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See detailOuverture des travaux
Valenti, Gianluca ULg; Miesse, Hélène ULg

Conference (2015, October 01)

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See detailL’institution de la contre-culture
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2015, October)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
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See detailFormer des enseignants soucieux de réduire les inégalités d'apprentissage ou comment tenir le cap entre réponse aux demandes et inertie. Analyse de cas d'un centre de formation d'enseignants en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

Conference (2015, October)

Dans cette contribution, nous analyserons l'évolution des enjeux et priorités que s'est progressivement donné le Centre interfacultaire de formation des enseignants (Cifen) de l'Université de Liège depuis ... [more ▼]

Dans cette contribution, nous analyserons l'évolution des enjeux et priorités que s'est progressivement donné le Centre interfacultaire de formation des enseignants (Cifen) de l'Université de Liège depuis sa création officielle en 1995, et nous nous interrogerons sur leur pertinence. Comment prendre la mesure des changements effectivement mis en place, apprécier leur pertinence, réguler leurs effets, éviter l'essoufflement des partenaires du système ? Telles sont quelques unes des questions qui baliseront notre contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement-apprentissage du néerlandais en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles: objectifs, méthodes, résultats
Rasier, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Philippe

Conference (2015, September 30)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)
See detailStability and Aging of Phase Change Materials : An Ab Initio Perspective
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, September 17)

Data recording with Phase Change Materials is a much studied topic as the writing/erasing characteristics, cyclability and downscaling properties of these materials allow for efficient data storage in ... [more ▼]

Data recording with Phase Change Materials is a much studied topic as the writing/erasing characteristics, cyclability and downscaling properties of these materials allow for efficient data storage in future generations of devices. Nevertheless, some aspects of phase change materials are limiting their performances and delaying their wider technological application. First, aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance PCMs since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. One difficulty encountered in the simulation of these amorphous systems is that the direct generation of an amorphous structure by quenching a liquid using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Molecular Dynamics leads to one sample with a small number of atoms, and, hence of small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, corresponding to different bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys, selected to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal. On the other hand its electronic properties drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous, as compared to the crystal [1]. A second problem faced by PCMs is the fact that data recording is limited at high temperature due to the increased propensity to recrystallize. One approach to counter this is to stabilize the PCM using impurity atoms such as C or N. Using DFT and the analysis of the mechanical properties (constraints theory), we demonstrate how these impurity atoms modify the rigidity of the network, which is experimentally correlated with the activation energy for crystallization [2]. Finally, the crystal phase itself has been shown to have variable conductivities depending on the thermal history and annealing conditions. If this could be used profitably for multi-level recording, it also indicates that the crystal is undergoes some temporal evolution. Using DFT, we clarify the stability behavior of GST crystal and show that the metal-insulator transition is driven by the migration of intrinsic vacancies and an Anderson localization transition [3]. [1] J.Y Raty, W. Zhang, J. Luckas, C. Chen, R. Mazzarello, C. Bichara and M. Wuttig, Nat. Comm. (2015) [2] G. Ghezzi, J.Y. Raty, S. Maitrejean, A. Roule, E. Elkaim and F. Hippert, Applied Physics Letters, 99 (2011) 151906 [3] W. Zhang, A. Thiess, P. Zalden, R. Zeller, P. H. Dederichs, J-Y. Raty, M.Wuttig, S. Blügel et R. Mazzarello, Nature Materials 11 (2012) 952 [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (2 ULg)
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See detailIconic virtues of diagrams. Peirce and ampliative reasoning
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

Conference (2015, September 08)

In his Critic of pure reason, Immanuel Kant notoriously claimed that, being grounded on the forms of sense intuition, arithmetical and geometrical propositions are both synthetic (i.e. informative) and a ... [more ▼]

In his Critic of pure reason, Immanuel Kant notoriously claimed that, being grounded on the forms of sense intuition, arithmetical and geometrical propositions are both synthetic (i.e. informative) and a priori. Bernard Bolzano, followed in this by the logicist movement (from Gottlob Frege to Rudolf Carnap), answered that the generality and necessity of mathematical propositions and proofs can only be grounded on conceptual analysis. Even though, just like Frege, he is one of the fathers of formal logic, Charles Sanders Peirce provides some semiotic reasons to think that Kant was right: diagrams do convey general meanings and provide some knowledge which is necessary yet non-trivial. Unlike logical analysis, visual presentation of concepts in schemas or diagrams helps to explore concepts by stressing some of their “side” features in such a way that new knowledge is gained: « diagrams evolve what was involved » (CP4/86). This is why, according to Kant’s notion of intuitive construction, mathematical inferences are not merely deductive but are inventive and ampliative. My talk aims at identifying some iconic virtues of diagrams which, according to Peirce, explain their epistemic productivity. A first one lies in the “formal” nature of icons, which allows them to express syntactic relations between descriptive (symbols) and demonstrative (indices) components of structured information. On this respect, even algebraic and ideographic expressions are icons exhibiting a general form – a “rheme” – in which places for indices are filled with variables “x” and “y” meaning “any individual”. For this reason, even though they are singular, diagrams are “abstractions” in the sense that they represent relations rather than their terms. Only with this in prospect can a second, and more studied, feature of diagrams matter, namely their two-dimensionality, which helps to exhibit complex relations that cannot be seen on linear linguistic expressions. Finally, a third feature of diagrams lies in their imaginary rather than referential character. Icons connote without denoting, and therefore they can be informational without this information being limited to singular individuals. Furthermore, this non referential character of icons is what makes them open to virtual exploratory manipulations that allow to consider and investigate possibilities which in turn inform us on not obvious properties of the presently visible configuration. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of Diffure Aurora on Mars
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Schneider; Jain et al

Conference (2015, September)

The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2014) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft has discovered diffuse aurora in Mars’ northern hemisphere spanning a wide range of geographic latitudes ... [more ▼]

The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2014) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft has discovered diffuse aurora in Mars’ northern hemisphere spanning a wide range of geographic latitudes and longitudes (Figure 1). This widespread aurora differs from the small auroral patches discovered by the SPICAM instrument onboard the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2008; Gérard et al., submitted; Soret et al., submitted) restricted to regions of crustal magnetic fields in the southern hemisphere. Furthermore, the northern diffuse aurora appears to peak at altitudes below 100 km, while the crustal field aurora peaked around 120 km. [less ▲]

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See detailBifacial serrated technology in the southern African Still Bay: new data from Sibudu Cave, Kwazulu-Natal
Schmid, Viola; Porraz, Guillaume; Rots, Veerle ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
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See detailThe materiality of Intangible Cultural Heritage: food and social encounters.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, September)

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as ... [more ▼]

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as representative of national food cultures, were chosen to illustrate a shared heritage that historically took a shape around the Mediterranean sea. This heritage, still concretely performed, needed to be stated and preserved against the globalization of food practices. Institutional and political dynamics, occurring on a transnational level, triggered this process, which is nevertheless not detached from the communities involved. Common people played a fundamental role not only in promoting the patrimonialization process itself, but above all in concretely perpetuating some traditions and in spreading them in the contemporary world. In particular, some different cultural groups that found themselves living a common territory and social context thanks to migration, began dialoguing about their own food traditions, starting from some shared elements. As a consequence, some gastronomies interact through people’s practices and define in relation one to the other. This is the case, among others, of Moroccan and Italian cuisine. Throughout a doctoral research conducted within a group of Moroccan women living in the North of Italy, I collected an amount of ethnographic materials showing how social encounters developed through food. The influence of the patrimonialization process on these encounters made people try to find similarities among different traditional practices or to describe some ways of reinterpreting them in reason of the new context. My presentation will focus on these dynamics, thus proving that the Intangible Cultural Heritage is indeed grounded on materiality, that is, in this case, the concrete performance of food practices and their pragmatic effects on relations among humans. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (0 ULg)
See detailTwinkling Lights in the Nightside Upper Atmosphere: How Nightglow Contributes to our Understanding of Global Dynamics
Brecht, Amanda; Bougher, S.; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

Upper atmospheres of planets continuously emit photons in the UV, Visible, and IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these emissions are classified as airglow, which includes dayglow and ... [more ▼]

Upper atmospheres of planets continuously emit photons in the UV, Visible, and IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these emissions are classified as airglow, which includes dayglow and nightglow. There are several mechanisms to create these emissions, but this presentation will focus on nightglow emissions resulting from photochemistry of neutral components. These neutral components originate on the dayside and are transported from the dayside to the nightside of a planet, where they subsequently undergo chemical reactions yielding nightglow. Nightglow emissions serve as effective tracers for planetary middle and upper atmosphere global wind systems due to their variable peak brightness and spatial distributions. The main planetary focus for this presentation will be on Mars and Venus’ atmospheres, due to the similar chemical constituents which populate their upper atmospheres. Currently, NO UV nightglow has been observed (e.g. Venus Express, Mars Express) on both Venus and Mars, while O2 IR nightglow has only been observed on Venus but is predicted to be seen on Mars. The observations show variations in time and location (latitude, local time, and altitude). The locations of the maximum nightglow intensities on each planet are different, but are supportive of the general picture of these two planet’s global circulation patterns. Model implications for both nightglows on both planets can provide valuable insight and understanding of the dynamical and chemical processes creating the nightglow emission variability. Two three-dimensional general circulation models will be utilized: the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) and the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (MGITM). The model output will be compared to nightglow datasets for each planet individually and planet to planet, to contrast the variations of the nightglow features and the underlying drivers for those variations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg)
See detailControlling factors and occurrence of inorganic and organic compounds in groundwater of urban and industrial areas
Gesels, Julie ULg; Dollé, Fabien ULg; Leclercq, Julie et al

Conference (2015, September)

A relatively extensive survey of groundwater contaminants is performed in urban and industrial contexts, at the regional scale (Walloon Region of Belgium), outside spots of contamination related to ... [more ▼]

