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See detailOuverture des travaux
Valenti, Gianluca ULg; Miesse, Hélène ULg

Conference (2015, October 01)

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See detailL’institution de la contre-culture
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2015, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
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See detailFormer des enseignants soucieux de réduire les inégalités d'apprentissage ou comment tenir le cap entre réponse aux demandes et inertie. Analyse de cas d'un centre de formation d'enseignants en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

Conference (2015, October)

Dans cette contribution, nous analyserons l'évolution des enjeux et priorités que s'est progressivement donné le Centre interfacultaire de formation des enseignants (Cifen) de l'Université de Liège depuis ... [more ▼]

Dans cette contribution, nous analyserons l'évolution des enjeux et priorités que s'est progressivement donné le Centre interfacultaire de formation des enseignants (Cifen) de l'Université de Liège depuis sa création officielle en 1995, et nous nous interrogerons sur leur pertinence. Comment prendre la mesure des changements effectivement mis en place, apprécier leur pertinence, réguler leurs effets, éviter l'essoufflement des partenaires du système ? Telles sont quelques unes des questions qui baliseront notre contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement-apprentissage du néerlandais en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles: objectifs, méthodes, résultats
Rasier, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Philippe

Conference (2015, September 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)
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See detailThe materiality of Intangible Cultural Heritage: food and social encounters.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, September)

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as ... [more ▼]

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as representative of national food cultures, were chosen to illustrate a shared heritage that historically took a shape around the Mediterranean sea. This heritage, still concretely performed, needed to be stated and preserved against the globalization of food practices. Institutional and political dynamics, occurring on a transnational level, triggered this process, which is nevertheless not detached from the communities involved. Common people played a fundamental role not only in promoting the patrimonialization process itself, but above all in concretely perpetuating some traditions and in spreading them in the contemporary world. In particular, some different cultural groups that found themselves living a common territory and social context thanks to migration, began dialoguing about their own food traditions, starting from some shared elements. As a consequence, some gastronomies interact through people’s practices and define in relation one to the other. This is the case, among others, of Moroccan and Italian cuisine. Throughout a doctoral research conducted within a group of Moroccan women living in the North of Italy, I collected an amount of ethnographic materials showing how social encounters developed through food. The influence of the patrimonialization process on these encounters made people try to find similarities among different traditional practices or to describe some ways of reinterpreting them in reason of the new context. My presentation will focus on these dynamics, thus proving that the Intangible Cultural Heritage is indeed grounded on materiality, that is, in this case, the concrete performance of food practices and their pragmatic effects on relations among humans. [less ▲]

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See detailA Rorschach study of the borderline personality
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Rommes, Jennifer; Mormont, Christian ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 28)

Nous étudions les manifestations psychologiques au test de Rorschach de sujets présentant un diagnostic de trouble de la personnalité borderline. Dans la continuité des études de Mormont (1969) et Mihura ... [more ▼]

Nous étudions les manifestations psychologiques au test de Rorschach de sujets présentant un diagnostic de trouble de la personnalité borderline. Dans la continuité des études de Mormont (1969) et Mihura (2006), nous avons administré le test à 15 sujets selon les recommandations du Système Intégré. Nos résultats indiquent les tendances spécifiques suivantes : une affectivité qui tend à être extratensive ou ambiéquale (86,7% des sujets), une proportion élevée de réponses couleur/forme (80%), un nombre élevé d’abstractions (66,7%), un nombre important de réponses « agressives » (80%) et « morbides » (86,7%). Une altération variable du testing de la réalité apparait pour chaque protocole. Notons la présence importante (80%) de références personnelles (PER). Signalons également la présence constante de termes particuliers dans le verbatim : énonciation de la couleur rouge (sang, amour), caractère dysphorique de certaines réponses (monstrueux, diabolique), ainsi que des perceptions duales (le bien/le mal). En conclusion, notre étude suggère que le Rorschach en Système Intégré, repérant en première approche des éléments psychologiques que l'on peut raisonnablement mettre en rapport avec la sémiologie clinique et la théorie des personnalités borderlines, l'approfondissement de la recherche peut laisser espérer une meilleure compréhension de ce trouble complexe. [less ▲]

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See detailRorschach et théorie de l’art : Le sublime et le formel
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Sass, Louis

Conference (2015, August 28)

À côté de l’énorme travail de standardisation réalisé par Exner, l’un des éléments d’avenir qui devrait mobiliser la recherche sur le test de Rorschach concerne la signification psychologique des ... [more ▼]

À côté de l’énorme travail de standardisation réalisé par Exner, l’un des éléments d’avenir qui devrait mobiliser la recherche sur le test de Rorschach concerne la signification psychologique des variables. En effet, le Comprehensive System fournit une solide base empirique offrant une validité et une fidélité de bonne qualité. En revanche, l’étude et la discussion des corrélats psychologiques des différentes cotations et de leurs interprétations demeure un champ de recherche où de nombreuses hypothèses et réflexions sont encore à formuler. Dans ce contexte, nous souhaitons proposer une hypothèse originale qui prendra ses racines dans l’esthétique (Schiller, Burke), la littérature (Stendhal), la philosophie de l’art (Kant) et la philosophie existentielle (Heidegger). Nous proposons d’introduire la notion de « sublime », qui est à différencier du « beau », pour discuter de l’interprétation des Vista (V) et de la Form Dimension (FD). Le sublime suggérerait une submersion des facultés cognitives, voire un état de dépassement, en contraste avec la clarté de la beauté circonscrite dans un espace et totalement sous le contrôle cognitif du sujet. Notre réflexion nous mènera à discuter des liens entre perception et angoisse et de la différence qu’il y a à faire entre cette émotion et la peur. Nous évoquerons pour conclure les dimensions adaptatives des réponses Vista et FD reflétant, selon Rorschach (1921) et Exner (2003) et sans doute à raison, des formes variées du mécanisme d’introspection. [less ▲]

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See detailBiotechnological potential of novel bacterial strains isolated on the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Martin, Renée ULg; Barbeyron, Tristan et al

Conference (2015, August 18)

Bacteria associated with algae are underexplored despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. These bacterial communities are known to ... [more ▼]

Bacteria associated with algae are underexplored despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. These bacterial communities are known to represent great potential for the production of diverse bioactive compounds, such as specific glycoside hydrolases, as they interact in multiple complex ways with their host. Furthermore, enzymes from marine bacteria have original properties, like cold-adapted, halotolerant and highly stable, which are constantly searched out by bio-industries. The aim of our study was to identify bacteria, associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, showing diverse polysaccharolytic activities. To isolate cultivable microorganisms, algal thalli of Ascophyllum nodosum were swabbed with sterile cotton tips and marine agar plates were inoculated. Three-hundred isolated bacteria were screened for agarase, kappa- and iota-carrageenase, and sulfatase activities on specific marine media. Thirty-two bacteria with polysaccharolytic activities were isolated and a part of their 16S rDNA (8F-1492R) were amplified and sequenced. Twenty-seven were classified as Flavobacteriia and five as Gammaproteobacteria. Putative new strains and species of Zobellia, Maribacter, Cellulophaga, Shewanella, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Colwellia were identified by phylogenetic analysis. All those genera are well-known to colonize algal surface but only some of them are famous to degrade algal polysaccharides (Zobellia, Maribacter, Cellulophaga, and Pseudoalteromonas). However, all those novel bacterial strains/species showed multiple and diverse enzymatic activities (agarase, iota-and kappa-carrageenase, cellulase, beta-glucosidase, sulfatase and/or amylase activities). Genomics libraries with their DNA were constructed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and are screened to identify the genes coding for the observed enzymatic activities. Those novel glycoside hydrolases from unknown marine bacteria should have original and innovative properties with great biotechnological potential. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 89 (9 ULg)
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See detailPersonnalité antisociale et psychopathologie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2015, July 14)

Notre communication a pour objectif de confronter les critères de la personnalité antisociale du DSM-IV et du DSM-5 à une réflexion psychopathologique. Nous commencerons par une analyse des différentes ... [more ▼]

Notre communication a pour objectif de confronter les critères de la personnalité antisociale du DSM-IV et du DSM-5 à une réflexion psychopathologique. Nous commencerons par une analyse des différentes contradictions propres au diagnostic qui nous mèneront à l’identification du critère « primaire » de cette entité qui est l’« incapacité à se conformer aux lois et normes sociales ». Nous confronterons ensuite à des situations cliniques l’hétérogénéité des profils pouvant répondre à ce diagnostic. Nos constats nous conduiront à mettre en doute la validité apparente du concept de personnalité antisociale, puisqu’il recouvre des modes de fonctionnement psychologique variés. La valeur discriminative faible, en matière de fonctionnement psychologique, suggère que c’est une dimension autre que psychopathologique qui organise ce diagnostic. Dénuée de toute attention pour les modes d’interactions, pour le vécu émotionnel et pour les états de subjectivité, la notion de personnalité antisociale ne porte pas d’intérêt à l’individu qu’elle catégorise, mais bien à l’acte délinquant commis par ce dernier. Nous conclurons sur le constat de l’absence de dimension psychopathologique de la personnalité antisociale, qui se révèle être un diagnostic principalement criminologique, à l’inverse des fondements de l’éthique psychopathologique. [less ▲]

