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See detailDimensions adaptatives des fonctionnements pervers et psychopathiques : une approche étho-phénoménologique
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2017, July 10)

Notre objectif est de discuter des diagnostics du fonctionnement psychologique pervers et de la personnalité psychopathique. Si les versions récentes du DSM (IV et 5) ignorent ces diagnostics, la pratique ... [more ▼]

Notre objectif est de discuter des diagnostics du fonctionnement psychologique pervers et de la personnalité psychopathique. Si les versions récentes du DSM (IV et 5) ignorent ces diagnostics, la pratique clinique suggère de conserver ces deux entités présentant une finesse psychopathologique plus grande et un pouvoir discriminatif plus important que la personnalité antisociale. Nous souhaitons interroger les dimensions intrinsèquement adaptatives de ces deux entités, mais aussi relever leurs différences sur le continuum de l’adaptation. Nous chercherons, en effet, à démontrer que le principe d'adaptation est une dimension centrale et commune aux deux entités, mais qui « se joue » de façons différentes pour chacune. Le pervers est hyper-adapté à son interlocuteur tout en présentant des moments paradoxaux d'inadaptation. Le psychopathe, avec sa faculté de chosification de l'alter ego et ses compétences émotionnelles paradoxales, présente une adaptation plus solitaire. Dans une perspective inspirée des paradigmes éthologique et phénoménologique, nous tenterons de cerner les différences essentielles entre ces deux modes d’être-au-monde. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction à la perspective en première personne : le cas de l’anorexie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2016, December 15)

La distinction des perspectives en première et troisième personnes est un apport récent et décisif de la phénoménologie à la psychopathologie (Parnas, Sass & Zahavi, 2012). La perspective en troisième ... [more ▼]

La distinction des perspectives en première et troisième personnes est un apport récent et décisif de la phénoménologie à la psychopathologie (Parnas, Sass & Zahavi, 2012). La perspective en troisième personne, campée par les dernières versions du DSM ou par l’evidence based medicine, consiste en l’attribution depuis une position externe de signes cliniques repérés indépendamment du ressenti exprimé par le patient. L’exemple typique de ces signes est le délire et l’hallucination du schizophrène. Ces symptômes cristallisent les difficultés qu’éprouve le sujet à se reconnaitre affecté du trouble (l’anosognosie), et ce point est considéré par les modèles dominants comme une cible thérapeutique prioritaire. La visée de ces techniques, orthopédiques et psycho-éducatives, est que le patient parvienne à « reconnaitre » sa maladie. Selon cette perspective en troisième personne, il est attendu qu’il adopte, intègre la position propre à son évaluateur, et externe à sa subjectivité intrinsèque. La démarche opposée, celle de la prise en considération d’une perspective en première personne, interroge, considère et concentre son attention sur l’expérience subjective exprimée par le patient. Si l’on reprend l’exemple princeps de la schizophrénie, ce sont la « perte de l’évidence naturelle » des choses, un « trouble du sens commun » ou un « sentiment de diminution du soi » que verbalisent les patients. Ces signes cliniques, révélant l’expérience du soi, deviennent l’élément psychopathologique structurant et mettent en évidence une manière d’être-au-monde, ici schizophrénique. Le pari de cette journée d’étude consacrée à l’anorexie est de chercher à appliquer ce passage vers une perspective compréhensive en première personne pour les sujets affectés de ce trouble. Des travaux pionniers en la matière, bien que ne se réclamant pas de la phénoménologie, sont certainement ceux du psychiatre éthologue liégeois Albert Demaret (1979). Celui-ci, suggère, de façon quelque peu déconcertante, de ne plus focaliser l’attention prioritairement sur l’aspect purement médical relatif à la perte de poids et au refus alimentaire. Le comportement qui retient particulièrement son attention est l’altruisme (souvent alimentaire), qu’il considère comme « la composante la plus fondamentale du syndrome » (p. 152). Outre le fait de révéler les composantes adaptatives du trouble, son étonnant modèle permet d’entrer en consonance avec le discours des patients anorexiques qui, bien souvent, ne perçoivent pas leur minceur (mécanisme de déni) ou expriment que leur problématique ne se situe pas, selon eux, dans leur sous-alimentation. L’anosognosie anorexique et cet effroyable tendance à se priver d’alimentation au risque de mettre sa vie en danger, si l’on ouvre la porte à la perspective en première personne – si on laisse la parole au sujet –, laissent la place à un besoin (dont l’excessivité peut être reconnue) de s’occuper des autres, de les nourrir, mais aussi une hyper-attention au regard qu’on leur porte. L’investissement émotionnel et corporel des relations est souvent présenté comme étant insatisfaisant, voire comme étant l’élément moteur de leur mal-être. Ce pas de côté de la vision omnisciente du médical, assumant une remise en cause du pouvoir de domination qu’entraine la perspective en troisième personne, se révèle être un outil psychothérapeutique tout à fait pertinent. Il désacralise le problème de l’anosognosie, remet en cause le déni (ce mécanisme devient également celui de l’entourage de l’anorexique qui ne peut percevoir le surinvestissement altruiste), et ouvre la voie à une perspective intersubjective, co-construite. Cette journée d’étude a pour ambition de mettre en lumière cette préoccupation pour l’éprouvé anorexique, évoquer les modes de communication de ces patients et laisser place au discours qu’ils ont souvent du mal à livrer. Il se révèle que les apports de disciplines comme la philosophie ou l’anthropologie, ainsi que ceux de la pratique clinique sont des détours essentiels à ce programme d’étude. Nous discuterons également du symptôme anorexique lorsqu’il est secondaire à un psychotraumatisme (quelle place cette tendance à la restriction vient combler dans l’expérience de vie du sujet traumatisé). Cette journée est ouverte tant aux praticiens de terrain et personnes intéressées par les matières cliniques qu’aux chercheurs universitaires en sciences humaines. [less ▲]

