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See detailThe Airline Container Loading Problem with Pickup and Delivery
Lurkin, Virginie ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg

Conference (2013, July 02)

We address the problem of allocating containers into predefined positions of a carrier, in this case aircraft, under several realistic structural and safety constraints. The originality of our approach is ... [more ▼]

We address the problem of allocating containers into predefined positions of a carrier, in this case aircraft, under several realistic structural and safety constraints. The originality of our approach is to allow multi-trips with pickup and delivery at some intermediate locations. The objective is to minimize the economic and environmental costs including the impact of the intermediate operations. We resort to an integer linear model. Numerical experiments have been performed using a standard B\&C library. Heuristics are developed to speed up the process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe professionalization of HR management: towards an analytical framework for social enterprises
Moreau, Charlotte ULg; Mertens de Wilmars, Sybille ULg; Pichault, François ULg

Conference (2013, July 02)

At the present time, the social enterprise sector is undergoing important changes: increased activity, diversification of social demands, increased complexity of legal framework and institutional ... [more ▼]

At the present time, the social enterprise sector is undergoing important changes: increased activity, diversification of social demands, increased complexity of legal framework and institutional landscape, transformation of public funding mechanisms (contractualisation setting up competition between providers in a quasi-market) (Dees & Elias, 1998; Mertens, 2010). At the same time, we may observe a trend towards the professionalization of social enterprises (Bode, Evers, & Schulz, 2006; Comeau & Davister, 2008; Davister, 2010; Petrella & Richez-Battesti, 2010). This movement toward professionalization brings changes, among others, with regard to evolutions in human resources management (HRM) practices (Davister, 2010; McCandless Baluch, 2012; Theuvsen, 2004): increasing formalization of procedures, developments of senior staff training, a changeover from a militant attitude on the part of directors toward a managerial attitude, development of pay-for-performance plans, etc. That concept of professionalization knows a large echo in the working world, not only in the social enterprise sector. Wilensky (1964) was already talking about the « professionalization of everyone? ». But what does professionalization mean? Various understandings of that concept co-exist. Indeed, according to Wittorski (2008), the notion refers either to the constitution of a group of people sharing the same activity (professionalization-profession), to the development of competences of a professional by its education (professionalization-training), or to the fact of “putting in movement” individuals within work contexts (professionalization-efficiency). The tendencies to professionalize have been studied but in a quite heterogeneous and fragmented way (Le Naëlou, 2004; Maier, Steinbereithner, & Meyer, 2012) with various dimensions and forms of the concept being possible. This paper intends to apprehend the professionalization of human resource management in all its complexity. Relying on the model proposed by Hatchuel and Weil (1992), we develop a nuanced approach of the professionalization of HRM, by declining the concept in three major dimensions: a technical substrate, a vision of the actors’ roles, and a managerial philosophy (Gilbert, 2012; Hatchuel & Weil, 1992; Oiry, 2006). Each of those three dimensions knows different degrees of elaboration, going from a human resource management qualified as few professionalized to one strongly professionalized. This model has to be understood as an “ideal type”, in the Weberian sense, an intellectual construction obtained by accentuation of certain traits of the considered subject (Coenen-Huther, 2003). That ideal type, that model in three dimensions, constitutes a measurement standard from which the comparison between various situations of HRM professionalization in different organisations is made possible. Two questions resume our approach: what means professionalization of human resource management (conceptual approach)? And what is the scope of the professionalization of HRM in the social enterprises sector in Wallonia (empirical results)? To answer those questions, a twofold research design is necessary. To understand more precisely what professionalization of HRM is, a strong analysis of the literature on professionalization, managerial devices and HRM allows constructing an analytical framework to apprehend the concept. But, the model also allows designing a broad picture of the human resource management in the social enterprises’ sector. For that second question, the data collection is accomplished through the administration of an online questionnaire given to a sample containing 2000 social enterprises, chosen from an exhaustive database of Belgian social enterprises . A first statistical analysis allows constructing a descriptive picture of what happen in the social enterprise sector in terms of HRM in Wallonia. In order to determine the influence of contextual elements such as the size of the organization, its level of subvention, its sector of activity, etc, cross tabulation is necessary. We will use the method of descriptive analysis by clusters that is often used in order to constitute typologies. It will enable us to isolate profiles of social enterprises in terms of their human resource management and its professionalization. By the construction of a conceptual model on the HRM professionalization, our paper contributes to enrich the understanding of that concept while apprehending its complexity. Gathering data on HRM in social enterprises is useful to design the scope of HRM professionalization. Though, that kind of data has not yet been collected and mobilized in Belgium. Our research will also contribute to better understand the influences of the organization’s size, level of subvention or sector of activity on the HRM professionalization. [less ▲]

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See detailResurrecting an old body of literature to define the performance of social enterprises
Mouchamps, Hugues ULg

Conference (2013, July 02)

This speech aims to address two theoretical challenges to which every scholar interested in the performance of social enterprises is confronted: the problem of defining what performance exactly is and the ... [more ▼]

This speech aims to address two theoretical challenges to which every scholar interested in the performance of social enterprises is confronted: the problem of defining what performance exactly is and the integration of the complexity inherent to social enterprises in the definition of performance (Speckbacher, 2003; Meadows and Pike, 2010; Samples and Austin, 2009; Polonsky and Grau, 2008). Our point is that the performance literature does not currently provide satisfying answers to these challenges. The first challenge identified is the confusion in the literature surrounding the definition of organizational performance (Quinn & Rohrbaugh, 1983). Performance scholars contributed to this confusion by each using an own definition of performance unrelated to any wider theoretical framework or by even bypassing the definition issue (Campbell, 1977). As they rarely share common definitions of performance, the accumulation of a body of common knowledge remains illusionary. In any case, performance scholars stick to isolated definitions and hardly recognize that multiple contingent definitions of performance can coexist in a consistent framework. The second challenge is closely related to the first one as it also concerns the definition of performance. For social enterprises, the performance definition step is an essential issue because, unlike for-profit corporations often do, relying only on straightforward performance indicators such as financial ratios would not be sufficient. Therefore they have to work on with a more complex definition of performance, which forces them to deepen the definition issue even more carefully. These challenges are addressed in the two sections of this paper. The first challenge is tackled in the first section of the paper, in which we compare the relative advantages of two bodies of literature likely to serve as basis for the definition of performance for social enterprises. This first section concludes with the relevance of rejuvenating an old body of literature, namely “organizational effectiveness” , which is likely to provide answers to the confusion plaguing the definition issue in the performance literature. Based on that theoretical finding, we develop a second section in which we review the OE literature to deal with the second challenge. This body of literature can potentially offer strong theoretical bases to integrate the complexity of social enterprises, except that the interrelationships between the existing OE approaches have never been explicitly stressed up to now. Therefore we address this research gap by setting up a framework articulating the existing OE approaches, which can open the way to integrate the complexity of social enterprises. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-Based Practice et orthophonie : application aux troubles développementaux du langage
Maillart, Christelle ULg; Durieux, Nancy ULg

Conference (2013, July 01)

L’objectif de cet atelier est de familiariser les orthophonistes avec l’Evidence-Based Practice (EBP). Chaque clinicien est de façon régulière confronté à des incertitudes quant aux choix thérapeutiques ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de cet atelier est de familiariser les orthophonistes avec l’Evidence-Based Practice (EBP). Chaque clinicien est de façon régulière confronté à des incertitudes quant aux choix thérapeutiques ou aux décisions cliniques à prendre pour un patient particulier. L’EBP est une approche méthodologique qui permet de réduire cette incertitude. Elle préconise d’associer les résultats cliniquement pertinents issus de la recherche scientifique à la compétence clinique du praticien et à la situation d’un patient correctement et complètement informé (Sackett et al., 1996). L’EBP est une démarche complexe qui nécessite de maîtriser les outils de recherche d’informations, de pouvoir accéder à la littérature, d’avoir une approche critique des données disponibles et de les confronter aux caractéristiques d’un patient cible. Nous partirons de situations cliniques concrètes liées aux troubles développementaux du langage pour illustrer la démarche et aider le participant à se l’approprier. [less ▲]

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See detailThe EMES "ideal-type" social enterprise as a compass
Defourny, Jacques ULg

Conference (2013, July 01)

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See detailQuadratic reformulations of nonlinear binary optimization problems
Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2013, July 01)

We consider the problem of minimizing a pseudo-Boolean function f(x), i.e., a real-valued function of 0-1 variables. Several authors have recently proposed to reduce this problem to the quadratic case by ... [more ▼]

We consider the problem of minimizing a pseudo-Boolean function f(x), i.e., a real-valued function of 0-1 variables. Several authors have recently proposed to reduce this problem to the quadratic case by expressing f(x) as min{g(x,y): y in {0,1}}, where g is a quadratic function of x and of additional binary variables y. We establish lower and upper bounds on the number of additional y-variables needed in such a reformulation, both for the general case and for the special case of symmetricfunctions like positive or negative monomials, k-out-of-n majority functions, or parity functions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe number of structures compatible with any correlation function
Gommes, Cédric ULg

