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See detailWavelet series representations for pathwise Young integrals
Esser, Céline ULg

Conference (2016, October)

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See detailMise en oeuvre de l'intermédialité dans l'élaboration d'un théâtre politique
Delhalle, Nancy ULg

Conference (2016, October)

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See detailPrésentation de l'Atlas national de Belgique - versions 1 à 3 et version numérique
Van Hecke, Etienne; Binard, Marc ULg; Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2016, September 30)

This presentation is divided into 3 parts: The "paper" version of the National Atlas, from the first to the third edition. The digital version of the National Atlas. A presentation of Geomatics Unit of ... [more ▼]

This presentation is divided into 3 parts: The "paper" version of the National Atlas, from the first to the third edition. The digital version of the National Atlas. A presentation of Geomatics Unit of the University of Liege, and its role in the realization of the 3rd edition of the National Atlas and its digital version. [less ▲]

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See detailRésultats d'une enquête sur la diffusion des thèses en droit
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2016, September 30)

Cette interviention, destinée aux doctorants et aux jeunes docteurs en droit, visait à présenter les résultats d'une enquête menée par l'auteur sur la diffusion des thèses en droit. Il s'agissait de ... [more ▼]

Cette interviention, destinée aux doctorants et aux jeunes docteurs en droit, visait à présenter les résultats d'une enquête menée par l'auteur sur la diffusion des thèses en droit. Il s'agissait de présenter les tendances suivies par les docteurs récemment diplômés dans les facultés de droit de Belgique francophone. L'intervention a été suivie d'un débat avec le public ainsi qu'avec des éditeurs présents. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition to parenthood of lesbian parents: key processes and clinical implications
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg; Haxhe, Stéphanie ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 29)

The transition to parenthood is a key process for understanding the development of family relationships in a systemic perspective. This process has been studied mostly in heterosexual families but very ... [more ▼]

The transition to parenthood is a key process for understanding the development of family relationships in a systemic perspective. This process has been studied mostly in heterosexual families but very few studies focus on families with same-sex families. This exploratory study analyzes the key passages of the transition from 17 lesbian headed families through a quantitative analysis of socio-demographic data, information about the coming-out, pair formation, project of the child, the child's arrival, as well as social and cultural pressures towards family and stressors. The main results show that the decision making to become parents is generally harmonious (70%) between the members of the couple, and only a few had substantial conflicts (17,1%). Moreover, the motivation to become parents seems to be stronger for the mother who carried the child (57, 1%)than for the social mother. The majority of the lesbian mothers reported no medical homophobia (64,3%) Regarding the caregiving tasks, they seem to be equally shared between social and biological mothers. In regards to the child, almost 70% are aware of their parents’ sexual orientation (as only 5.7% are not fully aware). Finally, no changes in the quality of relationship with the family of origin have been found after the birth of the baby. Clinical implications of these results will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailProphéties, lyrisme et chevalerie. Portrait de Jacques Le Gros, bourgeois de Paris († 1551)
Lambert, Adélaïde ULg

Conference (2016, September 29)

Notre communication consistait à analyser les documents qui encadrent la fresque épique Gerard du Frattre dans le manuscrit unique Paris, BnF, fr. 12791, copié intégralement de la main de Jacques Le Gros ... [more ▼]

Notre communication consistait à analyser les documents qui encadrent la fresque épique Gerard du Frattre dans le manuscrit unique Paris, BnF, fr. 12791, copié intégralement de la main de Jacques Le Gros, un marchand de soie parisien. Outre la table des matières de Gerard du Frattre, ce corpus est notamment composé d’un inventaire de la bibliothèque de Jacques Le Gros, de prophéties portant sur des événements politiques contemporains (entre autres, sur les guerres opposant François Ier à Charles Quint), de pièces de vers amoureuses, satiriques ou pieuses, d’un placard affiché sur les portes de Notre-Dame, etc. Copiés entre 1525 et 1545 puis rassemblés dans un même codex, ces documents constituent un témoignage exceptionnel sur les intérêts d’un bourgeois de Paris et, plus largement, sur ceux du public des réécritures médiévales, durant la première moitié du XVIe siècle. En guise de prolongement, les résultats de notre enquête pourront alimenter la question de l’influence qu’a pu exercer le contexte politique et social du début du siècle sur la refonte des légendes médiévales : les pièces qui accompagnent Gerard du Frattre peuvent-elles être considérées comme des éléments paratextuels susceptibles d’orienter l’interprétation de la fiction placée au centre du manuscrit ? [less ▲]

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See detailUsing a dynamic vegetation model for future projections of crop yields: simulations from the plot scale to the Belgian and European scales
Jacquemin, Ingrid ULg; Dury, Marie ULg; Henrot, Alexandra-Jane ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 29)

Dynamic vegetation models (DVM), such as CARAIB (“CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere”) were initially designed to describe the dynamics of natural ecosystems as a function of climate and soil with the ... [more ▼]

Dynamic vegetation models (DVM), such as CARAIB (“CARbon Assimilation In the Biosphere”) were initially designed to describe the dynamics of natural ecosystems as a function of climate and soil with the aim of studying the role of vegetation in the carbon cycle. But their characteristics allow numerous other applications and improvements, such as the development of a crop module. This module can be validated at the plot scale, with the use of eddy-covariance data from agricultural sites in the FLUXNET network. The carbon fluxes (e.g., net ecosystem exchange (NEE), gross primary productivity (GPP)) and the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated with the CARAIB model are compared with the fluxes measured at several sites, in order to cover a maximum number of crop types (winter wheat/barley, sugar beets, potatoes, rapeseed,…) and to evaluate the model for different European regions (Belgium, France, Germany,…). The aim of this validation is to assess the model ability to reproduce the seasonal and inter-annual variability of carbon fluxes. In order to assess the spatial variability of the model, CARAIB will be applied over Belgium and forced with the outputs the regional climate model ALARO (4 km resolution), for the recent past and the decennial projections. To reach the larger scale, we also aim to assess crops yields over Europe and to quantify the uncertainties in the climatic projections. CARAIB will be driven with the outputs of different regional climatic models (RCMs), nested in CMIP5 GCM projections for the EURO-CORDEX project: ALADIN53 (Météo-France/CNRM), RACMO22E (KNMI), RCA4 (SMHI) and REMO2009 (MPI-CSC) RCMs. These climatic projections are at a high spatial resolution (0.11-degree, ≈12 km). The model will be set up for the most common crops in Europe and for simulations tests with marginal and/or new crops. Finally, this simulation ensemble will be used to highlight potential changes in the most productive areas of Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure of the classe D β-lactamase OXA-29, an original dimer
Kerff, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2016, September 29)

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See detailWho are the winners in the race against desiccation – phenotypic plasticity in a fossorial toad
Székely, Diana ULg; Székely, Paul; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 29)

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See detailMathematical modelling of ectopic bone formation in bone morphogenetic (BMP) carrier device
Manhas, Varun ULg; Carlier, Aurelie; Geris, Liesbet ULg

Conference (2016, September 28)

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See detailEvolution récente des extrêmes pluviométriques au Niger (1950-2014)
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Laminou, Manzo Ousmane; Tidjani, Adamou Didier et al

Conference (2016, September 28)

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See detailINNOVATIVE INJECTABLE LIPOSOME AND DRUG-IN-CYCLODEXTRIN-IN LIPOSOME SYSTEMS ENCAPSULATING ESTETROL FOR THE TREATMENT OF ISCHEMIA DISEASES IN PREMATURE BABIES
Palazzo, Claudio ULg; Laloy, Julie; Delvigne, Anne-Sophie et al

Conference (2016, September 28)

Purpose: In 2010, almost 15 million of babies in the world are prematurely borned, 11.1 % of the total amount of alive children. Despite the better neonatology techniques, the number of preterm babies ... [more ▼]

Purpose: In 2010, almost 15 million of babies in the world are prematurely borned, 11.1 % of the total amount of alive children. Despite the better neonatology techniques, the number of preterm babies with motor, vision, hearing or mental deficiencies is still constant along the last twenty years. Moreover, no efficacy treatment is available to the present day. The estetrol (E4) has an important role in the brain development and protection. The aim of this study is to develop new injectable liposome and drug-in-cyclodextrin-in-liposome (DCL) formulations, encapsulating E4 in order to enhance its crossing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Methods: Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins (degrees of substitution 0.87 and 0.63) (HPβCD 0.87 and HPβCD 0.63) were used to increase E4 aqueous solubility. Liposome and DCL (E4-HPβCD 0.63 complex) formulations were prepared by thin-film hydration technique. The formulations were physicochemical characterized and stability in foetal bovine serum (FBS) was evaluated. LDH and MTS tests on endothelial, neuronal and BBB model cells were performed in vitro on the liposome formulation. Hemocompatibility of the formulations was evaluated on red blood cells, platelet aggregation and coagulation. BBB passage tests were performed using human BBB cell line (hCMEC/D3). Results: E4-HPβCD complexes proportionally increased the solubility of the hormone. Due to the lower solubility obtained with HPβCD ds 0.87, only HPβCD ds 0.63 was retained for future tests. Liposomes and DCL encapsulating E4 were prepared. All the formulations had average particle size below 150 nm, polydispersity index below 0.10 and ζ potential around + 30 mV. The encapsulation efficacy for liposomes was between 3% and 10% while those of DCL are between 15% and 35%. Moreover, the formulations are capable to release 80 % (liposome) and 90 % (DCL) of encapsulated E4 after 3 h at 37°C. The formulations, incubated in FBS at 37°C under gentle stirring, keep the same size and do not form protein corona up to 6 h. The effect of liposome and DCL formulations on cell viability and integrity was evaluated. The results showed no toxic effects on all the tested cell lines. Hemocompatibility tests showed no hemolysis, platelet aggregation or effects on coagulation, confirming the possibility of the formulations to be intravenously administrated. Preliminary BBB passage tests highlighted the capability of the formulations to pass the BBB and reach the brain. Conclusions: New non-toxic, hemocompatible liposome and DCL formulations encapsulating E4 were prepared. The formulations are promising drug delivery system to target estrogens to the brain, due to their physiochemical characteristics. Aknowledgment : The authors thank Estetra SPRL for providing Estetrol. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance et circuit de commercialisation des principaux produits agricoles des cuvettes oasiennes du département de Gouré
Malam Boukar, Awa Krou; Yahaya, Abdou; Yamba, Boubacar et al

