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See detailResearch in Prison from the inside. An uncomfortable position for the "Official-Researcher"?
Sevenants, Yves ULg

Conference (2017, March 28)

Presentation about the experience of a native researcher in prison.

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See detailHistoire et images. Une épistémologie historienne du visuel : le cas d'Arlette Farge
Servais, Amandine ULg

Conference (2017, March 25)

Dans cet exposé, j'analyse le cas Montjean, inscrit au cœur de la pratique fargienne. Il m’intéresse particulièrement : il est révélateur tant du projet d’Arlette Farge que de sa mise en œuvre. Une ... [more ▼]

Dans cet exposé, j'analyse le cas Montjean, inscrit au cœur de la pratique fargienne. Il m’intéresse particulièrement : il est révélateur tant du projet d’Arlette Farge que de sa mise en œuvre. Une première fois appréhendé au sein d’un ouvrage – La vie fragile (Paris, Hachette, 1986) – qui annonce, en bien des lieux, la poétique de l’historienne, on le retrouve dans une étude récente qui, selon moi, condense – tout en légèreté – les outils de l’atelier fargien. J’estime, en effet, que La révolte de Mme Montjean (Paris, Albin Michel, 2016) est une sorte de manifeste qui, évidemment, ne se donne pas explicitement comme tel. Mais en la parcourant, librement, chapitre par chapitre, je montrerai que les fondamentaux de la pratique d’Arlette Farge – telle que je tente de la formaliser par le biais du paradigme visuel – y sont formulés. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgian heterosexuals’ attitudes towards different types of same-sex parenting
Scali, Thérèse ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore; Green, Robert-Jay

Conference (2017, March 25)

The legal situation of Belgian gay men and lesbians may be perceived as one of the best in Europe. Indeed, the Belgian Parliament has legalized marriage and parenting for same-sex couples, has enacted ... [more ▼]

The legal situation of Belgian gay men and lesbians may be perceived as one of the best in Europe. Indeed, the Belgian Parliament has legalized marriage and parenting for same-sex couples, has enacted anti-discrimination laws, and has funded several action plans to combat homophobia. More particularly, the access to parenthood is legally possible for same-sex couples through adoption, artificial insemination and in vitro fecundation. In this supportive political context, lots of same-sex-headed families exist. However, same-sex parenting is still considered as a controversial topic by some heterosexual people. Therefore, this paper aims at understanding heterosexuals’ attitudes towards the different types of same-sex parenting as well as the rationales underlying those attitudes. In Study 1, the degrees of support of 1168 heterosexual participants aged from 18 to 81 towards those types of parenting have been analysed through a self-report questionnaire. Results revealed that heterosexuals’ participants do not show the same degree of support towards the different types of same-sex parenting. In particular, adoption by lesbian and gay couples is the more accepted type of parenting, followed by artificial insemination. Then, adoption for single lesbians or gay men and surrogacy are the types of parenting that are the less supported. Then, though the content analysis of comments posted on social networks (Study 2), we highlighted the arguments in favour and against those specific types of parenting. Those results highlight that citizens’ attitudes can go from supportive to unsupportive and this could lead to some kind of discrimination towards children raised in specific forms of same-sex-headed families. This contribution highlights work’s implication for public policy and social transformation by understanding the challenges that gay and lesbian couples and their children have to face. [less ▲]

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See detailAmok. De quelques perdants radicaux chez Hans Magnus Enzensberger.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2017, March 23)

En 2006, l’écrivain et essayiste allemand Hans Magnus Enzensberger publie Le perdant radical, un « essai sur les hommes de la terreur », conformément au sous-titre de cet ouvrage d’une soixantaine de ... [more ▼]

En 2006, l’écrivain et essayiste allemand Hans Magnus Enzensberger publie Le perdant radical, un « essai sur les hommes de la terreur », conformément au sous-titre de cet ouvrage d’une soixantaine de pages dans lequel l’auteur décrit les multiples facettes d’un ensemble de figures meurtrières. Du tireur fou dans un lycée américain au combattant islamiste ceinturé d’explosifs, isolé ou organisé en groupe, tout perdant radical répond au même mécanisme : c’est « lorsqu’il aura repris à son compte le jugement des autres, ceux qu’il tient pour les gagnants (…) qu’il pète les plombs. » L’indistinction est frappante : pour Enzensberger, le perdant radical peut sévir seul ou en groupe ; son moteur profond, irréductible à un engagement politique ou religieux, reste le même dans les deux cas. Car pour l’essayiste, rien, pas même une théorie critique de la société, ne permet de rendre compte de la nature du perdant radical, si ce n’est la suppression de l’instinct de conservation. Dans plusieurs textes littéraires – on songe notamment à son poème Zur Frage der Bedürfnisse (1991) et à son entretien autobiographique fictif avec lui-même Erinnerungen an einen Tumult (2014) –, Hans Magnus Enzensberger crée ou recrée des figures de terroristes qui réalisent parfaitement le profil type du perdant radical. Andreas Baader, les jeunes bourgeois d’une secte marxiste en Suède, un terroriste islamiste en fuite, un guérillero sud-américain qui a perdu tout sens de la réalité, autant de figures fictionnelles ou refictionnalisées qui, partant d’une même position d’échec apparemment imposée de l’extérieur et assumée en tant que telle, superposent destruction et autodestruction. L’hypothèse générale à laquelle nous voudrions soumettre ces personnages de terroristes est qu’ils sont les héritiers d’une figure essentielle pour la littérature allemande et anglo-saxonne : l’amok. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Belgian election system
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2017, March 21)

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See detailOils and CO2, a promising combination for designing insulating foams and high performance coatings
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 21)

Making plastics more sustainable by valorizing waste CO2 as a cheap, inexhaustible and renewable feedstock is an early stage technology with strong innovation potential that imposes itself as a strategic ... [more ▼]

Making plastics more sustainable by valorizing waste CO2 as a cheap, inexhaustible and renewable feedstock is an early stage technology with strong innovation potential that imposes itself as a strategic driver for developing future low carbon footprint materials and technologies. With a global production estimated to 18 million tons for 2016, polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important polymers in our everyday life applications (automotive, building and construction, coatings, etc.). Industrially, PU is produced by step-growth polymerization between di- or polyisocyanates and di- or polyols. However, isocyanates are toxic and drastic changes in the REACH regulations limiting/banning the use of isocyanates are expected. There is a need today to develop new greener and safer alternatives to produce PU. Valorizing CO2 as C1 feedstock for producing precursors entering in the synthesis of polyurethanes by a non-isocyanate route (NIPU) is a promising strategy to solve this challenge. In this talk, we will focus on the synthesis and characterization of novel NIPUs foams for thermal insulation, and NIPUs coatings for metal protection. Our research highlights benefit of merging bio-resources (such as vegetable oils) with carbon dioxide transformation. In the first part of this talk, we will report on the fast synthesis of bio- and CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates by coupling CO2 with epoxides using a new highly efficient bicomponent homogeneous organocatalyst under solvent-free and mild experimental conditions. The mechanism of the activation of the reaction will be discussed, and scaling up of the technology will be demonstrated (15kg scale). In the second part, we will illustrate the use of these bio- and CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates for the production of microcellular NIPU foams with closed cells morphology for thermal insulating applications, but also for preparing hybrid NIPUs coatings for metal protection. [less ▲]

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See detailSynergistic observations of the giant planets with HST and JWST: Jupiter's auroral emissions
Grodent, Denis ULg

Conference (2017, March 20)

The James Webb Space Telescope is perfectly suited to observe most Solar System objects, including the extended giant planets. Its high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, field of view, very high ... [more ▼]

The James Webb Space Telescope is perfectly suited to observe most Solar System objects, including the extended giant planets. Its high sensitivity, high spatial resolution, field of view, very high spectral resolution and wide spectral coverage all combine to make JWST a fantastic instrument that will result in significant advances and progress in most fields of Solar System exploration. Here, we focus on the case of Jupiter’s aurora for several reasons. 1) The auroral emissions on Jupiter are very intense, both in ultraviolet and in infrared. Each of these bandpasses is bringing complementary information on how Jupiter is interacting with its near and distant environment. 2) Even though Jupiter’s aurora appears to be responding to the conditions prevailing in the solar wind, contrary to the Earth it is a permanent emission that can also be observed on the sunlit side of the planet. 3) The NASA Juno mission is currently exploring the magnetosphere and the atmosphere of this planet with a suite of in situ and remote instruments, including an ultraviolet spectrograph (UVS) and an infrared imaging spectrograph (JIRAM). The Juno mission is gathering a broad scientific community that will foster the study of Jupiter’s system for several years. 4) A large HST program was allocated in support of the NASA Juno prime mission (GO-14634) and is currently providing us with regular movies of Jupiter’s ultraviolet aurora. They provide a global magnetospheric context for the different Juno instruments, as well as for the numerous ground based (infrared) and space based observatories participating to the Juno mission. 5) It is currently very difficult to plan truly simultaneous UV and IR observations, mainly because of the inherent limitations of Earth based infrared telescopes. As a result, comparisons of Jupiter’s auroral emissions rest on a very limited dataset. Nevertheless, they are suggesting similarities and discrepancies between IR and UV aurorae, the study of which would greatly benefit from synergistic observations with HST and JWST. 6) The case of Saturn’s aurora is as important, especially in view of the upcoming ‘Grand Finale’ of the Cassini mission, and all above arguments apply to Saturn as well. The case of Uranus and Neptune’s aurorae still belongs to the area of discovery and will take full advantage of JWST’s advanced capabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailLichtenstein procedure under local anaesthesia
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference (2017, March 18)

LICHTENSTEIN REPAIR UNDER LOCAL ANAESTHESIA Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, CHU Liège, Liège, Belgium. Email: oli.detry@chu.ulg.ac.be Despite many studies confirming the ... [more ▼]