Conference (2013, July)

A two-point correlation function provides a crucial yet an incomplete characterization of a microstructure because distinctly different microstructures may have the same correlation function. We address ... [more ▼]

A two-point correlation function provides a crucial yet an incomplete characterization of a microstructure because distinctly different microstructures may have the same correlation function. We address here the microstructural degeneracy question: What is the number of microstructures compatible with a specified correlation function? We compute this degeneracy in the framework of reconstruction methods, which enables us to map the problem to the determination of ground-state degeneracies. Since the configuration space of a reconstruction problem is a hypercube on which a Hamming distance is defined, we can calculate analytically the energy profile of any reconstruction problem, corresponding to the average energy of all microstructures at a given Hamming distance from a ground state. The steepness of the energy profile is a measure of the roughness of the energy landscape associated with the reconstruction problem, which can be used as a proxy for the ground-state degeneracy. The relationship between this roughness metric and the ground-state degeneracy is calibrated using a Monte Carlo algorithm for determining the ground-state degeneracy of a variety of microstructures (e.g., realizations of hard disks and Poisson point processes at various densities), as well as with microstructures with a known degeneracy (e.g., single disks of various sizes and a particular crystalline microstructure). We show that our results can be expressed in terms of the information content of the two-point correlation functions. From this perspective, the a priori condition for a reconstruction to be accurate is that the information content, expressed in bits, should be comparable to the number of pixels in the unknown microstructure. We provide a formula to calculate the information content of any two-point correlation function, which makes our results directly applicable by other researchers in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the way to the hybrid organization? When worlds collide through collective entrepreneurship
Dufays, Frédéric ULg; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This communication presents a model of collective entrepreneurship process, drawing on institutional theory (institutional logics) and on the sociology of social networks (structural hole). It argues that ... [more ▼]

This communication presents a model of collective entrepreneurship process, drawing on institutional theory (institutional logics) and on the sociology of social networks (structural hole). It argues that entrepreneurship might result from the association of bridge-builders, both in terms of structural hole bridging and in terms of institutional logics bridging. Individual as well as structural factors will influence the entrepreneurial outcome, in particular in the way the new organisation deals with the distinct logics. [less ▲]

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See detailMacrophytes : limitations of using them to assess reservoir status according to the water framework directive
Sossey Alaoui, Khadija ULg; Rosillon, Francis ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Macrophytes are among the major groups of organisms that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) recommends should be used in assessing the status of reservoirs. The use of macrophytes in reservoir monitoring ... [more ▼]

Macrophytes are among the major groups of organisms that the Water Framework Directive (WFD) recommends should be used in assessing the status of reservoirs. The use of macrophytes in reservoir monitoring is still fairly limited and studies are needed on their inter-calibration and sources of variation. Many status assessment methods based on macrophyte communities have been defined for lakes, Nevertheless few of them have been tested for reservoirs. The purpose of the study is to highlight the limitations of using macrophytes to assess reservoir status according to the Water Framework Directive. An assessment of macrophyte composition and abundance and of water quality was carried out in seven Walloon reservoirs between 2010 and 2012. The main limitations of the macrophyte approach for assessing these reservoirs were: i) geographical features, ii) physical variables, iii) water chemistry and iiii) lack of ecological information on the various macrophytic groups, such as helophytes, algae and mosses. Few of the taxa occurring in the Walloon reservoirs have an indicator score for status assessment based on macrophyte communities. We used two assessment methods to test the relevance of using macrophyte communities to assess reservoir status: the Flanders (Belgium) method (BE-FL method) and the United Kingdom method (UK-method). The relationships between macrophyte metrics for both methods and nutrient enrichment were examined. Highly significant correlations were found between the chemical variables (O-P [mg P/l]); P tot (μg P/l); total hardness (°F), conductivity (μS/cm) and the trophic UK-metric (LMNI); and between it and the abundance of ‘Bl-FL disturbance indicators’ metric (V). The ‘UK group of macrophyte species’ metric does not provide direct information on the quality or degree of degradation of the environment from which the sample was taken. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical imaging of small molecules from simple to complex matrices: Quantitative approaches based on Surface Enhanced Raman scattering
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Chavez, Pierre-François ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

Surface Enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) allows to dramatically exalt the Raman diffusion of molecules absorbed or very closed to rough metallic surfaces while keeping their structural information. SERS ... [more ▼]

Surface Enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) allows to dramatically exalt the Raman diffusion of molecules absorbed or very closed to rough metallic surfaces while keeping their structural information. SERS chemical imaging, presenting a high specificity and sensibility, allows acquiring a visual representation of samples combining spectral and spatial measurements. This technique could become a powerful tool in pharmaceutical and biological analysis enabling to identify and quantify molecules thanks to chemometric evaluation while looking at their distribution or their interactions. In this context, SERS chemical imaging is investigated in detection or quantitative determination of molecules in pharmaceutical and biological matrices. The feasibility of making quantitative measurements using SERS is evaluated on small target molecules models such as 4-aminophenol and lactate. Firstly, a SERS method to quantify 4-aminophenol which is the primary impurity of acetaminophen coming from its degradation during the storage or from its synthesis was developed on a real pharmaceutical formulation. The standard addition method was selected as calibration method in order to take into account the matrix effect coming from the different components of the latter. Despite the well-known stability and repeatability problems of SERS, the method was thoroughly validated by means of accuracy profiles as decision tool. Moreover, this validation methodology allowed to define a first estimation of the real analytical performance of the technique. Secondly, the detection of lactate, which is a critical metabolite implicated in several metabolic disorders, was successfully tested in the physiological concentration in a simple matrix. Preliminary results for the determination of this metabolic biomarker were also very promising allowing to consider more complex matrices. Based on these results, SERS chemical imaging was implemented to detect 4-aminophenol in a pharmaceutical tablet formerly pulverised by a SERS substrate. Through this imaging technique, it was not only possible to detect the presence of the impurity at the limit of specification of 0.1% (w/w) but it was also possible to differentiate tablets comprising different concentrations of the latter. These promising results represent the first step towards quantitative measurements using SERS chemical imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailFoundations in Belgium: for what? And how?
Mernier, Amélie ULg

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailThe determinants of charitable giving in Belgium
Mernier, Amélie ULg; Dufays, Frédéric ULg; Dal Fior, Catherine

Conference (2013, July)

Charitable giving is a research topic that has largely been addressed in the U.S.-context. However, there exist only very few studies on Belgian donating behavior. This paper aims to fill this gap using a ... [more ▼]

Charitable giving is a research topic that has largely been addressed in the U.S.-context. However, there exist only very few studies on Belgian donating behavior. This paper aims to fill this gap using a combination of fiscal, demographic and political data. OLS regressions and Fixed effects regressions are performed and show a positive effect of age and income on the probability to donate. In addition, age and income increase the average donation amount, whereas gender and declaring jointly tend to decrease it. Further, the region and the political party to which belongs the mayor of the municipality in which one lives also affect the likelihood of charitable giving and the donated amount. This paper has implications both for researchers and charity practitioners. The latter are likely to pay attention to the factors that increase the probability to donate and the average donated amount, especially in times of economic crises as charities may rely less and less on the state to cover their financial resource needs. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond philanthropy : When philanthropy becomes social entrepreneurship
Defourny, Jacques ULg; Nyssens, Marthe; Thys, Séverine ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (8 ULg)
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See detailSimulation and optimization of a CHP biomass plant and district heating network
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems ... [more ▼]

Biomass Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plants connected to district heating (DH) networks are recognized nowadays as a very good opportunity to increase the share of renewable sources into energy systems. However, as CHP plants are not optimized for electricity production, their operation is profitable only if a sufficient heat demand is available throughout the year. Most of the time, pre-feasibility studies are based on peak power demand and business plans only assume monthly or yearly consumption data. This approach usually turns out to overestimate the number of operating hours or oversize the plant capacity. This contribution presents a methodology intended to be simple and effective that provides accurate estimations of economical, environmental and energetic performances of CHP plants connected to district heating networks. A quasi-steady state simulation model of a CHP plant combined with a simulation model of the district heating network installed on the Campus of the University in Liège (Belgium) is used as an application framework to demonstrate the effectiveness of the selected approach. Based on the developed model and actual consumption data, several scenarios for energy savings are considered and ranked. The potential energy savings and resulting energy costs are estimated enabling more general conclusions to be drawn on the opportunity of using district heating networks in urban districts for Western Europe countries. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the definitions and interpretations of Entropy in Landscape ecology: A review
Vranken, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Landscape ecology studies the structure of landscapes as interacting ecosystems over space and time. Thanks to Turner's Pattern / process paradigm, it allows inferring ecological impacts of disturbances ... [more ▼]

