References of "Unpublished conference"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
See detailA probabilistic model of the adhesive contact forces between rough surfaces in the MEMS stiction context
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 26)

Stiction is a common failure mechanism in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in which two interacting bodies permanently adhere together. This problem is due to the comparability of adhesive surface ... [more ▼]

Stiction is a common failure mechanism in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in which two interacting bodies permanently adhere together. This problem is due to the comparability of adhesive surface forces (e.g. Van der Waals forces, capillary forces) and body forces in the MEMS context. To predict the adhesive contact forces coupled with stiction phenomenon, the combination of the Nayak statistical approach with the asperity-based theories is a common solution. However, this method contains some limitations due to the underlying assumptions: infinite size of the interacting rough surfaces and negligibility of asperity interactions. Furthermore, the Nayak solution suffers from a considerable dependency on the choice of the minimum wave length considered in the surface representation, which remains diXcult to select. The main goal of our research is to propose an improved method (i) which accounts for the Vnite size of the interacting surfaces, (ii) accounts for the uncertainties related to these surface topologies, (iii) in which the minimum wave length selection is physically based, and (iv) in which the validity of the asperity-based theories is demonstrated. From the topology measurements of MEMS samples, an analysis of the power spectral density function is carried out to determine the minimum relevant wave length for the problem of interest (here capillary stiction). We also show that at this scale of interest the asperity-based theories remain valid for polysilicon materials. Moreover, instead of considering inVnite surfaces as in the Nayak approach, a set of surfaces, whose sizes are representative of the MEMS structure, is generated based on the approximated power spectral density analysis and using the Monte Carlo method. From this description of the contacting surfaces, the adhesive contact forces can be evaluated by applying the asperity contact theories, leading to a probabilistic distribution of the adhesive contact forces. In addition, as the contact forces are rooted from the micro-scale adhesive forces, while their consequence, stiction, happens at the macro-scale of the considered device, the multi-scale nature of the phenomenon is accounted for. To predict this macro-scale behavior in a probabilistic form, the uncertainty quantiVcation process is coupled with a multiscale analysis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (19 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDétection de l'érosion dans un bassin versant agricole par comparaison d'images multidates acquises par drone
Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Pineux, Nathalie ULg; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Marc et al

Conference (2014, June 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 75 (13 ULg)
See detailBone markers in patients with CKD
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2014, June 26)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
See detailVehicle routing problems with multiple trips: using specific local search operators
Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; François, Véronique ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 25)

In vehicle routing problems with multiple trips (VRPM), each vehicle is allowed to perform more than one trip during its working period. Classical solution techniques for this problem make use of existing ... [more ▼]

In vehicle routing problems with multiple trips (VRPM), each vehicle is allowed to perform more than one trip during its working period. Classical solution techniques for this problem make use of existing VRP heuristics to create trips, together with bin packing methods aimed at assigning these trips to the available vehicles. The first contribution of this work is to propose specific local search operators for the VRPM. The operators directly integrate the multi-trip structure of the problem within well-known VRP operators. As a second contribution, heuristics using these operators are compared with classical solution techniques mentioned above. The comparison is performed by using the adaptive large neighborhood search metaheuristic as a common basis for both methods. The most classical version of the problem is studied as well as a variant involving time windows [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 77 (8 ULg)
Full Text
See detailA wavelet leaders-based climate classification of European surface air temperature signals
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, June 25)

We present the wavelet leaders method as a tool to study the pointwise regularity of signals, which is closely related to some functional spaces. We use the associated multifractal formalism to show that ... [more ▼]

We present the wavelet leaders method as a tool to study the pointwise regularity of signals, which is closely related to some functional spaces. We use the associated multifractal formalism to show that the surface air temperature signals are monofractal, i.e. these are regularly irregular. Then we use this result to establish a climate classification of weather stations in Europe which matches the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. This result could give rise to new criteria to determine the effectiveness of current climatic models. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTurning land to livelihood : what are the socio-economic and institutional determinations of local land use in Red River Delta region ?
Nguyen Thi, Dien; Lebailly, Philippe ULg; Vu Dinh, Ton

Conference (2014, June 24)

This research analyzes the determinations of household land use strategy in the context of the rapid rural changes due to the industrialization and urbanization in Vietnam. The mechanism that turns land ... [more ▼]

This research analyzes the determinations of household land use strategy in the context of the rapid rural changes due to the industrialization and urbanization in Vietnam. The mechanism that turns land to livelihood from both productive and non-productive processes is investigated to understand the different land use strategies of smallholders in Red River Delta region. Based on the presence of migrating members, the total selected 191 households in Hai Duong province were divided into 3 different groups to do the surveys. The research results show that local land use strategies are various in which 79.06% of surveyed households maintain the allocated land for agricultural production while 65.97% of households leave land idly at least once a year. The factors from productive process such as small landholding, high production cost and overall downward income from agricultural production meantime the greater opportunities from non-farm jobs are the main socio-economical determinations of agricultural land abandonment or less effective use. The security questions of shifting livelihood between farming and non – farming sectors, the inter-household arrangements, the social supports and the institutional constraints are non-productive elements that make the exchange and other forms of commercializing agricultural land are less prominent. The complexity of household land use strategy and its determinations not only reflects the dynamism and flexibility of peasant’s livelihood adaptation but also explain why the land concentration does not proceed faster in Red River Delta region of Vietnam. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (5 ULg)
See detailStandardisation of 25(OH)-vitamin D assays: beware of limitations
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg

Conference (2014, June 24)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailA Phylogenomic analysis of the origin of plastids
Cornet, Luc ULg; Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Wilmotte, Annick ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 24)

Cyanobacteria are a morphologically diverse phylum, with their first occurrence dating from the Precambrian. Oxygenic photosynthesis appeared in this group during the same geological period. Several ... [more ▼]

Cyanobacteria are a morphologically diverse phylum, with their first occurrence dating from the Precambrian. Oxygenic photosynthesis appeared in this group during the same geological period. Several publications have established, without any doubt, that plastids (both primary and complex) form a monophyletic ensemble emerging from Cyanobacteria. However, the exact position of plastids within Cyanobacteria is still uncertain, with several recent papers leading to very different hypotheses. Here we present a phylogenomic analysis of the origin of plastids. Our study takes advantage of all the available genomes and thus represents the best taxonomic sampling seen so far: 140 genomes of Cyanobacteria, 101 genomes of plastids and 27 outgroups taken in Melainabacteria and Chloroflexi. It results in an analysis using state-of-the-art methods (e.g., orthology assessment using USEARCH and OrthoMCL, phylogenetic inference using CAT and CAT-GTR models) based on more than 160 protein alignments totalizing over 20,000 unambiguously aligned amino acids. To confirm our results, we performed gene jackknife inferences and gene reconciliation analyses on the same dataset. We expect that out approach accounts for potential phylogenetic artefacts due to changes in the evolutionary process having occurred when the guest cyanobacterium became an endosymbiont and eventually a plastid. Meanwhile, we improve the phylogeny of Cyanobacteria per se, notably because of the presence of Melainabacteria in our dataset. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 100 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa dimension écologique du changement professionnel : Le cas des réformes de la psychiatrie en Belgique
Thunus, Sophie ULg

Conference (2014, June 24)

Le changement des pratiques professionnelles est un enjeu de longue date dans le champ de la santé mentale en Belgique. Depuis les années 1970, les réformes se succèdent afin de stimuler l’évolution d’une ... [more ▼]

Le changement des pratiques professionnelles est un enjeu de longue date dans le champ de la santé mentale en Belgique. Depuis les années 1970, les réformes se succèdent afin de stimuler l’évolution d’une psychiatrie résidentielle, dans laquelle l’hôpital psychiatrique est l’acteur central du système de soins, vers une psychiatrie communautaire et des pratiques de réseaux, en vertu desquels l’hôpital est un acteur parmi d’autres ressources psychosociales et communautaires. En 2010, les ministres en charge de la santé mentale annoncent la mise en place d’une nouvelle réforme. L’objectif est de substituer un modèle de soins fonctionnel au modèle institutionnel ; c’est-à-dire d’achever le processus de transformation du système entamé plusieurs décennies auparavant. A partir d’une analyse longitudinale des principales réformes belges de la psychiatrie et de la santé mentale (1974-1989-2007-2010), nous proposons de conceptualiser le champ comme composé d’écologies liées (Abbott, 1988), sous-tendues par un système d’action concret persistant (Michel Crozier & Friedberg, 1980; Erhard Friedberg, 1997), dont les dynamiques particulières font obstacle à l’implémentation des réseaux de soins communautaires. Ensuite, en nous reposant sur cette conceptualisation, nous formulons une problématisation alternative du changement des pratiques professionnelles, dépassant les thématiques de la défense des privilèges acquis, de l’autonomie dans le travail (Freidson, 1988), ou encore des luttes juridictionnelles (Abbott, 1988). Au niveau méthodologique, l’analyse repose sur une recherche documentaire approfondie (sources primaire et secondaire ; documents politiques et organisationnels) ainsi que sur des entretiens semi-directifs (n=45) et des observations (n=75) réalisées entre 2008 et 2014. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment of a multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering quantitative approach for bisphenols detection
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Dumont, Elodie ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 23)

Over the last decade, bisphenol A (BPA) attracted a lot of attention. This molecule, commonly used as a precursor to produce epoxy-resin and plastics, is an endocrine disruptor presenting an estrogenic ... [more ▼]

