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See detailArticle 102 TFEU and the Test Debate
Petit, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2015)

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See detailWhat's next for Technology Assessment? Experiences and Insights from Wallonia, Belgium
Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015)

A video of the presentation can be watched here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wlzpru9y5v4&index=18&list=PLgQy-FbfhVz4apGHLDWWEesazyeCg3hUf

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See detailStandardisation of milk MIR spectra, Development of common MIR equations
Grelet, Clément ULg; Fernandez Pierna, Juan Antonio; Dardenne, Pierre et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailConceptual metaphors in political discourse : evidence from citizen discourse
Perrez, Julien ULg; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2015)

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See detailLe pari de la « Barrière des Pays-Bas » : des illusions sécuritaires aux réalités politiques et culturelles
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

Conference (2015)

Parmi ses multiples dispositions tendant à canaliser une France perçue comme expansionniste, le congrès de Vienne a entériné la naissance d’un Royaume uni des Pays-Bas, amalgamant des territoires ... [more ▼]

Parmi ses multiples dispositions tendant à canaliser une France perçue comme expansionniste, le congrès de Vienne a entériné la naissance d’un Royaume uni des Pays-Bas, amalgamant des territoires aujourd’hui répartis entre la Belgique, le Luxembourg et les actuels Pays-Bas. Qu’on y voie une barrière contre la France, une sentinelle plantée au nord ou un boulevard pour l’Europe, les Low countries ont un rôle stratégique majeur. Mais la logique militaire ne peut faire abstraction des hommes et les réalités politiques, religieuses, linguistiques conduiront, en 1830, à la fin d’une expérience que peu de diplomates considéraient d’ailleurs, dès ses prémisses, comme viable. Dans cette contribution, nous entendons faire le point sur la période post-française dans l’actuelle Belgique. En quoi les années 1814-1830 ont-elles été une étape cruciale dans l’affirmation d’une identité nationale ou d’un patriotisme belge ? Pourquoi la politique de Guillaume Ier s’est-elle heurtée, dans les provinces méridionales, à une opposition plurielle et parfois paradoxale ? Pourquoi peut-on dire que les questions de liberté d’enseignement, de liberté religieuse et de liberté linguistique se sont intimement liées pour constituer la matrice des événements de 1830, une matrice alimentée bien sûr également par des revendications de nature économique ? [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of Diffuse Aurora on Mars
Schneider, Nick; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Jain, S et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailVirus indexing and sanitation of international banana collection: insights from a 5-years collaborative effort
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Parmenter, Kathleen; Vandenhouwe, Ines et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailBuilding the future of European sustainability governance: a critical self-reflexive approach to a participatory Technology Assessment exercise
Claisse, Frédéric ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Macq, Hadrien et al

Conference (2015)

Europe Wide Views (EWV) on Sustainable Consumption is a cross-European citizen consultation providing unique insights into the views of ordinary citizens across Europe on sustainable consumption and ... [more ▼]

Europe Wide Views (EWV) on Sustainable Consumption is a cross-European citizen consultation providing unique insights into the views of ordinary citizens across Europe on sustainable consumption and policies connected to this complex issue. The consultation took place simultaneously in 11 EU member states on October 25th 2014 and involved 1035 European citizens. Throughout the day, the participating citizens deliberated with fellow citizens and voted on issues relating to future policy-making on sustainable consumption. Overall, EWV was framed as a participatory Technology Assessment (pTA) exercise. Following the hypothesis that TA practitioners do not enough question the design of their projects’ and their own normative assumptions, we suggest to put the consultation we organised in Wallonia (Belgium) to the test. The aggregated results of the consultations point to the fact that “citizens are [now, after the EWV] strongly in favour of policy-makers taking ambitious steps in order to foster a more sustainable consumption in society, and want to personally take action in this process”. Relying on our previous work on dystopia as empowerment, we suggest a self-reflexive experiment to inquire into how much the design of the consultation (including the materials that were circulated) and the messages that we conveyed pictured a threatening present that would lead to an apocalyptic future ‘if nothing was done’, thereby potentially biasing the results that will are to be translated into political recommendations. Our analysis will benefit from cross-breeding future studies and science and technology studies to think afresh invisible normativities induced by pTA of sustainable governance. [less ▲]

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See detailIn-situ & remote sensing studies of outer planet aurora
Badman, S.V.; Baines, K.H.; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg et al

Conference (2015)

The combination of in situ and remote sensing measurements of auroral processes has yielded a wealth of information about solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at the giant planets. Results from ... [more ▼]

The combination of in situ and remote sensing measurements of auroral processes has yielded a wealth of information about solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling at the giant planets. Results from the 2014 joint HST-Cassini Saturn auroral campaign are highlighted to demonstrate some of the interesting features observed in situ and their auroral counterparts, including: (1) perturbations on tens of minutes timescales in the high latitude ion fluxes, magnetic field, broadband plasma waves, and auroral intensity; (2) corotating auroral intensifications and their correspondence with models of the planetary period oscillations based on magnetic field perturbations; and (3) sub-corotating auroral features and their relationship to ring current enhancements observed in Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) observations [less ▲]

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See detailEndocrine disruption: it starts in the brain.
Parent, Anne-Simone ULg

Conference (2015)

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See detailA Lower Tournaisian (Hastarian) silicified brachiopod-coral fauna from South Belgium
Denayer, Julien ULg; Mottequin, Bernard; Poty, Edouard

Conference (2015)

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See detailAuroral spirals at Saturn
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2015)

We report Cassini/UVIS observations of auroral vortices at Saturn propagating from midnight to noon via dawn. The emission in the dawn auroral sector is observed to consist of several detached features ... [more ▼]

We report Cassini/UVIS observations of auroral vortices at Saturn propagating from midnight to noon via dawn. The emission in the dawn auroral sector is observed to consist of several detached features that swirl with time. They have a diameter of 6000 km in the ionosphere, which would correspond to plasma vortices in the magnetosphere of 12 to 15 Rs. ENA enhancements are observed simultaneously. However, they do not show any clear vortices. We estimate the velocity of the UV auroral feature to decrease from 85% of rigid corotation (28o/h) in the most equatorward part of the aurora to 68% of rigid corotation (22o/h) in the poleward part and we demonstrate that such velocity gradient could result in swirling auroral features. Particle velocities derived from magnetospheric data in previous studies, confirm large variations of the corotation fraction as a function of radial distance. We suggest that the auroral vortices could be the ionospheric footprints of hot dynamic populations containing strong velocity gradients. Alternatively, we consider another scenario that could generate auroral vortices based on field line deformation from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere, like it is proposed for the Earth. In that case the auroral spiral is the result of some processes that occurred in the transition region between the centers of vortices where strong shear flows existed. Finally, a third possibility is considered, according to which the auroral vortices reported here are the direct optical signatures of the plasma vortical flows in the magnetopause related to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. However, this might be less possible due to the very different spatial scales of the auroral features (12-15 Rs) and the observed plasma vortices in the magnetopause (1 Rs). [less ▲]

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See detailHydromechanical behaviour of bentonite under in situ conditions
Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULg; Talandier, Jean; Collin, Frédéric ULg et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailThe “Belgian Tetris”: assessing the political impact of metaphors on citizens’ perception of and attitude towards Belgian federalism.
Perrez, Julien ULg; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2015)

In the literature, the political impact of metaphors has often been taken for granted from metaphor analysis in political discourse. However, a more global understanding of what this political impact ... [more ▼]

In the literature, the political impact of metaphors has often been taken for granted from metaphor analysis in political discourse. However, a more global understanding of what this political impact could consist of, is still lacking from the current research agenda. To be able to account for how metaphors, through discourses, actively shape the political reality, it is important to look at the relationships between metaphorical discourses and their environment. Based on the idea that metaphors do not only reflect the perceived reality, but also function as cues through which citizens come to understand complex political processes (Bougher 2012), the aim of this study is precisely to look at how specific metaphors might impact on the citizens’ framing of Belgian federalism. To measure the impact of metaphors on the citizens’ political representations and attitudes, we conducted a first experiment among 493 citizens based on an article (including a text and an image) published in the newspaper Le Soir (13-14 July 2013) in which Belgian federalism was deliberately compared to a Tetris game (AUTHORS, submitted). The participants were distributed into four experimental conditions according to the type of input they had been exposed to (respectively no input, text and image, image only, text only), and were asked to perform three interrelated tasks (a free description task, a picture association task and a questionnaire measuring their attitude towards Belgian federalism). The productions of the participants in the description task have been analyzed using keyword analyses and content analyses. The results suggest that the participants who had been exposed to the experimental text tend to differently frame their perception of Belgian federalism (among other things, by highlighting the notion of transfer of competences from the federal state to the sub-national entities). Whereas these results suggest that reading the text might have an impact on the representations of the citizens, they do not allow us to pinpoint the specific role played by the Tetris metaphor itself on these different representations. To further determine to what extent the observed influence of the text on the citizens’ representations can be attributed to the Tetris metaphor, we developed a follow-up experiment for which we produced two versions of the experimental text, namely a version in which the Tetris metaphor remained explicit and a version in which it had been left out. We conducted the experiment among 600 citizens distributed into 3 experimental conditions (respectively no input, original text, original text without explicit reference to the Tetris metaphor). They were asked to achieve the same three tasks as in the original experiment. The results are currently being analyzed and will be the main subject of our contribution. This experimental design should allow us (i) to observe the specific influence of the Tetris metaphor on the integration of textual information and (ii) to assess to what extent it shapes the citizens’ representations of Belgian federalism. [less ▲]

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See detailGestural expressions of spatial information in L1 and L2
Maarten, Lemmens; Perrez, Julien ULg

Conference (2015)