Landscape ecology studies the structure of landscapes as interacting ecosystems over space and time. Thanks to Turner's Pattern / process paradigm, it allows inferring ecological impacts of disturbances observable through land use change. The purpose of this research is to use landscape ecology techniques based on remote sensing to assess the ecological impacts of anthropogenic effects such as urban growth and agriculture extension on subtropical African landscapes, characterised by fast unplanned growth and subsequent prevailing menace on the rich local environmental resources and biodiversity. Taken from information theory and generally used to assess disturbances of any kind, the concept of entropy is important in landscape ecology and also used in many other disciplines for other purposes. It turns out however that it is used in many different ways and interpreted within various, sometimes opposed definitions and that the context in which it is used is not always explicit. The purpose of the present intervention is therefore to review the different interpretations and applications of entropy in landscape ecology and sort them into different clearly defined categories. Forty landscape ecology articles and book chapters using or discussing entropy have been surveyed and classified by keywords, variables and indexes mentioned to relate entropy. The connection relevance between those interpretations has also been examined through this literature sample and other reference works on entropy. Particularly, the thermodynamic component of entropy in landscape ecology and its different interpretations as for landscape structure and evolution is questioned. This fundamental research issue represents a preliminary survey to researches on the structural impact of anthropogenic disturbances. Indeed, according to the Naiman habitat heterogeneity hypothesis, a higher spatial heterogeneity within the landscape would have a positive influence on species diversity. This has important outcomes to study ecosystem resilience to anthropogenic disturbances and combine human development with biological conservation. [less ▲]

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See detailReaching the 1% accuracy level on stellar mass and radius determinations from asteroseismology. The case of hot B subdwarfs
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Charpinet, Stéphane; Fontaine, Gilles et al

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailFormulation of a geometrically exact beam finite element on the Lie group SE(3)
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Cardona, Alberto; Bruls, Olivier ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (1 ULg)
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See detailModels and prospects for a sustainable suburban transition.
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This paper addresses the challenges, transformations and conditions of a sustainable suburban transition. Two powerful levers are used: (1) urban form, which is considered in addition to the individual ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the challenges, transformations and conditions of a sustainable suburban transition. Two powerful levers are used: (1) urban form, which is considered in addition to the individual building scale, and (2) mobility, because sprawl spatially separates activities, resulting in an increase in travel distances and energy used in transportation. Two main indicators (the heating needs of different types of suburban forms and a commute performance index) are developed and discussed. Three scenarios focused on the evolution of the existing building stock are modelled and assessed (the retrofitting of existing neighbourhoods, an increase in the built density and demolition / reconstruction) to answer two main questions: "how to intervene in suburban areas?" and" where to intervene? ". These main results focused on energy efficiency are then studied in a larger framework to highlight the opportunities, limitations, constraints and feasibility of each strategy. Concrete prospects and guidelines for policy makers are finally proposed to operationalize a "sustainable suburban renewal". These findings show that, beyond the traditional polarization of the debates on energy efficiency of our built environment between the “compact city” and the “sprawled city”, a new pragmatic paradigm, focused on the transition of suburban areas by densification, can make suburban areas evolve towards more sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh Performance DSSC Based on Semiconducting Oxides Prepared Through Soft Chemistry Processes
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Schrijnemakers, Audrey ULg; Thalluri, Venkata Visveswara Gopala Kris ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

DSSCs have been reported by O’Regan and Grätzel in the early nineties as a very promising alternative to conventional photovoltaic silicon devices. Main benefits of these cells are their low cost as well ... [more ▼]

DSSCs have been reported by O’Regan and Grätzel in the early nineties as a very promising alternative to conventional photovoltaic silicon devices. Main benefits of these cells are their low cost as well as their mild manufacturing process. In most of the specific literature, DSSCs are made of TiO2 films prepared by doctor-blade or screen-printing of anatase nanoparticles paste. However, due to the random organization of the nanoparticles, pore accessibility by the dye and electrolyte could be incomplete. Moreover, some anatase crystallites could suffer from a lack of connectivity, leading to electron transfer issues. The strategy adopted by our group to improve photovoltaic efficiencies involves a templating-assisted process allowing the preparation of highly porous layers with well-ordered and accessible pores as well as improved crystallites connectivity. The main goal is to increase the film surface area and to perfectly control the mesostructure in order to maximize the adsorption of active dye and the electrolyte infiltration inside the porous network. This talk especially focuses on the templating-assisted synthesis of TiO2 and ZnO semiconducting layers used as photoelectrode in DSSCs. Besides, due to the surface area improvement as well as the perfect control of the pore organization and the pore size, the templating strategy can be an effective solution to overcome light harvesting and solid electrolyte filling limitations encountered in solid-state DSSCs. Special effort is paid to the tuning of the TiO2 and ZnO semiconducting layers mesostructure in order to match with solid-state DSSC applications. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermediaries, transport costs and interlinked transactions
Tharakan, Joseph ULg

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailMiddle management under pressure: sensemaking activities around the implementation of new managerial devices in the General interest
Pichault, François ULg; Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2013, July)

The paper is structured around three sections. The first one will help to highlight the way in which the scientific literature documents the appropriation of management control systems by middle or local ... [more ▼]

The paper is structured around three sections. The first one will help to highlight the way in which the scientific literature documents the appropriation of management control systems by middle or local managers. It leads us to develop a first hypothesis expressed in institutional terms. In a second step, three case studies are presented, where the relationship to the notion of general interest — supposed to reflect public action— is contrasted: a “pure” public service (Judicorps), a private organisation acting on behalf of a public service (Federmut) and a formerly public but now privatised company (National Telecom). In a third step, we discuss the results gathered, invalidating our initial hypothesis, and propose an alternative explanation of the phenomena observed, referring to the actor-network theory (Akrich, Callon & Latour, 2006), the sensemaking activities of local managers (Weick, 1995) and the disciplinary power of managerial devices (Foucault, 1994). [less ▲]

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See detailAn overview of the foundations sector in Belgium
Mernier, Amélie ULg

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailAn augmented Lagrangian and reduced index formulation for the analysis of multibody systems with impacts
Bruls, Olivier ULg; Acary, Vincent; Cavalieri, Federico J. et al

Conference (2013, July)

This paper presents a formalism for the simulation of nonsmooth dynamic systems with unilateral constraints, which integrates the contributions of impacts with first order accuracy in a fully implicit way ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a formalism for the simulation of nonsmooth dynamic systems with unilateral constraints, which integrates the contributions of impacts with first order accuracy in a fully implicit way, while the other contributions are integrated with second-order accuracy. Here, the smooth contribution of the reaction forces associated with bilateral and unilateral constraints is also integrated with second-order accuracy. Therefore, in free flight phases, the algorithm is strictly equivalent to a classical second-order scheme. Moreover, following the idea of Gear, Gupta and Leimkuhler, bilateral and unilateral constraints are imposed both at position and velocity levels. This means that the constraints are enforced exactly and no penetration is allowed. In the absence of unilateral constraints, the method leads to a formulation of the equation of motion as an index-2 differential-algebraic equation. Finally, the method is based on a reformulation of the LCP as an augmented Lagrangian equation with a suitable activation / deactivation criterion for the unilateral constraints. The resulting system of nonsmooth equations is solved using a monolithic semi-smooth Newton algorithm. [less ▲]

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See detailQuestioning regional science, technology and innovation policies: the consensual case of the Marshall Plan for Wallonia.
Charlier, Nathan ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This paper examines the implementation of the “Marshall Plan for Wallonia” (MP), a 2005 strategic policy program that aims to enhance the Walloon region’s competitiveness and generate innovation-driven ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the implementation of the “Marshall Plan for Wallonia” (MP), a 2005 strategic policy program that aims to enhance the Walloon region’s competitiveness and generate innovation-driven economic growth. Actively marketed by the government, the MP’s rationale is endorsed by labor unions and employers’ organizations, leaving no room for political controversy. The absence of outspoken conflict is remarkable since the MP (1) reconfigures the relationship between science, technological innovation and the market, (2) encompasses a fifth of regional budget resources, and (3) picks few winners, i.e. those belonging to what the Plan conveys as strategic R&D domains for Wallonia. In other policy fields, such as employment, taxes and labor costs, opposition is more pronounced and protracted. The paper asks how a strong consensus among these actors is constructed and sustained, given the potential for considerable disagreement among involved parties / stakeholders. To address the reasons for a broad consensus, the paper specifically examines the master narratives at play in Wallonia’s STI policies. These narratives are locally enacted through regional policies and embedded in the existing STI regime (Pestre 2003, Delvenne 2011), and confronted with future-oriented socio-technical imaginaries associated with active exercises of state power (Jasanoff and Kim 2009). In the case of the MP, we observe a phenomenon of “narrative salience” (Claisse and Delvenne 2012), which characterizes situations that attest to the domination and prominence (at the discursive level, in the institutions and actors' repertoires and routines) of one storyline, acting as a well-routinized script that is accepted and enacted rather than questioned. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysico-chemical properties and photocatalytic activity of P/Ag-doped TiO2 xerogels
Bodson Céline; Pirard, Sophie ULg; Pirard René et al

