aux lettres » du Petit Français illustré, où Robida-Théodule Asenbrouck imagine des machines telles que la « pince-scie-brosse-polissoir électrique » pour découper la Lune en douze tranches afin d’éclairer les grandes capitales, en particulier la Ville-Lumière. L’Exposition constitue également un cadre de transposition fictive créatif, comme en témoigne le récit sériel Jadis chez aujourd’hui du Petit Français illustré, imaginant Louis XIV et sa cour transportés à l’Exposition universelle de 1889 et visitant la Galerie des Machines avec un regard décalé sur l’époque contemporaine. Des éléments graphiques et stylistiques récurrents résultent de ce commentaire journalistique des Expositions, à l’image d’une tour Eiffel dont un seul pied suffit à constituer un indicateur chrono-topographique symbolisant la modernité contestée. Enfin, on peut considérer comment Robida prolonge à sa manière des inventions existantes, notamment dans l’illustration du texte d’Octave Uzanne La Locomotion future, paru dans Le Monde Moderne en 1895, ou avec la voiture aéroplane déclinée à partir du quadricycle Daimler apparu à l’Exposition de 1889. Le dialogue attentif et moqueur de Robida avec les projets et les discours des Expositions universelles permet de reconsidérer l’humour de l’anticipateur en le situant plus résolument dans les registres satirique et fantaisiste propres à prendre en charge les facéties du « feu congelé », du « poney-vapeur » ou du « perce-brouillard à hélice nasale », que dans la seule prospective pessimiste d’un génial visionnaire. Cet angle d’étude de l’œuvre d’anticipation offre aussi l’occasion d’examiner la part de l’intertexte d’actualité intervenant dans une pratique générique, graphique et éditoriale du panorama temporel. Entendons par là la littérature des guides pour visiteurs d’Expositions qui renoue avec une tradition des Petits-Paris initiée dans la littérature « panoramique » des années 1840. Ces parcours-découvertes balisés et ces bilans des curiosités urbaines ne sont pas sans évoquer ceux auxquels contribue Robida dans Le Vieux Paris. Guide historique, pittoresque et anecdotique (une cinquantaine de dessins), dans l’illustration du guide satirique L’Exposition comique (Dentu, 1889) ou encore dans le récit illustré du Dix-neuvième Siècle. S’ils s’articulent à un passé patrimonial sous la forme d’un inventaire du siècle qui se regarde réflexivement, ils ont aussi pu contribuer à l’anticipation en associant scènes dynamiques et vues d’ensemble dans un parcours temporel indissociable de ses dimensions topographiques. [less ▲]

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See detailNégociation du sens du travail et définition du groupe interprofessionnel : les cas des projets exploratoires dans le champ de la santé mentale en Belgique
Thunus, Sophie ULg

Conference (2014, June 19)

Au printemps 2010, les ministres en charge de la santé publique ont annoncé la mise en place d’une grande réforme de l’organisation des soins de santé mentale en Belgique. Le modèle d’organisation à ... [more ▼]

Au printemps 2010, les ministres en charge de la santé publique ont annoncé la mise en place d’une grande réforme de l’organisation des soins de santé mentale en Belgique. Le modèle d’organisation à mettre en place et le programme de la réforme étaient exposés dans un petit guide bleu distribué aux participants lors d’un événement national auquel assistaient les acteurs- clé du champ, notamment des professionnels de la santé mentale, les associations d’usagers, les responsables des organisations de soins locales, les autorités administratives régionales, des experts scientifiques. Cette réforme s’inscrivait dans un contexte international caractérisé par une mutation d’un modèle de soins basé sur la psychiatrie résidentielle, vers un modèle de soins de santé mentale communautaire. Au niveau Belge, la réforme était présentée comme l’étape ultime d’un processus qui aurait débuté à la fin des années 1990, par la mise en place de structures de soins alternatives et de projets exploratoires, pour aboutir en 2010, avec l’exploration et l’institutionnalisation progressive d’un modèle de soins résolument communautaire. Aussi, étant donné l’importance des enjeux institutionnels et professionnels associés à ce processus du changement, la réforme reposait sur un dispositif d’action publique original. Celui-ci impliquait directement les acteurs locaux en les invitant à participer à la définition de nouvelles modalités de travail, qui seraient progressivement évaluées et collectées par les autorités publiques. Dans cet article, nous proposons d’analyser ce processus de changement en le replaçant dans le processus temporel et dans le cadre institutionnel dans lequel il prend place. Effectivement, nous souhaitons mettre en évidence que les ressorts du changement, compris comme la capacité à mobiliser des pratiques professionnelles alternatives et des réseaux d’acteurs développés au cours des dernières décennies, sont difficilement compréhensibles en dehors d’une telle conceptualisation. De même, les jeux d’acteurs susceptibles de faire obstacle au changement, ou de lui donner des directions particulières, sont le fruit d’une construction sociale progressive, dont les premières bases ont été posées au lendemain de la seconde guerre. Cette approche du changement dans l’organisation du travail en santé mentale est principalement ancrée en sociologie de l’action collective et en sociologie des professions. Ces deux approches ont connu des évolutions spécifiques dont certaines se sont révélées pertinentes par rapport à notre domaine de recherche. Nous présentons ces développements dans la première partie de cet article, afin d’expliquer le cadre d’analyse qui sous-tend les deux parties suivantes. L’approche interactionniste du changement et les principaux concepts de la sociologie de l’action organisée sont centraux à ce cadre d’analyse. Ils supportent le récit de l’évolution du champ au cours des dernières décennies et celui de la réforme en cours, présentés dans les secondes et troisièmes parties de cet article. Ces deux récits alimentent à leur tour des considérations relatives aux conditions sociales et techniques dans lesquelles des pratiques professionnelles alternatives, ou « marginales », peuvent être utilisées au sein d’un processus de changement portant à la fois sur le modèle professionnel et institutionnel dominant le champ de la santé mentale. Ces considérations sont présentées dans la quatrième et dernière partie de cet article. [less ▲]

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See detailA wavelet-based analysis of surface air temperature regularity
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, June 19)

The aim of the talk is to present the "wavelet transform microscope" and the wavelet leaders method to show that surface air temperature signals of weather stations selected in Europe are monofractal, i.e ... [more ▼]

The aim of the talk is to present the "wavelet transform microscope" and the wavelet leaders method to show that surface air temperature signals of weather stations selected in Europe are monofractal, i.e. all the points have the same Hölder (regularity) exponent. This study reveals that the information obtained in this way are richer than previous works studying long range correlations in meteorological stations. The approach presented here allows to bind the Hölder exponents with the pressure anomalies, and such a link does not exist with methods previously carried out. Moreover, this regularity is a signature of the type of climate the stations are associated to: indeed, it is possible to establish a climate classification of weather stations in Europe which matches the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. A blind test is performed in order to confirm the results, which can be partly explained by the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation. This result could give rise to new criteria to determine the efficiency of current climatic models. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of the effects of mora debitoris
Cavalleri, Vanessa ULg

Conference (2014, June 19)

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See detailUsing a rich internet application to teach histology
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Rollus, L et al

Conference (2014, June 18)

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See detailThe search for a core functionality network in chondrocyte differentiation using heuristic and genetic algorithms
Kerkhofs, Johan ULg

Conference (2014, June 18)

Introduction: In the growth plate a continuing process where cartilage is replaced by bone provides the fuel for bone growth until its closure towards the end of puberty. At the cellular level the growth ... [more ▼]

Introduction: In the growth plate a continuing process where cartilage is replaced by bone provides the fuel for bone growth until its closure towards the end of puberty. At the cellular level the growth rate is maintained by proliferation and enlargement of maturing cells (hypertrophy). Mature cartilage cells (hypertrophic chondrocytes) secrete Ihh, a growth factor that induces expression of PTHrP, another growth factor, in immature proliferating chondrocytes. Since PTHrP in turn inhibits chondrocyte maturation, Ihh secretion limits the number of maturing chondrocytes through a negative feedback loop, striking a balance between proliferation and hypertrophy [Kronenberg, 2003]. Materials and methods: A gene network centering on the control of Ihh, PTHrP and transcription factors Sox9 and Runx2, which are the master regulators of early and late chondrocyte differentiation respectively, was manually constructed from literature. The dynamics of this network are simulated in a discrete framework that divides reactions into two speed classes. In this framework all interactions are considered additive, and each interaction is associated with a weight. Starting from the observation that the gene network must activate Runx2 in the presence of Ihh and Sox9 in the presence of Ihh and PTHrP, we investigate which edges are vital in achieving this. To this end, we employ both a heuristic and a genetic algorithm where the weights attached to the edges function as variables. In the heuristic algorithm weights are uniformly distributed in [0,1] and the means (based on 450 samples) of the weights that satisfy the above mentioned observations are contrasted with those that do not. If the difference of the means passes a certain threshold, the weight of the corresponding edge is fixed at 1. Results and discussion: Preliminary results from the heuristic algorithm show that fixing 14 weights (out of 147) is sufficient to match the biological observations in about 22% of cases, all other weights being selected randomly. The selected edges show that the BMP pathway is crucial in effecting a switch between hypertrophy in the absence of PTHrP and proliferation in its presence. This observation can be substantiated by earlier findings that BMP signalling plays a crucial role in prehypertrophic cells that are on the verge of hypertrophy [Yoon, 2006]. References: Kronenberg, 2003, Nature, 423:332-336; Yoon et al., 2006, Development, 133:4667-4678. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potentiality of PDMAEMA-based polycation for cardiovascular applications
Flebus, Luca ULg; Lombart, François ULg; Martinez, Lucia et al

Conference (2014, June 18)

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See detailAdolescent male sexual offenders: pubertal timing, psychosocial functioning and sexual abuse: what links?
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

The impact of pubertal development on the psychological and social functioning of the teenager arouses a particular interest; the most recent research shows the existence of complex relationships between ... [more ▼]

The impact of pubertal development on the psychological and social functioning of the teenager arouses a particular interest; the most recent research shows the existence of complex relationships between pubertal development and the manifestation of internalized and externalized disorders. According to a biosocial model, biological and social factors interact in their influence on sexual behavior. A number of studies have shown that sexual activity is associated with pubertal timing. Our study is interested specifically in the links between sexual activity (and sexual abuse) during adolescence and pubertal maturation in a population of juvenile sexual offenders aged between 12 and 18 years. We measured the pubertal variable starting from the perceived pubertal timing (PPT), which evaluates the teenagers' perception of their pubertal maturation, compared with that of their peers, to understand its impact on various dimensions of the functioning of teenagers: the perception of self , aggressiveness, association with peers, self-revealed delinquency and sexual offenses. Two predominant hypothesis are used for explain influence of pubertal timing on sexual offense: the maturational deviance hypothesis and the early timing hypothesis. Our results confirm the importance of integrating the puberty variable into research on adolescent male sexual offenders, but also at the level of intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailIslamic religion and food practices in migration context: negotiating belonging and performing subjectivities
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

My paper focuses on the ethnographic material collected during a doctoral research around the culinary practices of Moroccan women living in the city of Sesto San Giovanni (in Milan hinterland, Italy). In ... [more ▼]

