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See detailPersonnalité antisociale et psychopathologie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2015, July 14)

Notre communication a pour objectif de confronter les critères de la personnalité antisociale du DSM-IV et du DSM-5 à une réflexion psychopathologique. Nous commencerons par une analyse des différentes ... [more ▼]

Notre communication a pour objectif de confronter les critères de la personnalité antisociale du DSM-IV et du DSM-5 à une réflexion psychopathologique. Nous commencerons par une analyse des différentes contradictions propres au diagnostic qui nous mèneront à l’identification du critère « primaire » de cette entité qui est l’« incapacité à se conformer aux lois et normes sociales ». Nous confronterons ensuite à des situations cliniques l’hétérogénéité des profils pouvant répondre à ce diagnostic. Nos constats nous conduiront à mettre en doute la validité apparente du concept de personnalité antisociale, puisqu’il recouvre des modes de fonctionnement psychologique variés. La valeur discriminative faible, en matière de fonctionnement psychologique, suggère que c’est une dimension autre que psychopathologique qui organise ce diagnostic. Dénuée de toute attention pour les modes d’interactions, pour le vécu émotionnel et pour les états de subjectivité, la notion de personnalité antisociale ne porte pas d’intérêt à l’individu qu’elle catégorise, mais bien à l’acte délinquant commis par ce dernier. Nous conclurons sur le constat de l’absence de dimension psychopathologique de la personnalité antisociale, qui se révèle être un diagnostic principalement criminologique, à l’inverse des fondements de l’éthique psychopathologique. [less ▲]

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See detailLa collaboration entre différentes disciplines médicales : ou est le problème ? Etude Partnership in Medicine
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Govers, Patrick ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg et al

Conference (2015, March 27)

Objectifs Les maladies ou problèmes médicaux d’origine professionnelle, ou en lien avec le travail, impliquent à des degrés divers les médecins généralistes (MG), les médecins du travail (MT) et les ... [more ▼]

Objectifs Les maladies ou problèmes médicaux d’origine professionnelle, ou en lien avec le travail, impliquent à des degrés divers les médecins généralistes (MG), les médecins du travail (MT) et les médecins-conseils des mutuelles (MC). Le manque de relation fonctionnelle entre eux peut compliquer ou retarder le retour au travail du patient. L’étude cherchait des pistes d’amélioration de la collaboration. Méthode Deux méthodes de consensus ont été successivement utilisées parmi les trois professions : huit groupes nominaux (GN) ont réunis 74 médecins de terrain; deux rondes Delphi ont concerné 28 décideurs. Résultats Un seul médecin a été perdu de vue entre les 2 tours du Delphi. Les propositions issues des GN concernaient le transfert d’informations (surtout les MT et les MC), la collaboration (surtout les MG et les MT), les connaissances, et le cadre légal et réglementaire (surtout les MC). Cinq questions sur 14 n’ont pas fait consensus (≥75%) au 1er tour du Delphi, et 10 propositions sur 13 ont été rejetées au 2e tour. Les désaccords portaient sur la nature des données à transférer, les modalités de transfert d’information, la disponibilité des données de contact des médecins. Un processus d’évitement spécifique a été mis en évidence. Certains commentaires montraient un déni de la capacité des autres à comprendre son champ professionnel, et une difficulté à considérer leur spécificité propre. Conclusions L’étude montre que le patient n’est pas un objet partagé de la relation. Le modèle Resource Dependence Institutional Cooperation (De Rijk) permet de distinguer les entraves à la volonté de coopérer (dépendance perçue) des limitations dans la capacité à le faire (manque de ressources). Le modèle quadridimensionnel de la collaboration (D’Amour) identifie un déficit d’internalisation du côté relationnel (reconnaissance des autres), et un déficit de gouvernance et de formalisation du côté organisationnel, où des initiatives volontaristes des autorités seraient bienvenues. [less ▲]

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See detailLe testing adaptatif informatisé : une brève introduction
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2015, January 27)

L’objet de cet exposé est de présenter les grands principes et concepts du testing adaptatif informatisé (TAI). Les éléments abordés sont : le TAI face au test fixe (papier-crayon), les principes généraux ... [more ▼]

L’objet de cet exposé est de présenter les grands principes et concepts du testing adaptatif informatisé (TAI). Les éléments abordés sont : le TAI face au test fixe (papier-crayon), les principes généraux du TAI (banque d’items, estimation provisoire et finale de la compétence, sélection des items à administrer, règles d’arrêt), les principes spécifiques au TAI (contrôle de l’exposition des items, équilibrage du contenu des tests). L’exposé se veut didactique et général afin de dessiner les contours du TAI. Il se termine par un état de l’art sur les recherches actuelles sur le TAI. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of stress path on the miniaturizatio size effect for nickel polycrystals
Keller, Clement; Hug, Eric; Duchene, Laurent ULg et al

Conference (2015, January 04)

The mechanical behavior of mettalic materials deeply depends on the size of samples. For specimen dimensions de creasing from a few millimeters to a few micrometers, the general observed trend is a ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of mettalic materials deeply depends on the size of samples. For specimen dimensions de creasing from a few millimeters to a few micrometers, the general observed trend is a softening of the mechanical behavior in tension which affects the stress level and the strain hardening. This effect is triggered by the derease of the number of grains across the thickness ( also called thickness"t" over grain size "d" ratio). The objective of this work is to provide new experimental results in order to analyse the miniaturization size effects for various stress paths without strain gradients across the thickness of the samples. To this aim, experimental tensil tests, large tensile tests and shear tests have been performed on Ni sheets ( 0.5mm) with various grain sizes ensuring different t/d ratios. Results show that the miniaturization softening is affected by triaxiality, the larger is this parameter, the lower is the mechanicval softening. These features seem to be linked to surface effects which are larger for low triaxiality stress paths. Attempts of numerical simulations using strain gradient crystal plasticity model are also performed to confirm the role played by surface effects. [less ▲]

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See detailDépasser la situation : de la situation-limite à la personnalité borderline. Généalogie, critique et clinique d’un concept sartrien
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2015, January)

Nous souhaitons interroger ici le concept sartrien de situation à partir d’une double approche historique et psychopathologique qui semble en diagnostiquer la disparition tout aussi bien conceptuelle ... [more ▼]

Nous souhaitons interroger ici le concept sartrien de situation à partir d’une double approche historique et psychopathologique qui semble en diagnostiquer la disparition tout aussi bien conceptuelle qu’existentielle : la notion de situation, organisatrice de l’ontologie phénoménologique de Sartre et pivot de son engagement, semble s’être aujourd’hui désintégrée en tant que concept (voir ses usages pseudo-conceptuels dans les domaines de la pédagogie et du management), alors que ce qu’on appelle la « condition postmoderne », telle qu’elle s’exprime dans de nouvelles symptomatologies psychopathologiques, rend apparemment caduque, face à la fragmentation des repères de l’existence, l’exigence de penser en/la situation. Nous procèderons en trois temps. Nous ferons d’abord la généalogie du concept, dont l’application à la psyché humaine et à la représentation théâtrale de celle-ci remonte, selon Leo Spitzer, à la fin du 17ème siècle. Dans cette première section, nous insisterons en particulier sur le rapport que l’élaboration du concept de situation entretient, au début du 20ème siècle, avec l’émergence de la psychopathologie notamment chez Jaspers (« situation-limite ») et chez Minkowski (nous rappellerons à cet égard le rôle de Gabriel Marcel dans le champ philosophique français de l’entre-deux-guerres). Nous serons également attentifs à la critique méthodologique que le concept de situation permet d’adresser à la métapsychologie freudienne. Sur cette base, nous reprendrons ensuite les principales étapes chez Sartre de la prise en considération de l’homme en situation et des possibilités de dépassement de cette situation. Nous envisagerons successivement l’Esquisse d’une théorie des émotions, « Questions de méthode » et L’Idiot de la famille. Il conviendra certes de rappeler comment l’existentialisme, comme le situationnisme à sa façon, a cherché, dans le sillage du marxisme, à réaliser la philosophie et du coup à transformer le concept en vécu. Mais nous montrerons aussi, à rebours, comment l’œuvre sartrienne, confrontée aux exigences conjointes du marxisme et de la psychanalyse (cf. l’analyse des pressions familiales dans le Flaubert), a dû dépasser le cadre de la magie émotionnelle au sein duquel la notion de situation s’était d’abord élaborée. Au-delà de la « situation sartrienne » – et peut-être en la prolongeant –, la critique de Deleuze des dispositifs nous servira enfin, dans un troisième temps, de point de bascule vers la condition postmoderne et la fragmentation de la situation en tant que repère d’existence. Le sujet borderline – véritable éclat de la postmodernité – nous permettra ainsi de conclure en reprenant le propos psychopathologique maturé par l’évolution conceptuelle de la situation. Nous caractériserons l’existence borderline par une fragmentation du soi corrélée à une explosion, voire à un morcellement, des espaces de vie qui répondent à la nécessité ontologique d’une « ubiquité instantanée » dénuée de présence corporelle (comme le permettent les espaces virtuels « connectés »). [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of light and melanopsin on human cognitive brain function
Vandewalle, Gilles ULg