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailHuman impacts on Antarctic ecosystems: do not forget the microorganisms!
Hughes, Kevin; Verleyen, Elie; Vyverman, Wim et al

Conference (2013, July)

The tiny and microscopic creatures that are the permanent inhabitants of the Antarctic continent are often overlooked in environmental impact assessments and when new management and protection strategies ... [more ▼]

The tiny and microscopic creatures that are the permanent inhabitants of the Antarctic continent are often overlooked in environmental impact assessments and when new management and protection strategies are designed. This lack of consideration is probably due to their small size and the need of sophisticated molecular methods to study their diversity, evolution and geographic distribution. However, considerable progress has been made in the field of molecular diversity in the last two decennia, and is still ongoing for Antarctic bacteria, cyanobacteria, protists, fungi, etc. Recent studies have shown the presence of highly diverse microbial communities and the existence of species endemic to Antarctic in some taxonomic groups. With the emergence of High Throughput Sequencing methodologies that are able to detect ‘rare’ taxa, it becomes crucial to find Antarctic locations that have not yet been impacted by human presence. These ‘pristine’ areas are essential to serve as reference sites and allow to distinguish the true Antarctic organisms from the imported ones. Indeed, recent studies have shown that humans unintentionally disperse their own microbial flora but may also spread organisms from other locations. In the extreme biotopes with a reduced diversity that are currently found in Antarctica, such contaminations might have a profound impact. It is important to raise the awareness of scientists, environmental managers and policy makers about the necessity to single out some areas that are kept untouched, or where stringent biosecurity measures are taken. The purpose is not to hinder scientific research, but to weigh carefully, when exploring a new area, the importance of the acquired piece of knowledge in relation to the possibility of hindering future microbiological research. Some parallels with other fields of research are interesting to consider. Archeologists are used to keeping some parts of the explored caves untouched because they foresee that technological progress will allow better analyses in future. The COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection makes recommendations to avoid the contamination of other planets with microbes from Earth, which would obscure any discovery of extraterrestrial indigenous life forms. These examples illustrate the essential need to integrate the delineation of reference areas for future analyses in the design and execution of scientific research. In fact, the Madrid Protocol foresees the possibility to designate ‘inviolate areas’ (Annex V, Article 3), though this tool has rarely been used. It would be useful if scientists of all disciplines would reflect how to use this management option. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter’s elusive bald patch
Grodent, Denis ULg; Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

The detailed morphology of Jupiter’s UV auroral emissions is definitely very complex. To some extent, this complexity depicts the zoo of processes taking place inside, and sometimes, outside Jupiter’s ... [more ▼]

The detailed morphology of Jupiter’s UV auroral emissions is definitely very complex. To some extent, this complexity depicts the zoo of processes taking place inside, and sometimes, outside Jupiter’s enormous magnetosphere. One is naturally more inclined to focus on the bright emissions, but recent progresses in cosmology teach us that there is also important information in the darkness. In this present, preliminary study, we are exploring a dark region of Jupiter’s polar aurora -“Jupiter’s bald patch”- located poleward of the main emission (oval). It appears to be bordered by patchy features belonging to auroral regions often referred to as the swirl and flare regions. These regions contain the poleward most auroral features. Therefore, it is legitimate to ask whether this dark region, even closer to the pole, is actually the polar cap, implying some level of reconnection of Jupiter’s strong magnetic field with the interplanetary magnetic field. An ongoing HST campaign is providing stunning high temporal and spatial (and spectral) resolution time tagged images of Jupiter’s northern and southern aurora. They show that the bald patch is conspicuous on some images but much less obvious in others. They also suggest that it is not always completely devoid of emission, possibly alluding to a weak, intermittent, Dungey-like cycle. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter's conjugate ultraviolet aurora
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2013, July)

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See detailA branch and price approach for an airport vehicle routing problem
Schyns, Michael ULg

Conference (2013, July)

This project has been initiated by a main European freight airport. The goal is to optimize the aircraft refueling process which relies on a given set of trucks. The underlying process can be defined as a ... [more ▼]

This project has been initiated by a main European freight airport. The goal is to optimize the aircraft refueling process which relies on a given set of trucks. The underlying process can be defined as a vehicle routing problem with capacity and time windows. We resort to a branch and price approach for which we first analyze the impact of different parameters on the performance of the algorithm. Due to the stochastic nature of the demand and time windows in this context, we are also working on a priori (split delivery) and a posteriori (efficient re-optimization) measures. [less ▲]

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See detailA mortar algorithm combined with an Augmented Lagrangian approach for treatment of frictional contact problems
Cavalieri, Federico J.; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Cardona, Alberto

Conference (2013, July)

Contact mechanics is present in a wide range of mechanical engineering applications, and numerous works have been dedicated to the numerical solution of contact problems. Mathematically, the frictional ... [more ▼]

Contact mechanics is present in a wide range of mechanical engineering applications, and numerous works have been dedicated to the numerical solution of contact problems. Mathematically, the frictional contact problem can be seen as defined by a variational inequality. The solution corresponds to the minimum of the total energy of the system, subjected to inequalities constraints associated to the normal and tangential components of the traction and distance vectors, respectively. Nonlinear contact mechanics can be related to nonlinear optimization problems formulated by using the method of Lagrange multipliers, resulting in a saddle point system to be solved at each iteration. The method of Lagrange multipliers is very popular in contact mechanics because it overcomes the ill-conditioning inconvenience of the penalty methods. However, the size of the global matrix increases due to the additional unknowns (the Lagrange multipliers) and zero entries appear on the main diagonal of the stiffness matrix. These drawbacks can be avoided by using an augmented Lagrangian method, which consists in a combination of both the penalty and the Lagrange multipliers techniques. In this work, a mixed penalty-duality formulation based on an augmented Lagrangian approach for treating the contact and the friction inequality constraints is presented. The augmented Lagrangian approach allows to regularize the non differentiable contact terms, giving a C1 differentiable saddle-point function. The relative displacement of the contacting bodies is described in the framework of the Finite Element Method (FEM) using the mortar method, which gives a smooth representation of the contact forces across the bodies interface. [less ▲]

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See detailA multirate approach to combine electromagnetic transients and fundamental-frequency simulations
Plumier, Frédéric ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

Conference (2013, July)

Abstract--- A new multi-rate technique is proposed to combine fundamental-frequency simulation (typical of stability studies) with electromagnetic transients simulation. The objective of this hybrid ... [more ▼]

Abstract--- A new multi-rate technique is proposed to combine fundamental-frequency simulation (typical of stability studies) with electromagnetic transients simulation. The objective of this hybrid approach is to obtain more accurate simulations than with the fundamental-frequency approximation, while saving computing time by applying the detailed model to a subsystem only, in some neighbourhood of the disturbance. It also allows to remove some limitations of fundamental-frequency simulation, such as the difficulty of simulating unbalanced faults. A relaxation technique is used to iterate between both models with simple interfacing. Preliminary results obtained with a 74-bus test system are presented, together with a comparison with full electromagnetic transients simulation. [less ▲]

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See detailMassive Depletion of Bovine Leukemia Virus Proviral Clones Located in Genomic Transcriptionally Active Sites During Primary Infection
Gillet, Nicolas ULg; Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Rodriguez, Sabrina et al

Conference (2013, June 29)

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See detailBelgian tourists and development cooperation : portrait and stakes of human-sized partnerships in Senegal
Godin, Julie ULg

Conference (2013, June 29)

While Senegal has economic health and living conditions superior to those of its neighbors, it is the most helped country in West Africa. Moreover it is one of the countries in this area to have developed ... [more ▼]

While Senegal has economic health and living conditions superior to those of its neighbors, it is the most helped country in West Africa. Moreover it is one of the countries in this area to have developed a true mass tourism. In this context a lot of tourists fall in love with Senegal and its population in search of roots, authenticity and human warmth and they decide then to start a development project with a native with whom they have sympathized during their tourist stay. Based on a recent field research, this contribution will examine the stakes of development projects carried by Belgian citizens in the field of education and health in the very touristic area of M’bour in Senegal. I will focus on two main issues that I am studying during my PhD research. This contribution will firstly analyse the motivations that underlie these projects and the perceptions they have of each Other. In a second time it will examine how these representations shape the relationship between them and the way that these projects are implemented. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the verb: constructions at work in the expression of static location in Dutch and French
Perrez, Julien ULg; Lemmens, Maarten

Conference (2013, June 28)

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See detailEvaluation of a sanitarian public-private partnership in Benin. An ethnographic study case.
Schnitzler, Marie ULg

Conference (2013, June 28)

While private clinics are generally recognized as important care givers in current African cities, the sector remains under-studied in the social sciences. The research for my master thesis focused on the ... [more ▼]