Over the last decade, bisphenol A (BPA) attracted a lot of attention. This molecule, commonly used as a precursor to produce epoxy-resin and plastics, is an endocrine disruptor presenting an estrogenic activity [1]. Despite its health toxicity, BPA is present in a broad variety of consumer goods released from plastic bottles and packaging for example. Since the discovery of its adverse health effect of BPA, the manufacturers tend to use structural analogues of BPA such as BPS, BPF and BPB to produce plastic materials [2]. However, the health safety of these molecules is still not demonstrated. Currently, bisphenols are actively researched and quantified using solid phase extraction and chromatography techniques which are time and solvents consuming. Therefore, it could be very interesting to quantify simultaneously bisphenols using a fast and “green” technique. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) exalts dramatically the Raman scattering of molecules adsorbed or very closed to metallic surface enabling to detect very low amounts of analytes while keeping the structural information obtained from the spectrum which is very interesting to consider multiplexed analyses [3-4]. Moreover, SERS, which is a solvent free and fast acquisition technique, is an attractive tool in “Green Chemistry” [5]. In this context, the development of a multiplexed quantitative approach to detect bisphenol was considered. Silver nanoparticles (AgNps) were selected as SERS substrate and their functionalization was investigated taking into account the weak affinity of phenolic molecules for gold and silver surface [6]. Pyridine was selected as surface modifier and allowed to attract bisphenols around metallic surface thanks to hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bonds [7]. Afterwards, the SERS samples preparation was optimized playing on the concentrations of pyridine and aggregating agent used to get the nanoparticles closer to each other which promotes the SERS effect. Tap water samples were spiked with different concentration of BPA from 5 ppb to 1000 ppb and analyzed using the optimized SERS sample preparation. A good linearity of the response was observed and a calibration curve with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9922 was obtained by plotting the intensity of a principal band of BPA versus the concentration. This last step was repeated using BPB as analyte and a calibration curve with a R2 of 0.9991 was obtained for the same range of concentration using a specific band intensity of BPB. Finally, tap water samples were spiked with different concentrations of BPA and BPB simultaneously and analyzed using SERS and it was possible to detect selectively the two molecules thanks to specific bands and a good linearity of the response was observed for both. To conclude, promising results were obtained which pave the way to “green” multiplexed quantitative analyses of very low concentrated analytes using SERS. References: [1] J.-H. Kang et al., Toxicology 226 (2006) 79-89 [2] C. Liao et al., J. Agric. Food Chem. 61 (2013) 4655-4662 [3] K. Kneipp et al., Chem. Rev. 99 (1999) 2957-2975. [4] R.F. Aroca et al., Adv.Colloid Interface Sci. 116 (2005) 45-61. [5] C. De Bleye et al., Talanta 116 (2013) 899-905. [6] X.X. Han et al., Anal. Chem., 83 (2011) 8582-8588. [7] B. San Vicente et al., Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 380 (2004) 115-122. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 125 (12 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailNMR in the Pharmaceutical and Biomedical areas for identification and quantification of drugs and metabolomics applications
LAMBERT, Vincent ULg; Dufour, Gilles ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 23)

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is probably, with mass spectrometry, the most powerful analytical tool for the structural determination of organic compounds. For a long time and due to technical ... [more ▼]

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is probably, with mass spectrometry, the most powerful analytical tool for the structural determination of organic compounds. For a long time and due to technical limitations, the main applications of NMR were focused on chemistry (organic, inorganic and medicinal chemistry) or biochemistry (i.e. proteins and proteins ligands analysis). Indeed, despite of very interesting potential in terms of structural information, reproducibility, specificity, quantification, NMR suffered of a lack of sensitivity and sometime of resolution in the case of complex mixture analysis in comparison with other technics. However, since several years, important technical improvements such as huge increase in sensitivity, hyphenation of NMR with LC system, automation and development of 2D and presaturation sequences have opened new putative applications for NMR, specifically in the pharmaceutical and biomedical areas. Then, beside the mass and chromatographic technics classically used for drug analysis, NMR represents an interesting and complementary tool for many applications. In this presentation, we will describe some NMR applications related to the pharma area. Starting from the identification of xenobiotic metabolites by coupling LC-SPE-NMR data with LC-MS/MS results, quantification of cyclodextrines in complex media, identification of illicit compounds, we will finish with our recent metabolomics NMR developments. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (16 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMulti-period vehicle assignment with stochastic load availability
Pironet, Thierry ULg

Conference (2014, June 23)

This work investigates optimization techniques for a vehicle-load assignment problem. A company owning a limited fleet of vehicles wants to maximize its operational profit over an infinite horizon divided ... [more ▼]

This work investigates optimization techniques for a vehicle-load assignment problem. A company owning a limited fleet of vehicles wants to maximize its operational profit over an infinite horizon divided into periods. The profit stems from revenues for transporting full truckloads and costs derived from waiting idle and moving unladen. The stochastic component of the problem arises from projections on the realization of each transportation order, i.e. load. The methodology is based on optimizing decisions for deterministic scenarios. Several policies are generated in this way, from simple heuristics to more complex approaches, such as consensus and restricted expectation algorithms, up to policies derived from network flow models formulated over subtrees of scenarios. Myopic and a-posteriori deterministic optimizations models are used to compute bounds allowing for performance evaluation. Tests are performed on various instances featuring different number of loads, graph sizes, sparsity, and probability distributions. Performances are compared statistically over paired samples. The robustness of various policies with respect to erroneous evaluations of the probability distributions is also analyzed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
See detailThe BCCM/ULC collection to safeguard and exploit polar cyanobacterial diversity
Wilmotte, Annick ULg

Conference (2014, June 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe français cadien, un français acadien? Enjeux sociaux d’une parenté linguistique
Arrighi, Laurence; Urbain, Emilie ULg

Conference (2014, June 20)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Belgian Tetris: assessing the political impact of metaphors on citizens' perceptions of Belgian federalism
Perrez, Julien ULg; Reuchamps, Min

Conference (2014, June 20)

In the literature, the political impact of metaphors has often been taken for granted from metaphor analysis in political discourse, be it elite discourse or media discourse. However, a more global ... [more ▼]

In the literature, the political impact of metaphors has often been taken for granted from metaphor analysis in political discourse, be it elite discourse or media discourse. However, a more global understanding of what this political impact could consist of, is still lacking from the current research agenda. As Koller (2009:121) puts it: “metaphor helps construct particular aspects of reality and reproduce (or subvert) dominant schemas.” To be able to account for how metaphors, through discourses, actively shape the political reality, it is important to look at the relationships between metaphorical discourses and their environment. Based on the idea that metaphors do not only reflect the perceived reality, but also function as cues through which citizens come to understand complex political processes and through which they shape political behaviors, the aim of this study is precisely to look at how specific metaphors might impact on the citizens’ framing of Belgian federalism. To measure the impact of metaphors on the citizens’ political representations and attitudes, we developed an experimental set-up based on an article published in the Belgian newspaper Le Soir (13-14 July 2013) in which Belgian federalism was deliberately compared to a Tetris game. The original article included a picture and a text (208 words), which were used as authentic experimental material. For this experiment, we distinguished three experimental conditions and one control condition. In the first experimental condition (full condition), the participants were exposed to the original article (including the text and the picture). In the second and third experimental conditions, the participants were respectively exposed either to the text (text condition) or the picture (picture condition). In the control condition, the participants weren’t exposed to any metaphorical material at all. In the second stage of the experiment, the participants were asked to achieve three interrelated tasks: (i) a free description task, based on a free description of their own perception of Belgian federalism, (ii) an association task, in which they had to select a picture which they found the most appropriate to describe Belgian federalism, and finally (iii) a questionnaire measuring the participants’ political knowledge of Belgian federalism and attitudes towards its future development. In a post-test held four weeks after the first experiment, the three tasks of the second stage have been replicated. This experiment has been conducted in autumn 2013 among 400 students. Comparing the various experimental conditions will make it possible (i) to measure the impact of the Tetris metaphor on the citizens’ perceptions and representations of Belgian federalism, (ii) to assess to what extent the different metaphorical media differently contribute to this impact and (iii) to measure the long-term impact of this metaphor on the citizens’ political representations and attitudes. In answering these questions, this study will contribute to a better understanding of the role and functions metaphors play in political discourse, and more globally in our everyday political interactions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailUn panorama du temps. Robida chroniqueur des Expositions universelles
Stienon, Valérie ULg

Conference (2014, June 19)

Robida est familier des Expositions universelles. Sa carrière de dessinateur-journaliste est en grande partie rythmée par les événements sociaux qu’elles constituent. Il illustre le démontage de ... [more ▼]

Robida est familier des Expositions universelles. Sa carrière de dessinateur-journaliste est en grande partie rythmée par les événements sociaux qu’elles constituent. Il illustre le démontage de l’Exposition de Paris de 1867 dans le Journal Amusant du 9 novembre 1867. Il est envoyé à Vienne comme dessinateur-correspondant du Monde illustré pour celle de 1873. Il visite l’Exposition de 1889 et en rend compte en double-page dans La Vie Parisienne du 11 mai 1889 (« Demandez, l’inauguration officielle de la Tour ! »). Enfin, il participe activement à l’Exposition de 1900 avec la reconstitution minutieuse, pendant près de deux ans, du « Vieux Paris », une attraction à succès située entre le Pont de l’Alma et la passerelle Debilly. En tant que manifestation très fréquentée, qui fait l’objet d’une abondante publicité et qui engage l’image d’une ville à dimension internationale, l’exposition dans ses diverses formes (universelle, internationale, industrielle) constitue un nouveau mode de communication et un lieu de sociabilité spécifique dans la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Le chroniqueur, le journaliste et le dessinateur sont amenés à commenter et à représenter ce type d’événement célébratif qui implique tout à la fois une esthétique de la monstration, une rhétorique publicitaire et une réflexivité patrimoniale sur le siècle. Lieu de présentation de l’innovation, animé par un imaginaire du progrès technique et industriel, l’exposition a pu ainsi constituer une matrice féconde pour l’œuvre d’anticipation de Robida. Cette communication propose d’examiner ce que la production de Robida doit aux discours et aux représentations liés aux Expositions universelles dans les deux décennies de 1880 et 1890. Des thématisations explicites, des visites fictives en mots et en images, ainsi qu’un abondant intertexte d’actualité témoignent de ce rapport à un discours social qui traverse une œuvre conjecturale ambiguë. Si les liens thématiques du Vingtième Siècle à l’Exposition Internationale d’Électricité de 1881 sont bien connus, il faut aussi envisager les aspects de la production de Robida qui impliquent le support journalistique. C’est le cas des dessins de presse qui préparent de manière critique la réception des Expositions, comme le montre la couverture de La Caricature du 16 juin 1886 faisant, trois ans à l’avance, l’éloge paradoxal du projet de métro aérien coupable d’encombrer le ciel parisien. C’est aussi le cas des inventions moquées dans sa correspondance fictive avec le dessinateur Christophe entre 1896 et 1901 dans « La Boîte aux lettres » du Petit Français illustré, où Robida-Théodule Asenbrouck imagine des machines telles que la « pince-scie-brosse-polissoir électrique » pour découper la Lune en douze tranches afin d’éclairer les grandes capitales, en particulier la Ville-Lumière. L’Exposition constitue également un cadre de transposition fictive créatif, comme en témoigne le récit sériel Jadis chez aujourd’hui du Petit Français illustré, imaginant Louis XIV et sa cour transportés à l’Exposition universelle de 1889 et visitant la Galerie des Machines avec un regard décalé sur l’époque contemporaine. Des éléments graphiques et stylistiques récurrents résultent de ce commentaire journalistique des Expositions, à l’image d’une tour Eiffel dont un seul pied suffit à constituer un indicateur chrono-topographique symbolisant la modernité contestée. Enfin, on peut considérer comment Robida prolonge à sa manière des inventions existantes, notamment dans l’illustration du texte d’Octave Uzanne La Locomotion future, paru dans Le Monde Moderne en 1895, ou avec la voiture aéroplane déclinée à partir du quadricycle Daimler apparu à l’Exposition de 1889. Le dialogue attentif et moqueur de Robida avec les projets et les discours des Expositions universelles permet de reconsidérer l’humour de l’anticipateur en le situant plus résolument dans les registres satirique et fantaisiste propres à prendre en charge les facéties du « feu congelé », du « poney-vapeur » ou du « perce-brouillard à hélice nasale », que dans la seule prospective pessimiste d’un génial visionnaire. Cet angle d’étude de l’œuvre d’anticipation offre aussi l’occasion d’examiner la part de l’intertexte d’actualité intervenant dans une pratique générique, graphique et éditoriale du panorama temporel. Entendons par là la littérature des guides pour visiteurs d’Expositions qui renoue avec une tradition des Petits-Paris initiée dans la littérature « panoramique » des années 1840. Ces parcours-découvertes balisés et ces bilans des curiosités urbaines ne sont pas sans évoquer ceux auxquels contribue Robida dans Le Vieux Paris. Guide historique, pittoresque et anecdotique (une cinquantaine de dessins), dans l’illustration du guide satirique L’Exposition comique (Dentu, 1889) ou encore dans le récit illustré du Dix-neuvième Siècle. S’ils s’articulent à un passé patrimonial sous la forme d’un inventaire du siècle qui se regarde réflexivement, ils ont aussi pu contribuer à l’anticipation en associant scènes dynamiques et vues d’ensemble dans un parcours temporel indissociable de ses dimensions topographiques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNégociation du sens du travail et définition du groupe interprofessionnel : les cas des projets exploratoires dans le champ de la santé mentale en Belgique
Thunus, Sophie ULg