My paper focuses on the ethnographic material collected during a doctoral research around the culinary practices of Moroccan women living in the city of Sesto San Giovanni (in Milan hinterland, Italy). In particular, adopting a praxeological approach to subjectivation (Warnier 2001), I will highlight those aspects of the materiality that I studied which recall the belonging of the considered women to Islamic religion. In fact, everyday food consumption (or that related to specific events) and the very same preparation of recipes, are influenced not only by the prescriptions concerning licit and illicit food, but also by the suggestions regarding food which are appropriate to eat. On the one hand, Islamic norms prohibit some food to believers, such as certain meats because of the animal species or the category of victims (Benkheira 1997) to which they belong. Nevertheless, Muslim women behaviours concerning meat consumption are various, such as those of my informants, who in some cases demonstrate to negotiate such norms in order to materially shape a specific self interacting with different collective belongings. On the other hand, some Quranic verses and some sayings of the prophet Muhammad, define a soul food (Rouse and Hoskin 2004), by suggesting to believers what to eat to perform their piety: the preparation and the consumption of some food – and not only the abstention from it – finds in fact religious reasons. In order to follow such suggestions, in a context where Islamic religion is not the majority one, women has to deal with local rules while performing the materiality of some rituals. Religion and traditions intertwine and they shape specific knowledge and savoir-faire which are negotiated by the women considered so as to affirm their various belongings and to face the constraints which the new lived context imposes to them. Such constraints oblige a form of reflexivity on religious norms and rites (Højbjerg 2002), in order to define a limit beyond which modifications are perceived as subtractions of sense (Dore 2001). In my paper, I will try to give some ethnographic examples of these forms of reflexivity and to show how these dynamics constitute the materiality upon which and with which the women considered define their subjectivity. To support my reflexions, I will use visual materials such as photos and videos, which will witness the material density of these facts. [less ▲]

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See detailPrior light history impacts on higher order cognitive brain function
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Ly, Julien; Meyer, Christelle ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 17)

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See detailThe Science Behind the Illusion of Life
Collignon, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

Brève revue des différents processus cognitifs et neuroscientifiques qui permettent d'expliquer qu'une figurine de cartoon suscite de réelles émotions malgré son artificialité manifeste.

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See detailAssessment of Solvent Degradation within a Global Process Model of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture
Léonard, Grégoire ULg; Heyen, Georges ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

Solvent degradation may be a major drawback for the large-scale implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture due to amine consumption and emission of degradation products. However, its influence on the ... [more ▼]

Solvent degradation may be a major drawback for the large-scale implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture due to amine consumption and emission of degradation products. However, its influence on the process operations has rarely been studied. In the present work, a kinetics model describing solvent oxidative and thermal degradation has been developed based on own experimental results for the benchmark solvent, i.e. 30 wt% monoethanolamine (MEA) in water. This model has been included into a global Aspen Plus model of the CO2 capture process. The selected process modelling approaches are described in the present work. Using the resulting simulation model, optimal operating conditions can be identified to minimize both the energy requirement and the solvent degradation in the process. This kind of process model assessing solvent degradation may contribute to the design of large-scale CO2 capture plants to consider not only the process energy penalty, but also its environmental penalty. Indeed, both aspects are relevant for the large-scale deployment of the CO2 capture technology. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of riparian zones in wallonia (belgium)
Michez, Adrien ULg

Conference (2014, June 16)

The present study proposes an innovative approach to automatically extract riparian zone characteristics in order to assess its quality, from pre-determined river management reaches (1-3 km long) to ... [more ▼]

The present study proposes an innovative approach to automatically extract riparian zone characteristics in order to assess its quality, from pre-determined river management reaches (1-3 km long) to regional scale (ca. 13000 km for 1000 management sectors). The aim of this remotely sensed monitoring is to improve the river and riparian zone management and planning by providing some key information for river managers. This first research is exclusively based on data which are available at the regional scale (170000 square km) to develop automated tools to implement the methodology to the whole Walloon river network (13000 km) before 2015 with an update frequency of 3 years (photogrammetric DSM survey frequency). [less ▲]

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See detailThe circadian system sets the temporal organization of basic human neuronal function
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Ly, Julien; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 16)

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See detailCopper recovery from waste electric cables by biohydrometallurgy
Lambert, Fanny ULg; Bastin, David ULg

Conference (2014, June 13)

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption ... [more ▼]

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90% was achieved in both leaching systems, with a leaching duration of 1 day. The bacterial leaching system slightly outperformed the chemical one but the positive effect of regeneration of Fe3+ was limited. It appears that the Fe2+ bio-oxidation is not sufficiently optimised. Best results in terms of copper solubilisation kinetics were obtained for the abiotic test at 50°C and for the biotic test at 35°C. Moreover, the study showed that in same operating conditions, a lower acid consumption was recorded for the biotic test than for the abiotic test. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring the body, measuring through the body
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2014, June 13)

Body is a particular relevant way to tackle design processes, because of the multiplicity of status it can acquire during these processes: a source of information, a target to fit, a device to perform, a ... [more ▼]

Body is a particular relevant way to tackle design processes, because of the multiplicity of status it can acquire during these processes: a source of information, a target to fit, a device to perform, a complex technology, an apparatus for the users. A specific body is presented in this paper: the measured body. Trough racial anthropology, sport performances, demographic statistics, medical treatments, psycho-cognitive surveys, quantified self, or in many other contexts, human body is subject to a wide range of various measures. I would on my own propose some thoughts grounded on field exploration, concerning sensory analysis practices, in various laboratories. According to the symmetrical glaze STS have gave from the beginning to both human and non-humans, objects and subjects, the body is for a start itself one of the “stuffs” overlapping categories, blurring distinctions between things and persons, at the same a time a given and an object to perform. The measures of the body, and made with/through the body, highlight how it could be enacted, revealed, understood, improved by technology, especially when it requires some quantitative data. But it allows us also to grasp how the body is viewed simultaneously as a technological device and as the data origin, to intervene during complex practices (e.g. standardization, lab experiments, and marketing surveys). One of the numerous outcomes of such research could be the role of these bodily measurements in the definition of the actors, as well individuals than collectives. By the way it takes on a share on the network tying body to numerical data and to materiality-other-than-human, to measure the body/ through the body seems to afford socio-materiality in a particularly productive manner. Many scholars have inquired about numbers, how they could bring objectivity, how they produce confidence and security, and how finally they participate to black-box the measures themselves. Here, the aim is to understand the specificity of the body as measurement issue, being the interface of the-objects-to-be-measured and the instrument-of-measure. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Discretionary Use of Strasbourg Jurisprudence by the International Criminal Court
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, June 13)

Although the case law of the European Court of Human Rights ("ECtHR") has had and still shows critical influence on the development of the practice of the International Criminal Court ("ICC"), it remains ... [more ▼]

Although the case law of the European Court of Human Rights ("ECtHR") has had and still shows critical influence on the development of the practice of the International Criminal Court ("ICC"), it remains unclear what the authority of such external jurisprudence is vis-à-vis the international criminal judge. While it is virtually undisputed that human rights law, in general terms, is applicable to proceedings before the ICC, many scholars tend to adopt a much nuanced approach to the authority of human rights case law in particular. This paper aims to shed further light on the issue by addressing the question whether ICC judges have used Strasbourg jurisprudence in a consistent manner, in particular as regards the authority which they decided to vest the latter with. It demonstrates that ICC Chambers have relied on European human rights practice, alternatively, as a mere source of inspiration, as binding interpretation, as a corpus having ambivalent authority, or as a source whose legal value it simply left unspecified. This leads us to conclude that, on the whole, the ICC has been mostly inconsistent regarding the value of ECtHR case law in the context of international criminal proceedings. Such inconsistency, we argue, amounts to a discretionary use of Strasbourg jurisprudence that further reinforces the Court's paradoxical position as the ultimate authority for defining the boundaries of its own human rights constraint. [less ▲]

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See detailFélix Fénéon : de l’animation à la naturalisation critique
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2014, June 12)

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See detailCompeting One-Way Essential Complements : the Forgotten Side of the Net Neutrality Story}
Broos, Sébastien ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2014, June 12)

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP ... [more ▼]

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP applications by a telecom company offering internet and voice services. We show that exclusion is not a concern when the ISP is a monopoly because it can extract the additional surplus created by the application through price rebalancing. By contrast, when ISP’s compete, in an attempt to differentiate, only one ISP will offer the app. Applying a no-exclusion rule in this case can lead to monopoly. [less ▲]

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See detailInternet : support, médium ou épimédium ?
Barnabé, Fanny ULg; Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Conference (2014, June 11)

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See detailSoil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems - overview of methodologies with preliminary results
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 10)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field in Gembloux. Soil profile description together with soil sampling has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity (done), hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. The assessment of soil water retention curves with pressure plate technique show significantly (p<0.05) higher water retention (Hwr) in WP than ST at 9.8 to 98 hPa, Hwr in WP than NI at 39 to 14710 hPa, Hwr in ST than NI at 294 to 14710 hPa and Hwr in WP than NO at 69 to 98 hPa. There was no significant difference in the water retention between NO and NI and ST and NO. Since, tillage practices generally increase soil porosity, the correlation between soil hydraulics and porosity distribution would expect to be different for different tillage systems. In our study, WP retains more water due to the increase of macroporosity than ST, NI and NO. As the changes in soil structure are usually noticed in the range of 9.8 to 98 hPa, so, we can conclude that there is certainly structural change between WP and conservation practices of ST, NI and NO. In our study, there will be also soil moisture sensors (Decagon 10HS, 5TM and ML3 Thetaprobe) to capture the total soil moisture networks in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were used for zone specific calibration of the sensors. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty. [less ▲]

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See detailLes remèdes d'origine égyptienne utilisés dans la médecine vétérinaire antique
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

Conference (2014, June 10)

Famous since the Odyssey (IV, 229-230) for its drugs, Egypt furnishes the Greek world with some medical substances already mentioned in the hippocratic treatises. Moreover, many Greek drug names have been ... [more ▼]

Famous since the Odyssey (IV, 229-230) for its drugs, Egypt furnishes the Greek world with some medical substances already mentioned in the hippocratic treatises. Moreover, many Greek drug names have been loaned from the Egyptian language, such as ἄμ(μ)ι for cumin, κίκι for castor-oil, κόμμι for gum, κῦφι for a complex preparation used for fumigation in cult practices, νίτρον for sodium carbonate, στίμμι for galena, σῶρυ for ferrous sulfate, and σάμψ(ο)υχον, for marjoram, whose name means “herb (sem) of Soukhos", another name for the crocodile god Sobek. The trade of drugs, spices and colourants, used in pharmacology, cosmetology, painting, cultual and magical practices, embalming rites and nutrition always flourished in Egypt and has intensified in Hellenistic and Roman times. As a continuation of the research on remedies of Egyptian origin in Greco-Roman pharmacopoeia, this article provides a list of Egyptian ingredients used in Greek and Latin veterinary prescriptions. The use of these substances is compared with recomandations from human medicine. Their availability and costs are also studied. [less ▲]

