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See detailCharles de Méan et sa portée mémorielle
Lagasse, Benoît ULg

Conference (2017, February 09)

La présente présentation contient, d'une part, une courte biographie de Charles de Méan, juriste liégeois du 17e siècle et, d'autre part, trois exemples de sa portée mémorielle.

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See detailLa "Vigna Manzi" à Garaguso (Basilicate), un nouveau projet de recherche archéologique de l'Université de Liège
Cuvelier, Graham ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

En 1916, l’archéologue Vittorio di Cicco entreprenait des fouilles sur le site de la « Vigna Manzi », à Garaguso, en Basilicate. Il y découvrit les vestiges d’un temple qui contenait encore une partie de ... [more ▼]

En 1916, l’archéologue Vittorio di Cicco entreprenait des fouilles sur le site de la « Vigna Manzi », à Garaguso, en Basilicate. Il y découvrit les vestiges d’un temple qui contenait encore une partie de son mobilier et différentes offrandes dont la statuette en marbre d’une déesse trônante accompagnée d’un tempietto. Cette découverte ramenait à la lumière un site de premier ordre pour l’étude des relations qu’entretenaient, dans ces territoires d’Italie méridionale, les populations indigènes et les Grecs des cités de Grande Grèce. Dans le courant du XXe siècle, d’autres fouilles se sont succédé dans le sanctuaire de la « Vigna Manzi » – sans grand résultat. Durant l’été 2008, l’archéologue Jean-Marc Moret a cherché à identifier l’emplacement de la fouille de Vittorio di Cicco. Ce sondage lui a permis de retrouver d’autres structures monumentales augurant une découverte d’envergure. La publication de cette entreprise a ensuite été confiée à Thomas Morard, professeur à l’Université de Liège. Dans cette perspective, une campagne de documentation a été menée durant l’automne 2016. S’en suivra la reprise de l’enquête de terrain, un nouveau projet archéologique pour l’Université de Liège [less ▲]

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See detailRestauration de papyrus et techniques d'imagerie au CEDOPAL
Carlig, Nathan ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

Si le Centre de documentation de papyrologie littéraire (CEDOPAL) de l’Université de Liège est propriétaire, depuis 1954, d’une collection de vingt papyrus, dix-neuf grecs et un copte, datés du Ier au ... [more ▼]

Si le Centre de documentation de papyrologie littéraire (CEDOPAL) de l’Université de Liège est propriétaire, depuis 1954, d’une collection de vingt papyrus, dix-neuf grecs et un copte, datés du Ier au VIIe siècle, il est également dépositaire d’une collection privée liégeoise de papyrus grecs, coptes et démotiques, actuellement en cours de restauration. Après avoir présenté le papyrus comme support d’écriture et ses caractéristiques, nous détaillerons les techniques de restauration et d’imagerie mises en œuvre lors de la restauration de la collection de papyrus du CEDOPAL et de celle de la collection privée et nous mettrons en avant les résultats obtenus et les perspectives d’analyses futures. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Projet Ramsès. Explorer la langue des pharaons au XXIe siècle
Motte, Aurore ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

En nous appuyant sur un historique de la chaire d’égyptologie à l’ULg (depuis sa création en 1902), nous montrons comment le Projet Ramsès est venu s’inscrire au cœur des projets de recherche du service ... [more ▼]

En nous appuyant sur un historique de la chaire d’égyptologie à l’ULg (depuis sa création en 1902), nous montrons comment le Projet Ramsès est venu s’inscrire au cœur des projets de recherche du service d’égyptologie à partir de 2006. La présentation s’attache ensuite à en présenter les derniers développements et à illustrer le caractère novateur de ce projet, tant du point de vue de l’égyptologie et de la linguistique de corpus, que du point de vue — plus large — des humanités numériques. Nous décrirons enfin le réseau de recherche européen dont il participe aujourd’hui, impliquant des collaborations suivies avec différents projets d’ampleur. [less ▲]

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See detailIngénieries de formation innovantes - quelles place et fonctions pour NeopassSup ?
Poumay, Marianne ULg

Conference (2017, February 08)

Dans le contexte de l'enseignement supérieur et à l'occasion du lancement de la plateforme NéopassSup, cette communication abordait l'intérêt pédagogique d'un tel outil au service du développement ... [more ▼]

Dans le contexte de l'enseignement supérieur et à l'occasion du lancement de la plateforme NéopassSup, cette communication abordait l'intérêt pédagogique d'un tel outil au service du développement professionnel des enseignants du supérieur. Elle imaginait les usages possibles de l'outil, sur la base d'activités déjà en cours. Elle anticipait ensuite les facteurs de succès de ces usages et se clôturait sur quelques réflexions, soulignant notamment l'importance de l'accompagnement des enseignants dans ces démarches de formation et de développement professionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailThe prosumers and the grid
Gautier, Axel ULg; Jacqmin, Julien ULg; poudou, jean-christophe

Conference (2017, February 07)

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See detailLogging impact on biodiversity in Central Africa
Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

Conference (2017, February 07)

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See detailDesign optimization of Rankine cycle systems for waste heat recovery from passenger car engines
Lemort, Vincent ULg; Legros, Arnaud; Dumont, Olivier ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 07)

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See detailHow tree architecture varies across coexisting tropical tree species and relates to functional traits?
Loubota Panzou, Grâce Jopaul ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Loumeto, Jean-Joël et al

Conference (2017, February 06)

Architecture refers to the overall shape of a tree and the spatial position of its components. Tree height determines the position in the forest canopy and access to light, while the amount and spatial ... [more ▼]

Architecture refers to the overall shape of a tree and the spatial position of its components. Tree height determines the position in the forest canopy and access to light, while the amount and spatial distribution of the foliage depend on the depth and the width of the crown. The aim of this study is to understand how tree architecture varies across coexisting tropical tree species and relates to functional traits. Forty five coexisting tree species were sampled in the semi-deciduous forests of Northern Congo. Species were classified according to ecological strategies, specifically regeneration guilds: shade bearers (27 species), non-pioneers light demanding (14 species) and pioneers (4 species). For each species, 14–72 trees (968 trees in total) were measured over a large range of diameter (10–162 cm). At the tree level, we measured the diameter (D in cm), height (H in m), crown radius (Cr in m) and crown depth (Cd in m) and crown exposure index (CEI) was visually estimated. At species level, architectural traits (Dmax, Hmax, Crmax and Cdmax), life history traits (dispersal mode, phenology and guild) and functional traits (wood density and light requirement) were obtained. We investigates the H-D, Cr-D and Cd-D allometric relationships at the tree level using linear mixed models on log-transformed data with species as a random effect on both slope and intercept. We used the multivariate analysis to quantify the relationship between architectural, functional traits and life history traits. Based on AIC, we found that the best linear mixed model was the one with two species random parameters (intercept and slope) for H-D and Cr-D allometries, while the best model for Cd-D allometry was the one with only a random intercept. Thus, our results showed a significant variation in tree allometry between coexisting species. The interspecific variation in H-D allometry was related to light requirement while Cr-D and Cd-D allometries were more related to dispersal mode and wood density, respectively. The confirmed the existence of three ecological strategies (shade bearers, non-pioneers light demanding and pioneers) in tropical forests, specifically in Central Africa. Architectural traits were the main traits that differentiate between ecological strategies. Architectural traits are therefore strong predictors of ecological strategies of coexisting tropical tree species. [less ▲]

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See detailPredicting the future of an endemic endangered Andean bird species with a niche-based-model nested into a dynamic vegetation model
Hambuckers, Alain ULg; Zuniga, Lilian; Dury, Marie ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 05)

The slopes of the Andes are recognized as supporting the highest avian diversity in the world combined with high endemism rate but also more than 20 % of threatened species. Frugivores birds, even rare ... [more ▼]

The slopes of the Andes are recognized as supporting the highest avian diversity in the world combined with high endemism rate but also more than 20 % of threatened species. Frugivores birds, even rare species, are known as major providers of seed dispersal service. In Bolivia, the large Red-fronted Macaw (Ara rubrogenys Lafresnaye, 1847) is one of the 15 endemic species of this country. Its natural habitat is mainly semi-deciduous dry forest but this habitat is most often severely degraded. Climate change is an additional threat over tropical mountain birds and this particular species, since some scenarios suggest warming as high as 7.5°C by 2080 and significant variations in the precipitation regime and available soil water. To infer the future of bird species under warming climate, many authors use niche-based models (NBM), in which they combine effects of climate variables, alone or in combination with other environmental variables. A more elaborated approach consists in also including biotic interactions, notably the availability of particular plant species. While NBM with climate variables are now considered as a standard method to predict plant species distribution under future climate, this approach fails to consider the effect of increasing CO2 concentration in air on plant physiology. Contrariwise, dynamic vegetation models (DVM) are commonly able to reproduce this effect, although the uncertainties on the CO2 are large. This study assesses the potential impact of climate change on the range of A. rubrogenys, by combining within a NBM climate variables, relief and biotic variables, i.e. plant species resource. Plant resource is computed with a DVM and a NBM to compare the methodologies and to evaluate potential effects of CO2 on plant species distribution and indirect impacts on the bird. [less ▲]