This paper reports on the analysis of gestures in the expression of static locative relationships in French and Dutch, for L1 speakers as well as for francophone learners of Dutch (L2). The data analysed ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on the analysis of gestures in the expression of static locative relationships in French and Dutch, for L1 speakers as well as for francophone learners of Dutch (L2). The data analysed is drawn from video-taped picture descriptions where subjects were asked to talk about the location of certain entities on these pictures. Tutton (2012) has observed that in spatial descriptions gestures often express information that remains unexpressed in the verbal production and that typically the information that is gesturally expressed is directional (cf. also McNeill 2000; Gullberg 2009, 2010). Our data only partially confirm his findings: in most cases, gestures express information that is also expressed verbally. In addition, while gestures are indeed well-suited to express direction, we argue that a clearer distinction is needed between directional and (purely) locational gestures. We suggest that the crucial factor identifying a locative gesture is the fact of the gesture being anchored in the representational gesture space, an issue that hitherto has not been discussed in the literature. While all gestures are necessarily made in the gesture space, anchored gestures are those that receive a clear representational location. These can be pointing gestures, but often they are not (e.g., an anchored shape-, size- or manner-gesture). Functionally, they are not unlike what Liddell (2003) has called buoys in ASL, i.e., clearly located and stationary signs that function as conceptual landmarks while the discourse continues. The difference with anchored gestures is that the latter are not stationary. Non-anchored gestures do not have such a precise location. For example, directional gestures are not really anchored to a specific point, but merely indicate a direction. Similarly, some iconic gestures express locative relations (e.g. BETWEEN, EVERYWHERE), but are made without being anchored in the representational gesture space (e.g., just in front of the speaker, in centre space). We argue that despite their locative semantics, they are not locative gestures. In fact, anchored locative gestures could thus be seen as grounding predications, i.e. "an instance (but not a type) is thought of as having a particular location in the domain of instantiation" (Langacker 1991:57). In addition, typological differences are manifest in gesture. In line with Talmy’s (2000) typological distinction between verb-framed and satellite-framed languages, Dutch can be described as a “location-rich” language and the descriptions of the native Dutch speakers abound with locative descriptions, through the highly grammaticalised use of posture verbs but also via other linguistic means (prepositions, adverbs, etc.). French, in contrast, is “location-poor”: the French narrations have significantly fewer locative descriptions and the locative information is much more general. Instead, they add narrative detail and meta-linguistic comments to their descriptions. The francophone learners of Dutch (with 3 levels of proficiency) use more gestures revealing the challenge that free expression in a second language poses, especially for the lowest proficiency levels: they use more shape gestures, more enactment gestures (e.g., pulling a drawer, brushing one’s hair, etc.), more reality-anchored gestures (e.g., pointing at one’s shoes when talking about shoes), and more meta-communicative gestures indicating their lexical shortcomings, e.g., word- search gestures (see Ladewig 2011). Overall, and as can be expected, the low proficiency L2 speakers use almost more gestures than words, which can be seen as a visual compensation for their lack of lexical accuracy; the gestural expression of advanced learners, in contrast, is much more locational in nature, in line with the target language (cf. also Gullberg 2009, 2010, Alferink & Gullberg 2014). [less ▲]

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See detailOn the modelling of compacted bentonite under in situ conditions
Dieudonné, Anne-Catherine ULg; Talandier, Jean; Charlier, Robert ULg

Conference (2015)

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See detailUn partenariat pour promouvoir la biodiversité dans les carrières belges
Harzé, Mélanie ULg; Lussis, Benoît; Boisson, Sylvain ULg et al

Conference (2015)

Plus que toute autre industrie, les carrières entretiennent un lien étroit avec les écosystèmes. L’exploitation d’une carrière crée des conditions abiotiques propices au développement d’une mosaïque ... [more ▼]

Plus que toute autre industrie, les carrières entretiennent un lien étroit avec les écosystèmes. L’exploitation d’une carrière crée des conditions abiotiques propices au développement d’une mosaïque d’habitats comme les falaises et arènes rocheuses, les plans d’eau temporaires ou les pelouses pionnières, favorables à certaines espèces protégées en Europe comme le hibou grand-duc et le crapaud calamite. Nombre d’entre eux sont d’intérêt communautaire et sont devenus rares dans le Nord de l’Europe. Ces habitats temporaires s’installent souvent spontanément pendant l’exploitation d’une carrière mais une action conservatoire peut s’avérer nécessaire pour leur conservation sur le long terme. En fin de vie de la carrière une restauration écologique adéquate pourra favoriser l’installation de milieux plus permanents d’intérêt. Afin de promouvoir le développement de cette biodiversité, une planification réfléchie des plans d’exploitation et de réhabilitation est nécessaire. La fédération des industries extractives belge FEDIEX s’est engagée en 2012 avec la Région wallonne dans une charte sectorielle « carrières et biodiversité », définissant un plan d’action basé sur trois axes principaux : (1) la sensibilisation des membres ; (2) la diffusion de recommandations pratiques pour intégrer la protection et la gestion de la biodiversité dans les plans l’exploitation ; (3) la formation du personnel des carrières. Dans ce cadre, l’unité Biodiversité et paysage de la Faculté de Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (Université de Liège) collabore depuis 2012 avec la FEDIEX. Notre présentation portera sur les réalisations de cette collaboration ; notamment les formations « Carrières et Biodiversité » organisées à l’attention du secteur carrier, les résultats des actions concrètes mise en place en carrière, les documents de vulgarisation réalisés afin de donner aux gestionnaires les clés pour gérer et restaurer différents habitats et espèces protégées et notre collaboration à la rédaction d’un projet LIFE Biodiversity «LIFE in quarries » qui a été présenté à l’union européenne. [less ▲]

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See detailA multi-scale magnetotail reconnection event at Saturn and associated flows: Cassini/UVIS auroral observations
Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Jia, X. et al

Conference (2015)

We present high-resolution Cassini/UVIS (Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph) observations of Saturn's aurora during May 2013 (DOY 140-141). The observations reveal an enhanced auroral activity in the ... [more ▼]

We present high-resolution Cassini/UVIS (Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph) observations of Saturn's aurora during May 2013 (DOY 140-141). The observations reveal an enhanced auroral activity in the midnight-dawn quadrant in an extended local time sector (~02 to 05 LT), which rotates with an average velocity of ~ 45% of rigid corotation. The auroral dawn enhancement reported here, given its observed location and brightness, is most probably due to hot tenuous plasma carried inward in fast moving flux tubes returning from a tail reconnection site to the dayside. These flux tubes could generate intense field-aligned currents that would cause aurora to brighten. However, the origin of tail reconnection (solar wind or internally driven) is uncertain. Based mainly on the flux variations, which do not demonstrate flux closure, we suggest that the most plausible scenario is that of internally driven tail reconnection which operates on closed field lines. The observations also reveal multiple intensifications within the enhanced region suggesting an x-line in the tail, which extends from 02 to 05 LT. The localised enhancements evolve in arc and spot-like small scale features, which resemble vortices mainly in the beginning of the sequence. These auroral features could be related to plasma flows enhanced from reconnection which diverge into multiple narrow channels then spread azimuthally and radially. We suggest that the evolution of tail reconnection at Saturn may be pictured by an ensemble of numerous narrow current wedges or that inward transport initiated in the reconnection region could be explained by multiple localised flow burst events. The formation of vortical-like structures could then be related to field-aligned currents, building up in vortical flows in the tail. An alternative, but less plausible, scenario could be that the small scale auroral structures are related to viscous interactions involving small-scale reconnection. [less ▲]

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See detailEmisiones de NO en la mesosfera marciana: medidas y simulaciones
González-Galindo, F; López-Valverde, M.A.; Gagné, Marie-Eve et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailAggregation in Ladybeetles: From chemistry to behaviour
Verheggen, François ULg

Conference (2015)

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See detailOn some drawbacks and possible improvements of a lagrangian finite element approach for simulating incompressible flows
Cerquaglia, Marco Lucio ULg; Deliège, Geoffrey ULg; Boman, Romain ULg et al

Conference (2015)

In this paper a Lagrangian finite element approach for the simulation of incompressible flows is presented, based on the so-called Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM). The spatial discretization and the ... [more ▼]

In this paper a Lagrangian finite element approach for the simulation of incompressible flows is presented, based on the so-called Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM). The spatial discretization and the definition of the boundary terms are discussed in detail with a specific focus on free-surface flows. Additionally, some problems that can arise from the use of such a method are pointed out. Some numerical examples are given and discussed in the last section of the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailBridging Space Weather to Planetary Environments
Plainaki; Milillo; Andriopoulou et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailLa Bildwissenschaft dans le sillage de l’iconologie
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Conference (2015)

Il est tout à fait commun aujourd’hui de constater l’omniprésence et la prolifération des images dans nos sociétés. Depuis quelques années (voire quelques décennies), la théorie contemporaine s’est ... [more ▼]