Conference (2014, June 19)

Au printemps 2010, les ministres en charge de la santé publique ont annoncé la mise en place d’une grande réforme de l’organisation des soins de santé mentale en Belgique. Le modèle d’organisation à ... [more ▼]

Au printemps 2010, les ministres en charge de la santé publique ont annoncé la mise en place d’une grande réforme de l’organisation des soins de santé mentale en Belgique. Le modèle d’organisation à mettre en place et le programme de la réforme étaient exposés dans un petit guide bleu distribué aux participants lors d’un événement national auquel assistaient les acteurs- clé du champ, notamment des professionnels de la santé mentale, les associations d’usagers, les responsables des organisations de soins locales, les autorités administratives régionales, des experts scientifiques. Cette réforme s’inscrivait dans un contexte international caractérisé par une mutation d’un modèle de soins basé sur la psychiatrie résidentielle, vers un modèle de soins de santé mentale communautaire. Au niveau Belge, la réforme était présentée comme l’étape ultime d’un processus qui aurait débuté à la fin des années 1990, par la mise en place de structures de soins alternatives et de projets exploratoires, pour aboutir en 2010, avec l’exploration et l’institutionnalisation progressive d’un modèle de soins résolument communautaire. Aussi, étant donné l’importance des enjeux institutionnels et professionnels associés à ce processus du changement, la réforme reposait sur un dispositif d’action publique original. Celui-ci impliquait directement les acteurs locaux en les invitant à participer à la définition de nouvelles modalités de travail, qui seraient progressivement évaluées et collectées par les autorités publiques. Dans cet article, nous proposons d’analyser ce processus de changement en le replaçant dans le processus temporel et dans le cadre institutionnel dans lequel il prend place. Effectivement, nous souhaitons mettre en évidence que les ressorts du changement, compris comme la capacité à mobiliser des pratiques professionnelles alternatives et des réseaux d’acteurs développés au cours des dernières décennies, sont difficilement compréhensibles en dehors d’une telle conceptualisation. De même, les jeux d’acteurs susceptibles de faire obstacle au changement, ou de lui donner des directions particulières, sont le fruit d’une construction sociale progressive, dont les premières bases ont été posées au lendemain de la seconde guerre. Cette approche du changement dans l’organisation du travail en santé mentale est principalement ancrée en sociologie de l’action collective et en sociologie des professions. Ces deux approches ont connu des évolutions spécifiques dont certaines se sont révélées pertinentes par rapport à notre domaine de recherche. Nous présentons ces développements dans la première partie de cet article, afin d’expliquer le cadre d’analyse qui sous-tend les deux parties suivantes. L’approche interactionniste du changement et les principaux concepts de la sociologie de l’action organisée sont centraux à ce cadre d’analyse. Ils supportent le récit de l’évolution du champ au cours des dernières décennies et celui de la réforme en cours, présentés dans les secondes et troisièmes parties de cet article. Ces deux récits alimentent à leur tour des considérations relatives aux conditions sociales et techniques dans lesquelles des pratiques professionnelles alternatives, ou « marginales », peuvent être utilisées au sein d’un processus de changement portant à la fois sur le modèle professionnel et institutionnel dominant le champ de la santé mentale. Ces considérations sont présentées dans la quatrième et dernière partie de cet article. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailA wavelet-based analysis of surface air temperature regularity
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, June 19)

The aim of the talk is to present the "wavelet transform microscope" and the wavelet leaders method to show that surface air temperature signals of weather stations selected in Europe are monofractal, i.e ... [more ▼]

The aim of the talk is to present the "wavelet transform microscope" and the wavelet leaders method to show that surface air temperature signals of weather stations selected in Europe are monofractal, i.e. all the points have the same Hölder (regularity) exponent. This study reveals that the information obtained in this way are richer than previous works studying long range correlations in meteorological stations. The approach presented here allows to bind the Hölder exponents with the pressure anomalies, and such a link does not exist with methods previously carried out. Moreover, this regularity is a signature of the type of climate the stations are associated to: indeed, it is possible to establish a climate classification of weather stations in Europe which matches the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. A blind test is performed in order to confirm the results, which can be partly explained by the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation. This result could give rise to new criteria to determine the efficiency of current climatic models. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (4 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe importance of the effects of mora debitoris
Cavalleri, Vanessa ULg

Conference (2014, June 19)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe search for a core functionality network in chondrocyte differentiation using heuristic and genetic algorithms
Kerkhofs, Johan ULg

Conference (2014, June 18)

Introduction: In the growth plate a continuing process where cartilage is replaced by bone provides the fuel for bone growth until its closure towards the end of puberty. At the cellular level the growth ... [more ▼]

Introduction: In the growth plate a continuing process where cartilage is replaced by bone provides the fuel for bone growth until its closure towards the end of puberty. At the cellular level the growth rate is maintained by proliferation and enlargement of maturing cells (hypertrophy). Mature cartilage cells (hypertrophic chondrocytes) secrete Ihh, a growth factor that induces expression of PTHrP, another growth factor, in immature proliferating chondrocytes. Since PTHrP in turn inhibits chondrocyte maturation, Ihh secretion limits the number of maturing chondrocytes through a negative feedback loop, striking a balance between proliferation and hypertrophy [Kronenberg, 2003]. Materials and methods: A gene network centering on the control of Ihh, PTHrP and transcription factors Sox9 and Runx2, which are the master regulators of early and late chondrocyte differentiation respectively, was manually constructed from literature. The dynamics of this network are simulated in a discrete framework that divides reactions into two speed classes. In this framework all interactions are considered additive, and each interaction is associated with a weight. Starting from the observation that the gene network must activate Runx2 in the presence of Ihh and Sox9 in the presence of Ihh and PTHrP, we investigate which edges are vital in achieving this. To this end, we employ both a heuristic and a genetic algorithm where the weights attached to the edges function as variables. In the heuristic algorithm weights are uniformly distributed in [0,1] and the means (based on 450 samples) of the weights that satisfy the above mentioned observations are contrasted with those that do not. If the difference of the means passes a certain threshold, the weight of the corresponding edge is fixed at 1. Results and discussion: Preliminary results from the heuristic algorithm show that fixing 14 weights (out of 147) is sufficient to match the biological observations in about 22% of cases, all other weights being selected randomly. The selected edges show that the BMP pathway is crucial in effecting a switch between hypertrophy in the absence of PTHrP and proliferation in its presence. This observation can be substantiated by earlier findings that BMP signalling plays a crucial role in prehypertrophic cells that are on the verge of hypertrophy [Yoon, 2006]. References: Kronenberg, 2003, Nature, 423:332-336; Yoon et al., 2006, Development, 133:4667-4678. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (1 ULg)
See detailStructure-morphology relationship of polyphosphate containing polymer micelles
Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie ULg; Clément, Benoit; Riva, Raphaël ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUsing a rich internet application to teach histology
Quatresooz, Pascale ULg; Defaweux, Valérie ULg; Rollus, L et al

Conference (2014, June 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (10 ULg)
Full Text
See detailThe potentiality of PDMAEMA-based polycation for cardiovascular applications
Flebus, Luca ULg; Lombart, François ULg; Martinez, Lucia et al

Conference (2014, June 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailAdolescent male sexual offenders: pubertal timing, psychosocial functioning and sexual abuse: what links?
Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

The impact of pubertal development on the psychological and social functioning of the teenager arouses a particular interest; the most recent research shows the existence of complex relationships between ... [more ▼]

The impact of pubertal development on the psychological and social functioning of the teenager arouses a particular interest; the most recent research shows the existence of complex relationships between pubertal development and the manifestation of internalized and externalized disorders. According to a biosocial model, biological and social factors interact in their influence on sexual behavior. A number of studies have shown that sexual activity is associated with pubertal timing. Our study is interested specifically in the links between sexual activity (and sexual abuse) during adolescence and pubertal maturation in a population of juvenile sexual offenders aged between 12 and 18 years. We measured the pubertal variable starting from the perceived pubertal timing (PPT), which evaluates the teenagers' perception of their pubertal maturation, compared with that of their peers, to understand its impact on various dimensions of the functioning of teenagers: the perception of self , aggressiveness, association with peers, self-revealed delinquency and sexual offenses. Two predominant hypothesis are used for explain influence of pubertal timing on sexual offense: the maturational deviance hypothesis and the early timing hypothesis. Our results confirm the importance of integrating the puberty variable into research on adolescent male sexual offenders, but also at the level of intervention. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrior light history impacts on higher order cognitive brain function
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Ly, Julien; Meyer, Christelle ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Science Behind the Illusion of Life
Collignon, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

Brève revue des différents processus cognitifs et neuroscientifiques qui permettent d'expliquer qu'une figurine de cartoon suscite de réelles émotions malgré son artificialité manifeste.