Conference (2015)

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See detailUncertainty in Training-Image Based Inversion of Hydraulic Head Data Constrained to ERT Data: Workflow and Case Study
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Caers, Jef

Conference (2014, December 18)

In inverse problems, investigating the relationship between data and prior models and the uncertainty related to the posterior distribution of model parameters are as important as matching the data. In ... [more ▼]

In inverse problems, investigating the relationship between data and prior models and the uncertainty related to the posterior distribution of model parameters are as important as matching the data. In recent years, many efforts have been done to assess the posterior distribution of a given problem with reasonable computational costs through inversion techniques such as McMC. The derived posterior distribution is always dependent on the prior distribution. However, most of the studies ignore modeling the prior with realistic uncertainty. In this paper, we propose a workflow to assess the uncertainty of inversion of hydraulic heads data through the addition of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) constraining data. The workflow is divided in three successive steps: 1) Construction of prior: we generate multiple alternative geological scenarios from literature data (architecture of facies) as well as site specific data (proportions of facies). Spatial uncertainty within each scenario is integrated hierarchically through geostatistics (multiple-point statistics simulation of facies constrained by ERT data as soft data). 2) Validation of prior scenarios: we transform prior facies scenarios into resistivity distribution scenarios through forward and inverse modeling. The scenarios are validated by comparison with field ERT data. The comparison is made through distance calculation and projection into a low dimensional space to calculate the probability of each scenario given field ERT data. 3) Matching dynamical data: we use the probability perturbation method, within each scenario, to integrate hydraulic heads to our models. We account for scenario probabilities, calculated in 2, in determining how many models per scenario we have to consider for building a reliable posterior distribution. As an illustration, the method is applied on a field case study in an alluvial aquifer (Belgium) where we consider prior uncertainty related to the type of elements (gravel channels or bars) and to their size. This study shows the importance of considering the uncertainty of the prior in inverse problems as it has a strong influence on model predictions and decision-making problems. [less ▲]

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See detailAllergie moléculaire & Diagnostic in-vitro, Optimalisation de la prescription
GADISSEUR, Romy ULg

Conference (2014, December 17)

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See detailVieillissement réussi: quel lien avec la qualité de vie des personnes âgées?
Missotten, Pierre ULg; Dupuis, Gilles; Adam, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, December 16)

Introduction: Selon des théories du « bien vieillir », un sujet doit 1) vivre dans le présent et se focaliser sur des informations émotionnelles positives si il a un sentiment de finitude élevé (FTP)1 ; 2 ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Selon des théories du « bien vieillir », un sujet doit 1) vivre dans le présent et se focaliser sur des informations émotionnelles positives si il a un sentiment de finitude élevé (FTP)1 ; 2) sélectionner des tâches prioritaires (SOC-Sélection) pour les pratiquer plus (SOC-Optimisation) tout en modifiant ses manières de procéder (SOC-Compensation)2 ; 3) réajuster ses buts en tenant compte des limitations de l’environnement ou du self (Flexibilité) et non essayer de changer la situation existante (Ténacité)3. Si on peut penser que ces théories sont liées à la qualité de vie (qdv), aucune recherche empirique n’a testé ces liens. Méthodologie: Cette étude investigue dans quelle mesure les opérationnalisations de trois théories du vieillissement réussi (SOC, FTP, Flexibilité-Ténacité) sont bien liées à la qualité de vie (WHOQOL-OLD et ISQV-65+ bref©) de personnes âgées de plus de 65 ans vivant à domicile (n=61). Résultats: Un faible sentiment de finitude (FTP), une tendance à investir son énergie dans les buts importants (SOC-Optimisation), à chercher des alternatives (SOC-Compensation) et une bonne capacité de réajustement des buts (Flexibilité) constituent des indices liés à une meilleure Qdv (tous r>.30 mais <.70; p<.05). Conclusion: Le vieillissement réussi est bien lié à la qdv: les deux concepts sont différents mais complémentaires. En regard de la théorie FTP, il est toutefois nécessaire de déterminer si la mauvaise qdv des sujets ayant un sentiment de finitude élevé est causée par le fait de ne pas vivre dans le présent et de ne pas s’orienter vers des buts émotionnels. 1. Carstensen, L. (1995). Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4, 151-156. 2. Baltes & Baltes (1990). In P. B. Baltes & M. M. Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1–34). New York: Cambridge University Press. 3. Brandtstädter, J. & Renner, G. (1990). Psychology and Aging 5 (1), 58–67. [less ▲]

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See detailPersonnel soignant et âgisme: quelles conséquences cliniques ?
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 16)

Introduction : Le cancer est un problème de santé majeur dont l’âge constitue un facteur de risque avéré1. Paradoxalement, les personnes âgées souffrant d’un cancer sont souvent exclues des essais ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Le cancer est un problème de santé majeur dont l’âge constitue un facteur de risque avéré1. Paradoxalement, les personnes âgées souffrant d’un cancer sont souvent exclues des essais cliniques et sous-traitées comparativement à des patients plus jeunes1. Un élément explicateur de ces constats est la stigmatisation liée à l’âge² (c.à.d. nos stéréotypes liés à l’âge, et donc l’âgisme). Méthodologie : Nous avons interrogé 76 infirmiers (-ères) travaillant en oncologie. A l’aide de fiches cli-niques, nous leur avons demandé s’ils encourageraient à des patients un traitement expérimental (40 vs 70 ans), une chimiothérapie ou une reconstruction mammaire (35, 55 ou 75 ans), tout paramètres cliniques étant équivalents par ailleurs. Résultats : L’encouragement d’un traitement expérimental est moins fréquente pour une personne de 70 ans comparativement à une personne de 40 ans (p<.001). De plus, le personnel soignant encourage moins fréquemment une chimiothérapie pour une personne de 75 ans comparativement aux per-sonnes de 55 et 35 ans (p<.001). Au niveau de la reconstruction mammaire, une différence est vi-sible dès 55 ans : la reconstruction mammaire est moins encouragée pour une personne de cet âge par rapport à une personne de 35 ans (p=.02) et encore moins encouragée pour une personne de 75 ans comparativement à une personne de 55 ans (p<.001). L’âge des infirmiers (M = 35.8) a une influence sur ces encouragement : plus ils sont âgés, plus ils encouragent le traitement chimiothérapeutique d’une per-sonne de 75 ans (p = .005) de même que le traitement expérimental pour une personne de 70 ans (p = .01). Conclusion : A l’instar d’autres études3, 4, nous confirmons que tant du point de vue esthétique que cura-tif, le personnel médical encourage moins fréquemment un traitement aux patients plus âgés compa-rativement aux plus jeunes. 1. Hurria, A., et al. (2012). J Natl Compr Canc Netw, 10, 162-209. 2. Penson, R. T., et al. (2004). The Oncologist, 9, 343-352. 3. Madan, A. K., et al. (2001). Acad Med, 76, 282-284. 4. Protière, C., et al. (2010). Crit Rev Oncol Hematol, 75, 138-150. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception du bien-être chez les étudiants de l’Université de Liège
Cloes, Marc ULg; Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Maslah, Olfa et al

Conference (2014, December 15)

This study is focused on the analysis of the wellness perception of a representative sample of students of the University of Liege. Findings confirm those of the literature as males at students who ... [more ▼]

This study is focused on the analysis of the wellness perception of a representative sample of students of the University of Liege. Findings confirm those of the literature as males at students who consider to be physically active have higher scores of wellness. The study reveals also that students who are still leaving with their parents have higher scores of wellness. [less ▲]