Il est tout à fait commun aujourd’hui de constater l’omniprésence et la prolifération des images dans nos sociétés. Depuis quelques années (voire quelques décennies), la théorie contemporaine s’est redéployée sur de nouveaux territoires disciplinaires en développant un outillage conceptuel inédit. Des débats assez vifs ont naturellement accompagné ce redéploiement (dont je vais très vite, vous allez le comprendre, relativiser la nouveauté). Or, le domaine (pseudo-)émergeant des études visuelles réclame une enquête épistémologique approfondie, vouée non pas à dessiner un programme théorique fédérateur/homogène, mais à cartographier au moins la variété des points de vue adoptés sur l’image et, peut-être, à dégager quelques axes problématiques communs. Le projet général de ces journées consiste notamment à montrer comment les recherches récentes entreprises par les principaux protagonistes de la théorie de l’image contemporaine (allemande) s’inscrivent dans le cadre d’une réflexion large sur l’héritage de l’iconologie. Ceci me semble le passage obligé d’une enquête sur les enjeux épistémologiques (méthodologiques) de la théorie de l’image actuelle. En effet, du point de vue de son ancrage philosophique, la théorie de l’image contemporaine puise ses principales ressources conceptuelles dans l’iconologie critique – discipline d’interprétation des images inaugurée en 1912 par le théoricien de l’art Aby Warburg (1866-1929), nourrie par la philosophie des formes symboliques de Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945), et systématisée par Erwin Panofsky (1892-1968) dans ses Essais d’iconologie (1939), notamment. Ce segment de l’historiographie (années 1920-1930), redécouvert à la fin des années 1980 (pour ce qui est de Warburg en tout cas), a fortement marqué toute une génération d’intellectuels. Il s’agira entre autres ici de faire apparaître l’impulsion qu’a donnée la critique (parfois sévère/injuste) des travaux de Panofsky (surtout) à la Bildwissenschaft. Visant l’interprétation du contenu symbolique des images, la méthode iconologique concevait l’art comme l’un des domaines essentiels de production de sens, c’est-à-dire un domaine d’expression dont la vocation principale serait de charger de sens des éléments sensibles/matériels, en s’inscrivant de surcroit dans un contexte socio-historique spécifique puisque l’œuvre reflète/révèle une vision du monde historiquement déterminée que l’iconologue met au jour. Partant de là, la critique la plus basique (et néanmoins commune) consiste à dire (et à redire inlassablement) que Panofksy semble avoir, au moment de l’institution de cette méthode, écarté la plupart du temps les préoccupations formelles (tout ce qui concerne les couleurs, par ex., les traits et toutes les qualités proprement plastiques/picturales) pour se concentrer avec plus d’insistance sur les éléments de contenu et analyser au mieux les liens de l’œuvre d’art aux significations, aux idées. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnology Assessment Working Lunches at the Walloon Parliament
Charlier, Nathan ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Parotte, Céline ULg et al

Conference (2015)

A video of the presentation can be seen here: http://slideslive.com/38893131/ta-working-lunches

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See detailDispositifs de visibilité : le Selfie et les indices de son auto-production
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Conference (2015)

La proposition que je ferai aujourd’hui s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une réflexion plus large sur l’image photographique commune (celle qu’on appelle encore photographie populaire, amateur, familiale, privée ... [more ▼]

La proposition que je ferai aujourd’hui s’inscrit dans le cadre d’une réflexion plus large sur l’image photographique commune (celle qu’on appelle encore photographie populaire, amateur, familiale, privée, vernaculaire ou même domestique – pour reprendre l’appellation de Bourdieu). Je voudrais envisager ici un dispositif visuel spécifique (celui du selfie) dans lequel la construction de l’image (agencement, organisation, esthétique propre) produit des effets narratifs. Pour le dire une première fois : le selfie travaille à la mise en scène d’une action contextualisée et indique l’implication du sujet dans celle-ci (le sujet étant ici à la fois l’opérateur de l’image et une partie de son contenu). La participation du sujet à la scène représentée s’expose généralement sur le mode temporel de la spontanéité – spontanéité de la prise de vue qui renforce l’authenticité de l’image, spontanéité dont on pourra montrer qu’elle est parfois fabriquée. Pourquoi accorder de l’attention à cet objet apparemment anecdotique du point de vue de sa qualité (même si omniprésent), objet qui est aujourd’hui augmenté d’un effet de mode indéniable (sans doute dérangeant), et souvent considéré comme vulgaire (au sens étymologique du latin vulgus, le « bas peuple » - la vulgarité caractérisant les modes d’expression et de comportement des couches populaires aux yeux de ceux qui estiment ne pas en faire partie) ? Précisément, cet objet me permet de continuer à investiguer (modestement) du côté des usages sociaux de l’image photographique commune. Ou pour être plus précise : le problème qui m’intéresse est celui du rapport entre les usages sociologiquement déterminés de l’image (que Bourdieu ou Heinich me permettent de décrire) et les effets d’indétermination provoqués par certains types d’images : ces effets d’indétermination (auxquels le philosophe J. Rancière a pu nous rendre attentifs) sont toujours provisoires (les images ne restent pas neutres et indéterminées) – mais ils permettent que les choses soient déterminées autrement. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of light and melanopsin on human cognitive brain function
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg

Conference (2015)

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See detailSpectroscopy and photometry of L-type asteroids
Tanga, Paolo; Devogele, Maxime ULg; Campins, H. et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailEU and Brazil in Africa: a Solidarity Triangular Cooperation? The case of biofuel production in Mozambique
Cusson, Gabrielle ULg

Conference (2015)

Although triangular cooperation (TrC) between the European Union (EU) and Brazil in Africa is still in its early stages, recent joint action plans (2008; 2011) establish certain principles such as ... [more ▼]

Although triangular cooperation (TrC) between the European Union (EU) and Brazil in Africa is still in its early stages, recent joint action plans (2008; 2011) establish certain principles such as solidarity and local empowerment. In addition, they identify climate change, sustainable development and renewable energy as one of TrC priority areas. The recent strategic partnership between EU and Brazil for the biofuel production in Mozambique already raises many questions. The project aims to increase efficiency of bioethanol, biodiesel and bioelectricity production by intensifying agricultural production in lands of Mozambique. Currently, a feasibility study for project implementation is underway. However, many critics have been raised regarding the lack of transparency and the top down process of the project. The critics also raise awareness for the issues of environmental land degradation, food insecurity and land grabbing. Thus, there seems to be a gap between the rhetoric of the EU and Brazil about TrC principles and the reality that is emerging in Africa. Therefore, it is relevant to ask ourselves whether the TrC reflects principles of solidarity and development or respond to the interests of the « donnors »? This article will attempt to analyze the strategic and commercial interests behind this partnership. As part of the energy policy of the EU that aims to use 20% of renewable energy by 2020, its need for biofuel is undeniable. The creation of new biofuel supply platforms in Africa, which could be acquired to minimum taxe level, is definitively in its best interests. For Brazil, the acquisition of land in Africa for biofuel production could beneficiate its national companies such as Cosan or Copersucar [less ▲]

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See detailActores valorizando la ciencia en regimenes científicos estrategicos
Charlier, Nathan ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015)

With the underlying hypothesis of a shift toward strategic or neoliberal science regimes, much work has been done to analyze the multiple transformations of science institutions and policies over the last ... [more ▼]

With the underlying hypothesis of a shift toward strategic or neoliberal science regimes, much work has been done to analyze the multiple transformations of science institutions and policies over the last decades (e.g. Mirowski and Sent 2008; Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004; Bruno, 2008). The trends towards privatization and commodification of science are undisputable but we argue that little attention has been paid so far to the various political conceptions of research and innovation (R&I) coexisting within strategic science regimes. Cognitive approaches to public policy already stressed the circular relationship between meaning and power (e.g. Muller and Surel, 1998; Roe, 1994), but strategic science has remained out of the scope of such analyses. Regarding R&I policies, this leads to different ways to conceive of the “value” of science, some related to preexisting institutions and narratives, and some branching out toward new cognitive resources to achieve politico-economic aims. In this article, we hypothesize the coexistence of at least four justificatory narratives which help structuring the representations and actions of scientists and policymakers when they address science as a political object: ‘science for the sake of science’, ‘science, the endless frontier (continued)’, ‘knowledge-based economy’ and ‘grand societal challenges’. Each one attributes a different value to science, proposes a specific organization for the R&I system, and addresses the relation with economy and society differently. In order to understand how these justificatory narratives are locally enacted, and thereby grounded in R&I policymaking, we analyze the political discourses on science of actors from biotechnology labs, university management boards, and science policy advisory boards in Wallonia, French-speaking Belgium. We find traces of every of the four ideal-typical narratives that we identified, either in almost “pure” versions or in hybridized forms. We conclude that these developments are part of the same multidirectional movement of re-contextualization of science in society and we attend to some of the implications induced. [less ▲]

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See detailAsteroid polarimetry : validation run on the CAPS polarimeter
Devogele, Maxime ULg; Cellino, A.; Massone, G. et al

Conference (2015)

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See detailThe Politics of National Accounting: Assessing Walloon Public Debt
Piron, Damien ULg

Conference (2014, December 19)

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See detailUncertainty in Training-Image Based Inversion of Hydraulic Head Data Constrained to ERT Data: Workflow and Case Study
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Caers, Jef

Conference (2014, December 18)

In inverse problems, investigating the relationship between data and prior models and the uncertainty related to the posterior distribution of model parameters are as important as matching the data. In ... [more ▼]

In inverse problems, investigating the relationship between data and prior models and the uncertainty related to the posterior distribution of model parameters are as important as matching the data. In recent years, many efforts have been done to assess the posterior distribution of a given problem with reasonable computational costs through inversion techniques such as McMC. The derived posterior distribution is always dependent on the prior distribution. However, most of the studies ignore modeling the prior with realistic uncertainty. In this paper, we propose a workflow to assess the uncertainty of inversion of hydraulic heads data through the addition of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) constraining data. The workflow is divided in three successive steps: 1) Construction of prior: we generate multiple alternative geological scenarios from literature data (architecture of facies) as well as site specific data (proportions of facies). Spatial uncertainty within each scenario is integrated hierarchically through geostatistics (multiple-point statistics simulation of facies constrained by ERT data as soft data). 2) Validation of prior scenarios: we transform prior facies scenarios into resistivity distribution scenarios through forward and inverse modeling. The scenarios are validated by comparison with field ERT data. The comparison is made through distance calculation and projection into a low dimensional space to calculate the probability of each scenario given field ERT data. 3) Matching dynamical data: we use the probability perturbation method, within each scenario, to integrate hydraulic heads to our models. We account for scenario probabilities, calculated in 2, in determining how many models per scenario we have to consider for building a reliable posterior distribution. As an illustration, the method is applied on a field case study in an alluvial aquifer (Belgium) where we consider prior uncertainty related to the type of elements (gravel channels or bars) and to their size. This study shows the importance of considering the uncertainty of the prior in inverse problems as it has a strong influence on model predictions and decision-making problems. [less ▲]