LICHTENSTEIN REPAIR UNDER LOCAL ANAESTHESIA Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, CHU Liège, Liège, Belgium. Email: oli.detry@chu.ulg.ac.be Despite many studies confirming the feasibility and the interest of local anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair [1-3], its use is not generalized amongst abdominal surgeons. The advantages of local anaesthesia are indeed clear, including reduced costs, reduced hospital stay and reduced post operative pain. The success of the procedure depends on the skills and the motivation of the surgeon, of the nursing teams, and of the patient him/herself. Perfect knowledge of the surgical technique and of the regional nerve anatomy is required. The Lichtenstein repair may be easily performed under local anaesthesia, but should be proposed in the early experience to non-obese patients suffering from limited inguinal hernia. It can even be performed by surgical residents [4]. Practically, local anaesthesia requires some patience and quiet in the operative room. Operators should be aware that the action of local anaesthesia is delayed after injection. Local anaesthetics should be buffered [5] and at body temperature at time of injection. Local anaesthetics containing Adrenalin allow longer pain control, with limitation of bleeding and less toxicity. Large and brutal movements should be avoided. Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block can also be proposed [6]. The surgical and anaesthetic techniques for inguinal hernia repair should be tailored to the specific characteristics of the hernia and of the patient. There is no method of choice that might fit for every patient. References [1] van Veen RN, Mahabier C, Dawson I, Hop WC, Kok NF, Lange JF, et al. Spinal or local anesthesia in lichtenstein hernia repair: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Surg 2008;247:428-433. [2] Verstraete L, Becaus N, Swannet H, Ceelen W, Duchateau L, Speybroeck N. Long term outcome after lichtenstein hernia repair using general, locoregional or local anaesthesia. Acta Chir Belg 2015;115:136-141. [3] Dhankhar DS, Sharma N, Mishra T, Kaur N, Singh S, Gupta S. Totally extraperitoneal repair under general anesthesia versus Lichtenstein repair under local anesthesia for unilateral inguinal hernia: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Surg Endosc 2014;28:996-1002. [4] Paajanen H, Varjo R. Ten-year audit of Lichtenstein hernioplasty under local anaesthesia performed by surgical residents. BMC Surg 2010;10:24. [5] Ball EL, Sanjay P, Woodward A. Comparison of buffered and unbuffered local anaesthesia for inguinal hernia repair: a prospective study. Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery 2006;10:175-178. [6] Milone M, Di Minno MN, Musella M, Maietta P, Salvatore G, Iacovazzo C, et al. Outpatient inguinal hernia repair under local anaesthesia: feasibility and efficacy of ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block. Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery 2013;17:749-755. [less ▲]

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See detailApprentissage et mémoire chez l'enfant et l'adulte trisomique 21
Comblain, Annick ULg

Conference (2017, March 17)

Si le profil langagier des personnes trisomiques 21 est de mieux en mieux connu et décrit, certains aspects du développement et du fonctionnement cognitif des personnes atteintes demeurent encore peu ... [more ▼]

Si le profil langagier des personnes trisomiques 21 est de mieux en mieux connu et décrit, certains aspects du développement et du fonctionnement cognitif des personnes atteintes demeurent encore peu étudiés. Ainsi, les conséquences de la présence d’un chromosome surnuméraire dans leur patrimoine génétique, sur des domaines tels que le développement mnésique, les apprentissages académiques (lecture et arithmétique) ou la problématique du vieillissement cognitif restent peu étudiés et encore sujets à controverse. Même si depuis plusieurs décennies, on sait que la mémoire à court terme verbale des personnes trisomiques 21 est déficitaire, son fonctionnement exact et les conséquences de ce déficit sur le développement d’autres domaines comme le langage oral et la lecture restent relativement peu explorés en regard des nombreuses études descriptives sur les déficits observés dans la maîtrise langage oral. A l'heure ou l'inclusion des personnes atteintes d'une déficience intellectuelle devient une pratique de plus en plus courante et recommandée, il semble essentiel d'approfondir notre connaissance du développement cognitif de ces personnes de manière à mettre en place des moyens adaptés au sein des classes et de potentialiser apprentissages. Par ailleurs, la problématique du vieillissement et plus particulièrement de l’incidence de la maladie d’Alzheimer est devenue, de par l’espérance de vie accrue des personnes trisomiques 21, un sujet de recherche de plus en plus développé. [less ▲]

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See detailL’animation à l’épreuve de la danse : Norman McLaren ou la conquête du chorégraphique
Tomasovic, Dick ULg

Conference (2017, March 17)

Figuremajeure du cinéma d’animation artisanal et expérimental, Norman McLaren, à travers l’apprentissage de multiples techniques d’animation (dessin animé, stop motion, pixillation, pellicule peinte ou ... [more ▼]

Figuremajeure du cinéma d’animation artisanal et expérimental, Norman McLaren, à travers l’apprentissage de multiples techniques d’animation (dessin animé, stop motion, pixillation, pellicule peinte ou grattée, expositions multiples...) n’a cessé d’étudier le mouvement. Si le cinéaste a, d’une part, émis un certain nombre de rapprochements entre la figure de l’animateur et celle du danseur, et, d’autre part, livré une œuvre qui fait date dans l’histoire du film de danse (le célèbre Pas de deux, 1968), c’est à une question moins apparente sur les liens entre danse et cinéma que cette intervention souhaite s’intéresser. En effet, à travers le commentaire d’une série de films conçus entre 1935 et 1972, il s’agira de comprendre de quelle manière la conception même du geste animé chez McLaren s’inscrit, dès ses prémisses, dans une logique d’invention chorégraphique. [less ▲]

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See detailImages à entendre. Le vocabulaire sonore des fêtes de 1622 dans les anciens Pays Bas
De Marco, Rosa ULg; Heering, Caroline

Conference (2017, March 16)

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See detailPositioning in multi-GNSS mode
Deprez, Cécile ULg; Warnant, René ULg

Conference (2017, March 16)

Satellite positioning is facing new challenges with the appearance of mass-market receivers and smartphones. Mainly, the reliability of the car navigation systems, the accuracy of positioning in ... [more ▼]

Satellite positioning is facing new challenges with the appearance of mass-market receivers and smartphones. Mainly, the reliability of the car navigation systems, the accuracy of positioning in smartphone—based applications and the availability of positions in urban canyon or deep forests suffer from the hardware limitations of these low-cost receivers. Would the multi-GNSS positioning be the solution to handle those challenges? Indeed, the number of satellites available has dramatically increased, given the expansion of two new global satellite constellations (Galileo (EU) and BeiDou (C)), and might meet these positioning challenges, at least to some extent. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-instrument overview of the 1-hour pulsations in Saturn's magnetosphere
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULg; Roussos, Elias; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 16)

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See detailPrésentation du projet de thèse : Performance des entreprises et ressources territoriales multi-échelles en Belgique et Wallonie
Wilmotte, Pierre-François ULg

Conference (2017, March 16)

Présentation du projet doctoral dans le cadre du séminaire des doctorants de l'ASRDLF. L'objectif est de présenter le projet mais aussi de mettre en avant les difficultés éventuelles pour recueillir des ... [more ▼]

Présentation du projet doctoral dans le cadre du séminaire des doctorants de l'ASRDLF. L'objectif est de présenter le projet mais aussi de mettre en avant les difficultés éventuelles pour recueillir des conseils et suggestions de doctorants ou d'enseignants-chercheurs. Le projet a été présenté avec les éléments suivants : contexte, questions de recherche, méthodologie, premiers résultats et éléments attendus. [less ▲]

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See detailintravenous administration of mesenchymal stream cells modulates renal lipid metabolism in rats
ERPICUM, Pauline ULg; Rowart, Pascal ULg; POMA, Laurence ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 16)

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to attenuate renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rodents. Still, the mechanisms of such a nephroprotection remain unclear. Here, rats were ... [more ▼]

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been shown to attenuate renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rodents. Still, the mechanisms of such a nephroprotection remain unclear. Here, rats were intravenously infused with MSC (1.5x10^6 cells in 1 ml saline; MSCD-7 group, n=6) or equivalent volume of saline (SD-7 group, n=6) 7 days before kidney sampling. High-throughput RNA sequencing technology was used to compare transcriptomic renal profiles, using TopHat and Cufflinks open-source software tools. A total of 494 and 256 genes were found to be significantly (q-value <.05) down- and up-regulated in mscd-7 versus sd-7 groups, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis by “david” “webgestalt” softwares highlighted that the metabolic pathways mostly affected msc included adipogenesis, insulin signalling, fatty acid (fa) biosynthesis, il-6 b-cell receptor il-3 pathway nuclear receptors involved lipid me- tabolism. Real-time qpcr immunoblotting analyses confirmed pivotal enzymes of fa biosynthesis were significantly downregulated group, whereas expression ppar alpha, a transcription factor oxidation, was induced msc. Additional- ly, fat />CD36 – a key regulator of membrane uptake of FA – was increased in MSCD-7 kidneys, with a preferential localization in proximal tubules (PT). As a whole, our data suggest that MSC infusion causes critical modifications of lipid metabolism, including (i) down-regulation of FA biosynthesis; (ii) activation of PPAR alpha pathway, and (iii) prioritization of FA as sources of energy in PT cells, which may eventually prevent lipid peroxidation and attenuate renal I/R damage. [less ▲]

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See detailCancer in the organ donor
DETRY, Olivier ULg

Conference (2017, March 16)

Organ Donation and Cancer Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, University of Liege The risk of transmission of cancer with the transplanted organ has been known since the ... [more ▼]