Conference (2016, September 28)

Les cuvettes oasiennes du département de Gouré sont sources de production alimentaire et de revenus pour les populations locales. Elles jouent un rôle important dans la lutte contre l’insécurité ... [more ▼]

Les cuvettes oasiennes du département de Gouré sont sources de production alimentaire et de revenus pour les populations locales. Elles jouent un rôle important dans la lutte contre l’insécurité alimentaire et la pauvreté. L’objectif de cet article est de démontrer l’efficacité économique des principaux produits agricoles de cuvettes ainsi que les plateformes de commercialisation. Pour ce faire, trois démarches méthodologiques complémentaires ont été adoptées. La première permet d’identifier les produits agricoles les plus rentables selon le point de vu des producteurs, la seconde permet déterminer les principaux produits agricoles de cuvettes à travers le « test de Kendall » et la troisième permet de calculer la rentabilité économique des produits à travers des indicateurs de performance. Pour cela, neuf cuvettes ont été choisies suivant le niveau de nappe phréatique et le type de valorisation. Les enquêtes réalisées et les constats effectués montrent que toutes les spéculations sont rentables, puisque leur RPN dépasse les 50%. Les producteurs indiquent que le manioc est la spéculation la plus importante du fait de sa mise en culture, de sa consommation et de sa conservation facile. Les deux autres tests montrent les cultures à cycle court comme le chou (75%) et l’oignon (69%) sont plus attrayants. Il est aussi ressorti que les produits agricoles de cuvettes sont plus destinés à la vente (73%) qu’à l’autoconsommation (27%) et les marchés locaux représentent les principales plateformes commerciales. [less ▲]

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See detailPratiques foncières dans les cuvettes oasiennes du Niger oriental
Malam Boukar, Awa Krou; Yamba, Boubacar; Ouassa, Tiekoura et al

Conference (2016, September 28)

La situation foncière en Afrique de l’Ouest francophone rurale se caractérise par la coexistence de différents systèmes de normes : aux règles foncières sociales, issues d’hybridations successives, se ... [more ▼]

La situation foncière en Afrique de l’Ouest francophone rurale se caractérise par la coexistence de différents systèmes de normes : aux règles foncières sociales, issues d’hybridations successives, se superpose un système juridique et réglementaire étatique (LAVIGNE Ph. 2000). L’Etat du Niger s’est engagé depuis les années 80 dans un processus visant à mettre en place des règles de gestion durable du foncier à travers le Code rural (Code Rural du Niger. 2013). De ce fait, la mise en perspective des spécificités des cuvettes oasiennes du Niger oriental ainsi que le cadre législatif devant permettre de gérer théoriquement le foncier est d’un intérêt croissant étant donné le nombre de problèmes récurrents et conjoncturels dans cette zone (ensablement, pression démographique, conflit foncier, enclavement). À la suite de ces constats, la mise en place de notre protocole de recherche tente d’établir un état des lieux du mode de fonctionnement et d’accès aux cuvettes oasiennes. La question de recherche s’énonce comme suit : « Comment s’effectue la pratique foncière dans les cuvettes oasiennes du département de Gouré ? ». La principale hypothèse du travail repose sur le fait que l’ensemble des cuvettes oasiennes du département de Gouré ont une gestion foncière relativement dépendante des chefs coutumiers et que ces derniers ne sont pas impliqués dans le processus du Code Rural Nigérien. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) in groundwater of the Walloon Region (Belgium)
Jurado Elices, Anna ULg; Borges, Alberto ULg; Hakoun, Vivien et al

Conference (2016, September 27)

Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be indirectly transferred to the atmosphere through groundwater discharge into surface water bodies such as rivers. However, these emissions ... [more ▼]

Carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) can be indirectly transferred to the atmosphere through groundwater discharge into surface water bodies such as rivers. However, these emissions are poorly evaluated and highly uncertain. The aim of this work is identify the hydrogeological contexts (alluvial, sandstone, chalk and limestone aquifers) and in situ conditions which are most conducive to the generation and occurrence of GHGs in groundwater at a regional scale. To this end, CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations as well as major and minor elements were monitored (n=37 samples) in two field campaigns (09/2014 and 03/2015) in 15 groundwater bodies of the Walloon Region (Belgium). This preliminary work, which was presented in the 42st IAH conference (Rome, Italy), shown that GHG concentrations range from 5,160 to 47,544 ppm from the partial pressure of CO2 and from 0 to 1,064 nmol/L and 1 to 5,637 nmol/L for CH4 and N2O respectively. Overall, groundwater was supersaturated in GHGs with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, suggesting that groundwater contribute to the atmospheric GHGs budget. A third sampling campaign is carried out in 2016 including around 60 new groundwater samples. The combination of the results of the three campaigns allows: (1) reducing the uncertainties related to indirect emissions of GHG through groundwater-surface water interaction and (2) contributing to a better understanding of the occurrence of GHGs in aquifers. New results will be presented and discussed in detail in the presentation. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of temperature from DTS and ERT with direct measurements during heat tracer experiments in heterogeneous aquifers
Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Hermans, Thomas ULg; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 27)

Geothermal field characterization and heat tracer experiments often rely on scarce temperature data collected in boreholes. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS ... [more ▼]

Geothermal field characterization and heat tracer experiments often rely on scarce temperature data collected in boreholes. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) have the potential to provide spatial information on temperature changes in the subsurface. In this contribution, we show how DTS and ERT have been used to investigate the heterogeneity of a heterogeneous aquifer during a heat tracing experiment under forced gradient conditions. Optic fibers were installed in the heat injection well and in two piezometers intersecting the main flow directions at 8 m from the injection well. These piezometers were also equipped with ERT. The DTS measurement in the injection well clearly shows the two-layer nature of the aquifer. After the end of injection, the temperature in the bottom part of the well decreases faster than in the upper part due to the higher water fluxes. Those results are confirmed by DTS measurements in natural flow conditions during a heating wire test. DTS and ERT in the cross-panel both show the vertical and lateral heterogeneity of the aquifer. Temperatures only increase significantly in the bottom part of the aquifer where advection is predominant. However, strong differences are observed laterally. ERT additionally shows that the hot plume is divided in two main flow paths, which is confirmed by direct temperature measurements. The comparison of DTS and ERT shows that one of the well is suffering from water mixing. Indeed, temperature from DTS are homogeneous over the whole tichkness of the aquifer, whereas ERT temperature, less affected by local variations, are varying. Our study demonstrate the value of spatially distributed measurements for the monitoring of heat tracer experiment and highligths the issue of multilevel sampling. The detailed temperature measurements can be subsequently used in hydrogeological model to better estimates heat flow and transport parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailLa fluidothérapie chez le bovin adulte
Lecomte, Denis; Casalta, Hélène ULg; Djebala, Salem ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 27)

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (13 ULg)
See detailUVS – JIRAM image comparison during Juno PJ1
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 27)

We present a comparison between images collected in the infrared and ultraviolet by the JIRAM and IUVS spectral imagers on board the Juno orbiter. Similarities and differences are pointed out.

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See detailAn old slate mine as lower reservoir for UPSH (Underground Pumping Storage Hydroelectricity)- groundwater interactions and limitations
Bodeux, Sarah ULg; Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 27)

Renewable energy sources have an increasing role to play in the future energy framework but their intermittence cannot afford a stable production according to the demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity ... [more ▼]

Renewable energy sources have an increasing role to play in the future energy framework but their intermittence cannot afford a stable production according to the demand. Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (PSH) is an efficient technology to store and release electricity. However, the development of new PSH plants is limited by environmental and topographic constraints. An innovative alternative consists in using old underground mines as lower reservoirs of Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants. In this configuration, large amount of water is pumped and injected in underground cavities and these cyclic stresses impact the groundwater system. A hybrid 3D finite element mixing cell method is used to numerically simulate the use of an UPSH facility, in the case of an abandoned slate mine. Different scenarios are computed with varying pumping injection time-sequences. In order to assess the impact on the surrounding groundwater conditions, the resulting head evolution in the cavity and at different distances is analyzed in terms of groundwater oscillation magnitude, drawdown, and seepage into the cavity. Results show clearly the influence of the pumping injection time-sequence (rates, regularity, timing and duration of no-activity periods) on the actual head evolution in the surrounding medium and consequently on the magnitude of interactions with the cavity. For a given hydraulic conductivity of the surrounding medium (i.e. slates in this case study), the main conclusion is that the resulting interaction seepage flows (in and out of the cavity) are highly dependent on the chosen pumping injection sequences. The future impact of UPSH operation must be assessed taking this fact into account. [less ▲]

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See detailGenomics and ecological adaptation: metal hyperaccumulation in Arabidopsis halleri
Hanikenne, Marc ULg

Conference (2016, September 27)

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See detailLa dynamique des profondeurs. Les réinventions de l’espace dans Alice Comedies, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit et Mickey Mouse
Tomasovic, Dick ULg

Conference (2016, September 27)

Détaillant les mises en scènes de l’espace dans trois séries essentielles de l’histoire du dessin animé (Alice Comedies (1923-1927), Oswald the Lucky Rabbit (1927-1928) et Mickey Mouse (dès 1928)) comme ... [more ▼]

Détaillant les mises en scènes de l’espace dans trois séries essentielles de l’histoire du dessin animé (Alice Comedies (1923-1927), Oswald the Lucky Rabbit (1927-1928) et Mickey Mouse (dès 1928)) comme autant d’étapes dans la définition d’une nouvelle spatialité servant au mieux les créations de personnages animés d’un nouveau type, analysant précisément certaines images dans la manière dont elles articulent avant-plan et arrière-plan, cette intervention pointe également les présupposés idéologiques du simulacre de la profondeur chez Disney. Reposant plus particulièrement sur le commentaire de quelques films emblématiques tels que Alice’s Wonderland (1923), Trolley Troubles (1927), ou Plane Crazy (1928), entre autres, l’intervention, en revenant notamment sur les contributions des spécialistes de l’histoire et de l’esthétique disneyenne (Donald Crafton, Jay P. Telotte, Leonard Maltin, J.B. Kaufman…), tente d’apporter un nouvel éclairage sur l’évolution de la conception de l’espace (en tant que problème esthétique, dramatique et psychologique) dans le dessin animé industriel américain, mais aussi, indirectement et plus largement, dans l’histoire des films d’animation. [less ▲]