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See detailTuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) ability to localize and develop on wild and cultivated solanaceous plant species
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Dujeu, David; Fagan, Maud ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 13)

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread invasive species damaging economically important cultivated solanaceous crop plants, including tomatoes and potatoes. Little ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread invasive species damaging economically important cultivated solanaceous crop plants, including tomatoes and potatoes. Little is known about the ability of this microlepidoptera to encounter and develop on alternative wild and agricultural plant species. These plants could provide refuges and have to be identified for more efficient integrated management strategies. In the present study, we assessed the ability of T. absoluta to develop on wild (Solanum nigrum, Atropa belladonna, Datura stramonium) and cultivated (Solanum tuberosum) solanaceous plant species under laboratory conditions. Fitness tests were performed in Petri dishes by isolating single individuals with excised leaf from one of the host plants. We found that Solanum species allowed higher larval survivability and shorter development time (from egg to adult emergency) compared to the other plants. Two choice behavioral assays performed in flying tunnels (S. tuberosum versus another plant) revealed that adult distribution and female oviposition did not differ between Solanum species, which were preferred to the other tested plants. These results appeared to be consistent with survival rates and development times. Because larval survivability depends on the female’s oviposition choice, the hypothesis that host plant choice is influenced by plant volatile organic compounds has to be tested. It can be concluded that Solanum species remain the more suitable hosts for T. absoluta development among the tested plants. Other plant species could be opportunistically colonized with little incidence but care should be taken in these results as genetic variability in insects and plants, as well as plant physiological state, might have an impact on the pest survivabilty. [less ▲]

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See detailMarty and the 4th Logical Investigation: What is the disagreement really about?
Seron, Denis ULg

Conference (2014, December 13)

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See detailBelowground Chemical Ecology: The Case of Wireworms
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 13)

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See detailBelgien- und Deutschlandbilder als Spiegel der ostbelgischen Nachkriegsgesellschaft
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Conference (2014, December 13)

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See detailOpen Access, dream or reality for scholars: The ULg experience
Thirion, Paul ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

Since the “serial price crisis”, no institution in the world has been able anymore to provide to scholars with the scientific literature they need. Although it was the first reason why the scientific ... [more ▼]

Since the “serial price crisis”, no institution in the world has been able anymore to provide to scholars with the scientific literature they need. Although it was the first reason why the scientific community developed Open Access initiatives, it’s absolutely not the only one. Nowadays, the awareness has become so large that many research players have put OA on the agenda (NIH, WHO, H2020, Wellcome Trust, FRS-FNRS…). The two main existing complementary ways will be described (Green and Gold) and Fools’ Gold will be denounced (unfair gold, hybrid journals, predatory journals). The University of Liege is one of the world leaders in OA with Green and Gold initiatives. What benefits can scholars expect from OA as authors and as readers on the basis of that experience? [less ▲]

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See detailNegations in Late Egyptian: the general trends. A functional and typological perspective
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

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See detailSymptômes neurologiques du bord latéral du pied et de la cheville
WANG, François-Charles ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

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See detailAnalphabétisme secondaire, raison cynique et la culture pour tous.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg

Conference (2014, December 12)

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See detailMaintaining the coexistence of forest species of different shade tolerances with close-to-nature forestry
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Philippe, Balandier

Conference (2014, December 12)

Continuous-cover forestry has the goal of relying on natural regeneration, and maintaining irregular stand structure and tree species mixture. However, maintaining mixture of species with different shade ... [more ▼]

Continuous-cover forestry has the goal of relying on natural regeneration, and maintaining irregular stand structure and tree species mixture. However, maintaining mixture of species with different shade tolerances appears arduous with such a silvicultural system. Successfully managing irregular and mixed forests, relying on natural processes, requires a strong knowledge of the ecology of natural regeneration. In theory, regeneration dynamics depends upon the amount of transmitted radiation: shade-tolerant species dominate the regeneration under closed canopies whereas less shade-tolerant species dominate the regeneration under partially open canopies. Nevertheless, it explains hardly the difficulties faced by forest managers to maintain the coexistence of species of different shade tolerances. The purpose of this research is to define light requirements of two species with contrasting shade tolerances (Fagus sylvatica L. and Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and, next, determining how understory light can be controlled by forest managers. We find that, contrary to our expectations, the shade-tolerant species outgrow the less shade-tolerant species in all light conditions. We next examine the effects of canopy structure and composition on understory light availability with a model of light interception by heterogeneous canopies. Various silvicultural treatments are tested in order to provide favorable understory light conditions for natural regeneration. The results underline that creating favorable understory light conditions for natural regeneration can be achieved with various regeneration treatments. However, the adequate reduction of stand density depends upon the chosen silvicultural strategies. The outcomes of this study highlight that the control of understory light can be insufficient to maintain the coexistence of species of contrasting shade tolerance, and provide guidelines for the management of understory light in heterogeneous forests. [less ▲]

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See detailThe cerato-mandibular ligament: an innovation for sound production and feeding in damselfishes (Pomacentridae).
Olivier, Damien ULg; Frédérich, Bruno; Spanopoulos-Zarco, Milton et al

Conference (2014, December 12)

The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The Pomacentridae ... [more ▼]

The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The Pomacentridae possess a synapomorphic trait, the cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament, which joins the hyoid bar to the inner part of the lower jaw. It has previously been shown that this ligament is a key trait in communication in damselfishes because it enables them to slam the oral jaws shut causing teeth collision and sound production. This specific behavior of mouth closing could, however, also be used for other tasks, such as feeding. Many territorial damselfishes are referred to as farmers, due to their ability to manage algal crops on which they feed. This study hypothesizes that the c-md ligament provides an advantage for grazing filamentous algae, and should thus be considered a key trait for farming behavior. The kinematic patterns associated with sound production and biting filamentous algae or attached animal prey are all based on the same mechanism and are associated with a slam of the oral jaws. We observed that transection of the c-md ligaments makes the fish unable to perform such actions. This study shows that the c-md ligament is a key trait both for sound production and for grazing activities in damselfishes. The buccal jaw slam enables the fish to perform accurate strikes on small filamentous algae. This kind of bite probably plays a major role in farming activity and allows grazing damselfishes to occupy distinct niches, possibly increasing their competitive evolutionary success. [less ▲]

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See detailLaïcité à la française : de la prétention universaliste à l'obsession identitaire
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

Conference (2014, December 11)

Le mot "laïcité" est revendiqué par des groupes d'extrême-droite ouvertement racistes et conspirationnistes comme "Riposte laïque". L'article montre que le même imaginaire conspirationniste, sous la même ... [more ▼]

Le mot "laïcité" est revendiqué par des groupes d'extrême-droite ouvertement racistes et conspirationnistes comme "Riposte laïque". L'article montre que le même imaginaire conspirationniste, sous la même structure narrative peut être retrouvé sous des formes débarrassée de leur racisme explicite dans des textes considérés comme "mainstream" au sein de la laïcité, en analysant un texte du Rappel. A partir de là, on tente de montrer que cette "dérivation conspirationniste" peut trouver des prises dans des formulations "progressistes" de la laîcité dès lors que ces formulations partent pour point de départ le point de vue à la fois holiste et idéaliste d'un "laos" toujours-dejà-là, comme chez Peña ruiz [less ▲]

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See detailSur quelques conditions médiatiques de la posture néo-réactionnaire
Durand, Pascal ULg

Conference (2014, December 10)

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See detailIntegrating phylogenetic and environmental niche models to explore speciation mechanisms in the Erythrophleum genus in tropical Africa
Gorel, Anaïs ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

Conference (2014, December 10)

In the context of global climate change, it is of primary importance to understand the species response to climate (habitat tracking or adaptation). In this study we investigated the evolutionary history ... [more ▼]