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See detailMaking-doing sensory perception: how to teach taste
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2015, July 02)

Imagine a course of “olfaction and tasting”, in a notorious professional school for flavourist and perfumers in France. The aim of the teacher is to instil sensory referential sources in students, by the ... [more ▼]

Imagine a course of “olfaction and tasting”, in a notorious professional school for flavourist and perfumers in France. The aim of the teacher is to instil sensory referential sources in students, by the appropriation of a rigorous vocabulary and through practical tries of molecules and preparations. To name, to compare, to memorize, to describe and to value these substances are the tasks of the group during two years. As the general topic of the research was to understand professional skills about taste, one of the issues consisted in studying the development of these specific abilities. The focus was on the techniques deployed to install a sensory common frame, alternatively through a research of a bottom- up consensus and some imposed tags. The teacher, who has to transfer a substantial amount of sensory references to the class in narrow times, and to make them able to master those notions, has to face to a double constraint. She must transmit a core-sensorium, but at the same time has to support students’ own contributions, in mode to open the reference document to necessary enrichments. More than « actors », or « informants », the teacher and the students were also masters for me, by contributing to my sensory education. But also when they have confronted me to delicates questions and issues, sometimes against my own first researches. They were what I called though co-inquirer, proposing contradictory and resistant interpretations of the world, teaching me how to realize the study of sensory. [less ▲]

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See detailMalentendu visuel et folie : Test de Rorschach et hyper-conscience
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2015, July 02)

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See detailTransnational routes for hyper-local practices. Homemade food of Moroccan migrant women in Italy.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, June 22)

Stemming from a doctoral research on the culinary practices of a group of Moroccan migrant women living in the north of Italy, this paper will focus on some narratives and habits concerning homemade food ... [more ▼]

Stemming from a doctoral research on the culinary practices of a group of Moroccan migrant women living in the north of Italy, this paper will focus on some narratives and habits concerning homemade food. This food was the result of the combination of hyper-local and transnational practices. In fact, preparing some food at home instead of buying it (bread, for example) was possible also thanks to the use of some ingredients that were bought in or coming from Morocco. The issue at stake was that of control: a control exerted at a hyper-local level (in one’s home) on procedures and at a transnational level (by personally knowing ingredients’ producers) on food elements. This combination let women prepare some representative food of their memory by using the traditional techniques learnt from their mothers and by excluding intermediations. Homemade food translated the reassuring utopia of keeping a link with a cultural belonging in spite of migration and of reducing the fear of being contaminated by the unknown products of the diversity. Some ethnographic data will be presented to show these dynamics, and they will be supported by the visual material collected through participant observation. [less ▲]

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See detailEngager le littéraire : le cas Sartre/Fanon
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2015, June 20)

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See detailDes co-enquêteurs coriaces. Quand l'explicitation du travail de terrain complique les choses
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2015, June 18)

La souplesse et la plasticité des problématiques abordées sont sans doute parmi les attraits majeurs que peuvent présenter les recherches qualitatives. Cette ouverture à une reconfiguration permanente des ... [more ▼]

La souplesse et la plasticité des problématiques abordées sont sans doute parmi les attraits majeurs que peuvent présenter les recherches qualitatives. Cette ouverture à une reconfiguration permanente des questions de recherches réside (entre autres) dans la place que l'on accorde aux acteurs. Plus que des « informateurs », ceux-ci peuvent participer véritablement à l'enquête, et sont alors en fait à la manoeuvre autant que le chercheur. D'acteurs, ils gagnent alors le statut de co-enquêteur. En nous renvoyant nos propres questions, en les reformulant, en les faisant apparaître sous un angle différent, les acteurs contribuent à (re)dessiner nos recherches. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cultural Other’s ways of eating. On embodied subjectivities, diets and inclusion of diversity.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, June 09)

The notion of subjectivation is employed in the human and social sciences to define the dynamic and complex process of definition of the self. In this process, several factors interact, both rising from ... [more ▼]

The notion of subjectivation is employed in the human and social sciences to define the dynamic and complex process of definition of the self. In this process, several factors interact, both rising from those which appear as inner needs and from cultural and social expectations. This occurs at different levels of the individual’s everyday life’s experience, one of which is the material one. At this level we find diets, which actively perform on corporeality meant as embodied self. The materiality of food habits and culinary practices is the site where the stratified definition of individual subjectivity take place and where cultural and social belongings are represented and negotiated. In order to support this statement, I will present the life history of the key informant of my doctoral research that was devoted to the culinary practices of a group of Moroccan women living in context of migration. The ethnographic data were collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted in Milan hinterland (Italy). Through participant observation and semi-structured interviews, I studied the way of eating of this woman and her family. Their diet was influenced by several factors, among which the most relevant one was the illness of one of the children, a young girl suffering from diabetes mellitus. The (micro)materiality of food choices made by her mother for her nourishment, played a crucial role in the definition of the girl’s body and of its representation. In fact, this woman negotiated her culinary practices, stemming from her embodied memory, with medical prescriptions and instruments in order to restore her child’s body to health and thus shaping it as socially acceptable. We see a double-direction movement involving food and the body: the incorporation of appropriate nourishment, assured by a strict measurement of food biological components, and the excorporation of some physiological functions delegated to external medical devices. Such dynamics are aimed at making the child’s body comply with those biomedical norms that control the individuals’ access to the “healthy collectivity”. The medical work on the body through food corresponds to the normalization of the cultural Other’s ways of eating, a process that seems to be fundamental to migrants’ integration in the host society. In this paper I will discuss these issues focusing on food practices as material culture which actively participates to the embodied process of subjectivation. I will support my presentation with visual materials. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dimension adaptative du fonctionnement pervers : une question complexe
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2015, June 04)

Après avoir rappelé la différence entre perversion et fonctionnement psychologique pervers, nous proposerons une réflexion éthologique et écologique qui s’appuiera sur une pratique clinique en hôpital ... [more ▼]

Après avoir rappelé la différence entre perversion et fonctionnement psychologique pervers, nous proposerons une réflexion éthologique et écologique qui s’appuiera sur une pratique clinique en hôpital sécuritaire avec plusieurs patients au fonctionnement psychologique pervers. Dans un raisonnement où nous distinguons la signification d’un comportement de sa fonction, il apparaît que la maîtrise du territoire et du rang social sont des « facultés » perverses observables. Nous suggérons de concevoir le pervers comme un individu hyper-adapté à un environnement social (la prison, par exemple, mais pas seulement) dont il maîtrise remarquablement l’art de la relation et de la « territorialisation ». Nous mettrons également en évidence les grandes compétences perceptives de ces patients (notamment via une réponse au test de Rorschach) et la maitrise fulgurante de l’intuition relationnelle. L’ensemble de ces caractéristiques font du pervers un être très « compétent » d’un point de vue social. Ceci explique, lorsqu’ils s’expriment sur le terrain de la délinquance, la dimension « imparable » des actes criminels de ces individus. Au-delà de cette adaptation sociale performante et remarquable, surviennent néanmoins des moments paradoxaux où la « désadaptation » est complète. Ces « moments pervers », qui sont rencontrés dans la clinique avec ces patients et qui apparaissent inexplicables d’un point de vue éthologique et adaptatif, sont des phénomènes essentiels à mettre en évidence dans un processus d’évaluation diagnostique. Dès lors, le pervers doit être considéré comme un être dont le fonctionnement adaptatif est complexe, fluctuant sur un continuum entre hyper-adaptation (la plupart du temps) et inadaptation (s’exprimant sous la forme d’un hiatus). Précisons, en outre, que ce modèle adaptatif suggère clairement que le fonctionnement psychologique pervers n’est pas l’apanage du sujet délinquant sexuel, pas plus qu’il n’est celui du délinquant en règle général. Ce mode de fonctionnement est également à identifier dans de nombreuses situations sociales où l’exercice du pouvoir sur autrui est accepté voire encouragé. Pour conclure, nous insisterons sur le fait qu’un fonctionnement psychologique pervers est complexe à mettre en évidence, notamment parce qu’il demande du temps et le développement de qualités d’observation parfois difficilement opérationnelles dans certaines situations cliniques ou d’expertise. Pour pouvoir améliorer la connaissance de ce fonctionnement, cette entité demande une reconnaissance nosographique et diagnostique propre. Notre hypothèse d’une hyper-adaptation pourrait être éprouvée par des méthodes cognitives. Nous pensons, par exemple, à un dispositif proposant des tâches de résolutions de problèmes sans issue. Cependant, l’on peut se demander s’il est raisonnable d’envisager d’avoir une connaissance nomothétique de la personnalité perverse. Le nombre restreint de sujets « disponibles » pour une évaluation, leur logique insaisissable, leur tendance au refus de collaborer à une étude s’ils n’y trouvent pas avantage, etc. Ces arguments font que le sujet pervers échappe presque par principe aux méthodes de recherche conventionnelles. Cela ne veut évidemment pas dire que l’entité nosographique n’existe pas. Tout en connaissant le lourd tribut que peut représenter le fait d’apposer ce diagnostic à propos d’un sujet, nous estimons, néanmoins, qu’il est important de pouvoir le mettre en évidence lorsqu’il est présent (comme il est, par ailleurs, essentiel de se garder de le poser lorsqu’il est absent). Pour ce faire, la répétition et l’observation sont les seuls moyens de parvenir à objectiver ce type de fonctionnement en réduisant le risque d’identifier des faux positifs. La difficulté essentielle est et restera de parvenir à parler à écrire sur le pervers. Pointer une dynamique perverse et parvenir à la faire comprendre aux autres relève presque de l’impossible car, d’une certaine manière, le pervers est toujours dans le juste. Il n’a pas toujours une bonne excuse, il a toujours une bonne raison. Le principe pervers dépasse le dicible, la dynamique perverse est difficilement verbalisable. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear model updating by means of identified nonlinear normal modes
Song, Mingming; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2015, June)