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See detailRelectures de La Misère du monde: Bourdieu, Sartre, Enzensberger
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, September 26)

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See detailLaboratory diagnosis of syphilis
HUYNEN, Pascale ULg

Conference (2016, September 26)

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See detailReprise et renouvellement de la philosophie sartrienne dans le champ des sciences sociales
Recchia, Fabio ULg

Conference (2016, September 26)

L'objectif de cette communication est double. D'une part, il s'agit de définir ce que le projet sartrien d'une anthropologie structurelle et historique emprunte au structuralisme français. Nous porterons ... [more ▼]

L'objectif de cette communication est double. D'une part, il s'agit de définir ce que le projet sartrien d'une anthropologie structurelle et historique emprunte au structuralisme français. Nous porterons ainsi notre attention sur le numéro 246 de la revue "Les Temps Modernes", où Sartre (mais aussi Bourdieu et le jeune Maurice Godelier) met en question les principes fondamentaux de l'analyse structurale. D'autre part, nous souhaitons préciser en quoi la philosophie du second Sartre revisite en profondeur ces principes. Nous mobiliserons, pour ce faire, "Les Racines de l'éthique". Récemment édité dans "Les Études sartriennes", cet inédit de l'oeuvre sartrienne précise la stratégie par laquelle celle-ci entend conserver mais aussi dépasser les apories de l'analyse structurale. Aussi la problématique générale de notre communication consiste-t-elle à documenter le rapport qu'entretînt la philosophie sartrienne à l'égard d'un certain segment des sciences sociales françaises. À cette fin, nous étudierons l'activité éditoriale des "Temps Modernes", ainsi que celle qui fut générée postérieurement par le champ des "Études sartriennes". [less ▲]

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See detailGroundwater flow and saltwater intrusion modelling in the Continental Terminal (CT) aquifer near the Saloum inverse estuary in Senegal
Faye, Serigne; Ndeye, Maguette Dieng; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 26)

The Saloum River hypersaline estuary (Senegal) is an ‘inverse estuary’ showing a salinity increasing from the river mouth towards inland. This salinization process is mainly driven by a net loss of ... [more ▼]

The Saloum River hypersaline estuary (Senegal) is an ‘inverse estuary’ showing a salinity increasing from the river mouth towards inland. This salinization process is mainly driven by a net loss of freshwater due to intense evaporation. In this context, interactions between the river and the surrounding aquifer of the Continental Terminal (CT) may lead to local and progressive salinization of this groundwater main resource for water supply. Our study, based on available data and new measured data in 2012 and 2013, is focused on the southern part of the Saloum basin. It confirms that the groundwater resource is threatened by local saltwater intrusions in the vicinity of the Saloum River and along the western coastal part of the aquifer. For a long term water resources management, it is thus essential to predict the future evolution of this process in a context of increasing groundwater pumping rate together with climate variability and changes. A groundwater flow model is developed using MODFLOW. Starting from a conceptual steady-state situation corresponding to the CT aquifer state in 1973 before development of pumping, a transient calibration of the groundwater flow model is performed on data from 1974 to 2012. Despite the low number of measured data, the model can be considered as the current best assessment tool for future predictions. Using the particle tracking technique (MODPATH), a first assessment of the saltwater intrusions in the aquifer is simulated (neglecting the density effect on the hydraulic conductivity) confirming the measured data. Results, for an increased pumping of 20% in 2050 combined with different climatic scenarios, are useful to assess how the saltwater intrusions will evolve in the next years. [less ▲]

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See detailDysregulated circulating miRNAs in pre-eclampsia
Tebache, Linda; Munaut, Carine ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 25)

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See detailLe développement de l’agriculture familiale par les transferts des migrants
Yao Namé, Juste Michel ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2016, September 25)

The following pages report the results of our survey conducted among (Malian, Senegalese and Mauritanian) Soninké migrants during the period of 14th to 4 December 2015, living in the social residences of ... [more ▼]

The following pages report the results of our survey conducted among (Malian, Senegalese and Mauritanian) Soninké migrants during the period of 14th to 4 December 2015, living in the social residences of the former home Pinel (first home of migrant workers in France). This survey had to aim to discuss the implementation and use of a new tool to transfer the money in order to reduce use of informal channels, to promote financial inclusion, to finance smallholding and to develop entrepreneurship in rural by granting of credits medium or long term via Microfinance Institutions (IMF). [less ▲]

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See detailUn morso di più: ecologia del cannibalismo in Salamandra salamandra
Melotto, Andrea; Manenti, Raoul; Ficetola, Francesco et al

Conference (2016, September 23)

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See detailAnalyse comparative des coûts de production rizicole dans les pays de la Communauté Economique des Pays des Grands Lacs (CEPGL).
Furaha Mirindi, Germaine ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2016, September 23)

Cet article fait une analyse comparative des résultats économiques de la production rizicole durant la saison B 2014 dans les trois pays de la CEPGL qui sont la République Démocratique du Congo, le Rwanda ... [more ▼]

Cet article fait une analyse comparative des résultats économiques de la production rizicole durant la saison B 2014 dans les trois pays de la CEPGL qui sont la République Démocratique du Congo, le Rwanda et le Burundi. L’approche comparative permet de trouver les explications des différences des résultats en partie dans les politiques mises en œuvre dans chaque pays. Les enquêtes ont été menées dans la plaine de la Ruzizi partagée entre les trois pays auprès de 240 producteurs du riz choisi à partir de la méthode des quotas sur la base d'une stratification des exploitations rizicoles. Dans le site congolais (où il est plus difficile d’accéder aux intrants et crédits), les coûts de production d’1kg de paddy sont les plus élevés avec une fonction de production y=0,034x+0,053z+0,422 et le rendement le plus bas (2698kgs). Par contre, dans les sites burundais et rwandais où l’Etat intervient dans l’approvisionnement en intrants et particulièrement dans le site rwandais, l’accès aux crédits, les fonctions de production sont respectivement de y=0,024x+0,031z+0,297 et y=0,017x+0,023z+0,269 avec des rendements de 3962kgs et 5339kgs dans le même ordre. Les coûts de production supportés sur un hectare rizicole ou encore pour la production d’une tonne de paddy varient selon le pays car ils dépendent de la valeur des intrants utilisés et des autres charges de structures. Ils varient ainsi de 1139,4USD à 1354,5USD/ ha et de 269 à 422USD/tonne. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications des relevés 3D au patrimoine, de l'acquisition au système d'information 3D
Hallot, Pierre ULg; Billen, Roland ULg; Poux, Florent ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 23)

Les techniques permettant l’acquisition 3D du patrimoine bâti sont maintenant assez mures et démocratiques pour être utilisées à grande échelle. De plus en plus d’édifices font l’objet d’une sauvegarde ... [more ▼]

Les techniques permettant l’acquisition 3D du patrimoine bâti sont maintenant assez mures et démocratiques pour être utilisées à grande échelle. De plus en plus d’édifices font l’objet d’une sauvegarde numérique sous la forme de nuages de points colorés. Il reste néanmoins de nombreux défis à relever notamment pour : harmoniser les pratiques d’acquisition en terme de qualité et de précision, assurer l’interopérabilité entre les jeux de données ; exploiter pleinement l’information ponctuelle collectée ; et proposer une visualisation adéquate de ces grands jeux de données. Dans le cadre des développements réalisés à l’Unité de Géomatique de l’ULg, nous travaillons à la mise au point de systèmes d’informations permettant d’assurer un lien entre les informations sémantiques issues des applications archéologiques, architecturales, d’histoire de l’art avec les modèles 3D réalisés. La mise en place de ces systèmes d’informations passe par plusieurs étapes de recherche relatives à la sectorisation automatique, les structures de données, la définitions d’ontologies thématiques et finalement les règles sémiologiques de représentations dans un environnement virtuel 3D. Au cours de cette présentation, nous proposons de parcourir trois projets de recherche en cours au sein de l’Unité afin l’illustrer nos propos. Nous présenterons plus particulièrement le cas de la cathédrale Saint-Paul de Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailPhosphate-based composite electrodes for Li/Na-ion batteries: upscalable solution syntheses with in-situ solid carbon addition
Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg; Brisbois, Magali; Eshraghi, Nicolas ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 22)

Since the success story of lithium iron phosphate, other phosphate-based compounds have attracted a lot of interest as promising candidates for positive electrodes in lithium-ion or sodium-ion batteries ... [more ▼]

Since the success story of lithium iron phosphate, other phosphate-based compounds have attracted a lot of interest as promising candidates for positive electrodes in lithium-ion or sodium-ion batteries. Their electronic conductivity usually has to be improved through the preparation of composite powders ensuring intimate contact between the active material and conductive carbon. We report on the one-step synthesis of composite precursors using spray-drying or hydrothermal synthesis routes, two techniques which offer easy scaling-up of production. We show that addition of a solid carbon source (carbon black or carbon nanotubes) into the solution has a strong influence on the powder microstructure and is very effective in improving the battery cycling performance, taking our recent results on phosphates [Fex(PO4)(OH)y.zH2O)] and fluorophosphates [Na2FePO4F, Na3V2(PO4)2F3] as examples. We also compare this approach with the addition of the carbon source as a soluble precursor (such as ascorbic acid or citric acid) where the in situ formation of carbon is achieved by a heat treatment in inert atmosphere (typically argon). [less ▲]

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See detailPropriétés multifractales de la divergence de séries d’ondelettes
Esser, Céline ULg

Conference (2016, September 22)

Dans cet exposé, nous nous intéressons à la divergence ponctuelle de séries d'ondelettes dans un espace de Besov donné. Nous obtenons une borne supérieure pour la dimension de Hausdorff de l'ensemble des ... [more ▼]

Dans cet exposé, nous nous intéressons à la divergence ponctuelle de séries d'ondelettes dans un espace de Besov donné. Nous obtenons une borne supérieure pour la dimension de Hausdorff de l'ensemble des points ayant un taux de divergence donné, et nous montrons que cette borne est optimale en utilisant les notions de résidualité et de prévalence. [less ▲]

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See detailGAVRAY Claire (2016) The evolution of boys’ and girls’ attitudes and moods at the light of their historical opportunities : the case of violence and depression -
Gavray, Claire ULg