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailAssessment of Solvent Degradation within a Global Process Model of Post-Combustion CO2 Capture
Léonard, Grégoire ULg; Heyen, Georges ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

Solvent degradation may be a major drawback for the large-scale implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture due to amine consumption and emission of degradation products. However, its influence on the ... [more ▼]

Solvent degradation may be a major drawback for the large-scale implementation of post-combustion CO2 capture due to amine consumption and emission of degradation products. However, its influence on the process operations has rarely been studied. In the present work, a kinetics model describing solvent oxidative and thermal degradation has been developed based on own experimental results for the benchmark solvent, i.e. 30 wt% monoethanolamine (MEA) in water. This model has been included into a global Aspen Plus model of the CO2 capture process. The selected process modelling approaches are described in the present work. Using the resulting simulation model, optimal operating conditions can be identified to minimize both the energy requirement and the solvent degradation in the process. This kind of process model assessing solvent degradation may contribute to the design of large-scale CO2 capture plants to consider not only the process energy penalty, but also its environmental penalty. Indeed, both aspects are relevant for the large-scale deployment of the CO2 capture technology. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIslamic religion and food practices in migration context: negotiating belonging and performing subjectivities
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2014, June 17)

My paper focuses on the ethnographic material collected during a doctoral research around the culinary practices of Moroccan women living in the city of Sesto San Giovanni (in Milan hinterland, Italy). In ... [more ▼]

My paper focuses on the ethnographic material collected during a doctoral research around the culinary practices of Moroccan women living in the city of Sesto San Giovanni (in Milan hinterland, Italy). In particular, adopting a praxeological approach to subjectivation (Warnier 2001), I will highlight those aspects of the materiality that I studied which recall the belonging of the considered women to Islamic religion. In fact, everyday food consumption (or that related to specific events) and the very same preparation of recipes, are influenced not only by the prescriptions concerning licit and illicit food, but also by the suggestions regarding food which are appropriate to eat. On the one hand, Islamic norms prohibit some food to believers, such as certain meats because of the animal species or the category of victims (Benkheira 1997) to which they belong. Nevertheless, Muslim women behaviours concerning meat consumption are various, such as those of my informants, who in some cases demonstrate to negotiate such norms in order to materially shape a specific self interacting with different collective belongings. On the other hand, some Quranic verses and some sayings of the prophet Muhammad, define a soul food (Rouse and Hoskin 2004), by suggesting to believers what to eat to perform their piety: the preparation and the consumption of some food – and not only the abstention from it – finds in fact religious reasons. In order to follow such suggestions, in a context where Islamic religion is not the majority one, women has to deal with local rules while performing the materiality of some rituals. Religion and traditions intertwine and they shape specific knowledge and savoir-faire which are negotiated by the women considered so as to affirm their various belongings and to face the constraints which the new lived context imposes to them. Such constraints oblige a form of reflexivity on religious norms and rites (Højbjerg 2002), in order to define a limit beyond which modifications are perceived as subtractions of sense (Dore 2001). In my paper, I will try to give some ethnographic examples of these forms of reflexivity and to show how these dynamics constitute the materiality upon which and with which the women considered define their subjectivity. To support my reflexions, I will use visual materials such as photos and videos, which will witness the material density of these facts. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 ULg)
Full Text
See detailCharacterization of riparian zones in wallonia (belgium)
Michez, Adrien ULg; Piégay, Hervé; Lejeune, Philippe et al

Conference (2014, June 16)

The present study proposes an innovative approach to automatically extract riparian zone characteristics in order to assess its quality, from pre-determined river management reaches (1-3 km long) to ... [more ▼]

The present study proposes an innovative approach to automatically extract riparian zone characteristics in order to assess its quality, from pre-determined river management reaches (1-3 km long) to regional scale (ca. 13000 km for 1000 management sectors). The aim of this remotely sensed monitoring is to improve the river and riparian zone management and planning by providing some key information for river managers. This first research is exclusively based on data which are available at the regional scale (170000 square km) to develop automated tools to implement the methodology to the whole Walloon river network (13000 km) before 2015 with an update frequency of 3 years (photogrammetric DSM survey frequency). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe circadian system sets the temporal organization of basic human neuronal function
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Ly, Julien; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 16)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCopper recovery from waste electric cables by biohydrometallurgy
Lambert, Fanny ULg; Bastin, David ULg

Conference (2014, June 13)

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption ... [more ▼]

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90% was achieved in both leaching systems, with a leaching duration of 1 day. The bacterial leaching system slightly outperformed the chemical one but the positive effect of regeneration of Fe3+ was limited. It appears that the Fe2+ bio-oxidation is not sufficiently optimised. Best results in terms of copper solubilisation kinetics were obtained for the abiotic test at 50°C and for the biotic test at 35°C. Moreover, the study showed that in same operating conditions, a lower acid consumption was recorded for the biotic test than for the abiotic test. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 ULg)
See detailMeasuring the body, measuring through the body
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2014, June 13)

Body is a particular relevant way to tackle design processes, because of the multiplicity of status it can acquire during these processes: a source of information, a target to fit, a device to perform, a ... [more ▼]

Body is a particular relevant way to tackle design processes, because of the multiplicity of status it can acquire during these processes: a source of information, a target to fit, a device to perform, a complex technology, an apparatus for the users. A specific body is presented in this paper: the measured body. Trough racial anthropology, sport performances, demographic statistics, medical treatments, psycho-cognitive surveys, quantified self, or in many other contexts, human body is subject to a wide range of various measures. I would on my own propose some thoughts grounded on field exploration, concerning sensory analysis practices, in various laboratories. According to the symmetrical glaze STS have gave from the beginning to both human and non-humans, objects and subjects, the body is for a start itself one of the “stuffs” overlapping categories, blurring distinctions between things and persons, at the same a time a given and an object to perform. The measures of the body, and made with/through the body, highlight how it could be enacted, revealed, understood, improved by technology, especially when it requires some quantitative data. But it allows us also to grasp how the body is viewed simultaneously as a technological device and as the data origin, to intervene during complex practices (e.g. standardization, lab experiments, and marketing surveys). One of the numerous outcomes of such research could be the role of these bodily measurements in the definition of the actors, as well individuals than collectives. By the way it takes on a share on the network tying body to numerical data and to materiality-other-than-human, to measure the body/ through the body seems to afford socio-materiality in a particularly productive manner. Many scholars have inquired about numbers, how they could bring objectivity, how they produce confidence and security, and how finally they participate to black-box the measures themselves. Here, the aim is to understand the specificity of the body as measurement issue, being the interface of the-objects-to-be-measured and the instrument-of-measure. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 74 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Discretionary Use of Strasbourg Jurisprudence by the International Criminal Court
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, June 13)

Although the case law of the European Court of Human Rights ("ECtHR") has had and still shows critical influence on the development of the practice of the International Criminal Court ("ICC"), it remains ... [more ▼]

Although the case law of the European Court of Human Rights ("ECtHR") has had and still shows critical influence on the development of the practice of the International Criminal Court ("ICC"), it remains unclear what the authority of such external jurisprudence is vis-à-vis the international criminal judge. While it is virtually undisputed that human rights law, in general terms, is applicable to proceedings before the ICC, many scholars tend to adopt a much nuanced approach to the authority of human rights case law in particular. This paper aims to shed further light on the issue by addressing the question whether ICC judges have used Strasbourg jurisprudence in a consistent manner, in particular as regards the authority which they decided to vest the latter with. It demonstrates that ICC Chambers have relied on European human rights practice, alternatively, as a mere source of inspiration, as binding interpretation, as a corpus having ambivalent authority, or as a source whose legal value it simply left unspecified. This leads us to conclude that, on the whole, the ICC has been mostly inconsistent regarding the value of ECtHR case law in the context of international criminal proceedings. Such inconsistency, we argue, amounts to a discretionary use of Strasbourg jurisprudence that further reinforces the Court's paradoxical position as the ultimate authority for defining the boundaries of its own human rights constraint. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
See detailProposal for a “Landscape Laboratory” in the Meuse Valley in Liège (Belgium)
Szanto, Catherine ULg; Occhiuto, Rita ULg

Conference (2014, June 12)

In an article untitled „Landscape Laboratory as a Scandinavian Concept“, R. Gustavsson describes the experiment he set up in the 1990s at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Alnarp. The ... [more ▼]

In an article untitled „Landscape Laboratory as a Scandinavian Concept“, R. Gustavsson describes the experiment he set up in the 1990s at Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences in Alnarp. The Landscape Laboratory is an ongoing full scale afforestation experiment that brings together the different theoretical and practical traditions of forestry, ecology and landscape architecture. It is based on the epistemological paradigm of case study analysis, and involves “slow learning”, combining design and management, in phase with the living processes it studies. As such, it is necessarily open, responsive to the site-specific dynamics that it started and accompanies through time. By introducing the idea of “creative management”, it proposes a time-based conceptual framework that can be used in the on-going study and experimentation of different urban and landscape issues. The idea was taken on in projects in different contexts in Scandinavia and elsewhere in Europe. The research led by the unit “Ville-Territoire-Paysage” (LabVTP) of the Faculty of Architecture at the Liège University for the requalification of industrial sites in the Meuse valley offers an opportunity to confront the laboratory approach to yet another context, that of a post-industrial urban site in search of (landscape) meaning. The aim of LabVTP is to set up a permanent landscape observatory, aimed at regaining “landscape literacy” through a series of iterative, local landscape projects throughout the city, that articulate small-scale landscape elements with long-term place- and time-contextual investment. Each of these interventions can turn into a small “landscape laboratory” involving local stakeholders, and supporting teaching and research on themes such as vegetal reuse of industrial sites, participative urbanism, time-based design and “creative management”. Through the landscape laboratory approach applied as “landscape acupuncture”, our aim is to help rebuild the coherence of the apparently chaotic territory, and thus imagine a vision for its future. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailCompeting One-Way Essential Complements : the Forgotten Side of the Net Neutrality Story}
Broos, Sébastien ULg; Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2014, June 12)