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See detailSize Matters, book-to-market does not! The F&F empirical CAPM revisited
Lambert, Marie ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

Conference (2014, December 18)

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See detailAllergie moléculaire & Diagnostic in-vitro, Optimalisation de la prescription
GADISSEUR, Romy ULg

Conference (2014, December 17)

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See detailDe l’intention au comportement physiquement actif chez les seniors : étude de l’influence des perceptions environnementales
Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Peels, Denise; Bolman, Catherine et al

Conference (2014, December 17)

The aim of this study was to analyse whether the perception of the local opportunities and the perception about the quality of the environment for physical activity (PA) mediate or moderate the intention ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to analyse whether the perception of the local opportunities and the perception about the quality of the environment for physical activity (PA) mediate or moderate the intention-behaviour relationship for PA in older adults. Data from two existing longitudinal studies (n = 149 and n = 1262) were used, assessing intention at baseline (T1), environmental variables at six months (T2) and PA behaviour at one year (T3). Results exposed a significant mediating role of the perception of the local PA opportunities (accounting for 15.5% in study 1 and 11.9% in study 2) and of the perception about the quality of the PA environment (accounting for respectively 19.6% and 18.2%) on the intention-behaviour relationship for PA. A moderation effect on the intention-behaviour relationship for PA was found in participants with a moderate perception of the local PA opportunities and in participants with a low or moderate perception about the quality of the environment for PA in both studies. This is the first longitudinal study that provides insight in the mediating and moderating role of environmental perceptions in the intention-behaviour relation for PA. Improving environmental perceptions could help future PA promotion interventions to bridge the intention-behaviour gap. [less ▲]

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See detailLe genre Erythrophleum (Fabaceae) en Afrique, un modèle pour l’étude des mécanismes de différenciation de niches climatiques
Gorel, Anaïs ULg; Duminil, Jérôme; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 16)

Comprendre l’origine des patrons de diversité est un défi en écologie des communautés et en écologie évolutive, notamment dans le contexte du futur changement climatique. Ce poster aura deux objectifs : i ... [more ▼]

Comprendre l’origine des patrons de diversité est un défi en écologie des communautés et en écologie évolutive, notamment dans le contexte du futur changement climatique. Ce poster aura deux objectifs : i) présenter pourquoi le genre Erythrophleum en Afrique est un modèle d’étude idéal à la compréhension des mécanismes de différenciation de niche et de spéciation au sein d’une lignée d’arbre en région tropicale; ii) mettre en lumière les démarches statistiques et expérimentales permettant de valider et de comprendre ces mécanismes. Le genre Erythrophleum, largement distribué en Afrique, est représenté par quatre espèces d’arbre : E. ivorense, E. suaveolens, E. africanum et E. lasianthum. Ces espèces morphologiquement très proches, présentent des aires de distribution géographiques et climatiques adjacentes. Elles sont distribuées de façon parapatrique sur un gradient pluviométrique, du plus humide pour E. ivorense ou plus sec pour E. lasianthum. Ce mode de distribution apparent, combiné à des données issues d’études phylogénétiques, suggère un rôle majeur des gradients climatiques comme pilotes des différenciations spécifiques du genre et pourrait donc confirmer l’hypothèse du gradient écologique (« The ecological gradient hypothesis » suppose que des gradients environnementaux peuvent induire des spéciations parapatriques sans que les populations ne soient isolées géographiquement. Néanmoins, des études sur les niches climatiques et leurs degrés de conservatisme sont indispensables pour valider cette hypothèse. Aujourd’hui, ces études sont rendues plus aisées grâce au développement de nouvelles techniques de modélisation des niches environnementales (Species Distribution Model ou SDM) et de tests statistiques de quantification du conservatisme/divergence de niche (voire Warren et al., 2008). En complément de la modélisation des niches observées (c.à.d. niches réalisées selon la définition de Hutchison (1957)), il est intéressant de comprendre les stratégies fonctionnelles sous-jacentes aux différenciations de niche. Les différenciations de niche au sein des espèces du genre sont probablement issues d’une distinction de leurs stratégies d’utilisation des ressources (lumière/eau) et de leurs différents positionnements au sein du slow-fast continuum (sensu Reich, 2014). Cette hypothèse peut être testée par la mise en place d’expériences en milieu contrôlé mesurant les réponses des individus à des stress environnementaux. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoWeb - Toward a new learning ecology for histology
Vincke, Grégoire ULg; Marée, Raphaël ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 16)

HistoWeb targets the transformation of the professional tool Cytomineinto a comprehensive and innovative teaching platform, valuing the notions of learning ecology and new learning dimensions seeking for ... [more ▼]

HistoWeb targets the transformation of the professional tool Cytomineinto a comprehensive and innovative teaching platform, valuing the notions of learning ecology and new learning dimensions seeking for lifelong competencies. The poster was released at the Digital Learning round table, organized by the European Commission around H2020 funding instruments and call 2 "ICT-20 Technologies for better human learning" [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate Board Attributes and Conditional Accounting Conservatism Evidence from French Firms
Boussaid, Nabila ULg; Sougné, Danielle ULg; Hamza, Taher

Conference (2014, December 16)

In this paper we investigate the relationship between boards of directors’ attributes and conditional accounting conservatism in the French context. Using a pooled regression model to evaluate this ... [more ▼]

In this paper we investigate the relationship between boards of directors’ attributes and conditional accounting conservatism in the French context. Using a pooled regression model to evaluate this relationship for the period 2009-2012, our empirical results can be summarized as follows. Firstly, greater board activity encourages more conservative reporting in financial statements. Secondly, greater board size diminishes conditional accounting conservatism. Lastly, there is a positive relationship between gender diversity and conservatism. To ensure robustness we have calculated our results usingalternative measures of accounting conservatism, namely time series and accrual-based measures in addition to asymmetric timeliness of earnings. These findings suggest that boards of directors’ attributes are an important factor in determining the financial reporting quality of French firms. [less ▲]

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See detailComment conceptualiser les liens entre caractéristiques dépressives, processus psychologiques et niveau d'engagement dans des activités (activation versus évitement) ? Implications en psychologie clinique
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg; Baeyens, Céline

Conference (2014, December 16)

Introduction : La dépression est caractérisée par une diminution du niveau d’activation comportementale (ACT) et par une augmentation du niveau d’évitement (EV). Selon les modèles théoriques de la dépres ... [more ▼]

Introduction : La dépression est caractérisée par une diminution du niveau d’activation comportementale (ACT) et par une augmentation du niveau d’évitement (EV). Selon les modèles théoriques de la dépres-sion, elle est également caractérisée par des biais dans six ensembles de processus psychologiques (PP): pensées négatives répétitives, stratégies de régulation émotionnelle, satisfaction environne-mentale, tendance à l’approche ou à l’inhibition, image de soi et clarté de l’identité. Cette étude a pour objectif de préciser l’influence des caractéristiques dépressives et des PP sur l’ACT et l’EV. Ces résultats seront intégrés au modèle élaboré par Kinderman en 2013 afin de construire un mo-dèle conceptuel de l’ensemble de ces liens, fondé empiriquement. Méthodologie : 477 adultes ( âge = 34, σ = 12), issus d’échantillons tout-venants ou fréquentant des services de psychiatrie, ont rempli une série de questionnaires évaluant plusieurs variables: données sociodé-mographiques, dépression, ACT, EV et les six ensembles de PP cités ci-dessus. Résultats : Le modèle testé via des analyses factorielles confirmatoires présente une adéquation raisonnable (RMSEA = 0,8). L’ACT est le plus influencée par des stratégies de régulation émotionnelle adap-tatives, des hauts niveaux de satisfaction environnementale et une image de soi positive. L’EV est le plus influencé par des pensées négatives répétitives, des stratégies de régulation émotionnelle non-adaptatives et de faibles niveaux de satisfaction environnementale. Conclusion : Les stratégies de régulation émotionnelle et la satisfaction environnementale sont les deux fac-teurs influençant le plus les niveaux d’ACT et celui d’EV. Les implications cliniques de ces résultats seront discutées. [less ▲]

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See detailVieillissement réussi: quel lien avec la qualité de vie des personnes âgées?
Missotten, Pierre ULg; Dupuis, Gilles; Adam, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, December 16)

Introduction: Selon des théories du « bien vieillir », un sujet doit 1) vivre dans le présent et se focaliser sur des informations émotionnelles positives si il a un sentiment de finitude élevé (FTP)1 ; 2 ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Selon des théories du « bien vieillir », un sujet doit 1) vivre dans le présent et se focaliser sur des informations émotionnelles positives si il a un sentiment de finitude élevé (FTP)1 ; 2) sélectionner des tâches prioritaires (SOC-Sélection) pour les pratiquer plus (SOC-Optimisation) tout en modifiant ses manières de procéder (SOC-Compensation)2 ; 3) réajuster ses buts en tenant compte des limitations de l’environnement ou du self (Flexibilité) et non essayer de changer la situation existante (Ténacité)3. Si on peut penser que ces théories sont liées à la qualité de vie (qdv), aucune recherche empirique n’a testé ces liens. Méthodologie: Cette étude investigue dans quelle mesure les opérationnalisations de trois théories du vieillissement réussi (SOC, FTP, Flexibilité-Ténacité) sont bien liées à la qualité de vie (WHOQOL-OLD et ISQV-65+ bref©) de personnes âgées de plus de 65 ans vivant à domicile (n=61). Résultats: Un faible sentiment de finitude (FTP), une tendance à investir son énergie dans les buts importants (SOC-Optimisation), à chercher des alternatives (SOC-Compensation) et une bonne capacité de réajustement des buts (Flexibilité) constituent des indices liés à une meilleure Qdv (tous r>.30 mais <.70; p<.05). Conclusion: Le vieillissement réussi est bien lié à la qdv: les deux concepts sont différents mais complémentaires. En regard de la théorie FTP, il est toutefois nécessaire de déterminer si la mauvaise qdv des sujets ayant un sentiment de finitude élevé est causée par le fait de ne pas vivre dans le présent et de ne pas s’orienter vers des buts émotionnels. 1. Carstensen, L. (1995). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 151-156. 2. Baltes & Baltes (1990). In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1–34). New York: Cambridge University Press. 3. Brandtstädter, J. & Renner, G. (1990). Psychology and Aging 5 (1), 58–67. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonnel soignant et âgisme: quelles conséquences cliniques ?
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 16)