Organ Donation and Cancer Pr Olivier Detry, Dpt of Abdominal Surgery and Transplantation, University of Liege The risk of transmission of cancer with the transplanted organ has been known since the pioneering years of solid organ transplantation, and is enhanced by immunosuppression and particularly the calcineurin inhibitors. Therefore, classically, potential organ donors with past history of cancer are excluded from donation, with the exception of low-grade malignant tumours of the central nervous system, the skin and the cervix uteri. Despite that policy, every year, some cases of cancer transmission with organ transplantation were regularly reported in transplant medical journals. At the other hand, there is a clear graft shortage, with long organ transplant waiting lists and inacceptable mortality while waiting for a life saving graft. One mean to increase the number of available grafts could be to accept donation from donors with past history of cancer. Several uncertainties remain: what is the risk of cancer transmission with organ transplantation? This risk depends of course of many donor factors, as the staging and the nature of the donor malignant tumour, the oncological management, the delay between the remission and the organ procurement. This risk may also vary according to the type of organ transplanted, as livers and lungs are more prone to bear occult metastases, compared to the hearts for example. In fact, this risk is unknown, and was clearly overestimated by the old registries as the IPTR, and by the various case reports. All modern prospective registries, as from UNOS or from UK transplant, now report a very low rate of cancer transmission when the donor cancer was known and evaluated before organ donation. Undiagnosed or occult cancer transmission with transplantation is clearly another issue that should not be mistaken with the donors with past history of cancer. In most of the recent reported cases of cancer transmission with transplantation, the donor cancer was not diagnosed before and during organ donation. And this risk increases in modern organ transplantation, as we are now accepting older and older donors, particularly in transplantation of the liver, an organ particularly at risk of metastases. Therefore surgical donor exploration is an important step of organ procurement. Body CT could be a tool to diagnose some, but not all, of these tumours. To my view, the risk of cancer transmission with transplantation has to be balanced with the risk of dying on the waiting lists. Donors with active or recent aggressive cancers have to be excluded from donation. Some types of aggressive cancers, as lymphoma or melanoma, are at high risk. In donors with past history of cancer with some years of remission, organ donation should be considered for recipients at high risk of death without a rapid transplantation. Particularly, heart transplantation, an organ with a low risk of cancer transmission but with a severe organ shortage, could benefit from such a policy. [less ▲]

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See detailAdministration of Third-Party Mesenchymal Stromal Cells at the Time of Kidney Transplantation: Interim Safety Analysis at One-Year Follow-Up
WEEKERS, Laurent ULg; ERPICUM, Pauline ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 16)

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC)-based therapy has been proposed in kidney transplantation (KTx). We report on the 1-year follow-up of an open-label phase I trial using MSC in KTx. On postoperative day 3 ... [more ▼]

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC)-based therapy has been proposed in kidney transplantation (KTx). We report on the 1-year follow-up of an open-label phase I trial using MSC in KTx. On postoperative day 3, third-party MSC (~2.0x106/kg) were administered to 7 non-immunized first-transplant recip- ients from deceased donors, under standard immunosuppression (Basiliximab, Tacrolimus, MMF and steroids). No HLA matching was required for MSC donors. Seven comparable KTx recipients were included as controls. Informed consent was obtained. No side-effect was noted at the time of MSC injection. Still, 1 patient with a history of ischemic heart disease had a NSTEMI ~3h after MSC infusion. Ten months after KTx, 1 MSC patient had type B aortic dissection and STEMI. Four MSC patients had at least 1 opportunistic infection, whereas 3 controls had polyoma-BK viremia. At day 14, eGFR in MSC and control groups was 47.1 ± 6.8 and 39.7 ± 5.9 ml/min, respectively (p, 0.05). At 1 year, eGFR in MSC and control groups was 46.5 ± 18.6 and 54.2 ± 16.3 ml/min, respectively (p, 0.42). Per-cause biopsies evidenced 1 bor- derline and 1 acute rejections in MSC group, whereas no AR was biopsy-proven in controls. Three patients developed anti-HLA antibodies against MSC (n=1) or shared kidney/MSC (n=2) mismatches.MSC infusion was safe in all patients except one. Incidence of opportunist infections was similar in both groups. No difference in eGFR was found at 1-year post KTx. Putative immunization against MSC was observed in 3 patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCabinet de curiosités contemporains : de l'oeuvre au musée
Bawin, Julie ULg

Conference (2017, March 15)

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See detailDeformations of soap bubbles in a uniform electric field
Mawet, Sébastien ULg

Conference (2017, March 15)

The study of the deformations undergone by a soap bubble submitted to an electrical force began with Taylor and Wilson 1 and the observation of the so-called Taylor’s cones. Beyond this particular ... [more ▼]

The study of the deformations undergone by a soap bubble submitted to an electrical force began with Taylor and Wilson 1 and the observation of the so-called Taylor’s cones. Beyond this particular structure, few studies analyzed the bubble deformations. For example, what is the link between the deformations and the electrical force ? Or, how do charges move in the thin soap film formed by the bubble ? To answer those questions, we characterize the shape variations of the surface of the bubble immersed in the uniform electric field of a plan capacitor. In particular, our study focuses on hemispherical bubbles lying on the bottom electrode of a plane capacitor. This study allows us to observe some interesting phenomena like the appearance of a hysteresis cycle in the deformation amplitude. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de la fonction rénale
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg

Conference (2017, March 14)

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See detailFormation and characterization of artificial lipid bilayers on optical fibers
Toussaint, Pauline ULg; Dreesen, Laurent ULg

Conference (2017, March 14)

Transports across cellular membranes are at the basis of a lot of biological processes such as the transmission of information in neurons. Their characterization is therefore of crucial interest. As they ... [more ▼]

Transports across cellular membranes are at the basis of a lot of biological processes such as the transmission of information in neurons. Their characterization is therefore of crucial interest. As they are equivalent to biological membranes, artificial lipid bilayers can be created to study membranes and transmembrane proteins properties or transmembrane transports. The aim of this work is to develop a new method for the fabrication of artificial membranes based on the use of optical fibers as support for the bilayer, and for their characterization by fluorescence measurements. We use microfluidics on fibers to create two phospholipid monolayers that we approach close enough to form a bilayer. The membrane formation is checked using fluorescein or a fluorescent sodium probe, Tetra (tetramethylammonium) salt (sodium green), whose optical signal depends on sodium concentration. [less ▲]

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See detailRealization of the Najafi-Golestanian microswimmer
Hubert, Maxime ULg; Grosjean, Galien ULg; Lagubeau, Guillaume et al

Conference (2017, March 14)

The development of artificial microswimmers, microscopic robots that swim in a fluid like sperm cells and motile bacteria, could cause a leap forward in various fields such as microfluidics, microsystems ... [more ▼]

The development of artificial microswimmers, microscopic robots that swim in a fluid like sperm cells and motile bacteria, could cause a leap forward in various fields such as microfluidics, microsystems, or minimally invasive medicine. Nature provides plenty of examples of efficient microswimmers. However, a bottom-up approach, looking at the simplest ingredients needed to generate a microswimmer, can lead to a deeper under- standing of the swimming problem. First described by Najafi and Golestanian 1 , a paradigmatic microswimmer is the three-linked-spheres model, which follows a minimalist approach for propulsion by shape shifting. In this presentation, we describe the experimental realisation of this microswimmer using self-assembled ferromagnetic particle at an air-water interface, powered by an uniform oscillating magnetic field 2 . A model, using two har- monic oscillators, reproduces the experimental findings. Because the model remains general, the same approach could be used to design a variety of efficient microswimmers. [less ▲]

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See detailImprinting superconducting vortex footsteps in a magnetic layer
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2017, March 14)

We experimentally show that the principle of local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method to store information, namely in hard drives and credit cards, can be applied for imprinting into a ... [more ▼]

We experimentally show that the principle of local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method to store information, namely in hard drives and credit cards, can be applied for imprinting into a soft magnetic layer of permalloy (Py) the trajectory of vortices moving in a superconducting film (Nb). In full analogy with a magnetic drawing board, vortices act as tiny magnetic scribers leaving a wake of polarized magnetic media in the Py layer. We have used the magneto-optical imaging technique to investigate the mutual interaction between superconducting vortices and ferromagnetic domains. In general, we observe that the flux propagation is delayed at the border of the magnetic layer. Interestingly, in thin Py layers without stripe domains, vortices leave clear imprints of locally polarized magnetic moments along their trajectories. Furthermore, the printings were found to be stable and could still be observed at room temperature, allowing for ex situ observation of the flux penetration in superconductors. We expect our findings to pave the way for further studies for optimizing magnetic recording of superconducting vortex trajectories. [less ▲]

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See detailMUNIX vs TASPM
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2017, March 10)

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See detailDéveloppements scientifiques et nouvelles technologies pour l'application de produits phytosanitaires de précision
Lebeau, Frédéric ULg

Conference (2017, March 10)

Depuis leur introduction, les produits phytosanitaires ont largement démontré leur efficacité pour assurer des rendements agricoles élevés. Toutefois, les nuisances sanitaires et environnementales sont ... [more ▼]

Depuis leur introduction, les produits phytosanitaires ont largement démontré leur efficacité pour assurer des rendements agricoles élevés. Toutefois, les nuisances sanitaires et environnementales sont rapidement apparues ainsi que le développement de diverses résistances. Les développements scientifiques récents, qui permettent une meilleure compréhension du processus d’application tant pour les chercheurs que les agriculteurs, ouvrent la porte à de nombreux développements technologiques. Une présentation des principales bases physiques du processus permet d’éclaircir les diverses options technologiques à la disposition des agriculteurs pour améliorer leurs pratiques en traitement des cultures. En particulier, l’attention est portée sur la trajectoire des gouttes entre la buse et sa cible ainsi que la rétention du produit par les plantes. Ces considérations se traduisent par diverses options technologiques au niveau des agro-équipements et produits de traitement qui doivent être prises en considération pour effectuer les investissements les plus pertinents et choisir les meilleures options lors du traitement. [less ▲]

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See detailUne illustration de multidisciplinarité:"La concertation multidisciplinaire"
Buret, Laetitia ULg

Conference (2017, March 09)

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See detailSensations of the Shallow Body: Surgery, Dissections, and Technologies of Touch in Renaissance Italy
Von Hoffmann, Viktoria ULg

Conference (2017, March 09)

My contribution is part of a new work in progress exploring the sense of touch in Italian Renaissance anatomy. Through regular experiences of surgery and dissections, anatomists/surgeons refined their ... [more ▼]