In the context of global climate change, it is of primary importance to understand the species response to climate (habitat tracking or adaptation). In this study we investigated the evolutionary history of the climatic niche between and within closely related tropical tree species of the Erythrophleum genus (Fabaceae, Caesalpinioideae): E. ivorense, E. suaveolens and E. africanum. Two major hypotheses, the refuge theory and the ecological gradient hypothesis, have been developed to explain the current distribution of tree clades across tropical Africa. To identify the speciation mechanisms, we used a combination of geographic data and environmental factors to quantify the degree of niche conservatism (or divergence). We used two sets of distribution data for the purpose of this study. Species distribution data for the whole of tropical Africa were gathered from herbarium records. Distribution data of the two sister species E. ivorense and E. suaveolens assigned to genetic cluster were available for the lowland tropical forests of western and central Africa. Using a Species Distribution Model (SDM) approach based on MaxEnt algorithm, we tested for the environmental differences (BIOCLIM data) between species and genetic clusters within species. We developed SDMs for each of the three Erythrophleum species (over the whole range) and for each of the five genetic clusters. We quantified the niche overlap using new niche similarity metrics. At species level, the climatic niches differed significantly and overlapped only sligthly, suggesting a parapatric speciation along a climatic gradient. Within the two sister species, the niche of the parapatric central African clusters strongly overlapped, suggesting a secondary contact following the recolonization from different forest refugia. The west African cluster however showed contrasted climatic niches possibly due to either recent (< 100 yrs) climate change in west Africa, or ongoing differentiation on the dry part of the climatic gradient. [less ▲]

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See detailBias-variance decomposition in Random Forests
Louppe, Gilles ULg

Conference (2014, December 09)

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See detailIdentifying the best technical trading rule: a .632 bootstrap approach.
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

Conference (2014, December 07)

In this paper, we estimate the out-of-sample predictive ability of a set of trading rules. Usually, this ability is estimated using a rolling-window sample-splitting scheme, true out-of-sample data being ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we estimate the out-of-sample predictive ability of a set of trading rules. Usually, this ability is estimated using a rolling-window sample-splitting scheme, true out-of-sample data being rarely available. We argue that this method makes a poor use of the available information and creates data mining possibilities. Instead, we introduce an alternative bootstrap approach, based on the .632 bootstrap principle. This method enables to build in-sample and out-of-sample bootstrap data sets that do not overlap and exhibit the same time dependencies. We illustrate our methodology on IBM and Microsoft daily stock prices, where we compare 11 trading rules specifications. For the data sets considered, two different filter rule specifications have the highest out-of-sample mean excess returns. However, all tested rules cannot beat a simple buy-and-hold strategy when trading at a daily frequency. [less ▲]

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See detailCan Electrical Resistivity Tomography offer us a dynamic view on what happens in the soil-plant continuum?
Garré, Sarah ULg

Conference (2014, December 05)

Root water and nutrient uptake and its relation to environmental factors is one of the least understood components in the terrestrial water balance and is of high importance for water resources management ... [more ▼]

Root water and nutrient uptake and its relation to environmental factors is one of the least understood components in the terrestrial water balance and is of high importance for water resources management, ecology and agriculture. As the processes in the soil-plant continuum are complex and inextricably intertwined, alternative, non-invasive measurement methods are necessary to unravel spatial and temporal dynamics of the system. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been proposed as a promising technique, since bulk resistivity maps and their temporal evolution may serve as a proxy for changes in soil moisture and pore water salinity, amongst others. However, the variables affecting the measured bulk electrical resistivity often change simultaneously in natural environments and not all influencing factors are yet well understood (e.g. influence of root biomass). Therefore, the method needs field-specific calibration. In addition to limitations due to signal-to-noise ratio and data inversion strategies, this implies that ERT still needs further development and research efforts for its use to characterize the soil-plant continuum. [less ▲]

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See detailScience at the fringe of the French colonial world: the circulation of Jean-André Peyssonnel’s treatises on medicine and the natural history of Guadeloupe
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

Conference (2014, December 05)

Jean-André Peyssonnel, born in Marseille in 1694, was a physician who in 1720-1721 earned his spurs in the fight against the plague that ravaged his hometown. Fascinated by the sea and the work of ... [more ▼]

Jean-André Peyssonnel, born in Marseille in 1694, was a physician who in 1720-1721 earned his spurs in the fight against the plague that ravaged his hometown. Fascinated by the sea and the work of fishermen, he turned in following years to the study of marine life. While conducting observational research along the coasts of the Provence and North Africa, he found evidence of the animal nature of coral. This controversial claim caused a heated debate with Réaumur, who blocked his career plans in France. Out of necessity Peyssonnel was forced to accept the post of “Médecin du Roi” in Guadeloupe. In this remote outpost of the French colonial empire, Peyssonnel continued his scientific activities. He received orders to fight a local outburst of leprosy, which resulted in a comprehensive study on the disease. In addition, he produced dozens of treatises on the natural history of the French Antilles, including volcanic, oceanographic, botanical and zoological studies. This contribution tells the story of these remarkable documents which, on their way to the learned world in Europe, passed through many hands. Spread over several intellectual centres – London, Paris, Marseille, Rouen, Bordeaux, Angers – these manuscripts shed a unique light on the circulation of knowledge in a Republic of Sciences turning global. [less ▲]

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See detailL’impact de la réserve cognitive sur le fonctionnement exécutif au cours du vieillissement normal
Simon, Jessica ULg; Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Conference (2014, December 05)

Le vieillissement normal s’accompagne d’un dysfonctionnement exécutif important. Or, on sait aujourd’hui qu’il existe une forte variabilité interindividuelle quant aux effets du vieillissement sur la ... [more ▼]

Le vieillissement normal s’accompagne d’un dysfonctionnement exécutif important. Or, on sait aujourd’hui qu’il existe une forte variabilité interindividuelle quant aux effets du vieillissement sur la cognition. Selon l’hypothèse de la réserve cognitive (Stern, 2009), les individus qui auraient développé un haut niveau de réserve résisteraient mieux aux effets du vieillissement que des individus de plus faible réserve cognitive. Dans cette étude, nous avons voulu mesurer l’impact des facteurs de réserve cognitive sur le fonctionnement exécutif au cours du vieillissement normal. Nous avons recruté 59 participants âgés de 60 à 80 ans, sans trouble cognitif ni neurologique. Nous leur avons proposé 8 tâches cognitives évaluant le fonctionnement exécutif : des épreuves d’inhibition (test de Stroop, test de Hayling, subtest Incompatibilité de la TAP), de flexibilité (subtest Flexibilité de la TAP, épreuve d’alternance arithmétique « plus-moins ») et de mise à jour (subtest Lettre-Chiffre de la MEM III, mise à jour de consonnes et tâche de 2-back). De plus, nous leur avons demandé de compléter différents questionnaires évaluant quatre facteurs de réserve cognitive (niveau d’études, parcours professionnel, activité physique et activités de loisir). Nous avons réparti nos participants en deux groupes en fonction de leur niveau de réserve cognitive (faible et haute). Des analyses de t de student (p<0.05) montrent que les participants avec une haute réserve cognitive ont de meilleures performances au subtest de mise à jour des consonnes (p=0,05) ainsi que des résultats quasi significatif pour le score composite de mise à jour (p=0,06) et le subtest de mise de consonnes (p=0,06). Nous avons aussi évalué l’impact spécifique de chaque facteur de réserve cognitive sur les performances au moyen de régressions simples (p<0.05). Les données montrent que le niveau d’étude explique une part significative de la variance du score composite de mise à jour et aux subtests Flexibilité et Lettre-Chiffre ainsi qu’une part quasi significative de la variance au score de mise à jour de consonnes. L’activité professionnelle au cours de la vie explique une part quasi-significative de la variance pour le score de mise à jour (p=0,07) et pour le test de mise à jour de consonnes (p=0,07). Enfin, les activités de loisir, quant à elles, expliquent une part significative de la variance des performances à la tâche du 2-back et une part quasi-significative de la variance des performances au test de Hayling (p=0.06). En conclusion, il apparait que les sujets âgés avec un haut niveau de réserve cognitive montrent de meilleures capacités à certains tests exécutifs uniquement. De plus, nos données suggèrent que tous les aspects du fonctionnement exécutif ne sont pas impactés de façon similaire par les différents facteurs de réserve cognitive. [less ▲]

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See detailRegistres de la langue en néo-égyptien: le cas des Tomb Robberies
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2014, December 05)

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See detailAdvances in proteomics for the FP7 Venomics project
Degueldre, Michel ULg; Quinton, Loïc ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

Conference (2014, December 03)

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See detaill'âgisme
Marquet, Manon ULg; Schroyen, Sarah ULg

Conference (2014, December 01)

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See detailQuasi-loss of nationality - policy recommendations
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; de Groot, Gérard-René

Conference (2014, December)

This presentation gives a summary of the policy recommendations which were drafted in the framework of the ILEC project on loss of nationality (http://www.ilecproject.eu/). The recommendations pertain to ... [more ▼]