Modal parameters are the most common features used for linear model updating. Although the modal analysis theory does not hold for nonlinear dynamic systems, its popularity encouraged researchers to come ... [more ▼]

Modal parameters are the most common features used for linear model updating. Although the modal analysis theory does not hold for nonlinear dynamic systems, its popularity encouraged researchers to come up with an equivalent version of normal modes for nonlinear systems, i.e., nonlinear normal modes (NNMs). A nonlinear system vibrates in NNMs when all masses have periodic motions of the same period, and at any time, the position of all the masses is uniquely defined by the position of any one of them. This paper investigates the feasibility of nonlinear model updating by minimizing the difference between the model-predicted and measured/identified nonlinear normal modes. A two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with three linear springs and a cubic nonlinear spring is considered as the case study. The energy-dependent natural frequency and NNM of the first vibration mode of the system are identified at three different levels of energy. The stiffness parameters of the system are estimated by minimizing an objective function which is defined as the discrepancy between model-predicted natural frequency and NNM of the first mode, and their identified counterparts at the three measured energy levels. Performance of the proposed updating approach is evaluated at different levels of noise and different levels of modeling errors (i.e., nonlinear model classes). [less ▲]

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See detail“Pourquoi écrivez-vous ?” Création et sacralisation
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2015, June)

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg)
See detailA frequency-domain method for identifying nonlinear vibrating structures
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Dossogne, Tilàn ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

Conference (2015, June)

System identification, which refers to the construction of mathematical models from experimental data, plays a key role in the design process of engineering systems. In structural dynamics, the ... [more ▼]

System identification, which refers to the construction of mathematical models from experimental data, plays a key role in the design process of engineering systems. In structural dynamics, the theoretical and experimental aspects of linear system identification have been successfully addressed since the early seventies, and mature analytical, computational and testing tools have emerged. Nonlinear system identification of vibrating structures has also enjoyed significant advances during the past few years. However, the common practice in industry is to ignore nonlinearities, arguably because their analysis is still regarded as impractical. The present work describes a rigorous nonlinear generalisation in the frequency domain of the classical subspace identification algorithms, termed FNSI method. This method is applicable to large-scale systems comprising strong nonlinearities, closely-spaced modes and potentially high, nonproportional damping. Another distinct advantage of the approach is that it offers a convenient way to select an appropriate order for the nonlinear model by means of stabilisation diagrams. The FNSI method is demonstrated in this study using a complete satellite structure with nonsmooth nonlinearities, and a solar panel assembly exhibiting complex nonlinear stiffness and damping mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailOccupational physicians managing workers long-term sickness absence : are they willing to cooperate with family and social insurance physicians ?
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg et al

Conference (2015, June)

Introduction In Belgium, sickness absence (SA) management implies complementary roles for family (FPs), social insurance (SIPs) and occupational physicians (OPs): FPs deliver sick notes, SIPs control SA ... [more ▼]

Introduction In Belgium, sickness absence (SA) management implies complementary roles for family (FPs), social insurance (SIPs) and occupational physicians (OPs): FPs deliver sick notes, SIPs control SA benefits and OPs strive to adapt work environments to workers’ capacities. In practice however, there is little cooperation between the three physicians. This study aimed at identifying FP-OP-SIP cooperation channels in order to prevent long-term work disability. Methods The study involved two phases. (1) Using the nominal group technique, researchers from the three physician groups reached a consensus on 15 proposals to enhance inter-professional cooperation. (2) A Delphi study was conducted to validate these proposals: 61 experts representing professional groups of physicians (FP, SIP, OP), patients, government, employers and labor unions were asked to participate. A 18-items questionnaire (the 15 proposals + 3 open questions) was used in a 2-round Delphi study. Proposals were accepted if 80% of experts agreed. Results Participation rate was 77% in round 1 and 7 out of the 15 proposals were accepted. During round 2, participation rate was 94%; 2 of the remaining proposals reached agreement level. Public authorities were thus advised to invest in a) promotion of pre-return to work visit with the OP for sick-listed patients; b) a website with OPs contact data; c) joint guidelines for return to work guidance; d) joint training of the 3 physician groups; 5) safe electronic information exchange. Several proposals aiming at giving work-related information to FPs and SIPs did not reach agreement within the OPs expert group. OPs expressed concerns about their own workload and FPs or SIPs ability to understand and use those information. Discussion The need for inter-physician cooperation in disability management may exceed individual goodwill and should best be organised by public authorities. This study may be a first step in this process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Social (Re)construction of an Incident Reporting System: Opening-up, Closing-down, Starting over
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2015, June)

The literature on incident reporting generally describes Incident Reporting Systems (IRS) as technological tools aiming at improving safety in organizations by initiating a learning process from previous ... [more ▼]

The literature on incident reporting generally describes Incident Reporting Systems (IRS) as technological tools aiming at improving safety in organizations by initiating a learning process from previous events, in order to prevent future incidents and accidents to occur. In this respect, many studies tend to focus on “barriers to reporting” in order to understand why people report (or not) incidents in the dedicated system. Alternatively, we proposed to study IRS as socio-technical artifacts which are embedded in a specific organizational culture and which are interpreted in different ways, illustrating what has been called “interpretive flexibility”. This communication is divided in two parts. First, relying on the Social Construction Of Technology (SCOT) framework, we present the different practices and meanings attributed to the reporting of incidents within the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK•CEN). We link these to the various modes of learning that they enable. By doing so we participate to the opening-up of the research on Incident Reporting to alternative discourses, practices and meanings, unforeseen situations and uncertainties. Second, we present the preliminary results of creative workshops during which we initiated the participatory re-construction of the IRS within the Center, drawing on and extending the results of the “opening-up” phase. By doing so, we aim at contributing to a transparent realization of the reduction of complexity leading to an informed and collective decision on what could/should be the IRS of the Center. In conclusion, we propose a reflexive analysis of this process, and we formulate tentative future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailLe donné phénoménal de Tim Crane
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

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See detailMake the ureter your friend
Bonnet, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, May 22)

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See detailAnatomy of the pelvis re-designed
Bonnet, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, May 21)

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See detailAssessing employees propensity to engage in OCB: incremental validity of SJT beyond personality.
Lothe, Benoit ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg; Scius, Anthony et al

Conference (2015, May 21)

This study presents the validation results of a SJT developed in collaboration with a Belgian french speaking mutual insurance company for the assessment of employees OCB. The purpose is to provide ... [more ▼]

This study presents the validation results of a SJT developed in collaboration with a Belgian french speaking mutual insurance company for the assessment of employees OCB. The purpose is to provide empirical evidence concerning the validity of using the SJT by examining the issues of OCB criterion validity, incremental validity beyond a personality inventory, applicant perception and SJT transparency level. The SJT was developed in-house and following relevant literature recommendations (Weekley, Ployhart & Holtz, 2006). Data were collected on 117 white-collar employees. Three other measurements were concurrently collected: OCB using Williams & Anderson (1991) self-reported scales, personality using the Gosling, Rentfrow & Swann (2003) ten item inventory (TIPI) and applicant perception using SPJS (Bauer, & al., 2001). An open-ended question was used to access the extent to which applicants are able to identify the SJT criteria. Results indicated that the SJT is a relevant predictor of OCB (r = .42; p<.001). The SJT also provides incremental explanation of the OCB criteria beyond the personality inventory (∆R² = .11; p<.001). There was in average an agreement about the acceptability of the SJT in terms of perceived procedural justice. No relationships were found between applicant ability to correctly identify the SJT criteria and SJT score or OCB self-rating. This study is to our knowledge among the first attempt to develop and validate a tool to fill the gap on how to predict employees OCB (Organ, Podsakoff & Podsakoff, 2010). Implications for the personnel selection and current limitations will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical analysis and alternative treatment of Type Ia Supernovae data
Hauret, Clémentine ULg