Introduction : Le cancer est un problème de santé majeur dont l’âge constitue un facteur de risque avéré1. Paradoxalement, les personnes âgées souffrant d’un cancer sont souvent exclues des essais ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Le cancer est un problème de santé majeur dont l’âge constitue un facteur de risque avéré1. Paradoxalement, les personnes âgées souffrant d’un cancer sont souvent exclues des essais cliniques et sous-traitées comparativement à des patients plus jeunes1. Un élément explicateur de ces constats est la stigmatisation liée à l’âge² (c.à.d. nos stéréotypes liés à l’âge, et donc l’âgisme). Méthodologie : Nous avons interrogé 76 infirmiers (-ères) travaillant en oncologie. A l’aide de fiches cli-niques, nous leur avons demandé s’ils encourageraient à des patients un traitement expérimental (40 vs 70 ans), une chimiothérapie ou une reconstruction mammaire (35, 55 ou 75 ans), tout paramètres cliniques étant équivalents par ailleurs. Résultats : L’encouragement d’un traitement expérimental est moins fréquente pour une personne de 70 ans comparativement à une personne de 40 ans (p<.001). De plus, le personnel soignant encourage moins fréquemment une chimiothérapie pour une personne de 75 ans comparativement aux per-sonnes de 55 et 35 ans (p<.001). Au niveau de la reconstruction mammaire, une différence est vi-sible dès 55 ans : la reconstruction mammaire est moins encouragée pour une personne de cet âge par rapport à une personne de 35 ans (p=.02) et encore moins encouragée pour une personne de 75 ans comparativement à une personne de 55 ans (p<.001). L’âge des infirmiers (M = 35.8) a une influence sur ces encouragement : plus ils sont âgés, plus ils encouragent le traitement chimiothérapeutique d’une per-sonne de 75 ans (p = .005) de même que le traitement expérimental pour une personne de 70 ans (p = .01). Conclusion : A l’instar d’autres études3, 4, nous confirmons que tant du point de vue esthétique que cura-tif, le personnel médical encourage moins fréquemment un traitement aux patients plus âgés compa-rativement aux plus jeunes. 1. Hurria, A., et al. (2012). J Natl Compr Canc Netw, 10, 162-209. 2. Penson, R. T., et al. (2004). The Oncologist, 9, 343-352. 3. Madan, A. K., et al. (2001). Acad Med, 76, 282-284. 4. Protière, C., et al. (2010). Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 75, 138-150. [less ▲]

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See detailTiming pubertaire perçu et conduites à risque et déviantes à l’adolescence
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2014, December 15)

Le processus de maturation pubertaire a des répercussions sur la représentation de soi et sur l’établissement des relations sociales à l’adolescence. La poussée staturo-pondérale, comme l’atteinte de la ... [more ▼]

Le processus de maturation pubertaire a des répercussions sur la représentation de soi et sur l’établissement des relations sociales à l’adolescence. La poussée staturo-pondérale, comme l’atteinte de la maturité sexuelle, ne se produisent pas en même temps chez tous les adolescents. Cette variabilité interindividuelle a des effets au niveau de la construction identitaire, de la perception de soi et du rapport aux autres. Nos recherches se centrent sur les liens entre le timing pubertaire et l’engagement dans des comportements délictueux, usage de drogue, conduites sexuelles et autres comportements exploratoires et déviants. Notre recherche porte sur un échantillon de 316 adolescents âgés de 13 à 18 ans, et un échantillon de 47 adolescents ayant commis une agression sexuelle. L’estime de soi, l’agressivité, les relations aux pairs, les comportements sexuels, les conduites délinquantes et le timing pubertaire perçu (TPP) ont été évalués pour chaque sujet. Des analyses comparatives entre les types de TPP (avancé-retardé-normal) ont permis d’analyser l’impact de la perception par l’adolescent d’une désynchronisation de son timing pubertaire au niveau des dimensions étudiées et de l’adoption de conduites à risque et déviantes. Nos résultats montrent une surreprésentation de « pubertés» décalées (avancées ou retardées) chez les adolescents engagés dans des conduites à risques et des conduites déviantes au niveau de la sexualité. Ils seront discutés dans une perspective bio-psychosociale à partir des théories développementales. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception du bien-être chez les étudiants de l’Université de Liège
Cloes, Marc ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Maslah, Olfa et al

Conference (2014, December 15)

This study is focused on the analysis of the wellness perception of a representative sample of students of the University of Liege. Findings confirm those of the literature as males at students who ... [more ▼]

This study is focused on the analysis of the wellness perception of a representative sample of students of the University of Liege. Findings confirm those of the literature as males at students who consider to be physically active have higher scores of wellness. The study reveals also that students who are still leaving with their parents have higher scores of wellness. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-wavelength observations of Jupiter's aurora coordinated with Hisaki and other space telescopes
Kimura, Tomoki; Badman, Sarah; Tao, Chihiro et al

Conference (2014, December 15)

From January to April 2014, two observing campaigns by multi-wavelength remote sensing from X-ray to radio were performed to uncover energy transport process in Jupiter’s plasma environment using space ... [more ▼]

From January to April 2014, two observing campaigns by multi-wavelength remote sensing from X-ray to radio were performed to uncover energy transport process in Jupiter’s plasma environment using space telescopes and ground-based facilities. These campaigns were triggered by the new Hisaki spacecraft launched in September 2013, which is an extremely ultraviolet (EUV) space telescope of JAXA designed for planetary observations. In the first campaign in January, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) made imaging of far ultraviolet (FUV) aurora with a high special resolution (0.08”) through two weeks while Hisaki continuously monitored aurora and plasma torus emissions in EUV wavelength with a high temporal resolution (1 min<). We discovered new magnetospheric activities from the campaign data: e.g., internally-driven type auroral brightening associated with hot plasma injection, and plasma and electromagnetic filed modulations in the inner magnetosphere externally driven by the solar wind modulation. The second campaign in April was performed by Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), XMM newton, and Suzaku satellite simultaneously with Hisaki. Relativistic auroral accelerations in the polar region and hot plasma in the inner magnetosphere were captured by the X-ray space telescopes simultaneously with EUV monitoring of aurora and plasma torus. Auroral intensity in EUV indicated a clear periodicity of 45 minutes whereas the periodicity was not evident in X-ray intensity although previous observations by CXO indicated clear 40-minute periodicity in the polar cap X-ray aurora. In this presentation, we show remarkable scientific results obtained these campaigns. [less ▲]

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See detailDe quoi Radius est-il le nom? Enjeux et enseignements de la création d'une cellule de reporting institutionnel dans une université.
Hoerner, Céline ULg; Bachelet, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2014, December 13)

The contemporary university has to deal with an important pressure in order to adopt an operating and organisational system from the companies. The university is now encouraged to reconcile efficacy and ... [more ▼]

The contemporary university has to deal with an important pressure in order to adopt an operating and organisational system from the companies. The university is now encouraged to reconcile efficacy and financial viability goals in a competitive context between institutions. On the basis of a case study undertaken in a french--¿speaking Belgian university, we will think about the way dashboards and institutional reporting enable the university to respond to change injunctions, how they constitute a strategic management support, as well as the effects of their implementation in the administrative organisation. We will explain why Radius has been created at the university, its structure and how it works. We will see that its impact has been significant on the institution¿s staff. The creation of Radius, which aroused misgivings from administrations who have lost some of their prerogatives, reflects a shift of the administrative activity, whose part of the power is now concentrated in the hands of the authorities. [less ▲]

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See detailBelowground Chemical Ecology: The Case of Wireworms
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 13)

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See detailNew technologies in conservation: monitoring African wildlife with UAS
Linchant, Julie ULg; Semeki, Jean; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 13)

In the vast protected areas of Africa, traditional wildlife surveys performed by plane or foot are logistically difficult to implement due to the lack of means and appropriate materials. Moreover, the ... [more ▼]

In the vast protected areas of Africa, traditional wildlife surveys performed by plane or foot are logistically difficult to implement due to the lack of means and appropriate materials. Moreover, the possibilities of encountering poachers in the field pose a serious risk to the monitoring teams. Over the last decade, civilian UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) boomed in natural resource monitoring. One of the biggest challenges of the UAS is to replace traditional wildlife censuses for the application of wildlife conservation. Parameters have to be approached in a different way than before. We performed test flights in the open savannah of the Garamba National Park during the wet season using the Falcon Unmanned UAS. Both photos (Sony Nex7, 24Mp) and videos, including thermal infrared videos (Tamarisk 640x480), have been used. Flight altitude ranged from 50 to 200m and pictures showed that animals can be effectively detected at 100m. We spotted elephants, hippopotamus and buffaloes as well as other smaller species such as hartebeests, kobs and warthogs. Thermal videos gave medium quality results during the day due to the heat but performed well during the night. The limited range and endurance of the UAS suggest a rethink of the usual census protocols. We therefore tested new flight plans in a rosette shape to take advantage of the higher points in the park, with transects having the length of the maximal range. Twelve transects of 10km can be covered in half a day with pictures covering a 15.6km² area. Human activities could also be detected. Pictures showed areas burned by poachers and the thermal infrared camera allows the detection of fires from a high altitude. Future developments need to be investigated such as automatic detection to review the huge amount of data collected and statistical methods must be adapted to those challenging situations. [less ▲]