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See detailFe and Mg Isotope Fractionation in Olivine from the NWA 1068 Shergottite
Collinet, Max ULg; Charlier, Bernard ULg; Namur, Olivier et al

Conference (2014, June 09)

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See detailHigher Symmetries of the conformal Laplacian
Radoux, Fabian ULg

Conference (2014, June 09)

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See detailFast Ambient Pressure Thermal cycling of space solar arrays samples under equivalent AM0 illumination conditions
Guiot, Marc ULg; Fernandez Lisbona, Emilio; Witteveen, Bob et al

Conference (2014, June 08)

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See detailMuti-scale methods with strain-softening: damage-enhanced MFH for composite materials and computational homogenization for cellular materials with micro-buckling
Wu, Ling ULg; Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2014, June 06)

In this work, multi-scale methods with strain softening are developed in the contexts of damage modeling for composite laminates and of buckling analyses in cellular materials. First, an anisotropic ... [more ▼]

In this work, multi-scale methods with strain softening are developed in the contexts of damage modeling for composite laminates and of buckling analyses in cellular materials. First, an anisotropic gradient–enhanced continuum damage model is embedded in a mean–field homogenization (MFH) process for elasto-plastic composites. The homogenization procedure is based on the newly developed incremental secant mean-field homogenization formulation, for which the residual stress and strain states reached in the phases upon a fictitious elastic unloading are considered as starting point to apply the secant method. The mean stress fields in the phases are then computed using isotropic secant tensors, which are naturally used to define the Linear Comparison–Composite The resulting multi– scale model is then applied to study the damage process at the meso–scale of laminates, and in particular the damaging of plies in a composite stack. By using the gradient–enhanced continuum damage model, the problem of losing uniqueness upon strain softening is avoided. Second, an efficient multi–scale finite element framework capturing the buckling instabilities in cellular materials is developed. As a classical multi–scale computational homogenization scheme loses accuracy with the apparition of the macroscopic localizations resulting from the micro–buckling, the second order multi–scale computational homogenization scheme is considered. This second–order computational framework is enhanced with the following novelties so that it can be used for cellular materials. At the microscopic scale, the periodic boundary condition is used because of its efficiency. As the meshes generated from cellular materials exhibit a large void part on the boundaries and are not conforming in general, the classical enforcement based on the matching nodes cannot be applied. A new method based on the polynomial interpolation2 without the requirement of the matching mesh condition on opposite boundaries of the representative volume element (RVE) is developed. Next, in order to solve the underlying macroscopic Mindlin strain gradient continuum of this second–order scheme by the displacement–based finite element framework, the treatment of high order terms is based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to weakly impose the C1-continuity. Finally, as the instability phenomena are considered at both scales of the cellular materials, the path following technique is adopted to solve both the macroscopic and microscopic problems. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar irradiance modelling over Belgium using WRF-ARW : A sensitivity analysis of Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (BYNN) boundary layer scheme parameters
Beaumet, Julien ULg; Doutreloup, Sébastien ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 06)

Global solar irradiances at ground level are modelled over Belgium using latest version of WRF-ARW regional climate model (RCM). The model set-up used has a resolution of 5 kilometres. The boundary layer ... [more ▼]

Global solar irradiances at ground level are modelled over Belgium using latest version of WRF-ARW regional climate model (RCM). The model set-up used has a resolution of 5 kilometres. The boundary layer scheme chosen is the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) 2.5 scheme with the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) closure proposed by Canuto et al., (2008) and Kitamura (2010). In this scheme, the modification of some parameters allows to change the determinant mixing length (surface layer, planet boundary layer, top of boundary layer/entrainment) which then modifies heat and moistures fluxes produced by turbulent mixing. Such modifications have significant influences on modelled cloudiness and therefore on modelled global solar irradiance incoming at the surface. The present study proposes a sensitivity analysis of the different parameters that influence the mixing length ('alp1' to 'alp5') and the TKE diffusion ('Sqfac') in order to find the most suitable constant values of these parameters for the modelling of cloudiness over Belgium. Results of different simulations are compared with global solar irradiance measurements performed by the Centre Spatial de Liège at Sart-Tilman in 2013 and 2014. Firsts results show that the dry bias frequently found when using WRF-ARW with standard set-ups can be greatly reduced thanks to an increased modelled cloudiness. The quantitative and qualitative effects of these modifications over cloudiness are also analysed by displaying 2D representation of modelled clouds over Sart-Tilman and confronting them with on-site observations. [less ▲]

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See detailA wavelet-based analysis of surface air temperature variability
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, June 06)

We study the Hölder regularity of surface air temperature signals using the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This method has been successfully applied in several domains such as DNA analysis, fully ... [more ▼]

We study the Hölder regularity of surface air temperature signals using the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This method has been successfully applied in several domains such as DNA analysis, fully developped turbulence analysis, internet data traffic analysis,... to name just a few, and we now use it in climatology. We first define the notions of Hölder exponent, monofractal functions and spectrum of singularities before explaining the WLM. Then we use it to study surface air temperature signals from weather stations spread across Western and Eastern Europe and show that they are monofractal, i.e. their irregularity (in the sense of variability) is regular. After, we show that the stations can be classified according to their Hölder exponent and that this classification matches with the worldwide used Köppen-Geiger climate classification. A blind test is performed in order to confirm the results, which can be partly explained by the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results can be helpful to test the accuracy of current climatic models. [less ▲]

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See detailLes médiateurs scolaires en action : des discours aux pratiques
Dethier, Baptiste ULg

Conference (2014, June 05)

En 1993, dans un contexte marqué les questions d’insécurité, de violence scolaire, de crise de confiance envers les institutions ou encore de décrochage scolaire, 28 médiateurs sont engagés dans autant ... [more ▼]

En 1993, dans un contexte marqué les questions d’insécurité, de violence scolaire, de crise de confiance envers les institutions ou encore de décrochage scolaire, 28 médiateurs sont engagés dans autant d’établissements scolaires aux publics défavorisés de la région bruxelloise. Ce projet pilote, voyant le jour sous la houlette du Ministère de l’enseignement, ne sera institutionnalisé qu’en 1998 dans un décret créant le Service de Médiation Scolaire, divisé en deux entités : 56 médiateurs internes à Bruxelles et 30 médiateurs externes (répartis par zones couvrant plusieurs établissements) en Wallonie. Par ailleurs, d’autres niveaux de pouvoir (communes, diocèses, écoles) créaient également, localement, leurs propres fonctions de médiateur scolaire. Actuellement, on en dénombre environ 120 en Belgique francophone. Ce nouvel acteur, bien que peu étudié, incarnerait un nouveau mode de régulation sociale (Bonafé-Schmitt, 1996) remettant en question les équilibres historiques du système scolaire (Verhoeven, 1997). En effet, il se présente comme un tiers neutre et indépendant de l’établissement, permettant ainsi la création d’un espace où peuvent se résoudre différents problèmes concernant les personnes demandeuses, qu’elles soient élèves, membres du personnel scolaire ou encore parents. Dans un premier temps, notre attention se porte sur l’ensemble des acteurs portant le nom de médiateurs scolaires (Kuty et al., 2012). Au sein d’un cadre légal ne définissant que vaguement leur fonction, ces derniers sont néanmoins globalement chargés de prévenir la violence et le décrochage scolaires et de favoriser, conserver ou rétablir le climat de confiance entre élèves, écoles et familles. À partir de là, ils ont progressivement construit leurs propres pratiques et leur identité, cherchant par là à trouver et à consolider leur place au sein d’un milieu scolaire déjà marqué par la présence de multiples acteurs. Dans un second temps, des études de cas approfondies dans six établissements d’enseignement secondaire permettent de constater que les médiateurs ne disposaient pas du monopole de la médiation (Dubois et Dethier, 2013), concept polysémique auquel de nombreux acteurs se réfèrent pour qualifier certains aspects de leur travail quotidien. En outre, le recours à la médiation ou aux médiateurs ne se révèle être qu’une solution parmi d’autres pour faire face aux différents problèmes rencontrés par les acteurs : violence, décrochage, absentéisme, échec scolaire, conflits, problèmes socio-économiques… Ces constats exigent une étude empirique approfondie du travail concret réalisé par les médiateurs scolaires, une étude attentive à leurs discours mais aussi à l’observation de leurs pratiques et interactions directes avec les différents acteurs scolaires. Les résultats de cette étude font l’objet de cette communication. Cette contribution se base sur un corpus composé de onze entretiens individuels, trois focus groups et trois périodes d’observation non participante auprès de médiateurs belges francophones membres d’un même service. Ces derniers revendiquent une posture de tiers neutre et indépendant dans l’école, ainsi que des principes basés sur le non-jugement, la confidentialité, l’accueil inconditionnel de la demande ou encore la non-expertise. Il s’agira par conséquent de rendre compte de la manière dont ces médiateurs traduisent leurs discours en pratiques au quotidien. [less ▲]

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See detailBiorefine: Recovery of nutrients and metallic trace elements from different wastes by chemical and biochemical processes
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; De Clercq, Lies et al

Conference (2014, June 05)

At present, most waste processing operations are not oriented towards the valorization of valuable reusable components such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and even Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs ... [more ▼]

At present, most waste processing operations are not oriented towards the valorization of valuable reusable components such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and even Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs). Currently, sewage sludge, for example is usually used as a fertilizer in agriculture, in energy production or in the field of construction. Ashes originating from sludge incineration contain heavy metals and minerals in large quantities. Manure is mainly used in agriculture, although considerable amounts of nutrients are lost and cause pollution. Digestate is also used in agriculture, but other alternatives have been proposed, such as the energetic valorization. Better valorization of these wastes in agriculture (or other sectors) is however largely constrained by a multitude of legal requirements. An important problematic point is the concentration in MTEs that is found in those wastes. Consequently, recovery of nutrients and MTEsmay be a key solution for optimal valorization of wastes. Many unit operations used in the field of chemical and biochemical engineering (mechanical operations on fluids, solids, mass and heat transfers, chemical reactions, etc.) could be used in order to achieve an efficient recovery yield of nutrients and trace elements. The aim of the BioRefine Project is to make an inventory of all recovery techniques of nutrients and MTEs in five countries: Belgium, France, Germany, United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Pilot plants will also be tested to assess the efficiency of new treatment techniques after which the most efficient processes will be chosen to be applied on a larger scale. In addition, the collected data will be used to propose exploitation scenarios taking into account legal constraints and optimized logistics.This work is supported through an INTERREG IVB NWE programme(ref. 320J-BIOREFINE). [less ▲]

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See detailA Single Envelope N-linked Glycosylation Site Defines Hyperpathogenicity of Bovine Leukemia Virus
De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 05)

Pathogens have co-evolved with their host to allow efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by ... [more ▼]

Pathogens have co-evolved with their host to allow efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) model that induces lymphoproliferative disorders in ruminants only after extended latency periods of several years. In principle, the equilibrium reached between the virus and its host could be disrupted by emergence of more pathogenic strains. Intriguingly, this type of hyperpathogenic BLV strain could never been isolated in vivo nor designed in vitro. Using reverse genetics of an infectious molecular provirus, we have now identified a N-linked envelope glycosylation site that limits viral replication and pathogenicity. Onset of this particular mutation may thus represent a potential threat associated with emergence of hyperpathogenic BLV strains and possibly of new variants of the related primate T-lymphotropic viruses. [less ▲]