Conference (2015, May 20)

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See detailTuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) development on wild and cultivated plant species
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Dujeu, David ULg; Fagan, Maud ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 19)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread invasive species damaging economically important cultivated solanaceous crop plants, including tomatoes and potatoes. Little ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread invasive species damaging economically important cultivated solanaceous crop plants, including tomatoes and potatoes. Little is known about the ability of this microlepidoptera to encounter and develop on alternative wild and agricultural plant species. These plants could provide refuges and have to be identified for more efficient integrated management strategies. In the present study, we assessed under laboratory conditions the ability of T. absoluta to develop on such plant species referred as potential hosts in the literature, including Solanaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Fabaceae, and Malvaceae. For each plant species, fitness tests were performed in Petri dishes by isolating single individuals with excised leaf. We found that Solanum species allowed higher larval survivability and shorter development time (from egg to adult emergency) compared to the other plants. Non-solanaceous plants were not able to sustain T. absoluta larvae. Two choice behavioral assays performed in flying tunnels revealed that adult distribution and female oviposition did not differ between Solanum species, which were preferred to other tested solanaceous plants. These results appeared to be consistent with survival rates and development times. Because larval survivability depends on the female’s oviposition choice, the hypothesis that host plant choice is influenced by plant volatile organic compounds has to be tested. Volatile organic compounds released by solanaceous plants were trapped using a dynamic collection system, and analyzed by GC-MS. Solanum volatile profiles showed similarities, and were presenting quantitative and qualitative differences with the other tested solanaceous plants, providing some explanations in the observed behavioral discrimination. Further electrophysiological and behavioral assays are required to confirm the effect of specific chemicals on the choice of the oviposition site in T. absoluta. It can be concluded that Solanum species are the more suitable hosts for T. absoluta development. Other solanaceous plant species could be opportunistically colonized with little incidence but care should be taken in these results as genetic variability in insects and plants, as well as plant physiological state, might have an impact on the pest survivability. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche contingente du design du système d’information comptable dans les PMI tunisiennes
Ghorbel, Jihene ULg

Conference (2015, May 19)

Malgré les recherches qui sont de plus en plus nombreuses sur le système d’information comptable dans les PME, les résultats trouvés sont mitigés et contradictoires. Ainsi, nous essayons à travers ce ... [more ▼]

Malgré les recherches qui sont de plus en plus nombreuses sur le système d’information comptable dans les PME, les résultats trouvés sont mitigés et contradictoires. Ainsi, nous essayons à travers ce travail de contribuer au débat relatif du design du système d’information comptable dans les PMI des pays en voie de développement comme la Tunisie. Dans une optique comptable et face aux défis auxquels se trouvent confrontées les entreprises et pour légitimer leur compétitivité et leur crédibilité, nous nous intéressons à une série de facteurs structurels et comportementaux susceptibles de mieux cerner le design du système d’information comptable. En recourant aux méthodes des équations structurelles, cette recherche révèle que le design du système d’information comptable auprès de 221 PMI est influencé par plusieurs facteurs contextuels. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency of pheromone-based formulations against phytophagous pests
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 19)

Innovative integrated pest management methods are needed to overcome market withdrawal of synthetic pesticides. Therefore, the identification of environment-friendly bio-products carrying direct or ... [more ▼]

Innovative integrated pest management methods are needed to overcome market withdrawal of synthetic pesticides. Therefore, the identification of environment-friendly bio-products carrying direct or indirect biocide activity is one promising alternative option. Our researches focus on the identification of appropriate formulations releasing volatile organic compounds that are attractant for natural enemies of insect pests. However, the elaboration of slow-release devices that ensure stable and controlled release of active volatile compounds is quite challenging. Here, we developed a formulation based on E-β-farnesene and (-)-β-caryophyllene, these two semiochemicals having strong attractive potential on aphid natural enemies including lady beetles and hoverflies. Both compounds were encapsulated together in alginate gel beads. The blend efficiency was first evaluated through laboratory assays, and then in wheat and broad bean fields, by considering the abundance and diversity of aphids and their natural enemies. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation de cas pratique - atelier n°2 « Outils et méthodes de formation : quels outils (EAD, MOOC, partage social, manuels...) et quelles méthodes (enseignement mixte, classe inversée, résolution de problèmes, travaux en groupe...) face à des groupes de tailles très variables ? Comment former avec peu de moyens (financiers, humains, matériels) ? »
Pasquet, Coralie ULg

Conference (2015, May 18)

Au cours du premier quadrimestre de l’année académique 2014 - 2015, une nouvelle activité a été proposée aux 280 étudiants inscrits en 3ième année du grade de Bachelier en Médecine à ... [more ▼]

Au cours du premier quadrimestre de l’année académique 2014 - 2015, une nouvelle activité a été proposée aux 280 étudiants inscrits en 3ième année du grade de Bachelier en Médecine à l’Université de Liège, ce dans le cadre du « Module Système Nerveux ». La réalisation progressive de cette activité s'est effectuée exclusivement en ligne. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (5 ULg)
See detailA tool for the precision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)s in water
Cordella, Daniela ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 18)

In recent years, poly(ionic liquid)s (PIL)s were found to take an enabling role in important fields of polymer chemistry and material science. PILs combine the unique properties of ionic liquids with the ... [more ▼]

In recent years, poly(ionic liquid)s (PIL)s were found to take an enabling role in important fields of polymer chemistry and material science. PILs combine the unique properties of ionic liquids with the flexibility and properties of macromolecular architectures giving rise to a new family of functional polymers that opens new area of applications such as polymer electrolytes in electrochemical devices, powerful dispersants and stabilizers, absorbing membranes, precursors for carbon materials, porous polymers, etc. In this communication, we will report on the implementation of organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) technique for the precision synthesis of unprecedented PILs (co)polymers. We will discuss how an organocobalt complex can efficiently control the growth of vinyl imidazolium chains and lead to PILs with predicted molar masses and low polydispersities under mild experimental conditions, which provide low temperatures (compared to the conventional radical polymerization techniques) and also the use of water as green polymerization medium. The huge potential of this system will be also highlighted by describing the one-pot synthesis of vinyl imidazolium-based block copolymers in heterogeneous conditions. This OMRP is unique for providing well-defined vinyl imidazolium based-copolymers opening for advanced PILs applications. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of new multifunctional nanocarriers for protein delivery
Parilti, Rahmet ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Howdle, Steven M. et al

Conference (2015, May 18)

Polymeric nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for their biomedical applications especially as drug carriers. However, efficient encapsulation and delivery of therapeutic proteins in targeted ... [more ▼]

Polymeric nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for their biomedical applications especially as drug carriers. However, efficient encapsulation and delivery of therapeutic proteins in targeted manner still present challenges. This project aims to develop a novel one-pot strategy to obtain nanoparticles able to carry proteins in their core, as well as bearing targeting and/or imaging agents on their surface. In addition to this objective, polymerizations are carried out in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2), which confers environmentally benign features to the process. Dispersion polymerizations of hydrophilic monomer 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in are carried out in scCO2 in the presence of an initiator, cross-linker and CO2-philic photoclevable stabilizer. Upon exposure to UV light, the o-nitrobenzyl junctions present at the surface of the particles are cleaved, thus providing water dispersible hydrogels. Spherical monodisperse nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in scCO2 with two different conditions. Milder reaction conditions were achieved by using 2,2'-Azobis(4-methoxy-2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile (V70) as an initiator which opens up the platform for one-pot protein encapsulation in scCO2. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy are flux avalanches deflected by a metallic layer?
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2015, May 15)

Sudden avalanches of magnetic flux bursting into a superconducting sample are deflected from their trajectories when they encounter a conductive layer deposited on top of the superconductor. Remarkably ... [more ▼]

Sudden avalanches of magnetic flux bursting into a superconducting sample are deflected from their trajectories when they encounter a conductive layer deposited on top of the superconductor. Remarkably, in some cases the flux is totally excluded from the area covered by the conductive layer. Even if this phenomenon has been known for a few years, there is currently no theoretical model describing it. Moreover, the question whether the deflection would also be observed for a single vortex entering the region covered by a metallic layer is still unanswered. In this work we use the magneto-optical imaging (MOI) technique, based on the Faraday effect, to show that a conductive layer (Cu) can repel flux avalanches triggered in an underlying superconducting film (Nb) (see figure). We present a simple classical model that accounts for the deflection of a single vortex and considers a magnetic monopole approaching a semi-infinite conductive plane. This model suggests the important role played in the avalanche deflection by electromagnetic braking, arising from the eddy currents induced by the moving vortex in the metal. Moreover, we have found a decrease of the vortex damping coefficient due to the metallic sheet at large vortex velocities, correcting early theoretical descriptions where a linear behaviour was proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailChristianisme et paideia dans l'Égypte byzatine : l'apport des papyrus scolaires grecs à contenu composite profane et chrétien (fin du IIIe-début du VIIIe s.)
Carlig, Nathan ULg