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See detailTuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) ability to localize and develop on wild and cultivated solanaceous plant species
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Dujeu, David ULg; Fagan, Maud ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 13)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread invasive species damaging economically important cultivated solanaceous crop plants, including tomatoes and potatoes. Little ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread invasive species damaging economically important cultivated solanaceous crop plants, including tomatoes and potatoes. Little is known about the ability of this microlepidoptera to encounter and develop on alternative wild and agricultural plant species. These plants could provide refuges and have to be identified for more efficient integrated management strategies. In the present study, we assessed the ability of T. absoluta to develop on wild (Solanum nigrum, Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium) and cultivated (Solanum tuberosum) solanaceous plant species under laboratory conditions. Fitness tests were performed in Petri dishes by isolating single individuals with excised leaf from one of the host plants. We found that Solanum species allowed higher larval survivability and shorter development time (from egg to adult emergency) compared to the other plants. Two choice behavioral assays performed in flying tunnels (S. tuberosum versus another plant) revealed that adult distribution and female oviposition did not differ between Solanum species, which were preferred to the other tested plants. These results appeared to be consistent with survival rates and development times. Because larval survivability depends on the female’s oviposition choice, the hypothesis that host plant choice is influenced by plant volatile organic compounds has to be tested. It can be concluded that Solanum species remain the more suitable hosts for T. absoluta development among the tested plants. Other plant species could be opportunistically colonized with little incidence but care should be taken in these results as genetic variability in insects and plants, as well as plant physiological state, might have an impact on the pest survivabilty. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst monitoring results of three straw bale buildings in Belgium
Evrard, Arnaud; Dubois, Samuel ULg; Louis, Arnaud et al

Conference (2014, December 13)

Straw bale use in buildings may be an interesting way to decrease our energy needs and our impact on environment. The present paper describes an experimental set up to monitor three straw bale buildings ... [more ▼]

Straw bale use in buildings may be an interesting way to decrease our energy needs and our impact on environment. The present paper describes an experimental set up to monitor three straw bale buildings recently built in Belgium. For each building, results on temperature and relative humidity, inside and outside, are analyzed, as well as internal evolution of temperature and humidity distribution in the walls. The first building is an office building where two finishing are compared. Measurements also provide additional data on CO2 levels and electric consumption. The two other buildings are dwellings where live one single family. In the first one, a wall in the bedroom and a retaining wall are analyzed. In the second one, a wall in the bedroom and a wall in the bathroom are analyzed. Their hygrothermal behavior is discussed based on simulation results obtained with WUFI Pro and WUFI Plus software. The criterion for the validation of wall behavior is based on water content distribution through the walls. The paper confirms the great potential of this type of building technology and helps to identify how to assess and validate their effective hygrothermal behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailLiquidity patterns on the US corporate bond market
Heck, Stéphanie ULg; Margaritis, Dimitri; Muller, Aline ULg

Conference (2014, December 13)

Liquidity commonality exists and empirical evidence (e.g. Lin et al., 2011) indicates that exposure to this common liquidity factor is priced in the cross-section of corporate bonds. The existence of ... [more ▼]

Liquidity commonality exists and empirical evidence (e.g. Lin et al., 2011) indicates that exposure to this common liquidity factor is priced in the cross-section of corporate bonds. The existence of commonality implies that part of a bond’s illiquidity is left as idiosyncratic. In this paper, we study how illiquidity components explain the cross-section of bond yields and how this relationship varies over time and across bond categories. We use a factor decomposition to break down total illiquidity into a common and an idiosyncratic component and analyze how yields relate differentially to each of these two components. We find that a bond’s idiosyncratic illiquidity is important, which might reflect informational asymmetries compounded by the lack of diversification in the institutional investors’ portfolios. Moreover, the relation between illiquidity and yield spreads appears to be negative during the recent crisis period. [less ▲]

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See detailMarty and the 4th Logical Investigation: What is the disagreement really about?
Seron, Denis ULg

Conference (2014, December 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (2 ULg)
See detailBelgien- und Deutschlandbilder als Spiegel der ostbelgischen Nachkriegsgesellschaft
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Conference (2014, December 13)

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See detailOpen Access, dream or reality for scholars: The ULg experience
Thirion, Paul ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

Since the “serial price crisis”, no institution in the world has been able anymore to provide to scholars with the scientific literature they need. Although it was the first reason why the scientific ... [more ▼]

Since the “serial price crisis”, no institution in the world has been able anymore to provide to scholars with the scientific literature they need. Although it was the first reason why the scientific community developed Open Access initiatives, it’s absolutely not the only one. Nowadays, the awareness has become so large that many research players have put OA on the agenda (NIH, WHO, H2020, Wellcome Trust, FRS-FNRS…). The two main existing complementary ways will be described (Green and Gold) and Fools’ Gold will be denounced (unfair gold, hybrid journals, predatory journals). The University of Liege is one of the world leaders in OA with Green and Gold initiatives. What benefits can scholars expect from OA as authors and as readers on the basis of that experience? [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal sampling and stable isotopes use to delineate seagrass phytodetritus macrofauna trophic ecology: baseline variation or actual diet change?
Remy, François ULg; Mascart, Thibaud ULg; Dauby, Patrick ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 12)

In Mediterranean exported seagrass macrophytodetritus accumulations, a diverse (more than 130 species) and abundant (up to 4900 id.m-2) macrofauna assemblage is found alongside meiofauna, microalgae ... [more ▼]

In Mediterranean exported seagrass macrophytodetritus accumulations, a diverse (more than 130 species) and abundant (up to 4900 id.m-2) macrofauna assemblage is found alongside meiofauna, microalgae, fungi and bacteria. Macrophytodetritus are mainly composed of poorly digestible yet highly colonized material: the dead leaves of the very productive (300 to 2000 g dry wt m-2 yr-1) endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica. A key role may be played by macrofauna, and more particularly by litter vagile macroinvertebrates (invertebrates > 500µm), in the degradation, enrichment and carbon transfer from P. oceanica to coastal food webs. Indeed, results of gut content observations of the most abundant species show that even if only a few of these species ingest a large proportion of P.oceanica dead leaves fragments, most of the others ingest a small but non-negligible part, suggesting a potential role of the whole community in the mechanical fragmentation of the dead leaves. Mediterranean exported macrophytodetritus accumulations are very dynamic habitats with very variable food availability, quality, and composition. Such an inconstant habitat may result in drastic modifications of the invertebrate community but also of its trophic structure and ecology. To test this hypothesis of influence of pulsed availability, quality and composition of food sources on the vagile macrofauna diet, we took seasonal samples in Calvi Bay (Corsica, 8°45’E; 42°35’N), at two sites between August 2011 and May 2012. Gut content observations and C/N/S stable isotope analysis of bulk tissues were conducted on both the macrofauna and their potential food sources. Significant seasonal and spatial differences of ingestion patterns of the most abundant species were emphasised as were differences of isotopic signatures. “SIAR” Bayesian mixing model and “SIBER” package were used to analyse isotopic data and determine if these differences were due to actual diet modifications or only to baselines isotopic composition variations. [less ▲]

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See detailColonization of a new habitat by copepods: An in situ experiment
Mascart, Thibaud ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Biondo, Renzo ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 12)

Colonization of new habitats by a biological community is conspicuous and this dynamic process is one of the architectural forces of the biogeographical distribution we know today. Within the meiofauna ... [more ▼]

Colonization of new habitats by a biological community is conspicuous and this dynamic process is one of the architectural forces of the biogeographical distribution we know today. Within the meiofauna (<1mm), copepods (Crustacea) have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem and heir colonization power of permanent habitats is therefore well-established. However, few studies tackled the colonization of new naturally occurring provisional habitats, which are of ecological interest since they are rich in organic material, structurally complex and devoted of native fauna. Hence, the present study investigated the copepod colonization of provisional macrophytodetritus (mainly composed of senescent leaves and drift macroalgae) accumulated on bare sand patches inside a Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow. General motive of colonization such as food and shelter are well-defined. However, little is known regarding the mode of the colonization and source pool of the associated colonists. Here, an in situ experiment was deployed in order to understand the mode of copepod’s colonization to fauna deprived macrophytodetritus. The objectives were: (1) assessing the adjacent colonist’s source pool (i.e. sediment, water column or P. oceanica canopy), (2) investigating the speed of settlement and (3) quantifying the species composition of the colonizing copepods. In summary: (1) species from every source pool actively colonized the macrophytodetritus through the water column and through the sediment-macrophytodetritus interface. (2) The initial settlement occurred within the first 24 hours. (3) The species composition showed to be different than the source’s composition. After 24h, the composition was similar to 45% of the P. oceanica, 28% of the water column and 25% of the sediments. After 96h, the composition was similar to 24% of the P. oceanica, 13% of the water column and 10% of the sediments. Indicating an evolution towards a macrophytodetritus copepod specific community composed of a mixture of the adjacent habitats first colonizers. [less ▲]

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See detailMaintaining the coexistence of forest species of different shade tolerances with close-to-nature forestry
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Philippe, Balandier

Conference (2014, December 12)

Continuous-cover forestry has the goal of relying on natural regeneration, and maintaining irregular stand structure and tree species mixture. However, maintaining mixture of species with different shade ... [more ▼]

Continuous-cover forestry has the goal of relying on natural regeneration, and maintaining irregular stand structure and tree species mixture. However, maintaining mixture of species with different shade tolerances appears arduous with such a silvicultural system. Successfully managing irregular and mixed forests, relying on natural processes, requires a strong knowledge of the ecology of natural regeneration. In theory, regeneration dynamics depends upon the amount of transmitted radiation: shade-tolerant species dominate the regeneration under closed canopies whereas less shade-tolerant species dominate the regeneration under partially open canopies. Nevertheless, it explains hardly the difficulties faced by forest managers to maintain the coexistence of species of different shade tolerances. The purpose of this research is to define light requirements of two species with contrasting shade tolerances (Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and, next, determining how understory light can be controlled by forest managers. We find that, contrary to our expectations, the shade-tolerant species outgrow the less shade-tolerant species in all light conditions. We next examine the effects of canopy structure and composition on understory light availability with a model of light interception by heterogeneous canopies. Various silvicultural treatments are tested in order to provide favorable understory light conditions for natural regeneration. The results underline that creating favorable understory light conditions for natural regeneration can be achieved with various regeneration treatments. However, the adequate reduction of stand density depends upon the chosen silvicultural strategies. The outcomes of this study highlight that the control of understory light can be insufficient to maintain the coexistence of species of contrasting shade tolerance, and provide guidelines for the management of understory light in heterogeneous forests. [less ▲]