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See detailNanoparticles-nanosubstrates hybrids through one pot synthesis by plasma treatment: towards optimization of Pt/carbon catalysts for PEM fuel cells
Busby, Yan; Gulas, Michal; Laurent-Brocq, Mathilde et al

Conference (2016, December 12)

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See detailPolitiques du corps fantôme et phénoménologie sociale
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, November 22)

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
See detailLe pervers, le psychopathe et les limites de l’empathie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2016, November 21)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (2 ULg)
See detailLes juristes internationalistes belges et la crise européenne de 1866
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016, November 17)

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
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See detailLes indices de détection de patron de réponse inapproprié de type carré-moyens non-pondérés: à manipuler avec précaution!
Beland, Sebastien; Raiche, Gilles; Magis, David ULg et al

Conference (2016, November 17)

Le carré-moyen non-pondéré U comme indice de détection (unweighted mean square statistics) (Wright & Stone, 1979) et sa version standardisée ZU (Wright, 1980) sont parmi les indices de détection de ... [more ▼]

Le carré-moyen non-pondéré U comme indice de détection (unweighted mean square statistics) (Wright & Stone, 1979) et sa version standardisée ZU (Wright, 1980) sont parmi les indices de détection de patrons de réponse inappropriés paramétriques les plus connus. On retrouve l’un et/ou l’autre de ces indices dans des logiciels commerciaux ou gratuits tels que RUMM2030, FACETS ou la librairie R eRm en plus d’en faire mention dans les articles les plus cités sur le sujet (Karabatsos, 2003; Meijer et Sijtsma, 2001). Durant les dernières décennies, quelques voix se sont élevées afin de sensibiliser les utilisateurs aux problèmes que présentent U et ZU (Karabatsos, 2000; Smith, 1991). Ils semblent, en effet, présenter des scores extrêmes qui rendraient leur utilisation inadéquate dans certaines situations. Cette présentation aura comme objectif d’étudier les limites des indices U et ZU. Nous utiliserons une étude de simulation et différents modèles de réponses à l’item dichotomiques afin de soutenir notre propos. Les auteurs de l’étude concluront leur présentation en discutant de l’importance de manipuler ces indices avec précaution. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitut de droit International’s Crisis (1873-1890’)
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailThe Base of Fabia Fabiana from Acci (Guadix, Granada). A Reassessment
Veymiers, Richard ULg; Gasparini, Valentino

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailPsychiatrie et liberté : approche phénoménologique
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, October 22)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg)
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See detailThe Middle Ages: A New Age for the Reception of the Gods of Egypt
Veymiers, Richard ULg

Conference (2016, October 20)

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See detailAnorexie et régulation émotionnelle
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

Conference (2016, October 08)

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See detailA review of Silurian dispersed spore assemblages from the Arabian Plate: biostratigraphy and palaeogeography
Wellman, CH; Steemans, Philippe ULg; Breuer, P et al

Conference (2016, October)

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See detailInfluence of grain boundaries on the COads monolayer oxidation and oxygen reduction reaction kinetics
Asset, Tristan ULg; Chattot, Raphaël; Nelayah, Jaysen et al

Conference (2016, September 12)

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See detailImplications de la perspective en première personne en psychopathologie : le cas de la schizophrénie
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Valentiny, Caroline

Conference (2016, September 08)