While private clinics are generally recognized as important care givers in current African cities, the sector remains under-studied in the social sciences. The research for my master thesis focused on the creation of a hospital anchored to a public-private partnership, including the World Bank, the Beninese Health Ministry and a private non-governmental association. The main purpose of my enquiry is to understand how the status of this hospital influences (or not) its organization and its use by clients. Therefore, I firstly analyze the emergence and the diversity of the Beninese private health sector as well as the connotations of the notion of public-private partnership. These two points help to understand the particular context of creation of the studied public-private partnership and how it was imposed to the Ministry by the World Bank. Secondly, my research shows how the creation is nowadays read in different ways by the various actors in order to claim their rights on the management of the hospital. Thirdly, focusing on collaboration between the different categories of workers and their relationships with clients, I describe formal and informal organization of this private hospital. This part underlines the particularities of private direction in comparison with well-known studies of public centers. Using these data, I also try to understand why clients come to this specific hospital. I argue that status is not as important in their choice. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Support of Children by the Family and the State: Institutional Configurations in a Comparative Perspective in the North and South
Wouango, Joséphine ULg; Turcotte, Daniel

Conference (2013, June 28)

This paper analyzes the social policies that have been implemented since countries have been obliged to implement the human rights of children as recognized at the International level. If these rights are ... [more ▼]

This paper analyzes the social policies that have been implemented since countries have been obliged to implement the human rights of children as recognized at the International level. If these rights are given to all children without distinction, their implementation occurs in a context of cultural, social and economic diversity. The nature of the laws and actions to be implemented will depend on the relative importance that a society will give to these rights. Focused on a doctorate research on policies relating to child protection in Burkina Faso (West Africa) and a postdoctoral research on child protection in Québec [in progress], this presentation seeks to put into perspective the contemporary challenges of child protection involving greater State intervention and family responsibilities. [less ▲]

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See detailExamining Managers' careers at the crossing of gender and age
Grodent, Françoise ULg; Peere, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2013, June 28)

This paper reviews the literature with a view to grounding empirical comparative research on male and female managers' careers with regard to three age categories: managers aged up to 35, between 35 and ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews the literature with a view to grounding empirical comparative research on male and female managers' careers with regard to three age categories: managers aged up to 35, between 35 and 50 and above 50. It considers both men and women as professional careers are influenced by gender as well as by stereotyped gender roles. Hence, distinguishing these age categories affords consideration of evolving contextual factors such as gender-specific roles upheld throughout time. Indeed social perceptions with regard to gender can vary from one generation to another and sensibly affect career choices. Thus considering age in correlation with gender leads up to broaching "intersectionality", a concept which in diversity management consists in crossing the target groups concerned. This theoretical overview of the literature relating to the careers of managers yields a theoretical frame of reference along with qualitative propositions to be tested subsequently in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailLa pédagogie par projets au service d’une formation professionnalisante
Georges, François ULg

Conference (2013, June 28)

La pédagogie par projets est ici envisagée comme une méthodologie active parmi d'autres susceptible de servir le développement des compétences et de l'identité professionnelle des citoyens de demain ... [more ▼]

La pédagogie par projets est ici envisagée comme une méthodologie active parmi d'autres susceptible de servir le développement des compétences et de l'identité professionnelle des citoyens de demain appelés à relever de nombreux défis sociaux et environnementaux. La conférence ancre l'approche dans un cadre théorique illustré et nuancé dans l'analyse de trois cas. Les dérives possibles sont évoquées. Les impacts sont objectivés. La conclusion met en exergue les conditions d'une exploitation de la PPP propice à l'apprentissage. [less ▲]

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See detailPréfaces et collections, figures du collectif
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2013, June 28)

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See detailSUSTAINABILITY AND MANAGEMENT CONTROL: EXPLORING AND THEORIZING ON CONTROL PATTERNS IN LARGE EUROPEAN FIRMS
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Zvezdov, Dimitar; Schaltegger, Stefan

Conference (2013, June 27)

Purpose of the research A growing body of literature argues that management control is essential in promoting corporate sustainability (Epstein and Roy, 2001; Crittenden et al., 2011). Furthermore, the ... [more ▼]

Purpose of the research A growing body of literature argues that management control is essential in promoting corporate sustainability (Epstein and Roy, 2001; Crittenden et al., 2011). Furthermore, the conventional accounting and control literature has identified sustainability and control as an important emerging theme (Berry et al., 2009). Nevertheless, except a series of conceptual (and often prescriptive) papers, few papers have proposed to empirically explore management control practices for sustainability. This explains partly the scepticism that has been raised about the existence of these management controls in the context of sustainability and especially about their role in promoting sustainability within the organizations (Deegan, 2002; Norris and O’Dwyer, 2004; Durden, 2008). Based on these observations, this paper aims at exploring sustainability management control practices in large European firms. It investigates the extent to which large companies have developed a package of formal and informal management control mechanisms in order to steer their organization towards corporate sustainability and, based on this empirical observations, it theorizes on typical sustainability control patterns. Principal results All of the researched companies deploy sustainability management control. There are, however, notable differences with regard to the complexity of the underlying systems and tools – from basic to advanced ones. The paper also identifies two distinct approaches in management control for sustainability. Whereas some companies seem to focus on formal approaches of management control, others concentrate on informal management control. A mixture of both was not observed in the sample companies. Major conclusions The insights and recommendations provided in this paper help organizations in translating their aspirations into their organization (Epstein and Wisner, 2005). The results also highlight the need for research to better understand the situations in which formal and informal management control for sustainability yields the results anticipated. [less ▲]

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See detailLa pédagogie par projets
Georges, François ULg

Conference (2013, June 27)

Atelier centré sur la découverte de la pédagogie par projets et son transfert dans sa pratique.

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See detailAnalyzing soil charcoals to assess the naturalness of tropical forest
Morin-Rivat, Julie ULg; Gorel, Anaïs-Pasiphaé; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

For conservation biology and sustainable management, the natural character of tropical forest is a crucial issue. Its assessment is usually based on ecological proxies such as forest composition and ... [more ▼]

For conservation biology and sustainable management, the natural character of tropical forest is a crucial issue. Its assessment is usually based on ecological proxies such as forest composition and structure. However the estimation made on this basis only considers short term processes at a local scale. In contrast the long term processes are appraised by palaeoecological proxies (such as pollen) at a regional scale. So as to assess the degree of naturalness of tropical ecosystems in a conservation perspective it is important to combine a long temporal scale as well as a fine resolution spatial scale. Such approaches using palaeoecological proxies have been recently tested in temperate Europe but little in tropical ecosystems. Nonetheless the long term preservation of the palaeoecological material and its broad presence in the environment are necessary conditions to fulfill. In this perspective soil charcoal appears to meet these requirements. In this paper we aimed at assessing the naturalness of tropical forest using soil charcoal from southeastern Cameroon. Fieldwork involving as well archaeology as botany was undertaken at 53 sites. We quantified charcoal in soil samples by layers of 10 cm taken from pits located in the center of plots of botanical inventory. Spatial projections were performed using statistics together with multivariate analyses. Radiocarbon dating allowed interpreting the temporal framework. Results showed the ubiquitous presence of charcoal at each site. Main charcoal peaks were interpreted as fields (slash-and-burn agriculture) in the vicinity of ancient villages. These practices shaped the forest over time which cannot be considered as natural anymore. This underlines the potential input of the use of palaeoecological material in conservation biology and sustainable management issues. Charcoal fragments are under taxonomical identification and may provide new insights on the long term history of forest composition. [less ▲]

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See detailLe générique de faux documentaire. Approche critique d'un incitant à la lucidité du spectateur.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2013, June 26)

Parallèlement aux multiples commentaires cinéphiliques que le générique suscite depuis plusieurs années, les travaux récents qui lui sont consacrés l’envisagent comme un objet d’étude esthétique ... [more ▼]