A relatively extensive survey of groundwater contaminants is performed in urban and industrial contexts, at the regional scale (Walloon Region of Belgium), outside spots of contamination related to contaminated sites. More specifically, the most detected inorganic trace elements and organic contaminants are identified and their levels of occurrence are described statistically. Mechanisms that can explain their occurrence in groundwater are discussed. From a more pragmatic point of view, the data set has been also used to derive upper limits of pollutant background concentrations to be used in decision-making related to the management of contaminated groundwater in urban and industrial environments. The results presented are based on 243 samples from 8 sectors located in different geological contexts and different urban and industrial contexts. Each groundwater sample was analyzed for 19 inorganic trace elements, 61 organic micro-pollutants and 10 major and minor elements. Five physico-chemical parameters were measured in the field, at the time of sampling to determine the environmental conditions prevailing in groundwater. For comparison, existing groundwater analyses in natural context, available for the entire Walloon Region, were compiled from several databases. Cumulative distribution function plots allow comparing the distributions of inorganic trace elements in urban and industrial sectors to those obtained at the scale of the entire Walloon region. Cumulative distribution function plots are also used to compare the distribution of the inorganic trace elements in the different lithologies, in urban and industrial contexts. The composition of groundwater is altered in urban and industrial sectors with increased concentrations for most inorganic trace elements and organic contaminants. Anthropogenic influence is not limited to inputs of pollutants but also to alterations of subsurface environmental conditions, in particular redox conditions, resulting in the mobilization of pollutants. The influence of lithology is also marked in the data set. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
See detailIUVS observations of Nitric Oxide nightglow
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; The IUVS team

Conference (2015, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
See detailA new hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers
Willems, Thibault ULg; Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Renard, Philippe et al

Conference (2015, September)

Groundwater flow modelling in karst aquifers represents a real challenge that requires adapted methods. The applicability of an innovative hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers ... [more ▼]

Groundwater flow modelling in karst aquifers represents a real challenge that requires adapted methods. The applicability of an innovative hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers, namely the Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell (HFEMC) method, is evaluated. The hybrid approach consists in combining a classical finite element (FE) model, to model slow flow in the rock matrix, with spatially distributed lumped reservoirs, to model fast flow in the karst conduits network. Water exchanges between the rock matrix and the conduits network are accounted for by means of an internal Fourier boundary conditions (BC). This BC (1st order exchange relation) allows to control the magnitude of water transfers between fast and slow flow domains. We tested the applicability of the HFEMC method on a schematic synthetic domain and on a real karst system. In the synthetic case analysis, we discussed dynamic processes of groundwater storage occurring in the karst system during a recharge pulse. The study focuses on the influence of selected parameters on representative variables such as the discharge curve of the karst system or pressure and mass transfers between conduits and rock matrix sub-domains. In this way, an inversion of the hydraulic gradient between karst conduits and the surrounding rock matrix is shown to occur during the recharge pulse. This phenomenon results in a temporary storage of water from conduits to the rock matrix, which impacts the modelled discharge curve. The first test performed on a real study site, the Noiraigue spring karst system (Jura mountains, Switzerland), exemplify the use of two separated lumped reservoirs for describing the conduits network, which allows to consider two base levels in the karst system. It also points out the challenges to face when modelling a complex natural karst system with the HFEMC approach. The results obtained show that the HFEMC approach is a good candidate to model groundwater flow in karst aquifers. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Results From MAVEN’s Imaging UV Spectrograph
Schneider; McClintock; Stewart et al

Conference (2015, September)

We report the first results from The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft orbiting Mars. The instrument is accomplishing its ... [more ▼]

We report the first results from The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft orbiting Mars. The instrument is accomplishing its goals of characterizing the atmospheric composition and structure, enabling studies of atmospheric escape that will contribute to our understanding of Mars’ atmospheric evolution. In addition, the instrument has made unexpected discoveries concerning meteor showers, aurora and nightglow on Mars. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of the Vadose Zone Experimental Setup as an innovative in situ characterization method for the vadose zone: a case study at an industrial contaminated site in Belgium
Fernandez de Vera, Natalia ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

The development of protection and remediation plans for contaminated soil and groundwater require a detailed understanding of the transport of pollutants in the subsurface. However, such understanding is ... [more ▼]

The development of protection and remediation plans for contaminated soil and groundwater require a detailed understanding of the transport of pollutants in the subsurface. However, such understanding is affected by the lack of spatial and temporal coverage provided by the current in situ characterization technologies. A new system has been developed in order to overcome such limitations. The vadose zone experimental setup is a new development combining cross-hole geophysics and the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS). In cross-hole geophysics, an injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes is triggered. From measured potential differences, spatial patterns related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations are inferred. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content at different depths of the vadose zone, as well as water sampling. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The system was installed at a former industrial site in Belgium, where soil and groundwater are contaminated with BTEX, PAH, and heavy metals. Two VMS were installed in two slanted boreholes on site, together with four vertical boreholes containing electrodes for geophysical measurements. The site was initially monitored under natural recharge conditions. Water content sensors located along the VMS registered fast wetting and draining reactions to rainfall events followed by the activation of water transport through fractures. Results from soil water samples show continuous evolution of water chemistry with depth, due to disequilibrium between infiltrated water and the hydrochemical conditions in the unsaturated zone. Subsequently, a saline tracer was injected in the surface. The transport of the tracer in the subsurface was monitored via cross-hole and surface geophysics. Results from imaging reflect the evolution of a plume through vertical and lateral transport and dilution. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Rorschach and the theory of art: the sublime and the formal
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Sass, Louis

Conference (2015, August 28)

Together with the crucial work of standardization initiated by Exner, a future focus for research on the Rorschach test concerns the psychological significance of the variables. The Comprehensive System ... [more ▼]

Together with the crucial work of standardization initiated by Exner, a future focus for research on the Rorschach test concerns the psychological significance of the variables. The Comprehensive System has a solid empirical basis offering impressive validity and reliability. By contrast, study and discussion of the psychological correlates of the different codes and their interpretation remains something of a work-in-progress, in much need of both speculative hypotheses and theoretical reflection. In this context, we hope to offer an original hypothesis that is rooted in esthetic theory (Schiller, Burke, Schopenhauer), literature (Stendahl), the philosophy of art (Kant), and existential philosophy (Heidegger). In this paper we propose to introduce the notion of the « sublime », which is to be distinguished from the « beautiful », in order to provide a way of interpreting the significance of both Vista (V) and Form Dimension (FD) responses in the Rorschach. The sublime is associated with a submersion of the cognitive faculties, even a state of feeling overwhelmed, in contrast with the clarity of the beautiful, which is associated with an experience of things being circumscribed in space and under the cognitive/perceptual control of the subject. Our reflection will lead into discussion of the links between perception and anxiety, and to the distinction to be made between anxiety and fear. In concluding, we will take up the adaptive dimension of Vista and FD responses, insofar as they reflect, in accord with Rorschach (1921) and Exner (2003), various forms of introspective awareness. [less ▲]

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See detailA Rorschach study of the borderline personality
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Rommes, Jennifer; Mormont, Christian ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 28)

Nous étudions les manifestations psychologiques au test de Rorschach de sujets présentant un diagnostic de trouble de la personnalité borderline. Dans la continuité des études de Mormont (1969) et Mihura ... [more ▼]

Nous étudions les manifestations psychologiques au test de Rorschach de sujets présentant un diagnostic de trouble de la personnalité borderline. Dans la continuité des études de Mormont (1969) et Mihura (2006), nous avons administré le test à 15 sujets selon les recommandations du Système Intégré. Nos résultats indiquent les tendances spécifiques suivantes : une affectivité qui tend à être extratensive ou ambiéquale (86,7% des sujets), une proportion élevée de réponses couleur/forme (80%), un nombre élevé d’abstractions (66,7%), un nombre important de réponses « agressives » (80%) et « morbides » (86,7%). Une altération variable du testing de la réalité apparait pour chaque protocole. Notons la présence importante (80%) de références personnelles (PER). Signalons également la présence constante de termes particuliers dans le verbatim : énonciation de la couleur rouge (sang, amour), caractère dysphorique de certaines réponses (monstrueux, diabolique), ainsi que des perceptions duales (le bien/le mal). En conclusion, notre étude suggère que le Rorschach en Système Intégré, repérant en première approche des éléments psychologiques que l'on peut raisonnablement mettre en rapport avec la sémiologie clinique et la théorie des personnalités borderlines, l'approfondissement de la recherche peut laisser espérer une meilleure compréhension de ce trouble complexe. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges for the restoration of dry calcareous grasslands in quarries: does nature need help?
Pitz, Carline ULg; Piqueray, Julien; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 26)

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii ... [more ▼]

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii) implement technical support for ecosystem restoration. This study aimed at characterizing the spontaneous communities established in dry area of unexploited quarries and at comparing communities encountered to the succession panel of dry grasslands. To evaluate the ecological succession in quarries, three successional stages where defined: (i) less than three years; (ii) three to 20 years; and (iii) more than 20 years after exploitation. For each successional stage, six parcels were selected and 20 1m2 plots were randomly marked in each parcel. All selected parcels presented dry grasslands abiotic conditions: filtering and stony soils and south orientation. During the 2014 vegetation period, percentage cover of higher plant species was recorded in each plot. Explaining environmental variables including coordinates, altitude, slope (degrees), soil depth, exposure, maximum vegetation height, bare ground cover, moss cover, and shrub cover (%) were measured. Our main results showed that, over decades of time, the ecological succession in dry area of unexploited quarries does not approach a typical formation of dry calcareous grassland. Most recolonizations tended to form meadows communities, except for three sites belonging to a specific landscape context. Potential implications for future quarries restoration will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAGING MECHANISMS IN AMORPHOUS PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, August 18)

Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have ... [more ▼]

Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. The direct melt-and-quench DFT based Molecular Dynamics approach leads to models with a few hundred atoms, and, hence a small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, and bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. GST alloys are known to display complex bonding that does not follow the chemist’s “octet-rule”. This lead to many controversies, especially concerning the local structure around Ge atoms. We overcome this problem by using state of the art non local DFT-MD, including the so-called van der Waals corrections. This leads to more clearly defined environments that are thoroughly analyzed. We can then identify their fingerprints in the available structural experimental data and assess their stability to find the driving forces leading to the structural relaxation. The calculated electronic properties nicely match the most recent photothermal deflection spectroscopy experiments. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal (by getting rid of homopolar bonds), and an evolution of its electronic properties that drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous [1]. [1] J.Y Raty, W. Zhang, J. Luckas, C. Chen, R. Mazzarello, C. Bichara and M. Wuttig, Nature Comm. To appear. [less ▲]