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP ... [more ▼]

We examine the incentives of an internet service provider (ISP) to break net neutrality by excluding internet applications competing with its own products, a typical example being the exclusion of VoIP applications by a telecom company offering internet and voice services. We show that exclusion is not a concern when the ISP is a monopoly because it can extract the additional surplus created by the application through price rebalancing. By contrast, when ISP’s compete, in an attempt to differentiate, only one ISP will offer the app. Applying a no-exclusion rule in this case can lead to monopoly. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
See detailFélix Fénéon : de l’animation à la naturalisation critique
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2014, June 12)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg)
See detailInternet : support, médium ou épimédium ?
Barnabé, Fanny ULg; Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

Conference (2014, June 11)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (7 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSoil infrastructure evolution and its effect on water transfer processes under contrasted tillage systems - overview of methodologies with preliminary results
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 10)

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect ... [more ▼]

The heterogeneity of soil structure and porosity are highly influenced by external factors like tillage systems and other land management approaches. The aim of this project is to investigate the effect of soil tillage along with residue management on the changing pattern of soil structure. This investigation will help to emphasize the different water flow dynamics especially the preferential flow processes through the soil that are influenced by the changes in structural distribution in the soil profile. The experimentation has been started from June 2013 in the research field in Gembloux. Soil profile description together with soil sampling has been carried out in the four objects of land management. Soil samples will be used for the measurement of water retention capacity (done), hydraulic conductivity and x-ray microtomography. The assessment of soil water retention curves with pressure plate technique show significantly (p<0.05) higher water retention (Hwr) in WP than ST at 9.8 to 98 hPa, Hwr in WP than NI at 39 to 14710 hPa, Hwr in ST than NI at 294 to 14710 hPa and Hwr in WP than NO at 69 to 98 hPa. There was no significant difference in the water retention between NO and NI and ST and NO. Since, tillage practices generally increase soil porosity, the correlation between soil hydraulics and porosity distribution would expect to be different for different tillage systems. In our study, WP retains more water due to the increase of macroporosity than ST, NI and NO. As the changes in soil structure are usually noticed in the range of 9.8 to 98 hPa, so, we can conclude that there is certainly structural change between WP and conservation practices of ST, NI and NO. In our study, there will be also soil moisture sensors (Decagon 10HS, 5TM and ML3 Thetaprobe) to capture the total soil moisture networks in the field under four different trials. The soils from the different trials and also from different depths (0-15, 25-30 and 50-60 cm) were used for zone specific calibration of the sensors. All the experiments will be repeated twice a year. For the specific spatio-temporal comparison, the monitoring results from electrical resistance tomography will be available from the collaborated project of the same faculty. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes remèdes d'origine égyptienne utilisés dans la médecine vétérinaire antique
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

Conference (2014, June 10)

Famous since the Odyssey (IV, 229-230) for its drugs, Egypt furnishes the Greek world with some medical substances already mentioned in the hippocratic treatises. Moreover, many Greek drug names have been ... [more ▼]

Famous since the Odyssey (IV, 229-230) for its drugs, Egypt furnishes the Greek world with some medical substances already mentioned in the hippocratic treatises. Moreover, many Greek drug names have been loaned from the Egyptian language, such as ἄμ(μ)ι for cumin, κίκι for castor-oil, κόμμι for gum, κῦφι for a complex preparation used for fumigation in cult practices, νίτρον for sodium carbonate, στίμμι for galena, σῶρυ for ferrous sulfate, and σάμψ(ο)υχον, for marjoram, whose name means “herb (sem) of Soukhos", another name for the crocodile god Sobek. The trade of drugs, spices and colourants, used in pharmacology, cosmetology, painting, cultual and magical practices, embalming rites and nutrition always flourished in Egypt and has intensified in Hellenistic and Roman times. As a continuation of the research on remedies of Egyptian origin in Greco-Roman pharmacopoeia, this article provides a list of Egyptian ingredients used in Greek and Latin veterinary prescriptions. The use of these substances is compared with recomandations from human medicine. Their availability and costs are also studied. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
See detailFe and Mg Isotope Fractionation in Olivine from the NWA 1068 Shergottite
Collinet, Max ULg; Charlier, Bernard ULg; Namur, Olivier et al

Conference (2014, June 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detailHigher Symmetries of the conformal Laplacian
Radoux, Fabian ULg

Conference (2014, June 09)

Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailFast Ambient Pressure Thermal cycling of space solar arrays samples under equivalent AM0 illumination conditions
Guiot, Marc ULg; Fernandez Lisbona, Emilio; Witteveen, Bob et al

Conference (2014, June 08)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailMuti-scale methods with strain-softening: damage-enhanced MFH for composite materials and computational homogenization for cellular materials with micro-buckling
Wu, Ling ULg; Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2014, June 06)

In this work, multi-scale methods with strain softening are developed in the contexts of damage modeling for composite laminates and of buckling analyses in cellular materials. First, an anisotropic ... [more ▼]

In this work, multi-scale methods with strain softening are developed in the contexts of damage modeling for composite laminates and of buckling analyses in cellular materials. First, an anisotropic gradient–enhanced continuum damage model is embedded in a mean–field homogenization (MFH) process for elasto-plastic composites. The homogenization procedure is based on the newly developed incremental secant mean-field homogenization formulation, for which the residual stress and strain states reached in the phases upon a fictitious elastic unloading are considered as starting point to apply the secant method. The mean stress fields in the phases are then computed using isotropic secant tensors, which are naturally used to define the Linear Comparison–Composite The resulting multi– scale model is then applied to study the damage process at the meso–scale of laminates, and in particular the damaging of plies in a composite stack. By using the gradient–enhanced continuum damage model, the problem of losing uniqueness upon strain softening is avoided. Second, an efficient multi–scale finite element framework capturing the buckling instabilities in cellular materials is developed. As a classical multi–scale computational homogenization scheme loses accuracy with the apparition of the macroscopic localizations resulting from the micro–buckling, the second order multi–scale computational homogenization scheme is considered. This second–order computational framework is enhanced with the following novelties so that it can be used for cellular materials. At the microscopic scale, the periodic boundary condition is used because of its efficiency. As the meshes generated from cellular materials exhibit a large void part on the boundaries and are not conforming in general, the classical enforcement based on the matching nodes cannot be applied. A new method based on the polynomial interpolation2 without the requirement of the matching mesh condition on opposite boundaries of the representative volume element (RVE) is developed. Next, in order to solve the underlying macroscopic Mindlin strain gradient continuum of this second–order scheme by the displacement–based finite element framework, the treatment of high order terms is based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to weakly impose the C1-continuity. Finally, as the instability phenomena are considered at both scales of the cellular materials, the path following technique is adopted to solve both the macroscopic and microscopic problems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (16 ULg)
Full Text
See detailA wavelet-based analysis of surface air temperature variability
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, June 06)

We study the Hölder regularity of surface air temperature signals using the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This method has been successfully applied in several domains such as DNA analysis, fully ... [more ▼]

We study the Hölder regularity of surface air temperature signals using the wavelet leaders method (WLM). This method has been successfully applied in several domains such as DNA analysis, fully developped turbulence analysis, internet data traffic analysis,... to name just a few, and we now use it in climatology. We first define the notions of Hölder exponent, monofractal functions and spectrum of singularities before explaining the WLM. Then we use it to study surface air temperature signals from weather stations spread across Western and Eastern Europe and show that they are monofractal, i.e. their irregularity (in the sense of variability) is regular. After, we show that the stations can be classified according to their Hölder exponent and that this classification matches with the worldwide used Köppen-Geiger climate classification. A blind test is performed in order to confirm the results, which can be partly explained by the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Our results can be helpful to test the accuracy of current climatic models. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailSolar irradiance modelling over Belgium using WRF-ARW : A sensitivity analysis of Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (BYNN) boundary layer scheme parameters
Beaumet, Julien ULg; Doutreloup, Sébastien ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 06)

Global solar irradiances at ground level are modelled over Belgium using latest version of WRF-ARW regional climate model (RCM). The model set-up used has a resolution of 5 kilometres. The boundary layer ... [more ▼]

Global solar irradiances at ground level are modelled over Belgium using latest version of WRF-ARW regional climate model (RCM). The model set-up used has a resolution of 5 kilometres. The boundary layer scheme chosen is the Mellor-Yamada-Nakanishi-Niino (MYNN) 2.5 scheme with the Turbulent Kinetic Energy (TKE) closure proposed by Canuto et al., (2008) and Kitamura (2010). In this scheme, the modification of some parameters allows to change the determinant mixing length (surface layer, planet boundary layer, top of boundary layer/entrainment) which then modifies heat and moistures fluxes produced by turbulent mixing. Such modifications have significant influences on modelled cloudiness and therefore on modelled global solar irradiance incoming at the surface. The present study proposes a sensitivity analysis of the different parameters that influence the mixing length ('alp1' to 'alp5') and the TKE diffusion ('Sqfac') in order to find the most suitable constant values of these parameters for the modelling of cloudiness over Belgium. Results of different simulations are compared with global solar irradiance measurements performed by the Centre Spatial de Liège at Sart-Tilman in 2013 and 2014. Firsts results show that the dry bias frequently found when using WRF-ARW with standard set-ups can be greatly reduced thanks to an increased modelled cloudiness. The quantitative and qualitative effects of these modifications over cloudiness are also analysed by displaying 2D representation of modelled clouds over Sart-Tilman and confronting them with on-site observations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLes médiateurs scolaires en action : des discours aux pratiques
Dethier, Baptiste ULg

Conference (2014, June 05)

En 1993, dans un contexte marqué les questions d’insécurité, de violence scolaire, de crise de confiance envers les institutions ou encore de décrochage scolaire, 28 médiateurs sont engagés dans autant ... [more ▼]