My contribution is part of a new work in progress exploring the sense of touch in Italian Renaissance anatomy. Through regular experiences of surgery and dissections, anatomists/surgeons refined their sense of touch and developed a particularly acute ability to feel and act upon bodily parts and substances. By looking at the dissecting body—the hand, fingers, and skin of anatomists/surgeons—this paper will examine the body dissected—especially its bones, muscles, and surfaces—highlighting the multiple layers of the sense of touch in the Renaissance. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased sea ice cover disrupts food web structure in coastal Antarctica
Michel, Loïc ULg; Dubois, Philippe; Eleaume, Marc et al

Conference (2017, March 03)

Antarctica currently undergoes strong and contrasted impacts linked with climate change. While the West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions in the world, resulting in sea ice ... [more ▼]

Antarctica currently undergoes strong and contrasted impacts linked with climate change. While the West Antarctic Peninsula is one of the most rapidly warming regions in the world, resulting in sea ice cover decrease, the sea ice cover of East Antarctica unexpectedly tends to increase, possibly in relation with changes in atmospheric circulation. Sea ice is a major environmental driver in Antarctica, and changes in sea ice cover are likely to influence benthic food web structure through several processes (modifications of benthic-pelagic coupling, disruption of benthic production and/or modifications of benthic community structure and therefore resource availability for benthic consumers). To date, regions where sea ice cover is decreasing have received more attention than regions where it is increasing. Here, on the other hand, we studied shallow (0-20 m) benthic food web structure on the coasts of Petrels Island (Adélie Land, East Antarctica) during an event of unusually high spatial and temporal (two successive austral summers without seasonal break-up) sea ice cover. Using time-tested integrative trophic markers (stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur) and state-of-the-art data analysis tools (bayesian ecological models), we studied the structure of the food web associated to benthic macroinvertebrates communities. In total, 28 macroinvertebrate taxa spanning most present animal groups (sponges, sea anemones, nemerteans, nematods, sipunculids, sessile and mobile polychaetes, gastropods, bivalves, pycnogonids, crustaceans, sea stars, sea urchins, brittle stars and sea cucumbers) and functional guilds (grazers, deposit feeders, filter feeders, predators, scavengers) were investigated. Our results indicate that the absence of seasonal sea ice breakup deeply influences coastal benthic food webs in Antarctica. We recorded marked differences from literature data, both in terms of horizontal (i.e. primary producers and resources supporting animal populations) and vertical (i.e. trophic level of the studied consumers) structure of the food web. Overall, sympagic (sea-ice associated) algae dominated the diet of many important consumers, and the trophic levels of invertebrates were low, suggesting omnivore consumers relied less on predation and/or scavenging than in normal environmental conditions. Surprisingly, few animals seemed to feed on the extremely abundant benthic biofilm, whose exceptional development was also presumably linked with the peculiar sea ice conditions. Interpretation of data was complicated by the peculiar ecophysiological features of Antarctic invertebrates, whose very low metabolic rates could be associated to low tissue turnover. However, comparison of data obtained in the austral summers of 2013-2014 (first year without seasonal breakup) and 2014-2015 (second year without seasonal breakup) clearly showed that the observed trends were linked with actual temporal changes in invertebrate feeding habits rather than with other potential ecological drivers. Our results provide insights about how Antarctic benthic consumers, which have evolved in an extremely stable environment, might adapt their feeding habits in response to sudden man-driven changes in environmental conditions and trophic resource availability. They also show that local and/or global trends of sea ice increase in Antarctica could cause strong changes in food web structure and therefore impact zoobenthic communities. This reinforces the view that, no matter their overall direction (i.e. increase or decrease), fluctuations in sea ice cover are likely to influence Antarctic benthic ecosystems' structure and functioning. [less ▲]

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See detailA meta-analysis of isotopic compositions of North Sea marine mammals
Damseaux, France ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Das, Krishna ULg

Conference (2017, March 03)

For over a decade, the North Sea has been undergoing significant changes due to global changes and overfishing. We conducted meta-analyses of previously published data on marine mammals sampled in the ... [more ▼]

For over a decade, the North Sea has been undergoing significant changes due to global changes and overfishing. We conducted meta-analyses of previously published data on marine mammals sampled in the North Sea to test the competition for food sources and spatial variations. The overall objective of this study was to assess the potential trophic changes of the grey seal, the harbour seal and the harbour porpoise. Data included δ13C and δ15N values measured in blood cells and muscles from the three species. SIBER, a trophic niche overlap quantification approach, highlighted potential competition between marine mammal species. The ellipse drawn for harbour seal data showed the highest δ15N values, reflecting its trophic position at the top of the food web. But the ellipse overlapping between the harbour seal and the grey seal of Germany was very important, showing a potential strong competition for food sources may be due to the overfishing. The harbour porpoise displayed a lower trophic position and a wide range of δ13C and δ15N values compared to harbour seal and grey seal as seen from its extended ellipse size. This may be due to a more opportunistic behaviour following the decline of some fish population in the North Sea. Surprisingly a group of grey seals sampled in Scotland present a very small ellipse size, presumably more selective in their prey choice, and showed the lowest δ15N values. Caution should be taken before comparing the trophic position of the groups of grey seals as the baseline differed between the two sampling areas. Low nitrates concentrations, higher latitudes, colder temperatures, deeper waters and rocky soils of the Scotland’s coasts of the North Sea cause a stratification phenomenon of the water column explaining the lower δ15N baseline in this area and so the spatial variation between these two groups of grey seals living in the North Sea. [less ▲]

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See detailMusical(ized) Biographies: Jackie Kay’s Trumpet and Caryl Phillips’s Dancing in the Dark
Mascoli, Giulia ULg

Conference (2017, March 03)

My paper deals with two musical(ized) biographies: Jackie Kay’s Trumpet (1998) and Caryl Phillips’s Dancing in the Dark (2005). These literary works share features, at once thematic, since the protagonist ... [more ▼]

My paper deals with two musical(ized) biographies: Jackie Kay’s Trumpet (1998) and Caryl Phillips’s Dancing in the Dark (2005). These literary works share features, at once thematic, since the protagonist is a musical performer, and formal, as both writers’ prose is drenched with musicality. The two narratives can thus be considered what Emily Petermann (2014) calls “musical novels”, as both display sonic and structural patterns as well as elements of improvisation (the imitation of orality; the use of different narrators and the inclusion of various types of texts such as lyrics, interviews, excerpts from newspapers, and the solo performances through improvised jazzy breaks and the repetition of the same lexical item). In my paper, I will take my cue from Eric Prieto, who writes that interart analogies should not be taken as ends in themselves, and I will try to show the purpose of such intermediality and how it can contribute to the biographical genre. Among other things, I will examine whether these musicalized biographies have, through their unusual forms, particular social and political relevance and how approaching them from this methodological angle can serve as interpretative aid. [less ▲]

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See detailSemper Incertus: Authorization through Uncertainty in Hanif Kureishi’s My Ear at His Heart: Reading my Father
Munos, Delphine ULg

Conference (2017, March 02)

In Postcolonial Writers in the Global Literary Marketplace (2007), Sarah Brouillette discusses “the centrality of questions of biography in reception of postcolonial texts” (173). She argues that, as ... [more ▼]

In Postcolonial Writers in the Global Literary Marketplace (2007), Sarah Brouillette discusses “the centrality of questions of biography in reception of postcolonial texts” (173). She argues that, as against “the supposed dominant orthodoxy of anti-authorialism in literary studies” (173), successful marketing of postcolonial literature depends on – indeed requires – “biographical authenticity” so that postcolonial writers can figure valid interpreters of an authenticated location for an Anglo-American audience “schooled in multiculturalism.” Brouillette’s perception that the marketing of postcolonial writing depends on the coincidence between literary material and the biographical self of its author raises fascinating questions when it comes to examining ‘postcolonial’ biographies and autobiographies already relying on a “referential pact” (cf. Lejeune) because of their generic anatomy. Biographical fiction, then is a postcolonial nightmare come true, as the specificities of the genre endlessly displace the demand for “biographical authenticity” that is seen by Brouillette to condition the niche marketing of postcolonial literature. This paper looks at Hanif Kureishi’s My Ear at His Heart: Reading My Father (2004), in which the popular British Asian author narrativizes his ambivalent relationship with his father and retraces his father’s life from British India to the UK of the 1960s and 1970s. What is interesting is that Kureishi both relies on memory and on two unpublished ‘fictional’ texts by his late father to reconstruct the latter’s life, thus “imagining around [others’] imagination” (2004: 238), as he phrases it, that is, embracing fiction – not only memory – as a valid starting point for representing the life of his father. Susie Thomas writes that “It is a major irony that Kureishi, as a reader, approaches his father’s novels in a way that he would doubtless object to if his own fiction were raided for its autobiographical content” (2006: 189). My claim is that this “major irony” becomes a means, for Kureishi, of authorizing himself a place outside the ‘British Asian ghetto’ by playing up to the expectations of postcolonial niche marketing. [less ▲]

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See detailInverse opal photoanodes: preparation and optical properties
Dewalque, Jennifer ULg; Spronck, Gilles ULg; Baron, Damien ULg et al

Conference (2017, March 01)

Perovskite compounds, used either in mesoscopic or planar solar cells, have allowed preparing highly efficient solid-state devices (>20%). In this study, we propose to design photoanodes with photonic ... [more ▼]

Perovskite compounds, used either in mesoscopic or planar solar cells, have allowed preparing highly efficient solid-state devices (>20%). In this study, we propose to design photoanodes with photonic structure in order to modulate light interaction. The periodic structure of porosity could add specific optical properties likely to increase light harvesting and reduce reflexion losses. Besides, current efficiencies reported for mesoscopic perovskite solar cells using an inorganic porous scaffold are slightly lower than those reported for planar perovskite cells mainly due to issues in perovskite infiltration. The control of the porous network architecture in terms of pore organization, size and connectivity could overcome this limitation. TiO2/perovskite and perovskite-only photoanodes with an inverse opal porous structure are prepared from templating techniques, using polystyrene beads as structuring agent. The photoanode microstructure is further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray diffraction (XRD). In parallel, light interaction is modeled in order to find the best compromise in terms of photonic architecture (pore size, organization, thickness…). [less ▲]