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See detailBiotechnological potential of novel bacterial strains isolated on the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Martin, Renée ULg; Barbeyron, Tristan et al

Conference (2015, August 18)

Bacteria associated with algae are underexplored despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. These bacterial communities are known to ... [more ▼]

Bacteria associated with algae are underexplored despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. These bacterial communities are known to represent great potential for the production of diverse bioactive compounds, such as specific glycoside hydrolases, as they interact in multiple complex ways with their host. Furthermore, enzymes from marine bacteria have original properties, like cold-adapted, halotolerant and highly stable, which are constantly searched out by bio-industries. The aim of our study was to identify bacteria, associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, showing diverse polysaccharolytic activities. To isolate cultivable microorganisms, algal thalli of Ascophyllum nodosum were swabbed with sterile cotton tips and marine agar plates were inoculated. Three-hundred isolated bacteria were screened for agarase, kappa- and iota-carrageenase, and sulfatase activities on specific marine media. Thirty-two bacteria with polysaccharolytic activities were isolated and a part of their 16S rDNA (8F-1492R) were amplified and sequenced. Twenty-seven were classified as Flavobacteriia and five as Gammaproteobacteria. Putative new strains and species of Zobellia, Maribacter, Cellulophaga, Shewanella, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Colwellia were identified by phylogenetic analysis. All those genera are well-known to colonize algal surface but only some of them are famous to degrade algal polysaccharides (Zobellia, Maribacter, Cellulophaga, and Pseudoalteromonas). However, all those novel bacterial strains/species showed multiple and diverse enzymatic activities (agarase, iota-and kappa-carrageenase, cellulase, beta-glucosidase, sulfatase and/or amylase activities). Genomics libraries with their DNA were constructed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and are screened to identify the genes coding for the observed enzymatic activities. Those novel glycoside hydrolases from unknown marine bacteria should have original and innovative properties with great biotechnological potential. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric metal pollution over the last 250 years inferred from speleothem geochemistry
Allan, Mohammed ULg; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; verheyden, sophie

Conference (2015, August 17)

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios from two speleothems from the Han-sur-Lesse cave in southern Belgium were measured in order to study the ability of speleothems to act as archives of atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios from two speleothems from the Han-sur-Lesse cave in southern Belgium were measured in order to study the ability of speleothems to act as archives of atmospheric pollution. To address this aim we analyzed trace elemental Al and Pb compositions by LA-ICP-MS and ICP-MS as well as Pb isotopes by MC-ICP-MS. The results help to identify three Pb-enriched intervals: from 1880 to 1905 AD, from 1945 to 1965 AD, and from 1975 to 1990 AD. The speleothem record is consistent with the evolution of atmospheric pollution in Belgium. Lead isotope ratios confirm that coal and gasoline combustion, combined with regional metallurgical activities, were the predominant Pb pollution sources in the stalagmites during the last 250 years. This research underscores the importance of speleothems as a valuable tool for the discrimination between anthropogenic and natural lead contributions in the environment and consequently for quantifying the anthropogenic contribution or determining natural background values in continental settings. [less ▲]

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See detailNiche-innovations between breaks and continuities with the regime? A case study into the dairy sector in Belgium
Feyereisen, Marlène ULg; Melard, François ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Conference (2015, August)

Today, the absolute dichotomy between alternative food networks (AFNs) and the conventional agrofood system tends to be obsolete. Indeed, many AFNs are far from being radical and are more likely to ... [more ▼]

Today, the absolute dichotomy between alternative food networks (AFNs) and the conventional agrofood system tends to be obsolete. Indeed, many AFNs are far from being radical and are more likely to maintain relations with the current socio-technical regime between breaks and continuities. This contribution is a complement to the Transition Theory and the Multi-Level Perspective by underlying the fragile borders between the two levels of the niche-innovations and the socio-technical regime: some imperfect projects, full of contradictions, are participating to the transition of the system. And this is particularly true in the case of highly locked in systems. The dairy sector in Western European countries is one of those highly locked in systems. Our case study, the Belgian fair-trade milk “Fairebel”, is a project built by dairy farmers to react to the 2009 dairy crisis and to the increasingly neoliberal dairy sector; and to get a better price (or fair price) for their activity. However, the concretization of this project brought its share of contradictions regarding the common definition of fair trade milk. As a result, the “Fairebel” project maintains relations between breaks and continuities with the regime. This contribution suggests modes of governance for the stakeholders of these non-radical niches which are precious to engage change in highly locked in system without being picked up by the dominant regime and thus, keep this regime under pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of triclosan exposure in shape changes of sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) during early development and metamorphosis
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Dussenne, Mélanie et al

Conference (2015, August)

Thyroid hormones are essential for normal development, and for maintenance of normal physiological functions in vertebrates [1, 2]. In fish, thyroid hormones are involved in the control of osmoregulation ... [more ▼]

Thyroid hormones are essential for normal development, and for maintenance of normal physiological functions in vertebrates [1, 2]. In fish, thyroid hormones are involved in the control of osmoregulation, metabolism, somatic growth and post-hatching metamorphosis [1, 3, 4]. The regulation of thyroid hormone bioavailability in tissues and cells represents a very complex and unique web of feedback systems [2]. In fish and other vertebrates the thyroid cascade involves two components. First, thyroxine (T4) biosynthesis and secretion are largely under central control by the brain–pituitary–thyroid axis [5]. Second, there is the conversion of T4 to its biologically active form 3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) and its metabolism and receptor-mediated actions that seems largely to be under peripheral control in extra-thyroidal tissues [6]. The accumulation in the aquatic environment of anthropogenic chemicals, among which are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that alter normal hormonal regulation, is having dramatic consequences for humans and wildlife. Numerous chemicals disrupt thyroid homeostasis affecting thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis and transport, and cellular uptake and metabolism [7, 8]. Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic chlorinated phenolic compound with a generalized use as an antimicrobial and preservative in many personal care and household products [9-11]. As a result of disposal of TCS through sewage systems and insufficient/variable removal by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) [9], widespread contamination with TCS has been detected in several countries, particularly in aquatic ecosystems, WWTP influents and effluents; sludges and biosolids; surface or ground water; drinking water; and aquatic sediments [9-11]. TCS and its metabolites have been detected in tissues and body fluids of aquatic organisms including fish, revealing they are accumulating in the food chain [9-11] and TCS has also been detected in human blood, breast milk and urine [9-11]. The structural similarity of TCS with THs [9] suggest it may have adverse effects on the thyroid system. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which TCS disrupts the thyroid axis. TCS effects on fish thyroid axis have not been investigated. It is possible, that the TCS toxic effects reported in fish embryos, larvae and adults [9-11] might be caused, at least in part, through its effect on the thyroid system. We determined how TCS affect ontogenic variations of thyroid hormones in developing sheepshead minnow larvae. Knowing that thyroid hormones are involved in somatic growth and post-hatching metamorphosis, we also tested the hypothesis that TCS alter the development of these larvae. To do this, we used landmark-based geometric morphometric methods. These methods allowed us to analyse the pure shape variations of our developing larvae, regardless orientation, position, and size. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of phenotypic heterogeneity and metabolic specialisation on metabolic engineering strategies: case of study of E.coli as a representative microbial cell factory
Brognaux, Alison ULg; Delepierre, Anissa ULg; Pecheux, Hélène ULg et al

Conference (2015, July 21)

The goal of this research is to directly highlight the simultaneous occurrence of several phenotypes with distinct metabolic function among clonal population of E. coli., often used for recombinant ... [more ▼]

The goal of this research is to directly highlight the simultaneous occurrence of several phenotypes with distinct metabolic function among clonal population of E. coli., often used for recombinant protein and pDNA production in bioprocesses. This phenotypic heterogeneity, first due to the noise, is reinforced by environmental heterogeneities occurring at large scale during fed-batch processes. This phenotypic heterogeneity has been tracked according to GFP reporter strains (biosensors) that circulate in the bioreactor and encounter environmental heterogeneities. First, we have highlighted the simultaneous occurrence of several phenotypes with distinct metabolic functions. Indeed, a diversity of glucose uptake strategies has recently been noticed with the PtsG and MglABC transporters. Moreover, when E.coli encounters zones of glucose excess, acetate is produced through the overflow metabolism. Only the sub-population with high acs expression (acetate transporter) could consume this acetate. GFP reporter strains have thus been constructed for PtsG, MgIABC and acs genes. In addition of the stable GFP, two destabilized GFP variants for each gene have been used to obtain more instantaneous responses. The response of these biosensors have been followed by on-line flow cytometry. In the end, this experimental strategy for direct phenotyping at the single cell level will also be used to investigate the impact of metabolic engineering strategies on phenotypic heterogeneity, robustness and fitness of microbial population in industrial conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctionality of microbial phenotypic heterogeneity in bioprocessing conditions: an analysis based on the use of on-line flow cytometry
Delepierre, Anissa ULg

Conference (2015, July 20)

Microbial phenotypic heterogeneity is known to be naturally present in isogenic population and can be attributed to the stochastic nature of the biochemical reactions. An important question at this level ... [more ▼]

Microbial phenotypic heterogeneity is known to be naturally present in isogenic population and can be attributed to the stochastic nature of the biochemical reactions. An important question at this level was to determine whether such stochastic behavior exhibits some functionality, i.e. how single cell heterogeneity leads to population level strategies. One of this strategies, called bet-hedging, is known to give a competitive advantage to the population, by leading for example to a persistent phenotype able to survive to antibiotics exposure. Among the single cell toolbox available for the analysis of phenotypic heterogeneity, flow cytometry present the advantage of being compatible with bioprocess cultivation tools. In this work, we present an on-line analytical workflow based on automated flow cytometry that can be used to monitor simultaneously several bioreactors, testing different bioreactor operating conditions, in combination with fluorescent transcriptional reporter strategies: promoter involved in metabolism fused to a gene expressing an unstable variant of GFP , and viability fluorescent tagging: propidium iodide uptake, correlated with membrane permeability. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an "African Stylistics": Apprehending Cross-Cultural Creativity in the Works of Chris Abani
Tunca, Daria ULg