En 1993, dans un contexte marqué les questions d’insécurité, de violence scolaire, de crise de confiance envers les institutions ou encore de décrochage scolaire, 28 médiateurs sont engagés dans autant d’établissements scolaires aux publics défavorisés de la région bruxelloise. Ce projet pilote, voyant le jour sous la houlette du Ministère de l’enseignement, ne sera institutionnalisé qu’en 1998 dans un décret créant le Service de Médiation Scolaire, divisé en deux entités : 56 médiateurs internes à Bruxelles et 30 médiateurs externes (répartis par zones couvrant plusieurs établissements) en Wallonie. Par ailleurs, d’autres niveaux de pouvoir (communes, diocèses, écoles) créaient également, localement, leurs propres fonctions de médiateur scolaire. Actuellement, on en dénombre environ 120 en Belgique francophone. Ce nouvel acteur, bien que peu étudié, incarnerait un nouveau mode de régulation sociale (Bonafé-Schmitt, 1996) remettant en question les équilibres historiques du système scolaire (Verhoeven, 1997). En effet, il se présente comme un tiers neutre et indépendant de l’établissement, permettant ainsi la création d’un espace où peuvent se résoudre différents problèmes concernant les personnes demandeuses, qu’elles soient élèves, membres du personnel scolaire ou encore parents. Dans un premier temps, notre attention se porte sur l’ensemble des acteurs portant le nom de médiateurs scolaires (Kuty et al., 2012). Au sein d’un cadre légal ne définissant que vaguement leur fonction, ces derniers sont néanmoins globalement chargés de prévenir la violence et le décrochage scolaires et de favoriser, conserver ou rétablir le climat de confiance entre élèves, écoles et familles. À partir de là, ils ont progressivement construit leurs propres pratiques et leur identité, cherchant par là à trouver et à consolider leur place au sein d’un milieu scolaire déjà marqué par la présence de multiples acteurs. Dans un second temps, des études de cas approfondies dans six établissements d’enseignement secondaire permettent de constater que les médiateurs ne disposaient pas du monopole de la médiation (Dubois et Dethier, 2013), concept polysémique auquel de nombreux acteurs se réfèrent pour qualifier certains aspects de leur travail quotidien. En outre, le recours à la médiation ou aux médiateurs ne se révèle être qu’une solution parmi d’autres pour faire face aux différents problèmes rencontrés par les acteurs : violence, décrochage, absentéisme, échec scolaire, conflits, problèmes socio-économiques… Ces constats exigent une étude empirique approfondie du travail concret réalisé par les médiateurs scolaires, une étude attentive à leurs discours mais aussi à l’observation de leurs pratiques et interactions directes avec les différents acteurs scolaires. Les résultats de cette étude font l’objet de cette communication. Cette contribution se base sur un corpus composé de onze entretiens individuels, trois focus groups et trois périodes d’observation non participante auprès de médiateurs belges francophones membres d’un même service. Ces derniers revendiquent une posture de tiers neutre et indépendant dans l’école, ainsi que des principes basés sur le non-jugement, la confidentialité, l’accueil inconditionnel de la demande ou encore la non-expertise. Il s’agira par conséquent de rendre compte de la manière dont ces médiateurs traduisent leurs discours en pratiques au quotidien. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBiorefine: Recovery of nutrients and metallic trace elements from different wastes by chemical and biochemical processes
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; De Clercq, Lies et al

Conference (2014, June 05)

At present, most waste processing operations are not oriented towards the valorization of valuable reusable components such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and even Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs ... [more ▼]

At present, most waste processing operations are not oriented towards the valorization of valuable reusable components such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and even Metallic Trace Elements (MTEs). Currently, sewage sludge, for example is usually used as a fertilizer in agriculture, in energy production or in the field of construction. Ashes originating from sludge incineration contain heavy metals and minerals in large quantities. Manure is mainly used in agriculture, although considerable amounts of nutrients are lost and cause pollution. Digestate is also used in agriculture, but other alternatives have been proposed, such as the energetic valorization. Better valorization of these wastes in agriculture (or other sectors) is however largely constrained by a multitude of legal requirements. An important problematic point is the concentration in MTEs that is found in those wastes. Consequently, recovery of nutrients and MTEsmay be a key solution for optimal valorization of wastes. Many unit operations used in the field of chemical and biochemical engineering (mechanical operations on fluids, solids, mass and heat transfers, chemical reactions, etc.) could be used in order to achieve an efficient recovery yield of nutrients and trace elements. The aim of the BioRefine Project is to make an inventory of all recovery techniques of nutrients and MTEs in five countries: Belgium, France, Germany, United Kingdom and The Netherlands. Pilot plants will also be tested to assess the efficiency of new treatment techniques after which the most efficient processes will be chosen to be applied on a larger scale. In addition, the collected data will be used to propose exploitation scenarios taking into account legal constraints and optimized logistics.This work is supported through an INTERREG IVB NWE programme(ref. 320J-BIOREFINE). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Single Envelope N-linked Glycosylation Site Defines Hyperpathogenicity of Bovine Leukemia Virus
De Brogniez, Alix ULg; Bouzar, Amel-Baya; Jacques, Jean-Rock ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 05)

Pathogens have co-evolved with their host to allow efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by ... [more ▼]

Pathogens have co-evolved with their host to allow efficient replication and transmission without inducing excessive pathogenicity that would indirectly impair their persistence. This is exemplified by the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) model that induces lymphoproliferative disorders in ruminants only after extended latency periods of several years. In principle, the equilibrium reached between the virus and its host could be disrupted by emergence of more pathogenic strains. Intriguingly, this type of hyperpathogenic BLV strain could never been isolated in vivo nor designed in vitro. Using reverse genetics of an infectious molecular provirus, we have now identified a N-linked envelope glycosylation site that limits viral replication and pathogenicity. Onset of this particular mutation may thus represent a potential threat associated with emergence of hyperpathogenic BLV strains and possibly of new variants of the related primate T-lymphotropic viruses. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (6 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLa charge de confesseur princier au XVIIème siècle, une définition controversée
Pirlet, Pierre-François ULg

Conference (2014, June 05)

Si la mission d'un confesseur au début du XVIIème siècle est strictement définie par les textes canoniques du catholicisme comme celle d'un administrateur de sacrement, la définition des tâches revenant ... [more ▼]

Si la mission d'un confesseur au début du XVIIème siècle est strictement définie par les textes canoniques du catholicisme comme celle d'un administrateur de sacrement, la définition des tâches revenant au confesseur du Prince est étonnamment lâche. Du premier, on attendait qu'il jugeât les actes de son pénitent, propose une consolation – sous la forme d'exercices expiatoires – destinés à le réconcilier avec Dieu, et offre une direction spirituelle visant à prévenir les rechutes dans le péché. Mais confesser le Prince contraignait le religieux qui s’y attelait à un exercice bien plus complexe. Il lui revenait de juger et d'apporter une direction de conscience aux deux personnes du roi : l'humaine et l'institutionnelle. En effet, il eût été impossible de distinguer formellement l'âme du souverain de celle du mortel. De même, il échoyait au confesseur de conseiller son pénitent quant à l'aspect moral de ses décisions, que celles-ci n'impliquèrent que sa personne, ou au contraire l'ensemble des territoires et des sujets sous sa conduite. De cette difficulté naquit une controverse quant à l'implication nécessaire et raisonnable du confesseur princier dans les affaires temporelles : la papauté, les rois d'Espagne, les ecclésiastiques de cour madrilènes, les gouverneurs-généraux des Pays-Bas et les supérieurs des ordres religieux dont étaient issus les confesseurs – et particulièrement la Compagnie de Jésus – proposèrent tous une définition différente – et controversée – des prérogatives de ce religieux au cœur du pouvoir. En prenant appui sur la situation des confesseurs de la cour de Bruxelles durant la grande première moitié du XVIIème siècle, nous tâcherons au travers de cette communication de proposer un aperçu global des différentes définitions de la confession princière telles que défendues par les contemporains. Notre exposé proposera en outre un rapide regard sur les deux approches utilisées par les historiens pour reconstituer les différentes définitions de la charge : à la patiente collecte et à l'analyse des traces laissées dans les sources par l'activité au quotidien des confesseurs (approche bottom-up) se confronte une méthode cherchant une définition d'époque des prérogatives de ces religieux faisant autorité (approche top-down). Nous constaterons que ces deux approches, qui ne s'opposent pas, s’accommodent néanmoins difficilement l'une à l'autre, créant ainsi une controverse non plus dans l'objet, mais dans la méthode. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMALDI Mass Spectrometry Imaging: a new tool to decipher the antibiome of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens
Debois, Delphine ULg; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Cawoy, Hélène et al

Conference (2014, June 05)

Soil Bacillus isolates may devote up to 8% of their genome to nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptide (LP)- and polyketide (PK)-type antibiotics. LPs from surfactin, iturin and fengycin families are known ... [more ▼]

Soil Bacillus isolates may devote up to 8% of their genome to nonribosomal synthesis of lipopeptide (LP)- and polyketide (PK)-type antibiotics. LPs from surfactin, iturin and fengycin families are known to exert different actions on the wellness of the producing strain such as fungitoxicity (iturin, fengycin) or motility, root colonization and immune stimulating agent (surfactin). Nevertheless, few is reported about the actual antibiome secreted in situ by Bacillus cells during confrontation with phytopathogens or plant root colonization. We developed a method mimicking the conditions prevailing in the rhizosphere and, taking advantage of the versatility of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging, we were able to localize and identify antibiotics produced in situ by bacterial cells. First, we applied this new methodology to bioassays in which Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 98S were grown together with Fusarium oxysporum, with the aim of deciphering the role of the different LP families during the phytopathogen growth inhibition. Our results showed that the three LP families were readily produced in different proportions. Especially, images of surfactins, iturins and fengycins demonstrated that iturins are the antibiotic family actually involved in the antagonism against Fusarium oxysporum. In a second approach, we used a “in planta” model in which Bacillus amyloliquefaciens S499 was simultaneously grown with Tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Imaging results, obtained during a time course analysis, showed that surfactin is always the major lipopeptide detected. In further experiments involving a refined time-window, we observed that surfactin is actually produced as soon as 24h post inoculation. These results were the starting point of a wider study showing that the early accumulation of surfactin is a complex phenomenon involving, among other mechanisms, cell-well components recognition by bacteria, and that this interaction is a win-win association for both plant and bacterial cells. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 109 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLo stato di necessità, invenzione moderna o romana?
Gerkens, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2014, June 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (8 ULg)
Full Text
See detailL'épaule un carrefour complexe
WANG, François-Charles ULg; LOZZA, Alessandro

Conference (2014, June 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (3 ULg)
Full Text
See detailApproche socio-écologique: arrangements de la complexité
Absil, Gaëtan ULg

Conference (2014, June 04)

Detailed reference viewed: 57 (22 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailElectrical characterization of pGeSn/nGe diodes
Baert, Bruno ULg; Gupta, Somya; Gencarelli, Federica et al

Conference (2014, June 03)

I-V characteristics of pGeSn/nGe diodes have been measured and show very good properties. Simulations of the same structure are able to reproduce most of the observed behavior and point to the ... [more ▼]