Les approches traditionnelles de la schizophrénie en psychiatrie se centrent essentiellement sur une perspective que l’on peut qualifier de perspective en « troisième personne ». Ces considérations ... [more ▼]

Les approches traditionnelles de la schizophrénie en psychiatrie se centrent essentiellement sur une perspective que l’on peut qualifier de perspective en « troisième personne ». Ces considérations tentent, de l’extérieur, de circonscrire les difficultés auxquelles sont confrontées les personnes affectées d’une psychopathologie. Dans le cas de la schizophrénie, les manuels insistent notamment sur les symptômes délirants et hallucinatoires – signes sur lesquels, de facto, le clinicien et le patient ne peuvent s’entendre et rencontrer une phénoménologie commune. Une autre voie d’approche, s’inscrivant dans la tradition phénoménologique, propose d’explorer les phénomènes à partir du discours et du vécu subjectif des patients – dans une perspective en « première personne ». À partir d’une recherche récemment menée, nous explorerons le vécu subjectif de six patients schizophrènes à l’aide de l’échelle EASE (Examination of Anomalous Self-Experience). Cette échelle pose des balises dans la co-construction d’une narrativité permettant l’investigation d’expériences liées aux troubles du soi. Ce choix méthodologique s’ancre dans une volonté de laisser la place à l’étonnement, de ne pas pré-penser, ou le moins possible, le recueil d’expériences. Les analyses des phénomènes décrits par les patients se nourrissent des travaux de la psychopathologie phénoménologique (Blankenburg, Minkowski, Tatossian, Stanghellini, Sass, …) et se veulent un aller-retour constant entre théorie et clinique. Dans ce contexte, nous approfondirons l’hypothèse proposée par Louis Sass selon laquelle la folie, du moins dans certaines de ses formes, pourrait dériver d’une intensification plutôt que d’un affaiblissement de la conscience. L’hyper-réflexivité schizophrénique – indiquant une focalisation explicite et réflexive sur des phénomènes a priori implicites et préréflexifs – sera particulièrement analysée à partir des descriptions recueillies. Après avoir développé, à partir des cas cliniques, cette hypothèse d’une « hyper-conscience » comme symptôme cardinal de l’expérience subjective de la schizophrénie, nous analyserons les implications du recours à la perspective en « première personne » sur la prise en charge, les modèles de soins et la manière de concevoir le rapport au monde de ces patients. [less ▲]

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See detailInterfaces in multi-material architectures fabricated by polyjet printing
Zorzetto, Laura ULg; Rink, Marta; Briatico Vangosa, Francesco et al

Conference (2016, September 07)

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See detailConclusion
Veymiers, Richard ULg

Conference (2016, September)

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See detailGay adoptive families: between stressors and losses. 2 contrasted cases
Messina, Roberta ULg; D'Amore, Salvatore ULg

Conference (2016, September)

Gay adoptive families are more and more present in the European context (currently the full joint adoption by same sex couples is granted in 9 European countries and 4 countries permit the step-child ... [more ▼]

Gay adoptive families are more and more present in the European context (currently the full joint adoption by same sex couples is granted in 9 European countries and 4 countries permit the step-child adoption). Despite the numerous studies on lesbian and gay parent- headed families, the current literature that has focused specifically on gay adoptive parent families remains rather limited. This research has the aim of increase the scientific knowledge on this new family form with the purpose to shed light on typical stressors experienced by parents and by children. The specificity of these families consists, among others, to be at the crossroads of two levels of complexity: being adoptive families and being LG families. Like all LG families, gay adoptive families have to face different stressors such as the lack of support by families of origin and social context, the need to hide their parenting project, the fear to not be considered parents "like the others" and the worry that their children are discriminated because of parents’ homosexuality. In addition to these stressors linked to the family structure, there is the challenge to adopt a child already marked by difficult life experiences and abandonment. The specificity of these families is the product of the difficulties encountered from the couples to became parents and of the experience of loss experienced by the child. The result of this whole meeting, is often found in parents’ strategies to face stressors and in the weight that the loss takes on for the child and in the relational dynamics of the family. Through two contrasting cases we will reflect on the possible adaptive strategies of parents and on the importance of integrating the child history in a new family story in which past, present and future come together and don’t know fractures. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of word stress by French speaking CLIL and non-CLIL learners of Dutch
Hiligsmann, Philippe; Rasier, Laurent ULg; Degrave, Pauline

Conference (2016, September)

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See detailCreating undocumented EU migrants through welfare: The case of Belgium
Lafleur, Jean-Michel ULg; Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2016, September)

In the dual context of increased Central and Eastern European migration and of the global financial and economic crisis, several Northern European Member States have implemented (or debated) reforms of ... [more ▼]