This presentation gives a summary of the policy recommendations which were drafted in the framework of the ILEC project on loss of nationality (http://www.ilecproject.eu/). The recommendations pertain to the situation of 'quasi-loss', i.e. the situation in which a person who was assumed to possed a nationality, learns that he/she never has possessed that nationality. The recommendations were presented in a policy brief (available at www.ceps.eu/node/9871). They will be included in Guidelines. [less ▲]

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See detail“Negotiating the law: judges, families and court hearings in inheritance cases in Cotonou”
Andreetta, Sophie ULg

Conference (2014, December)

On 14 June 2004, Benin ratified a new Code on Persons and Family – regulating, amongst other things, inheritance matters. Over the last couple of years, the number of inheritance cases handled by state ... [more ▼]

On 14 June 2004, Benin ratified a new Code on Persons and Family – regulating, amongst other things, inheritance matters. Over the last couple of years, the number of inheritance cases handled by state courts has drastically increased in the capital city. How do people understand and use the law? While modern courts, like other public services, have been analyzed as part of everyday governance and the local state in West Africa, I on the other hand will focus on the ways in which the judiciary interprets and implements law. Within that context, hearings are a key moment of legal proceedings. How do litigants argue their cases? How do judges manage to settle inheritance quarrels? Using case studies of inheritance disputes and their litigation under the 2004 ‘Code on Persons and Family’, I try to understand how state laws are understood, utilized, and/or questioned in Cotonou. [less ▲]

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See detailOral Abstract session: Stress echo in clinical practice: Friday 5 December 2014, 08:30-10:00Location: Agora.
Magne, J.; Donal, E.; Dulgheru, R. et al

Conference (2014, December)

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See detailTree species diversity effects on soil microbial biomass, diversity and activity across European forest types
Carnol, Monique ULg; Baeten, Lander; Bosman, Bernard ULg et al

Conference (2014, December)

Increasing tree species diversity in forests might contribute to ecosystem-service maintenance, as well as to the reconciliation of regulating, provisioning and supporting services within the frame of ... [more ▼]

Increasing tree species diversity in forests might contribute to ecosystem-service maintenance, as well as to the reconciliation of regulating, provisioning and supporting services within the frame of multifunctional and sustainable forestry. Individual tree species influence biogeochemical cycling through element deposition (throughfall, litterfall), and through microbial activities in the soil. Yet, the influence of mixing tree species on these ecosystem processes is unclear, in particular concerning the microbial diversity and activity in soils. Here we synthesize results from the Exploratory Platform of the FunDivEUROPE project (http://www.fundiveurope.eu/). This network of 209 comparative plots covering a tree diversity gradient of 1 to 5 tree species was established in existing mature forests in 6 European regions. These six focal regions represent a gradient of major European forest types from boreal to Mediterranean forests. We analysed the impact of tree species diversity and the role of other controlling factors on the metabolic diversity of soil bacteria (BIOLOG Ecoplate), soil microbial biomass (fumigation-extraction) and potential nitrification (shaken soil slurry) in the forest floor and the upper organo-mineral soil horizon. Mean values of microbial biomass carbon ranged from 240 (Poland) to 1762 (Germany) mg kg-1 in the forest floor and from 4197 (Italy) to 11207 (Finland) mg kg-1 in the upper organo-mineral horizon. Tree diversity and soil water content were important controlling factors. Statistical models predict microbial biomass to increase in both horizons by 7-8% with each step increase in tree diversity. Metabolic diversity of soil bacteria (% of substrates used) showed high variability both within and between sites. Further results analysed with mixed linear models will be presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEcology of 20 trace elements in Mytilus galloprovincialis
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Lejeune, Pierre et al

Conference (2014, December)

Trace elements (TEs) are considered as non-degradable pollutants. This persistent character can alter their natural biogeochemical balance in contaminated environments. TEs are further toxic for aquatic ... [more ▼]

Trace elements (TEs) are considered as non-degradable pollutants. This persistent character can alter their natural biogeochemical balance in contaminated environments. TEs are further toxic for aquatic organisms from threshold levels and are thus likely to cause multiple damages to the population, the community and the ecosystem levels. For these reasons, their environmental occurrence has to be accurately monitored. The main interest of the use of quantitative sentinel organisms to this end, or bioindicator species, is their capacity to give information on the bioavailability of environmental contaminants. Mussels from the genus Mytilus are particularly well suited organisms for the monitoring of the coastal contamination. Native wild and cultured Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 have been widely used since around 40 years to this purpose along coasts of the eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean. But the accurate use of a bioindicator relies on the detailed knowledge of its ecophysiology and the influence of environmental variables on the bioaccumulation processes. In the framework of the STARECAPMED project, the ecology of 20 TEs in M. galloprovincialis is therefore investigated. The mussel morphometry and biology firstly define the TE accumulation processes. Accumulated TE are internally regulated and redistributed between body compartments; these internal processes notably depend on the essential or non-essential character of TEs. As filter feeder, mussels accumulate soluble and suspended TEs whose environmental levels are determined by the geomorphology, the physico-chemistry and the hydrology of monitored coastal meadows. All these factors are acting together to modulate the TE accumulation processes in mussels. TE bioaccumulated levels further balance quickly when any physiological or environmental changes occur in order to reach a new steady-state with environmental TE loads. The ecology of TEs in M. galloprovincialis is thus complex and very dynamic; these considerations must be taken into account when monitoring the chemical contamination of coastal meadows. [less ▲]

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See detailAthanase Kircher ou l’Oedipe des Temps modernes
Winand, Jean ULg

Conference (2014, November 29)

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See detailGuidance chez les professionnels de la voix
Remacle, Angélique ULg

Conference (2014, November 28)

Cet atelier s’intéresse aux locuteurs professionnels, soit les personnes qui ne peuvent se passer de leur voix dans le cadre de leur travail, par exemple les enseignants et les chanteurs. Outre la ... [more ▼]

Cet atelier s’intéresse aux locuteurs professionnels, soit les personnes qui ne peuvent se passer de leur voix dans le cadre de leur travail, par exemple les enseignants et les chanteurs. Outre la présentation de pistes relatives à la prévention et la prise en charge de cette population, l’atelier comporte des manipulations d'accumulateurs vocaux, y compris l'utilisation du feedback tactile dans le but de modifier le comportement vocal (contrôle de la fréquence et du niveau de pression sonore de la voix). Des moyens permettant de réduire la charge vocale et le bruit environnant sont également présentés et manipulés : système d’amplification vocale et traqueur de bruit. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Beginning of UP in Northern Mongolia: New Results and Perspectives from the Open-air Site of Tolbor 16
Zwyns, N.; Bolorbat, T.; Flas, Damien ULg et al

Conference (2014, November 28)

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See detailLes accumulateurs de voix
Remacle, Angélique ULg

Conference (2014, November 28)

Les troubles de la voix peuvent être engendrés tant par un malmenage que par un surmenage vocal. Tandis que le malmenage est causé par un geste vocal inadéquat, le surmenage résulte d’une charge vocale ... [more ▼]

Les troubles de la voix peuvent être engendrés tant par un malmenage que par un surmenage vocal. Tandis que le malmenage est causé par un geste vocal inadéquat, le surmenage résulte d’une charge vocale supérieure aux capacités de récupération du locuteur. La charge dépend principalement de la quantité de phonation en termes de durée, de fréquence fondamentale et de niveau de pression sonore de la voix. Ainsi, parler longtemps, fort et avec une voix aigüe peut mener au surmenage, principalement lorsque les conditions environnementales sont défavorables (mauvaise acoustique, bruit ambiant élevé, atmosphère sèche, etc). Depuis quelques années, des systèmes portables de quantification de la charge vocale sont commercialisés. Ces accumulateurs (ou dosimètres) objectivent le comportement vocal en situation réelle pendant une durée prolongée. Ils permettent de déterminer les moments auxquels le sujet parle, la durée de phonation, la fréquence fondamentale et le niveau de pression sonore de la voix. Certains modèles fournissent également des mesures du bruit environnant. Actuellement, les accumulateurs sont principalement utilisés chez les locuteurs professionnels, soit les personnes qui ne peuvent se passer de leur voix dans le cadre de leur travail, par exemple les enseignants et les chanteurs. La dosimétrie vocale permet de cibler les comportements vocaux à risque en contexte écologique ainsi que les situations favorisant la dysphonie. L’objectif des recherches utilisant ces outils est de proposer des lignes de conduites pour la prévention, l’évaluation et le traitement de la dysphonie, principalement chez les personnes ayant un usage vocal intensif. Aussi, ces recherches tentent d’établir des normes relatives à l’utilisation vocale journalière de différents groupes d’individus. En rééducation, les accumulateurs de voix peuvent également fournir un feedback vibratoire en temps réel lorsque des seuils d’intensité ou de fréquence, prédéfinis par l’expérimentateur avant l’usage, sont dépassés par le locuteur. [less ▲]