I-V characteristics of pGeSn/nGe diodes have been measured and show very good properties. Simulations of the same structure are able to reproduce most of the observed behavior and point to the predominating influence of parameters such as the band gap energy of the GeSn layer. C-V characteristics showing little frequency dependence have also been measured, and their analysis for the determination of the carrier concentration is confirmed by simulations. More investigations, including the effect of temperature and other defects at the interface or in the bulk of either layers are still required in order to explain some of the observed behaviors, notably the reverse saturation current. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 45 (4 ULg)
See detailPour une autre “architecturalité” ou la tentation du neutre d’Adolf Loos à Lacaton & Vassal
Dawans, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, June 03)

Des philosophes comme Daniel Charles, Daniel Payot et Sylviane Agacinski ont beaucoup insisté sur les implications de l’étymologie – plus précisément du lien que l’architecture entretient avec l’archè ... [more ▼]

Des philosophes comme Daniel Charles, Daniel Payot et Sylviane Agacinski ont beaucoup insisté sur les implications de l’étymologie – plus précisément du lien que l’architecture entretient avec l’archè (ἀρχή) – dans le projet métaphysique qui supporte notre conception occidentale de « l’art de bâtir », depuis l’Antiquité. Selon cette perspective, magistralement résumée par Vitruve au 1er S ACN, l’architecte (architekton) impose un triple dépassement à la simple pratique du constructeur : un supplément d’ordonnance (l’édifice doit être harmonieux), un supplément d’origine (l’édifice prendra, par exemple, la nature - sacrée - comme principe) et un supplément de représentation (l’édifice est digne de susciter une théorie, un traité). C’est pourquoi, dans son travail de déconstruction, Jacques Derrida se voit obligé de souligner, dans les années 1980, que cette « architecture de l’architecture a une histoire » - ce que nous aurions, selon lui, oublié au point de la tenir pour « naturelle ». Dans notre tradition, l’architecture se démarque donc de la construction par du « supplément » -d’âme ?-, le même « plus » sans doute qui distingue la littérature des « mots de la tribu », cet excès que l’on a depuis Jakobson indexé dans les sciences littéraires sous le terme de littérarité - un mot qui n’a encore pour équivalent en théorie d’architecture qu’un hapax : dans un texte tout à fait passionnant, Antonia Soulez risque, en effet, le terme d’ architecturalité, que ne reconnaît pas encore le correcteur orthographique des traitements de texte et qu’elle définit à partir de Valéry (dans Eupalinos), comme ce qui arrive à la construction quand les « colonnes chantent » … un supplément d’ordonnance inspiré par la musique, l’art par excellence depuis l’Antiquité. Et pourtant, l’on peut affirmer que des architectes – nous les qualifierons rapidement de modernes – ont tout mis en œuvre depuis le début du XXe S pour échapper à cet impératif de surplus, désirant ainsi dépasser cette tension entretenue depuis des millénaires entre prose constructive et poésie architecturale (Venustas), cela à partir d’Adolf Loos et jusqu’à Lacaton & Vassal, en passant par toute une série de grands noms qui nous semblent avoir voulu neutraliser cette opposition, au sens où Roland Barthes parlera de neutre durant ses cours au Collège de France en 1977 – 1978 : «toute inflexion qui esquive ou déjoue la structure paradigmatique, oppositionnelle, du sens, et vise par conséquent à la suspension des données conflictuelles du discours». Si Jarry, en ‘pataphysicien, n’avait pas hésité à prôner « l’inutilité du théâtre au théâtre », ces architectes pourraient aussi, dans le même ordre d’idées, affirmer l’inutilité de l’architecture en architecture, en tout cas de l’architecturalité. C’est cette tentative de neutraliser l’architecture – peut-être toujours déjà avortée - que nous voudrions suivre en guise de fil rouge dans notre exposé, cela en traversant des théories qui ont balisé la modernité architecturale depuis Ornement et Crime (1908). Pour éclairer notre propos, nous comptons convoquer des architectes (Loos, Wittgenstein, Mies Van Der Rohe, Bernard Huet, Pawson, Ando, les architectes suisses de « la nouvelle simplicité », Éric Gauthier, Lacaton & Vassal, etc.), mais aussi des philosophes ou essayistes aussi importants que Paul Scheerbart, Walter Benjamin, Roland Barthes, Umberto Eco, Nelson Goodman... Nous comptons aussi nous aider des outils de la sémiologie et de la rhétorique, afin de voir dans quelle mesure une architecture qui tente désespérément d’échapper à l’architecturalité en prônant, par exemple, l’absence d’ornement, l’idéal du « less is more » ou du « presque rien », de la banalité, du minimum ou encore de la simplicité peut tenir le pari, sans tomber dans le piège qu’Umberto Eco a bien décrit, à savoir que la logique des avant-garde architecturales « ne peut pas aller plus loin, parce que désormais elle a produit un métalangage qui parle de ses impossibles textes ». [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailUn chiffre en débat. Controverse autour de la dette wallonne
Piron, Damien ULg

Conference (2014, June 03)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (4 ULg)
Full Text
See detail« Quantification des politiques versus Démocratisation de la mesure : la gestion publique par les indicateurs à l’épreuve de la participation. les indicateurs sont-ils solubles dans la participation ?
Fallon, Catherine ULg

Conference (2014, June 02)

L'évaluation des politiques publiques contribue à la fois à l’efficacité de l'action publique et à sa légitimation, en déployant une double logique pour renforcer l’intelligibilité et l’acceptabilité de ... [more ▼]

L'évaluation des politiques publiques contribue à la fois à l’efficacité de l'action publique et à sa légitimation, en déployant une double logique pour renforcer l’intelligibilité et l’acceptabilité de la gestion publique. Cette démarche recourt de plus en plus souvent à des indicateurs de performances, sans questionner le caractère contingent et construit de leur émergence et le sacrifice de la complexité sociale qu'ils induisent. Une double dynamique est perceptible depuis quelques années dans ce domaine. Les pratiques et les discours autour de l’évaluation semblent osciller entre deux registres qui s’opposent sur de nombreux points : d’un côté le renforcement de cette logique managériale et de l’autre des exigences de nouvelles demandes participatives formulées par les groupes concernés par l’action publique. En termes managériaux, les réformes observées dans les modalités de des politiques publiques intègrent de nombreux principes du new public management sous différentes dénominations : démarches de « qualité », «mesure de performance », « culture du résultat »,.. Autant de concepts qui accompagnent la généralisation des dispositifs d’évaluation et de certification par les chiffres. Les exigences en matière de transparence et d’efficacité justifient un développement pléthorique d’indicateurs de performances (IP), car la mesure via un indicateur endosse aussi une fonction de légitimation (Zittoun 2009). En effet, le recours à des mesures de la performance est souvent justifié par une amélioration de l’action publique ainsi qu’à une plus grande « accountability » (Halachmi 2005; Van Thiel et Leeuw 2002) : par leur souci déclaré de transparence, elles semblent prolonger les impératifs de la démocratie et de ses exigences en matière de débats et d’information. D’autre part se multiplient des procédures délibératives qui associent citoyens et gouvernants pour « renforcer l’efficacité de l’action publique, en améliorant son contenu et en favorisant son acceptabilité sociale » (Chevallier 2011 : 227), contribuant au consensus social autour de l’action de l’état qu’elle légitime par ailleurs. « Le détour par l’écoute des citoyens se donne comme une figure obligée de l’action publique et comme un nouvel art de gouverner, comme si désormais il n’était plus possible de prendre de décision sans avoir consulté le public au préalable » (Blondiaux 2008 : 6), dynamique renforcée par l’extension actuelle des nouvelles technologies de l’information et de la communication et les nouveaux réseaux sociaux. Le NPM prône une pratique chiffrée s’appuyant sur une approche top-down, standardisée et uniformisante, basée sur un développement de connaissances statistiques construites à l’échelle du territoire d’intervention. A l’opposé, se dessine le détour vers une participation locale émanant d’une dynamique bottom-up, et proposant une approche localisée et complexe du territoire. Dans le cadre de l’évaluation des politiques publiques, ces deux registres sont en tension. Fraser et coll. ( 2006), résument bien les problèmes respectifs liés à ces deux approches. D’un côté, la question de la possibilité de généralisation de l’information à partir des données locales ; de l’autre le risque de « réduction » de ces données riches et contextualisées, que doivent formater et contrôler les experts en statistiques pour nourrir l’action publique. En effet, nous postulons que la quantification du social opère un double réductionnisme : premièrement un réductionnisme que nous pourrions qualifier de social, par la capacité du chiffre à réduire la complexité sociale à une seule donnée ; deuxièmement un réductionnisme normatif qui tend à faire basculer la focale de l’équité ou de la justice sociale vers la recherche de performance elle-même, celle-là même qui fait l’objet de la mesure et qui est transformée en objectif d’action pour les acteurs (Salais, 2010). Ogien (2009 :14) met en évidence le développement récent d’une science de la modélisation de l’action publique, « contribuant à la colonisation du raisonnement politique par les catégories de l’économie et du management ». Ce qui différencie les nouvelles approches d’évaluation, de qualité, et de mesures de performances de la dernière décennie, c’est la position des chiffres qui en viennent à structurer le processus décisionnel au lieu d’en être les simples auxiliaires (Dahler-Larsen 2012). La contestation de cette suprématie du chiffre est difficile, entre autre parce que les principes du NPM qui président à leur mise en œuvre semblent faire l’objet d’un large consensus et parce que les responsables politiques y trouvent des outils de communication mobilisant de façon particulièrement efficace les structures médiatiques de nos démocraties d’opinion. S’il y a « peu d’espace de résistance à la quantification » (Badet & Jany-Catrice 2010), c’est principalement lié à l’idée selon laquelle l’information sur un phénomène ne peut être que bénéfique à la prise de décision. Par leur potentiel de comparabilité, les chiffres relèguent au second plan les pratiques participatives qui ne peuvent se targuer d’un tel avantage. Pourtant, de nombreux auteurs critiques tendent à démontrer la normativité derrière l’information chiffrée, mettant à l’épreuve leur prétendue objectivité, leur caractère scientifique et leur neutralité. Barré (2010) parle d’un usage manipulatoire qui fait passer pour scientifique une construction en occultant le fait que cette construction est en cohérence avec la vision de ceux qui l’ont élaborée. La force du chiffre fait oublier le caractère conventionnel de son émergence (Desrosières 1993, 2008) : le chiffre « circule dans l’espace public indépendamment de son procédé de fabrication et « il échappe à son créateur pour vivre une vie autonome dans l’espace social » (Bureau 2010 :173) contribuant à peupler celui-ci d’une foule d’indicateurs, une machinerie pour classer et comparer échappant à toute emprise critique. Mais d’un autre côté, au niveau de la mise en œuvre des politiques, les acteurs de terrain cherchent à traduire les indicateurs choisis par des experts éloignés des « réalités » des communautés locales : ces concepts souvent ambigus définis au niveau global mobilisent généralement un nombre limité d’indicateurs synthétiques non représentatifs des problématiques locales : on peut observer cela pour le « développement durable » (Fraser et al. 2006) ou pour la « cohésion sociale » (Fallon et Feron 2013) . - Peut-on combiner ces deux approches ? Comment repenser les démarches participatives dans le cadre d’une sociologie de la quantification (bottom up) ? Les contributions proposent des analyses ciblées dans divers secteurs (cohésion, justice, budget, …) pour démontrer le potentiel politique du chiffre et poser deux lignes de questionnements. - Est il possible de définir des indicateurs de manière participative, en associant les stakeholders aux décisions concernant les conventions de mesures pour une traduction partagée de ce qui compte au niveau local ? De tels dispositifs définis de manière participative ont-ils leur place dans l’action publique ? - Quelle est le potentiel heuristique des démarches empiriques qui, rendant justice à la créativité et à la compétence des acteurs locaux, mettent en évidence des mécanismes locaux (de mise en résistance, ou de complaisance, ou d’autres) en réaction aux cadrages imposés ? Quelles stratégies mobilisent les professionnels du secteur appelés à intérioriser les normes gestionnaires pour échapper aux contraintes des données statistiques et pour mobiliser leur expertise contextuelle ? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg)
Full Text
See detailLes déterminants de la désinsertion professionnelle
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014, June 02)