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See detailPolyplex based on polycarbonate polymers for an efficient delivery of HDAC5 and HDAC7 siRNA
Frère, Antoine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Mespouille, Laetitia et al

Conference (2014, December 12)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnalphabétisme secondaire, raison cynique et la culture pour tous.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

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See detailCo-evolution of the parasitic fungi Pneumocystis and their Muridae rodent hosts in Southeast Asia
Latinne, Alice ULg; Bezé, François; Morand, Serge et al

Conference (2014, December 12)

Pneumocystis species are opportunistic and airborne-transmitted fungi that infect the lungs of numerous mammalian species. These highly diversified fungi are characterized by strong host specificity ... [more ▼]

Pneumocystis species are opportunistic and airborne-transmitted fungi that infect the lungs of numerous mammalian species. These highly diversified fungi are characterized by strong host specificity, probably associated with co-speciation. In this study, we investigate the Pneumocystis genetic diversity and infection rate in Muridae rodents of Southeast Asia in relation to environmental habitats. A total of 445 wild rodents belonging to 18 Southeast Asian Muridae species were tested for the presence of Pneumocystis in their lungs through PCR amplification of two Pneumocystis mitochondrial genes (mtLSU rRNA and mtSSU rRNA). Pneumocystis DNA was detected in 215 (48.3%) out of these 445 rodents. Eight highly divergent Pneumocystis lineages were retrieved in our phylogenetic tree. Three of these lineages correspond to the described species Pneumocystis murina (infecting Mus species), P. carinii (infecting Rattus species) and P. wakefieldiae (also infecting Rattus species). Three individuals belonging to Rattus norvegicus were found co-infected by both P. carinii and P. wakefieldiae. The five remaining lineages may correspond to several new undescribed Pneumocystis species and infect the lungs of Cannomys (lineage 1), Bandicota (lineage 2), Berylmys (lineage 3), Rattus (lineage 4) and Maxomys, Niviventer and Leopoldamys (lineage 5) Muridae genera. The congruence between phylogenies of Pneumocystis and their rodent hosts has been tested using co-phylogenetic analyses and the number of inferred co-speciation events is significantly greater than expected by chance. Rodent species, age and sex have no influence on the Pneumocystis infection rate among Muridae rodents but individuals trapped close to human settlements in patchy habitat were more likely infected by Pneumocystis parasites. [less ▲]

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See detailNegations in Late Egyptian: the general trends. A functional and typological perspective
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULg)
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See detailThe cerato-mandibular ligament: an innovation for sound production and feeding in damselfishes (Pomacentridae).
Olivier, Damien ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Spanopoulos-Zarco, Milton et al

Conference (2014, December 12)

The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The Pomacentridae ... [more ▼]

The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The Pomacentridae possess a synapomorphic trait, the cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament, which joins the hyoid bar to the inner part of the lower jaw. It has previously been shown that this ligament is a key trait in communication in damselfishes because it enables them to slam the oral jaws shut causing teeth collision and sound production. This specific behavior of mouth closing could, however, also be used for other tasks, such as feeding. Many territorial damselfishes are referred to as farmers, due to their ability to manage algal crops on which they feed. This study hypothesizes that the c-md ligament provides an advantage for grazing filamentous algae, and should thus be considered a key trait for farming behavior. The kinematic patterns associated with sound production and biting filamentous algae or attached animal prey are all based on the same mechanism and are associated with a slam of the oral jaws. We observed that transection of the c-md ligaments makes the fish unable to perform such actions. This study shows that the c-md ligament is a key trait both for sound production and for grazing activities in damselfishes. The buccal jaw slam enables the fish to perform accurate strikes on small filamentous algae. This kind of bite probably plays a major role in farming activity and allows grazing damselfishes to occupy distinct niches, possibly increasing their competitive evolutionary success. [less ▲]

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See detailSymptômes neurologiques du bord latéral du pied et de la cheville
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

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See detailUmbilical hernia under local anaesthesia: tips and tricks
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

Despite many studies confirming the feasibility and the interest of local anaesthesia for umbilical repair, its use is not generalized amongst the abdominal surgeons. The advantages of local anaesthesia ... [more ▼]

Despite many studies confirming the feasibility and the interest of local anaesthesia for umbilical repair, its use is not generalized amongst the abdominal surgeons. The advantages of local anaesthesia are indeed clear, including reduced costs, reduced hospital stay and reduced post operative pain. The success of the procedure depends on the skills and the motivation of the surgeon, of the nursing teams, and of the patient him/herself. The Mayo repair is ideally performed under local anaesthesia, but should be proposed to patients suffering from limited umbilical hernia with small defects. Prosthetic repairs might also be proposed under local anaesthesia, but large defects with rectus diastasis might require a full Rives/Stoppa repair in which local anaesthesia could not be sufficient. In obese patients, laparoscopic repair might be beneficial despite higher cost and longer hospital stay. Practically local anaesthesia requires some patience and quiet in the operative room. Operators should be aware that the action of local anaesthesia is delayed after injection. Local anaesthetics should be buffered and at body temperature at time of injection. Local anaesthetics containing Adrenalin allow longer pain control, with limitation of bleeding and less toxicity. Large and brutal movements should be avoided. Ligature and section of parts of greater omentum are feasible under local anaesthesia without patient discomfort. Tension free repair should be favoured, and during Mayo repair, the only painful part of the repair is often the closure of the defect with the different stiches. The surgical and anaesthetic techniques for umbilical hernia repair should be tailored to the specific characteristics of the umbilical hernia and of the patient. There is no method of choice that might fit for every patient. [less ▲]

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See detailLaïcité à la française : de la prétention universaliste à l'obsession identitaire
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Conference (2014, December 11)

Le mot "laïcité" est revendiqué par des groupes d'extrême-droite ouvertement racistes et conspirationnistes comme "Riposte laïque". L'article montre que le même imaginaire conspirationniste, sous la même ... [more ▼]

Le mot "laïcité" est revendiqué par des groupes d'extrême-droite ouvertement racistes et conspirationnistes comme "Riposte laïque". L'article montre que le même imaginaire conspirationniste, sous la même structure narrative peut être retrouvé sous des formes débarrassée de leur racisme explicite dans des textes considérés comme "mainstream" au sein de la laïcité, en analysant un texte du Rappel. A partir de là, on tente de montrer que cette "dérivation conspirationniste" peut trouver des prises dans des formulations "progressistes" de la laîcité dès lors que ces formulations partent pour point de départ le point de vue à la fois holiste et idéaliste d'un "laos" toujours-dejà-là, comme chez Peña ruiz [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of aging technique, muscle and previous vacuum storage time on oxidative stability of beef packaged under high-oxygen atmosphere
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Douny, Caroline ULg; Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 11)

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of aging technique (wet-aging vs. carcass-aging), muscle (longissimus dorsi vs. rectus femoris) and previous vacuum storage time on color and lipid ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of aging technique (wet-aging vs. carcass-aging), muscle (longissimus dorsi vs. rectus femoris) and previous vacuum storage time on color and lipid stability of beef packaged in high-oxygen atmosphere. After a seven-day wet- or carcass-aging step, longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscle cuts from 4 Belgian Blue cows were vacuum packaged and stored at −1 °C for up to 28 days. At different times, part of these samples was repackaged under modified atmosphere – 70 % O2:30 % CO2 –, and stored during 7 days at +4 °C. The following parameters were evaluated at different intervals: color (CIE L*a*b*), metmyoglobin %, lipid oxidation (TBARS), antioxidant enzyme activities (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), alpha-tocopherol and fat content. The sensitivity of modified atmosphere repacked meat cuts to oxidation was influenced by the conditions of the previous aging period (wet > carcass conditions), muscle (rectus femoris > longissimus dorsi) and length of the vacuum storage. Oxidation stability could be associated with catalase activity, and no association could be established with the alpha-tocopherol content. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’immigration marocaine à la présence musulmane
Husson, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2014, December 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
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See detailPlaidoyer pour une recherche-compagne
Havelange, Carl ULg

Conference (2014, December 10)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailSur quelques conditions médiatiques de la posture néo-réactionnaire
Durand, Pascal ULg

Conference (2014, December 10)

Ceux qu'il est convenu de rassembler sous l'étiquette sans doute trop extensible de « Nouveaux Réactionnaires » appartiennent pour la plupart à un système inséparablement journalistique et éditorial, dans ... [more ▼]

Ceux qu'il est convenu de rassembler sous l'étiquette sans doute trop extensible de « Nouveaux Réactionnaires » appartiennent pour la plupart à un système inséparablement journalistique et éditorial, dans lequel c’est avec une grande symétrie que se répondent et se rencontrent, d’un coté, des « intellectuels médiatiques », auteurs d’essais à rotation rapide leur garantissant de fortes couvertures de presse et un fort taux de présence dans les émissions de radio et de télévision et, de l’autre côté, des journalistes prolongeant leur propre activité par des recueils de chroniques ou des ouvrages sur des questions de politique ou de société. L’intersection de plus en plus forte de l’univers des médias, de l’univers de l’édition et de l’univers intellectuel est d’autant moins étrangère à ce courant de pensée et de discours que certains de ses représentants les plus visibles apparaissent à l’évidence comme les produits de cette intersection même. Les logiques à l’œuvre dans cette intersection sont bien connues : elles vont de l’emprise croissante de la télévision sur le champ journalistique à l’emprise à son tour croissante de ce champ sur l’univers de la production éditoriale et intellectuelle (comme encore sur les formes du débat et de la représentation politiques). L'objet de la présente communication est de mettre en évidence que la nouvelle parole pamphlétaire semble bien avoir trouvé, dans ce nouvel écosystème discursif dominé par le médium télévisuel et notamment les dispositifs du talk show, les conditions idéales à sa propre montée en force et à la propagation de ses effets. [less ▲]