In the dual context of increased Central and Eastern European migration and of the global financial and economic crisis, several Northern European Member States have implemented (or debated) reforms of their welfare regimes to restrict access to migrants coming from other EU Member States. As the debates on the so-called “welfare tourism” are intensifying in different parts of the EU, we can observe a growing trend among Member States to use welfare policies as instruments to limit the mobility of certain EU migrants. This stance is best illustrated with Prime Minister Cameron’s demand for four-year ban on EU migrants claiming in-work benefits. In Belgium, too, EU citizens have been particularly affected by this adverse context as the Migration Office (Office des Etrangers) has intensified controls against EU residents receiving welfare benefits. With this policy, authorities have been using a restrictive interpretation of the European Directive 2004/38 that allows Member States to remove residence permits from EU citizens who represent an “unreasonable burden on state finances”. As a consequence, the number of EU citizens expelled from Belgium on a yearly basis has jumped from 343 to 2,042 between 2010 and 2014. In this paper, we propose to focus on those EU citizens who see their freedom of circulation in the EU restricted after claiming social protection in their country of residence. Relying on fieldwork conducted with Italian and Romanian migrants who experienced the removal of their residence permit, we discuss the different resilience strategies of those EU citizens faced with the legal obligation to leave: such strategies include returning to the homeland, refusing to leave, mobilizing the support of migrant organizations, introducing individual appeals, and seeking to regularize their administrative status. In particular, we shall focus on the experience of EU migrants who have decided to stay in Belgium and experience the status of an undocumented EU migrant. This peculiarity of this status is visible in three respects: 1) expulsion is not enforced by local authorities, 2) migrants continue to be able to circulate between their homeland and the country where they no longer have a residence permit, and 3) they have a possibility to regularize their status if they can demonstrate to municipal authorities that they no longer represent “a burden” on Belgium’s public finances. Overall, confronting our data to the rich literature on undocumented third country nationals, we discuss the limits of EU citizenship as experienced by those who are denied the right to free movement. This paper relies primarily on multi-sited ethnographic fieldwork (in progress) conducted with Italian and Romanian migrants in Brussels and with individuals of the same nationality who decided to leave Belgium and return to their home country after the removal of their residence permit. Additional fieldwork includes semi-directed interviews with civil society organizations, trade unions, and consular authorities. The data collection process started in May 2014 and is expected to be finished in May 2016. [less ▲]

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See detail"Madame Bovary c'est moi"
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (4 ULg)
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See detailOccurrence rates of invasive plants in limestone quarries (Southern Belgium)
Pitz, Carline ULg; Jorion, Alexis ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg et al

Conference (2016, August 23)

In quarries, invasive plant species can slow down the installation of high conservation value vegetation. Successful management of invasive requires, at first, a quantitative assessment of invasion levels ... [more ▼]

In quarries, invasive plant species can slow down the installation of high conservation value vegetation. Successful management of invasive requires, at first, a quantitative assessment of invasion levels. Although European legislation has adopted an ambitious strategy against invasive species, there is still a lack of knowledge about their occurrence in quarries. The aim of this study was to evaluate occurrence rates of invasive plant species in limestone quarries throughout Wallonia (Southern Belgium) and identify high priority and emerging invasive plants for adapted management. During 2016 vegetation period, forty quarries were selected by stratified sampling, using abandoned and active quarries as strata. Within selected quarries, two-meter wide transects were established to cross all activity sectors. Transects were divided in 10x2m plots, resulting in 2% of total surface of each quarry being surveyed. Cover and number of individuals of invasive plants species were recorded in each plot. Species considered were those of Harmonia list (67 species), the reference at the Wallonia scale. More than 30 000 plots were surveyed. Results of our recent study are presented (occurrences rates by species, mean percentage cover per site). First results indicate that dominant invasive species originate from different introduction paths: (i) planted (Robinia pseudoacacia); (ii) ornamentals (Cotoneaster horizontalis) and (iii) spontaneous colonization (Senecio inaequidens) - and follow various invasion dynamics. We propose research and management methods to be directed towards limitation of top ten frequent species (e.g. Buddleia davidii, Senecio inaequidens), and to establish a detection system for the emerging invasive plants. [less ▲]

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See detailOne pot synthesis by plasma treatment of Pt-based catalysts for PEM fuel cells
Busby, Yan; Gulas, Michal; Laurent-Brocq, Mathilde et al

Conference (2016, August 22)

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See detailAggiornamento historiographique sur Godefroid Kurth (XIXème siècle-2016)
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016, August 19)

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See detailMicroorganisms and semiochemicals to manipulate aphidophagous predators
Verheggen, François ULg