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See detailMALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging: a new tool to decipher the antibiome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Debois, Delphine ULg; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Cawoy, Hélène et al

Conference (2014, June 05)

Soil Bacillus isolates may devote up to 8% of their genome to nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptide (LP)- and polyketide (PK)-type antibiotics. LPs from surfactin, iturin and fengycin families are known ... [more ▼]

Soil Bacillus isolates may devote up to 8% of their genome to nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptide (LP)- and polyketide (PK)-type antibiotics. LPs from surfactin, iturin and fengycin families are known to exert different actions on the wellness of the producing strain such as fungitoxicity (iturin, fengycin) or motility, root colonization and immune stimulating agent (surfactin). Nevertheless, few is reported about the actual antibiome secreted in situ by Bacillus cells during confrontation with phytopathogens or plant root colonization. We developed a method mimicking the conditions prevailing in the rhizosphere and, taking advantage of the versatility of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging, we were able to localize and identify antibiotics produced in situ by bacterial cells. First, we applied this new methodology to bioassays in which Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 98S were grown together with Fusarium oxysporum, with the aim of deciphering the role of the different LP families during the phytopathogen growth inhibition. Our results showed that the three LP families were readily produced in different proportions. Especially, images of surfactins, iturins and fengycins demonstrated that iturins are the antibiotic family actually involved in the antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum. In a second approach, we used a “in planta” model in which Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499 was simultaneously grown with Tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Imaging results, obtained during a time course analysis, showed that surfactin is always the major lipopeptide detected. In further experiments involving a refined time-window, we observed that surfactin is actually produced as soon as 24h post inoculation. These results were the starting point of a wider study showing that the early accumulation of surfactin is a complex phenomenon involving, among other mechanisms, cell-well components recognition by bacteria, and that this interaction is a win-win association for both plant and bacterial cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLa charge de confesseur princier au XVIIème siècle, une définition controversée
Pirlet, Pierre-François ULg

Conference (2014, June 05)

Si la mission d'un confesseur au début du XVIIème siècle est strictement définie par les textes canoniques du catholicisme comme celle d'un administrateur de sacrement, la définition des tâches revenant ... [more ▼]

Si la mission d'un confesseur au début du XVIIème siècle est strictement définie par les textes canoniques du catholicisme comme celle d'un administrateur de sacrement, la définition des tâches revenant au confesseur du Prince est étonnamment lâche. Du premier, on attendait qu'il jugeât les actes de son pénitent, propose une consolation – sous la forme d'exercices expiatoires – destinés à le réconcilier avec Dieu, et offre une direction spirituelle visant à prévenir les rechutes dans le péché. Mais confesser le Prince contraignait le religieux qui s’y attelait à un exercice bien plus complexe. Il lui revenait de juger et d'apporter une direction de conscience aux deux personnes du roi : l'humaine et l'institutionnelle. En effet, il eût été impossible de distinguer formellement l'âme du souverain de celle du mortel. De même, il échoyait au confesseur de conseiller son pénitent quant à l'aspect moral de ses décisions, que celles-ci n'impliquèrent que sa personne, ou au contraire l'ensemble des territoires et des sujets sous sa conduite. De cette difficulté naquit une controverse quant à l'implication nécessaire et raisonnable du confesseur princier dans les affaires temporelles : la papauté, les rois d'Espagne, les ecclésiastiques de cour madrilènes, les gouverneurs-généraux des Pays-Bas et les supérieurs des ordres religieux dont étaient issus les confesseurs – et particulièrement la Compagnie de Jésus – proposèrent tous une définition différente – et controversée – des prérogatives de ce religieux au cœur du pouvoir. En prenant appui sur la situation des confesseurs de la cour de Bruxelles durant la grande première moitié du XVIIème siècle, nous tâcherons au travers de cette communication de proposer un aperçu global des différentes définitions de la confession princière telles que défendues par les contemporains. Notre exposé proposera en outre un rapide regard sur les deux approches utilisées par les historiens pour reconstituer les différentes définitions de la charge : à la patiente collecte et à l'analyse des traces laissées dans les sources par l'activité au quotidien des confesseurs (approche bottom-up) se confronte une méthode cherchant une définition d'époque des prérogatives de ces religieux faisant autorité (approche top-down). Nous constaterons que ces deux approches, qui ne s'opposent pas, s’accommodent néanmoins difficilement l'une à l'autre, créant ainsi une controverse non plus dans l'objet, mais dans la méthode. [less ▲]

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See detailLo stato di necessità, invenzione moderna o romana?
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2014, June 04)

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See detailApproche socio-écologique: arrangements de la complexité
Absil, Gaëtan ULg

Conference (2014, June 04)

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See detailL'épaule un carrefour complexe
WANG, François-Charles ULg; LOZZA, Alessandro

Conference (2014, June 04)

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See detailUn chiffre en débat. Controverse autour de la dette wallonne
Piron, Damien ULg

Conference (2014, June 03)

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See detailElectrical characterization of pGeSn/nGe diodes
Baert, Bruno ULg; Gupta, Somya; Gencarelli, Federica et al

Conference (2014, June 03)

I-V characteristics of pGeSn/nGe diodes have been measured and show very good properties. Simulations of the same structure are able to reproduce most of the observed behavior and point to the ... [more ▼]

I-V characteristics of pGeSn/nGe diodes have been measured and show very good properties. Simulations of the same structure are able to reproduce most of the observed behavior and point to the predominating influence of parameters such as the band gap energy of the GeSn layer. C-V characteristics showing little frequency dependence have also been measured, and their analysis for the determination of the carrier concentration is confirmed by simulations. More investigations, including the effect of temperature and other defects at the interface or in the bulk of either layers are still required in order to explain some of the observed behaviors, notably the reverse saturation current. [less ▲]

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See detailLes déterminants de la désinsertion professionnelle
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014, June 02)

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See detail« Quantification des politiques versus Démocratisation de la mesure : la gestion publique par les indicateurs à l’épreuve de la participation. les indicateurs sont-ils solubles dans la participation ?
Fallon, Catherine ULg

Conference (2014, June 02)

L'évaluation des politiques publiques contribue à la fois à l’efficacité de l'action publique et à sa légitimation, en déployant une double logique pour renforcer l’intelligibilité et l’acceptabilité de ... [more ▼]

L'évaluation des politiques publiques contribue à la fois à l’efficacité de l'action publique et à sa légitimation, en déployant une double logique pour renforcer l’intelligibilité et l’acceptabilité de la gestion publique. Cette démarche recourt de plus en plus souvent à des indicateurs de performances, sans questionner le caractère contingent et construit de leur émergence et le sacrifice de la complexité sociale qu'ils induisent. Une double dynamique est perceptible depuis quelques années dans ce domaine. Les pratiques et les discours autour de l’évaluation semblent osciller entre deux registres qui s’opposent sur de nombreux points : d’un côté le renforcement de cette logique managériale et de l’autre des exigences de nouvelles demandes participatives formulées par les groupes concernés par l’action publique. En termes managériaux, les réformes observées dans les modalités de des politiques publiques intègrent de nombreux principes du new public management sous différentes dénominations : démarches de « qualité », «mesure de performance », « culture du résultat »,.. Autant de concepts qui accompagnent la généralisation des dispositifs d’évaluation et de certification par les chiffres. Les exigences en matière de transparence et d’efficacité justifient un développement pléthorique d’indicateurs de performances (IP), car la mesure via un indicateur endosse aussi une fonction de légitimation (Zittoun 2009). En effet, le recours à des mesures de la performance est souvent justifié par une amélioration de l’action publique ainsi qu’à une plus grande « accountability » (Halachmi 2005; Van Thiel et Leeuw 2002) : par leur souci déclaré de transparence, elles semblent prolonger les impératifs de la démocratie et de ses exigences en matière de débats et d’information. D’autre part se multiplient des procédures délibératives qui associent citoyens et gouvernants pour « renforcer l’efficacité de l’action publique, en améliorant son contenu et en favorisant son acceptabilité sociale » (Chevallier 2011 : 227), contribuant au consensus social autour de l’action de l’état qu’elle légitime par ailleurs. « Le détour par l’écoute des citoyens se donne comme une figure obligée de l’action publique et comme un nouvel art de gouverner, comme si désormais il n’était plus possible de prendre de décision sans avoir consulté le public au préalable » (Blondiaux 2008 : 6), dynamique renforcée par l’extension actuelle des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication et les nouveaux réseaux sociaux. Le NPM prône une pratique chiffrée s’appuyant sur une approche top-down, standardisée et uniformisante, basée sur un développement de connaissances statistiques construites à l’échelle du territoire d’intervention. A l’opposé, se dessine le détour vers une participation locale émanant d’une dynamique bottom-up, et proposant une approche localisée et complexe du territoire. Dans le cadre de l’évaluation des politiques publiques, ces deux registres sont en tension. Fraser et coll. ( 2006), résument bien les problèmes respectifs liés à ces deux approches. D’un côté, la question de la possibilité de généralisation de l’information à partir des données locales ; de l’autre le risque de « réduction » de ces données riches et contextualisées, que doivent formater et contrôler les experts en statistiques pour nourrir l’action publique. En effet, nous postulons que la quantification du social opère un double réductionnisme : premièrement un réductionnisme que nous pourrions qualifier de social, par la capacité du chiffre à réduire la complexité sociale à une seule donnée ; deuxièmement un réductionnisme normatif qui tend à faire basculer la focale de l’équité ou de la justice sociale vers la recherche de performance elle-même, celle-là même qui fait l’objet de la mesure et qui est transformée en objectif d’action pour les acteurs (Salais, 2010). Ogien (2009 :14) met en évidence le développement récent d’une science de la modélisation de l’action publique, « contribuant à la colonisation du raisonnement politique par les catégories de l’économie et du management ». Ce qui différencie les nouvelles approches d’évaluation, de qualité, et de mesures de performances de la dernière décennie, c’est la position des chiffres qui en viennent à structurer le processus décisionnel au lieu d’en être les simples auxiliaires (Dahler-Larsen 2012). La contestation de cette suprématie du chiffre est difficile, entre autre parce que les principes du NPM qui président à leur mise en œuvre semblent faire l’objet d’un large consensus et parce que les responsables politiques y trouvent des outils de communication mobilisant de façon particulièrement efficace les structures médiatiques de nos démocraties d’opinion. S’il y a « peu d’espace de résistance à la quantification » (Badet & Jany-Catrice 2010), c’est principalement lié à l’idée selon laquelle l’information sur un phénomène ne peut être que bénéfique à la prise de décision. Par leur potentiel de comparabilité, les chiffres relèguent au second plan les pratiques participatives qui ne peuvent se targuer d’un tel avantage. Pourtant, de nombreux auteurs critiques tendent à démontrer la normativité derrière l’information chiffrée, mettant à l’épreuve leur prétendue objectivité, leur caractère scientifique et leur neutralité. Barré (2010) parle d’un usage manipulatoire qui fait passer pour scientifique une construction en occultant le fait que cette construction est en cohérence avec la vision de ceux qui l’ont élaborée. La force du chiffre fait oublier le caractère conventionnel de son émergence (Desrosières 1993, 2008) : le chiffre « circule dans l’espace public indépendamment de son procédé de fabrication et « il échappe à son créateur pour vivre une vie autonome dans l’espace social » (Bureau 2010 :173) contribuant à peupler celui-ci d’une foule d’indicateurs, une machinerie pour classer et comparer échappant à toute emprise critique. Mais d’un autre côté, au niveau de la mise en œuvre des politiques, les acteurs de terrain cherchent à traduire les indicateurs choisis par des experts éloignés des « réalités » des communautés locales : ces concepts souvent ambigus définis au niveau global mobilisent généralement un nombre limité d’indicateurs synthétiques non représentatifs des problématiques locales : on peut observer cela pour le « développement durable » (Fraser et al. 2006) ou pour la « cohésion sociale » (Fallon et Feron 2013) . - Peut-on combiner ces deux approches ? Comment repenser les démarches participatives dans le cadre d’une sociologie de la quantification (bottom up) ? Les contributions proposent des analyses ciblées dans divers secteurs (cohésion, justice, budget, …) pour démontrer le potentiel politique du chiffre et poser deux lignes de questionnements. - Est il possible de définir des indicateurs de manière participative, en associant les stakeholders aux décisions concernant les conventions de mesures pour une traduction partagée de ce qui compte au niveau local ? De tels dispositifs définis de manière participative ont-ils leur place dans l’action publique ? - Quelle est le potentiel heuristique des démarches empiriques qui, rendant justice à la créativité et à la compétence des acteurs locaux, mettent en évidence des mécanismes locaux (de mise en résistance, ou de complaisance, ou d’autres) en réaction aux cadrages imposés ? Quelles stratégies mobilisent les professionnels du secteur appelés à intérioriser les normes gestionnaires pour échapper aux contraintes des données statistiques et pour mobiliser leur expertise contextuelle ? [less ▲]