Conference (2015, July 18)

Anglophone African literatures have often been praised for their linguistic originality. More often than not, critics interested in the stylistic inventiveness of works from the continent have focused ... [more ▼]

Anglophone African literatures have often been praised for their linguistic originality. More often than not, critics interested in the stylistic inventiveness of works from the continent have focused their attention on these texts’ specifically “African” features, from the use of proverbs to the presence of words from indigenous languages. While these scholarly studies have done much to demonstrate the richness of African aesthetic standards, they have also tended to obscure other facets of the creativity of African writers who, just like their counterparts all over the world, make ample use of such devices as metaphor, irony, and unreliable narration. After a brief examination of the methodological and epistemological issues that have shaped the elusive field of “African stylistics”, I propose to investigate how contemporary stylistic theories may contribute to the understanding of the multiple forms of creativity found in the works of the US-based Nigerian writer Chris Abani. A self-proclaimed “global Igbo” (after the name of his father’s ethnic group), Abani boldly combines in his work African cosmology with influences from the Catholic and Buddhist traditions, also using formal devices – such as minor sentences and poetic metaphors – whose significance can only be fully appreciated through extensive stylistic analysis. Mainly focusing on Abani’s novella Becoming Abigail (2006), I will suggest that a combination of traditional culture-oriented approaches to African literatures and more typically “mainstream” stylistic techniques is needed to apprehend the Nigerian writer’s complex cross-cultural worldview. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonnalité antisociale et psychopathologie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2015, July 14)

Notre communication a pour objectif de confronter les critères de la personnalité antisociale du DSM-IV et du DSM-5 à une réflexion psychopathologique. Nous commencerons par une analyse des différentes ... [more ▼]

Notre communication a pour objectif de confronter les critères de la personnalité antisociale du DSM-IV et du DSM-5 à une réflexion psychopathologique. Nous commencerons par une analyse des différentes contradictions propres au diagnostic qui nous mèneront à l’identification du critère « primaire » de cette entité qui est l’« incapacité à se conformer aux lois et normes sociales ». Nous confronterons ensuite à des situations cliniques l’hétérogénéité des profils pouvant répondre à ce diagnostic. Nos constats nous conduiront à mettre en doute la validité apparente du concept de personnalité antisociale, puisqu’il recouvre des modes de fonctionnement psychologique variés. La valeur discriminative faible, en matière de fonctionnement psychologique, suggère que c’est une dimension autre que psychopathologique qui organise ce diagnostic. Dénuée de toute attention pour les modes d’interactions, pour le vécu émotionnel et pour les états de subjectivité, la notion de personnalité antisociale ne porte pas d’intérêt à l’individu qu’elle catégorise, mais bien à l’acte délinquant commis par ce dernier. Nous conclurons sur le constat de l’absence de dimension psychopathologique de la personnalité antisociale, qui se révèle être un diagnostic principalement criminologique, à l’inverse des fondements de l’éthique psychopathologique. [less ▲]

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See detailPRESSÃO PARCIAL (PCO2) E FLUXO DE DIÓXIDO DE CARBONO (CO2) EM AMBIENTES DE VÁRZEA AMAZÔNICOS
Amaral, JHF; Barbosa; Kasper, D et al

Conference (2015, July 12)

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See detailDeterministic Manufacturing constraints for Optimal Distribution in the Case of Additive Manufacturing
Bauduin, Simon ULg; Collet, Maxime ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, July 09)

An overview of the difficulties of coupling additive manufacturing to topology optimization with various solution founded and implemented.

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See detailAlgorithmic aspects of converting surface mesh data to volumetric images
Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Conference (2015, July 09)

In image analysis, some processes might imply a change or conversion in the structure of the data. The structure types will depend on the processing method and applications, and can consist of pixel data ... [more ▼]

In image analysis, some processes might imply a change or conversion in the structure of the data. The structure types will depend on the processing method and applications, and can consist of pixel data, point sets, finite elements, vector fields, implicit surfaces, graphs, basic shapes (spheres, cylinders, or cubes), etc. The work presented here discusses the problem of converting a triangulated surface mesh to a 3D image, a need that arises for example when using active surface-type segmentation methods of 3D images, shape-fitting, or combining data from laser surface scanning with 3D imaging. During the course of numerous projects, two main classes of mesh-to-image conversions have appeared: those identifying voxels (pixels in a 3D image) that intersect the mesh, or voxels that are contained in the mesh, supposing it defines a closed surface. [less ▲]

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See detailA probabilistic multi-scale model for polycrystalline MEMS resonators
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

Conference (2015, July 09)

The size of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is only one or two orders of magnitude higher than the size of their micro-structure, i.e. their grain size. As a result, the structural properties ... [more ▼]

The size of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is only one or two orders of magnitude higher than the size of their micro-structure, i.e. their grain size. As a result, the structural properties exhibit a scatter. As an example we study the beam resonator illustrated in Fig. 1(a), made of poly-silicon material, in which each grain has a random orientation. Solving the problem with a full direct numerical simulation combined to a Monte-Carlo method allows the probability density function to be computed as illustrated in Fig. 1(b). However this methodology is computationally expensive due to the number of degrees of freedom required to study one sample, motivating the development of a non-deterministic 3-scale approach [3]. In a multiscale approach, at each macro-point of the macro-structure, the resolution of a microscale boundary value problem relates the macro-stress tensor to the macro-strain tensor. At the micro-level, the macro-point is viewed as the center of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). The resolution of the micro-scale boundary problem can be performed using finite-element simulations, as in the computational homogenization framework, e.g. [2]. However, to be representative, the micro-volume-element should have a size much bigger than the microstructure size. In the context of the MEMS resonator, this representativity is lost and Statistical Volume Elements (SVE) are considered. These SVEs are generated under the form of a Voronoi tessellation with a random orientation for each silicon grain. Hence, a Monte-Carlo procedure combined with a homogenization technique allows a distribution of the material tensor at the meso-scale to be estimated. The correlation between the meso-scale material tensors of two SVEs separated by a given distance can also be evaluated. A generator at the meso-scale based on the spectral method [4] is implemented. The generator [3] accounts for a lower bound [1] of the meso-scale material tensor in order to ensure the existence of the second-order moment of the Frobenius norm of the generated material tensor inverse [5]. Using the random meso-scale field obtained with the meso-scale generator, which accounts for the spatial correlation, a Monte-Carlo method can be used at the macro-scale to predict the probabilistic behavior of the MEMS resonator. [less ▲]

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See detailDe "Poétique" à "Points Essais" : (ré)invention du livre ?
Lorent, Fanny ULg

Conference (2015, July 08)

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See detailBeyond indiscipline of Labor Market Intermediaries : The Case of Public Employment Services and Private Providers Partnerships
Remy, Céline ULg; Beuker, Laura ULg; Gérard, Julie ULg

Conference (2015, July 08)

Following the economic and social changes in the countries of the European Union (liberalization requirements, crisis of the welfare State, diversification of users expectations, etc.), compelling ... [more ▼]

Following the economic and social changes in the countries of the European Union (liberalization requirements, crisis of the welfare State, diversification of users expectations, etc.), compelling readability needs and modernization of Public Employment Services (PES) have appeared. Meanwhile, a spectacular growth of private employment operators - market and non-market - was recognized by the International Labor Organization in all member states, in order to respond effectively to the increased requests of support and training for the beneficiaries of the PES. In this new context, PES are invited by the European Union (EU) – particularly through its multiple directives – to rethink and reposition their traditional activities of placement, training and support for jobseekers according to a "mixed" management of the labor market. Therefore, PES entrust operation and management of their activities to private providers, as part of a contractual agreement. In this way, these operators provide a "back office function for SPE via a system of delegation governed by a specific division of labor formalized in a partnership agreement between PES and the private provider". Thus, these private labor market intermediaries (LMI’s) as active members on the public orders market work both on their own behalf and on behalf of the public authority. These new collaborations, qualified public-private partnerships (PPPs), allow PES to outsource and delegate a part of their missions they could not achieve internally. So PES combine the role of "actor" and the role of "manager" / "principal" in the labor market. To facilitate the coordination of their activities with the private sector, PES made the decision to create a partnerships service. The officers of this service have the mission to oversee this new form of regulation of the labor market. While collaboration rules are initially determined by the PES, the agents are required to implement them and have the private operators following them. Our interest is to study how these actors – or stakeholder of the PPPs – implement this public action device. Despite differences in both organizational and cultural (for instance bureaucratic rigidity versus informal structure, constraint reporting, management autonomy, etc.), public and private actors work together to serve community and beneficiaries of the PES for their professional integration in the labor market. To analyze how these actors interact and live the partnership relationship, established between agreement and disagreement, we will rely on the economy of conventions and especially on the theoretical contributions of the Theory of justification. In this way, we will identify the different logics of action (present in the merchant, civic, industrial worlds, etc.) that guide the practices of stakeholders, from their discourse and in particular the underlying arguments to justify their actions. Our analysis is rooted in empirical material composed of semi-structured interviews (N=89) and various observations of interactions made within the partnership services and with providers (N=132). These observations focused on three key moments in the life of the partnership: the selection of projects, the monitoring and evaluation of projects by the agents. With this approach, our goal is twofold. On the one hand, we want to highlight the moments when the actors "interpret" the regulatory framework that structure their actions within the partnership relationship. On the other hand, we want to understand the arguments used by actors to justify and legitimize their indiscipline. [less ▲]

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See detailStress constrained topology optimization for additive manufacturing: Specific character and solution aspects
Duysinx, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, July 07)

Since the fundamental work by Bendsøe and Kikuchi (1988), topology optimization has been based on compliance type formulations (Bendsoe & Sigmund, 2003) while the number of works considering stress ... [more ▼]