Conference (2016, August)

Semiochemicals provide a powerful way for organisms to communicate and coordinate their behaviors. But they also represent opportunities for other organisms to intercept and exploit such signals. There ... [more ▼]

Semiochemicals provide a powerful way for organisms to communicate and coordinate their behaviors. But they also represent opportunities for other organisms to intercept and exploit such signals. There are now numerous examples of natural enemies eavesdropping the intraspecific communication of their prey to better locate them. Aphid natural enemies, including predators and parasitoids, frequently exhibit innate responses to chemical cues reliably associated with aphids, and there is also abundant evidence that learning of profitable chemical cues frequently occurs. Thenceforth, the efficiency of aphid natural enemies to locate their prey is mainly based on their ability to perceive and orientate toward aphid-associated semiochemicals. Aphid predators were shown to respond to different groups of aphid-related semiochemicals, including aphid-induced plant volatiles; aphid pheromones and the more recently identified bacteria-produced honeydew volatiles. These laboratory studies suggest potentially promising avenues for the deployment of aphid-associated semiochemicals for the management of these pest species. While laboratory experiments are invaluable tools for revealing mechanisms, additional field studies are however needed to test ecological relevance of the observed effects. Although it is now possible to attract naturally occurring aphid predators in a crop field using semiochemicals, future work should more fully explore the broader ecological context in which signaling occurs. The information gained from a deeper understanding of the chemical ecology of aphid-natural enemy interaction will enhance our understanding of the chemical biology and ecology of aphids, and may facilitate the design of novel control strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe dual action of neuroestrogens on sexual behavior
Cornil, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2016, August)

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See detailPhonological acquisition in CLIL- and non-CLIL education
Rasier, Laurent ULg

Conference (2016, August)

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See detailEffect of Mechanical Loading on Peri-Implant Bone Remodeling Measured with Time-Lapsed Imaging and Finite Element Analysis
Li, Zihui; Betts, Duncan; Kuhn, Gisela et al

Conference (2016, July 28)

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See detailSelf-inhibition of synthesis reduces antigen presentation of the alcelaphine herpesvirus 1-encoded latency-associated protein, aLANA
Sorel, Océane; Myster, Françoise; Vanderplasschen, Alain et al

Conference (2016, July 23)

Alcelalphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) persistently infects its natural host, the wildebeest, without inducing any clinical signs. However, cross-transmission to other ruminant species leads to the ... [more ▼]

Alcelalphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) persistently infects its natural host, the wildebeest, without inducing any clinical signs. However, cross-transmission to other ruminant species leads to the development of a deadly lymphoproliferative disease named malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). AlHV-1 ORF73 encodes the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)-homolog protein termed aLANA. Similarly to other viral genome maintenance proteins encoded by gammaherpesviruses, aLANA has recently been shown to be essential for viral persistence and induction of MCF. Here we have investigated the self-inhibition of antigen presentation by aLANA and the potential role of such mechanism during the development of MCF. We showed that the GE-rich repeat domain of aLANA was sufficient to inhibit the presentation of an epitope linked to it. Though antigen presentation in absence of GE was dependent upon proteasomal degradation of aLANA, a lack of GE did not affect protein turnover. We further found that similarly to EBNA-1 GAr, aLANA GE downregulated protein self-synthesis. Likewise, such mechanism could be associated with reduced antigen presentation in vitro. In addition, in-frame insertion of GE repeat domain in a heterologous eGFP protein significantly down-regulated protein steady-state levels and self-antigen presentation. Next, we modified the AlHV-1 ORF73 gene sequence to reduce the purine bias in GE, without affecting the peptidic sequence. Such codon-modified aLANA GEm construct displayed increased antigen presentation. Finally, we generated an AlHV-1 recombinant strain expressing a GE-deficient aLANA protein and observed that viral growth was not affected in vitro by the absence of aLANA GE domain and MCF could be induced in rabbits irrespective of the expression of full-length aLANA or GE-deficient aLANA protein. [less ▲]

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See detailLa succession du prince-évêque de Liège dans les biens des ecclésiastiques
Lagasse, Benoît ULg

Conference (2016, July 23)

Explication du régime spécifique au diocèse de Liège de la succession du prince-évêque dans les biens des ecclésiastiques (distinction meubles/immeubles versus distinction biens propres/biens de l'Eglise ... [more ▼]

Explication du régime spécifique au diocèse de Liège de la succession du prince-évêque dans les biens des ecclésiastiques (distinction meubles/immeubles versus distinction biens propres/biens de l'Eglise en droit canonique général). [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating biological indicators in a monitoring network to improve soil quality diagnosis – a case study in Southern Belgium
Krüger, Inken ULg; Chartin, Caroline; van Wesemael, Bas et al