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See detailHOLOCENE DUST RECORD IN A BELGIAN PEAT BOG: MULTIPROXY GEOCHEMICAL APPROACH
Allan, Mohammed ULg; gael, le roux; Fagel, Nathalie ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 01)

Ombrotrophic peatlands are unique environmental archives of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric dust deposition. Their surface layers are exclusively fed by atmospheric inputs. A peat bog core from ... [more ▼]

Ombrotrophic peatlands are unique environmental archives of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric dust deposition. Their surface layers are exclusively fed by atmospheric inputs. A peat bog core from Misten in Eastern Belgium southern covering the last 7500 years (dated by 210Pb and 14C methods) was investigated to reconstruct dust depostion based on a combination of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic elements concentrations, as well as Nd and Pb isotopes data. Nd isotope signature was used to decipher between local and distal dust supplies, the Pb isotopes to trace the antropogenic influences. Peat humification was used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. Dust fluxes show pronounced increase at 3200-2800BC, 600BC, AD600, 1000AD, 1200AD and from 1700 AD. Lead isotope signatures are consistent with local and regional contamination by coal combustion and smelting activities. The Nd values show large variability, between -5 and –13, identifying three major sources of dust: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. Our results are in agreement with atmospheric reconstructions from other continental archives, confirming that the Misten peat is a valid archive for dust deposition. The approach combining geochemical elementary content and isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows to decipher between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcing. [less ▲]

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See detailWelcoming the New Gods. Some Reflections on the Interactions between Rulers and Traditional Gods within Ritual Practice
Paul, Stéphanie ULg

Conference (2014, June)

One of the major changes identified as characteristic of Hellenistic religion is the introduction of new cults, and notably cultic honours for mortal rulers. Hellenistic poleis displayed various ... [more ▼]

One of the major changes identified as characteristic of Hellenistic religion is the introduction of new cults, and notably cultic honours for mortal rulers. Hellenistic poleis displayed various expedients to integrate these newcomers within their civic and religious landscape, operating a balanced dialectic between innovation and tradition. This integration happened at several levels, whether from a topographic point of view - e.g. consecration of a temenos, installation of altars, statues in sanctuaries of other gods (Schmidt-Dounas 1995) - or through ritual practice - e.g. the foundation of sacrifices and festivals, that were sometimes “appended” to a pre-existing festival (Buraselis 2012). The decree from Teos founding the cult of Antiochos III and Laodike exemplifies with great detail how a ruler cult could be integrated within a civic pantheon and how it echoed other cults (Chaniotis 2007). Based on a few selected inscriptions, this paper will explore some interactions between rulers and local gods as noted in ritual practice. A newly-published inscription from Aigai in Aiolis (EA 42 [2009], 32-60), regulating the foundation of honours for Seleukos I and Antiochos I after their victory over Lysimachos in 281 BC, exemplifies some of these interactions. The decree refers explicitly to Apollo, one of the main god of Aigai, regarding both the localization of the temenos of the kings next to the sanctuary of the god, and also sacrificial regulations, which were modelled after the sacrifices to Apollo. Other cultic associations with a goddess named Sôteira and Zeus Sôter echoed the epithet given to the kings and emphasised the circumstances that led to the introduction of their cult. Further lines of enquiry include the associations with traditional gods of the civic pantheon in prayers and sacrifices that are performed in honour of the king, thus placing the latter in an intermediary position between the polis and the gods. This is the case of an inscription from Ilion (I.Ilion 32), associating a king Antiochos with Athena Ilias on the one hand, Apollo, Zeus and Nike on the other hand, in a dialectic similar to the one observed at Aigai. Although the nature of ritual performance is not very informative as regards the specificity of ruler cult – in so far as it little differed from traditional rituals (Wikander 2005) – the interactions with the gods of the civic pantheon within ritual practice is nonetheless interesting to explore from the point of view of the integration of these new cults. Indeed, although the “practicalities of ruler cult” are not per se very specific, the mechanisms put in place by the poleis may differ in so far as they correspond to a local, specific, context. [less ▲]

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See detailFigures du critique-écrivain, formes et pratiques du discours métalittéraire: Introduction et conclusions
Stienon, Valérie ULg; Van Nuijs, Laurence

Conference (2014, June)

Du XIXe siècle à nos jours, de nombreux écrivains ont combiné écriture de création et critique littéraire. À ces pratiques mêlées correspondent des statuts hybrides, dont celui de « critique-écrivain » ... [more ▼]

Du XIXe siècle à nos jours, de nombreux écrivains ont combiné écriture de création et critique littéraire. À ces pratiques mêlées correspondent des statuts hybrides, dont celui de « critique-écrivain » est peut-être le plus représentatif. Ce colloque se propose d’interroger cette figure bifide, en prenant en considération les divers paramètres de la critique littéraire en tant que pratique protéiforme, depuis l’institutionnalisation de la critique au XIXe siècle (critique journalistique, critique des écrivains et critique universitaire) jusqu’à la diversification moderne des types de discours critique (théorique, historique, médiatique, essayiste, romanesque). Comment les rapports entre critique et création sont-ils imaginés, confirmés voire inversés par les écrivains ? Par rapport à quels modèles et repoussoirs les écrivains se définissent-ils en critiques ou en créateurs (ceux, par exemple, du théoricien, de l’essayiste, du chroniqueur, du sociologue ou encore du polémiste) ? Pourquoi la postérité a-t-elle retenu comme critiques des auteurs qui ont par ailleurs investi ou approché une production spécifiquement littéraire ? Et comment ces rapports se renégocient-ils tout au long de l’histoire de la critique ? [less ▲]

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See detailEstudio ante y postmortem de las caracteristicas fisiopatologicas del tracto genital y sus factores de riesgo en vacas lecheras en el sur de Vietnam
Nguyen, Kien Cuong; Tomas Mulet, Cristina; Okouyi-Mfoumou, Marcel et al

Conference (2014, June)

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See detailBridging the gap between Do-It-Yourself urban practices and urban systems
Farah, Jihad ULg; Cabrera Quispe, Juan Edson ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

Conference (2014, June)

In contemporary fragmented cities, DIY urbanism is seen as a way to insure inclusiveness and cohesion by mobilizing citizens and improving urban space. However, the capacity of DIY to go beyond local ... [more ▼]

In contemporary fragmented cities, DIY urbanism is seen as a way to insure inclusiveness and cohesion by mobilizing citizens and improving urban space. However, the capacity of DIY to go beyond local epiphenomena and contribute to a systemized way of city making is still an open question that is gaining increasing interest in literature and practice. In this article, we differ from answers provided in the literature to this question in that we are interested in the ways DIY practices could contribute to build from the bottom-up large-scale territories. We rely on Lévy-Strauss oppositions of the bricoleur vs. the engineer and the “savage” vs. the scientist to stress that DIY is instrumental and political. This leads us to consider DIY as a process of problem-solving and domos building where the operational and socio-spatial aspects of DIY are intrinsically linked and evolving together. It is by understanding both these aspects that we can understand the possibilities of, and limitations facing, the development of DIY on a larger territorial scale. We build on case studies in Cochabamba, Bolivia and Beirut, Lebanon. We argue that though it is possible to succeed to build on DIY to develop local territories and rely on these experiences to trace larger ones, the operational and political modes would invariably move towards more top-down comprehensive engineer-like approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailPhilosophy of economic security of organization: The constructivist approach
Shutyak, Yuliya ULg

Conference (2014, June)

The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of economic security of the organization. Guiding by the constructivism approach, the author conducts a narrative literature review on economic security ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to present the concept of economic security of the organization. Guiding by the constructivism approach, the author conducts a narrative literature review on economic security of organization in parallel with well-known theories of business management.The presented in the paper ideas are an impulse for a new wave in organizational research basing on a new globalizing theoretical framework. The proposed approach to organizational management through the prism of security allows connecting disjoined concepts used in organizational studies and highlights aspects important for organizational survival and growth but mostly overlooked by scientists. The paper’s value consists in evolving of a relatively unexploited concept of economic security of the organization. [less ▲]

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See detailFlanders Ahead… Wallonia Behind (But Catching Up). Reconstructing Communities through Science, Technology, and Innovation Policymaking
Charlier, Nathan ULg; Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

Conference (2014, June)

Abstract Drawing on a documentary analysis of two socio-economic policy programs, one Flemish (“Vlaanderen In Actie”; VIA), the other Walloon (“Marshall Plans”; MPs), and a discourse analysis of how these ... [more ▼]