Conference (2016, September 22)

depression mood and violent behaviour are linked as a common dynamic amongst female teenargers but not amongst male ones ( twho different paths for them). The roots of depression and violence are ... [more ▼]

depression mood and violent behaviour are linked as a common dynamic amongst female teenargers but not amongst male ones ( twho different paths for them). The roots of depression and violence are connected to gender socialisation (importance of lack of recognition and negative life events in private sphere for girls and in public sphere for boys). [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of meetings in building modern organisational governance systems - outlining a sociological approach to meetings
Thunus, Sophie ULg

Conference (2016, September 21)

By relying on empirical and micro level analyses of the implementation of a Belgian reform of mental healthcare delivery, this paper shows that inter-organisational and interinstitutional meetings might ... [more ▼]

By relying on empirical and micro level analyses of the implementation of a Belgian reform of mental healthcare delivery, this paper shows that inter-organisational and interinstitutional meetings might be conceived as key sites for the realisation of public policy objectives; i.e. sites where both the meaning of policy objectives and the social systems through which they are enacted are (re)defined. This paper is based on a case study on the implementation process of the ongoing Belgian reform of mental healthcare delivery, called “Reform 107”. Reform 107 is designed to shift mental healthcare organisation from the model of residential psychiatry, which is centred on medical hospital care, to community psychiatry that implies, instead, psychosocial home and/or ambulatory care. Policymakers conceived this shift through the development of local mental healthcare networks, which are defined as concrete partnerships between local, residential and ambulatory care providers and social and employment public services. The first stage in the implementation process consisted in four-year exploratory projects through which local actors were expected to refine the community care model proposed by policymakers. By asking local actors to participate in the adaptation of the model to local realities, policymakers intended to improve their own knowledge of local mental healthcare systems on the one hand, and to interest local actors in a reform that challenges their institutional interests on the other. Our analyses of the implementation of Reform 107 focused on three local exploratory projects and their monitoring by federal public health authorities. The empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews (N=62) with policymakers and local actors, direct observations of the meetings between local mental health practitioners responsible for the reform’s implementation (N=65) and documentary analyses, including policy and (local) organisational documents. This material was first analysed by relying on a sociological frame of analysis based on the French sociology of organisations (Friedberg, 1997) and the interactionist sociology (Abbott, 2005; Bucher & Strauss, 1961; Corbin & Strauss, 2008). The resulting sociological account (Thunus, 2015) stressed that local models of governance, power struggles as well as professional knowledge significantly impacted on the development of mental healthcare networks. It also highlighted the use of new techniques by federal public health authorities to manage the reform implementation. Those techniques, including the multiplication of meetings with local actors, direct coaching of local projects’ leaders as well as training of front-line mental health professionals, were conceived as means to oppose strategies of resistance usually enacted by psychiatric hospitals (S Thunus & Schoenaers, 2012). This paper offers to refine this analysis by focusing on the specific role played by meetings in policy implementation, based on a conception of “the practice of policy-making”(Richard Freeman, Griggs, & Boaz, 2011). It draws on the observation that, though researches on policy implementation increasingly evoke meetings as part of the policy process, they do not properly address the role played by meeting in influencing, orienting and possibly (re)defining policy reforms. Indeed, following the recognition of the need for dealing with complex and uncertain problems, or wicked problems (Roberts, 2000), by relying on procedural policy instruments (Howlett, 2000) and collaborative governance (Emerson, Nabatchi, & Balogh, 2011), numerous researches focused on policy networks, hybrid forums (Callon, Lascoumes, & Barthes, 2001) and special committees whose activities involve meetings. However, by considering meetings as a part of/a tool for larger processes as problems solving, crisis resolution or decision-making, those researches made them unproblematic means to achieve predefined and external objectives. The problems resulting from a “meetings as a tool approach” (Schwartzman, 1989) are twofold. On the one hand, it seems to ignore that, by bringing different and specialised expertise together, meetings induce social, cognitive and technical challenges. Those challenges, including the sharing of specialised knowledge and harsh negotiations between actors defending institutional interests and professional jurisdictions, make meetings conflicting and problematic arenas (Cohen, March, & Olsen, 1972). On the other, when conceived as rational means to reach external objectives, meetings often appear as disappointing and pointless. Based on this observation, Schwartzman (1989) proposed to stop seeing meeting as part of larger processes as decision-making (as a tool), to focus on what meetings actually do to the organisation or social context in which they take place (i.e. to consider meetings as a topic). By drawing on Schwartzman’s invitation to make meetings a research topic, we propose to ask the question of what inter-organisational and interinstitutional meetings actually did to the Belgian mental health care reform. We suggest addressing that question by relying on a conception of policy-making as a practice of a special kind (R Freeman, Griggs, & Boaz, 2011). This conception insists on the role played by policy practices as meeting and talks in determining policy objectives and creating groups supporting them. Accordingly, we will focus on social actions and interactions unfolding through meetings and talks, to see how they use and produce knowledge, instruments and relationships both embodying and reshaping their environment. Finally, by inviting us to bracket the explicit objectives of the observed meetings (e.g. providing policymakers with an operational definition of care functions included in the proposed community model), this approach will enable us to see what inter-organisational and interinstitutional meetings actually do to policy reforms. That is, generating performances (Goffman, 1959) supporting collective enactments of new social and professional roles and artefacts that (re) constitute the meaning of the reform and the associated social system. Viewing meeting as a concrete policy practice thus helps to stress that they contribute to durable and deep change in their social environment, precisely by generating talks that largely exceed/displace their explicit mandate. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Familie von Medem. Zur Verbindung von Bildung, Literatur und Politik in Kurland
Leyh, Valérie ULg

Conference (2016, September 21)

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See detailCompetition of phonon and magnon effects in the temperature dependence of spinwave stiffness
Ostler, Thomas ULg; Verstraete, Matthieu ULg; Di Gennaro, Marco ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 21)

Magnons are the elementary magnetic excitations in ordered solids. Understanding such collective excitations is important for a number of technologically relevant fields, such as, magnonics [1] or spin ... [more ▼]

Magnons are the elementary magnetic excitations in ordered solids. Understanding such collective excitations is important for a number of technologically relevant fields, such as, magnonics [1] or spin caloritronics [2]. The central interactions in spin caloritronics are the couplings of phonons with electrons and spin degrees of freedom. Furthermore, understanding the effects of temperature on the phonon and spin degrees of freedom adds a further complexity. In the present work we have developed a multiscale model of ferromagnetic materials and demonstrate the effect of temperature dependent phonon displacements on the magnons spectra. Our results show that the for Fe and Ni the effect of phonon displacements acts to reduce the Curie temperature, whereas for Permalloy the opposite is true due to an increased long-ranged exchange interaction. This increased exchange interaction results in an increasing spin-wave stiffness with increasing temperature, overcoming the usual decrease due to magnon softening. To determine the effects of increasing the phonon temperature we have developed a multiscale model whereby we begin by calculating the thermal displacement of phonons, $\sqrt{\langle u^2(T) \rangle}$, calculated using the phonopy software package [3] using electronic ground state and phonon properties determined using the ABINIT software package [4]. Then the exchange constants are determined using the SPRKKR package [5]. Finally, we use linear spin wave theory to determine the effect of the phonon temperature on the exchange alone, demonstrating an increasing frequency of the acoustic magnon branch. We take into account the thermal effects of the magnetic system through the use of the atomistic spin dynamics approach. Magnon softening due to thermal effects demonstrates a more modest increase in the exchange stiffness (over the purely phononic effect), however, an overall increase is still observed. \newline \newline [1] A. V. Chumak, V. I. Vasyuchka, A. A. Serga, and B. Hillebrands, Nature Physics, {\bf 11}, 453–461 (2015). \newline [2] G. E. W. Bauer, E. Saitoh, and B. J. van Wees, Nature Materials {\bf 11}, 391 (2012). \newline [3] Atsushi Togo and Isao Tanaka, Scr. Mater., {\bf 108}, 1-5 (2015) \newline [4] X. Gonze \textit{et al.} Computer Physics Communications {\bf 180}, 2582-2615 (2009). \newline [5] T. Huhne \textit{at al.} Physical Review B, {\bf 58}, 10236 (1998). [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between mind-wandering, personal goals processing, and future thinking.
Stawarczyk, David ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2016, September 20)

Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both decoupled from stimuli present in the immediate environment and unrelated to the task currently being carried out. Although this ... [more ▼]

Mind-wandering refers to the occurrence of thoughts whose content is both decoupled from stimuli present in the immediate environment and unrelated to the task currently being carried out. Although this phenomenon has been the object of increasing interest from the scientific community during le last decade, proportionally few studies have attempted to clearly determine the form, content, and possible functions of this particular kind of cognitions. In this presentation, we will review recent evidence from studies mainly performed in our lab suggesting that most instances of mind-wandering refer to the anticipation and planning of future events and are also closely related to the processing of personal goals. More specifically, we will first discuss the findings from behavioral research that examined the phenomenological features of mind-wandering with the use of experience sampling procedures during laboratory tasks. Results of these studies mainly revealed that most of reported mind-wandering episodes are temporally oriented towards the future and that this ‘prospective bias’ can be increased when participants’ attention had been oriented toward their personal goals prior to performing the tasks. We will next review the results of neuroimaging studies that investigated the neural correlates of mind-wandering and we will more specifically focus on meta-analytic evidences suggesting that the neural correlates of mind-wandering strongly overlap with those associated with episodic future thinking and personal goal processing. Together, these results suggest that mind-wandering may have an important adaptive value and could in particular play a key role in planning and preparing for upcoming events related to the individuals’ personal goals. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy on contribution of lipids towards the mechanical properties of milk fat globule membrane monolayer
Malik, Priyanka ULg; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg

Conference (2016, September 20)

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) stabilizes fat globule in milk in form of emulsion. The primary monolayer of MFGM is rich in proteins and secondary bilayer is rich in polar lipids. MFGM finds application ... [more ▼]

Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) stabilizes fat globule in milk in form of emulsion. The primary monolayer of MFGM is rich in proteins and secondary bilayer is rich in polar lipids. MFGM finds application as an additive in dairy and food industry (e.g. emulsions, infant formulas & reduced-fat products) for its emulsifying and stabilizing properties. MFGM received much attention in recent years due to both its health- beneficial & technological functionalities. This work has been carried out with the objective to understand contribution of various components towards the surface properties of complete MFGM. MFGM was isolated from fresh raw cream. During isolation of MFGM apart from polar lipids and MFGM proteins, neutral lipids are also isolated which have their origin in fat globules but are often considered as a constituent of MFGM. The MFGM was further fractioned into lipid fraction, defatted fraction and polar lipids. The mechanical properties of monolayer were studied for the above fractions using Langmuir film balance. Study of surface properties can also be linked to their techno-functional properties by calculating film elasticity of the compression isotherm which can be linked to emulsifying and stabilizing properties. The analysis of compression isotherms revealed that film elasticity is highly influenced by polar lipids. The behaviour of the MFGM appeared to be influenced by neutral lipid and defatted fraction during beginning of compression and by polar lipids at the end of compression. [less ▲]

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See detailStretching the ecosystem service concept for application in real world situations
Boeraeve, Fanny ULg; Jacobs, Sander; Dendoncker, Nicolas et al

Conference (2016, September 19)

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See detailRaffinement de l'estimation asymptotique de l'exposant de Hölder
Kleyntssens, Thomas ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2016, September 19)

Dans cet exposé, nous proposons une nouvelle approche basée sur les ondelettes (via les espaces Snu) permettant d'étudier plus finement la régularité Höldérienne d'une fonction

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See detailLes technologies génétiques, entre éthique et politique
Caeymaex, Florence ULg

Conference (2016, September 17)

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See detailWhat’s the difference? Results of a functional study of Aterian and Mousterian tools from the site of Ifri n’Ammar (Morocco)
Tomasso, Sonja ULg; Rots, Veerle ULg

Conference (2016, September 16)

Until today, the definition of the North African Mousterian has been based on a systematic comparison with the European Mousterian. Particularly the “Aterian” and its tanged tools have been widely ... [more ▼]

Until today, the definition of the North African Mousterian has been based on a systematic comparison with the European Mousterian. Particularly the “Aterian” and its tanged tools have been widely discussed. Researchers considered the tanged Aterian tools as early indications of the existence of hafting techniques [1]. It is currently not entirely understood how the Aterian relates to the Mousterian in North Africa, whether tanged tools can indeed be linked with hafting, and whether non-tanged tools were also hafted, which could indicate that a variety in hafting techniques existed. The site of Ifri n’Ammar presents an ideal chance to compare Aterian and Mousterian technocomplexes. The rock shelter is located in the eastern Moroccan Rif and has a rich and well preserved stratigraphy where Middle Paleolithic tools are abundantly represented [2]. At Ifri n’Ammar, the Aterian and Mousterian assemblages are inter-stratified, which means that the relationship of these industries cannot simply be explained in terms of chronological succession [2,3]. The density of retouched artefacts differs between the Aterian and the Mousterian levels and tanged tools are present in the denser Aterian levels only. These levels also show a higher overall tool frequency. We present the results of a functional study focusing on the artefacts from the upper levels (“Occupation supérieure”) of Ifri n’Ammar, dated between 83 ± 6 ka and 130 ± 8 ka [3]. The functional study was combined with a specific experimental program designed to address questions raised during the analysis of the archaeological material, with a specific focus on hafting. Diagnostic microscopic wear patterns confirm that the tanged tools were used while hafted. Tanged tools did not prove to be related to hunting activities only, but various tool uses could be identified. They all fit, however, within the context of hunting and animal processing activities. The reuse of hafted armatures for other activities is not evident in the present sample. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Paix de Fexhe : un texte, des acteurs
Masson, Christophe ULg

Conference (2016, September 15)

La Paix de Fexhe fut le résultat d’un compromis entre les cinq différents « partis » politiques liégeois de l’époque : le prince-évêque, le chapitre cathédral de Saint-Lambert, le « patriciat » urbain, la ... [more ▼]

La Paix de Fexhe fut le résultat d’un compromis entre les cinq différents « partis » politiques liégeois de l’époque : le prince-évêque, le chapitre cathédral de Saint-Lambert, le « patriciat » urbain, la noblesse et les artisans. Nous étudierons donc dans le cadre de cette contribution l’identité de ces partis, ainsi que celles des délégués qu’ils envoyèrent à Fexhe, leur « agenda politique » et leurs moyens d’action. Nous reviendrons ensuite sur la part que chacun prit à la rédaction du texte du 18 juin 1316 et de ses deux compléments ratifiés le même jour et le lendemain, ce qui nous permettra de mesurer la place que chacun put faire tenir à ses revendications, nuançant, pour le moins, la lecture « démocratique » ou « ecclésio-paternaliste » en cours depuis le xixe siècle. De façon complémentaire, nous mettrons en évidence les champs d’application et les limites de ces textes, en les articulant avec ceux qui les précédèrent afin de mieux en percevoir les implications sur la longue durée de l’histoire liégeoise. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction
Masson, Christophe ULg

Conference (2016, September 15)

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See detailDYNAMIC MODELING OF WASTE HEAT RECOVERY ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE SYSTEMS IN THE AMESIM PLATFROM
Guillaume, Ludovic ULg; Ameel, Bernd; Criens, Chris et al

Conference (2016, September 14)

ORC waste heat recovery is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks. Because of the transient nature of the heat sources ... [more ▼]

ORC waste heat recovery is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks. Because of the transient nature of the heat sources encountered on a truck, dynamic simulations are an essential part of the design process of ORC systems for truck applications. Dynamic models are useful for component design, control design and transient evaluation of ORC systems. To ease the burden of building numerous dynamic models of different candidate ORCs while the design process is ongoing, a library of generic dynamic models of ORCs is built in this work. These models work in synergy with a steady-state ORC design tool in which is added a function to automatically populate the parameters of the dynamic models. In this work, the dynamic model library and their parameterization process in LMS AMESim are described. The platform is largely used in automotive industry and offers a variety of libraries: Engine, Control, Two-Phase Flow, etc. Finally, the dynamic models are compared against the steady-state models and experimental data. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of vertical contamination of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils around a former ore smelter in Wallonia, Belgium
Liénard, Amandine ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg

Conference (2016, September 14)

Examples of sites contaminated by atmospheric fallouts are numerous across former industrial areas, among which the valleys of Sambre and Meuse in Wallonia hosted metal ore treatment factories. We have ... [more ▼]

Examples of sites contaminated by atmospheric fallouts are numerous across former industrial areas, among which the valleys of Sambre and Meuse in Wallonia hosted metal ore treatment factories. We have studied the fate of Cd, Pb and Zn in soils affected by atmospheric deposition in the vicinity of old smelters. The importance of vertical redistribution of contaminants in soils is questioned and the aims of this paper are to i) characterize the vertical distribution of TEs and soil properties along diverse soil profiles, ii) evaluate enrichment or impoverishment of TEs along the profiles to discriminate anthropogenic or geogenic origin of contaminations and iii) evaluate whether soil type or land use influenced the mobility of contaminants in the selected profiles. Concentrations of trace elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) and major elements (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Al, and Mn) as well as pHKCl and TOC were measured on 22 profiles located in a 3 km radius of a former ore treatment plant in Wallonia (Belgium). Enrichment factor (EF), vertical impoverishment factor (VIF), and availability ratio (AR) were used as diagnostic tools of contamination and migration of Cd, Pb, and Zn in profiles. Data revealed that soil profiles are significantly contaminated. The ranges of enrichment factors for Cd (17-3570), Pb (1-2883), and Zn (2-309) are very broad with the higher EF in the topsoil of profile. VIFs of subhorizons are rarely above 1. In a few remaining cases with VIF > 1, the main factor explaining is soil type (especially, Colluvic Regosols, Luvisols, and, Cambisols with shale load). Cd, Pb and Zn ARs are strongly correlated with TOC and to a lesser extent with pHKCl. Pb and Zn ARs are influenced by soil type and land use only plays on Zn AR. The Cd availability is independent by these two factors. The contents of trace elements measured in soil profiles are very high especially in topsoil. Until now, the Cd, Pb, and Zn vertical distribution shows a low migration from topsoil up to depth. However, we must not minimize the hazard of a future potential transfer. [less ▲]

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See detailSemi-continuous fermentation of a thermotolerant and high acetic acid producing Acetobacter pasteurianus bacterium
Mounir, Majid ULg; Thonart, Philippe; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha et al

Conference (2016, September 14)

Among 63 strains isolated from fruits and homemade vinegars from different ecosystems of Morocco, a thermotolerant bacterium with high production of acetic acid was selected and evaluated for its ability ... [more ▼]

Among 63 strains isolated from fruits and homemade vinegars from different ecosystems of Morocco, a thermotolerant bacterium with high production of acetic acid was selected and evaluated for its ability to perform efficient acetous fermentation at high temperature in a bioreactor. CV01 strain, isolated from cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), was considered to be an Acetobacter pasteurianus sp. according to phylogenetic study based on 16s rDNA gene sequence analysis. An optimal culture medium containing initial concentrations of acetic acid and ethanol of 1% (v/v) and 4% (v/v), respectively, was used. The growth kinetics of this isolate were monitored in flasks and compared with those of the wild type LMG 1625 mesophilic strain and the thermoresistant Acetobacter senegalensis reference strain. The CV01 strain exhibited abundant growth along with high amount of produced acetic acid at high temperature (41°C). Subsequently, a 20-L stirred tank bioreactor was used to assess thermotolerance and acidoresistance properties of the selected strain during semi-continuous acetic acid fermentation at 38°C. Interestingly, a total amount of 13.4% (w/v) acetic acid was yielded at the end of fermentation. Moreover, this bacterium could produce during the same fermentation process a final concentration of 11.2 g/L gluconic acid, a sensory quality indicator in vinegar production. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that CV01 strain exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. [less ▲]

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See detailTHERMO-ECONOMIC OPTIMIZATION OF ORGANIC RANKINE CYCLE SYSTEMS FOR WASTE HEAT RECOVERY FROM EXHAUST AND RECIRCULATED GASES OF HEAVY DUTY TRUCKS
Guillaume, Ludovic ULg; Legros, Arnaud; Lemort, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016, September 14)

Waste heat recovery (WHR) ORC is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks (HDT). Nonetheless, the adoption of this ... [more ▼]