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See detailLa communauté du ressentiment. Analyse d'une posture énonciative
Servais, Christine ULg

Conference (2014, December 10)

Cette communication propose de caractériser la posture énonciative des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en analysant la manière dont ils s’adressent à leurs destinataires en tant que communauté politique. Par ... [more ▼]

Cette communication propose de caractériser la posture énonciative des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en analysant la manière dont ils s’adressent à leurs destinataires en tant que communauté politique. Par conséquent, on n’y conduit pas une simple analyse des représentations, mais une analyse des postures énonciatives en termes d’adresse au récepteur, étant entendu que, en convoquant une référence, le discours convoque également le destinataire dans un monde, auquel et duquel celui-ci est appelé à répondre. C’est à caractériser cet « appel » au récepteur dans le discours des « nouveaux réactionnaires » que cette intervention est consacrée. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating phylogenetic and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms in the Erythrophleum genus in tropical Africa
Gorel, Anaïs ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 10)

In the context of global climate change, it is of primary importance to understand the species response to climate (habitat tracking or adaptation). In this study we investigated the evolutionary history ... [more ▼]

In the context of global climate change, it is of primary importance to understand the species response to climate (habitat tracking or adaptation). In this study we investigated the evolutionary history of the climatic niche between and within closely related tropical tree species of the Erythrophleum genus (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): E. ivorense, E. suaveolens and E. africanum. Two major hypotheses, the refuge theory and the ecological gradient hypothesis, have been developed to explain the current distribution of tree clades across tropical Africa. To identify the speciation mechanisms, we used a combination of geographic data and environmental factors to quantify the degree of niche conservatism (or divergence). We used two sets of distribution data for the purpose of this study. Species distribution data for the whole of tropical Africa were gathered from herbarium records. Distribution data of the two sister species E. ivorense and E. suaveolens assigned to genetic cluster were available for the lowland tropical forests of western and central Africa. Using a Species Distribution Model (SDM) approach based on MaxEnt algorithm, we tested for the environmental differences (BIOCLIM data) between species and genetic clusters within species. We developed SDMs for each of the three Erythrophleum species (over the whole range) and for each of the five genetic clusters. We quantified the niche overlap using new niche similarity metrics. At species level, the climatic niches differed significantly and overlapped only sligthly, suggesting a parapatric speciation along a climatic gradient. Within the two sister species, the niche of the parapatric central African clusters strongly overlapped, suggesting a secondary contact following the recolonization from different forest refugia. The west African cluster however showed contrasted climatic niches possibly due to either recent (< 100 yrs) climate change in west Africa, or ongoing differentiation on the dry part of the climatic gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailBias-variance decomposition in Random Forests
Louppe, Gilles ULg

Conference (2014, December 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg)
See detailMoustiques (Diptera : Culicidae) de la région de Ghardaïa et (ré)-émergence des maladies vectorielles
Boukraa, Slimane ULg; Baba Aissa, Nadir; Abdel Azize, Brahim et al

Conference (2014, December 09)

Les maladies vectorielles (ré)-émergentes sont généralement dues à un changement de la distribution des agents infectieux et/ou leurs arthropodes vecteurs. Les changements climatiques, la mondialisation ... [more ▼]

Les maladies vectorielles (ré)-émergentes sont généralement dues à un changement de la distribution des agents infectieux et/ou leurs arthropodes vecteurs. Les changements climatiques, la mondialisation des échanges commerciaux internationaux ainsi que les flux migratoires des populations peuvent affecter cette distribution. De nombreuses espèces de moustiques sont susceptibles de jouer un rôle dans la transmission de divers agents pathogènes responsables des maladies infectieuses humaines et animales comme le paludisme et la fièvre du Nile occidentale. D'autres, outre leur rôle vecteur, sont un véritable fléau par les piqûres douloureuses qu’ils occasionnent et, constituent de ce fait un grand problème de nuisance. L'identification précise et la connaissance de la biodiversité fonctionnelle des vecteurs est un pas essentiel pour la compréhension du risque de (ré)-émergence et la dynamiques des maladies vectorielles. Le présent travail est une étude rétrospective des inventaires des Culicidae réalisés sur le terrain dans la région du M’Zab (Ghardaïa, Algérie) durant les années allant de 2008 à 2012. Les résultats de l’étude morphotaxonomique des Culicidae inventoriés ont montré la présence de dix espèces réparties en cinq genres (Culex, Culiseta, Ochlerotatus, Anopheles et Uranotaenia). Un aperçu sur le rôle vectoriel des espèces signalées dans la région et leur importance au niveau de la santé médicale et vétérinaire sont présentés. Une analyse particulière a été également proposée sur l’épidémie du paludisme de 2013 où 38 cas ont été enregistrés sur l’ensemble de la Wilaya de Ghardaïa. Les espèces potentiellement vectrices d’arbovirus (Virus de Nile occidentale et Virus de la Vallée du Rift) et de protozoaires (Plasmodium spp) qui peuvent causer des problèmes épidémiologique au niveau de la région de Ghardaïa sont Cx. pipiens sl L., 1758, Cx. theileri Theobald, 1903, Ochlerotatus caspius Pallas, 1771, Anopheles sergentii Theobald, 1907, An. dthali Patton, 1905 et An. multicolor Cambouliu, 1902. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
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See detailIdentifying the best technical trading rule: a .632 bootstrap approach.
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

Conference (2014, December 07)

In this paper, we estimate the out-of-sample predictive ability of a set of trading rules. Usually, this ability is estimated using a rolling-window sample-splitting scheme, true out-of-sample data being ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we estimate the out-of-sample predictive ability of a set of trading rules. Usually, this ability is estimated using a rolling-window sample-splitting scheme, true out-of-sample data being rarely available. We argue that this method makes a poor use of the available information and creates data mining possibilities. Instead, we introduce an alternative bootstrap approach, based on the .632 bootstrap principle. This method enables to build in-sample and out-of-sample bootstrap data sets that do not overlap and exhibit the same time dependencies. We illustrate our methodology on IBM and Microsoft daily stock prices, where we compare 11 trading rules specifications. For the data sets considered, two different filter rule specifications have the highest out-of-sample mean excess returns. However, all tested rules cannot beat a simple buy-and-hold strategy when trading at a daily frequency. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (7 ULg)
See detailLa théorie des humeurs à l’aube de l’Europe vernaculaire
Valenti, Gianluca ULg

Conference (2014, December 05)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg)
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See detailL’impact de la réserve cognitive sur le fonctionnement exécutif au cours du vieillissement normal
Simon, Jessica ULg; Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2014, December 05)

Le vieillissement normal s’accompagne d’un dysfonctionnement exécutif important. Or, on sait aujourd’hui qu’il existe une forte variabilité interindividuelle quant aux effets du vieillissement sur la ... [more ▼]

Le vieillissement normal s’accompagne d’un dysfonctionnement exécutif important. Or, on sait aujourd’hui qu’il existe une forte variabilité interindividuelle quant aux effets du vieillissement sur la cognition. Selon l’hypothèse de la réserve cognitive (Stern, 2009), les individus qui auraient développé un haut niveau de réserve résisteraient mieux aux effets du vieillissement que des individus de plus faible réserve cognitive. Dans cette étude, nous avons voulu mesurer l’impact des facteurs de réserve cognitive sur le fonctionnement exécutif au cours du vieillissement normal. Nous avons recruté 59 participants âgés de 60 à 80 ans, sans trouble cognitif ni neurologique. Nous leur avons proposé 8 tâches cognitives évaluant le fonctionnement exécutif : des épreuves d’inhibition (test de Stroop, test de Hayling, subtest Incompatibilité de la TAP), de flexibilité (subtest Flexibilité de la TAP, épreuve d’alternance arithmétique « plus-moins ») et de mise à jour (subtest Lettre-Chiffre de la MEM III, mise à jour de consonnes et tâche de 2-back). De plus, nous leur avons demandé de compléter différents questionnaires évaluant quatre facteurs de réserve cognitive (niveau d’études, parcours professionnel, activité physique et activités de loisir). Nous avons réparti nos participants en deux groupes en fonction de leur niveau de réserve cognitive (faible et haute). Des analyses de t de student (p<0.05) montrent que les participants avec une haute réserve cognitive ont de meilleures performances au subtest de mise à jour des consonnes (p=0,05) ainsi que des résultats quasi significatif pour le score composite de mise à jour (p=0,06) et le subtest de mise de consonnes (p=0,06). Nous avons aussi évalué l’impact spécifique de chaque facteur de réserve cognitive sur les performances au moyen de régressions simples (p<0.05). Les données montrent que le niveau d’étude explique une part significative de la variance du score composite de mise à jour et aux subtests Flexibilité et Lettre-Chiffre ainsi qu’une part quasi significative de la variance au score de mise à jour de consonnes. L’activité professionnelle au cours de la vie explique une part quasi-significative de la variance pour le score de mise à jour (p=0,07) et pour le test de mise à jour de consonnes (p=0,07). Enfin, les activités de loisir, quant à elles, expliquent une part significative de la variance des performances à la tâche du 2-back et une part quasi-significative de la variance des performances au test de Hayling (p=0.06). En conclusion, il apparait que les sujets âgés avec un haut niveau de réserve cognitive montrent de meilleures capacités à certains tests exécutifs uniquement. De plus, nos données suggèrent que tous les aspects du fonctionnement exécutif ne sont pas impactés de façon similaire par les différents facteurs de réserve cognitive. [less ▲]

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