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See detailQuels modèles pour soutenir la prévention et la promotion de la santé ?
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Mathonet, Julien; Miermans, Marie-Christine ULg et al

Conference (2014, November 28)

Contexte et objectifs La prévention n’atteint pas souvent son objectif d’accès universel aux soins préventifs. Les modèles opérationnels publiés concernant la prévention et la promotion de la santé en ... [more ▼]

Contexte et objectifs La prévention n’atteint pas souvent son objectif d’accès universel aux soins préventifs. Les modèles opérationnels publiés concernant la prévention et la promotion de la santé en soins primaires ont été recherchés pour réaliser un inventaire fonctionnel et formuler des hypothèses de travail sur l’efficacité et l’équité de la prévention. Méthode Revue narrative de littérature utilisant les mots-clés relatifs aux différents niveaux de prévention, à la promotion de la santé, aux soins primaires, aux modèles de pratique et à la délivrance de soins. Une analyse multicritères a été utilisée. Principaux résultats Douze modèles ont été sélectionnés. Les modèles dont les auteurs annoncent qu’ils s’appliquent à la prévention décrivent majoritairement des approches centrées sur les individus dans le cadre de la relation médecin-patient, prenant en compte l’organisation de pratique. Certains modèles systémiques de type socio-écologique illustrent le concept de promotion de la santé : pratique éducative, ciblage sur des groupes ou des populations, prise en compte des milieux de vie et des déterminants sociaux de la santé. La place des patients dans l’élaboration des modèles est mineure, à l’image de leur implication comme acteurs dans les systèmes de soins. Les définitions des termes de prévention, promotion de la santé et éducation du patient diffèrent considérablement d’un modèle à l’autre. Discussion et conclusion Certains éléments valorisés par la promotion de la santé seraient intégrables aux pratiques de soins : empowerment individuel des patients, prise en compte de leurs milieux de vie ; participation accrue à des réseaux locaux de professionnels de la santé ; intégration, au sein des mêmes structures, de l’approche individuelle et collective pour permettre la poursuite simultanée des objectifs de personnalisation, d’efficacité et d’équité. Ces évolutions ont des implications sur la formation des soignants, en termes d’aptitudes communicationnelles, de sensibilisation aux concepts de la santé publique et d’immersion précoce des futurs soignants dans la communauté. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussant Panel on "Public-Private Partnerships: New Governance Arrangements"
Remy, Céline ULg

Conference (2014, November 27)

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See detailPPP in the field of employment: clandestine strategies to become an efficient PPP?
Remy, Céline ULg

Conference (2014, November 27)

In this article, we study the Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in the field of employment, in Belgium. These PPPs are established between Public Employment Service (PES) and private operators to create ... [more ▼]

In this article, we study the Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in the field of employment, in Belgium. These PPPs are established between Public Employment Service (PES) and private operators to create projects for support and training for jobseekers the ultimate goal of which is social and professional reintegration. There are three critical moments in the life of the partnership: getting a partnership agreement with the PES, mobilizing jobseekers to participate in the delivery, and evaluating the outcomes achieved by the operator. The parties affected by these three critical steps are mainly the private operators. To overcome these difficulties, the providers implement informal and "clandestine" strategies to ensure the proper operation of the partnership and especially its performance and sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailL’animation théâtrale comme présence sociale
Brahy, Rachel ULg

Conference (2014, November 27)

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See detailAllergies alimentaires
GADISSEUR, Romy ULg

Conference (2014, November 26)

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See detailGuides d'architecture moderne et contemporaine en Wallonie et à Bruxelles
Charlier, Sébastien ULg; Moor, Thomas

Conference (2014, November 25)

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See detailPENSANDO LA CIUDAD SOSTENIBLE MÁS ALLÁ DE LA DICOTOMÍA ECOLOGÍA URBANA Y MEDIOAMBIENTE URBANO: EL CASO DE LA GOBERNANZA DEL AGUA EN COCHABAMBA
Cabrera Quispe, Juan Edson ULg; Farah, Jihad ULg

Conference (2014, November 24)

In this article, we go back on two ways of taking into account the environmental dimension in urban planning and governance. We stress the difficult articulation between these two approaches – “urban ... [more ▼]

In this article, we go back on two ways of taking into account the environmental dimension in urban planning and governance. We stress the difficult articulation between these two approaches – “urban ecology” and “urban environment” – and the actual impasse the discipline of urban planning finds itself in in its quest of the sustainable city. These two approaches for acting on the city by considering the complexity of its milieu build on different representations of this milieu and different modes of action legitimation. Negating each other, they can difficultly coexist, even less articulate. Through the example of water management in Cochabamba, we stress the tensions between these approaches. We point also to the awkward and marginalized position of urban planning and challenges it must face to regain a capacity of action in contemporary fragmented cities that know complex governance landscapes and rare or endangered resources. [less ▲]

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See detailPrototype SOLAP appliqué sur des champs continus en mode raster. Analyse de hot spots de criminalité.
Kasprzyk, Jean-Paul ULg

Conference (2014, November 24)

SOLAP (Spatial OnLine Analytical Processing) is a server which allows decision makers to quickly analyze archived data from a spatial datawarehouse. Until now, most of SOLAP tools only manage spatial data ... [more ▼]

SOLAP (Spatial OnLine Analytical Processing) is a server which allows decision makers to quickly analyze archived data from a spatial datawarehouse. Until now, most of SOLAP tools only manage spatial data through the vector mode. However, some visualization techniques use interpolation to transform them into continuous fields in raster mode. Crime hotspot mapping is one of them: data are modeled in raster with a KDE (Kernel Density Estimation) algorithm to offer a spatially continuous visualization of crimes. This research aims at combining hotspot mapping and SOLAP. First, we adapt SOLAP to continuous fields with a raster multidimensional data model. Then the raster model is adapted to KDE. The data model is validated with a prototype including London crime data. [less ▲]

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See detailA lasso penalization approach to differential item functioning
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2014, November 24)

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See detailA capillary Archimedes’ screw
Darbois-Texier, Baptiste ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

Conference (2014, November 23)

As used by Egyptians for irrigation and reported by Archimedes, a screw turning inside a hollow pipe can pull out a fluid againt gravity. At a centimetric scale, an analagous system can be found with a ... [more ▼]

As used by Egyptians for irrigation and reported by Archimedes, a screw turning inside a hollow pipe can pull out a fluid againt gravity. At a centimetric scale, an analagous system can be found with a drop pending on a rotating spiral which is tilted toward the horizontal. The ascent of the drop to the top of the spiral is considered and a theoretical model based on geometrical considerations is proposed. The climb of the drop is limited by the fluid deposition on the screw at high capillary number and by a centrifugation phenomenon. We find out the range of fluid proprities and spiral characteristics for which an ascending motion of the drop is possible. Finally we discuss the efficiency of such system to extract a fluid from a bath at a centrimetric scale. [less ▲]

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See detailFoucault et Deleuze et Sami-Ali : postmodernité et psychothérapie.
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2014, November 22)

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See detailL'ECMO, Témoignage de deux infirmiers
KOCH, Jean-Noël ULg; BODSON, Sébastien ULg

Conference (2014, November 22)

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See detailHow does gender socialisation influence teenagers' behaviors ? : Contribution of ISRD-2 and ISRD-3 to this question
Gavray, Claire ULg

Conference (2014, November 21)

In both gender groups, young people entering the spiral of violence negatively often react against personal insecurity, against a hostile and little promising environment. But those environments still ... [more ▼]