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See detailLocutifs et énoncés non verbaux en ancien français
Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2017, February 02)

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See detailComparison of xenogeneic graft-versus-host reactions in humanized NSG and NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice
Ehx, Grégory ULg; SOMJA, Joan ULg; Delens, Loïc ULg et al

Conference (2017, February 01)

Background. So far, the most commonly used mouse model of xenogeneic GVHD is NSG mice injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, this model is somewhat limited by the fact ... [more ▼]

Background. So far, the most commonly used mouse model of xenogeneic GVHD is NSG mice injected with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). However, this model is somewhat limited by the fact that the immunologic reaction of human PBMC is directed exclusively towards murine antigens. Aim. Here, we compared xGVHD induced by injection of human PBMCs in NSG and in NSG mice expressing the HDD construct designed for the expression of human HLA-A0201 convalently bound to human b2 microglobuline, enabling the expression of both HLA-A2 and b2 microglobuline. Methods. NSG and NSG-HLA-A2/HHD (NSG-HLA) mice were transplanted with either HLA-A2+ or HLA-A2− human PBMCs from healthy donors. Survival and xGVHD scores were monitored for the remaining days of the experiments or mice were sacrificed at day 14 to perform various analyzes on their organs. Results. NSG-HLA mice presented overall lower survival rates and higher xGVHD scores than NSG mice (median survival: 28 vs 21 days, p<0.0001). Survival difference between NSG and NSG-HLA mice was higher when they were transplanted with HLA-A2− than with HLA-A2+ donors (HLA-A2−, median survival: 35 vs 25 days, p=0.0001; HLA-A2+, median survival: 23 vs 19 days, p=0.001). Flow cytometry experiments showed higher human CD45+ cells engraftment in NSG-HLA mice in blood, spleen, bone marrow, lungs and liver. Further, lower CD4+/CD8+ T cells ratio were observed in these organs in NSG-HLA mice, highlighting a higher frequency of cytotoxic T cells. These differences of engraftment or ratio could not be attributed to proliferation or activation differences since no variation of either KI67 or HLA-DR were observed between the two mouse models. Supporting the promotion of cytotoxic T cells in NSG-HLA mice, lower frequency of CD45RA+ and higher frequency of TNF-α+ among CD8+ T cells were observed in NSG-HLA in comparison with NSG mice. Finally, preliminary results suggest a specific cytotoxicity toward HLA-A2+ cells in NSG-HLA mice. Conclusion. NSG-HLA-A2/HHD mice develop more severe xGVHD than NSG, characterized by a higher human cell engraftment and higher frequency of cytotoxic T cells, probably reacting specifically toward human HLA-A2 antigen. Therefore these mice may be a better model to study human acute GVHD. [less ▲]

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See detailLe droit fiscal à l’épreuve du droit civil: étude positive et prospective de la fiscalisation des revenus de certains acteurs relevant de l’économie sociale
Garroy, Sabine ULg

Conference (2017, February 01)

Présentation en 180 secondes de l'état de la recherche doctorale

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See detailInflences of biological findings in the field of architectural theory and formal developments in the french landscape of the 1960
Van Rooyen, Xavier ULg

Conference (2017, February)

In 1960, some architects questionned the « Charte d’Athènes » and its principles. They explored the language of architecture in some Congress and took the name of Team X. During their meeting they tried ... [more ▼]

In 1960, some architects questionned the « Charte d’Athènes » and its principles. They explored the language of architecture in some Congress and took the name of Team X. During their meeting they tried to take into account the potential of different finding in sciences. The architects of the Team X group who intervened in France where mostly influenced by structuralist apprach of Levi-Strauss an the biologist François Jacob. In his book la logique du vivant , Jacob introduced some concepts, some vocabulary words which inspired architects. These terms, this architectural grammar is : fabric, cells, DNA, 3d structure. Candilis-Wood-Josic were influenced by Jacob’s book and radio conference at that time and did some projects around theses formal analogies. In our point of view, like Jean Renaudie said, biology findings influenced his vision of the society and contributed to question architecture, its forms, its vocabulary. For us, biological analogies following Jean-Pierre Chupin decription, contributed mostly to the development of the neo avant-garde in the 1960’s in France and the different constructions we can see in the french landscape marked the architectural theory and is widely reused nowadays. Through these conference, we want to demonstrate that hypothesis trhough the work of l’Atelier de Montrouge in which Jean Renaudie worked. [less ▲]

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See detailPrendre soin du sauvage. Le devenir de la nature pour métier.
Denayer, Dorothée ULg

Conference (2017, February)

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See detailArchitecture and deconstruction: translation as a matter of speculative theory
Bodart, Céline ULg

Conference (2017, February)

If this conference proposes to explore the singular and minor expressions of architectural theory, it could at first seem strange to propose here a paper about the so-called derridean years of ... [more ▼]

If this conference proposes to explore the singular and minor expressions of architectural theory, it could at first seem strange to propose here a paper about the so-called derridean years of architecture. Rather, the vast body of literature produced on this specific episode argues that the encounter of architectural discourses with derridean deconstruction played a major role into the implementation of "the gilded age of theory" (Mallgrave, Goodman, 2011). But such an "age" needs now to be redefined in regard with its own cultural boundaries. What the decon has produced in the Anglo-American field of architectural theory is not what the deconstruction has produced on the French-speaking part of the debate (following the argument of Cusset, 2005). In France, the question of the effects of the Derrida's philosophy on the contemporary architectural discourses and practices still causes a kind of discomfort. "As if" no one could face with what this disciplinary cross-over of the mid-eighties both has produced and has not succeeded in producing; "as if", failure or not, this experimental encounter could had been no effects or consequences on the theories and practices which succeeded it. From one cultural context to another, we have two different versions of a same history. Different but not unrelated. The proposition is here to invest the productive gap between these overlapped versions, in order to question their respective modes of construction but also to re-open their ways of being transmitted. From an original translation of Derrida's Haunt (Wigley, 1993) in French, I would present a methodological approach (Despret, 2001) which attempts to create the conditions of a renewed relation between different versions of what the deconstruction could have produced in architecture. The exercise of the translation is seen as a way to question the co-existence of these different possible versions; a way to slow down the multiple gestures which hastily sweep the hesitations in the shared course of their history. [less ▲]

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See detailA look at Intact Forest Landscapes and their relevance to Central African forest policy
Haurez, Barbara ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg et al

Conference (2017, February)

Tropical forests are important providers of natural resources and ecosystem services but their ecological functions are facing increasing human pressure, linked to economic development. The preservation ... [more ▼]

Tropical forests are important providers of natural resources and ecosystem services but their ecological functions are facing increasing human pressure, linked to economic development. The preservation of tropical forest ecosystems is interrelated with effective land use planning and identification of priority areas for conservation. Initially defined by Greenpeace and the World Resources Institute (WRI) in 2000, Intact Forest Landscapes (IFLs) are large areas of forest minimally impacted by human activities. IFLs were identified by mapping industrial activities, road networks and infrastructure using remote sensing. Since 2014, when IFLs were recognized and adopted by the certification scheme Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), the IFLs have become integrated into forest management policies. In order to trace the history and evaluate the applicability of IFLs for forest management policy in the Central African context, we searched for documents related to the IFL method, and previous similar concepts. The IFL method is simple and cost-effective and enables the monitoring of forest degradation at a global scale. However, the approach mainly considers forest cover and is imprecise at the local scale. For example, hunting, one of the main threats faced by Central African ecosystems, cannot be detected by satellite imagery and is therefore disregarded in IFL identification processes. In contrast, there are other considered anthropogenic activities, such as reduced-impact selective logging, which may be compatible with forest ecosystem conservation. To better tailor the IFL approach to Central African forests, we recommend (i) the consideration of wildlife communities distribution in the analysis of disturbance, (ii) a thorough evaluation of the impacts of different human activities on forest ecosystems, and (iii) the integration of local stakeholders and governments in the design of land management strategies devised to address social, economic and environmental needs. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Barcelone à Amsterdam : l'émergence de la conservation intégrée à travers les colloques internationaux du Conseil de l'Europe et de l'ICOMOS
Houbart, Claudine ULg

Conference (2017, January 31)

En 1975, la notion de conservation intégrée est consacrée par la Charte européenne du Patrimoine architectural, adoptée par le Comité des Ministres du Conseil de l’Europe avant d’être solennellement ... [more ▼]