Abstract Drawing on a documentary analysis of two socio-economic policy programs, one Flemish (“Vlaanderen In Actie”; VIA), the other Walloon (“Marshall Plans”; MPs), and a discourse analysis of how these programs are received in one Flemish and one Francophone quality newspaper, this paper illustrates how Flanders and Wallonia both seek to become top-performing knowledge-based economies (KBEs). The paper discerns a number of discursive repertoires, such as “Catching up,” which Flemish and Walloon policy actors draw on to legitimize or question the transformation of Flanders and Wallonia into KBEs. The “Catching up” repertoire places Flanders resolutely ahead of Wallonia in the global race towards knowledge, excellence, and science-driven innovation, but suggests that Wallonia may, in due course overtake Flanders as a top-competitive region. Given the expectations and/or fears that “Catching up” evokes among Flemish and Walloon policy actors, the repertoire serves these actors as a flexible discursive resource to make sense of, and shape, their collective futures, and thus their identities. By rendering explicit how Flanders and Wallonia each acquire a distinct identity through the global KBE, the paper underlines the simultaneity of, and the interplay between, globalizing forces and particularizing tendencies and illuminates the political, nation-building and identity-building functions of science, technology, and innovation. The paper starts from the following preliminary observations. While both the VIA plan and the MPs emphasize the need of transforming Flanders and Wallonia into KBEs in order meet the demands of globalization (OECD 1996), the plans adopt a different tone and stance. The Flemish plan repeatedly states the need of transforming Flanders into “a top region, not only in Europe, but in the world, particularly in the social and economic field” (VIA, 2006: 4). It also states that Flanders is already prosperous and already has many strengths, but that the welfare and prosperity of Flanders are “under threat” in a “challenging global economic environment” (2). The message is thus that Flanders is doing relatively well in the global economy, but that it must do even better if it is to maintain its competitive edge and its welfare. By contrast, the MP is framed from the perspective of Walloon recovery and “redressement.” Although the term “Marshall Plan” evidently brings to mind the European Recovery Program for rebuilding Western Europe after World War II, recovery also refers to the period of prosperity before the World Wars, when Wallonia was one of the most economically advanced industrial regions in Europe. The MP suggests that Wallonia’s glorious past (“le passé glorieux”) can be rewon, if the Walloons deploy every tool they can muster and work together to “relaunch” the Walloon economy (3). To incite joint action, the MP urges the Walloons to become the architects of their own fate. This aspiration is clearly expressed in the opening sentence of the first MP plan: “The federalization [of Belgium; by which is meant the regionalization of policy and competences] bestows the Walloons with political autonomy, which renders them responsible for their own destiny.” At the same time, this statement reads as a call to independence, as the Walloons are bestowed with political autonomy (by the Flemings, who have repeatedly pushed for the dismantling of Belgium as a unitary state). As the above excerpts from the Flemish and Walloon policy plans indicate, VIA and the MPs characterize a state of political and economic affairs, take position in relation to these affairs, and, most importantly, envision a prosperous future for the Flemish and Walloon region, respectively. The plans are thus driven by expectations, visions and values, as well as fears. They mobilize arguments, explanations, evaluations, descriptions and prescriptions, sometimes by drawing on tropes or stereotypes, anecdotes, and illustrations. As the plans also indicate, transforming Flanders and Wallonia into top KBE regions does not happen by itself. For instance, while the VIA plan describes Flemings as entrepreneurs, it also states that “we must dare to be entrepreneurial” (3). Similary, the MP urges Walloon citizens to change their “état d’esprit” or mindset, if economic growth is to ensue (3). Thus, identity construction and transformation are in order both in Flanders and in Wallonia. The above observations serve as starting points for our media analysis. As we want to know whether, and how, these particular conceptions of the nation/region are picked up in press reporting on STI policies, we ask the following interrelated questions: How are the Flemish (VIA) and Walloon STI policies (MPs) received in the Flemish and Francophone press? Do we discern in the press the same notions of identity as in the policy programs? Are these notions reproduced, problematized or transformed? If so, in what ways? What does this mean for Flemish and Walloon identity construction, and for the construction of “Belgium” at large? Recognizing the role of “institutions of power” (e.g. language, media, technologies) in articulating nationalism (Anderson 1991: 163; Billig 1995: 11), our analysis conceives of journalists and the press as potential policy agenda setters and opinion makers, as the press potentially reproduces and redefines political identities. As this paper will illustrate, the Flemish and Francophone press speak out on issues of collective identity and also offer various policymakers a platform to express their views on regional economic development, STI, and the state. Thus, from our perspective, policymaking is not only the prerogative of mandated policymakers, but of journalists and other opinion leaders (e.g. captains of industry) as well (Lenschow & Sprungk 2010). To enable analysis, we draw on a range of literatures, including science and technology studies, discourse analysis, and media analyses. Our approach is interpretive and interactionist, as it assumes that realities (e.g. identities, nations, as well as practices and materialities) are socially constructed rather than exist as objective phenomenon that can be discovered through empirical testing (Fischer 2003: 118). Hence, we ask how identity is created, structured, maintained, or conversely deconstructed, resisted, and challenged. Our aim is thus not to uncover an objective reality behind identity, but to understand how identities are collectively made and remade on a continuous basis. To this end, we draw on the notion of “coproduction” (Jasanoff 2006: 2) to empirically demonstrate how STI and nationalism are “coproduced” through technoscientific practices (Felt 2013). In what follows, we first present, discuss, and situate Flemish and Walloon STI policies in time and place, as a means of contextualizing the “nationalisms” inscribed in the VIA plan and MPs. Next, we present our methodological framework for discourse and media analysis, our data, and key findings. Upon drawing together these findings, we single out the storyline of “Catching up” as an important discursive backdrop against which processes of collective identity construction play out through STI policymaking and press reporting. We conclude by tying our findings into a broader discussion about the place of Belgium in Europe and the world, as nation states are constantly (re)defined in terms of their constituent segments and overarching structures, including the KBE. The paper’s topics resonate with the overall conference theme and specifically tie into the following conference strands: • Policy emergence, implementation, diffusion and transfer • National science policies and the global scientific enterprise • The multi-level governance of research and innovation and the challenge of co-ordination Keywords: Flanders, Identity, Knowledge-based economy, Science and technology policy, Wallonia. References Anderson, B. (1991), Imagined Communities. Reflection on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London, Verso. Billig, M. (1995), Banal Nationalism. London, Sage. Felt, U. (2013), “Keeping Technologies Out: Sociotechnical imaginaries and the formation of a national technopolitical identity,” Pre-print; Published by the Department of Social Studies of Science, University of Vienna, February 2013; http://sciencestudies.univie.ac.at/publications Fischer, F. (2003), Reframing Public Policy. Discursive Politics and Deliberative Practices. Oxford, UK, Oxford University Press. Flanders in Action (VIA); www.vlaandereninactie.be Jasanoff, S. 2006. The idiom of co-production. In: Jasanoff, S., Ed., States of Knowledge. The Coproduction of Science and Social Order. New York, Routledge, 1-12. Lenschow, A. & Sprungk, C. (2010), “The Myth of a Green Europe,” Journal of Common Market Studies, 48(1), 133-154. OECD (1996), The Knowledge Based Economy, OECD/GD, (96)102. Plan Marshall (MP); http://www.wallonie.be/fr/actualites/plan-marshall-2022 [less ▲]

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See detailModeling of the Iturinic Antimicrobial Lipopeptide Mycosubtilin at Interfaces
Loison, Claire; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Benichou, Emmanuel et al

Conference (2014, June)

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See detailThe X-ray properties of lambda Cep, a true twin of zeta Pup?
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Gonzalez-Perez, Nicolas et al

Conference (2014, June)

Oef stars are O-stars that display a double-peaked He II λ 4686 line in their optical spectra, suggesting that the inner part of the stellar wind is co-rotating with the star. This hypothesis is also ... [more ▼]

Oef stars are O-stars that display a double-peaked He II λ 4686 line in their optical spectra, suggesting that the inner part of the stellar wind is co-rotating with the star. This hypothesis is also often used to explain their ubiquitous spectral variability in the optical domain. In this context, the fact that the high-resolution X-ray spectra of ζ Pup (O4Ief) meet the expectations of the wind-embedded shock model, assuming a spherically symmetric wind came as a surprise. To understand what is going on, we have obtained a 300 ksec observation of λ Cephei, the second brightest Oef star. This observation not only allows to collect the RGS high-resolution spectrum of the star, but further enables us to search for X-ray variability. To correlate the potential X-ray variability with that of the optical spectrum of λ Cep, we monitored the optical spectrum simultaneously with the TIGRE telescope. We present here the first results of this campaign, both in terms of the line profiles in the RGS spectrum and the search for X-ray variability in correlation with the optical variations. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction, Private Economy and State Entanglement in Early Northern Mesopotamia
Mas, Juliette ULg

Conference (2014, June)

Ancient economic systems from Southern and Central Mesopotamia are quite well known when Northern Mesopotamia ones remain less known from this point of view. If we already know that, during Bronze Age ... [more ▼]

Ancient economic systems from Southern and Central Mesopotamia are quite well known when Northern Mesopotamia ones remain less known from this point of view. If we already know that, during Bronze Age, households played a deciding role in several kinds of production, their degree of dependence or independence to the State still has to be cleared. The archaeological data clearly show that private workshops, set up in private houses, could be very efficient and specialized. Furthermore, these economic entities could be assimilated to private enterprises, which were able to handle their own administrative duties. On the other hand, we know from the texts that the Palace and the temples were also a main element of ancient economic systems. If public administrations should, in some cases, have supplied raw materials, hired workforce, and dealt with the distribution of produced goods, it seems that the production didn’t take place in the palace itself. Dealing both with archaeological and textual data, could help to better define the role and the importance of both public and private components in early Mesopotamian economic systems. [less ▲]

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See detailOpportunities and challenges to investigating plant diversification from the fossil record
Silvestro, Daniel; Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg; Becon, Christine B, et al

Conference (2014, June)

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See detailAnalyse du métier de facilitateur et de son rôle dans la diffusion de normes d’emploi : le cas d’un bureau de chômage belge
Orianne, Jean-François ULg; Beuker, Laura ULg

Conference (2014, June)

En 2004, suite aux injonctions européennes en matière d’activation impulsées par les lignes directrices de 2003-2005, la Belgique met en place le PAC (ou Plan d’Accompagnement des chômeurs). Cette ... [more ▼]

En 2004, suite aux injonctions européennes en matière d’activation impulsées par les lignes directrices de 2003-2005, la Belgique met en place le PAC (ou Plan d’Accompagnement des chômeurs). Cette importante réforme prévoit – notamment – la mise en place de la procédure d’activation du comportement de recherche d’emploi par l’Office National de l’Emploi (Ou l’ONEm). Désormais, des agents sont spécifiquement dédiés à l’évaluation des efforts menés par les demandeurs d’emploi (ou DE) pour s’insérer sur le marché du travail : ce sont les facilitateurs. Si la procédure d’évaluation est officiellement définie, la décision, quant à elle, est bel et bien fonction de l’agent, qui doit interpréter le cadre réglementaire général à l’aune de la situation singulière du demandeur d’emploi. À l’aide d’une étude de cas réalisée au sein d’un bureau de chômage situé en Belgique francophone, nous allons tenter d’ouvrir la « boîte noire » du jugement des facilitateurs. À partir d’une approche qualitative cumulant des entretiens semi-directifs et de l’observation d’interactions entre facilitateurs et demandeurs d’emploi, nous montrerons que la décision des facilitateurs n’est ni arbitraire, ni déterminée. Elle est, au contraire, le fruit de la mobilisation d’une multitude d’appuis conventionnels dans l’action (Dodier, 1993). En outre, dans la lignée des travaux de Benarrosh (2000 ; 2006 ; 2012) nous démontrerons que ces agents sont des « pourvoyeurs » de normes institutionnelles précises à destination des demandeurs d’emploi. [less ▲]