Waste heat recovery (WHR) ORC is a very promising technology for reducing fuel consumption and consequently the CO2 emissions of future heavy-duty trucks (HDT). Nonetheless, the adoption of this technology in the automotive domain requires specific R&D activities going from the system definition to the on-board integration. This study focuses on the preliminary design phase of ORC systems recovering the heat wasted from two of the sources available on a HDT: the exhaust and recirculated gases. From these heat sources and their combinations, 6 possible architectures are identified. On the other hand, 4 volumetric expansion machine technologies are considered (Scroll, Screw, Piston and Vane Expanders). At the end, 24 topologies are modelled considering only the main components (Pump, Heat exchangers, Expansion machines). A three-step optimization method is proposed to identify the most promising system. First, the most suitable design conditions are identified using a simple model of expansion machine. In a second step, the design phase, using more detailed models for the expansion machines, a thermodynamic and economic optimizations are performed. Finally, in a third step, the output power of the latter system models is maximized in off-design conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppement territorial, foncier économique et infrastructures
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2016, September 13)

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See detailMethodik zur schnellen Bewertung von Syntheserouten auf Basis von Exergiebilanzen
Frenzel, Philipp; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

Conference (2016, September 13)

Heutige chemische Produkte basieren fast ausschließlich auf erdölbasierten Rohstoffen. Aufgrund weltweiter Bemühungen, die Abhängigkeit von fossilen Rohstoffen zu reduzieren, wird in den letzten Jahren ... [more ▼]

Heutige chemische Produkte basieren fast ausschließlich auf erdölbasierten Rohstoffen. Aufgrund weltweiter Bemühungen, die Abhängigkeit von fossilen Rohstoffen zu reduzieren, wird in den letzten Jahren verstärkt die Nutzung alternativer Kohlenstoffquellen wie Biomasse oder CO2 erforscht. Die alternativen Kohlenstoffquellen unterscheiden sich hinsichtlich ihrer Zusammensetzung und Stoffeigenschaften teilweise deutlich von fossilen Rohstoffen. Aus diesem Grund müssen Syntheserouten und darauf aufbauende Prozesse neu entwickelt werden. Da zum einen sehr viele Syntheserouten prinzipiell denkbar sind und zum anderen die Entwicklung der entsprechenden Prozesse aufwendig ist, wird eine Möglichkeit benötigt, begrenzte Entwicklungsressourcen sinnvoll zu steuern. Dazu sollte bereits in einem frühen Entwicklungsstadium ein quantitativer Vergleich der Syntheserouten erfolgen, um diejenigen zu identifizieren, die das größte wirtschaftliche Potential versprechen. In diesem Vortrag wird eine Methodik vorgestellt, um eine schnelle erste, auf Exergie basierte Bewertung des wirtschaftlichen Potentials einer Syntheseroute bereits in einem frühen Entwicklungsstadium durchzuführen, in dem nur wenige Informationen vorliegen. Die Idee der Methodik ist, Syntheserouten in standardisierten Prozessen abzubilden, wodurch eine automatisierte Auswertung und somit ein schnelles Screening möglich wird. Die standardisierten Prozesse umfassen sowohl den Einfluss der Reaktion durch Abbildung der Reaktionsbedingungen, Stöchiometrie, Umsatz und Selektivität als auch die Auswirkungen der Trennaufgabe. Ebenso berücksichtigt wird die Rückführung von Lösungsmitteln und ggf. nicht umgesetzten Edukten. Als zentrale Bewertungsgröße zur Abschätzung des wirtschaftlichen Potentials wird eine Kombination aus Exergie- und Rohstoffeinsatz herangezogen. Der Vorteil von Exergiebilanzen gegenüber Energiebilanzen ist, dass die Produktion von Entropie berücksichtigt wird und so die Auswirkungen einzelner Prozessschritte untersucht und zwischen verschiedenen Energieformen unterschieden werden kann. Durch Berechnung der Exergieverluste, also der Verluste von Exergie aufgrund von Entropieerzeugung in den Prozessen, ergibt sich ein quantitativer Vergleich verschiedener Syntheserouten. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganocatalytic ring-opening polymerization towards polyphosphoesters
Clément, Benoit; Vanslambrouck, Stépanie; Carion, Stéphan ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 13)

Hydrolytically degradable and biocompatible aliphatic polyesters are widely applied for biomedical applications as implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering and, finally, as nanocarriers for drug ... [more ▼]

Hydrolytically degradable and biocompatible aliphatic polyesters are widely applied for biomedical applications as implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering and, finally, as nanocarriers for drug delivery. Aliphatic phophoesters, known since the pioneering work of S. Penczek in the 70’s, exhibit the same properties of hydrolytic degradability and biocompatibility and are thus more and more studied for biomedical applications as well. In the field of materials, anti-fire properties opens up new perspectives. The difference between polyesters and polyphosphoesters in terms of synthesis and properties will be highlighted. Polyphosphosphoesters are synthesized by step-growth and chain growth polymerization. When these polyphosphoesters are synthesized by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphoesters, organocatalysts turned out to be very efficient compared to coodination processes. The last part of the talk will deal with te implementation of ROP of cyclic phosphates towards a series of amphiphilic PEO-block-polyphosphate copolymers of tailored hydrophobicity depending on the length of the lateral alkyl group. These polymers are able to self assemble into nanoparticles by direct dissolution in water, thus in the absernce of any organic solvent. The so-obtained micelles were studied by a set of techniques (Pyrene Fluorescence, Dynamic Light Scattering, Tensiometry). Finally, the influence of the hydrophobicity of the polyphosphate block of the micelle on the encapsulation and the release of a model drug was investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigating the effect of plant-derived amendments on PAHs degradation in brownfield contaminated soils
Davin, Marie ULg; Starren, Amandine ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 13)

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistant organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, damaging ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an ... [more ▼]

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of persistant organic compounds of major concern that tend to accumulate in the environment, damaging ecosystems and health. Brownfields represent an important tank for PAHs that require remediation. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, experiences have been carried on to understand and develop techniques based on bioremediation and phytoremediation. PAHs degradation experiments were conducted in microcosms (laboratory scale) in order to determine whether several plant-derived amendments could enhance bioremediation. Briefly, samples of aged contaminated soils were treated with different concentrations of Medicago sativa or Trifolium pratense root exudates or dried roots, commercial saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as some Fabaceae, and some samples were left unamended as controls. Soil samples were incubated for two and four weeks at controlled temperature (28°C). Carbon dioxide emission was monitored throughout the whole incubation. At the end of each experiment, dehydrogenase activity was measured as an indicator of microbiological activity and residual PAHs were determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). In total, eleven amendment modalities and two incubation periods were tested and repeated four times. Preliminary experiments show promising results as amended samples seem to show different respiration activities. Ongoing studies will allow discussion as to whether or not PAHs degradation is influenced by the different modalities and if there are any differences according to the nature and concentration of the amendment. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. able to expand its invaded range northward in Western Europe?
Ortmans, William ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2016, September 13)

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed, Asteraceae) is an invasive weed causing a health crisis in Europe, due to its highly allergenic pollen. In Western Europe the invaded range covers most of ... [more ▼]

Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed, Asteraceae) is an invasive weed causing a health crisis in Europe, due to its highly allergenic pollen. In Western Europe the invaded range covers most of central and southern France, and northern Italy. Northwards beyond the edge of this range, occurrence of casual population have been described for years, but these populations do not appear to become invasive, and the species does not seem to spread. This situation raises the following question: Has the invaded range reached a limit or will the species continue its invasion northwards? To answer this question, we followed two complementary approaches. First we set up an experimental garden in Belgium, 250 km north to the current invaded range, to see if the local climate allows the completion of the species reproduction cycle. Second, we performed an in situ measurement campaign in 12 population located beyond the edge, within the range but near the margin, and in the center of the invaded range. The aim of this campaign was to test whether the species had reduced plant performance towards range margins. The results showed that the species is able to establish populations with high growth rates in Belgium. Furthermore, the species expressed similar performance across the considered areas, even beyond the current invasion front. No evidence of processes constraining the invasion was found, which suggests a great potential for invasion north to the current invaded range. In this uncertain situation, awareness actions should be considered in the northern countries. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the mortality of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) larvae exposed to anoxic treatment for disinfestation of wooden art objects
de Streel, Géraud; Henin, Jean-Marc; Bogaert, Patrick et al

Conference (2016, September 13)

Experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of several variables on the mortality of insects exposed to an anoxic treatment in order to generate a model linking mortality to these variables. This ... [more ▼]

Experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of several variables on the mortality of insects exposed to an anoxic treatment in order to generate a model linking mortality to these variables. This study aims to explore the possible interest of using such a model to determine the characteristics of treatment (especially duration) needed to guarantee insect mortality with a given level of probability. Trials were performed on Hylotrupes bajulus larvae, which is a widespread species known for its high tolerance to anoxic conditions. The studied variables are the initial mass of the larvae, the treatment temperature (21, 30 and 40 °C), the treatment duration (four durations for each temperature tested) and whether the larva is held in wood or in a petri dish (directly exposed to anoxic atmosphere) during the experiment. It was found that, while the last variable is not correlated with mortality, treatment duration and temperature are significantly and positively correlated with it. Larvae with higher body mass were also shown to have a better resistance to the treatment. Based on these results, a model including insect initial mass, treatment temperature and duration, together with the interaction between these two variables, was determined. This relatively simple model appeared to be a useful tool in overcoming the difficulty in defining the modalities for anoxic treatment in order to reach a given level of mortality. [less ▲]

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See detailJoint learning and pruning of decision forests
Begon, Jean-Michel ULg; Joly, Arnaud ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg

Conference (2016, September 12)

Decision forests such as Random Forests and Extremely randomized trees are state-of-the-art supervised learning methods. Unfortunately, they tend to consume much memory space. In this work, we propose an ... [more ▼]

Decision forests such as Random Forests and Extremely randomized trees are state-of-the-art supervised learning methods. Unfortunately, they tend to consume much memory space. In this work, we propose an alternative algorithm to derive decision forests under heavy memory constraints. We show that under such constraints our method usually outperforms simpler baselines and can even sometimes beat the original forest. [less ▲]

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See detailRandom subspace with trees for feature selection under memory constraints
Sutera, Antonio ULg; Châtel, Célia; Louppe, Gilles et al

Conference (2016, September 12)

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See detailOverhanging Constraints in Addivitive Manufacturing Using Two Different Tools
Bauduin, Simon ULg; Collet, Maxime ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg

Conference (2016, September 12)

Topology optimization is widely used as a design tool for advanced application in mechanical, aerospace and automotive industries. This technique offers an optimal distribution of a predetermined amount ... [more ▼]