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See detailBetween practices and belongings: intersectional stories of migrant women around food
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2017, March)

Short abstract Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Moroccan women living in Milan hinterland in Italy, this paper aims at exploring the negotiated ways of performing both cultural and social ... [more ▼]

Short abstract Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among Moroccan women living in Milan hinterland in Italy, this paper aims at exploring the negotiated ways of performing both cultural and social belongings through food and at pointing out how these two dimensions can diverge or overlap in practice. Long abstract Migration constitutes for human beings an opportunity – among others – to develop a reflexive gaze upon one’s own habits (Rodier 2010), food habits in the case under study. In fact, not only changes that may occur in the ways of eating, cooking and supplying of produces, but also new relationships push individuals to question their everyday practices, which are associated with specific meanings. These meanings are socially and culturally oriented and performative, since they permit to state belongings as well as to take part to differently defined groups. In order to study these dynamics, I will present some ethnographic data collected during a research among Moroccan women living in Milan hinterland in Italy, mainly focusing on the history of two of them. The description of food practices, embedded in the narration of the migration experience and its consequences, which in its turn interacts with contextual discourses around immigrants and cultural diversity, reveals unexpected strategies to take social and cultural positionings within the collectivity. The theoretical framework upon which my analysis relies consists of a praxeological approach to subjectivation (Warnier 2001) combined with the consideration of the multi-dimensionality of the self which is derived from the intersectional perspective on identity (Crenshaw 1989; Anthias 2002; Yuval-Davis 2006). Through concrete practices involving food, individuals – women in this case – define their self as a layered complex of belongings, and they do that at both social and cultural level; thus proving how these two dimensions can diverge or overlap. [less ▲]

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See detailNear-death experiences: recent findings
Martial, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2017, March)

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See detailCan science explain consciousness? Lessons from coma and related states
Martial, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2017, March)

Understanding consciousness remains one of the greatest mysteries for science to solve. How do our brains work? How can we know if some patients in coma have any consciousness left and how could we ... [more ▼]

Understanding consciousness remains one of the greatest mysteries for science to solve. How do our brains work? How can we know if some patients in coma have any consciousness left and how could we communicate with them? What are near-death experiences? What is brain death? What happens in our brains during dreaming, hypnosis or meditation? At present, nobody understands how matter (our trillions of neural connections) becomes perception and thought. We will here briefly review some neurological facts on consciousness and impaired consciousness. Thanks to recent advances in (neuroimaging) technology, the mapping of conscious perception and cognition in health (e.g., conscious waking, sleep, dreaming, hypnosis, meditation, sleepwalking and anesthesia) and in disease (e.g., coma, near-death, “vegetative” state, seizures, hallucinations etc) is providing exiting new insights into the functional neuroanatomy of human consciousness. Our perception of the outside world (sensory awareness; what we see, hear, etc.) and our awareness of an inner world (self-awareness; the little "voice" inside that "speaks" to ourselves) seemingly depend on two separate networks we could recently identify. Philosophers might argue that the subjective aspect of the mind will never be sufficiently accounted for by the objective methods of reductionistic science. We here prefer a more pragmatic approach and remain naively optimistic that technological advances might ultimately lead to an understanding of the neural substrate of human consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailOrder and Synopsis in Descartes 1640-1641
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg

Conference (2017, March)

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See detailRibbons of superparamagnetic colloids in magnetic field
Darras, Alexis ULg; Fiscina, Jorge; Pakpour, Maryam et al

Conference (2017, March)

While the aggregation process of superparamagnetic colloids in strong magnetic eld is well known on short time since a few decades, recent theoretical works predicted an equilibrium state reached after a ... [more ▼]

While the aggregation process of superparamagnetic colloids in strong magnetic eld is well known on short time since a few decades, recent theoretical works predicted an equilibrium state reached after a long time. In this talk, we present experimental observations of this equilibrium state with a twodimensional system and we compare our data with the predictions of a pre-existing model. Above a critical aggregation size, a deviation between the model and the experimental data is observed. This deviation is explained by the formation of ribbon-shaped aggregates. The ribbons are formed due to lateral aggregation of chains. An estimation of the magnetic energy for chains and ribbons shows that ribbons are stable structures when the number of magnetic grains is higher than N=30. [less ▲]

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See detailMicro-mechanical testing of magnesium based composites reinforced by carbon fibers manufactured by friction stir processing
Simar, Aude; Ryelandt, Sophie; Delannay, Francis et al

Conference (2017, February 28)

Short C fibres–Mg matrix (AZ91D) composites have been produced by friction stir processing sandwiches made of a layer of C fabric stacked between two sheets of Mg alloy. The process parameters have been ... [more ▼]

Short C fibres–Mg matrix (AZ91D) composites have been produced by friction stir processing sandwiches made of a layer of C fabric stacked between two sheets of Mg alloy. The process parameters have been optimized to ensure a good fiber distribution. 3D X-ray tomography reveals that the fibers orient like onion rings. Thermal treatments have allowed to modify the flow stress level of the matrix material. Tensile testing inside the scanning electron microscope have revealed the decohesion at the fiber/matrix interface if the fibers are preferentially oriented perpendicularly to the loading direction. Modelling allows to estimate the stress needed to initiate this decohesion is about 250 MPa, i.e. appearing early in heat treated samples. To compare with different loading conditions, micro-compression and instrumented micro-indentation testing have also been performed. The consequence of the loading path on the decohesion is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon dioxide evasion from the Seine River: Drivers analysis and spatiotemporal reconstruction
Marescaux, A; Thieu, v; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 26)

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See detailMethylglyoxal-induced carbonyl stress: perspectives of a new anti-GBM therapy
Nokin, Marie-Julie ULg

Conference (2017, February 24)

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See detailL’imprimerie à Bruxelles sous les archiducs Albert et Isabelle (1598-1633)
Adam, Renaud ULg

Conference (2017, February 23)

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See detailDécoder les verrous d’apprentissage d’une discipline
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Devyver, Julie ULg; Duchâteau, Dominique ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 21)

L’ULg a conduit une expérience pilote avec quelques enseignants. Elle vise à estimer le potentiel didactique et pédagogique d’un travail sur les « verrous d’apprentissage » (traduction délibérément ... [more ▼]

L’ULg a conduit une expérience pilote avec quelques enseignants. Elle vise à estimer le potentiel didactique et pédagogique d’un travail sur les « verrous d’apprentissage » (traduction délibérément adaptée de « bottleneck ») pour lutter contre l’échec, ou plutôt pour relever le défi de l’intégration intellectuelle du plus grand nombre. [less ▲]

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See detailAncient Egyptian philology: The digital turn. Current projects and future perspectives for the study of Ancient Egyptian texts
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Razanajao, Vincent ULg

Conference (2017, February 21)

Use of Information Technologies in Egyptology can be traced back to the early 1960s, when first efforts were made in documenting Meroitic scripts or emblematic corpora such as the Pyramid Texts. With the ... [more ▼]

Use of Information Technologies in Egyptology can be traced back to the early 1960s, when first efforts were made in documenting Meroitic scripts or emblematic corpora such as the Pyramid Texts. With the rise of the Digital Humanities in the mid-2000s, many new academic projects that implement IT solutions not only as a way to manage and present data, but also to produce, process and analyse the material, have come to light in the field. The aim of this paper is to give a survey of current digital projects related to the study of ancient Egyptian and Coptic texts. Our goal is not to be exhaustive, but to discuss the methods and tools that are being used and to describe the variety of scholarly practices. The first set of projects to be examined are those related to digital text editions and annotated corpora (including the types of representation format). Second, the question of how to handle the complex writing systems of Ancient Egypt will be addressed by looking at projects that focus on encoding (Manuel de Codage vs Unicode), on establishing hieroglyphic sign-lists (the Thot-Sign-List), on palaeographical databases and on ways to OCRize original texts efficiently. The issue of interoperability and data sharing will then be investigated through a presentation of several related projects working on a XML/TEI interchange format as well as on digital resources for enabling a Linked Open Data approach to the ancient Egyptian written material (http://thot.philo.ulg.ac.be/). Finally, we will argue in favour of a coherent data model so that encoding of data and metadata is done in the most effective way. [less ▲]

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See detailHTA et cholestérol : prise en charge intégrée - Cas cliniques
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2017, February 18)

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See detailLevinas et les limites de la phénoménologie
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

Conference (2017, February 17)

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See detailLe remembrement-relotissement en Wallonie et aux Pays-Bas : est-il possible de réveiller la Belle Endormie ?
Dethier, Perrine ULg; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2017, February 17)

Le dispositif du remembrement-relotissement, aussi appelé « Association Foncière Urbaine » en France, est un outil foncier qui permet de réaménager le maillage parcellaire et les espaces publics. Il a ... [more ▼]