En 1975, la notion de conservation intégrée est consacrée par la Charte européenne du Patrimoine architectural, adoptée par le Comité des Ministres du Conseil de l’Europe avant d’être solennellement proclamée et développée au Congrès d’Amsterdam (21-25 octobre 1975). Renouvelant fondamentalement les pratiques de rénovation des centres anciens avec l’ambition de créer un dialogue entre aménageurs et conservateurs, cette approche résulte de dix années de réflexions nourries par des échanges entre experts principalement européens, initiés non seulement par le Conseil de l’Europe (Confrontations de Barcelone (1965), Bath (1966), La Haye (1967) et Avignon (1968)), mais également par l’ICOMOS, dès sa fondation en 1965 (Colloques de Cacérès (1965), Tunis (1966), Leningrad et Graz (1969), Lausanne (1973), Rothenburg et Bruges (1975)). Si un regard macroscopique révèle le rôle central joué par Piero Gazzola et Raymond Lemaire, respectivement président et secrétaire général de l’ICOMOS et auteurs, avec François Sorlin, d’une étude de synthèse préalable à la Charte européenne, cette contribution se propose d’augmenter la focale afin de révéler, à travers l’étude des actes des colloques, le rôle des réseaux d’acteurs en présence dans l’élaboration de la nouvelle politique. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of PE teachers in motor testing. A pilot study with the MOBAK-1
Cloes, Marc ULg; Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Jidovtseff, Boris ULg et al

Conference (2017, January 28)

Fundamental motor patterns are prerequisites to specific motor/sports skills and a determinant of the involvement in physical activity. Several tools have been developed in order to measure motor ... [more ▼]

Fundamental motor patterns are prerequisites to specific motor/sports skills and a determinant of the involvement in physical activity. Several tools have been developed in order to measure motor development in children. Each test battery presents its own characteristics. MOBAK-1 focuses on two categories of basic motor competencies in order to record the effects of physical education (PE) at the elementary school level. That tool proposed 8 tests. For each of them, pupils receive point scores (0–2 points) according to the quality of their performance. MOBAK-1 is supposed to be used by PE teachers but there is still a lack of data about this, justifying the present study. We trained 7 PE teachers (4 males) and analysed the way they implemented the tests in their classes (1st and 2d grades – 6-8 year-old pupils). The training comprised a description of the tests with video examples of the expected movements and common errors, and an analysis of the reliability of the teachers evaluating pupils’ performances showed on video (at least 10 trials). A participating observation and a short interview were planned to analyse the evaluation process of each PE teacher. Catching and Rolling reached the reliability requirements within the first 10 trials while 15 to 16 videos were necessary for the six other tests. Two teachers seemed to have more difficulties that could be related to their lack of experience (P1) or a potential lower interest (P7). Before implementing the test with their classes, all teachers read again the guidelines. The majority was really satisfied by the information provided by the researchers (3.86/4) and confident about how to manage the evaluation (3.57/4). Five teachers worked alone and 4 were able to evaluate one class/lesson. All teachers developed specific strategies in order to save time. Several practical recommendations have been proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailMotor assessment of children at school: Pupils’ opinion about MOBAK-1
Cloes, Marc ULg; Vandermeeren, Benjamin

Conference (2017, January 28)

School is a privileged place for evaluating children’s physical and motor competencies. Tests are often used for educational and/or research purposes. Adults collect the data but do not verify how ... [more ▼]

School is a privileged place for evaluating children’s physical and motor competencies. Tests are often used for educational and/or research purposes. Adults collect the data but do not verify how children experience these evaluations that can be perceived as difficult moments. Even if they are supposed to motivate pupils, they can decrease the self-perception and limit the participation. Several test batteries have been developed in order to measure motor development of young children (M-ABC, KTK, TGMD …). They are based on the assessment of performances. On the other hand, MOBAK-1 has been developed in order to verify if some motor competencies are mastered or not. To our knowledge, no study tried to determine how the pupils passing these tests feel about their experience. This study focused on that original topic. Seven primary school PE teachers administrated the MOBAK-1 tests to their classes (149 1st and 2d grades – 6-8 year-old). After the tests, pupils fulfilled an adapted questionnaire based on pictograms designed to facilitate pupils’ understanding. The most important finding is that 80.5% of the pupils answered that they loved doing the tests. Only 3 pupils expressed a negative opinion. As pointed out by the correlation between the real achievement mean scores and the perceived competence mean score for each test (r= 0.90), pupil’s self-assessment seemed appropriate. The correlation between the perceived competence and appraisal of the tests is lower (r=0.59). The gamelike status of some tests would be more determinant for their appraisal by the pupils than their level of achievement: balancing is definitely the most appreciated test (35.6% of the pupils selected it). In the same way, even if the achievement level is not high, throwing is relatively well appreciated. Trying to touch a target with a ball is funny. On the other hand, jumping and bouncing were ‘less’ appreciated. [less ▲]

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See detailAll Saved from Drowning? Afghan Refugees in Australia and Words Written in “The Ocean”: A Short Story by Gail Jones
Belleflamme, Valérie-Anne ULg

Conference (2017, January 27)

Gail Jones’s short story “The Ocean” was published in 2013 as part of an anthology edited by Thomas Keneally and Rosie Scott. Entitled A Country Too Far: Writings on Asylum Seekers, this anthology aimed ... [more ▼]

Gail Jones’s short story “The Ocean” was published in 2013 as part of an anthology edited by Thomas Keneally and Rosie Scott. Entitled A Country Too Far: Writings on Asylum Seekers, this anthology aimed to ask “some of [the] most admired Australian writers to bring a different perspective and depth to the public debate on asylum seekers”. With “The Ocean”, Jones takes up the challenge quite successfully and, I may also add, quite literally or meta-discursively. The short story’s two interwoven narratives are articulated following an ebb-and-flow movement that enhances the text’s play with the notions of liquidity and time. This is reminiscent of French philosopher Michel Serres’s view of time as made of counter-currents, undertows and turbulences. These liquid folds allow for originally distant points – with no link whatsoever – to become close, superimposed. This then creates an effect of strangeness which Jones cultivates, as when she claims that, since “we’re always in a forward-backward rhythm, not often fully here in the present moment” and “our present is inflected and intercepted by the past and the future, pleated and folded,” this means that, “if we were to see our contemporary world with the eyes of the future, we might see it suddenly aestheticized and made endearingly strange”. By focusing on Jones’s play with perspectives, her narrativisation of folds, and the intertextual link with Primo Levi’s The Drowned and the Saved, my paper will seek to investigate how Jones’s writing not only claims an ethical and moral dimension but also takes up a political stance: it is by writing from multiple perspectives and thus forging unexpected connections, allowing people of different backgrounds, cultures and religions to interconnect, that Jones voices resistance to the narrow-mindedness of those who are privileged in today’s world-wide migration crisis. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication des principes de la classe inversée aux travaux pratiques de physique
Marique, Pierre-Xavier ULg; Toussaint, Pauline ULg; Van de Poël, Jean-François ULg et al

Conference (2017, January 27)

Une enquête interne au sein du département de Physique de l’Université de Liège (Belgique) a révélé que les assistants en charge des travaux pratiques considéraient importante l’aide qu’ils apportent aux ... [more ▼]

Une enquête interne au sein du département de Physique de l’Université de Liège (Belgique) a révélé que les assistants en charge des travaux pratiques considéraient importante l’aide qu’ils apportent aux étudiants en laboratoire. Malgré cela, les assistants sondés considèrent que les étudiants sont insuffisamment motivés lors de leur arrivée et observent un manque d’investissement dans la tâche au cours de ces laboratoires. En réponse à ces constats, un projet a été développé afin de tenter de faciliter la compréhension de la matière par les étudiants et d’accroître leur motivation à s’investir davantage dans leur formation, et en particulier, lors des travaux pratiques de physique. Basé sur le principe de la classe inversée, ce projet consiste en la réalisation de courtes séquences vidéo introductives aux travaux pratiques. Elles ont notamment pour objectif de présenter la matière sous une autre forme que celle utilisée lors des cours en classe. Concrètement, une première séquence est publiée quelques jours avant le laboratoire. Les concepts de base y sont illustrés et rapidement mis en application. Les étudiants sont alors invités à commenter une application particulière et non expliquée. Quelques jours plus tard, une seconde séquence vidéo est postée. Elle comprend la solution au problème et la présentation du matériel de laboratoire. Ces vidéos ont été conçues en accord avec les standards pédagogiques en la matière au niveau de la durée, de la distribution de la charge cognitive et des principes du multimédia. Une attention particulière a été apportée afin de rendre signifiante la matière enseignée au public particulier auquel elles s’adressent. Enfin, un test formatif composé de QCM permet à l’étudiant de s’auto-évaluer avant le laboratoire. Une analyse portant sur une éventuelle augmentation des notes obtenues aux questions en rapport avec ces deux laboratoires et sur la satisfaction des étudiants et des assistants sera effectuée. [less ▲]