Conference (2016, July 21)

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See detailLa logique de l'espace dans les stemmas de Lucien Tesnière
Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2016, July 19)

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See detailProbing single molecules with the AFM: Force, motion, dynamics, and function
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg

Conference (2016, July 18)

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
See detailCharacterization of FRD3, a zinc and iron homeostasis actor in Arabidopsis relatives
Scheepers, Maxime ULg; Charlier, Jean Benoit; Spielmann, Julien ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 14)

Zinc and iron are two essential micronutrients for plants. The homeostasis networks of the two metals are intertwined. Arabidopsis halleri is a zinc- and cadmium-tolerant and zinc-hyperaccumulating ... [more ▼]

Zinc and iron are two essential micronutrients for plants. The homeostasis networks of the two metals are intertwined. Arabidopsis halleri is a zinc- and cadmium-tolerant and zinc-hyperaccumulating species, which also present adaptation of its iron homeostasis(1,4). Transcriptomic studies identified genes which are constitu-tively over-expressed in Arabidopsis halleri compared to Arabidopsis thaliana and which may have a role in metal tolerance or accumulation(2-4). Among them, a candidate gene encodes the FRD3 (FERRIC REDUCTASE DEFECTIVE 3) protein, a member of the MATE family of membrane transporters. FRD3 is a citrate transporter involved in iron homeostasis(5-7) and plays a role in zinc tolerance in A. thaliana(8). The FRD3 gene displays a complex regulation. In A. thaliana, alternative transcript initiation for FRD3 determines two transcripts, which dif-fer in their 5'UTRs and have differential translation efficiency. The two transcripts are selectively regulated under stress conditions: iron and zinc depletion, zinc excess or cadmium presence(9). In A. halleri, a single highly ex-pressed FRD3 transcript with high translation efficiency is present(9). We are further examining the FRD3 function in zinc and iron homeostasis in A. thaliana and A. halleri. We will present data (i) on the high expression of FRD3 in A. halleri, (ii) on the functional characterization of the two alternative FRD3 transcripts and their role in metal homeostasis in A. thaliana in comparison with the A. halleri FRD3 transcript and (iii) on the zinc phenotypes of the frd3 A. thaliana mutant. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the use of ROC curves in DIF simulation studies
Magis, David ULg; Tuerlinckx, Francis

Conference (2016, July 14)

Simulation studies are often used to compare methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF). However, comparing the performance of such methods can become complicated when the identification of DIF ... [more ▼]

Simulation studies are often used to compare methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF). However, comparing the performance of such methods can become complicated when the identification of DIF items relies on statistics based on pre-defined significance level or on pre-established cutoff values. DIF methods based on conceptually different approaches may therefore become incomparable in terms of summary DIF statistics such as false alarm rate or hit rate. The purpose of this talk is to overcome this analytic issue by introducing receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves in this context. ROC curves allow for global comparison of methods’ performances by computing pairs of (false alarm, hit) rates and representing them on a common scatter plot. Several summary ROC statistics can be considered for further analysis. The application of the ROC curve methodology, together with its limitation and possible extensions, is illustrated by a simple simulation study that compares three score-based DIF methods (Mantel-Haenszel, standardization and Delta plot). [less ▲]

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See detailExamine the effects of two adjustments to the lz statistic
Riley, Barth; Magis, David ULg

Conference (2016, July 14)

Conformity to a known distribution and sensitivity to response aberrance are desirable properties of person-fit statistics. This simulation study examined the joint and independent effects of two ... [more ▼]

Conformity to a known distribution and sensitivity to response aberrance are desirable properties of person-fit statistics. This simulation study examined the joint and independent effects of two adjustments to the standardized log-likelihood statistic (lz): (1) correction of the negatively skewed distribution of lz (Snijders, 2001), and (2) improving the sensitivity of the statistic by employing more accurate estimates of item response probability using symmetric functions (Dimitrov and Smith, 2006). Data were simulated using three test lengths (10, 20, 30 items). Data containing misfitting response patterns were simulated using three aberrant response patterns (cheating, guessing, and inattentiveness), and three levels of aberrance (i.e., proportion of item responses affected by misfit; 10%, 30% and 50%). Data containing no simulated misfitting response patterns were also generated for each test length. Non-misfitting responses were generated using the dichotomous Rasch measurement model. For each combination of independent variables, a dataset was generated consisting of 5,000 simulees. Four fit statistics were compared: lz, lz* (Snijders adjustment), lzSYM (Dimitrov and Smith adjustment), and lzSYM* (both adjustments). Mean Type I error rates were ≤ 0.1 across all conditions. The lz* statistic produced the best control of Type I error, which was often below the nominal Type I error rate, whereas the empirical Type I error rate for the unadjusted lz statistic most closely approximated the nominal rate. In contrast, lzSYM and lzSYM* yielded empirical Type I error rates larger than the nominal rate, with the discrepancy being particularly pronounced as the length of the test decreased. As might be expected, power to detect misfitting response patterns increased with test length and with the percentage of misfitting response patterns in the sample. Both lzSYM and lzSYM* evidenced improved power in detecting misfitting response patterns compared to lz and lz*, particularly for guessing response patterns and/or on shorter (i.e., 10 item) tests. [less ▲]