Parallèlement aux multiples commentaires cinéphiliques que le générique suscite depuis plusieurs années, les travaux récents qui lui sont consacrés l’envisagent comme un objet d’étude esthétique, narratologique ou sémiologique à part entière. Selon ces études, le générique est un objet fragmentaire (placé majoritairement à partir des années 1960 « sur » les images du début ou de la fin d’un film) voire autonome (on connaît les auteurs spécialisés en réalisation de génériques), marginal aussi (rarement au centre de l’œuvre ; le « générique-préface » de de Mourgues), frontalier encore (dans et hors du film, ou plutôt : à son orée), qui fait office d’ouverture ou de clôture hybride du film. Appartenant à la fois à l’univers de la fiction et à « un autre espace-temps, réel, celui de la production » (Moinereau), le générique de début plus particulièrement sert à « enclencher la diégèse » (de Mourgues) mais aussi à lui résister. « [S]orte de zone franche entre le monde de la réalité et celui de la fiction » (Metz), il est une passerelle, une aide au passage, au basculement dans la fiction. En tant que point pivot bâtard, le générique de début – et non pas « du début », appellation qui sous-entendrait l’appartenance exclusive à un seul lieu –, joue en effet sur deux registres. D’une part il affiche la ou les paternités bien réelles de l’œuvre (jusqu’au début des années 1910 il ne satisfait bien souvent qu’à cette seule obligation légale) et leur rend hommage (graphismes et durées différenciées), ou, dans ses versions les plus sophistiquées, offre au cinéphile (auto-)références et private jokes qui établissent entre le spectateur et l’auteur réel une complicité néanmoins non fatale pour le récit de fiction. D’autre part il aide le spectateur à s’abandonner à l’illusion de la fiction qui doit « mentir sur ses conditions de production » (Comolli) et dont le générique est pourtant le premier symptôme. En somme, le générique de début n’est donc pas seulement hybride par son lieu, mais aussi en raison de sa fonction quasi paradoxale : il établit avec le spectateur un lien a priori adiégétique dont la fonction première est précisément de faciliter son entrée dans la diégèse. Compte tenu de l’intérêt particulier que ces études accordent à la nature hybride du générique, il n’est pas étonnant que les travaux auxquels nous nous référons ici concernent exclusivement des films de fiction. Car, à l’inverse, dans le cas du cinéma documentaire, l’ambivalence inhérente à ce « commutateur de diégèse » (Gardies) est, en principe, inexistante étant donné que le générique d’un film non-fictionnel renvoie le spectateur à un univers « uniquement » réel, commun à l’ensemble du discours filmique. Dans cette perspective, il ne sert donc a priori qu’à inaugurer un contrat spectatoriel ou à poser les fondements d’une convention de lecture qui s’épanouira et développera sa pleine puissance dans le film (installation du principal médiateur, authentification de l’énonciateur, etc.). En documentaire, pas de conflit donc entre un espace-temps « adiégétique » et le film, entre la marge et le texte, car tous deux convoquent des éléments appartenant in fine au même registre, celui du réel. C’est en substance ce que suggère l’approche sémio-pragmatique du documentaire en envisageant le générique de début comme le lieu dans lequel un « je-origine réel » (Odin), par le biais de médiations institutionnelles ou non, prend ses quartiers dans le texte, ouvrant ainsi la voie à une « lecture documentarisante » incontestée dans la suite du film. Les paradigmes trop rapidement évoqués ici révèlent leurs limites dès lors qu’on les confronte à quelques sous-genres particulièrement pratiqués et populaires aujourd’hui tels que le faux documentaire, le docufiction, le mockumentary et le programme de télé-réalité. Se jouant précisément d’un contrat de lecture unilatéral et libre de tout malentendu, ces sous-genres documentaires brouillent la binarité posée par l’approche sémio-pragmatique (« documentarisant » vs « fictionalisant »). Notre analyse de quelques génériques, prégénériques et séquences d’annonce de faux documentaires, de mockumentaries et d’émissions de télé-réalité nous amène à redéfinir le contrat de lecture et les conventions qui y sont liées, propres au cinéma et à la télévision de non-fiction. Ces génériques ne contribuent pas à l’identification par le spectateur d’un énonciateur considéré comme réel (par jeu ou par conviction), mais établissent un nouvel accord tacite et flou entre un auteur reconnu comme fictif (ou ses avatars particulièrement nombreux dans le cas du mockumentary et de la télé-réalité) et le spectateur. Ce nouvel accord vise en réalité à produire l’adhésion forcée d’un spectateur qui pourtant sait qu’il n’est pas dupe, ou croit le savoir. Dans ce sens, le générique apparaît alors comme un lieu crucial pour toute analyse critique du discours non fictionnel : un lieu qui conteste l’authenticité de l’énonciateur et qui nie le crédit accordé au médiateur documentaire, pour offrir au public l’illusion de sa lucidité et le pousser ensuite vers une adhésion sans réserve à un jeu de réel. En somme, une étape indispensable à la constitution d’une crédulité paradoxale du spectateur. [less ▲]

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See detailTests of stellar interiors physics with classical pulsators
Briquet, Maryline ULg

Conference (2013, June 26)

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See detailPlant ecological niche distribution along heavy metal gradients
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg; Seleck, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

Why species do not occur everywhere? The concept of ecological niche is central to understand relationships among biotic/abiotic factors and species distribution. Gradients of environmental stress ... [more ▼]

Why species do not occur everywhere? The concept of ecological niche is central to understand relationships among biotic/abiotic factors and species distribution. Gradients of environmental stress associated to interspecific interactions generate testable patterns of specie’s response curves. Distribution of response curves have been seldom tested along toxicity gradient, in contrast to resource gradients. On Katangan copper hills (south R.D.C.), natural copper and cobalt concentrations span a large range: 2 - 1000 mg kg-1 for cobalt and 30 - 10 000 mg kg-1 for copper. In this study, we evaluate three hypotheses related to niche distributions and shapes along metal toxic gradients: (1) Species optima are uniformly distributed over copper-cobalt gradient. (2) Realized niche width varies in relation to the niche optimum along copper and cobalt gradient. (3) Absolute values of skewness coefficient are higher when plant species optima are in the extremes of cobalt gradient with a niche tails toward mesic conditions. Realized niches of 80 taxa were modeled with general additive models (GAM) using presence/absence data in 172 1m² plots. Niche optima, niche widths and skewness coefficients were estimated from species response curves. The three hypotheses were globally validated. Three groups of species were distinguished according to their optima position along metal gradient with packed optima on intermediate concentrations suggesting higher interspecific competition in low metal concentrations. Niche width increased with metal concentrations. Highest metal tolerant plant species had broader niches. Skewness coefficient was inversely related to niche optima positions. Our study demonstrates that species distribution pattern on toxicity gradient presents similarities with resource gradient. Broad realized amplitude of species adapted to high levels of copper cobalt concentrations suggests that fundamental niche of specialist metallophytes may be larger than expected. This should be further tested in controlled conditions in association to competition tests. [less ▲]

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See detailHow closely are Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae) patches linked to past human disturbances in South-Eastern Cameroon
Bourland, Nils ULg; Cerisier, François; Daïnou, Kasso ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

Studies conducted in the Congo Basin forests concluded that soil parameters and large disturbances induced by human activities since 3000–2000 BP could be the main driver for the persistence of long lived ... [more ▼]

Studies conducted in the Congo Basin forests concluded that soil parameters and large disturbances induced by human activities since 3000–2000 BP could be the main driver for the persistence of long lived light-demanding tall tree species. Today most of the timber species belong to this group, among them Pericopsis elata (Fabaceae). Like many other light-demanding trees, this species suffers from important regeneration problems. While the conditions for its establishment must have been met in the past, they obviously have become unfavourable. Because of ongoing logging activities and a natural decline of its populations, this species is recorded in both the IUCN Red List and the CITES Appendix II listings. Our goal was to investigate the roles of both pedological and anthropogenic factors in the persistence of forest patches characterized by this clustered species. Soil surveys, botanical inventories and anthracological excavations were conducted in three different forest sites located in south-eastern Cameroon. P. elata patches (3.3-14.7 ha) were studied and compared to their close surroundings. No statistical differences were observed between the results of botanical inventories conducted inside and outside the patches (Morisita-Horn indices from 0.69-0.77). Soils only differed in Fe content, but otherwise no significant differences could be observed. Charcoal is widespread and abundant in study sites, mostly inside the patches. Charcoal radiocarbon dating (2,150-195 BP) was consistent with decoration techniques of archaeological materials that we discovered. The average age of P. elata individuals coincides with fire events that occurred in a region where fires rarely occur naturally. We present evidence of past anthropogenic disturbances (human settlement, slash-and-burn cultivation) in the Congolese mixed moist semi-evergreen forest in south-eastern Cameroon. We discuss the potential influence of our findings on the management of light-demanding tall trees populations in a context of logging activities. [less ▲]

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See detailEFFECT OF RAW MATERIAL PROPERTIES ON THE KINETICS OF IRON ORES GRANULATION
Jaimes Contreras, Rafael Antonio ULg; van Loo, Fréderic; Douce, Jean-François et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

The current study is focused on the iron ores granulation process in a laboratory-scale batch drum granulator using water as a binder, and on the investigation of the influence of raw material properties ... [more ▼]

The current study is focused on the iron ores granulation process in a laboratory-scale batch drum granulator using water as a binder, and on the investigation of the influence of raw material properties (morphology and wettability of the primary particles) on its kinetics. Nowadays processing of iron ores often requires a modification of particle size by means of granulation in order to improve further processability. A comparison of the granulation behaviour of three types of iron ores (magnetite, hematite and goethite) has been carried out. The wettability of the powders has been characterised by contact angle measurement. The results confirm the hydrophobic and hydrophilic characters of magnetite and goethite respectively. The granulation kinetics (evolution of particle size distribution as a function of time) of each type of iron ores was measured. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional traits are weak predictors of tree sapling growth worldwide
Paine, C. E. Timothy; Auge, Harald; Baraloto, Christopher et al

Conference (2013, June 26)

Functional traits, well-defined characteristics of organisms that influence or coordinate with ecological performance, promise that one may predict vital rates, such as survival and growth, by measuring a ... [more ▼]