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See detailRecyclage de questions à choix multiples d’épreuves certificatives de physique en items de tests formatifs en ligne
Marique, Pierre-Xavier ULg; Van de Poël, Jean-François ULg; Hoebeke, Maryse ULg

Conference (2017, January 26)

Depuis septembre 2012, en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles de Belgique, les étudiants inscrits en première année de bachelier en médecine sont interrogés sous forme de questions à choix multiples lors des ... [more ▼]

Depuis septembre 2012, en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles de Belgique, les étudiants inscrits en première année de bachelier en médecine sont interrogés sous forme de questions à choix multiples lors des épreuves certificatives des cours scientifiques donnés au premier quadrimestre de leurs études. Au Département de Physique de l’Université de Liège, les questions des examens antérieurs sont répertoriées, et éventuellement améliorées, afin d’être réutilisées dans le cadre d’un outil d’entraînement en ligne, appelé « simulateur d’examens » (Marique, 2015). Cet outil est destiné à améliorer des connaissances directement en lien avec une stimulation constante de la mémoire des étudiants à l’aide de QCM. Les questions sont analysées de 2 façons différentes : d’une part sur base des résultats des étudiants lors de l’examen (indice de facilité P et P’ et indices de discrimination B et D) et d’autre part, par une évaluation effectuée par les membres de l’équipe pédagogique. Ceux-ci attribuent un niveau de difficulté à chaque question en fonction de 4 critères empiriques : abstraction, réflexion, mixité, mathématiques. Chaque évaluateur attribue une note de 1 à 3 à chacun des critères. La somme obtenue indiquera le niveau de difficulté total de la question selon une règle simple. A l’avenir, dans une perspective d’amélioration du classement par niveau des questions disponibles dans le simulateur d’examens, la concordance entre l’indice P’ et le niveau de difficulté qui lui a été attribué par l’équipe pédagogique, sera étudiée. L’impact de ce système sur l’apprentissage des étudiants fait actuellement l’objet d’un suivi particulier et précis. Toutes les tentatives des étudiants et leurs résultats sont enregistrés systématiquement en prévision d’une analyse des effets de ce système. [less ▲]

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See detailL'autoscopie au service de l'autoévaluation pour des futurs enseignants du secondaire
Francois, Nathalie ULg; Noël, Stéphanie ULg

Conference (2017, January 26)

Cette communication exposera le dispositif mis en place dans le cadre d’une formation d’enseignants du secondaire supérieur en psychologie et sciences de l’éducation pour amener les étudiants à ... [more ▼]

Cette communication exposera le dispositif mis en place dans le cadre d’une formation d’enseignants du secondaire supérieur en psychologie et sciences de l’éducation pour amener les étudiants à s’autoévaluer sur la base d’une autoscopie. Ces futurs agrégés effectuent des stages dans l’enseignement général ainsi que dans l’enseignement professionnalisant. Au-delà de la préparation et de la phase active de la pratique enseignante, il est indispensable pour les futurs enseignants (FE) de prendre du recul et d’évaluer leurs pratiques lors d’une phase post active. Afin de les soutenir dans cette démarche exigeante et non intuitive, les formatrices proposent un dispositif aux FE (Inspiré d’un dispositif organisé par l’équipe de Hindryckx MN. dans le cadre de la formation initiale des futurs enseignants du secondaire supérieur en biologie à l’Université de Liège). Celui-ci se décline en plusieurs phases soutenues par différents outils. Lors de deux des trois stages d’enseignement effectués, les futurs enseignants (FE) doivent se filmer en action lors d’une leçon de leur choix (avec l’appui logistique de leur « maitre de stage »). En effet, l’autoscopie, qui correspond à la démarche au cours de laquelle les FE se confrontent aux traces vidéoscopées de leur pratique (Beckers et Leroy, 2011), permet de poursuivre plusieurs objectifs : se (perce) voir en action pour prendre conscience de soi ; analyser et évaluer son propre comportement ; se transformer pour parvenir à une plus grande efficacité et satisfaction de soi (Peraya, 1990). Suite à la leçon filmée, les FE sont invités à procéder à une autoévaluation de leur pratique en plusieurs étapes (« retour à chaud », visionnage de la vidéo et analyse d’un moment de l’action soutenue par une démarche structurée et utilisation d’une grille d’autoévaluation des compétences d’enseignant pour permettre une généralisation). L’ensemble de ce processus individuel sera communiqué aux formatrices par le biais des rapports de stage et fera l’objet d’une évaluation et d’un feedback formatif. [less ▲]

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See detailRhétorique de l’exploit guerrier du manuscrit Gerard du Frattre à l’imprimé Gerard d’Euphrate
Lambert, Adélaïde ULg

Conference (2017, January 26)

Notre communication se centrerait sur les récits de combats singuliers le manuscrit Gerard du Frattre (1525) et dans l'imprimé Gerard d'Euphrate (1549). Alors que Gerard du Frattre est presque ... [more ▼]

Notre communication se centrerait sur les récits de combats singuliers le manuscrit Gerard du Frattre (1525) et dans l'imprimé Gerard d'Euphrate (1549). Alors que Gerard du Frattre est presque exclusivement constitué de scènes de guerre, le texte de 1459 fait se côtoyer aventures guerrières, amoureuses, comiques et merveilleuses. Eu égard à ces divergences structurelles et thématiques, le duel, qui constitue un motif relativement figé et caractéristique du genre épique, se présente comme un lieu d’observation privilégié pour mesurer les particularités stylistiques des deux proses. Malgré son intérêt de premier ordre, la langue littéraire telle qu’elle se développe dans les réécritures du début du XVIe siècle ne retient que rarement l’attention de la critique. Pour lors, nous étudierions les mécanismes linguistiques mis en place pour « faire jouer [...] les stéréotypes d’une tradition littéraire révolue », en nous attachant particulièrement au lexique et aux figures de style des récits d’exploits guerriers dans les deux récits gerardiens. [less ▲]

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See detailLa détection des réponses inappropriées dans les examens: une étude de 3 indices corrigés selon la méthode de Snijders
Béland, Sébastien; Raîche, Gilles; Magis, David ULg

Conference (2017, January 25)

Certains étudiants peuvent répondre au hasard ou être inattentifs en situation d’examen. Les indices de détection de patrons de réponses inappropriés (person-fit index) sont prometteurs pour détecter ces ... [more ▼]

Certains étudiants peuvent répondre au hasard ou être inattentifs en situation d’examen. Les indices de détection de patrons de réponses inappropriés (person-fit index) sont prometteurs pour détecter ces types de réponse. Nous allons, dans le cadre de cette communication, nous pencher sur le cas de trois indices de détection populaires qui présentent des caractéristiques permettant d’en faciliter l’interprétation : lz, ZU et ZW. Par contre, des études antérieures ont montré que ces trois indices sont fortement affectés par le fait que l’habileté d’un étudiant est estimée plutôt que réelle (Molenaar et Hoijtink, 1990). Snijders (2001) a proposé une version corrigée de l’indice lz (nommée lz*) afin de tenir compte de cette difficulté. De leur côté, Magis, Béland et Raîche (2014) ont corrigé deux autres indices selon l’approche de Snijders (2001) : U* et W*. Il reste cependant à analyser plus en détails le comportement de la famille des indices corrigés, soit, lz*, U* et W*. Pour ce faire, nous effectuons une étude de simulation et une étude des données du test de classement en anglais, langue seconde (TCALS-II). Les résultats démontrent que les indices corrigés lz* et W* sont les plus intéressants à utiliser. De son côté, U* présente des résultats parfois inappropriés, ce qui relance la réflexion sur la pertinence des indices de détection basés sur les carré-moyens non-pondérés. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation de la réponse au hasard dans les questionnaires à choix multiples : une approche par modèles de réponses aux items polytomiques
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2017, January 25)

Lorsque l’on doit évaluer les résultats d’un test à l’aide de questions à choix multiples (QCM), le traitement des réponses au hasard (« guessing ») est un enjeu crucial pour une évaluation fiable et non ... [more ▼]

Lorsque l’on doit évaluer les résultats d’un test à l’aide de questions à choix multiples (QCM), le traitement des réponses au hasard (« guessing ») est un enjeu crucial pour une évaluation fiable et non biaisée de la compétence testée. Divers mécanismes (comme l’application d’une correction pour le guessing) ont été proposées mais ne sont pas exemptes de problèmes méthodologiques. Une approche par modèles de réponses aux items (MRI) est aussi souvent considérée, mais revient à résumer les réponses des QCM en « vrai/faux » et appliquer des modèles dichotomiques (comme le modèle logistique à trois paramètres). Le but de cette présentation est double : (a) mettre en évidence les faiblesses d’une telle approche dichotomique, et (b) présenter une modification d’un modèle de réponses aux items polytomiques qui prend en compte le possible « guessing » des participants. Cette approche a l’avantage de modéliser chaque réponse possible (y compris les distracteurs) tout en autorisant une réponse au hasard pour les participants de compétence plus faibles. Une comparaison des approches dichotomique et polytomique est réalisée au moyen de données simulées selon un modèle de réponse au hasard plausible. Les avantages et inconvénients de l’approche polytomique, tant du point de vue technique que pédagogique, sont discutés. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyser sans compter ni classer. Approches qualitatives de la recherche en soins en psychiatrie
Lejeune, Christophe ULg