Since the fundamental work by Bendsøe and Kikuchi (1988), topology optimization has been based on compliance type formulations (Bendsoe & Sigmund, 2003) while the number of works considering stress constraints are rather limited (Duysinx & Bendsoe, 1998). More recently the generalized shape optimization approach using level set methods (see for instance Allaire, Jouve, Troader, 2004, Belytchko, Xiao, Parimi, 2003) has followed the tracks of topology optimization and has mainly been focusing on compliance minimization problems. The ‘compliance type’ formulation has produced quite interesting results in many problems because controlling the energy and the displacements under the loads is generally favourable for deflection control and because, for one load case, the compliance minimization leads to a fully stressed design nearly everywhere in the structure. However there are theoretical results that clearly show that the strongest and the stiffest structural layout can be quite different. As demonstrated in Rozvany & Birker (1994) truss topology optimization can lead to different results when there are several load cases, different stress limits in tension and compression, or when there are several materials involved. Therefore, the first goal of the paper points out the importance of considering stress constraints as soon as the preliminary design phase, that is, to include stress constraints in the topology optimization problem. Revisiting some contributions of the authors, this paper aims at illustrating the key role of stress constraints in the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures. The recent developments are able to treat: • Integrated stress criteria (i.e. global) relaxed stress constraints that aggregate the stress constraints in each finite element in order to be able to circumvent the large scale character of the local stress constraints. • Stress criteria that are able to tackle non equal stress limits in tension and compression. The usual von Mises criterion is unable to predict real-life designs when the structure is made of materials with unequal stress limits like concrete or composite materials. These different behaviours in tension and compression result in quite specific designs. Numerical applications make possible to point out the different nature of structural lay out for maximum strength and maximum stiffness. This one is clearly demonstrated in two kinds of particular situations: once several load cases are considered and when unequal stress limits in tension and compression are involved. The second contribution of the paper deals with the solution aspects of large scale constrained optimization problems. Because of the huge number of design variables, dual methods combined with local convex approximations such as CONLIN (Fleury, 1989) or MMA (Svanberg, 1987) are well indicated to solve classical topology optimization methods. However stress constrained problems introduce also a so large number of active constraints that one comes to a rather delicate situation. We show that the optimizer effort increases mostly as the cube of the number of constraints. In order to circumvent the problem, the idea developed in the paper is to combine first or second order approximations (Bruyneel, Duysinx, Fleury, 2002) with zero order approximations of stress constraints, especially for the subset of restrictions that are likely not to be active or not to change too fast. At first the paper presents the way to derive zero-order approximations of -relaxed stress constraints (that is necessary to cope with the singularity phenomenon of stress constraints in topology optimization). Then the proposed hybrid approach mixing approximation of different orders is benchmarked on numerical applications illustrating the reduction of computation time for solving optimization problems without sacrifying to the robustness and efficiency. Numerical applications will investigate topology optimized benchmark examples combined with additive manufacturing fabrication to illustrate the developments. [less ▲]

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See detailA Non-Local Damage-Enhanced Incremental-Secant Mean-Field-Homogenization For Composite Laminate Failure Predictions
Wu, Ling ULg; Adam, Laurent; Doghri, Issam et al

Conference (2015, July 06)

Recently, the authors have presented an incremental-secant mean-field homogenisation (MFH) process for non-linear composite materials [4]. In this formulation, a virtual elastic unloading is applied to ... [more ▼]

Recently, the authors have presented an incremental-secant mean-field homogenisation (MFH) process for non-linear composite materials [4]. In this formulation, a virtual elastic unloading is applied to evaluate the virtual residual stress and strain states reached in each elasto-plastic phase. These virtual states are then used as a starting point to apply a secant homogenization method. This incremental-secant MFH process can handle non-proportional and nonmonotonic loadings, and naturally possesses an isotropic instantaneous stiffness operator to be used in the Eshelby tensor. This incremental-secant MFH homogenization can account for the first and second statistical moment estimation of the current yield stress in the composite phases during the computation of the plastic flow. When accounting for a second statistical moment estimation, the plastic yield in the composite material phases is captured with a higher accuracy, improving the predictions, mainly in the case of short fiber composite materials [6], see Fig. 1(a). The incremental MFH can handle material softening when extended to include a damage model. Indeed, as the secant formulation is applied from an unloaded state, the inclusion phase can be elastically unloaded during the softening of the matrix phase, contrarily to the case of the incremental-tangent method [3, 5], see Fig. 1(b). Moreover, when formulating the damage model in the composite phases in a non-local way, as with the non-local implicit approach, [1, 2], the MFH scheme can be used to model strain localization in composite structures [5], without suffering from the loss of the solution uniqueness. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytoplankton abundance and diversity in the Congo river at high and low waters
Stoyneva, MP; Descy, JP; Bouillon, S et al

Conference (2015, July 05)

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See detailLa paix de Westphalie (1648) : une rupture dans l’histoire diplomatique du Saint-Siège ? Confessionnalisation et médiation pontificale en question.
Regibeau, Julien ULg

Conference (2015, July 04)

La signature des traités de Westphalie, en 1648, a longtemps été considérée comme une rupture nette dans l’histoire politico-religieuse. Elle aurait conduit à l’effondrement de la christianitas médiévale ... [more ▼]

La signature des traités de Westphalie, en 1648, a longtemps été considérée comme une rupture nette dans l’histoire politico-religieuse. Elle aurait conduit à l’effondrement de la christianitas médiévale et à la naissance de l’Europe des États modernes . Ce changement de paradigme supposerait l’échec à long terme de la politique du Saint-Siège. L’historiographie récente permet cependant de revoir cette double interprétation, montrant notamment que le rôle diplomatique joué par Rome lors des négociations en Westphalie est plus complexe. Le but de ma communication est de réévaluer la théorie qui voudrait que la paix de Westphalie soit une rupture pour l’histoire des relations internationales et, par voie de conséquence, pour la diplomatie pontificale. Premièrement, je mets en avant les critères qui poussent régulièrement les historiens à envisager cette paix comme une défaite de Rome. Cette première partie m’entraine ensuite à définir rapidement le concept de confessionnalisation des relations internationales et à montrer qu’il est aujourd’hui réinterrogé par la recherche. Ce concept fait de la lutte confessionnelle le principal facteur structurant les relations internationales entre 1550 et 1650. Or il semble aujourd’hui peu à même d’expliquer toute la diversité des discours et des pratiques qui apparaissent alors dans les correspondances diplomatiques, y compris celles des ambassadeurs du Saint-Siège. Dans un troisième temps, je me concentre plus spécifiquement sur la figure du pape comme padre comune des princes catholiques et donc médiateur de leurs conflits. Ce rôle mérite d’être appréhendé dans le détail de chaque négociation. L’étude de la médiation des nonces ordinaires à l’époque des congrès en Westphalie permettrait ainsi de proposer une nouvelle lecture du rôle joué par la papauté à l’occasion de cette paix. Cela permettrait également d’adjoindre, à la temporalité de la confessionnalisation, d’autres temporalités parallèles. [less ▲]

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See detailLimites temporelles et conceptualisation de l'écrivain
Daubercies, Laurence ULg

Conference (2015, July 04)

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See detailSynécismes et transformations du paysage religieux en Grèce antique
Palamidis, Alaya ULg

Conference (2015, July 03)

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See detailMaking-doing sensory perception: how to teach taste
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2015, July 02)

Imagine a course of “olfaction and tasting”, in a notorious professional school for flavourist and perfumers in France. The aim of the teacher is to instil sensory referential sources in students, by the ... [more ▼]

Imagine a course of “olfaction and tasting”, in a notorious professional school for flavourist and perfumers in France. The aim of the teacher is to instil sensory referential sources in students, by the appropriation of a rigorous vocabulary and through practical tries of molecules and preparations. To name, to compare, to memorize, to describe and to value these substances are the tasks of the group during two years. As the general topic of the research was to understand professional skills about taste, one of the issues consisted in studying the development of these specific abilities. The focus was on the techniques deployed to install a sensory common frame, alternatively through a research of a bottom- up consensus and some imposed tags. The teacher, who has to transfer a substantial amount of sensory references to the class in narrow times, and to make them able to master those notions, has to face to a double constraint. She must transmit a core-sensorium, but at the same time has to support students’ own contributions, in mode to open the reference document to necessary enrichments. More than « actors », or « informants », the teacher and the students were also masters for me, by contributing to my sensory education. But also when they have confronted me to delicates questions and issues, sometimes against my own first researches. They were what I called though co-inquirer, proposing contradictory and resistant interpretations of the world, teaching me how to realize the study of sensory. [less ▲]

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See detailMalentendu visuel et folie : Test de Rorschach et hyper-conscience
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2015, July 02)

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See detailSurveillance à long terme de l'atmosphère terrestre depuis la station du Jungfraujoch
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg

Conference (2015, July 02)

Nous présentons une vue d'ensemble des activités menées par les chercheurs de l'Université de Liège à la station scientifique internationale du Jungfraujoch, depuis les observations infrarouges pionnières ... [more ▼]

Nous présentons une vue d'ensemble des activités menées par les chercheurs de l'Université de Liège à la station scientifique internationale du Jungfraujoch, depuis les observations infrarouges pionnières effectuées à ce site par le Pr Migeotte en 1950-1951. L'accent est mis sur les données géophysiques et les séries temporelles déduites pour les constituants de l'atmosphère influençant le climat. [less ▲]

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See detailComposite hydraulic modeling to design a complex dam spillway
Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, July 01)

The paper presents the application of a composite hydraulic modeling approach to the rehabilitation studies of a complex dam spillway. First, a physical scale model of the existing works has been built ... [more ▼]

The paper presents the application of a composite hydraulic modeling approach to the rehabilitation studies of a complex dam spillway. First, a physical scale model of the existing works has been built and operated. It enabled to define very accurately the actual discharge capacity and to validate a numerical model of the system. Second, the numerical model has been used to rapidly test several rehabilitation solutions. Finally, the final design has been validated and optimized using the physical model. The paper shows how composite hydraulic modeling enables to combine the inherent advantages of physical and numerical modeling approaches, which are complementary, while being beneficial to the delay as well as the quality of the analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailGaz à effet de serre indirects et qualité de l'air aux latitudes moyennes de l'hémisphère nord : tendances à long terme et variabilité déduites de télémesures effectuées au Jungfraujoch (Alpes suisses, 3580 m)
Franco, Bruno ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg; Lejeune, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2015, July 01)

Indirect greenhouse gases and air quality at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes: long-term trends and variability derived from ground-based remote sensing at Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 3580 m a.s.l.). We ... [more ▼]