In both gender groups, young people entering the spiral of violence negatively often react against personal insecurity, against a hostile and little promising environment. But those environments still differ between girls and boys according to the sphere which remains the most valorized, 'suitable' for them (public and competitive sphere for the boys, family and emotional sphere for the girls). ISRD data allow to show links between, on one side, the production of not authorized and violent behaviors and, on the other side, gendered concrete life, gendered attitudes and values. The theory of the societal vulnerability (Walgrave, Vettenburg) and the theory of recognition (Honneth) are confirmed. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the finiteness and uniqueness of the weighted likelihood estimator of ability in polytomous IRT models
Magis, David ULg; Verhelst, Norman

Conference (2014, November 21)

In item response theory (IRT), the weighted likelihood (WL) estimator has become a central method to estimate ability levels of respondents. Primarily introduced with dichotomous IRT models (Warm, 1989 ... [more ▼]

In item response theory (IRT), the weighted likelihood (WL) estimator has become a central method to estimate ability levels of respondents. Primarily introduced with dichotomous IRT models (Warm, 1989), it was later extended to polytomous IRT models (Samejima, 1998). However, very few information is available about the behavior of the WL estimator, and especially about the uniqueness of the ability estimates as well as their finiteness. The purpose of this talk is to establish that with polytomous item response models, the WL estimator of ability always returns finite values. This result is valid for the class of difference models and divide-by-total models, independently of the number of items and the response patterns. However, such estimates may not necessarily be unique, as the WL solving equation may provide several optimal values. Some examples are considered to illustrate both findings. [less ▲]

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See detailBoolean Functions for Classification: Logical Analysis of Data
Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2014, November 20)

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See detailSolar Wind Interaction with the Magnetosphere of Jupiter : Impact on the Magnetopause and the Aurorae
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2014, November 20)

The outcome of the interaction between the solar wind and the Jovian magnetic field bears many differences compared to the Earth's case. At Earth, the solar wind is the major particle and energy source in ... [more ▼]

The outcome of the interaction between the solar wind and the Jovian magnetic field bears many differences compared to the Earth's case. At Earth, the solar wind is the major particle and energy source in the magnetosphere. At Jupiter, the tremendous volcanism on the moon Io is the main plasma source and Jupiter's rapid rotation (relative to its size) is the main energy source for the particles populating its magnetosphere. Combined with a weaker solar wind pressure and a larger Alfvén Mach number as the distance from the Sun increases, all these parameters modify the relative importance of large scale Dungey reconnection and viscous interaction at the magnetopause. In order to study these differences, here we present a statistical analysis of magnetopause waves and flux tube event on the Jovian magnetopause, based on in-situ measurement from the spacecraft that flew-by or orbited around Jupiter. Moreover, variations of the solar wind have significant impact on the Jovian magnetospheric current systems and such changes reflect on the aurora. In this presentation, we will also review the recent findings concerning the aurora at Jupiter and their relationship with the solar wind. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitements conservateurs de la gonarthrose
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2014, November 20)

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See detailA Debate on Responsible Research and Innovation
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

Conference (2014, November 20)

In the space of just a few years the concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), or in Dutch Maatschappelijk verantwoord innoveren (MVI), has gained considerable ground: NWO has an MVI-program ... [more ▼]

In the space of just a few years the concept of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), or in Dutch Maatschappelijk verantwoord innoveren (MVI), has gained considerable ground: NWO has an MVI-program that has so far funded three rounds of research proposals; Horizon 2020 regularly refers to RRI; and there is now a new journal devoted to RRI. In this panel we focus on the following questions: • How could the concept become so popular in such a relatively short time? • What, if anything, is new in RRI, when we compare it to e.g. CTA, participatory TA, Public Engagement, etc? • If we want to make research and innovation more responsible and responsive to society’s needs, what are the opportunities and obstacles? • What are the conditions for successful mainstreaming of RRI? Panel members Frank Kupper (Athena Institute) Hub Zwart (Centre for Society and the Life Scences), Michiel van Oudheusden (author of a dissertation on Flemish RRI initiatives), and Tsjalling Swierstra (co-founder of the Journal for RI) share their thoughts with colleagues in the audience. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Use of Principal Component Analysis for Parameter Identification and Damage Detection in Structures
Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

Conference (2014, November 20)

Modal analysis is used extensively for understanding the dynamic behaviour of structures as well as for structural health monitoring or damage detection based on output-only measurements. In this ... [more ▼]

Modal analysis is used extensively for understanding the dynamic behaviour of structures as well as for structural health monitoring or damage detection based on output-only measurements. In this presentation, a different approach based on principal component analysis is considered. Principal component analysis (PCA), also called proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), is a multi-variate statistical method that aims at obtaining a compact representation of the data. In the present paper, PCA (POD) is used for three purposes, namely damage detection, structural health monitoring and identification of nonlinear parameters. The key idea of PCA is to reduce a large number of measured data to a much smaller number of uncorrelated variables while retaining as much as possible of the variation in the original data. To this purpose, an orthogonal transformation to the basis of the eigenvectors of the sample covariance matrix is performed, and the data are projected onto the subspace spanned by the eigenvectors corresponding to the largest eigenvalues. This transformation has the property to decorrelate the signal components and to maximize variance. The first problem to which PCA is applied here is the damage detection problem. When applied to vibration measurements, it can be shown that the basis of eigenvectors (called the proper orthogonal modes) span the same subspace as the mode-shape vectors of the monitored structure. Thus the damage detection problem may be solved using the concept of subspace angle between a reference subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of the initial (undamaged) structure and the subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of the current (possibly damaged) structure. The second problem concerns structural health monitoring of civil engineering structures when environmental effects (e.g. the influence of the variation of the ambient temperature) have to be removed from the structural changes. In this case, PCA may be applied on identified modal features (e.g. the natural frequencies) to separate the changes due to environmental variations from the changes due to damage sources. This procedure is illustrated on the example of a real bridge located in Luxembourg. The third problem is related to the estimation of nonlinear parameters using model updating techniques. In this case, the most interesting property of PCA is that it minimizes the average squared distance between the original signal and its reduced linear representation. When applied to nonlinear problems, PCA gives the optimal approximating linear manifold in the configuration space represented by the data. The linear nature of the method is appealing because the theory of linear operators is still available. However, it should be borne in mind that it also exhibits its major limitation when the data lie on a nonlinear manifold. [less ▲]

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See detailThe physical education teacher as a physical activity promoter: Current developments
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2014, November 19)

The physical education teacher is considered as a cornerstone of the physical activity promotion in the schools. This presentation proposes answers to three questions: (1) Why to promote physical activity ... [more ▼]

The physical education teacher is considered as a cornerstone of the physical activity promotion in the schools. This presentation proposes answers to three questions: (1) Why to promote physical activity at school? (2) Why the PE teacher should play a central role? (3) How the PE teacher could play such role? In conclusion, it is important to remember that (1) PE teachers should become the cornerstones of the PA promotion at school; (2) They have to be involved in PE as well as in the other dimension of PA at school; (3) They have to collaborate (they are not alone), and; (4) Pre service and inservice PETE has to be adapted to show the way and change the mentalities [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial Analysis of GNSS Measurements from an Equatorial Ionospheric Scintillation Monitoring Receiver (ISMR) Network
Lonchay, Matthieu ULg; Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Cornet, Yves ULg et al

Conference (2014, November 19)

The ionosphere has always been a major limitation for GNSS positioning applications. Free electrons in the ionosphere perturb the propagation of GNSS radio signals involving both refraction and ... [more ▼]