Conference (2017, January 25)

Les recherches dans le champ de la santé s'appuient traditionnellement sur les protocoles standardisés de la recherche expérimentale. Ce type de recherches a montré son efficacité en médecine, en ... [more ▼]

Les recherches dans le champ de la santé s'appuient traditionnellement sur les protocoles standardisés de la recherche expérimentale. Ce type de recherches a montré son efficacité en médecine, en psychologie et en psychiatrie (notamment). Ces méthodes ne suffisent cependant plus lorsqu'il s'agit d'appréhender la situation de soin dans son épaisseur psychologique, interpersonnelle et sociale. La recherche qualitative convient alors mieux pour appréhender (par exemple) les interactions entre les patients et le personnel soignant. Spécifiques, les méthodes qualitatives n'en sont pas moins sérieuses, normées et scientifiques. Combinant rigueur, souplesse et pragmatisme, une recherche qualitative bien menée délivre une connaissance fine et permet en outre d'instruire les pratiques des premiers intéressés [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation de la réflexivité au travers de portfolio dans trois contextes formatifs de l’enseignement supérieur
Housen, Marie ULg; Lambert, Isabelle ULg; Pirard, Florence ULg

Conference (2017, January 25)

Cette communication est centrée sur l’évaluation de compétences réflexives à partir de l’analyse de portfolios d’étudiants de 1ère année du baccalauréat « Éducateur spécialisé en accompagnement psycho ... [more ▼]

Cette communication est centrée sur l’évaluation de compétences réflexives à partir de l’analyse de portfolios d’étudiants de 1ère année du baccalauréat « Éducateur spécialisé en accompagnement psycho-éducatif », d’étudiants de 1ère année de promotion sociale en esthétique sociale et d’étudiants de 1ère année d’un master en Sciences de l’Éducation. Dans ces trois contextes formatifs de l’enseignement supérieur, nous nous sommes intéressées aux traces écrites permettant de mettre en lumière des indices de réflexivité (Hatton & Smith, 1995) et ce, à l’aide d’une grille de réflexivité (Housen & Pirard, 2016) adaptée à partir des travaux d’Alin et Michaud (2010). Par l’adaptation de cette grille, nous souhaitions créer un outil générique, sans être normatif, permettant d’être adapté à différents contextes formatifs. C’est pourquoi, nous avons choisi de mettre cette grille à l’épreuve de deux nouveaux contextes formatifs. [less ▲]

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See detailDes triangles de Pascal généralisés aux coefficients binomiaux de mots finis
Stipulanti, Manon ULg

Conference (2017, January 23)

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word ... [more ▼]

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a word appears as a subsequence of another finite word. Similarly to the Sierpinski gasket that can be built as the limit set, for the Hausdorff distance, of a convergent sequence of normalized compact blocks extracted from Pascal triangle modulo 2, we show the existence of a subset of [0, 1]×[0, 1] associated with this extended Pascal triangle modulo a prime p. [less ▲]

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See detailMars Ozone mapping with MAVEN IUVS
Lefèvre; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; IUVS team

Conference (2017, January 20)

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See detailStatistical description of hydrogeological parameters for the main aquifer contexts in Wallonia
Briers, Pierre ULg; Dollé, Fabien ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2017, January 20)

The Walloon Region Soil decree proposes a series of guidance documents associated to the procedures for site remediation operations. Among others, one of these documents describes methodologies and tools ... [more ▼]

The Walloon Region Soil decree proposes a series of guidance documents associated to the procedures for site remediation operations. Among others, one of these documents describes methodologies and tools for risk assessment of pollutant leaching from soil to groundwater and for pollutant dispersion through groundwater. These tools require using estimates of hydrogeolocial parameters such as hydraulic conductivity, effective (transport) porosity etc. In this context, an inventory of hydrogeological studies (regional characterization studies, groundwater protection zones…) was performed to identify and collect available field-based measurements for a statistical description and analysis of such data. Complementary to that, a simple geodatabase has been developed to manage and process these data. As expected, these results show contrasted parameter distributions per geological contexts and regions. The objective of the presentation is to describe the methodology followed for the statistical treatment of hydrogeological data and to present the results and associated database. It is believed that such results can be very useful for different hydrogeological studies, in particular as a first referential for groundwater modelling applications and any other studies where statistical descriptions of hydrogeological data are relevant. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of High Altitude Clouds at the Martian Limb and Terminator Using MAVEN IUVS Observations
Deighan; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; IUVS team

Conference (2017, January 20)

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See detailGlobal UV Imaging by MAVEN/IUVS: Diurnal Cloud Formation, Dust Storms and Atmospheric Scattering.
Schneider; Deighan; Jain et al

Conference (2017, January 17)

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See detailIs Büchi's theorem useful for you? (for an audience of logicians)
Rigo, Michel ULg

Conference (2017, January 17)

Almost a century ago, Presburger showed that the first order theory of the natural numbers with addition is decidable. Following the work of B\"uchi in 1960, this result still holds when adding a function ... [more ▼]

Almost a century ago, Presburger showed that the first order theory of the natural numbers with addition is decidable. Following the work of B\"uchi in 1960, this result still holds when adding a function $V_k$ to the structure, where $V_k(n)$ is the largest power of $k\ge 2$ diving $n$. In particular, this leads to a logical characterization of the $k$-automatic sequences. During the last few years, many applications of this result have been considered in combinatorics on words, mostly by J. Shallit and his coauthors. In this talk, we will present this theorem of B\"uchi where decidability relies on finite automata. Then we will review some results about automatic sequences or morphic words that can be proved automatically (i.e., the proof is carried on by an algorithm). Finally, we will sketch the limitation of this technique. With a single line formula, one can prove automatically that the Thue-Morse word has no overlap but, hopefully, not all the combinatorial properties of morphic words can be derived in this way. We will not assume any background in combinatorics on words from the audience. [less ▲]

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See detailNO Nightglow studies status
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Jain; Deighan et al

Conference (2017, January 16)

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See detailBreaking Bad News: the TAKE five program
VAN CAUWENBERGE, Isabelle ULg; GILLET, Aline ULg; Bragard, Isabelle ULg et al

Conference (2017, January 14)

Introduction For years, bad news delivery’s impact on patients or their relatives, as well as physicians’ stress has been a major concern. Based on studies claiming the efficacy of training courses to ... [more ▼]

Introduction For years, bad news delivery’s impact on patients or their relatives, as well as physicians’ stress has been a major concern. Based on studies claiming the efficacy of training courses to help physicians delivering such news, many protocols, like SPIKES, BREAKS or SHARE, have emerged worldwide. However, training to such protocol might be time-consuming and not suitable with junior doctors or trainees’ turnover. We hypothesised that a standardized 5-hours training program could improve bad news delivery practice. Participants and methods This preliminary study was conducted in the ED of a tertiary care academic hospital accounting for 90000 ED census per year, 16 attending physicians, 10 junior residents, and 5 trainees per month. Data were collected between November 2015 and April 2016. The study included 3 phases over 4 weeks. Video recorded single role-playing sessions happened the 1st (T1) and the 4th (T3) weeks. A 3-hour theory lesson happened the second week (T2), introducing the basics of therapeutic communication and delivering bad news. Each role-playing session lasted almost 1 hour (10 minutes briefing and medical case reading, 10 minutes role-plays and 40 minutes group debriefing). Bad news delivery performance was evaluated by a 14-points retrospective assessment tool (1). We collected data about the status and impact of a stressful event at 3-days using the French version of the IES-R scale (2). We applied Student t-tests for statistical analysis. Results 14 volunteers (10 trainees and 4 junior emergency physicians) were included in the study. On average, bad-news delivery process took 9’45’’ at T1 and 10’20’’ at T3. From T1 to T3, bad-news delivery performance increased significantly for both junior emergency physicians and trainees (p=0.0003 and p=0.0006, respectively). Further analysis revealed that most relevant increases involved the “situation” (p<0.001), “presentation” (p=0.009), “knowledge” (p=0.037), “emotions” (p=0.01) and “summary” (p=0.001) steps. We also found a significant decrease of the impact of bad-news delivery on trainee physicians’ stress (p=0.006). Discussion and conclusion These preliminary results indicate some potential for this new standardized course of bad news delivery. Apart from allowing physicians increase their communications skills, we believe that this simple 5-hour simulation-training program could alleviate physicians’ stress when they happen to break bad news. References 1. Brunet, A. et al. (2003). Validation of a French version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Can J Psychiatry, 48(1), 56-61. 2. Park, I. et al. (2010). Breaking bad news education for emergency medicine residents: A novel training module using simulation with the SPIKES protocol. J Emerg Trauma Shock, 3(4), 385-388. [less ▲]