Indirect greenhouse gases and air quality at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes: long-term trends and variability derived from ground-based remote sensing at Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 3580 m a.s.l.). We present an overview of recent investigations conducted by the Solar and Atmospheric Physics Infrared Group at the University of Liège and dedicated to the long-term monitoring of atmospheric gases with an indirect greenhouse effect and affecting air quality at Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. Gas concentrations are derived from high-resolution solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.), using Fourier transform infrared spectrometers. Time series obtained from these observations, along with satellite measurements and simulations from numerical models, allow for the study of both variability and recent evolution of these species and are critical for air quality monitoring and understanding climate changes. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of a new spore assemblage in the Middle Devonian of Iberian Peninsula
Rial, Gonzalo; Cascales-Miñana, Borja ULg; Gozalo, Rodolfo et al

Conference (2015, July)

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See detailIntégration de tablettes numériques dans la formation des futurs enseignants: une étude de cas
Parlascino, Emmanuelle ULg; Joris, Noémie ULg

Conference (2015, July)

À travers cette recherche, les auteurs visent à mettre en évidence, chez les étudiants, les apports réels, en termes d’apprentissages et de développement professionnel, de situations d’enseignement ... [more ▼]

À travers cette recherche, les auteurs visent à mettre en évidence, chez les étudiants, les apports réels, en termes d’apprentissages et de développement professionnel, de situations d’enseignement intégrant une technologie, à savoir les tablettes numériques. Le groupe d’étude se constitue d’un enseignant en histoire en haute école pédagogique et de trois classes d’étudiants en formation pour devenir enseignants. Ce groupe fera l’objet d’une analyse approfondie au travers d’observations filmées, examinées à l’aide de grilles, et de commentaires réflexifs (de l’enseignant et des étudiants) issus d’entretiens d’autoconfrontation sur divers extraits des situations d’enseignement menées et vécues. Cette méthodologie conduira à croiser plusieurs types d’informations : (1) les objectifs de l’enseignant au moment de préparer la situation d’enseignement, (2) sa perception des apports mis en place à travers la technologie, (3) la perception de ses étudiants et (4) les observations des auteurs. Soucieux de contribuer à l’analyse réflexive sur l’intérêt d’intégrer le numérique en éducation, les auteurs veulent mettre en évidence les apports réels de l’activité, les points de passage obligés et les principales difficultés de sa mise en place. Ces résultats pourront éclairer les enseignants souhaitant se lancer dans ce genre d’activité innovante. [less ▲]

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See detailDe nationaliteit van Belgische ‘jihadisten’ op de schopstoel : wanneer worden ‘nieuwe’ Belgen ‘echte’ Belgen?
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Conference (2015, July)

This presentation first gives an overview of the current legal standards for deprivation of nationality based on terrorism in Belgium and France. In a second part, it focuses on the question whether it ... [more ▼]

This presentation first gives an overview of the current legal standards for deprivation of nationality based on terrorism in Belgium and France. In a second part, it focuses on the question whether it may be justified to treat different categories of nationals differently in nationality law and more specifically when dealing with deprivation of nationality. An attempt is made to analyze the French and Belgian legal framework from the angle of the prohibition of discrimination. [less ▲]

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See detailSharing a Car? Yuck, No! An Investigation of Customer Contamination in Access-Based Services
Hazee, Simon ULg; Delcourt, Cécile ULg; Van Vaerenbergh, Yves

Conference (2015, July)

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See detail"On se débrouille", or how to be a good judge when the state lets you down?
Andreetta, Sophie ULg; Kolloch, Annalena

Conference (2015, July)

Over the last couple of years, Beninese magistrates have been on strike for months in a row. In 2012, it was about the Ministry of justice implying corruption issues. In 2013, it was about independence ... [more ▼]

Over the last couple of years, Beninese magistrates have been on strike for months in a row. In 2012, it was about the Ministry of justice implying corruption issues. In 2013, it was about independence and fear of political infringement. In 2014, it was about the most recent appointments. When it comes to judges from the bench, most of them complain about their substantial workload, low pay and poor working conditions. They also highlight the discrepancies between the magistrate’s social status and what their families expect from them, the standards of living that people assume that they have. In short, there seems to be a professional malaise within the Beninese bench, who feel like the state is letting them down, yet judges also insist on the importance of their work, and of doing it right. This is why, for the purpose of this paper, we will be looking at the discourses and representations of Beninese judges on their own social and professional status. What does it mean to be a judge in Benin today? Why do young lawyers choose that professional path over other legal careers? How do they ‘do their job right’ and what are the obstacles to it? Considering both age and gender, we are also trying to look at what it means to be a civil servant today, when the state is no longer the only – or the most promising – employer for legal practitioners. [less ▲]

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See detailLate Holocene history of the Fuji Five Lakes (Japan)
Lamair, Laura ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Boes, Evelien et al

Conference (2015, July)

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See detailComparison of fracture prediction models on sheet metal blanking simulations
Canales Cardenas, Cristian ULg; Boman, Romain ULg; Bussetta et al

Conference (2015, July)

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See detailHow bioméchanical analysis may help to identify abdominal injury causes in high level tennis
Tubez, François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

Conference (2015, July)

This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after a tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether ... [more ▼]

This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after a tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed the three dimensions kinematic and kinetic of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the knees. We compared the player to five other professional players. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensations of the player during serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These particularities could induce an abdominal overwork that would explain the first injury and may provoke a new injury. [less ▲]

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See detailWritten Corrective Feedback: A Case Study
Noiroux, Kevin ULg

Conference (2015, July)

The present study looks at the efficacy of 3 types of written corrective feedback on errors made by French-Speaking High School students writing in English. More than 100 students, taught by 5 different ... [more ▼]

The present study looks at the efficacy of 3 types of written corrective feedback on errors made by French-Speaking High School students writing in English. More than 100 students, taught by 5 different teachers in 3 different schools, participated in the study. Each participant was randomly assigned to a different type of written corrective feedback: underlining, direct correct or explanation. Each time the students wrote a text in their EFL class, I (the researcher) corrected it, selected 10 errors and asked the students to state whether they understood the error. If they understood the error, they were asked to correct and/or explain it, depending on their treatment group. I then analyzed the corpus of more than 2000 errors: all the errors were categorized and the uptake moves (students’ corrections and explanations) verified. Finally, I checked whether there was a positive correlation between error types, types of corrective feedback, and students’ uptake. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbides and grain size quantification methods in high speed steel alloys
Tchuindjang, Jérôme Tchoufack ULg; Paydas, Hakan ULg; Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULg et al

Conference (2015, July)

High speed steel (HSS) grades are widely used as in highly stressed applications where carbides content promote enhanced mechanical properties together with oxidation and wear resistances. Such a ... [more ▼]

High speed steel (HSS) grades are widely used as in highly stressed applications where carbides content promote enhanced mechanical properties together with oxidation and wear resistances. Such a tribological behaviour is mainly due to the presence of primary carbides. It is thus important to quantify the carbide volume fraction in HSS to correlate this result with the mechanical and tribological properties of the materials. Depending of the steel composition several types of carbides are precipitated in HSS: MC (Nb and V-rich), M2C (Mo and W-rich), Cr-rich M7C3 and some others, depending of the chemical composition. Two groups of HSS were analyzed in this study: cast HSS manufactured by centrifugal casting and cladded HSS manufactured by laser cladding. Depending on the chemical composition and the manufacturing process of the studied material, several methods have been used to quantify the carbide volume fraction and the grain size. [less ▲]

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See detailAlignments of quasar axes with large-scale structures
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Braibant, Lorraine ULg; Pelgrims, Vincent ULg et al

Conference (2015, July)

Based on measurements of optical linear polarization of quasars belonging to large groups at redshift ~ 1.3, we found that quasar spin axes are likely parallel to their host large-scale structures. The ... [more ▼]

Based on measurements of optical linear polarization of quasars belonging to large groups at redshift ~ 1.3, we found that quasar spin axes are likely parallel to their host large-scale structures. The observations and the statistical analysis will be reviewed, and interpretations discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailModel reduction for simulating the dynamic behavior of parabolic troughs and a thermocline energy storage in a micro-solar power unit
Dickes, Rémi ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg et al

Conference (2015, July)

Micro-scale concentrated solar power plants are characterized by strong transients and mostly operate in off-design working conditions. Both the sizing and the control of these systems are key challenges ... [more ▼]

Micro-scale concentrated solar power plants are characterized by strong transients and mostly operate in off-design working conditions. Both the sizing and the control of these systems are key challenges whose optimization requires powerful dynamic modeling tools. In this context, a system featuring a solar field of parabolic troughs, a thermocline thermal energy storage and a 5kWe organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power unit is modeled in the Modelica language. Model reduction methods applied to the solar field and the thermal storage are investigated and analyzed to improve the computational efficiency of the problem. Each model is described and integrated in the open-source ThermoCycle library. Results of simulation under identical operating conditions are compared and the benefits and limitations of model reduction are assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailSemi-empirical correlation to model heat losses along solar parabolic trough collectors
Dickes, Rémi ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg

Conference (2015, July)

Solar thermal power plants convert sunshine energy into useful heat and electricity by means of solar collectors and a thermodynamic cycle. Among the different solar collector technologies, parabolic ... [more ▼]

Solar thermal power plants convert sunshine energy into useful heat and electricity by means of solar collectors and a thermodynamic cycle. Among the different solar collector technologies, parabolic troughs are nowadays the most widespread together with solar towers. In order to improve the computation speed required to simulate the temperature profile along solar parabolic trough collectors, a correlation estimating the effective heat losses of the receiver is an essential tool. However, the relations found in the literature lack accuracy and do not translate effectively the effects of the operating conditions in all cases. In this work, an alternative correlation is proposed and calibrated with the results of a deterministic model. Better fitting performance is demonstrated when compared to the prediction of the pre-existing correlations. The benefits and limitations of the new correlation are finally assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailQuadratization of pseudo-Boolean functions
Crama, Yves ULg; Anthony, Martin; Boros, Endre et al

Conference (2015, July)

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See detailModifications acoustiques de la voix d’enseignantes au cours de la journée et de l’année scolaire
Remacle, Angélique ULg; David, Claire; Petillon, Caroline et al

Conference (2015, June 30)