Le dispositif du remembrement-relotissement, aussi appelé « Association Foncière Urbaine » en France, est un outil foncier qui permet de réaménager le maillage parcellaire et les espaces publics. Il a pour finalité de matérialiser un projet urbain et il est associé au transfert à une structure de copropriété des droits de propriété relatifs aux terrains nécessaires à la réalisation du projet en question. Il revient ensuite à cette structure de copropriété de gérer le développement du périmètre. À l’issue de l’aménagement, les propriétaires sont rétribués proportionnellement à la valeur de leurs apports fonciers respectifs. Le remembrement-relotissement est considérée comme une « Belle endormie » de l’aménagement . En effet, alors que ce dispositif présente de nombreux avantages (mobilisation du foncier à faible coût, développement de projets intégrés…), il n’est que très rarement appliqué sur le terrain . C’est dans ce cadre que se situe notre proposition, dont l’objectif est de chercher à comprendre les raisons qui limitent l’usage de cette procédure ainsi que les leviers susceptibles d’enfin banaliser sa pratique. Notre intervention sera structurée en trois parties. En première partie, nous développerons les résultats d’une analyse ayant cherché à comprendre la non-utilisation du dispositif au sein du contexte wallon . Ce travail a mis en avant que le remembrement-relotissement souffre d’une mauvaise image auprès des experts wallons de l’aménagement du territoire. Le problème fondamental réside dans la faible faisabilité liée à l’incapacité de mobiliser de concert un nombre suffisamment élevé de propriétaires. La seconde partie de notre intervention sera consacrée à la situation néerlandaise. Aux Pays-Bas, le remembrement-relotissement n’est pas non plus un outil fréquemment utilisé, ce qui s’explique par la tradition de production foncière publique. En effet, il est inutile de chercher à travailler avec les propriétaires lorsque les collectivités locales sont directement à la manœuvre pour mettre en place les projets de développement. Pour autant, en raison de la crise du modèle néerlandais de la production foncière publique, le remembrement-relotissement est aujourd’hui considéré par les autorités néerlandaises comme un outil très important afin de continuer à contrôler les montages opérationnels tout en limitant l’implication financière des collectivités. Il ressort de la comparaison entre les Pays-Bas et le Wallonie que le différentiel de confiance entre acteurs est une explication fondamentale de l’opposition entre les deux contextes. Dans ce cadre, la troisième partie de notre intervention rendra compte d’une recherche en cours qui vise à objectiver l’impact des cultures d’aménagement sur les montages opérationnels. Ce projet, qui s’appuie sur le champ de l’économie comportementale , vise en particulier à traiter des thématiques de l’aversion face aux risques et de l’importance de la confiance dans le développement des partenariats et des coopérations. [less ▲]

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See detailÉtudier un genre littéraire en Égypte Ancienne : approche(s) et méthode
Motte, Aurore ULg

Conference (2017, February 16)

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See detailStuttered and non-stuttered disfluencies in normally fluent, French-speaking preschool children
Leclercq, Anne-Lise ULg; Moyse, Astrid

Conference (2017, February 16)

The criterion of 3% of stuttered disfluencies – (part-)word repetitions, sound prolongations and blocks – is often suggested to diagnose the stuttering in children (e.g., Boey et al., 2007; Yairi ... [more ▼]

The criterion of 3% of stuttered disfluencies – (part-)word repetitions, sound prolongations and blocks – is often suggested to diagnose the stuttering in children (e.g., Boey et al., 2007; Yairi & Ambrose, 2005). There is a long-lasting debate among scholars about the relevance of considering monosyllabic word repetitions as stuttered disfluencies, given their high frequency in typically developing children (e.g., Howell, 2013; Wingate, 2001). Yet, these are the prime characteristics that prompt identification of early stuttering by parents (Yairi & Ambrose, 2013). Nevertheless, very few normative data exist concerning the disfluencies occurring in the speech of normally fluent children (Tumanova et al., 2014), and none exist in French. The aim of this study is to examine the need for reference data in French in order to distinguish typical developmental disfluency from stuttering. We used the CHAT transcription system and the coding conventions of FluencyBank to transcribe and analyse the speech disfluencies of twenty monolingual, French speaking children who do not stutter, aged 4 years. FluencyBank (Bernstein-Ratner & MacWhinney) is a shared database for the study of the development of fluency in both normal and disordered populations. It is a project of Talkbank that seeks to archive and facilitate sharing of data relevant to fluency research. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of poplar trees on the soil water dynamics of a maize field in West-Flanders
Coussement, Tom; Janssens, Pieter; Elsen, Annemie et al

Conference (2017, February 15)

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See detailMulti-evaporator air-conditioning system
Gillet, Thomas ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg; Andres, Emmanuelle et al

Conference (2017, February 14)

Regulation in terms of greenhouse gas emissions becomes more and more stringent and the fuel consumption targets decrease. In order to meet these demands, vehicle electrification has increased over the ... [more ▼]

Regulation in terms of greenhouse gas emissions becomes more and more stringent and the fuel consumption targets decrease. In order to meet these demands, vehicle electrification has increased over the last decade. With the arrival of plug-in hybrids and battery electric vehicles, efficient battery cooling system becomes a necessity and has to be integrated into the vehicle thermal management. One of the possibility is to integrate a chiller in the air conditioning system for extreme operating points. Moreover, this kind of system can be dedicated to luxury or large passenger cars for which a secondary evaporator is present to guarantee the comfort for rear passengers. The main challenge of this air-conditioning architecture is to maintain simultaneously the cabin thermal comfort via one or two evaporators on one hand and to maintain the battery cells in an ideal temperature range on the other hand. [less ▲]

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See detailTen years of pedagogical training sessions for faculties teaching freshmen
Leduc, Laurent ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

Conference (2017, February 12)

Created at the University of Liège (Belgium) in 2006, the CDS - IFRES offers to all the new faculties and teaching assistants the opportunity to participate to a pedagogical training program dealing with ... [more ▼]

Created at the University of Liège (Belgium) in 2006, the CDS - IFRES offers to all the new faculties and teaching assistants the opportunity to participate to a pedagogical training program dealing with a wide range of themes exclusively related to the enhancement of teaching activities for first-year students. More than 1400 staffs have already attended to those sessions in which dissemination of good practices in the first-year course takes a large part. Leading a reflective analysis of the process of this program and its outcomes through various data, this communication offers great insights for conceptors of faculty training programs. [less ▲]

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See detailSur les traces de Madame Maes Maes-Jelinek. Les études postcoloniales : inauguration d’une tradition liégeoise.
Belleflamme, Valérie-Anne ULg; Mascoli, Giulia ULg

Conference (2017, February 11)

Pour célébrer le bicentenaire de l’Université de Liège, nous souhaitons mettre en lumière le rayonnement international de l’un des premiers centres de recherche en Europe à s’être consacré aux « ... [more ▼]

Pour célébrer le bicentenaire de l’Université de Liège, nous souhaitons mettre en lumière le rayonnement international de l’un des premiers centres de recherche en Europe à s’être consacré aux « Commonwealth studies », le CEREP (Centre d’Enseignement et de Recherche en Etudes Postcoloniales). Fondé en 1968 par la Professeure Hena Maes-Jalinek sous l’acronyme CEREC (Centre d’Enseignement et de Recherche en Etudes du Commonwealth), le CEREP fut relancé en 2006 et met désormais en exergue la dimension postcoloniale, changeant ainsi son acronyme en CEREP. Nous comptons présenter, par ailleurs, quatre auteurs phares du paysage postcolonial qui se sont vus décerner l’insigne de Docteur honoris causa par l’ULg, à savoir, Salman Rushdie, Wilson Harris, Caryl Phillips et Paul Gilroy, pour lesquels le CEREP a joué un rôle important lors de leur accueil et présentation à l’Ulg. [less ▲]

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See detailL’étude des cultures populaires à l’Université de Liège
Delbouille, Julie ULg; Guesse, Carole ULg; Dupont, Bruno ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 10)

La présente communication se propose de retracer l’implantation progressive des cultures populaires comme objet de recherche à l’Université de Liège. Du colloque de Cerisy consacré à la paralittérature en ... [more ▼]

La présente communication se propose de retracer l’implantation progressive des cultures populaires comme objet de recherche à l’Université de Liège. Du colloque de Cerisy consacré à la paralittérature en 1967 à l’ouverture d’une mineure consacrée à la culture populaire en 2014, en passant par le développement des études en bande dessinée (avec le groupe ACME), en paralittérature, en littérature jeunesse et en jeu vidéo (avec le récent Liège GameLab), la prise en considération de ces œuvres souvent jugées illégitimes ou indignes comporte, aujourd’hui encore, d’importants enjeux scientifiques, politiques et idéologiques. À travers l’étude d’objets et de pratiques longtemps déclassés par les élites, c’est en effet la définition de l’art en tant qu’institution qui est questionnée. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Grimm à Storm. La littérature allemande à l'Université de Liège
Leyh, Valérie ULg

Conference (2017, February 10)

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See detailDialoguer avec le Tiers paysage.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2017, February 10)

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See detailLes chemins de Delbœuf
Rizzo, Rémy ULg

Conference (2017, February 09)

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See detailA modified graded response model to account for guessing in multiple-choice items
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2017, February 09)

This presentation focuses on multiple-choice items without any correction or control for guessing. Most often, item responses are recoded as binary outcomes so that dichotomous logistic item response ... [more ▼]

This presentation focuses on multiple-choice items without any correction or control for guessing. Most often, item responses are recoded as binary outcomes so that dichotomous logistic item response models (such as the 2PL or 3PL models) can be used to estimate ability levels. This is however at the cost of loosing information from collapsing all distractors into a single FALSE category. Polytomous IRT models could be considered to overcome that drawback but none of the classical models are suitable to incorporate guessing into account. The purpose of this talk is to introduce a modification to the graded response model (Samejima, 1969) that can take guessing into account. The modification consists in introducing lower and upper asymptotes to the cumulative probability curves. After a brief theoretical and technical description, practical implementation using the R package mirt (Chalmers, 2012) is discussed. Primary results from a simulation study are eventually presented and compared to traditional IRT scoring methods for scoring multiple-choice items. [less ▲]

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See detailPremiers jalons pour une histoire du plagiat à l’Université de Liège : le cas « de Reiffenberg » (1836)
Adam, Renaud ULg

Conference (2017, February 09)

Membre d’une ancienne famille noble d’origine allemande, le baron Frédéric de Reiffenberg (1795-1850) s’est distingué dans l’histoire de Belgique pour avoir été le premier à occuper le poste de ... [more ▼]