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See detailL’effet des dispositifs d’intermédiation sur les trajectoires professionnelles des travailleurs. Le cas d’un bureau de recrutement, recherche et sélection de personnel.
Gérard, Julie ULg

Conference (2014, June)

Au cours de ces dernières années, le souci d’allier flexibilité et sécurité au travail a conduit à l’essor considérable des métiers de l’intermédiation (Orianne et Maroy, 2008). En particulier dans le ... [more ▼]

Au cours de ces dernières années, le souci d’allier flexibilité et sécurité au travail a conduit à l’essor considérable des métiers de l’intermédiation (Orianne et Maroy, 2008). En particulier dans le domaine de l’accompagnement et du développement de carrière, divers dispositifs privés d’aide et de suivi ont vu le jour afin de contribuer à l’amélioration des conditions de travail et d’assister les travailleurs dans leurs transitions professionnelles. Par leur action, ces nouveaux dispositifs n’hésitent pas à complexifier les temporalités sociales en créant de nouvelles opportunités d’emploi et en redéfinissant les rythmes de carrière. À l’aide d’une étude de cas dans le secteur du recrutement belge, nous analyserons la capacité d’un processus de mise en emploi à remplir de tels objectifs dans un contexte de gestion mixte du marché du travail. Approchée d’une manière qualitative (entretiens semi-directifs et observations), nous étudierons l’apport de cette agence de placement au travers d’un cadre théorique qui intègre les concepts de dispositif (Foucault, 1977 ; Peeters et Charlier, 1999 ; Raffnsoe, 2008) et de réseaux sociaux (Grossetti 2005, 2008 et 2011). Nous montrerons qu’un plus de régir l’offre et la demande de travail, ce dispositif d’intermédiation, par son système de cooptation et son accompagnement de carrière, assure la fluidification du marché et sécurise la dynamique des transitions professionnelles. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of segmentation and investor recognition through the lens of cross-listing activity
Mouchette, Xavier ULg; Muller, Aline ULg; Carrieri, Francesca

Conference (2014, June)

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See detailGenetic diversity, structure and parentage analysis within several European apple germplasm collections assessed by microsatellite markers
Durel, Charles-Eric; Denancé, Caroline; Ravon, Elisa et al

Conference (2014, June)

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See detailRepresentations of Incident Reporting as a Collective Learning Process
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel

Conference (2014, June)

In the context of vulnerability analysis, it is now widely aknowledged that social factors should be taken into account, alongside technical ones. Depending on the particular approach adopted, these ... [more ▼]

In the context of vulnerability analysis, it is now widely aknowledged that social factors should be taken into account, alongside technical ones. Depending on the particular approach adopted, these social factors are considered to influence “coping capacities”, “adaptive capacities” or “resilience”. The ability of a socio-technical system to learn from past incidents and accidents seems to have a positive influence on its vulnerability, as it increases its capacity to adapt properly in case of future unwanted envents. To that regard, incident reporting systems are of first importance as they are supposed to constitute a collective memory of past incidents, to initiate a collective share of information and to foster collective learning and adapations. Yet, the theoretical assumptions about the ability of a reporting system to imply collective learning have still to be demonstrated. This paper proposes a methodology addressing this issue. To do so, we conduct a number of semi-structured interviews in a nuclear facility with various types of actors (managers, lab responsibles, technical workers), and in different risk contexts. In addition, participants are requested to produce a mental map of the reporting system they are concerned with. These inputs are then analyzed following a “cross-case analysis” procedure in order to identify patterns of actors' representations of the reporting system, and to link these patterns to potential learning processes fostered by the system. This constitutes the first step of an inductive research process aiming to identify and characterize the link between reporting systems and collective learning. In the next steps, the link between the identified patterns of representations and collective learning processes will be tested quantitatively. The final aim being to elaborate ways to improve Incident Reporting Systems to improve collective learning. [less ▲]

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See detailL’effet d’un dispositif public d’accompagnement et de formation belge sur les trajectoires professionnelles des demandeurs d’emploi
Gérard, Julie ULg

Conference (2014, June)

: Suite aux récents bouleversements économiques et sociaux touchant les pays de l’Union Européenne, de nombreux partenariats entre services publics d’emploi et agences d’emploi privées se sont développés ... [more ▼]

: Suite aux récents bouleversements économiques et sociaux touchant les pays de l’Union Européenne, de nombreux partenariats entre services publics d’emploi et agences d’emploi privées se sont développés et complexifiés, suivant une logique de gestion mixte du marché de l’emploi. Cette communication porte sur l’étude d’un partenariat public-privé entre un service public régional belge et un organisme de formation. À partir des apports conceptuels et théoriques de la sociologie de l’action publique et de la littérature propre aux agences d’emploi privées et aux partenariats public-privé, nous analyserons la capacité d’un dispositif public à assurer la remise à l’emploi de son public-cible. Pour ce faire, nous étudierons son rôle et ses effets sur les trajectoires professionnelles des demandeurs d’emploi y recourant. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of segmentation and investor recognition through the lens of cross‐listing activity
Mouchette, Xavier ULg; Muller, Aline ULg; Carrieri, Francesca

Conference (2014, June)

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See detailCrime Hotspots In Belgium: Spatial He terogeneity In The Multivariate Regression Model?
Trotta, Marie ULg

Conference (2014, June)

Place attractiveness is an important property to consider when modelling the spatial behaviour of a serial offender. Small spatial units are privileged in the recent literature to study the crime ... [more ▼]

Place attractiveness is an important property to consider when modelling the spatial behaviour of a serial offender. Small spatial units are privileged in the recent literature to study the crime concentration-urban backcloth relationship, with the drawback of focusing on a single city. However, the urban backcloth is also shaped by the inter-cities and city-hinterland relationships. Our objective is to model the concentration of sexual offences for entire Belgium, at the very precise scale of the statistical sector in order to take into account the role of the urban hierarchy. Methods: We analyse the ViCLAS data for Belgium between 2004 and 2011. Specifically, we study the relationship between the concentration of initial contact scenes and socio-economic characteristics and facilities of the statistical sector, using two spatial models. First, we computed a spatial lag zero-inflated model (ZINB) in order to evaluate the global predictive capacities of the model. Then, a Poisson geographically-weighted regression (GWR) was run to study the spatial heterogeneity for each of the explanatory variables. Results: The zero-inflated negative binomial model with spatial lag recovers the neighbourhood environmental quality, the concentration of economic and cultural activities, and drinking places as major significant factors (Mc Fadden’s pseudo-r² of 0.2). The Poisson geographically-weighted regression underestimates the crime concentrations but highlights the spatial heterogeneity [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of segmentation and investor recognition through the lens of cross-listing activity
Mouchette, Xavier ULg; Carrieri, Francesca; Muller, Aline ULg

Conference (2014, June)

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See detailSorting of crop residues and fossil bones from soil by NIR Hyperspectral Imaging
Vincke, Damien; Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio et al

Conference (2014, June)

The scope of this paper is to present two applications using Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) combined with chemometrics to sort constituents of soil and assess their qualitative parameters ... [more ▼]

The scope of this paper is to present two applications using Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging (NIR-HSI) combined with chemometrics to sort constituents of soil and assess their qualitative parameters. In the first application, the feasibility of using NIR-HSI to sort crop residues such as roots and straws in soil has been demonstrated. In the second application the potential of such instrumentation and method to assess the level of collagen preservation in fossil bones has been proved. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimated Subglottic Pressure Evaluation According to Vocal Pathology. Study on 418 Patients
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Chareix, Hélène; FINCK, Camille ULg et al

Conference (2014, May 31)

Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort and can guide the therapist in his clinical approach. We aim ... [more ▼]

Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort and can guide the therapist in his clinical approach. We aim to examine the clinical interest of the ESGP by observing its values according to voice pathology, age, gender and sound pressure level. We also examine the relationships between PSGE, DSI and VHI. Method:The study includes 418 patients (M:118/W:300). Each patient’s file consists of VLS, acoustic, aerodynamic and perceptual measures. The ESGP was collected through the Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPentax). Patients produced 3 sequences of / ipipi / at low (IL), conversational (IC) and high (IH) intensity. Patients were grouped according to the ENT’s diagnosis. Results: Patients without vocal lesions (MTD) had a significantly lower ESGP compared to patients with nodules, polyps, inflammation, edema (IL, IC), cysts (IC) or scar (IC). Patients with vocal fold atrophy had a lower ESGP than those suffering from nodules and polyps at conversational and high intensity, but were not differentiated at low intensity. Amongst patients without lesions (MTD), a positive correlation appeared between ESGP and intensity; which was not the case for patients with lesions. At high intensity, men had a significantly higher ESGP than women. At low intensity, we noted a positive correlation between the VHI scores and ESGP levels. At low and conversational intensity, we observed a negative correlation between DSI and ESGP scores. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of considering ESGP in the vocal profile. As expected, patients with vocal pathology produce high ESGP. However, the correlations between intensity and ESGP vary depending on the patient's pathology. In addition, ESPG values allow the clinician to distinguish MTD and healthy patients and thus could help the therapist in his clinical approach. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Investigation of Continuous Fiber Glass Drawing Process
Chouffart, Quentin ULg; Simon, Philippe; Terrapon, Vincent ULg

Conference (2014, May 30)

The manufacturing process of glass fibers used for the reinforcement of composite material consists in drawing a glass melt at high temperature through the bushing plate into fibers using a winder. This ... [more ▼]

The manufacturing process of glass fibers used for the reinforcement of composite material consists in drawing a glass melt at high temperature through the bushing plate into fibers using a winder. This process is sensitive to numerous disturbances that can cause the fiber to break during the drawing process. In order to understand the origin of these failures and improve the process efficiency, it is important to understand the physics of the forming fiber. We investigate here the underlying physics of the forming of a single fiber through numerical simulations. In particular, we focus on the region from the hole tips at the bushing plate to the glass transition point. The influence of key parameters (e.g. operating windows, and heat transfers mechanisms) on the fiber radius attenuation and the internal stresses is investigated through a sensitivity analysis. In addition, the impact of the temperature variations at the bushing plate is investigated. Finally, we show how the forming stress is influenced by these parameters. It is found that the internal stress can be minimizing by varying the operating windows. On the other hand, results also demonstrate that the heat pattern of the bushing plate is one of the most important causes for disturbance in the process. [less ▲]

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See detailWittgenstein and Heidegger: on Use
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2014, May 30)

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See detailBoard attributes and conditional conservatism: Evidence from French firms
Boussaid, Nabila ULg; Sougné, Danielle ULg; Hamza, Taher

Conference (2014, May 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg)
See detailSynthesis of hybrid nanoparticles for theranostics
Liu, Ji ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Duguet, Etienne et al

Conference (2014, May 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
See detailDesign of a sprayer that makes CE-ESI-MS easy and robust
Far, Johann ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg; Falmagne, Jean-Bernard et al

Conference (2014, May 28)

Presentation of a CEMS interface design for easy and robust coupling of Capillary Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometry equipped with a nanospray source. Principles and specification were presented.