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See detailGeneralized Pascal triangles for binomial coefficients of words: a short introduction
Stipulanti, Manon ULg

Conference (2017, January 09)

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a finite word appears as a subsequence of another finite word ... [more ▼]

We introduce a generalization of Pascal triangle based on binomial coefficients of finite words. These coefficients count the number of times a finite word appears as a subsequence of another finite word. Similarly to the Sierpiński gasket that can be built as the limit set, for the Hausdorff distance, of a convergent sequence of normalized compact blocks extracted from Pascal triangle modulo 2, we describe and study the first properties of the subset of [0, 1] × [0, 1] associated with this extended Pascal triangle modulo a prime p. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns of body size and shape diversification in marine angelfishes (Pomacanthidae)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Santini, Francesco; Konow, Nicolai et al

Conference (2017, January 06)

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See detailMARTIAN ULTRAVIOLET AURORA: RESULTS OF MODEL SIMULATIONS
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Shematovich, V.I. et al

Conference (2017, January)

We present recent modeling results based on observations performed with the UV spectrographs on board the Mars Express and MAVEN missions.Two types of aurora are discussed: the localized and transient ... [more ▼]

We present recent modeling results based on observations performed with the UV spectrographs on board the Mars Express and MAVEN missions.Two types of aurora are discussed: the localized and transient discrete aurora and the more stable diffuse aurora observed during periods of active solar periods. [less ▲]

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See detailThiamine: Biological forms and function
Bettendorff, Lucien ULg

Conference (2017)

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See detailGrowth velocity of preterm infants - analysis and recommendations
Fenton, Tanis; Hoyos, Angela; Groh-Wargo, Sharon et al

Conference (2017)

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See detailDeveloping Situational Judgment Tests to Assess Organizational Citizenship Behaviours.
Lothe, Benoit ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2017)

This study is a first step towards addressing the development of Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) for the assessment of Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCB). Based on relevant best practices and ... [more ▼]

This study is a first step towards addressing the development of Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) for the assessment of Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCB). Based on relevant best practices and recommendations from the literature, two distinct SJTs were specifically developed to comply with OCB assessment. The two SJTs differ with respect to their degree of job specificity. Data were collected through online surveys on two different samples (220 white-collar professionals and 139 university students). Concurrently, OCB were collected using self-reported measurement scales. The findings provide some empirical evidence to support the appropriateness of using SJTs as an alternative means to assessing job applicants’ propensity to exhibit OCB. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth velocity of preterm infants - analysis and recommendations
Fenton, Tanis; Hoyaos, Angela; Groh-Wargo, Sharon et al

Conference (2017)

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See detailLe retour du Loup (Canis lupus) en Belgique : quel(s) rôle(s) pour le secteur associatif?
Geboes, Anne-Laure ULg; Kohler, Anthony

Conference (2016, December 21)

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See detailBiostratigraphy of the JLMD-EW8 borehole and palaeogeographic interpretation
Steemans, Philippe ULg; Breuer, P.; Al-Hajri, S. et al

Conference (2016, December 21)

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See detailSize and Value Matter But Not the Way You Thought
Lambert, Marie ULg; Fays, Boris ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

Conference (2016, December 20)

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See detailObservational signatures of past mass-exchange episodes in massive binaries : The cases of HD17505 and HD206267
Raucq, Françoise ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

Conference (2016, December 19)

Mass and angular momentum exchanges through Roche Lobe Overflow interactions within close massive binaries are known to play an important role in the subsequent evolution of the components of such systems ... [more ▼]

Mass and angular momentum exchanges through Roche Lobe Overflow interactions within close massive binaries are known to play an important role in the subsequent evolution of the components of such systems, and produce several observational signatures, such as asynchronous rotation and altered chemical compositions, that remain once the stars detach again. We have started to investigate these effects in a sample of massive O-star binaries that are thought to have previously experienced a Case A Roche Lobe Overflow episode. Using phase-resolved spectroscopy, we perform the disentangling of the optical spectra of the two stars. The reconstructed primary and secondary spectra are then analysed with the CMFGEN model atmosphere code to determine stellar parameters such as the effective temperatures, surface gravities and rotational velocities, and to constrain the chemical composition of the components. In this contribution, we present the results of our analyses of the triple system HD17505 ([O7V + O7V, P = 8.57 days] + O6.5III). We also present the first results of our analyses of the triple system HD206267 ([O6.5V + O9.5V,P = 3.71 days] + OB). [less ▲]

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See detailManufacture and use of points at Maisières-Canal
Touzé, Olivier ULg; Coppe, Justin ULg; Taipale, Noora ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 17)

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See detailImportance de l'utilisation des Systèmes d'Information Géographique pour les vastes sites de plein air du Paléolithique Moyen en France septentrionale. L'exemple de Caours (Somme, France).
Moreau, Gwénaëlle ULg; Locht, Jean-Luc

Conference (2016, December 17)

During the middle Palaeolithic, the northern France was only occupied by Neanderthals groups. However, successions of glacial and interglacial cycles explain a complex and discontinuous settlement ... [more ▼]

During the middle Palaeolithic, the northern France was only occupied by Neanderthals groups. However, successions of glacial and interglacial cycles explain a complex and discontinuous settlement, raising complication in the study of its dynamics at a regional scale. Therefore, some aspects of Neanderthals behaviour are still mischaracterize: in most cases, the function of the site and its territorial management over the northern France have to be specified. The spatial analysis of open air sites from northern France will help us to answer those questions. However, for Middle Palaeolithic sites, we can’t see systematically on the field the spatial organisation directly, we sometimes need modelization. Therefore, we started to build a spatial analysis protocol adapted to this site and applied to such sites. The sites of Caours (Somme, France) and Beauvais (Oise, France) are two open air sites that are exceptionally well preserved and displaying a large amount of faunal and lithic rests. Both are perfect candidate to apply and test the new protocol. First results proved that for each site the existence of a spatial organisation as remains concentration zones. Then, we characterize this areas – number, distribution. Finally, we were able to associate them to human activity areas like hearths, butchery or knapping areas. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic ecology of Southern Ocean sea stars inferred from stable isotopes ratios of C and N
Le Bourg, Baptiste ULg; Blanchard, Alice; Danis, Bruno et al

Conference (2016, December 17)

The Southern Ocean undergoes strong and contrasted impacts of climate change. Increasing seawater temperature and sea ice cover reduction in Western Antarctic Peninsula and associated regions will likely ... [more ▼]

The Southern Ocean undergoes strong and contrasted impacts of climate change. Increasing seawater temperature and sea ice cover reduction in Western Antarctic Peninsula and associated regions will likely impact food web structure and function. Sea stars (Echinoderms: Asteroidea) are an important group of the Southern Ocean benthos. They typically have highly variable feeding habits and are potentially more resistant than other organisms to temperature changes. Consequently, they will likely be impacted by modifications of the food web rather than by direct warming. Investigating their trophic ecology is therefore necessary to infer how climate change will impact them. In this context, the aim of this study was to use stable isotopes ratios of C, N and S to infer sea stars trophic ecology. During austral summers 2006 and 2009, sea stars were sampled in Subantarctic and Antarctic locations, with most of the samples coming from South Shetland Islands and South Georgia. The isotopic niche (proxy of the trophic niche) associated to each sea star population was explored through SIBER (Stable Isotope Bayesian Ellipses in R) metrics. Stable isotope ratios of sea stars were clearly different between South Shetland Islands and South Georgia. Sea stars of South Shetland Islands had smaller isotopic niches than sea stars of South Georgia. The overlap between the isotopic niches of sea star species was also important in South Shetland Islands, while isotopic niches of South Georgia were well separated. Difference of niche width and overlap between the two regions may be the result of different environmental conditions. In South Shetland Islands, sea star species may exploit a common benthic community relying on organic matter released during sea ice summer melting. In contrast, South Georgia is an oligotrophic environment with no sea ice. As resources are more limited, a higher trophic segregation between sea stars may appear to limit competition. Ultimately, this project highlighted the importance of sea ice in the trophic ecology of Antarctic sea stars. Our results suggest that future reduction of sea ice extent in Western Antarctica may have deleterious effect on sea star populations. [less ▲]

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See detailInterspecific variation of warning calls in piranhas: a comparative analysis
Melotte, Geoffrey ULg; Vigouroux, Régis; Michel, Christian ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 17)

Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic ... [more ▼]