Membre d’une ancienne famille noble d’origine allemande, le baron Frédéric de Reiffenberg (1795-1850) s’est distingué dans l’histoire de Belgique pour avoir été le premier à occuper le poste de conservateur de la Bibliothèque royale de Belgique, fondée en 1837. S’il doit notamment ce poste à l’appui qu’il reçut d’amis haut placé, il convient de rappeler que la nomination à la direction de cette institution fut pour lui une belle opportunité pour quitter Liège et, plus spécifiquement, la charge de professeur d’histoire du Moyen Âge qu’il occupait à l’Université depuis le 6 décembre 1835. En effet, au cours de l’année 1836, son parcours professionnelle fut entaché d’un scandale sans précédent qui le contraint à démissionner : une accusation de plagiat formulée par l’un de ses éminents collègues, Edouard de Lavalleye (1811-1869). La présente communication sera l’occasion de revenir sur cette affaire et son traitement médiatique. [less ▲]

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See detailMusées d'ethnographie et art contemporain
Bawin, Julie ULg

Conference (2017, February 09)

Depuis le milieu des années 2000, nombreux sont les musées d’ethnographie à avoir développé une politique d’ouverture à l’art contemporain, consacrant même dans leur programmation des espaces réservés à ... [more ▼]

Depuis le milieu des années 2000, nombreux sont les musées d’ethnographie à avoir développé une politique d’ouverture à l’art contemporain, consacrant même dans leur programmation des espaces réservés à des résidences d’artistes ou à des expositions carte blanche. C’est le cas notamment du Weltkulturen Museum de Francfort, du Musée national des cultures du monde de Göteborg en Suède, du Pitt Rivers Museum d’Oxford, du Musée de la Civilisation à Québec, du Tropenmuseum à Amsterdam ou, plus récemment encore, du Musée de Tervuren et du Musée du quai Branly à Paris. Pour comprendre ce qui s’apparente à un véritable phénomène de mode – cette ouverture à la création vivante concernant par ailleurs l’ensemble du monde muséal –, il convient de s’intéresser aux premières interventions d’artistes dans les musées d’ethnographie, lesquelles remontent au milieu des années 1980, un moment charnière dans l’histoire de ces insitutions. Sous l’impulsion des Postcolonial Studies, les musées d’ethnographie extra-occidentale entrent progressivement dans une phase de redéfinition de leur mission et dans un processus d’auto-évaluation aux conséquences plus ou moins grandes sur les dispositifs d’exposition et de réception des objets ethnographiques. En axant notre attention sur trois expositions pionnières – celles d’Eduardo Paolozzi au Museum of Mankind à Londres (1985), de Fred Wilson au Maryland Historical Society à Baltimore (1992) et de Toma Muteba Luntumbue au Musée royal de l’Afrique centrale à Tervuren (2000) –, nous voudrions non seulement comprendre le rôle joué par l’art contemporain dans le procesus de refondation et les stratégies d’exposition des musées d’ethnographie extra-occidentale, mais saisir aussi la nature à la fois féconde et ambiguë des liens tissés entre le monde des anthropologues et celui des artistes. Le célèbre article d’Hal Foster, L’artiste comme ethnographe, servira de base à nos réflexions. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of proteins discriminating inflammation induced dysplasia from simple inflammation in ulcerative colitis by laser capture microdissection and label free proteomics – a pilot study
Merli, Angela-Maria ULg; QUESADA-CALVO, Florence ULg; MASSOT, Charlotte ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 09)

Chronic colonic inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) may induce dysplasia, which can itself progress and transform into neoplasia. Diagnosis of dysplasia in UC remains difficult particularly when ... [more ▼]

Chronic colonic inflammation in ulcerative colitis (UC) may induce dysplasia, which can itself progress and transform into neoplasia. Diagnosis of dysplasia in UC remains difficult particularly when tissue inflammation is present. The aim of this retrospective pilot study was to highlight proteins specifically associated with inflammation induced dysplasia in UC. We performed a pilot experiment on 15 Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) samples isolated from 5 cases of UC patients with a Polypoïd Pedunculated dysplasia (UC-PP). We compared the proteomes of the UC-PP, the inflammatory (UC-I) and the normal (UC-NL) tissues of each patient. We performed Laser Capture Microdissection (LCM) in order to collect only epithelial cells, avoiding inflammatory infiltrating ones. Label free proteomic analysis using a 2D-nanoUPLC coupled with a hybrid Quadrupole-Orbitrap was applied, as well as differential analysis on the paired samples. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) characterisation of one of the selected proteins of interest was used for validation. Out of 985 quantified proteins, 7 were found significantly more abundant in UC-PP compared to UC-I tissues, with 6 being only detected in UC-PP using proteomics. One of these is Solute Carrier Family 12 member 2 (SLC12A2), also known as Na-K-2Cl co-transporter 1 (NKCC1), a protein involved in ionic balance, in T-cell migration promotion and in some features involved in cancer development like proliferation, migration or invasion. IHC results obtained were in correlation with proteomic results and showed that SLC12A2 was more abundant in UC-PP tissue than in UC-I and UC-NL tissues, with a signal clearly delimiting the dysplastic region from the surrounding inflammatory tissue. This pilot experiment shows a different proteomic profile in inflammation-associated dysplasia and simple inflammation. This should be replicated using other types of dysplasia in IBD. SLC12A2 could be a potential biomarker of inflammation-associated dysplasia. [less ▲]

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See detailCharles de Méan et sa portée mémorielle
Lagasse, Benoît ULg

Conference (2017, February 09)

La présente présentation contient, d'une part, une courte biographie de Charles de Méan, juriste liégeois du 17e siècle et, d'autre part, trois exemples de sa portée mémorielle.

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See detailRestauration de papyrus et techniques d'imagerie au CEDOPAL
Carlig, Nathan ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

Si le Centre de documentation de papyrologie littéraire (CEDOPAL) de l’Université de Liège est propriétaire, depuis 1954, d’une collection de vingt papyrus, dix-neuf grecs et un copte, datés du Ier au ... [more ▼]

Si le Centre de documentation de papyrologie littéraire (CEDOPAL) de l’Université de Liège est propriétaire, depuis 1954, d’une collection de vingt papyrus, dix-neuf grecs et un copte, datés du Ier au VIIe siècle, il est également dépositaire d’une collection privée liégeoise de papyrus grecs, coptes et démotiques, actuellement en cours de restauration. Après avoir présenté le papyrus comme support d’écriture et ses caractéristiques, nous détaillerons les techniques de restauration et d’imagerie mises en œuvre lors de la restauration de la collection de papyrus du CEDOPAL et de celle de la collection privée et nous mettrons en avant les résultats obtenus et les perspectives d’analyses futures. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Projet Ramsès. Explorer la langue des pharaons au XXIe siècle
Motte, Aurore ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

En nous appuyant sur un historique de la chaire d’égyptologie à l’ULg (depuis sa création en 1902), nous montrons comment le Projet Ramsès est venu s’inscrire au cœur des projets de recherche du service ... [more ▼]

En nous appuyant sur un historique de la chaire d’égyptologie à l’ULg (depuis sa création en 1902), nous montrons comment le Projet Ramsès est venu s’inscrire au cœur des projets de recherche du service d’égyptologie à partir de 2006. La présentation s’attache ensuite à en présenter les derniers développements et à illustrer le caractère novateur de ce projet, tant du point de vue de l’égyptologie et de la linguistique de corpus, que du point de vue — plus large — des humanités numériques. Nous décrirons enfin le réseau de recherche européen dont il participe aujourd’hui, impliquant des collaborations suivies avec différents projets d’ampleur. [less ▲]

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See detailLe latin et le grec de Michel Dubuisson : quelques réflexions sur une œuvre consacrée au bilinguisme dans l’Antiquité gréco-romaine
Ioannidopoulos, Grégory ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

Dans son ouvrage bien connu consacré au « Latin de Polybe », M. Dubuisson s’efforça de relever de façon exhaustive les traits de langue qui trahissaient l’influence du latin chez l’historien grec. Mais au ... [more ▼]

Dans son ouvrage bien connu consacré au « Latin de Polybe », M. Dubuisson s’efforça de relever de façon exhaustive les traits de langue qui trahissaient l’influence du latin chez l’historien grec. Mais au-delà, il s’agissait également de tirer toutes les conséquences historiques des conclusions tirées de l’analyse philologique, afin de mieux comprendre l’œuvre de Polybe. M. Dubuisson fut ainsi l’un des promoteurs d’une approche plus qualitative du bilinguisme gréco-latin, approche qu’il élargit ensuite à d’autres champs d’étude. Ce faisant, il contribua à l’affinement de nos connaissances sur les rapports que Rome entretenait avec la Grèce et sa langue, et vice-versa. Et sa démarche fut féconde, tant à l’Université de Liège, où elle s’enracinait dans une tradition solide, qu’à l’extérieur. [less ▲]

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See detailLa "Vigna Manzi" à Garaguso (Basilicate), un nouveau projet de recherche archéologique de l'Université de Liège
Cuvelier, Graham ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

En 1916, l’archéologue Vittorio di Cicco entreprenait des fouilles sur le site de la « Vigna Manzi », à Garaguso, en Basilicate. Il y découvrit les vestiges d’un temple qui contenait encore une partie de ... [more ▼]

En 1916, l’archéologue Vittorio di Cicco entreprenait des fouilles sur le site de la « Vigna Manzi », à Garaguso, en Basilicate. Il y découvrit les vestiges d’un temple qui contenait encore une partie de son mobilier et différentes offrandes dont la statuette en marbre d’une déesse trônante accompagnée d’un tempietto. Cette découverte ramenait à la lumière un site de premier ordre pour l’étude des relations qu’entretenaient, dans ces territoires d’Italie méridionale, les populations indigènes et les Grecs des cités de Grande Grèce. Dans le courant du XXe siècle, d’autres fouilles se sont succédé dans le sanctuaire de la « Vigna Manzi » – sans grand résultat. Durant l’été 2008, l’archéologue Jean-Marc Moret a cherché à identifier l’emplacement de la fouille de Vittorio di Cicco. Ce sondage lui a permis de retrouver d’autres structures monumentales augurant une découverte d’envergure. La publication de cette entreprise a ensuite été confiée à Thomas Morard, professeur à l’Université de Liège. Dans cette perspective, une campagne de documentation a été menée durant l’automne 2016. S’en suivra la reprise de l’enquête de terrain, un nouveau projet archéologique pour l’Université de Liège [less ▲]