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHOLOCENE DUST RECORD IN A BELGIAN PEAT BOG: MULTIPROXY GEOCHEMICAL APPROACH
Allan, Mohammed ULg; gael, le roux; Fagel, Nathalie ULg et al

Conference (2014, June 01)

Ombrotrophic peatlands are unique environmental archives of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric dust deposition. Their surface layers are exclusively fed by atmospheric inputs. A peat bog core from ... [more ▼]

Ombrotrophic peatlands are unique environmental archives of natural and anthropogenic atmospheric dust deposition. Their surface layers are exclusively fed by atmospheric inputs. A peat bog core from Misten in Eastern Belgium southern covering the last 7500 years (dated by 210Pb and 14C methods) was investigated to reconstruct dust depostion based on a combination of the Rare Earth Elements (REE) and lithogenic elements concentrations, as well as Nd and Pb isotopes data. Nd isotope signature was used to decipher between local and distal dust supplies, the Pb isotopes to trace the antropogenic influences. Peat humification was used to evaluate hydroclimatic conditions. Dust fluxes show pronounced increase at 3200-2800BC, 600BC, AD600, 1000AD, 1200AD and from 1700 AD. Lead isotope signatures are consistent with local and regional contamination by coal combustion and smelting activities. The Nd values show large variability, between -5 and –13, identifying three major sources of dust: local soils, distal volcanic and desert particles. Our results are in agreement with atmospheric reconstructions from other continental archives, confirming that the Misten peat is a valid archive for dust deposition. The approach combining geochemical elementary content and isotope data in ombrotrophic peat allows to decipher between dust flux changes related to human and climate forcing. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (6 ULg)
See detailWelcoming the New Gods. Some Reflections on the Interactions between Rulers and Traditional Gods within Ritual Practice
Paul, Stéphanie ULg

Conference (2014, June)

One of the major changes identified as characteristic of Hellenistic religion is the introduction of new cults, and notably cultic honours for mortal rulers. Hellenistic poleis displayed various ... [more ▼]

One of the major changes identified as characteristic of Hellenistic religion is the introduction of new cults, and notably cultic honours for mortal rulers. Hellenistic poleis displayed various expedients to integrate these newcomers within their civic and religious landscape, operating a balanced dialectic between innovation and tradition. This integration happened at several levels, whether from a topographic point of view - e.g. consecration of a temenos, installation of altars, statues in sanctuaries of other gods (Schmidt-Dounas 1995) - or through ritual practice - e.g. the foundation of sacrifices and festivals, that were sometimes “appended” to a pre-existing festival (Buraselis 2012). The decree from Teos founding the cult of Antiochos III and Laodike exemplifies with great detail how a ruler cult could be integrated within a civic pantheon and how it echoed other cults (Chaniotis 2007). Based on a few selected inscriptions, this paper will explore some interactions between rulers and local gods as noted in ritual practice. A newly-published inscription from Aigai in Aiolis (EA 42 [2009], 32-60), regulating the foundation of honours for Seleukos I and Antiochos I after their victory over Lysimachos in 281 BC, exemplifies some of these interactions. The decree refers explicitly to Apollo, one of the main god of Aigai, regarding both the localization of the temenos of the kings next to the sanctuary of the god, and also sacrificial regulations, which were modelled after the sacrifices to Apollo. Other cultic associations with a goddess named Sôteira and Zeus Sôter echoed the epithet given to the kings and emphasised the circumstances that led to the introduction of their cult. Further lines of enquiry include the associations with traditional gods of the civic pantheon in prayers and sacrifices that are performed in honour of the king, thus placing the latter in an intermediary position between the polis and the gods. This is the case of an inscription from Ilion (I.Ilion 32), associating a king Antiochos with Athena Ilias on the one hand, Apollo, Zeus and Nike on the other hand, in a dialectic similar to the one observed at Aigai. Although the nature of ritual performance is not very informative as regards the specificity of ruler cult – in so far as it little differed from traditional rituals (Wikander 2005) – the interactions with the gods of the civic pantheon within ritual practice is nonetheless interesting to explore from the point of view of the integration of these new cults. Indeed, although the “practicalities of ruler cult” are not per se very specific, the mechanisms put in place by the poleis may differ in so far as they correspond to a local, specific, context. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailProduction, Private Economy and State Entanglement in Early Northern Mesopotamia
Mas, Juliette ULg

Conference (2014, June)

Ancient economic systems from Southern and Central Mesopotamia are quite well known when Northern Mesopotamia ones remain less known from this point of view. If we already know that, during Bronze Age ... [more ▼]

Ancient economic systems from Southern and Central Mesopotamia are quite well known when Northern Mesopotamia ones remain less known from this point of view. If we already know that, during Bronze Age, households played a deciding role in several kinds of production, their degree of dependence or independence to the State still has to be cleared. The archaeological data clearly show that private workshops, set up in private houses, could be very efficient and specialized. Furthermore, these economic entities could be assimilated to private enterprises, which were able to handle their own administrative duties. On the other hand, we know from the texts that the Palace and the temples were also a main element of ancient economic systems. If public administrations should, in some cases, have supplied raw materials, hired workforce, and dealt with the distribution of produced goods, it seems that the production didn’t take place in the palace itself. Dealing both with archaeological and textual data, could help to better define the role and the importance of both public and private components in early Mesopotamian economic systems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (16 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEstudio ante y postmortem de las caracteristicas fisiopatologicas del tracto genital y sus factores de riesgo en vacas lecheras en el sur de Vietnam
Nguyen, Kien Cuong; Tomas Mulet, Cristina; Okouyi-Mfoumou, Marcel et al

Conference (2014, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe role of segmentation and investor recognition through the lens of cross-listing activity
Mouchette, Xavier ULg; Muller, Aline ULg; Carrieri, Francesca

Conference (2014, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’effet d’un dispositif public d’accompagnement et de formation belge sur les trajectoires professionnelles des demandeurs d’emploi
Gérard, Julie ULg

Conference (2014, June)

: Suite aux récents bouleversements économiques et sociaux touchant les pays de l’Union Européenne, de nombreux partenariats entre services publics d’emploi et agences d’emploi privées se sont développés ... [more ▼]

: Suite aux récents bouleversements économiques et sociaux touchant les pays de l’Union Européenne, de nombreux partenariats entre services publics d’emploi et agences d’emploi privées se sont développés et complexifiés, suivant une logique de gestion mixte du marché de l’emploi. Cette communication porte sur l’étude d’un partenariat public-privé entre un service public régional belge et un organisme de formation. À partir des apports conceptuels et théoriques de la sociologie de l’action publique et de la littérature propre aux agences d’emploi privées et aux partenariats public-privé, nous analyserons la capacité d’un dispositif public à assurer la remise à l’emploi de son public-cible. Pour ce faire, nous étudierons son rôle et ses effets sur les trajectoires professionnelles des demandeurs d’emploi y recourant. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailThe X-ray properties of lambda Cep, a true twin of zeta Pup?
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Gonzalez-Perez, Nicolas et al

Conference (2014, June)

Oef stars are O-stars that display a double-peaked He II λ 4686 line in their optical spectra, suggesting that the inner part of the stellar wind is co-rotating with the star. This hypothesis is also ... [more ▼]

Oef stars are O-stars that display a double-peaked He II λ 4686 line in their optical spectra, suggesting that the inner part of the stellar wind is co-rotating with the star. This hypothesis is also often used to explain their ubiquitous spectral variability in the optical domain. In this context, the fact that the high-resolution X-ray spectra of ζ Pup (O4Ief) meet the expectations of the wind-embedded shock model, assuming a spherically symmetric wind came as a surprise. To understand what is going on, we have obtained a 300 ksec observation of λ Cephei, the second brightest Oef star. This observation not only allows to collect the RGS high-resolution spectrum of the star, but further enables us to search for X-ray variability. To correlate the potential X-ray variability with that of the optical spectrum of λ Cep, we monitored the optical spectrum simultaneously with the TIGRE telescope. We present here the first results of this campaign, both in terms of the line profiles in the RGS spectrum and the search for X-ray variability in correlation with the optical variations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailModeling of the Iturinic Antimicrobial Lipopeptide Mycosubtilin at Interfaces
Loison, Claire; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg; Benichou, Emmanuel et al

Conference (2014, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailOpportunities and challenges to investigating plant diversification from the fossil record
Silvestro, Daniel; Cascales - Miñana, Borja ULg; Becon, Christine B, et al

Conference (2014, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailExtreme thrombocytosis in a child with cow's milk protein allergy
THIRION, S.; FERNANDEZ, J.; HARDY, P. et al

Conference (2014, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (3 ULg)