Fish sounds are known to be species-specific, possessing unique temporal and spectral features. We have recorded and compared sounds in eight piranha species to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as a driving force in clade diversification. All piranha species showed the same kind of sound-producing mechanism: sonic muscles originate on vertebrae and attach to a tendon surrounding the bladder ventrally. Contractions of the sound-producing muscles force swimbladder vibration and dictate the fundamental frequency. It results the calling features of the eight piranha species logically share many common characteristics. In all the species, the calls are harmonic sounds composed of multiple continuous cycles. However, the sounds of Serrasalmus elongatus (higher number of cycles and high fundamental frequency) and S. manueli (long cycle periods and low fundamental frequency) are clearly distinguishable from the other species. The sonic mechanism being largely conserved throughout piranha evolution, acoustic communication can hardly be considered as the main driving force in the diversification process. However, sounds of some species are clearly distinguishable despite the short space for variations supporting the need for specific communication. Behavioural studies are needed to clearly understand the eventual role of the calls during spawning events. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-GNSS relative positioning with Galileo, BeiDou and GPS
Deprez, Cécile ULg; Warnant, René ULg

Conference (2016, December 16)

For several years, the number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) has been increasing, opening new perspectives in the field of precise positioning. Particularly, the European system, Galileo ... [more ▼]

For several years, the number of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) has been increasing, opening new perspectives in the field of precise positioning. Particularly, the European system, Galileo, is experiencing a prompt expansion with the launch, in 2015 and 2016, of 8 satellites belonging to the new Full Operational Capability (FOC) generation. Broadcasting new signals, with new modulations, the first studies addressing this system reveal promising level of precisions on both code and carrier phase observables. Yet, Galileo is far from being the only GNSS undergoing a noteworthy revolution. Alternatively, the Chinese program BeiDou, still in a developing phase, as well as the American GPS, currently undergoing a modernization of its signals, also knew major progress these last two years. Indeed, 7 new satellites have reached the initial BeiDou constellation, bringing to 20 the number of active satellites. Among them, 5 spacecraft inaugurated the Phase III generation, broadcasting the new B1, B2 and B3 signals. Regarding GPS, the block IIF, made of L5 signal broadcasting satellites, kept expanding but at a less steep rate than BeiDou or Galileo. In this study, we first estimated the individual precisions of each signals broadcast by the aforementioned GNSS. For this purpose, we created two short baselines of approximatively 5 meters between similar type receivers. We combined their measurements to form double differences, leaving in the position equations only multipath and receiver noise. The great expectations regarding Galileo’s quality turned into affirmations as long as we studied this system. As a matter of a fact, the code pseudoranges values of the 4 signals of Galileo we have considered (E1, E5a, E5b, E5a+b) presented outstanding precisions (from 5 to 17 centimetres on code pseudoranges with an elevation mask of 10 degrees) when compared to GPS (from 12 to 20 centimetres on codes pseudoranges) and BeiDou (from 26 to 40 centimetres for codes and for phases) in identical conditions. Even though the precision of Galileo observables is noticeable, the influence of the poor geometry of the satellite constellation degrades in a significant way the resulting precision of the position estimated, no matter the recent increase in the number of satellites. Indeed, in this incomplete constellation, the addition of new satellites results in longer visibility period but not in larger number of satellites observed at a single epoch. Combining Galileo with GPS or BeiDou is a way to solve this issue, as the three systems have been designed to be compatible. Therefore, multi-GNSS relative positioning based on overlapping frequencies should entail better accuracy and reliability in position estimations. However, the differences between satellite systems induce inter-system biases (ISBs) inside the multi-GNSS equations of observation. The overlapping frequencies of these GNSS are the L1 and L5 frequencies of GPS with the E1 and E5a signals of Galileo, respectively. As far as BeiDou is concerned, the B2 signal of emitted by the Phase II BeiDou satellites corresponds to the E5b frequency of Galileo. Regarding the new Phase III satellites, the B2 frequencies will correspond to the Galileo E5a+b signal and B1 of BeiDou will be compatible with E1 of Galileo and GPS. The combined use of these overlapping frequencies in zero baseline double differences (ZB DD) based on a unique pivot satellite is employed to resolve ISBs. This model removes all the satellite- and receiver-dependent error sources by differentiating and the zero baseline configuration allows atmospheric and multipath effects elimination. We conducted this study on the L1/E1, L5/E5a, B1(phase II)/E5b overlapping frequencies. Our receivers were not able to receive the phase III signals of BeiDou satellites. An analysis of the long-term stability of ISBs (GPS- Galileo and Galileo - BeiDou) was conducted on various pairs of receivers over large time spans. The possible influence of temperature variations inside the receivers over ISB values was also investigated. Our study is based on the 6 multi-GNSS receivers (2 Septentrio PolaRx4, 1 Septentrio PolaRxS, 1 Septentrio PolaRx5 and 2 Trimble NetR9) installed on the roof of our building in Liege. The estimated ISBs are then used as corrections in the multi- GNSS observation model and the resulting accuracy of multi-GNSS positioning is compared to GPS, Galileo and BeiDou standalone solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailChapter VIII "Equations and languages" in J.-É. Pin, Mathematical Foundations of Automata Theory
Stipulanti, Manon ULg

Conference (2016, December 16)

We present the chapter VIII titled "Equations and Langages" in Jean-Éric Pin, Mathematical Foundations of Automata Theory.

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See detailWho would want to live in there? A history of Posidonia oceanica detritus accumulations, the associated invertebrate community, and its food web…
Remy, François ULg; Michel, Loïc ULg; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 16)

Most seagrasses are rarely consumed directly by herbivore organisms. The "detrital pathway" thus represents a potentially important way of transfer of the seagrasses production to the coastal food webs ... [more ▼]

Most seagrasses are rarely consumed directly by herbivore organisms. The "detrital pathway" thus represents a potentially important way of transfer of the seagrasses production to the coastal food webs. The case of Posidonia oceanica is particularly interesting since up to 90% of its foliar primary production may constitute extensive and highly dynamic exported litter accumulations. Preliminary studies concerning these detritus accumulations suggest that an abundant community of vagile macro invertebrates (size > 500μm) lives inside them. We characterized for the first time this community in an exhaustive way (multi-site, seasonal and multi-year study), we linked the observed density and diversity variations to environmental parameters, but also described the trophic web these invertebrates compose. We sampled an abundant (up to 5000 organisms/m²) community composed of 115 species. We showed that crustaceans were massively dominant, followed by annelids and mollusks, and that one single amphipod species Gammarella fucicola represented from 20 to 85% of the whole sampled community. Observed variations appeared to be mostly linked to litter oxygen water concentration in a very species specific way. Most species were linked to no measured environmental parameter at all, but several dominant species were demonstrated (observation and in situ experimentation) to be linked positively or negatively to litter oxygen concentration. The described food web was composed of more than 3 trophic levels, indicating the presence of a trophic web composed of primary consumers/detritivore species, of omnivore species, but also of first and second order predators, each level occupying a distinct isotopic niche. From a specific point of view, we highlighted several different feeding preferences, with SIAR mixing model runs indicating that some species feed mostly on detrital material, other species feed on a mixture of detrital and algal material, other species feed on both animal and vegetal material and finally predator species feed exclusively on animal material. The fact that P. oceanica detritus constituted a non-negligible food source for some dominant species confirmed the importance of this macrofauna community as a key transfer link of seagrass organic matter from P. oceanica to the coastal food webs. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between jaw morphology, bite performance and diet in Serrasalmidae (Characiformes, Teleostei)
Huby, Alessia ULg; Lowie, Aurélien; Herrel, Anthony et al

Conference (2016, December 16)

Serrasalmidae are mainly known for “piranhas” and their negative reputation of ferocious predatory fishes. A recent study demonstrated that the piranha $Serrasalmus rhombeus£ had an extreme bite force ... [more ▼]

Serrasalmidae are mainly known for “piranhas” and their negative reputation of ferocious predatory fishes. A recent study demonstrated that the piranha $Serrasalmus rhombeus£ had an extreme bite force that is even proportionally greater than that of the white shark. However, these sharp teeth fishes represent only a minority of Serrasalmidae. Other serrasalmid species (pacus and myleus) feed on plants, fruits or seeds and their bite force and feeding capacities are still uninvestigated. In the present research, in vivo bite forces were measured and compared according to jaw morphology in ten species of Serrasalmidae including six herbivorous and four carnivorous species. The Bite Force Quotient (BFQ) was calculated for each individual to compare the jaw strength across species. The results of the analysis showed that species feeding on fins and fish flesh have a significant greater bite force than species feeding on plants, fruits or seeds. This difference can be explained by the larger adductor mandibulae muscle in carnivorous species which have comparatively longer and higher skull than herbivorous species. In addition, there is a significant difference in the lower jaw morphology between piranhas and pacus and relatives. The piranha species have longer lower jaws than pacus and myleus species which have shorter and higher lower jaws. This study shows that the Serrasalmidae family regroups remarkable biters whose bite performance is mostly related to diet. [less ▲]