Conference (2015, May 14)

Documentée par des milliers de papyrus, restes de livres ou de documents, dont les plus anciens remontent à la fin du IIe siècle de notre ère, la christianisation de l’Égypte a profondément modifié le ... [more ▼]

Documentée par des milliers de papyrus, restes de livres ou de documents, dont les plus anciens remontent à la fin du IIe siècle de notre ère, la christianisation de l’Égypte a profondément modifié le rapport des populations à la paideia hellénique, sans pour autant se substituer à elle. L’examen du matériau, de la forme, de la mise en page, du contenu, ainsi que de la provenance des papyrus scolaires grecs à contenu composite profane et chrétien (fin IIIe – 1e moitié VIIIe s.), permettra d'illustrer cette problématique en relevant les continuités et les ruptures dans les stratégies d'enseignement par rapport à la paideia de tradition hellénique. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat makes the invasive Harmonia axyridis so successful? Six years of research in Gembloux provide additional answers
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Vandereycken, Axel ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 14)

Following the introduction of the invasive species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, many research works were conducted on its ecological, economic and social impacts. Recently, our team has been ... [more ▼]

Following the introduction of the invasive species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, many research works were conducted on its ecological, economic and social impacts. Recently, our team has been involved in the characterization of the behavioral traits making this lady beetle species so successful. The main conclusions of two PhD works will be shortly presented: (1) Through a six-year inventory performed in Belgian agroecosystems, we have demonstrated that H. axyridis has become well established and was among the most abundant aphidophagous predatory species, causing a severe depression of biodiversity, even if communities of aphid predators are still quite diversified. (2) The social issues associated with the establishment of overwintering aggregations in human constructions were also carefully investigated. We have demonstrated the importance of social interactions on the establishment and cohesion of the aggregates. Finally, we have demonstrated that the deposition of a set of saturated and non-saturated hydrocarbons on the surfaces where the lady beetles were settling on, allowed their conspecifics to follow their markings and join the group. [less ▲]

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See detailJupiter's equatorward auroral features
Dumont, Maïté ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 13)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg)
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See detailOn the nature of cosmological time
Hauret, Clémentine ULg

Conference (2015, May 13)

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See detailIs the natural shape of ions in the gas phase spherical ? The allegory of the cave (Plato) applied in mass spectrometry
Far, Johann ULg; Haler, Jean ULg; Kune, Christopher ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 13)

The transfer of ions from solution to gas phase is a critical step to produce « native species ». Coming from a highly solvating medium, ionic species will tend to find new equilibrium conformations in ... [more ▼]

The transfer of ions from solution to gas phase is a critical step to produce « native species ». Coming from a highly solvating medium, ionic species will tend to find new equilibrium conformations in the gas phase. The pathway to reach the thermodynamically stable conformation(s) involves crossing potential barriers according to the type of interactions involved. When these barriers are too high compared to the internal energy of the ions, it may result in a “partial memory” (as structural preservation) of the conformation in solution. In order to evaluate the effect of the solvent evaporation and of the various collision processes encountered by the ions in the mass spectrometer we based our strategy on the determination of deviations from a spherical shape, supposed to be the natural state of ions in the gas phase. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst evidence of a volatile sex pheromone in Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 13)

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by ... [more ▼]

To date, volatile sex pheromones have not been identified in the Coccinellidae family; yet, various studies have suggested that such semiochemicals exist. Here, we collected volatile chemicals released by virgin females of the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), which were either allowed or not allowed to feed on aphids. Virgin females in the presence of aphids, exhibited “calling behavior”, which is commonly associated with the emission of a sex pheromone in several Coleoptera species. These calling females were found to release a blend of volatile compounds that is involved in the remote attraction (i.e., from a distance) of males. Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses revealed that (–)-β-caryophyllene was the major constituent of the volatile blend (ranging from 80 to 86%), with four other chemical components also being present; β-elemene, methyl-eugenol, α-humulene, and α-bulnesene. In a second set of experiments, the emission of the five constituents identified from the blend was quantified daily over a 9-day period after exposure to aphids. We found that the quantity of all five chemicals significantly increased across the experimental period. Finally, we evaluated the activity of a synthetic blend of these chemicals by performing bioassays which demonstrated the same attractive effect in males only. The results confirm that female H. axyridis produce a volatile sex pheromone. These findings have potential in the development of more specific and efficient biological pest-control management methods aimed at manipulating the behavior of this invasive lady beetle. [less ▲]

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See detailMarcello Venusti nel mondo di Perino del Vaga
Geremicca, Antonio ULg

Conference (2015, May 12)

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See detailOn the nature of cosmological time
Hauret, Clémentine ULg

Conference (2015, May 11)

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See detailIntroduction
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2015, May 11)

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See detailRADIOPHARMACY GMP QC HPLC VALIDATION
Aerts, Joël ULg; Giacomelli, Fabrice ULg; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 09)

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See detailPartial volume effect impact on PET preclinical dosimetry: a simulation study
Seret, Alain ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; Bretin, Florian et al

Conference (2015, May 09)

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See detail"Drôleries". L'iconographie marginale des portails occidentaux et de la nef de la cathédrale de Strasbourg
Van den Bossche, Benoît ULg

Conference (2015, May 09)

Le vaste ensemble sculpté constitué par les trois portails occidentaux de la cathédrale de Strasbourg a fait l’objet, ces dernières années, de plusieurs études. Une critique d’authenticité a été menée ... [more ▼]

Le vaste ensemble sculpté constitué par les trois portails occidentaux de la cathédrale de Strasbourg a fait l’objet, ces dernières années, de plusieurs études. Une critique d’authenticité a été menée ; les choix iconographiques qui ont présidé à l’élaboration du programme ont été déterminés et justifiés. Toutes ces études ont pourtant laissé de côté une centaine de reliefs finement sculptés qui agrémentent les parties hautes du niveau des portails, à l’extérieur comme à l’intérieur de la façade. Cette iconographie, authentique pour l’essentiel, se distingue par une grande variété de « sujets ». A priori, elle rappelle celle des « drôleries » des manuscrits de la fin du XIIIe siècle et du XIVe. Mais est-ce le cas ? Et si c’est le cas, comment articuler ces sujets qui ont jusqu’à aujourd’hui été considérés comme marginaux, avec l’iconographie des ébrasements, des tympans et des voussures ? Enfin, l’ensemble de « drôleries » de la cathédrale de Strasbourg peut-il, d’un point de vue iconographique, être comparé à d’autres ensembles sculptés français et germaniques de la fin du XIIIe siècle et du XIVe ? [less ▲]

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See detailLa médiation, un lien social à reconstruire.
Bachelet, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2015, May 08)

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See detailTraduction et représentation politique : quelques éléments pour une genèse de leur rapport et de leur pertinence comme outils d’analyse politique
Smette, Bernard ULg

Conference (2015, May 08)

J’interrogerai la problématique du rapport de la traduction à la politique à partir de la notion de représentation politique, telle que thématisée par le théoricien argentin de l’analyse de discours ... [more ▼]

J’interrogerai la problématique du rapport de la traduction à la politique à partir de la notion de représentation politique, telle que thématisée par le théoricien argentin de l’analyse de discours, Ernesto LACLAU. Je commencerai très brièvement par resituer le processus de représentation dans le champ politique actuel. Cette re-contextualisation permettra de montrer que les notions de « représentation » et de « politique » entretiennent un rapport privilégié, mais qui ne se limite pas uniquement à sa forme contemporaine la plus répandue, symbolisée par nos institutions et principes politiques, tels le régime parlementaire ou encore l’élection. Je passerai alors au cœur de ma communication en dessinant la proximité conceptuelle et fonctionnelle de la traduction et de la représentation. Je me baserai, pour ce faire, sur les développements qu’Ernsto LACLAU a proposés de cette dernière, ainsi que sur quelques développements de Jean-René LADMIRAL et Willard Van Orman QUINE au sujet de la traduction. Je montrerai notamment (1) en quoi la conception de la représentation que propose LACLAU est un outil d’analyse pertinent de la politique, mais surtout (2) en quoi cette conception de la représentation est guidée par des processus traductifs. Je tenterai enfin, en guise de conclusion, de montrer en quoi l’on peut dégager de ce qui précède une perspective d’analyse supplémentaire, voire innovante, de l’articulation entre traduction, représentation et politique. [less ▲]

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See detailIconic turn et critique du paradigme langagier
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

Je voudrais envisager ici le problème de la légalité des significations dans le champ non-verbal du visuel, tel qu’il est envisagé par un théoricien de l’image allemand actuel (G. Boehm). On pourrait en ... [more ▼]