Functional traits, well-defined characteristics of organisms that influence or coordinate with ecological performance, promise that one may predict vital rates, such as survival and growth, by measuring a few aspects of anatomy and physiology. Functional traits have been shown to correlate significantly, though weakly, with the relative growth rate (RGR) of trees in five Neotropical forests. Here, we estimated size-standardized height RGR for 26344 saplings of 240 species from 23 sites around the world using nonlinear models of growth. We then predicted the contribution of three functional traits (specific leaf area, wood density and seed mass) to individual RGR with a hierarchical Bayesian model. The three functional traits, alone and in combination, explained a relatively small amount of variance in RGR, with variation among continents and between temperate and tropical regions. We echo the calls for researchers to shift toward the measurement of 'hard' functional traits, with clear linkages to realized vital rates, rather than 'soft' functional traits, which are easier to measure but may only indicate the theoretical maxima of vital rates. Doing so would advance ecology onto a more solidly functional foundation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relation between the coping strategies and the state of food insecurity in the Republic of Niger
Andres, Ludovic ULg; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

Conference (2013, June 26)

The Niger’s rural population represents 80 percent of the total population. This very high percentage creates an important pressure over the environment because of the high density of population. Indeed ... [more ▼]

The Niger’s rural population represents 80 percent of the total population. This very high percentage creates an important pressure over the environment because of the high density of population. Indeed, the agricultural favorable area is equivalent to a third of the total area of Niger. This area is located in the South of Niger over a strip 300 kilometers of broad. Furthermore, the rural population is subjected to the temporal and structural disruptions. The temporal shocks are defined by the “natural” disruptions such as the hydrometeorological disruption, etc. The structural disruptions are caused by the chronicle difficulties (low income, etc.). The capacity to struggle against the disruptions is defined by the resilience (Lhomme et al., 2010). The resilience is illustrated and assessed by the different coping strategies practiced by the Niger’s rural population. The target of the paper is to demonstrate the state of food insecurity and the coping strategies developed in the departments of Niger. The state of food insecurity and the coping strategy index are calculated as from the data of an annual survey realized by the Early Alert System (EAS) and the Statistical National Institute of Niger (INS). This survey investigates around 10.000 households in December 2009 and April 2010. The sample is extrapolated to estimate the number of people suffering from food insecurity per department. The paper illustrates the state of food insecurity of each department and coping strategy index of the departments. The results will demonstrate the differences between departments. The answers of the paper at the following question: Which are the most vulnerable departments and what is the situation of the coping strategies index in each department? This paper creates also a typology bringing together the same departments in comparison with the coping strategies and the state of food insecurity. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical inverse analysis and stochastic modeling of transition
Serino, Gennaro ULg; Pinna, Fabio; Rambaud, Patrick et al

Conference (2013, June 25)

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See detailThe issue of third in same-sex (lesbian) parenting
Naziri, Despina ULg

Conference (2013, June 24)

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See detailLogiciels d'analyse de textes : Pièges et fausses évidences
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Conference (2013, June 22)

Les logiciels d'analyse de textes ont la côte. Selon certains, un projet de recherche ou une thèse digne de ce nom ne peut sérieusement s'envisager sans le recourt à de tels instruments. Si les logiciels ... [more ▼]

Les logiciels d'analyse de textes ont la côte. Selon certains, un projet de recherche ou une thèse digne de ce nom ne peut sérieusement s'envisager sans le recourt à de tels instruments. Si les logiciels rendent de réels services, ils ne garantissent cependant pas pour autant la qualité des résultats. Il arrive même que l'utilisateur du logiciel oublie les exigences de la recherche scientifique (la collecte raisonnée, la problématisation, la conceptualisation et la réflexivité). À partir de ses propres recherches et ses expériences d'enseignement, Christophe Lejeune présente les atouts des outils disponibles ainsi que les pièges à éviter. [less ▲]

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See detailSartre en psychopathologie : de Huis-clos à l’« homme en situation
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

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See detailÀ propos du "trouble à l'ordre public": Dewey selon Stengers
Thoreau, François ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

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See detailHard and soft tissue regeneration in anterior cases: Materials and Procedures.
LAMBERT, France ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

Hard and soft tissues around implants are not similar to those around natural teeth. Peri-implant tissues required being thicker and self-supportive in order to allow optimal and long-term aesthetic ... [more ▼]

Hard and soft tissues around implants are not similar to those around natural teeth. Peri-implant tissues required being thicker and self-supportive in order to allow optimal and long-term aesthetic results. The objective of this presentation is to emphasize the importance of hard and soft tissues surgical management for long-lasting tissues volumes and therefore aesthetic outcomes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cours "Approche intégrée d'une question d'environnement": une mise en scène des "scientifques dans la tourmente" selon Stengers
Semal, Nathalie ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

La communication présente le concept et l'organisation pratique du cours "Approche multidisciplinaire d'une question d'environnement. Elle montre en quoi ce cours innovant, multidisciplinaire et basé sur ... [more ▼]

La communication présente le concept et l'organisation pratique du cours "Approche multidisciplinaire d'une question d'environnement. Elle montre en quoi ce cours innovant, multidisciplinaire et basé sur une approche "learning by doing", permet de faire émerger des questions d'ordre épistémologique et favorise une posture réflexive et une appropriation de la pensée complexe dans le chef des étudiants. Elle questionne la capacité de cette approche à répondre aux défis de la science de demain, tels que développés par Isabelle Stengers dans le premier chapitre de son livre "La vierge et le neutrino" [less ▲]

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See detailRecherche de lignées aromatiques d’Abies par hybridation somatique
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg

Conference (2013, June 21)

Créer une lignée d’Abies aromatique qui associera les propriétés de croissance reconnues à l’espèce A. nordmanniana aux propriétés aromatiques d’A. balsamea, en utilisant des lignées embryogènes capables ... [more ▼]

Créer une lignée d’Abies aromatique qui associera les propriétés de croissance reconnues à l’espèce A. nordmanniana aux propriétés aromatiques d’A. balsamea, en utilisant des lignées embryogènes capables de régénérer des plantes entières. [less ▲]

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See detailUn journal de bord pour des publications régulières et de haut niveau
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Conference (2013, June 20)

Pourtant classique en ethnographie et en analyse par théorisation ancrée, la pratique du journal de bord est méconnue de nombre de doctorants et de chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales. Or, ses ... [more ▼]

Pourtant classique en ethnographie et en analyse par théorisation ancrée, la pratique du journal de bord est méconnue de nombre de doctorants et de chercheurs en sciences humaines et sociales. Or, ses vertus en font un adjuvant de premier ordre pour garantir des recherches de qualité, des publications régulières, des thèses de doctorat finies dans les temps et des carrières enrichissantes. Au niveau scientifique, (1) le journal de bord permet de consigner les notes de terrain, y compris sur ce qui n'est pas enregistrable. (2) Il organise la mémoire de la recherche et en assure la documentation ultérieure. Il soutient dès lors la « traçabilité » et la validation des analyses développées. (3) Il catalyse également la réflexivité et favorise la régularité de l'analyse, qui contribue au développement d'analyses fines et plus élaborées. (4) Une version rédigée du travail en cours est toujours disponible (dans une forme temporaire, certes) pour le comité d'accompagnement ou pour répondre à un appel à communication. Au niveau logistique, (5) la tenue du journal de bord permet en outre de désamorcer les blocages de l'écriture, de lutter contre l'angoisse de la page blanche, voire contre l'ennui, facteurs d'abandon en fin de recherche doctorale. Pour chacune de ces caractéristiques, un exemple issu des recherches ou des enseignements de l'auteur éclaire l'apport du journal de bord, mais aussi ses limites voire les pièges à éviter. [less ▲]

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See detailOperate or wait and see after complete response of CRT
COIMBRA MARQUES, Carla ULg

Conference (2013, June 20)

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See detailDynamical properties of DNA-ligand complexes under shear stress: insights from classical molecular dynamics
Fresch, Barbara ULg

Conference (2013, June 19)

Nucleic acids are flexible molecules: their dynamical properties play an essential role in molecular recognition and self-assembly. In the biological environment, because of mechanical forces acting at ... [more ▼]

Nucleic acids are flexible molecules: their dynamical properties play an essential role in molecular recognition and self-assembly. In the biological environment, because of mechanical forces acting at the molecular level, DNA is transiently deformed, cut and resealed, damaged and repaired, and the strands pulled apart and then re-annealed. These unique features make short DNA oligonucleotides promising building blocks in the development of “bottom-up” nano-devices and molecular logic machines. Single molecule manipulation techniques (Atomic Force Microscopy/ Optical Tweezers) allow detailed investigation of nucleic acids response to the application of controlled mechanical stress. Interpretations of these data in terms of molecular structural changes and dynamical properties call for a collaborative effort between experiments and theoretical/computational modeling. We have theoretically investigated the dynamical properties a DNA dodecamer and its complex with two different binders (Hoechst 33258 and Ethidium cation) by performing fully atomistic classical Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. We focused on the modeling of the so-called overstretching transition occurring when double stranded DNA is subjected to a shear stress until separation of the two strands occurs. The results of our analysis reveal the molecular details of the overstretching dynamics and point out the effects of the binders on the structure and the dynamics of the oligonucleotide under stress. The minor groove binder Hoechst 33258 acts as a zip between the two strands enhancing the lifetime of some base-pairs during the pulling experiment while ethidium cation, which is an intercalator, facilitates the separation of the double helix at high elongations. The understanding of the interactions between the binders and the helix at the molecular level gives insights into the unbinding pathways probed by Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy (SMFS). [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of well-defined N-vinylamides based copolymers via organometalllic-mediated radical polymerization
Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Fustin, Charles-André et al