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See detailOpen source programming: a new hope for psychometric research
Magis, David ULg

Conference (2016, July 14)

Current psychometric research is most often supported by computer software. New research perspectives often imply intensive simulation studies to validate the tested theories or hypotheses, and therefore ... [more ▼]

Current psychometric research is most often supported by computer software. New research perspectives often imply intensive simulation studies to validate the tested theories or hypotheses, and therefore require accurate, fast and stable implementation. To this regards, open source programming (such as in the R language) is a promising approach allowing for flexible implementation, data generation, replication of studies, and worldwide dissemination. The purpose of this talk is to illustrate how psychometrics and open source programming (with special emphasis on the R language) can interact and contribute to each other, by means of some selected examples. Several topics will be illustrated, among others: why open source programming is (to my opinion) as important as psychometric research; why we need for stable and complete implementation of psychometric and statistical routines for research purposes (for e.g., CAT); how accurate implementation of IRT routines can lead to unexpected theoretical results; why (and how) open source software can be valued as research output. Most examples will arise from the CAT framework and the R package catR for simulating CAT patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailA Crypt of Swipes. Charles Burns Haunted by Tintin
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

Conference (2016, July 13)

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See detailShaping (im)mobility in border camps: a case study of the transformation of Calais camps and its actors
Da Silva, Amanda Carolina ULg

Conference (2016, July 13)

This paper explores the transition of informal temporary camps on the French border to a sustainable state, and discusses how local policy decisions and non-state actors worked together for the ... [more ▼]

This paper explores the transition of informal temporary camps on the French border to a sustainable state, and discusses how local policy decisions and non-state actors worked together for the implementation of a semi-permanent exclusion system based on the refugee crisis. I observe this issue as a result of a securitization process. The securitization apparatus (speech acts and policies), produced the immobility of a group. In the other hand actors will emerge to produce mobility. When a situation is defined as a crisis, atypical actions can be employed to protect the «political community». I started from the assumption that dialectic relation between securitization and camps actors had a high impact on the projects of refugees, and so long in their mobility. This is a question of integration policies at the local level. I aim to highlight the local level relevance, where the integration is primarily implemented, and therefore local and regional context should matter as much as the national model for integration (Martiniello, 2013). In Calais, due to the lack of immigrants policies, civilians associations started to react and build informal camps, but due to recent "crisis" the Stat concentrated all refugees in a single camp, 6 kilometers from the city center, called bidonville. [less ▲]

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See detailFailure multiscale simulations of composite laminates based on a non-local mean-field damage-enhanced homogenization
Wu, Ling ULg; Adam, Laurent; Doghri, Issam et al

Conference (2016, July 12)

A multiscale method is developed to study the failure of carbon fiber reinforced composites. In order to capture the intra-laminar failure, a non-local mean-field homogenization (MFH) method accounting ... [more ▼]