Je voudrais envisager ici le problème de la légalité des significations dans le champ non-verbal du visuel, tel qu’il est envisagé par un théoricien de l’image allemand actuel (G. Boehm). On pourrait en effet dégager – selon la proposition de Boehm – un principe formel (au moins) qui structure l’émergence de significations dans le domaine du visuel. Boehm ne parle de grammaire à proprement parler que pour s’en écarter (il rejette l’usage de la grammaire prédicative pour la compréhension des images). [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an extension of the catalogue of particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries
De Becker, Michaël ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) constitute a class of massive stars known to be able to accelerate charged particles up to relativistic velocities. The latter property is identified ... [more ▼]

Particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries (PACWBs) constitute a class of massive stars known to be able to accelerate charged particles up to relativistic velocities. The latter property is identified mainly through the detection of synchrotron radiation in the radio domain, and in a few cases thanks to the detection of non-thermal radiation in the high energy domain. The catalogue of PACWBs contains about 40 objects, covering a wide parameter space in terms of stellar wind and orbital parameters. So far, there is no evidence for a strict criterion to justify the occurrence of a particle acceleration process only in a small fraction of the colliding-wind binaries population, admitting the possibility that it might be a frequent property among massive stars. In this contribution, I address the issue of the frequency of particle accelerators among massive binaries, and I discuss observation strategies aiming at identifying new members of the catalogue. [less ▲]

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See detailLes tabous à l’école : quelle place pour le juge en classe ?
Grandjean, Geoffrey ULg

Conference (2015, May 05)

L’objectif de la conférence est de revenir sur le concept de tabou en le liant à différents cas concrets rencontrés en milieu scolaire. L’exposé montre la place croissante accordée aux juges face à des ... [more ▼]

L’objectif de la conférence est de revenir sur le concept de tabou en le liant à différents cas concrets rencontrés en milieu scolaire. L’exposé montre la place croissante accordée aux juges face à des tabous qui suscitent des conflits. Une réflexion politologique est proposée par rapport au phénomène de judiciarisation. [less ▲]

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See detailSoft bottom macrofauna monitoring under anthropogenic influences in Calvi bay, Corsica: Methodological simplifications
Donnay, Annick ULg

Conference (2015, May)

This work is within the framework of STARE-CAPMED long-term research program of STARESO dedicated to STAtion of Reference and rEsearch on Change of local and global Anthropogenic Pressures on ... [more ▼]

This work is within the framework of STARE-CAPMED long-term research program of STARESO dedicated to STAtion of Reference and rEsearch on Change of local and global Anthropogenic Pressures on Mediterranean Ecosystem Drifts. For the soft-bottom macrofauna topic, fourteen stations are sampled one to two times per year, along gradients from anthropogenic sources of influence (river mouth, fish farm, anchoring areas and sewage) mere 2 stations out of influences. The sorting and analysis of soft-bottom macrofauna is time consuming and some methodological simplifications are looking for. Moreover, an adaptation of the M-AMBI for the weak human impacted geographic zone, the Corsica, is envisaged by a weighting with the Piélou index. As a first time, all is done at the species level. In a second time, the steps are done at genus and family levels. By comparison of results obtained between different identification levels, the taxonomic sufficiency (TS) for the Corsican coastal waters is determined. The adapted M-AMBI calculation and TS are applied on the macrofauna populations identified in Calvi bay. It could be interesting to test the analysis process applied around Corsica on other Mediterranean areas. [less ▲]

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See detailBiscuits et thé à la menthe aux fêtes interculturelles. Entre essentialisation et participation des femmes marocaines en Italie.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, May)

Cette communication est issue d’une recherche ethnographique autour des pratiques culinaires d’un groupe de femmes marocaines résidentes dans une ville de la province de Milan, en Italie. Le matériel ... [more ▼]

Cette communication est issue d’une recherche ethnographique autour des pratiques culinaires d’un groupe de femmes marocaines résidentes dans une ville de la province de Milan, en Italie. Le matériel collecté au sein des entretiens et des observations a permis d’étudier d’un côté la définition des sujets au travers des pratiques alimentaires, d’un autre côté leur modalité de prendre part à la vie sociale locale. Grâce aux activités de la vie quotidienne, une appartenance culturelle et religieuse peut être affirmée, en permettant ainsi la revendication du « droit à la diversité ». La performance publique des pratiques culinaires permet aux femmes considérées d’exercer une agency à l’intérieur des espaces institutionnellement concédés à l’expression des migrants. Lors des fêtes interculturelles, les rituels d’une sorte de « cannibalisme exogène » se mettent en place : la population majoritaire, en goûtant les plats des Autres, incorpore la diversité afin de la contrôler. Néanmoins, les femmes migrantes en charge des préparations choisissent activement quels ingrédients (du soi et des plats) faire consommer, en présentant ainsi certains aspects qui vont au-delà de la culture alimentaire. Le partage de nourriture leur permet d’assumer un rôle actif dans la communauté locale, tout en affirmant leurs propres spécificités. Les femmes considérées acquièrent une position politiquement importante au sein de la société et sont ainsi légitimées à participer aux débats et décisions autour de certains questions clefs de la pratique de la diversité. [less ▲]

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See detailTesting of a Spacecraft Structure with Non-Smooth Nonlinearities
Renson, Ludovic ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

Conference (2015, May)

The dynamics of the SmallSat, a real-life spacecraft possessing a complex isolation device with multiple nonsmooth nonlinearities is investigated. Experiments show that nonlinearities induce modal ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of the SmallSat, a real-life spacecraft possessing a complex isolation device with multiple nonsmooth nonlinearities is investigated. Experiments show that nonlinearities induce modal interactions between modes with non-commensurate linear frequencies. A model of the structure with a simplified description of the nonlinear connections is first built using techniques available in industry. Numerical continuation is then exploited to compute nonlinear normal modes and uncover interaction phenomena that can jeopardize the structural integrity. [less ▲]

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See detailLes réseaux scientifiques du Roi en Belgique
Pirot, Pascal ULg

Conference (2015, April 30)

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See detailFunctions of binary variables
Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2015, April 29)

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See detailAge at Retirement: New Proxy of Cognitive Reserve? Results from a French Population-Based Study
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Meillon, Céline; Amieva, Hélène et al

Conference (2015, April 25)

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See detailWerner Herzog et Alexander Kluge. Regards croisés sur le Nouveau Cinéma Allemand.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2015, April 25)

Alexander Kluge et Werner Herzog sont assurément deux figures antipodiques dans l’histoire du cinéma allemand. L’engagement politique tout d’abord, indissociable de la création audiovisuelle pour le ... [more ▼]

Alexander Kluge et Werner Herzog sont assurément deux figures antipodiques dans l’histoire du cinéma allemand. L’engagement politique tout d’abord, indissociable de la création audiovisuelle pour le premier, objet de méfiance si pas de rejet pour le second, oppose manifestement ces deux figures de proue du Nouveau Cinéma Allemand, un courant dont l’acte de naissance, le manifeste d’Oberhausen de 1962, coïncide avec les débuts cinématographiques des deux auteurs. Leurs esthétiques respectives ensuite confirment le gouffre irréductible qui semble les séparer. Enfin, auteurs l’un et l’autre d’œuvres théoriques sur le cinéma, ils défendent deux approches réflexives de la création audiovisuelle qui apparaissent a priori comme inconciliables. En première lecture, Kluge et Herzog incarnent donc toute l’hétérogénéité bien connue du Nouveau Cinéma Allemand. À rebours de ce constat largement répandu dans les histoires de ce courant cinématographique, et sans pour autant réconcilier les deux auteurs à tout prix, un regard croisé sur quelques-uns de leurs films (e.a. Gelegenheitsarbeit einer Sklavin et Die Artisten in der Zirkuskuppel : ratlos pour Kluge ; Fata Morgana et Fitzcarraldo pour Herzog) et textes (e.a. les écrits d’Ulm de Kluge et la déclaration du Minnesota de Herzog) permet de dégager plusieurs points de rencontre entre les œuvres des deux cinéastes. Partant plus particulièrement de leurs conceptions de la rencontre entre documentaire et fiction, rencontre essentielle pour l’un comme pour l’autre, il s’agira d’en dégager les similitudes et résonances pour mieux comprendre, grâce à un éclairage réciproque, l’une et l’autre de ces œuvres essentielles du cinéma allemand des années soixante, septante et quatre-vingt. [less ▲]

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See detailRetour au travail après un cancer du sein
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg; DESREUX, Joëlle ULg et al

Conference (2015, April 23)

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See detailDoctors, Nurses and Patients 2.0: Myth or Reality?
Slomian, Cynthia ULg

Conference (2015, April 21)

This communication aims at drawing the general context underlying the Belgian health care sector and to address the key issues of the computerization of the patient health records. Two case studies are ... [more ▼]

This communication aims at drawing the general context underlying the Belgian health care sector and to address the key issues of the computerization of the patient health records. Two case studies are presented: the introduction of a nursing health record within a hospital and the computerization of the general practitioner's record. Finally, the discussion focuses on the medical knowledge in general, using the embodied, inscribed, enacted phenomenology developed by Richard Freeman and Steven Sturdy. [less ▲]