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See detailDesign of a spherical array of microphones for room acoustics applications.
Feron, Hermine; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg

Conference (2014, May 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg)
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See detailRegulation in Practice: Choice among regulatory Tools
Bougnouch, Mehdi ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2014, May 28)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (9 ULg)
See detailDevelopment of the Abilities to Acquire New Orthographic Representations from Grades 2 to 6
Binamé, Florence ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg

Conference (2014, May 27)

Unlike English, little attention has been accorded to orthographic learning in French which has a challenging spelling due to its high level of inconsistency. There is evidence that the mastery of ... [more ▼]

Unlike English, little attention has been accorded to orthographic learning in French which has a challenging spelling due to its high level of inconsistency. There is evidence that the mastery of alphabetic decoding is critical to acquire word-specific orthographic representations (Share 1995). It is also generally admitted that orthographic processing skills are involved in orthographic learning beyond the core phonological component. Even if these skills still remain underspecified, research particularly focuses on the sensitivity to orthographic constraints. While Pacton et al. (2013) have shown that graphotactic knowledge influences the learning of new spellings, little is known about the development of this knowledge over time. Our aim was to determine the developmental trajectory of orthographic word form acquisition abilities within the French orthography by assessing the speed of acquisition of new orthographic forms as well as the sensitivity to orthographic regularities. Five groups of forty French-speaking children from grades 2 to 6 took part in the study. We proposed two experimental tasks. The first consisted of an orthographic learning of 10 new orthographic forms (inconsistent in spelling) by using a repeated spelling paradigm. In practice, children were firstly asked to read aloud each item once. Then, the experimenter dictated each item ten times in a mixed order. The capacity of retention of the new representations was assessed one week later with a dictation task. The second task aimed at determining the sensitivity to different French orthographic regularities by means of an orthographic choice task containing 62 pairs of non-words homophones. Moreover, general reading and spelling abilities were also assessed. Results show that the speed of orthographic learning and the capacity of long-term retention significantly increase during the first years but do not differ anymore between grades 4-5 and 5-6, suggesting that older children have reached a nearly maximal potential in their learning capacities. Nevertheless, the general orthographic abilities, which are more dependent on scholar knowledge, continue to develop significantly during school years. Furthermore, sensitivity to orthographic regularities increases significantly only from grade 2 to 3, indicating that children as soon as 9 years-old are already able to extract different graphotactic patterns of their writing system. Pacton, S., Sobaco, A., Fayol, M., & Treiman, R. (2013). How does graphotactic knowledge influence children’s learning of new spellings? Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 1-10. Share, D. (1995). Phonological recoding and self-teaching: sine qua non of reading acquisition. Cognition 55, 151-218. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'analyse des pratiques discursives aux modalités de conception
Joachim, Guillaume ULg; Roosen, Marie ULg; Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

Conference (2014, May 27)

Cette communication aborde l’étude des interactions entre architectes exploitant différentes ressources (parole, dessin, geste) dans leur pratique professionnelle collaborative de conception. Elle portera ... [more ▼]

Cette communication aborde l’étude des interactions entre architectes exploitant différentes ressources (parole, dessin, geste) dans leur pratique professionnelle collaborative de conception. Elle portera sur des questions méthodologiques, en s’attachant à décrire les apports possibles de travaux de linguistique appliquée à l’analyse de la communication multimodale en architecture. La communication dans les processus de conception est fréquemment abordée à partir de représentations graphiques en tant que procédés de production ou de transmission de connaissances. En effet, c’est en grande partie par le dessin qu’un concepteur donne forme à l’objet qu’il étudie, qu’il le communique à autrui et avant tout qu’il se le représente à lui-même. S’il est avéré que les professionnels de l’architecture utilisent diverses figures comme outils pour représenter et transmettre graphiquement un objet encore inexistant, le champ théorique de la discipline possède par contre peu d’outils méthodologiques permettant de témoigner ou d’analyser minutieusement in vivo la dimension heuristique des échanges entre concepteurs mobilisant plusieurs modalités de communication simultanées. Or, les travaux empiriques de Charles Goodwin (UCLA) inspirés de l’ethnométhodologie et de Lorenza Mondada (UNI Basel) issus de la linguistique appliquée, se sont attachés à l’étude de situations discursives multimodales et ont développé des méthodes découlant de l’analyse conversationnelle. Ces deux approches transdisciplinaires présentent notamment la possibilité aux chercheurs d’analyser à différents niveaux l’articulation de représentations graphiques, gestuelles et verbales et d’identifier la fonction des différentes modalités dans la construction collective du sens et dans l’élaboration d’objets de connaissance propres à une discipline. Nous questionnerons l'intérêt de ces transferts et emprunts d’outils méthodologiques sur l’étude des interactions entre architectes : comment nous aident-ils potentiellement à cerner les procédés par lesquels ces acteurs co-élaborent des objets de savoir utiles pour leur activité ? Quelles contributions inédites produisent-ils pour approcher la cognition dans les processus de conception ? Cette étude expérimentale et réflexive sera enfin l’occasion de décrire brièvement les limites d’une translation des outils de l’analyse interactionnelle située sur l’appréhension des pratiques professionnelles de conception architecturale. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (7 ULg)
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See detailDomain generality of serial order processing in short-term memory : Evidence from musical and verbal domains.
Majerus, Steve ULg; Gorin, Simon ULg

Conference (2014, May 27)

Recent models of verbal short-term memory (STM) propose a distinction between item storage processes, which are viewed as domain-specific, and order storage processes, which are considered by some authors ... [more ▼]

Recent models of verbal short-term memory (STM) propose a distinction between item storage processes, which are viewed as domain-specific, and order storage processes, which are considered by some authors to be domain-general, at least as regards verbal and visual STM domains. Here we provide further evidence for domain-specific item STM processes and domain-general order STM processes by comparing item and order processing in verbal and musical STM domains. The musical domain is particularly relevant here given its reliance on different kinds of sequential processes (e.g., tones successions, rhythm). Using an interindividual differences approach, we administered to a group of young healthy adults different tasks requiring retention of item identity for words or tones, and tasks requiring retention of serial order information for word sequences or note sequences, as well as a task measuring retention abilities for rhythmic information. For the item STM tasks, we observed strong intercorrelations for within-domain WM measures, but not between-domain WM measures, after controlling for general WM abilities. For the serial order STM tasks, we observed a specific association with the rhythm STM task. These results highlight the importance of temporal sequential processes, as measured by the rhythm STM task, as a driving factor of domain-general STM processes in verbal and musical domains. They furthermore confirm the domain-specificity of item STM processes. [less ▲]

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See detailPréférences résidentielles et production du logement en banlieue périurbaine
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Strée, Julie

Conference (2014, May 27)

La communication traitera des relations entre les mécanismes de la production immobilière et les préférences résidentielles. Elle visera à vérifier l’hypothèse selon laquelle nous assistons à l’émergence ... [more ▼]

La communication traitera des relations entre les mécanismes de la production immobilière et les préférences résidentielles. Elle visera à vérifier l’hypothèse selon laquelle nous assistons à l’émergence et au renforcement de préférences susceptibles de remettre en cause le modèle périurbain du pavillon périphérique. Notre propos s’inscrit donc dans la réflexion sur le futur des zones périurbaines (Grant et al., 2013). Notre recherche a consisté dans la réalisation et l’analyse d’une enquête menée au sein de la zone métropolitaine de Bruxelles, auprès de ménages habitant un logement neuf (Strée et Halleux, 2013). Les ménages ont été interrogés sur leurs préférences résidentielles ainsi que sur leurs propensions à payer pour différents types de produits immobiliers. Son échantillon est constitué de 120 ménages ayant été interrogés en face à face à leur domicile. L’échantillon a été stratifié en fonction de deux critères : la localisation au sein de la zone métropolitaine et le type de logements. Concernant la localisation, des enquêtes ont été menées à Wavre (commune située à une demi-heure voiture du centre de Bruxelles) et en plus lointaine périphérie, à Perwez et Chastre (communes situées à une heure voiture du centre de Bruxelles). Concernant les types de logement, la stratification s’est opérée de la manière suivante : 40 % des ménages résident dans une habitation quatre façades, 30 % dans une habitation mitoyenne et 30 % dans un appartement. Un premier résultat de notre enquête est de confirmer la prégnance du modèle de la maison unifamiliale isolée (quatre façades), qui représente le logement idéal pour 69 % de l’échantillon (y compris par 70 % des ménages résidant dans une habitation mitoyenne et par 57 % des ménages résidant en appartement). Pour autant, en comparaison d’enquêtes précédentes, les propensions à payer témoignent d’une bonne acceptation des produits immobiliers alternatifs. Sur base d’enquêtes précédentes réalisées dans le périurbain de Liège, nous nous attendions à une moins-value de 15 à 20 % entre le produit de la maison isolée et le produit de la maison jointive. Or, la différence observée est ici inférieure à 10 %. Cette situation est à relier à la problématique de la disponibilité en zones constructibles (Halleux et Strée, 2012). En effet, le bassin d’emploi bruxellois se caractérisant par une faible disponibilité foncière, cela conduit à banaliser la promotion commerciale de logements jointifs. Au sein de ces territoires, les ménages auraient donc bien intégré ce type de développements. Au sein d’autres territoires aux marchés fonciers moins tendus, nous aurions probablement observé des consentements à payer plus élevés pour la maison isolée, consentements qui auraient alors pu être interprétés comme un signe de stigmatisation vis-à-vis du logement jointif. Au final, nous mettons en avant un effet systémique où, par son impact sur la multiplication des projets de maisons mitoyennes, la rareté de l’offre foncière conduit à renforcer l’acceptation de la demande pour ce type de produits immobiliers. Parmi les autres résultats de notre enquête, soulignons la forte valorisation de la maison de 100 m2 qui, en comparaison d’appartements de la même superficie, est valorisée à un niveau moyen 13 % supérieur. Il existe donc un potentiel commercial important pour la petite maison. Cela représente à la fois une menace pour la consommation d’espace et une opportunité pour la densification douce. Il ressort également de nos enquêtes qu’une localisation intra-urbaine (dans un quartier « ancien ») est fortement dévalorisée. Pour autant, un signal encourageant tient ici à la relation entre l’âge du répondant et cette dévalorisation : les effectifs de moins de 40 ans dévalorisent moins les quartiers densément bâti que les populations plus âgées. Il s’agit là d’un résultat qui s’inscrit dans l’hypothèse de Grant et al. (2013) quant au renforcement de la demande pour des localisations plus urbaines et plus centrales. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (8 ULg)
See detailImpact of the Structure of Biocompatible Aliphatic Polycarbonate on siRNA Transfection Ability
Frère, Antoine ULg; Kawalec, Michal; Tempelaar, Sarah et al

Conference (2014, May 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (17 ULg)