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See detailStream-aquifer interactions: a combined field - methodological approach in fractured carbonate catchments
Brouyère, Serge ULg; Briers, Pierre ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 16)

Stream-aquifer studies remain a challenge due to numerous factors impacting these interactions. They play a fundamental role in terms of quantity and quality of water, in particular on the ecological ... [more ▼]

Stream-aquifer studies remain a challenge due to numerous factors impacting these interactions. They play a fundamental role in terms of quantity and quality of water, in particular on the ecological status of rivers. Field quantification of such interactions is a first step but it has to be in relation with the whole budgets of water and transported substances across the catchment in order to represent their importance on overall fluxes. Numerous complementary investigations have to be undertaken to achieve such understanding of catchment behavior, in particular to estimate specific indicators and to achieve representative data for modeling stream-aquifer interactions. From that situation, our study aims to characterize and quantify stream-aquifer interactions to assess reliability of diverse field experiments methodologies. A catchment has been studied for 3 years in quantitative and qualitative ways via a dense instrumentation and monitoring. Numerous complementary investigations (discharge measurements, hydrogeochemistry, distributed temperature sensing, base flow separation…) have been applied to reach the objectives. We achieved a large and diversified measurement dataset of groundwater-surface water interactions and whole water budget. This allowed reaching an improved understanding of the catchment behavior to quantify importance of the groundwater component on the dynamics and chemistry of the stream and on the consequences on river ecological status. The investigations on several subcatchments allows also to propose a general typology of stream catchment in terms of groundwater dependence based on the combination of various groundwater contexts and groundwater-stream interaction indicators. Methodologies applied in this study allow to emphasize strength and weakness of numerous investigations in a stream aquifer project and conclusions can be reproduced and generalized to other contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailDe niet-toepassing van de mainplévie in Maastricht
Lagasse, Benoît ULg

Conference (2016, December 16)

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See detailLabels du patrimoine culturel, ordres juridiques et effectivité de la norme
Desseilles, François ULg

Conference (2016, December 15)

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See detailIntroduction à la perspective en première personne : le cas de l’anorexie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2016, December 15)

La distinction des perspectives en première et troisième personnes est un apport récent et décisif de la phénoménologie à la psychopathologie (Parnas, Sass & Zahavi, 2012). La perspective en troisième ... [more ▼]

La distinction des perspectives en première et troisième personnes est un apport récent et décisif de la phénoménologie à la psychopathologie (Parnas, Sass & Zahavi, 2012). La perspective en troisième personne, campée par les dernières versions du DSM ou par l’evidence based medicine, consiste en l’attribution depuis une position externe de signes cliniques repérés indépendamment du ressenti exprimé par le patient. L’exemple typique de ces signes est le délire et l’hallucination du schizophrène. Ces symptômes cristallisent les difficultés qu’éprouve le sujet à se reconnaitre affecté du trouble (l’anosognosie), et ce point est considéré par les modèles dominants comme une cible thérapeutique prioritaire. La visée de ces techniques, orthopédiques et psycho-éducatives, est que le patient parvienne à « reconnaitre » sa maladie. Selon cette perspective en troisième personne, il est attendu qu’il adopte, intègre la position propre à son évaluateur, et externe à sa subjectivité intrinsèque. La démarche opposée, celle de la prise en considération d’une perspective en première personne, interroge, considère et concentre son attention sur l’expérience subjective exprimée par le patient. Si l’on reprend l’exemple princeps de la schizophrénie, ce sont la « perte de l’évidence naturelle » des choses, un « trouble du sens commun » ou un « sentiment de diminution du soi » que verbalisent les patients. Ces signes cliniques, révélant l’expérience du soi, deviennent l’élément psychopathologique structurant et mettent en évidence une manière d’être-au-monde, ici schizophrénique. Le pari de cette journée d’étude consacrée à l’anorexie est de chercher à appliquer ce passage vers une perspective compréhensive en première personne pour les sujets affectés de ce trouble. Des travaux pionniers en la matière, bien que ne se réclamant pas de la phénoménologie, sont certainement ceux du psychiatre éthologue liégeois Albert Demaret (1979). Celui-ci, suggère, de façon quelque peu déconcertante, de ne plus focaliser l’attention prioritairement sur l’aspect purement médical relatif à la perte de poids et au refus alimentaire. Le comportement qui retient particulièrement son attention est l’altruisme (souvent alimentaire), qu’il considère comme « la composante la plus fondamentale du syndrome » (p. 152). Outre le fait de révéler les composantes adaptatives du trouble, son étonnant modèle permet d’entrer en consonance avec le discours des patients anorexiques qui, bien souvent, ne perçoivent pas leur minceur (mécanisme de déni) ou expriment que leur problématique ne se situe pas, selon eux, dans leur sous-alimentation. L’anosognosie anorexique et cet effroyable tendance à se priver d’alimentation au risque de mettre sa vie en danger, si l’on ouvre la porte à la perspective en première personne – si on laisse la parole au sujet –, laissent la place à un besoin (dont l’excessivité peut être reconnue) de s’occuper des autres, de les nourrir, mais aussi une hyper-attention au regard qu’on leur porte. L’investissement émotionnel et corporel des relations est souvent présenté comme étant insatisfaisant, voire comme étant l’élément moteur de leur mal-être. Ce pas de côté de la vision omnisciente du médical, assumant une remise en cause du pouvoir de domination qu’entraine la perspective en troisième personne, se révèle être un outil psychothérapeutique tout à fait pertinent. Il désacralise le problème de l’anosognosie, remet en cause le déni (ce mécanisme devient également celui de l’entourage de l’anorexique qui ne peut percevoir le surinvestissement altruiste), et ouvre la voie à une perspective intersubjective, co-construite. Cette journée d’étude a pour ambition de mettre en lumière cette préoccupation pour l’éprouvé anorexique, évoquer les modes de communication de ces patients et laisser place au discours qu’ils ont souvent du mal à livrer. Il se révèle que les apports de disciplines comme la philosophie ou l’anthropologie, ainsi que ceux de la pratique clinique sont des détours essentiels à ce programme d’étude. Nous discuterons également du symptôme anorexique lorsqu’il est secondaire à un psychotraumatisme (quelle place cette tendance à la restriction vient combler dans l’expérience de vie du sujet traumatisé). Cette journée est ouverte tant aux praticiens de terrain et personnes intéressées par les matières cliniques qu’aux chercheurs universitaires en sciences humaines. [less ▲]

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See detailBIM état de la situation
Boutemadja, Abdelkader ULg

Conference (2016, December 15)

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See detailHow tree architecture varies across coexisting tropical tree species and relate to ecological strategies?
Loubota Panzou, Grâce Jopaul ULg; Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Loumeto, Jean-Joël et al

Conference (2016, December 14)

Architecture refers to the overall shape of a tree and the spatial position of its components. Tree height determines the position in the forest canopy and access to light, while the amount and spatial ... [more ▼]

Architecture refers to the overall shape of a tree and the spatial position of its components. Tree height determines the position in the forest canopy and access to light, while the amount and spatial distribution of the foliage depend on the depth and the width of the crown. The aim of this study is to understand how tree architecture varies across coexisting tropical tree species and relates to ecological strategies. Forty five coexisting tree species were sampled in the semi-deciduous forests of Northern Congo. Species were classified according to ecological strategies, specifically regeneration guilds: shade bearers (27 species), non-pioneers light demanding (14 species) and pioneers (4 species). For each species, 14–72 trees (968 trees in total) were measured over a large range of diameter (10–162 cm). At the tree level, we measured the diameter (D in cm), height (H in m), crown radius (Cr in m) and crown depth (Cd in m) and crown exposure index (CEI) was visually estimated. At species level, architectural traits were estimated at juvenile tree with diameter of 10 cm (H10, Cr10 and Cd10) and at adult stature with maximum diameter (Hmax, Crmax and Cdmax), life history traits (dispersal mode, phenology and regeneration guild) and functional traits (wood density and light requirement) were obtained. Our results showed a significant variation in tree allometry between coexisting species. The interspecific variation was related to light requirement (H-D allometry), dispersal mode (Cr-D allometry) and liana infestation (Cd-D allometry). Large-statured tree species were light demanding, deciduous and wind dispersed, while small-statured tree species were evergreen, dense wooded, and animal dispersed. Architectural traits strongly differed between regeneration guilds. [less ▲]

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See detailHealth literacy en Belgique : diagnostic et pistes d’interventions
Bragard, Isabelle ULg; Pétré, Benoît ULg; Coucke, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 14)

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See detailPrésentation des activités du PCNSW
Legrain, Xavier ULg; Michel, Brieuc ULg; Roda, Mathilde ULg et al

Conference (2016, December 14)

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