The ionosphere has always been a major limitation for GNSS positioning applications. Free electrons in the ionosphere perturb the propagation of GNSS radio signals involving both refraction and diffraction effects. In particular, small-scale ionospheric irregularities generated by different physical processes may cause scattering effects on GNSS signals, producing rapid fluctuations of the signal phase and amplitude as a result. Such scintillations of GNSS signals are responsible for critical consequences regarding applications, such as precise positioning, due to many resulting effects: cycle slips, signal power fading, receiver loss of lock and poor resulting satellite geometry. Ionospheric Scintillation Monitoring Receivers collect high-rate GNSS data. Specific scintillation parameters, such as the well-known S4 and Phi60 indices, are built on high-rate measurements performed on GNSS signals and provide additional information to characterize the intensity of such an event occurring at a specific geographic location at a given time. Spatial Statistics belong to the field of Spatial Analysis, Geography and GIS (Geographic Information System). This discipline allows to perform analyses of data which are localised in space. Ionospheric Scintillation observations achieved by ISMR stations can be characterized by a set of attributes (S4, Phi60, Rate of TEC, etc.) including also the geographic location of their respective Ionospheric Pierce Point (IPP). By combining the simultaneous Multi-GNSS ISMR measurements from a network of ISMR stations, we can obtain a spatially denser data set, able to support spatial statistics tests. The idea of our research is to provide a spatio-temporal analysis of ionospheric scintillation events over Equatorial regions by applying spatial statistics on ISMR Multi-GNSS measurements. In particular, by using spatial statistics, we aim to resolve specific issues regarding ionospheric scintillation data from an ISMR network established in Brazil. The research consists in spatially describing the data set, detecting and measuring potential spatial autocorrelation, determining the scale of the spatial dependency and finally producing an interpolated scintillation sky map at a given time. In terms of applicability of the methodology, our research project consists in exploiting the spatio-temporal analysis performed on ionospheric scintillation data in order to improve the performances and the reliability of Absolute GNSS Positioning algorithms under moderate ionospheric scintillation conditions. By assessing correlations existing between specific ISMR data and classic GNSS observations, the method could be extended to a more general usage which would be independent of ISMR measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailGravitational lensing search for dark matter halos
Biernaux, Judith ULg

Conference (2014, November 19)

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See detailLes changements sociétaux sont-ils promoteurs de bien-être au travail ?
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014, November 17)

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Peer Reviewed
See detail"Preußisch-deutsch" und "wallonisch". Zur Identitätsproblematik der Malmedyer Wallonie im Ersten Weltkrieg
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Conference (2014, November 15)

Durch die Artikel 32-34 des Versailler Vertrags wurden die beiden deutschen Grenzkreise Eupen und Malmedy nach einer umstrittenen Volksbefragung im Jahr 1920 Belgien zugeschlagen. Dabei wies der Kreis ... [more ▼]

Durch die Artikel 32-34 des Versailler Vertrags wurden die beiden deutschen Grenzkreise Eupen und Malmedy nach einer umstrittenen Volksbefragung im Jahr 1920 Belgien zugeschlagen. Dabei wies der Kreis Malmedy eine Besonderheit auf: er war zwei- bzw. dreisprachig Deutsch-Wallonisch-Französisch. Tatsächlich waren rund 10.000 Wallonen seit den Entscheidungen des Wiener Kongresses von 1815 Bürger Preußens und später des Kaiserreichs gewesen. Der Beitrag fragt nach ihrer Identität im Kaiserreich, wo sie zu Kollateralopfern der gegen größere Minderheiten gerichteten Germanisierungspolitik wurden, woraus ein wallonischer Kulturpartikularismus an der deutsch-belgischen Grenze resultierte. Dabei wird auch deren Offenheit während des langen 19. Jahrhunderts deutlich, die durch intensive grenzüberschreitende soziale, wirtschaftliche und auch kulturelle Kontakte gekennzeichnet ist. Der Beginn des Ersten Weltkriegs wurde deshalb als umso dramatischer empfunden. Die Haltung der Bevölkerung in der so genannten Preußischen Wallonie während des Kriegs ist jedoch bisher von der Forschung kaum in den Blick genommen worden. Deutlich lässt sich jedoch der Einfluss eines sich nunmehr erheblich beschleunigenden Nationalisierungsprozesses an der Grenze zum besetzten Belgien ausmachen. Auf der Grundlage der im Staatsarchiv Eupen erhaltenen Bestände des Kreisarchivs Malmedy im Kreis sollen die Auswirkungen des Krieges auf die kleinste Minderheit im Westen dargestellt werden. Gefragt werden soll nach Misstrauensbekundungen „von oben“, nach potentiellen Loyalitätskonflikten, z.B. in Form von Desertionen, ggf. nach Nachkriegsvorstellungen der Betroffenen und nach einem Wandel von Zugehörigkeitsgefühlen. Besonderes Augenmerk wird dabei auf jene (überaus seltenen) Akteure gelegt, die schon vor 1914 einen Anschluss des Gebietes an Belgien gefordert hatten und die sich der besonderen Aufmerksamkeit der preußischen Behörden gewiss sein konnten. Kaum zu überschätzen ist auch die Bedeutung der Pfarrer, die in einer als streng katholisch geltenden Region erheblichen Einfluss auf das politisch-gesellschaftliche Leben und – selbstverständlich – auf die Trauerarbeit für gefallene Soldaten (deren Zahl sich auf einige Hundert beläuft) nahmen. Nicht zuletzt stellt sich die Frage nach der Erfahrung des Kriegsendes und der darauf folgenden Besatzungszeit durch britische Truppen, die im August 1919 von belgischen Soldaten abgelöst wurden. Diese Fragen sind bisher, so sie denn überhaupt gestellt worden sind, zumeist aus der Perspektive des Staatenwechsels von 1920 beantwortet worden. Der Kampf einiger Akteure für die Behauptung einer wallonischen Identität innerhalb des Kaiserreichs wurde in der belgisch-nationalen Historiographie zu einem Kampf für die Eingliederung durch Belgien umgedeutet, die Zugehörigkeit zu Preußen zum dark age der lokalen Vergangenheit erklärt – wobei die Zugehörigkeit zur französisch-wallonischen Sprachgemeinschaft hier eine andere Ausgangslage schaffte als für ebenfalls an Belgien abgetretenen deutschsprachigen Gemeinden um die Städte Eupen und St. Vith. Diese Narrative entfalteten ihre durchschlagende Wirkung jedoch erst nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg und der 1940 erfolgten Wiedereingliederung Eupen-Malmedys durch das „Großdeutsche Reich“. Der Beitrag unternimmt den Versuch, die Entwicklung der Jahre 1914-1920 nicht von ihrem Ende her zu betrachten, wobei der – bisher vernachlässigten – erfahrungsgeschichtlichen Perspektive besondere Bedeutung zukommt. Insofern zielt er ebenfalls darauf ab, die Grenzgeschichte aus der Zentrum-Peripherie-Perspektive zu lösen und – auch sehr kleine – Grenzregionen als Akteur (und nicht als bloßes Objekt) zu fassen. [less ▲]

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See detailBorréliose: mythe ou réalité ?
Amory, Hélène ULg; Houben, Rosa ULg; Pitel, Pierre Hugues et al

Conference (2014, November 15)

Peer Reviewed
See detailRé-créations familiales entre ruptures, pertes et nouvelles appartenances
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

Conference (2014, November 14)

Les familles recomposées font face à de multiples transitions.Au cœur de ces transitions, différents processus de redéfinition interactionnelle et mythique sont attendus. Parmi ceux-ci, la construction ... [more ▼]

Les familles recomposées font face à de multiples transitions.Au cœur de ces transitions, différents processus de redéfinition interactionnelle et mythique sont attendus. Parmi ceux-ci, la construction des nouvelles appartenances qui prévoit la gestion des ruptures ainsi que la construction de nouveaux repères affectifs et sociaux. Dans la pratique psychothérapeutique, nous rencontrons souvent des couples et des familles qui ont « mal » aux transitions et qui se proposent comme « suspendues » entre un passé non reproductible et un futur imperceptible. A travers des situations cliniques et de recherche avec des familles recomposées, l’intervention portera sur l’intérêt d’aborder ces transitions complexes à travers le concept de perte ambiguë. Ce travail prévoit, non pas tant une élaboration définitive des précédentes appartenances mais bien une co-création de ponts affectifs entre le passé et le présent, l’écriture de nouveaux scripts pour le futur ainsi que la gestion d’appartenances multiples et ce, également à travers la re-dynamisation de ressources et de potentialités évolutives chez les couples, familles et leurs réseaux. [less ▲]

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See detailRé-Créations Familiales: ruptures, pertes et nouvelles appartenances
D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

Conference (2014, November 14)

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See detailElectrical modelling of interface traps in GeSn MOS structures
Baert, Bruno ULg; Cerica, Delphine; Schmeits, Marcel ULg et al

Conference (2014, November 13)

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See detailSanté mentale et travail - les enjeux sociétaux
Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014, November 13)

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See detailL’impact de la gestion des obstacles à la libre circulation des poissons
Ovidio, Michaël ULg

Conference (2014, November 13)

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See detailQuality of work life of rural emergency department nurses and physicians: a pilot study
Bragard, Isabelle ULg; Dupuis, Gilles; Archambault, Patrick et al

Conference (2014, November 12)

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