Introduction Les enseignants font partie des professionnels de la voix, définis comme des travailleurs qui ne peuvent se passer de leur voix dans l’exercice de leur profession, et qui à ce titre ... [more ▼]

Introduction Les enseignants font partie des professionnels de la voix, définis comme des travailleurs qui ne peuvent se passer de leur voix dans l’exercice de leur profession, et qui à ce titre nécessitent une qualité de vocale constante (1). Cette population est particulièrement à risque et constitue le groupe de travailleurs le plus nombreux à consulter les ORL pour cause de dysphonie (2). Dans ce contexte, la recherche tente d’identifier les indices acoustiques de la fatigue vocale dans le but d’améliorer le dépistage précoce des problèmes de voix, leur traitement et leur prévention. Cette étude menée in situ a pour objectif de mettre en évidence des modifications acoustiques et prosodiques consécutives à 1) une journée de travail et 2) cinq mois de travail en milieu scolaire. Méthode La population est constituée de 22 enseignantes du primaire ayant moins de 5 années d’expérience. Pour chaque participante, cinq /a/ tenus ainsi que la lecture d’un texte ont été enregistrés 1) à deux moments de la journée de travail, soit au matin et au soir, et 2) à trois temps de l’année, soit en octobre (T0), en décembre (T1) et en février (T2). Sur les voyelles tenues, nous avons mesuré le temps maximum phonatoire (TMP), la fréquence moyenne, le jitter, le shimmer, et le rapport harmoniques/bruit (HNR). Sur les textes, nous avons mesuré la fréquence moyenne, la variation de fréquence et d’intensité (écart-type), ainsi que des paramètres relatifs au débit de parole (nombre de syllabes par seconde, nombre de pauses et durée moyenne des pauses). Pour chaque paramètre, une ANOVA en mesure répétées (2 moments * 3 temps) a été réalisée. Résultats L’effet principal du moment montre une augmentation de la fréquence moyenne mesurée sur les voyelles et sur le texte suite à une journée de travail (p<.01). Parallèlement, le TMP et le HNR augmentent (p<.01), tandis que le jitter et le shimmer diminuent en fin de journée (p<.05). Les mesures de débit montrent que les enseignantes tendent à faire moins de pauses lors de la lecture de texte en fin de journée, et que ces pauses sont de plus courte durée (p<.05). L’effet principal du temps montre une augmentation de la fréquence moyenne des voyelles et du texte au cours de l’année (p<.01), avec des valeurs plus élevées observées en décembre (T1). Les mesures relatives au débit montrent également une augmentation du nombre de syllabes par seconde (p<.01) et une tendance des locutrices à faire moins de pauses. Conclusion L’évolution des paramètres observés suggère une augmentation de la fatigue vocale et un comportement phonatoire davantage hyperfonctionnel au cours de la journée et au cours de l’année. Les résultats montrent une dégradation vocale majorée au mois de décembre, en comparaison avec les autres moments de l’année. Bibliographie 1.Titze IR, Lemke J, Montequin D. Populations in the U.S. workforce who rely on voice as a primary tool of trade: A preliminary report. Journal of Voice. 1997;11(3):254-259. 2. Remacle, A., Petitfils, C., Lejeune, L., Finck, C., & Morsomme, D. Quel est le profil professionnel des patients consultant en phoniatrie ? 70e Congrès de la Société Française de Phoniatrie, Paris, France. (13 octobre 2014). [less ▲]

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See detailERT to monitor the bioremediation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale
Masy, Thibaut ULg; Caterina, David; Tromme, Olivier et al

Conference (2015, June 30)

Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants in the world and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the ... [more ▼]

Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants in the world and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on numerous environmental characteristics (heterogeneities of the subsurface structure, soil moisture, oxygen and pollutants bioavailability, microbial niches…) and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to lower these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was thus to isolate with ERT an electrical signature corresponding to an enhanced biodegrading activity, in an aged HC-contaminated clay loam soil. To achieve it, a pilot tank with metric dimensions (3.6 × 0.9 × 0.6 m) and a recirculating system (which is quite unique for this type of purpose) was built to mimic field conditions and to control the evolution of the bio-physico-chemical parameters (microbial concentration in soil and groundwater, temperature, pH, pO2, redox potential, bulk and fluid conductivities, water flow, hydrocarbon content) through time and space. Five panels of electrodes were placed at different locations in the tank to detect lithological heterogeneities and to monitor the bulk resistivity variations with time-lapse ERT. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase with H2O2 and KNO3, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the center of the contaminated clay, where pollutants were less bioavailable. Furthermore, lithological heterogeneities (clay, sand, gravels) and microbial activities (growth, degradation and biosurfactant production) were successfully discriminated by ERT images obtained during both remediation phases. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be transferred to the field in order to either (i) detect and forecast biodegradation processes before choosing an appropriate remediation technique, or (ii) monitor the efficiency of this biodegradation during an in-situ bioremediation. [less ▲]

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See detailLe lecteur de Barthes : jouisseur du judas ?
Lorent, Fanny ULg

Conference (2015, June 30)

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See detailComparative transcriptomic analysis of the distinct pancreatic cell types
Peers, Bernard ULg

Conference (2015, June 28)

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See detailAssessment of climate change effects on groundwater resource in transient conditions
Goderniaux, Pascal; Wildemeersch, Samuel; Brouyère, Serge ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 27)

A sophisticated transient weather generator (WG) in combination with an integrated surface-subsurface hydrological model (HydroGeoSphere) are used for producing a stochastic generation of large numbers of ... [more ▼]

A sophisticated transient weather generator (WG) in combination with an integrated surface-subsurface hydrological model (HydroGeoSphere) are used for producing a stochastic generation of large numbers of equiprobable climatic time series, representing transient climate change, and assess impacts on groundwater resources in a probabilistic way. The modelling approach, involving the catchment-scale fully integrated surface-subsurface model, is described in Goderniaux et al. [2009]. Biased-corrected climate change scenarios are applied as input of the hydrological model to quantify their impact on groundwater resources. In Goderniaux et al. [2011], the integrated model is used in combination with a stochastic daily weather generator (WG). This WG allowed generating a large number of equiprobable climate change scenarios representative of a full transient climate between 2010 and 2085. These scenarios enabled to account for the transient nature of the future climate change, and to assess the uncertainty related to the weather natural variability. The downscaling method considers changes in the climatic means, but also in the distribution of wet and dry days. This new methodology is applied for the unconfined chalky aquifer of the Geer catchment in Belgium. A general decrease of the mean groundwater piezometric heads, has been calculated. The approach allowed also to assess different uncertainty sources: (1) the uncertainty linked to the calibration of the hydrological model, using 'UCODE_2005'; (2) the uncertainty linked to the global and regional climatic models (GCMs and RCMs), by using a multi-model ensemble; (3) the uncertainty linked to the natural variability of the weather, by using stochastic climate change scenarios. 30 equiprobable climate change scenarios from 2010 to 2085 have been generated for each of 6 different RCMs. Results show that although the 95% confidence intervals calculated around projected groundwater levels remain large, the climate change signal becomes stronger than that of natural climate variability by 2085. The WG ability to simulate transient climate change enabled the assessment of the likely timescale and associated uncertainty of a specific impact. This methodology constitutes a real improvement in the field of groundwater projections under transient climate change conditions as it enables water managers to analyse risks and take decisions with full knowledge of projected impact and their degree of confidence. [less ▲]

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See detailDUSP3 Phosphatase Deficiency or Inhibition Limits Platelet Activation and Arterial Thrombosis
Tautz, Lutz; Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Oury, Cécile ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 27)

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See detailTowards the identification of cis-elements responsible for the high expression of HMA4, an essential gene for Zn hyperaccumulation in Arabidopsis halleri.
Spielmann, Julien ULg; Nouet, Cécile ULg; Scheepers, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 26)

A. halleri is a Zn and Cd hypertolerant and hyperaccumulator plant which stores metals in shoot vacuoles. One key step for hyperaccumulation is a highly efficient root-to-shoot translocation of metals ... [more ▼]

A. halleri is a Zn and Cd hypertolerant and hyperaccumulator plant which stores metals in shoot vacuoles. One key step for hyperaccumulation is a highly efficient root-to-shoot translocation of metals. The Zn/Cd plasmamembrane pump HMA4 (heavy metal ATPase 4) plays a central role in this process and is involved in xylem loading/unloading. Moreover, HMA4 is overexpressed in A. halleri compare to its non-tolerant and non-hyperaccumulator sister, Arabidopsis thaliana. The HMA4 overexpression is determined by a combination of gene triplication and cis-regulatory changes increasing transcription levels of each three HMA4 copies. In this study, we are focusing on the two most active HMA4 promoters and we aim to identify the cis-elements underlying high expression of HMA4 in A. halleri using promoter-reporter constructs. Through deletion analysis, two important regions for a high expression have been identified. Ongoing analysis of more detailed deletions will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of terroir on the fungal assemblages associated to common bean seed
Klaedtke, Stephanie ULg; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Chable, Véronique et al

Conference (2015, June 25)

Plants have evolved in association with microbial assemblages, also known as microbiota, which can affect plant growth and health. In contrast with other plant habitats, microbiota associated to seeds ... [more ▼]

Plants have evolved in association with microbial assemblages, also known as microbiota, which can affect plant growth and health. In contrast with other plant habitats, microbiota associated to seeds have only recently become an object of research. First surveys reveal that seed-associated microbial assemblages are composed of 50 to 1000 bacterial and fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (Barret et al., 2015), including plant pathogens. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is affected by several seed-borne pathogens representing a phytosanitary challenge for common bean seed production. In a participatory research project (Farm Seed Opportunities, a European FP6 project), small scale organic seed producers emitted the hypothesis that seed microbiota in their integrity, including pathogens, play a role in shaping the crop as it adapts to local environments, leading to more resilience (Döring et al., 2014). As a first step to investigating this hypothesis, we analyzed 27 bean seed samples to assess whether the seed microbiota are indeed site-dependant or in contrary transmitted from on plant generation to the next within each cultivar. [less ▲]

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See detailIs western lowland gorilla a good gardener? Effect of fecal matrix and deposition at nest sites on seedling growth
Haurez, Barbara ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg; Petre, Charles-Albert ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 25)