Conference (2013, June 19)

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See detailRectal cancer : anatomo-pathological risk factors
COIMBRA MARQUES, Carla ULg

Conference (2013, June 19)

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See detailAnalysis of PSII antenna size heterogeneity of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during state transitions - Colloque annuel de la Société Française de Photosynthèse
de Marchin, Thomas ULg; Ghysels, Bart ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg et al

Conference (2013, June 18)

PSII antenna size heterogeneity has been extensively studied in the past. Based on in vivo DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, at least two types of photosystems were described. They differ by their apparent ... [more ▼]

PSII antenna size heterogeneity has been extensively studied in the past. Based on in vivo DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, at least two types of photosystems were described. They differ by their apparent antenna size and connectivity (this last term refers to the transfer of absorbed energy from a closed PSII unit to an open neighboring unit). In this study, we analysed PSII heterogeneity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using non-linear linear regression fitting on in vivo DCMU fluorescence rise kinetics, with a focus on changes in PSII heterogeneity associated with state transitions. We found that PSIIα possesses a high degree of connectivity and an antenna about 3 times larger than PSIIβ, as described previously. In contrast with most earlier studies, we found some connectivity for PSIIβ (although it was highly variable). This is in agreement with recent models based on biochemical and structural analysis of PSII after gel filtration separation which describe PSII mega-, super- and core- complexes in Chlamydomonas. According to these studies, the smallest unit of PSII in vivo would be a dimer of two core complexes hence still allowing connectivity. We also showed that strain and medium dependent variations in the half-time of the fluorescence rise, generally taken as an indicator of the average cross-section of PSII, can be explained by variations in the proportions of PSIIα and PSIIβ. When analyzing the state transition process, we showed for the first time in vivo that it induces an inter-conversion of PSIIα and PSIIβ. These findings are discussed with respect to the latest insights on the remodeling of the pigment-protein PSII architecture during this process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Shift from Defined Benefit to Defined Contribution in an Ageing Society
Artige, Lionel ULg; Cavenaile; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, June 18)

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See detailA computational Model to Assess the Contribution of Growth Factors to Phenotype Stability in Chondrocytes
Kerkhofs, Johan ULg; Van Oosterwyck, Hans

Conference (2013, June 17)

Cell-based tissue engineering constructs are an interesting expansion of the surgeon’s toolkit in treating long bone defects. However, the outcome of interventions with these constructs suffers from high ... [more ▼]

Cell-based tissue engineering constructs are an interesting expansion of the surgeon’s toolkit in treating long bone defects. However, the outcome of interventions with these constructs suffers from high variability barring their regular appearance in the clinic, in no small part due to the inter-patient variability in cell behaviour. In the paradigm of ‘developmental engineering’ a solution to this problem is envisioned by mimicking robust developmental processes in combination with a rigorous analysis thereof through the construction of computational models. From our knowledge of developmental biology we can form a computational model to facilitate understanding of how growth factors and transcription factors influence cell fate decisions in the growth plate and consequently answer the question whether – and how – they can boost bone healing. The model presented in this study includes 46 factors and 146 interactions between them. The dynamics of the system were simulated in a simplified manner that differentiates between slow and fast interactions. Through a Monte Carlo approach the importance of each factor in the stability of chondrocytic phenotypes (proliferating, hypertrophic) is assessed. The hypertrophic state was found to be more stable than that of the proliferating chondrocyte. This higher stability in random initial conditions seems to be conferred by faster reactions that favor the hypertrophic phenotype. Overall, the model allows the importance of several important factors in the fate decision of chondrocytes to be quantitatively assessed and can make suggestions as to how an in vitro bone forming process could be steered. [less ▲]

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See detailHow are we vulnerable? Opening industrial hazards vulnerability analysis to participation
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel

Conference (2013, June 17)

The risk analysis framework has been the dominant theoretical framework used to address the uncertainty of a potential hazard bypassing the system's safeguards and protection. In essence, this involves ... [more ▼]

The risk analysis framework has been the dominant theoretical framework used to address the uncertainty of a potential hazard bypassing the system's safeguards and protection. In essence, this involves the evaluation of the probability and the magnitude of the consequences of the undesired events that can transform the hazard into actual damage. Despite the technical premises, the importance of integrating social aspects into the analysis is now recognized by an increasing number or risk analysis models. Another way to deal with potential consequences of hazards is to analyze the vulnerability of the system considered. This paradigm overcomes the shortcomings of risk analysis in situations when the knowledge about the probabilities and the outcomes is incomplete or insufficient On the one hand, studies in the literature show that socio-economic factors are often integrated in a participative way in vulnerability analysis models especially in the natural hazards research field. On the other hand, it seems that such considerations are rarely integrated in the models aiming at evaluating the vulnerability to an industrial hazard. What can we learn from the analysis of models addressing vulnerability to natural hazards in terms of the participatory integration of social factors? What could be the reasons to apply such participation tools in order to assess the vulnerability to industrial hazards? These are the questions we address in this contribution. To do so, we realized a systematic literature review from scientific journal papers on vulnerability analysis published in the last two decades. From this review, three main arguments can be found arguing for the use of participation for vulnerability analysis. Indeed, participation allows (1) context-based assessments, that may (2) foster the development of adaptative capacities (3) both for short and long-term. Based on those arguments, we identifiy possible paths to foster participation for context-based industrial vulnerability analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailEnunciation vs destination : how a phenomenological point of view on media audiences is also a political one
Servais, Christine ULg

Conference (2013, June 17)

This paper is based on Derrida’s deconstruction of significance, and focuses on how media-based discourses organize the audience in a public space. In audience studies, the text/reader relationship ... [more ▼]

This paper is based on Derrida’s deconstruction of significance, and focuses on how media-based discourses organize the audience in a public space. In audience studies, the text/reader relationship remains a difficult point because it remains unclear how to account for the fact that the media structure perception, although they do not determine it. To solve this contradiction, we need to link together facts and possibilities (empirical and transcendental levels) in a way that keeps alive this relationship between a text and a reader. This is what Jacques Derrida’s work makes possible. We’ll mainly use his concepts of “address” and “destination”. The “address” might be considered as an attempt to translate the linguistic “enunciation” into phenomenological terms: the address modifies reference and thus inscribes the reader in a “world”. As for the “destination”, it refers to a model where communication is indeterminate (“incalculable”). This model gives readers the opportunity to create previously unseen kinds of worlds, or communities of “common sense”. In this way, this model is political. Our analysis allows us to account for both representations of the world and places given to readers in this world, so that we can describe, with this “sharing of the sensory”, mediated experience as political. [less ▲]

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See detailAND IF IT WAS NO ALS
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2013, June 15)

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See detailPair trading : a time-varying cointegration approach
Babaei, Hamid; Muller, Aline ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

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See detailPiston et dithyrambe. Ce que l’amitié fait aux groupes littéraires
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

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See detailCatastrophe naturelle: Quand la communication se noie (c onfrontation Bénin / Tubize)
Ozer, Pierre ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

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See detailOstraca littéraires profanes de provenance monastique dans l'Égypte byzantine
Carlig, Nathan ULg

Conference (2013, June 14)

Documentée par des milliers de papyrus, parchemins, ostraca, tablettes de bois ou cirées, – restes de livres ou de documents dont les plus anciens remontent au IIe siècle de notre ère –, la ... [more ▼]

Documentée par des milliers de papyrus, parchemins, ostraca, tablettes de bois ou cirées, – restes de livres ou de documents dont les plus anciens remontent au IIe siècle de notre ère –, la christianisation de l’Égypte a longtemps été perçue comme un phénomène ayant entraîné la disparition de la culture profane de tradition hellénique (paideia). Il faut cependant nuancer ce propos : nombre d’échanges, d’emprunts entre les deux types de cultures ont existé. La découverte, à côté de quelques papyrus, de 37 ostraca à contenu littéraire profane dans les ruines de monastères égyptiens, tous de la région thébaine, et datant de la fin du Ve siècle au milieu du VIIIe siècle, constitue un petit ensemble de témoins de ce phénomène. Nous fondant sur l'analyse de la forme, de la mise en page et du contenu de ceux-ci, nous montrerons par quels biais la paideia hellénique s'est introduite dans les monastères, milieux chrétiens par excellence. [less ▲]

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