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See detailIngénieries de formation innovantes - quelles place et fonctions pour NeopassSup ?
Poumay, Marianne ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

Dans le contexte de l'enseignement supérieur et à l'occasion du lancement de la plateforme NéopassSup, cette communication abordait l'intérêt pédagogique d'un tel outil au service du développement ... [more ▼]

Dans le contexte de l'enseignement supérieur et à l'occasion du lancement de la plateforme NéopassSup, cette communication abordait l'intérêt pédagogique d'un tel outil au service du développement professionnel des enseignants du supérieur. Elle imaginait les usages possibles de l'outil, sur la base d'activités déjà en cours. Elle anticipait ensuite les facteurs de succès de ces usages et se clôturait sur quelques réflexions, soulignant notamment l'importance de l'accompagnement des enseignants dans ces démarches de formation et de développement professionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign optimization of Rankine cycle systems for waste heat recovery from passenger car engines
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Legros, Arnaud; Dumont, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 07)

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See detailLogging impact on biodiversity in Central Africa
Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference (2017, February 07)

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See detailThe prosumers and the grid
Gautier, Axel ULg; Jacqmin, Julien ULg; poudou, jean-christophe

Conference (2017, February 07)

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See detailQuantification of natural estrogens in aqueous matrices as pyridine-3-sulfonyl derivatives by UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS
Glineur, Alex ULg; Ronkart, Sébastien; Nott, Kathérine et al

Conference (2017, February 07)

Natural estrogens (estrone: E1, 17-β-estradiol : E2, estriol : E3) and synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol: EE2) are powerful endocrine disruptors. They may have deleterious effects on aquatic ... [more ▼]

Natural estrogens (estrone: E1, 17-β-estradiol : E2, estriol : E3) and synthetic estrogen (17-α-ethinylestradiol: EE2) are powerful endocrine disruptors. They may have deleterious effects on aquatic wildlife and also humans even at extremely low concentrations. For this reason, these molecules have been included in a watch list from the European Commission regarding emerging aquatic pollutants. The maximum detection limits are set at 0.035 and 0.40 ng/L for EE2 and E1, E2 respectively. Reaching such low levels of concentration of estrogenic compounds is a challenge, even using state-of-the-art analytical methods. In this study, we developed a UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS method allowing the quantification of E1, E2, E3 and EE2 residues in aqueous matrices. Studies commonly used ESI in negative mode albeit the poor ionization efficiency of native estrogenic compounds in this mode. In this study, the molecules were derivatised using a sulfonyl chloride reagent (pyridine-3-sulfonyl, P-3-S). The resulting response in the positive mode was significantly enhanced. Similarly to other dansyl derivatives, the product ion spectra of the P-3-S derivatives indicate ions originating from the derivatization reagent moiety. Moreover, several other ions were included in the product ion spectra of the P-3-S derivatives. Their specificity was assessed by a qualitative approach implying the analysis of different types of water samples (groundwater, surface water). Some product ions were found to be noticeably better for quantification and confirmation of the analytes. The developed analytical method was validated according to the NF T90-210 norm which is suitable to assess the performances of a method in the water quality field. The limits of quantification were 0.04, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.02 ng/L in groundwater and 0.89, 0.79,4.42 and 0.29 ng/L in surface water for E1, E2, E3 and EE2 respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailHydraulic and wood traits of two congeneric tropical tree species in their core habitat
Gorel, Anaïs ULg; Steppe, kathy; Beeckman, Hans et al

Conference (2017, February 06)

Background: Strong niche partitioning across rainfall gradients has been identified for several tropical tree genera. The link between hydraulic and wood anatomical traits, associated with drought ... [more ▼]

Background: Strong niche partitioning across rainfall gradients has been identified for several tropical tree genera. The link between hydraulic and wood anatomical traits, associated with drought tolerance, however remains to be explored, in order to identify the mechanisms shaping the range limits of tropical tree species. Aim: In this study, we aimed to identify the differences in hydraulic and wood traits between two congeneric tree species with contrasting distributions in moist and wet tropical forests. Location: Central African moist and wet forests Methods: In the core habitat of Erythrophleum ivorense (wet forest) and of E. suaveolens (moist), we collected branches to construct vulnerability curves and measure hydraulic capacitance, and both stem and branch wood samples to link the hydraulic traits to wood anatomy. Major results: E. suaveolens, which is characteristic of drier forests, is clearly more resistant to cavitation than E. ivorense, and also possess a greater hydraulic capacitance (i.e. the capacity that species have to mitigate periods of water storage by using internally stored water). In agreement with this great drought tolerance for E. suaveolens, wood anatomy revealed a high number of small vessels associated with small intervessel pits, features minimizing cavitation risk but also reducing water transport. Main conclusions: Drought tolerance, as indicated by both hydraulic and wood traits, strongly differed between the closely related species and explained their contrasting distribution, and affinity for moist (E. ivorense) and wet (E. suaveolens) forests. However, phenotypic plasticity in hydraulic and wood traits remained to be addressed to examine the extent of water use differences between the two species. [less ▲]

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See detailHow tree architecture varies across coexisting tropical tree species and relates to functional traits?
Loubota Panzou, Grâce Jopaul ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Loumeto, Jean-Joël et al

Conference (2017, February 06)

Architecture refers to the overall shape of a tree and the spatial position of its components. Tree height determines the position in the forest canopy and access to light, while the amount and spatial ... [more ▼]

Architecture refers to the overall shape of a tree and the spatial position of its components. Tree height determines the position in the forest canopy and access to light, while the amount and spatial distribution of the foliage depend on the depth and the width of the crown. The aim of this study is to understand how tree architecture varies across coexisting tropical tree species and relates to functional traits. Forty five coexisting tree species were sampled in the semi-deciduous forests of Northern Congo. Species were classified according to ecological strategies, specifically regeneration guilds: shade bearers (27 species), non-pioneers light demanding (14 species) and pioneers (4 species). For each species, 14–72 trees (968 trees in total) were measured over a large range of diameter (10–162 cm). At the tree level, we measured the diameter (D in cm), height (H in m), crown radius (Cr in m) and crown depth (Cd in m) and crown exposure index (CEI) was visually estimated. At species level, architectural traits (Dmax, Hmax, Crmax and Cdmax), life history traits (dispersal mode, phenology and guild) and functional traits (wood density and light requirement) were obtained. We investigates the H-D, Cr-D and Cd-D allometric relationships at the tree level using linear mixed models on log-transformed data with species as a random effect on both slope and intercept. We used the multivariate analysis to quantify the relationship between architectural, functional traits and life history traits. Based on AIC, we found that the best linear mixed model was the one with two species random parameters (intercept and slope) for H-D and Cr-D allometries, while the best model for Cd-D allometry was the one with only a random intercept. Thus, our results showed a significant variation in tree allometry between coexisting species. The interspecific variation in H-D allometry was related to light requirement while Cr-D and Cd-D allometries were more related to dispersal mode and wood density, respectively. The confirmed the existence of three ecological strategies (shade bearers, non-pioneers light demanding and pioneers) in tropical forests, specifically in Central Africa. Architectural traits were the main traits that differentiate between ecological strategies. Architectural traits are therefore strong predictors of ecological strategies of coexisting tropical tree species. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting the future of an endemic endangered Andean bird species with a niche-based-model nested into a dynamic vegetation model
Hambuckers, Alain ULg; Zuniga, Lilian; Dury, Marie ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 05)

The slopes of the Andes are recognized as supporting the highest avian diversity in the world combined with high endemism rate but also more than 20 % of threatened species. Frugivores birds, even rare ... [more ▼]

The slopes of the Andes are recognized as supporting the highest avian diversity in the world combined with high endemism rate but also more than 20 % of threatened species. Frugivores birds, even rare species, are known as major providers of seed dispersal service. In Bolivia, the large Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys Lafresnaye, 1847) is one of the 15 endemic species of this country. Its natural habitat is mainly semi-deciduous dry forest but this habitat is most often severely degraded. Climate change is an additional threat over tropical mountain birds and this particular species, since some scenarios suggest warming as high as 7.5°C by 2080 and significant variations in the precipitation regime and available soil water. To infer the future of bird species under warming climate, many authors use niche-based models (NBM), in which they combine effects of climate variables, alone or in combination with other environmental variables. A more elaborated approach consists in also including biotic interactions, notably the availability of particular plant species. While NBM with climate variables are now considered as a standard method to predict plant species distribution under future climate, this approach fails to consider the effect of increasing CO2 concentration in air on plant physiology. Contrariwise, dynamic vegetation models (DVM) are commonly able to reproduce this effect, although the uncertainties on the CO2 are large. This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on the range of A. rubrogenys, by combining within a NBM climate variables, relief and biotic variables, i.e. plant species resource. Plant resource is computed with a DVM and a NBM to compare the methodologies and to evaluate potential effects of CO2 on plant species distribution and indirect impacts on the bird. [less ▲]

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See detailFormes brèves et complexité narrative : l'effet de déjà-vu dans "Southcliffe" (Warp Films, 2013)
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2017, February 02)

Cette communication se penche sur la mini-série anglaise "Southcliffe" (Warp Films, 2013) et s'emploie à dégager en elle divers effets de reprise et de déjà-vu. Ces effets font ensuite l'objet d'une ... [more ▼]

Cette communication se penche sur la mini-série anglaise "Southcliffe" (Warp Films, 2013) et s'emploie à dégager en elle divers effets de reprise et de déjà-vu. Ces effets font ensuite l'objet d'une interrogation touchant à la notion de "complexité narrative" (J. Mittell). [less ▲]

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