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See detailThermodynamik und Reaktions-Technik am Beispiel PA12
Pfennig, Andreas ULg; Haas, Thomas

Conference (2015, April 18)

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See detailTSP model for electric vehicle deliveries, considering speed, loading and path slope.
Bay, Maud ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Conference (2015, April 17)

In the current Transport White Paper, the European Union presents a roadmap for a more competitive and sustainable European transport system. Concerning Urban Freight Transport, responsible for about a ... [more ▼]

In the current Transport White Paper, the European Union presents a roadmap for a more competitive and sustainable European transport system. Concerning Urban Freight Transport, responsible for about a quarter of CO2 emissions of the transport sector, one of the goals of the EU is to achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030 by developing and deploying new and sustainable fuels and propulsion systems. The gradual phasing out of ‘conventionally-fuelled’ vehicles from the urban environment contributes to reduce oil dependence, greenhouse gas emissions and local air and noise pollution. To meet European air quality standards, authorities of some major European cities have already introduced Low Emissions Zones where access to urban areas is limited to freight vehicles that meet certain emissions standards. Greater use of low-emission urban trucks based on electric, hydrogen and hybrid technologies would reduce air emissions, but also noise, letting to use road infrastructure more efficiently by making night deliveries and avoiding morning and afternoon peak periods. In addition to their role in the reduction of polluting emissions, the development of low-emission vehicles also allows to mitigate the dependence of the transportation sector to high fossil fuel prices. Electric vehicles have the potential to be powered by renewable energy sources such as wind and solar energy. However, weaknesses can be found in the limited capacity of the battery and the time needed to recharge, and consequently, the limited driving range of electric vehicle. The main sources for final energy consumption are the vehicle size and the engine characteristics, the load factor, the driving pattern, the gradient which represent the average topology of the country, the speed and the acceleration. To maximize the driving range, a routing model, which aims at minimizing the energy consumption, has to be developed. Our paper focus on the Electric Vehicle Traveling Salesman Problem (EV-TSP): given n cities, find the shortest tour, i.e., the shortest directed cycle containing all cities. The classical objective is to minimize the cost tour scheduling to fulfill delivery requests at each location. In this paper we consider the energy cost and we present an extension of the classical problem to minimize the remaining storage capacity of all electric vehicles at the destination node, knowing that there is no recharge operation on the tour. The objective function accounts not just for the travel distance but also on the load of the vehicle and on its speed while the energy consumption of the engine additionally depends on the path to travel, on the slope of the roads and on the vehicle specifications. Moreover, negative consumption that may happen due to regenerative breaking and kinetic energy capture on downhill paths is taken into consideration. Mathematical model is described and computational experiments are performed. [less ▲]

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See detailLire les textes informatifs au début du secondaire : d’un dispositif didactique à l’étude de l’activité des élèves et à l’accompagnement du travail d’appropriation/transformation des enseignants
De Croix, Séverine ULg; Wyns, Marielle

Conference (2015, April 17)

Notre intervention s’appuie sur les premières données issues d’une recherche de type quasi expérimental , subventionnée par la Fondation Louvain (UCL – Louvain-la-Neuve), qui porte sur l’enseignement ... [more ▼]

Notre intervention s’appuie sur les premières données issues d’une recherche de type quasi expérimental , subventionnée par la Fondation Louvain (UCL – Louvain-la-Neuve), qui porte sur l’enseignement, dans l’ordinaire de la classe, des pratiques de lecture et d’écriture des textes informatifs requises pour réussir à l’école (Bautier et Rayou, 2009 ; Crinon, 2011). « Lirécrire pour apprendre » a pour objectifs (1) d’expérimenter, durant deux années scolaires consécutives, un programme didactique conçu comme une réponse à la prise en charge de difficultés langagières que rencontrent de nombreux élèves face aux usages proprement scolaires des écrits documentaires ; (2) de tester la validité de cet outil auprès d’un échantillon constitué de 90 classes de français du premier degré ( Cèbe & Goigoux, 2007) et (3) d’évaluer les conditions d’implémentation et de mise en œuvre du programme (en termes de formation et d’accompagnement des enseignants) les plus à même de favoriser et de maintenir le changement pédagogique (Rowan & Miller, 2007 ; Dumay, 2009). Dans le cadre de cette communication, nous nous proposons de déplier succinctement les difficultés de lecture et d’écriture identifiées en amont de la conception des cinq modules du programme et de présenter les leviers d’action mobilisés au sein de ceux-ci. Le cœur de la contribution portera ensuite sur l’examen de verbalisations et de traces écrites de l’activité des élèves à l’occasion des deux premiers modules du programme mis en œuvre, intitulés « Se familiariser avec les usages des écrits à visée informative, explicative et justificative » et « Sélectionner des informations dans un ou plusieurs texte(s) et les lier entre elles ». Notre analyse des diverses verbalisations générées par ces modules vise la description qualitative de l’activité des élèves en réaction à l’outil pédagogique que nous introduisons et aux supports et documents qu’ils sont amenés à exploiter. Sera également abordée la question de l’appropriation de l’outil par les enseignants. L’examen des verbalisations produites par ces derniers au cours des séances d’accompagnement (dont bénéficient six équipes partenaires) permettra d’observer les écarts et les lieux de convergence entre, d’une part, les pratiques habituelles des enseignants et, d’autre part, les supports et activités proposés par le programme. Nous verrons dans quelle mesure l’implémentation de l’outil didactique dans les classes amène les enseignants à questionner leurs propres postures, à identifier et à mettre en œuvre des gestes professionnels susceptibles de développer chez l’élève des démarches adaptées à la lecture/écriture de textes informatifs. [less ▲]

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See detailSnow cover evolution during the last fifty years in the Hautes Fagnes (Belgium) using the regional climate MAR model
Wyard, Coraline ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg

Conference (2015, April 16)

The MAR model is a regional climate model originally developped for the polar regions to study the surface mass balance. In this study, the MAR model has been adapted to Belgium in order to study the snow ... [more ▼]

The MAR model is a regional climate model originally developped for the polar regions to study the surface mass balance. In this study, the MAR model has been adapted to Belgium in order to study the snow cover evolution of the Hautes Fagnes (south-east of Belgium), a region covered by snow one to two months per year. As validation, we have sucessfully compared MAR based daily snow heights with snowcam-based observations. Then, the model has been forced by ERA-Interim since 1958 to study the snow cover evolution during the last fifty years at the summit of Belgium. The results show non-significant trend. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst evidence of Neandertal cannibalism in Northern Europe: the case of the “Troisieme Caverne” of Goyet (Belgium)
Rougier, H.; Crevecoeur, I.; Beauval, C. et al

Conference (2015, April 15)

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See detailA short dive into the complexity of Jupiter’s aurorae - invited
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg

Conference (2015, April 13)

Aurorae are the atmospheric signatures of energetic processes taking place far in the magnetosphere. One of the most important results brought by high resolution imaging of the UV aurorae at Jupiter is ... [more ▼]

Aurorae are the atmospheric signatures of energetic processes taking place far in the magnetosphere. One of the most important results brought by high resolution imaging of the UV aurorae at Jupiter is the realization that there isn’t such a thing as «the aurora» at Jupiter; as these light emissions appear to arise from a variety of processes. Some are related to the interaction of the magnetospheric plasma with the moons (the satellite footprints). Others are linked with the radial motion of flux tubes through centrifugal instabilities (the injection auroral signatures). Some diffuse emissions are connected with wave-particle interaction (the equatorward diffuse emissions). Another feature is associated with the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling (the main emission/oval). Some auroral spots are related to internally driven reconnection (the polar dawn spots). Finally, the polar-most emissions remain to be understood and this list is still incomplete. In order to illustrate the discrepancies between these various features, I will show a set of recent results derived from the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope observations. For example, I will compare the vertical profile of satellite footprints and the main emissions, and show that the energy population of the precipitating particles varies from feature to feature. Moreover, even within a single feature, spatial variations do exist. As an example, I will characterize the dawn-dusk brightness discrepancy of the main emissions and discuss its implication regarding the magnetospheric currents. And finally, the dynamics of the features also helps differentiating one type of aurora from another. This will be shown through the description of the morphological evolution of the transient flares in the polar region. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent increase of ethane detected in the remote atmosphere of the Northern Hemisphere
Franco, Bruno ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg; Bovy, Benoît ULg et al

Conference (2015, April 13)

Ethane (C2H6) has a large impact on tropospheric composition and air quality because of its involvement in the global VOC (volatile organic compound) – HOx – NOx chemistry responsible for generating and ... [more ▼]