Topology optimization is widely used as a design tool for advanced application in mechanical, aerospace and automotive industries. This technique offers an optimal distribution of a predetermined amount of material in a given design space. In the last years, a lot of efforts has been invested into the development of high performance methods such as homogenization, SIMP or BESO. However as the state of the art in manufacturing experiences evolution, a coupling between topology optimization and additive manufacturing is needed. Additive manufacturing has numerous advantages that fits the characteristics of topology optimized designs. It can manufacture highly complex design without high cost increase and furthermore continuous density material of the SIMP method could be manufactured by lattice structures. With all the opportunities given by the additive manufacturing the urge to bind the last one to topology optimization is heavily required. Specific constraints related to manufacturing issues have to be taken into account such as the need of supports structures to ensure a good heat evacuation during the manufacturing process, as well as to hold up overhanging section. Some researches have been done to try to include this constraint in the optimization problem such as Leary and al or Andrew T. Gaynor. However this work focuses on 2 different methods (projection scheme and mechanical approach) to tackle the overhanging problem and compare them . [less ▲]

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See detailMicrostructural design using stress–based topology optimization
Collet, Maxime ULg; Bruggi, Matteo; Noël, Lise ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 12)

New additive manufacturing techniques break the limitations encountered for years when producing components descending from topology optimization. Classical design procedures focus on macro-structural ... [more ▼]

New additive manufacturing techniques break the limitations encountered for years when producing components descending from topology optimization. Classical design procedures focus on macro-structural optimization to sustain given loads but today innovative manufacturing processes allow considering structures exhibiting tailored microstructures, i.e. the well known microstructural design. The practical applications of structures including material design is mainly motivated by the greater performances that can be achieved compared to classical solutions. Microstructural design has been shown a great interest as attested by recent works. However, stress–based topology optimization has not yet been extensively exploited when addressing microstructural design using numerical homogenization though stress constraints is an important feature and have gained in interest in the field of topology optimization. This contribution investigates the problem of material design enforcing stress constraints within periodic microstructures by considering a representative volume element (RVE) subject to prescribed strain fields. The SIMP approach is adopted as material interpolation law while the optimization problems are solved using a sequential convex programming approach. In particular the well known method of moving asymptotes (MMA) is considered. Numerical homogenization is used to assess the effective elastic properties of the microstructures. The Von Mises stress criterion is used to impose the constraints on the stress level. This work discusses the formulation of a well-posed design problem as well as some numerical issues encountered. The developed solution procedure is first validated by comparison against analytical results, e.g. the single inclusion of Vigdergauz microstructure. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of grain boundaries on the COads monolayer oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction kinetics
Asset, Tristan ULg; Chattot, Raphaël; Nelayah, Jaysen et al

Conference (2016, September 12)

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See detailLinkages and production and marketing of rice vermicelli in traditional craft villages of Bac Giang province
Le Thy Long, Vy; Nguyen Huu, Nhuan; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2016, September 10)

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See detailImplications de la perspective en première personne en psychopathologie : le cas de la schizophrénie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Valentiny, Caroline

Conference (2016, September 09)

Les approches traditionnelles de la schizophrénie en psychiatrie se centrent essentiellement sur une perspective que l’on peut qualifier de perspective en « troisième personne ». Ces considérations ... [more ▼]

Les approches traditionnelles de la schizophrénie en psychiatrie se centrent essentiellement sur une perspective que l’on peut qualifier de perspective en « troisième personne ». Ces considérations tentent, de l’extérieur, de circonscrire les difficultés auxquelles sont confrontées les personnes affectées d’une psychopathologie. Dans le cas de la schizophrénie, les manuels insistent notamment sur les symptômes délirants et hallucinatoires – signes sur lesquels, de facto, le clinicien et le patient ne peuvent s’entendre et rencontrer une phénoménologie commune. Une autre voie d’approche, s’inscrivant dans la tradition phénoménologique, propose d’explorer les phénomènes à partir du discours et du vécu subjectif des patients – dans une perspective en « première personne ». À partir d’une recherche récemment menée, nous explorerons le vécu subjectif de six patients schizophrènes à l’aide de l’échelle EASE (Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience). Cette échelle pose des balises dans la co-construction d’une narrativité permettant l’investigation d’expériences liées aux troubles du soi. Ce choix méthodologique s’ancre dans une volonté de laisser la place à l’étonnement, de ne pas pré-penser, ou le moins possible, le recueil d’expériences. Les analyses des phénomènes décrits par les patients se nourrissent des travaux de la psychopathologie phénoménologique (Blankenburg, Minkowski, Tatossian, Stanghellini, Sass, …) et se veulent un aller-retour constant entre théorie et clinique. Dans ce contexte, nous approfondirons l’hypothèse proposée par Louis Sass selon laquelle la folie, du moins dans certaines de ses formes, pourrait dériver d’une intensification plutôt que d’un affaiblissement de la conscience. L’hyper-réflexivité schizophrénique – indiquant une focalisation explicite et réflexive sur des phénomènes a priori implicites et préréflexifs – sera particulièrement analysée à partir des descriptions recueillies. Après avoir développé, à partir des cas cliniques, cette hypothèse d’une « hyper-conscience » comme symptôme cardinal de l’expérience subjective de la schizophrénie, nous analyserons les implications du recours à la perspective en « première personne » sur la prise en charge, les modèles de soins et la manière de concevoir le rapport au monde de ces patients. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurence of the new variant of rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV2) in wild populations of rabbits in Southern Belgium
Volpe, Rosario ULg; Lesenfants, Christophe ULg; Paternostre, Julien ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 09)

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly infectious and fatal disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), responsible for important economic losses in the rabbit industry. The ... [more ▼]

Rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly infectious and fatal disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), responsible for important economic losses in the rabbit industry. The aetiological agent of the disease is a RNA virus (RHDV, Lagovirus, Caliciviridae) first detected in China in 1984. Currently RHDV is endemic in most parts of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of RHDV strains have identified 3 distinct groups : the classic RHDV, the variant RHDVa and RHDV2. This latter has been detected in France for the first time in 2010 in domestic and wild rabbits (Le Gall-Reculé G et al., 2013) and since then has spread throughout Europe, replacing the circulating RHDV/RHDVa strains in most european countries. RHDV2 has already been detected in Belgium in rabbitries (Marlier D et al., 2014). Here, we report for the first time the presence of RHDV2 in wild rabbits in Southern Belgium. In november 2015, the Surveillance Network of Wildlife Diseases received seven dead wild rabbits for necropsy. The discovery of 7 fresh carcasses found at the same time in a same area (Hainaut province) emphasised the infectious or intoxication hypothesis as cause of death. Postmortem examinations were performed at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (FVM) of the University of Liege according to a systematic protocol based on gross lesions, histopathological and targeted microbiological analysis. For necropsy, each rabbit (1) was weighted and age was determined by the presence/absence of the distal ulna protuberance, (2) stomach was investigated to exclude poison, (3) spleen was systematically driven into Yersinia CIN culture media for detection of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, (4) lungs and livers were systematically (a) packaged into 10% formaldehyde solution for histopathology analysis (Service of Pathology, FVM) and (b) frozen at -20°C for RHDV analysis (Scanelis Laboratory,Toulouse, France) and finally (6) feces were gathered for parasitology (Service of Parasitology, FVM). At necropsy, animals (5 adults: 3 males/2 females and 2 juveniles: 1 male/1 female) were in good condition. No hematomas or broken bones were detected, only one displayed clues of diarrhoea. Examinations of the carcasses showed congestion of lungs/kidneys and livers were macroscopically normal. No foreign body or suspicious particles was seen in the stomachs, only one rabbit was hardly infested by tapeworms in the gut. Histopathological examination revealed haemorragic lung lesions in one animal while 5 of them presented severe necrotic hepatitis, sometimes associated with peri-angiocholitis. Only one animal presented an abnormal high rate of coccidia in feces. Samples of livers were sent to Scanelis Laboratory for RHDV RT-qPCR diagnostic. The results were positive for the new variant RHDV2 in 5 out of the 7 rabbit livers. All the samples were negative for the classic RHDV. To determine if RHDV2 was already present before 2015 in wild rabbits in the region, we tested a series of livers that had been collected in 2013 and 2014 for a retrospective study. Among the 25 rabbit livers checked, 12 presented necrotic hepatitis and were sent for analysis. Ten were confirmed positive by RT-qPCR for RHDV2. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolutions des techniques et matériaux en prothèses depuis 40 ans; Perspectives
MAINJOT, Amélie ULg

Conference (2016, September 09)

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See detailShould We Revisit The Rise of the Creative Class?
Levaux, Christophe ULg

Conference (2016, September 08)

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See detailMeasurement of Innovation: Where Do We Stand?
Artige, Lionel ULg

Conference (2016, September 08)

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See detailSeroprevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in horses in the southern part of Belgium: a “one health” driven study
Meersschaert, Carole; Cerri, Simona ULg; Houben rosa, Rosa et al

Conference (2016, September 08)

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See detailUnified treatment of microscopic boundary conditions in computational homogenization method for multiphysics problems
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Homsi, Lina ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 08)

Computational homogenization (so-called FE2) method is an effective tool to model complex behavior of heterogeneous media allowing direct coupling between the structure response and the evolving ... [more ▼]