The Western lowland gorilla is a key dispersal agent, which disperses viable seeds of various size. In consequence of its nesting behavior, gorilla deposits half of its feces, and therefore about half of ... [more ▼]

The Western lowland gorilla is a key dispersal agent, which disperses viable seeds of various size. In consequence of its nesting behavior, gorilla deposits half of its feces, and therefore about half of dispersed seeds, at nest sites. This study was conducted in a logging concession of southeast Gabon where 78 % of the observed nest sites (n=183) were installed in open canopy terra firma forest. The aim of this research was to assess if seed deposition by gorillas (i) in fecal matrix and (ii) at nest sites is advantageous for seedling growth. To assess the effect of fecal matrix, seeds of Santiria trimera (Burseraceae), Chrysophyllum lacourtianum (Sapotaceae) and Plagiostyles africana (Euphorbiaceae) collected in gorilla feces were sown with and without fecal matrix in a nursery at the study site. The impact of seed deposition at nest sites on seedling growth was evaluated in situ. Seedlings of Santiria trimera and Dacryodes normandii (Burseraceae) were installed at nest sites and at closed canopy terra firma forest sites. For both type of trials, seedling growth was monitored. [less ▲]

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See detailDUSP3 Phosphatase Deficiency or Inhibition Limits Platelet Activation and Arterial Thrombosis
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; MUSUMECI, Lucia ULg; Kuipers, Marijke J et al

Conference (2015, June 24)

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See detailDUSP3 Phosphatase Deficiency or Inhibition Limits Platelet Activation and Arterial Thrombosis
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; MUSUMECI, Lucia ULg; Kuijpers, Marijke J et al

Conference (2015, June 24)

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See detailLes complications rénales du diabète
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2015, June 24)

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See detailThe European Parliament within the global governance of culture: voice and influence
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

Conference (2015, June 23)

Abstract: The paper deals with the international actorness of the European Parliament (EP) within the global governance of cultural industries, and in particular with its ability to promote the ... [more ▼]

Abstract: The paper deals with the international actorness of the European Parliament (EP) within the global governance of cultural industries, and in particular with its ability to promote the Convention on diversity of cultural expressions (CDCE) on its international relations and on the EU international agreements. In this respect, it attempts to analyse empirically not only the EP’s interests and strategies about the CDCE and its place within the EU external relations, but also the ways that the EP shapes the process of the global governance of cultural industries, challenging its political asymmetries and hierarchies. In this sense, the paper draws five main conclusions: a. it illustrates a recent multiplication of EP resolutions and of written parliamentary questions towards the culture in EU external relations, and especially the link between trade agreements and culture; b. the EP seeks to promote a more normative position for the global governance of cultural industries, taking cultural concerns seriously into account; c. the negotiations between EU and United States reveal that the EP does not follow the pro-liberalization agenda of the European Commission and especially of DG Trade. On the contrary, the EP sided with the French government and the cultural professional organizations and it interpreted the CDCE as a normative tool protecting and promoting the cultural policies in the context of the trade negotiations; d. the EP’s votes towards the culture in EU external relations follow more the national cleavages existing within the European Council rather than a left-right divide, showing that the national lines seem to be a substantial factor in order to understand the EP’s preferences; e. despite the establishment of an international normative framework towards the cultural sector and the inclusion of the culture as a component of the EU foreign policy, the EP’s diplomacy has not yet fully integrated the culture among its priorities. In this sense, the different aspects of the cultural sector such as the cultural and creative industries or the tangible, natural and intangible cultural heritage are absent from the discussions of the EP with national and other regional parliaments. [less ▲]

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See detailDistributive contact lattices with nontangential part-of relations
Raskin, Julien ULg

Conference (2015, June 23)

In a Boolean algebra, the "contact" and "nontangential part-of" relations are linked and interdefinable thanks to the complement. These relations yield on the Stone dual of the algebra two closed ... [more ▼]

In a Boolean algebra, the "contact" and "nontangential part-of" relations are linked and interdefinable thanks to the complement. These relations yield on the Stone dual of the algebra two closed relations that appear to be the same. In a distributive lattice, the contact and nontangential part-of relations also yield dual closed relations on the Priestley dual. However, as the link between them is lost, these relations are not equal anymore. We explore the conditions linking the contact and nontangential part-of relations one should add in order to recover these relations knowing the intersection of their dual. [less ▲]

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See detailAging mechanisms in amorphous phase-change materials
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, June 23)

Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have ... [more ▼]

Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. The direct melt-and-quench DFT based Molecular Dynamics approach leads to models with a few hundred atoms, and, hence a small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, and bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. GST alloys are known to display complex bonding that does not follow the chemist’s “octet-rule”. This lead to many controversies, especially concerning the local structure around Ge atoms. We overcome this problem by using state of the art non local DFT-MD, including the so-called van der Waals corrections. This leads to more clearly defined environments that are thoroughly analyzed. We can then identify their fingerprints in the available structural experimental data and assess their stability to find the driving forces leading to the structural relaxation. The calculated electronic properties nicely match the most recent photothermal deflection spectroscopy experiments. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal (by getting rid of homopolar bonds), and an evolution of its electronic properties that drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous [1]. [1] J.Y Raty, W. Zhang, J. Luckas, C. Chen, R. Mazzarello, C. Bichara and M. Wuttig, Nature Comm. To appear. [less ▲]

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See detailTransnational routes for hyper-local practices. Homemade food of Moroccan migrant women in Italy.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, June 22)

Stemming from a doctoral research on the culinary practices of a group of Moroccan migrant women living in the north of Italy, this paper will focus on some narratives and habits concerning homemade food ... [more ▼]

Stemming from a doctoral research on the culinary practices of a group of Moroccan migrant women living in the north of Italy, this paper will focus on some narratives and habits concerning homemade food. This food was the result of the combination of hyper-local and transnational practices. In fact, preparing some food at home instead of buying it (bread, for example) was possible also thanks to the use of some ingredients that were bought in or coming from Morocco. The issue at stake was that of control: a control exerted at a hyper-local level (in one’s home) on procedures and at a transnational level (by personally knowing ingredients’ producers) on food elements. This combination let women prepare some representative food of their memory by using the traditional techniques learnt from their mothers and by excluding intermediations. Homemade food translated the reassuring utopia of keeping a link with a cultural belonging in spite of migration and of reducing the fear of being contaminated by the unknown products of the diversity. Some ethnographic data will be presented to show these dynamics, and they will be supported by the visual material collected through participant observation. [less ▲]

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See detailDiaspora Contributions to Democratic Processes at Home: The External Vote of Andean Migrants
Bermudez Torres, Anastasia ULg; Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg

Conference (2015, June 22)

This paper focuses on the external vote and wider transnational political participation of Andean migrants from Colombia and Bolivia. Its main aim is to discuss the contributions of these diasporas to ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the external vote and wider transnational political participation of Andean migrants from Colombia and Bolivia. Its main aim is to discuss the contributions of these diasporas to democratic and wider political processes in the home countries. The two cases considered offer a good opportunity to do so, since in the last few decades they have put forward new mechanisms for the political inclusion of their nationals abroad, but in different historical, socioeconomic and political contexts. Key amongst these initiatives has been the extension of voting rights to nationals abroad. One of the objectives is thus to compare the different reasons and mechanisms used by states to implement external voting policies, as well as migrant participation in elections. Migrants from the three countries have participated to a lesser or greater degree in the development of such policies and the practice of voting from abroad. A comparison of their participation rates in each case and the reasons for voting or not might allow us to find out more about the success or failure of such processes. Equally, different governments, parties and other state and political institutions in the home countries have related differently to the diasporas, often based on the supposed political allegiances or ideological inclinations of these groups. Based on all this, the two national communities abroad studied have played different roles in key recent political processes in their home countries, such as the emergence of an ethno- nationalist-left government in Bolivia, and efforts for greater democracy and the end of the armed conflict in Colombia. This paper is based on quantitative and qualitative data, as well as secondary information, obtained by the authors through different research projects carried out over the last few years with migrants from the two countries studied. The text looks next at the theoretical framework for the research, before analysing in detail the two cases considered. The last develops a comparative discussion and presents concluding perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailCLEC-2 is required for the activation of mouseplatelets by bacterial DNA mimetics
Delierneux, Céline ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg; LECUT, Christelle ULg et al

Conference (2015, June 22)

Background: Short nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate synthetic CpG motif-bearing oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs) mimicking bacterial DNA display potent immunostimulatory activity and are therefore being used ... [more ▼]

Background: Short nuclease-resistant phosphorothioate synthetic CpG motif-bearing oligonucleotides (CpG ODNs) mimicking bacterial DNA display potent immunostimulatory activity and are therefore being used in clinical trials as vaccine adjuvants. Cellular uptake and activation depends on the interaction of CpG ODNs with the C-type lectin receptor DEC-205 and subsequent stimulation of the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) signaling cascade. Platelets express TLR9, MyD88, and the C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). However, the impacts of CpG ODNs on platelet function have been elusive. Aims: To evaluate whether CpG ODNs affect platelet activation and thrombus formation via CLEC-2 and TLR9. Methods: We incubated washed platelets or whole blood from TLR9-, MyD88- or CLEC-2- deficient mice with CpG ODNs. We performed platelet aggregometry, flow cytometric binding and platelet activation assays as well as signal transduction analyses. Thrombus formation and fibrin generation were also analyzed by intravital microscopy in mouse microcirculation upon intravenous injection of CpG ODNs. Results: We show that CpG ODNs bind on platelet surface and are internalized. They activate platelets and induce their aggregation. TLR9- or MyD88-deficient platelets aggregated normally in response to CpG ODN. Interestingly, platelets deficient for the C-type lectin receptor CLEC-2 were unable to capture and internalize CpG ODN. CLEC-2 deficiencyabolished CpG ODN-induced platelet activation and aggregation. CpG ODN stimulated CLEC-2 dependent tyrosine kinase pathway and Syk phosphorylation. In vivo, intravenously injected CpG ODN interacted with platelets adhered to laser injured arteriolar endothelia and promoted fibrin generation and thrombus growth. Conclusion: CLEC-2 mediates CpG ODN uptake and subsequent platelet activation, independently of TLR9, which may serve an important role in the interplay between platelets and immunity. [less ▲]

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