Ethane (C2H6) has a large impact on tropospheric composition and air quality because of its involvement in the global VOC (volatile organic compound) – HOx – NOx chemistry responsible for generating and destroying tropospheric ozone. By acting as a major sink for tropospheric OH radicals, the abundance of C2H6 influences the atmospheric content of carbon monoxide and impacts the lifetime of methane. Moreover, it is an important source of PAN, a thermally unstable reservoir for NOx radicals. On a global scale, the main sources of C2H6 are leakage from the production, transport of natural gas loss, biofuel consumption and biomass burning, mainly located in the Northern Hemisphere. Due to its relatively long lifetime of approximately two months, C2H6 is a sensitive indicator of tropospheric pollution and transport. Using an optimized retrieval strategy (see Franco et al., 2014), we present here a 20-year long-term time series of C2H6 column abundance retrieved from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) solar spectra recorded from 1994 onwards at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 3580 m a.s.l.), part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, see http://www.ndacc.org). After a regular 1994 – 2008 decrease of the C2H6 amounts, which is very consistent with prior major studies (e.g., Aydin et al., 2011; Simpson et al., 2012) and our understanding of global C2H6 emissions, trend analysis using a bootstrap resampling tool reveals a C2H6 upturn and a statistically-significant sharp burden increase from 2009 onwards (Franco et al., 2014). We hypothesize that this observed recent increase in C2H6 could affect the whole Northern Hemisphere and may be related to the recent massive growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs. This hypothesis is supported by measurements derived from solar occultation observations performed since 2004 by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment – Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument and at other NDACC sites, namely Toronto (44° N) and Thule (77° N). Indeed, the recent rates of changes characterizing these data sets are consistent in magnitude and sign with the one derived from the FTIR measurements at Jungfraujoch. In contrast, the ethane time series form Lauder (45° S) shows a monotonic decrease over the last two decades. Investigating both the cause and impact on air quality of the C2H6 upturn should be a high priority for the atmospheric chemistry community. [less ▲]

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See detailEGU2015 - ENSO forecast using a wavelet-based mode decomposition
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg

Conference (2015, April 13)

The aim of this work is to introduce a new method for forecasting major El Niño/ La Niña events with the use of a wavelet-based mode decomposition. These major events are related to sea surface ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is to introduce a new method for forecasting major El Niño/ La Niña events with the use of a wavelet-based mode decomposition. These major events are related to sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific Ocean: anomalous warmings are known as El Niño events, while excessive coolings are referred as La Niña episodes. These climatological phenomena are of primary importance since they are involved in many teleconnections ; predicting them long before they occur is therefore a crucial concern. First, we perform a wavelet transform (WT) of the monthly sampled El Niño Southern Oscillation 3.4 index (from 1950 to present) and compute the associated scale spectrum, which can be seen as the energy carried in the WT as a function of the scale. It can be observed that the spectrum reaches five peaks, corresponding to time scales of about 7, 20, 31, 43 and 61 months respectively. Therefore, the Niño 3.4 signal can be decomposed into five dominant oscillating components with time-varying amplitudes, these latter being given by the modulus of the WT at the associated pseudo-periods. The reconstruction of the index based on these five components is accurate since more than 93% of the El Niño/ La Niña events of the last 60 years are recovered and no major event is erroneously predicted. Then, the components are smoothly extrapolated using polynomials and added together, giving so several years forecasts of the Niño 3.4 index. In order to increase the reliability of the forecasts, we perform several months hindcasts (i.e. retroactive probing forecasts) which can be validated with the existing data. It turns out that most of the major events can be accurately predicted up to three years in advance, which makes our methodology competitive for such forecasts. Finally, we discuss the El Niño conditions currently undergone and give indications about the next La Niña event. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the professional profile of patients in phoniatrics?
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Petitfils, Cloé; LEJEUNE, LIONEL ULg et al

Conference (2015, April 10)

Objective. Research has paid increased attention to occupational voice disorders. This study describes the occupational status of patients examined in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Liège ... [more ▼]

Objective. Research has paid increased attention to occupational voice disorders. This study describes the occupational status of patients examined in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at Liège University Hospital (Belgium) from 2009 to 2013. Study design. Retrospective study. Methods. The sex, age, diagnosis and occupational status were identified for 1,079 patients who were examined for a voice problem (754 women and 325 men; ages 4 to 93). The diagnosis was established using videolaryngostroboscopy. For patients who were employed, we identified (1) the numerically most frequent professionals, and (2) the professionals most at risk of consulting for their voice, based on the distribution of these professions among all workers living in French-speaking Belgium. Results. 11% of patients were unemployed, 15% were students, 20% were retired, and 54% were workers. In decreasing order of frequency, the most commonly seen professionals were teachers, office workers, artists (singers, actors, and musicians), storekeepers and marketing representatives, managers, domestic workers, and laborers. Regarding their distribution in the working population, the workers at greatest risk of consulting were artists, music teachers, counselors, sports coaches, psychologists, switchboard operators, journalists, and teachers. Nodules are the most common pathologies, encountered in 16.8% of the workers and 42.8% of the students who consulted the Department of Otorhinolaryngology for dysphonia. Conclusion. Prevention is needed both for the professions that seek medical help in the largest numbers (teachers) and for those that are at highest risk of consulting (artistic professions). In addition, teachers must be informed of the need to seek help as soon as voice problems appear. Level of evidence: 2b [less ▲]

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See detailEstimated Subglottic Pressure Evaluation, Evolution in 152 Dysphonic Patients
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Finck, Camille ULg; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Conference (2015, April 08)

Background: Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort. Speyer reports an improvement of the ESGP score ... [more ▼]

Background: Estimated subglottic pressure (ESGP) is part of the aerodynamic measurements included in the vocal profile. It is an indication of vocal effort. Speyer reports an improvement of the ESGP score after voice treatment. Nevertheless, few studies used ESGP to evaluate voice efficiency treatment. Objectives: The purpose is to examine the ESGP twice, at the first (T1) and the last consultation (T2) . We observe the ESGP values according to voice pathology. We also examine the relationships between ESGP, SPL(Sound pressure level) and DSI (Discorder severity index) . Method: The study includes 130 patients (M:31/W:99), which suffer from 4 different pathologies as immobility (N: 54), oedema (N:23), nodules (N:24) and polyp (N:29). Each patient’s file consists of VLS, acoustic, aerodynamic and perceptual measures. The ESGP was collected through the Phonatory Aerodynamic System Model 6600 (KayPentax). Patients produced 3 sequences of / ipipi / at low (IL), conversational (IC) and high (IH) intensity. Patients were grouped according to the ENT’s diagnosis. We compare our values to those of Zraick et al (2012) which studied ESGP on a healthy group. Results: At T2, for the all patients, at minimum and conversational intensity the ESGP scores decrease singificantly, even if those scores were higher than for the healthy group. We observe a negative correlation between ESGP and SPL at low and conversational intensity. At T1, the higher is the ESGP score, the lower is the SPL score. At T2, the higher is the ESGP score, the higher is the SPL score. At T1, a negative correlation is observed between ESGP and DSI for 2 groups of patients (immobility and polyp) only at minimum intensity. The higher is the ESGP, the lower is SPL. At T2, only for the group immobility, the negative correlation persists. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of considering the ESGP as a parameter of efficiency. High ESGP is mainly connected with patients who suffer from pathology. The patient who suffer from immobility seems to present a specific profile which could help the clinician to better understand their vocal behavior. Recommendation: This study highlights the pertinence of considering the ESGP as a parameter of vocal treatment efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailState of the art on drivers of deforestation in the Congo basin tropical forest
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Dessard, Hélène et al

Conference (2015, April 07)

The Congo basin forest experiment a low pressure on biodiversity in comparison to other rainforests around the world. But according to the predictions, climate change and direct human drivers could have ... [more ▼]

The Congo basin forest experiment a low pressure on biodiversity in comparison to other rainforests around the world. But according to the predictions, climate change and direct human drivers could have an important effect on the deforestation rate. In that context, CoForTips project want to foster a better management of the Congo Basin forests through a better understanding of the dynamics, regime shifts and tipping points of biodiversity and a better definition of the conditions of resilience of social and ecological systems. In order to assess the current knowledge about drivers of deforestation in the world tropical forests, we analyzed the existent literature to list the direct and indirect drivers of deforestation in the forested tropical zones and to focus on deforestation in the Congo Basin forest and specifically in Cameroon and Gabon. We listed direct drivers of deforestation like expansion of agriculture which can be either family farming or agribusiness; timber extraction for softwood industry and fuel wood; development of infrastructure leading to the opening up of forested land and populations, and mining industries. The underlying causes found in the literature concern economic factors like gross domestic product, national income based on environmental resources exploitation and consumer demand expressing on local and global markets. Technological factors that allow much larger removal. Cultural issues like representation of the forest in the collective imagination as an important source of economic income. Institutional factors like policy measures advocating pro-deforestation measures and demographic causes taking into account for local population rise due to a high fertility rate and linked to population migration. Those direct and underlying causes of deforestation where then detailed for Cameroon and Gabon. [less ▲]

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