Computational homogenization (so-called FE2) method is an effective tool to model complex behavior of heterogeneous media allowing direct coupling between the structure response and the evolving microstructure not only in purely mechanical problems but also in multiphysics problems [1]. The basic idea of this method is to obtain the macroscopic constitutive relationships from the resolution of the microscopic boundary value problem (BVP) defined on a representative volume element. This method does not requires any constitutive assumption at the macroscopic level, but an appropriate microscopic boundary condition has to be defined. Our work focuses on the unified treatment of the microscopic boundary condition in a multiphysics microscopic BVP. In particular, an efficient way to compute the tangent operator is developed for an arbitrary kind of boundary conditions. When considering the FE2method, the homogenized stresses and homogenized tangents at every macroscopic integration points are required. From the energy consistency condition between macroscopic and microscopic problems, the homogenized stresses can be easily computed by the volumetric averaging integrals of the microscopic counterparts. The required homogenized tangents often follows a stiffness condensation from the microscopic stiffness matrix at the equilibrium state [2]. When using the stiffness condensation, the microscopic stiffness matrix needs to be partitioned, and dense matrices based on Schur complements (under a matrix form 𝐊̃ 𝑏𝑏=𝐊𝑏𝑏−𝐊𝑏𝑖𝐊𝑖𝑖−1𝐊𝑖𝑏) have to be estimated. The matrix operations based on Schur complements require a large time consuming and a lot of memory when increasing the number of degrees of freedom of the microscopic BVPs. This work proposes an efficient method allowing to compute the homogenized tangents without significant effort. The microscopic stiffness matrix does not need to be partitioned. The homogenized tangents are computed by solving a linear system, which is based on the linearized system at the converge solution of the microscopic BVP, with multiple right hand sides. With proposed numerical improvements, the FE2 method is used in a fully thermo-mechanically-coupled simulation. The temperature-dependent elastoplastic behavior, thermal conduction as well as the heat conversion from the mechanical deformation are considered in the hyperelastic large strain framework. [1]. Geers, M. G. D., Kouznetsova, V. G., Brekelmans, W. A. M., 2010. J. Comput. Appl. Math. 234 (7), 2175-2182. [2]. Kouznetsova, V., Brekelmans, W. A. M., Baaijens, F. P. T., 2001. Comput. Mech. 27 (1), 37-48. [less ▲]

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See detailSécurité et santé au travail dans les bassins miniers wallons des années ’50
Geerkens, Eric ULg

Conference (2016, September 08)

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See detailInterfaces in multi-material architectures fabricated by polyjet printing
Zorzetto, Laura ULg; Rink, Marta; Briatico Vangosa, Francesco et al

Conference (2016, September 07)

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See detailProbabilistic prediction of the quality factor of micro-resonator using a stochastic thermo-mechanical multi-scale approach
Wu, Ling ULg; Lucas, Vincent ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2016, September 07)

As the size of the device is only one or two orders of magnitude higher than the size of the grains, the structural properties, such as the thermo-elastic quality factor (Q), of micro-electro-mechanical ... [more ▼]

As the size of the device is only one or two orders of magnitude higher than the size of the grains, the structural properties, such as the thermo-elastic quality factor (Q), of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) made of poly-crystalline materials exhibit a scatter, due to the existing randomness in the grain size, grain orientation, surface roughness... In order to predict the probabilistic behavior of micro-resonators, the authors extend herein a previously developed stochastic 3-scale approach [1] to the case of thermoelastic damping [2]. In this method, stochastic volume elements (SVEs) [3] are defined by considering random grain orientations in a tessellation. For each SVE realization, the mesoscopic apparent elasticity tensor, thermal conductivity tensor, and thermal dilatation tensor can be obtained using thermo-mechanical computational homogenization theory [4]. The extracted mesoscopic apparent properties tensors can then be used to define a spatially correlated meso-scale random field, which is in turn used as input for stochastic finite element simulations. As a result, the probabilistic distribution of the quality factor of micro-resonator can be extracted by considering Monte-Carlo simulations of coarse-meshed micro-resonators, accounting implicitly for the random micro-structure of the poly-silicon material. [1] V. Lucas, J.-C. Golinval, S. Paquay, V.-D. Nguyen, L. Noels, L. Wu, A stochastic computational multiscale approach; Application to MEMS resonators. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 294, 141-167, 2015. [2] L. Wu, V. Lucas, V.-D. Nguyen, J.-C. Golinval, S. Paquay, L. Noels, A Stochastic Multiscale Approach for the Modeling of Thermoelastic Damping in Micro-Resonators. Submitted. [3] M. Ostoja-Starzewski, X.Wang, Stochastic finite elements as a bridge between random material microstructure and global response, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 168, 35--49, 1999. [4] I. Özdemir, W. A. M. Brekelmans, M. G. D. Geers, Computational homogenization for heat conduction in heterogeneous solids, International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 73, 185-204, 2008. [less ▲]

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See detailA coupled electro-thermo-mechanical discontinuous Galerkin method applied on composite materials
Homsi, Lina ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

Conference (2016, September 07)

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites have become increasingly important due to their unique properties which are appreciated in many practical applications such as low weight, low cost, low density ... [more ▼]

Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites have become increasingly important due to their unique properties which are appreciated in many practical applications such as low weight, low cost, low density, high mechanical characteristics. Moreover the range of their electrical conductivity can be controlled by the amount of carbon fibers. Carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites consist of at least two components, a polymer matrix (generally dielectric) and electrically conductive fillers. This combination results in multifunctional composites, both structural and conductive. The existence of the polymer matrix will avoid catastrophic failure due to fiber breaking, and the existence of the carbon fibers will enhance strength and stiffness on one hand, and will allow to a significant temperature gradient when electric current is applied on the other hand. The objective of this paper is to study the response of the carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites when an electric power is applied and to determine the effective properties. To this end governing equations describing electro-thermo-mechanical coupling in composite materials are developed and discretized using the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element method. DG methods have many advantages such as optimal convergence and local approximation properties in addition to their flexibility for mesh adaption and their straightforward use of high order polynomial approximations. A micromechanical model of unidirectional carbon fibers dispersed in a polymer matrix is formulated considering the interaction of electrical, thermal and mechanical fields It is then solved using the DG method to determine the time dependent response of the electro-thermo-mechanical coupling and quantify the variation of the fields. [less ▲]

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See detailGPS, Galileo and BeiDou inter-system biases estimation in relative positioning with code and phase pseudoranges
Deprez, Cécile ULg; Warnant, René ULg

Conference (2016, September 07)

The recent increase in the number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) opens new perspectives in the field of high precision positioning. Particularly, the Chinese BeiDou satellite system and the ... [more ▼]

The recent increase in the number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) opens new perspectives in the field of high precision positioning. Particularly, the Chinese BeiDou satellite system and the European Galileo program have experienced major progress in 2015 and 2016 with the launch of 7 and 8 satellites respectively. Associated with the ongoing GPS modernization, many more frequencies and satellites are now available. Therefore, multi-GNSS relative positioning based on overlapping frequencies should entail better accuracy and reliability in position estimations. However, the differences between satellite systems induce inter-system biases (ISBs) inside the multi-GNSS equations of observation. The combined use of L1 and L5 from GPS with E1 and E5a from Galileo, B2 from BeiDou and E5b from Galileo in zero baseline double differences (ZB DD) based on a unique pivot satellite is employed to resolve ISBs. This model removes all the satellite- and receiver-dependent error sources by differentiating and the zero baseline configuration allows atmospheric and multipath effects elimination. An analysis of the long-term stability of ISBs (GPS- Galileo and Galileo - BeiDou) is conducted onvariouspairsof receiversover large timespans. Thepossibleinfluenceof temperature variations inside the receivers over ISB values is also investigated. Our study is based on the 6 multi-GNSS receivers (2 Septentrio PolaRx4, 1 Septentrio PolaRxS, 1 Septentrio PolaRx5 and 2 Trimble NetR9) installed on the roof of our building in Liege. The estimated ISBs are then used as corrections in the multi-GNSS observation model and the resulting accuracy of multi-GNSS positioning is compared to GPS, Galileo and BeiDou standalone solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulations of composite laminates inter and intra-laminar failure using on a non-local mean-field damage-enhanced multi-scale method
Wu, Ling ULg; Adam, Laurent; Bidaine, Benoît et al

Conference (2016, September 07)

The failure of carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates is studied using a multiscale method. A non-local mean-field homogenization (MFH) method accounting for the damage evolution of the matrix phase ... [more ▼]

The failure of carbon fiber reinforced composite laminates is studied using a multiscale method. A non-local mean-field homogenization (MFH) method accounting for the damage evolution of the matrix phase of the composite material [1] is considered in each ply in order to capture the intra-laminar failure. In that formulation, an incremental-secant MFH approach is used to account for the elastic unloading of the fibers during the strain softening of the matrix. In order to avoid the strain/damage localization caused by the matrix material softening, the damage enhanced MFH was formulated in an implicit non-local way [2]. Accurate predictions of the composite softening behavior and of the different phases response is then achieved. The delamination process is modeled by recourse to a hybrid discontinuous Galerkin (DG)/ extrinsic cohesive law approach. An open-hole composite laminate with a quasi-isotropic sequence ([90/45/-45/90/0]S) is then studied experimentally and using the multiscale method [3]. The numerical model is found to predict the damage bands along the fiber directions in agreement with the experimental samples inspected by X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Moreover, the predicted delamination pattern is found to match the experimental observations. Finally, with a view to stochastic analysis, the effect of the volume fraction and orientation variations on the failure is studied by defining them as random variables. REFERENCES [1] L. Wu, L. Noels, L. Adam, I. Doghri, An implicit-gradient-enhanced incremental-secant mean- field homogenization scheme for elasto-plastic composites with damage, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 50, 3843-3860, 2013. [2] R. Peerlings, R. de Borst, W. Brekelmans, S. Ayyapureddi, Gradient-enhanced damage for quasi-brittle materials. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 39, 3391-3403, 1996. [3] L. Wu, F. Sket, J.M. Molina-Aldareguia, A. Makradi, L. Adam, I. Doghri, L. Noels, A study of composite laminates failure using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced damage mean-field homogenization model, Composite Structures, 126, 246–264, 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailDecidable properties of extension graphs for substitutive languages
Dolce, Francesco; Kyriakoglou, Revekka; Leroy, Julien ULg

Conference (2016, September 07)

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See detailGeneralized Pascal triangle for binomial coefficients of words : an overview
Stipulanti, Manon ULg

Conference (2016, September 07)

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a finite word appears as a subsequence of another finite word ... [more ▼]

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a finite word appears as a subsequence of another finite word. Similarly to the Sierpiński gasket that can be built as the limit set, for the Hausdorff distance, of a convergent sequence of normalized compact blocks extracted from Pascal triangle modulo 2, we describe and study the first properties of the subset of [0, 1] × [0, 1] associated with this extended Pascal triangle modulo a prime p. Then we create a new sequence from this extended Pascal triangle that counts, on each row of this triangle, the number of positive binomial coefficients. We study some properties of this sequences. To be precise, we investigate some properties regarding the regularity of the sequence. To extend our work, we construct a Pascal triangle using the Fibonacci representations of all the nonnegative integers and we define the corresponding sequence of which we study the regularity. This regularity is an extension of the classical k-regularity of sequences. [less ▲]

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