A multiscale method is developed to study the failure of carbon fiber reinforced composites. In order to capture the intra-laminar failure, a non-local mean-field homogenization (MFH) method accounting for the damage evolution of the matrix phase of the composite material [1] is considered. In that formulation, an incremental-secant MFH approach is used to account for the elastic unloading of the fibers during the strain softening of the matrix. In order to avoid the strain/damage localization caused by the matrix material softening, an implicit non-local method [2] was reformulated to account for the composite material anisotropy. As a result, accurate predictions of the composite softening behavior and of the different phases response is possible, even for volume ratios of inclusions around 60%. In particular it is shown that the damage propagation direction in each ply follows the fiber orientation in agreement with experimental data. The delamination process is modeled by recourse to a hybrid discontinuous Galerkin (DG)/ extrinsic cohesive law approach. As for the extrinsic cohesive law (ECL), which represents the fracturing response only, and for which cohesive elements are inserted at failure onset, the method does not suffer from a mesh-dependent effect. However, because of the underlying discontinuous Galerkin method, interface elements are present since the very beginning of the simulation avoiding the need to propagate topological changes in the mesh with the propagation of the delamination. Moreover, the pre-failure response is accurately captured by the material law though the DG implementation, by contrast to usual intrinsic cohesive laws. As a demonstration of the efficiency and accuracy of the method, a composite laminate with a quasi-isotropic sequence ([90/45/-45/90/0]S) and an open-hole geometry is studied using the multiscale method [3] and the results are compared to experimental data. The numerical model is found to predict the damage bands along the fiber directions as observed in the experimental samples inspected by X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Moreover, the predicted delamination pattern is found to match the experimental observations. REFERENCES [1] L. Wu, L. Noels, L. Adam, I. Doghri, An implicit-gradient-enhanced incremental-secant mean- field homogenization scheme for elasto-plastic composites with damage, International Journal of Solids and Structures, 50, 3843-3860, 2013. [2] R. Peerlings, R. de Borst, W. Brekelmans, S. Ayyapureddi, Gradient-enhanced damage for quasi-brittle materials. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, 39, 3391-3403, 1996. [3] L. Wu, F. Sket, J.M. Molina-Aldareguia, A. Makradi, L. Adam, I. Doghri, L. Noels, A study of composite laminates failure using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced damage mean-field homogenization model, Composite Structures, 126, 246–264, 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailMean-Field-Homogenization-based stochastic multiscale methods for composite materials
Wu, Ling ULg; Lucas, Vincent ULg; Adam, Laurent et al

Conference (2016, July 12)

When considering a homogenization-based multiscale approach, at each integration-point of the macro-structure, the material properties are obtained from the resolution of a micro-scale boundary value ... [more ▼]

When considering a homogenization-based multiscale approach, at each integration-point of the macro-structure, the material properties are obtained from the resolution of a micro-scale boundary value problem. At the micro-level, the macro-point is viewed as the center of a Representative Volume Element (RVE). However, to be representative, the micro-volume-element should have a size much bigger than the micro-structure size. For composite materials which suffer from a large property and geometrical dispersion, either this requires RVE of sizes which cannot usually be obtained numerically, or simply the structural properties exhibit a scatter at the macro-scale. In both cases, the representativity of the micro-scale volume element is lost and Statistical Volume Elements (SVE) [1] should be considered in order to account for the micro-structural uncertainties, which should in turn be propagated to the macro-scale in order to predict the structural properties in a probabilistic way. In this work we propose a non-deterministic multi-scale approach for composite materials following the methodology set in [2]. Uncertainties on the meso-scale properties and their (spatial) correlations are first evaluated through the homogenization of SVEs. This homogenization combines both mean-field method in order to gain efficiency and computational homogenization to evaluate the spatial correlation. A generator of the meso-scale material tensor is then implemented using the spectral method [3]. As a result, a meso-scale random field can be generated, paving the way to the use of stochastic finite elements to study the probabilistic behavior of macro-scale structures. [1] M. Ostoja-Starzewski, X.Wang, Stochastic finite elements as a bridge between random material microstructure and global response, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 168, 35–49, 1999. [2] V. Lucas, J.-C. Golinval, S. Paquay, V.-D. Nguyen, L. Noels, L. Wu, A stochastic computational multiscale approach; Application to MEMS resonators. Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 294, 141–167, 2015. [3] Shinozuka, M., Deodatis, G. Simulation of stochastic processes by spectral representation. Appl. Mech. Rev., 1991: 44(4): 191-204, 1991. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion des flux patients et surpopulation des urgences : Heurs et malheurs de la fonction de « Bed Manager ».
GILLET, Aline ULg; Minder, Anaïs ULg; Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 11)

For many years, emergency departments (ED) overcrowding has become a major issue in Public Health. Many studies have demonstrated the efficiency of flow management coordination on this recurrent problem ... [more ▼]

For many years, emergency departments (ED) overcrowding has become a major issue in Public Health. Many studies have demonstrated the efficiency of flow management coordination on this recurrent problem, by offering an interface between the ED, the hospital and out-of-hospital structures and by coordinating patients’ movements towards hospital care units. This was the basis for the implementation of "bed management" coordination program in the ED of the University Hospital of Liège in January 2014. The present study evaluates the adequacy of the Bed Manager (BM) activity with actual ED and hospital workload. Our results describe the rate of intra-hospital patients’ transfers according to the adequacy of the destination unit and time delays for these transfers. Head nurses from specific care units were interrogated about their perceptions of BM activity. We are now convinced by the importance of a participative approach in the development of ED bed management and working procedures, as well as the usefulness of further studies to explore this complex activity. [less ▲]

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See detailComputerized adaptive testing and multistage testing with R
Magis, David ULg; Yan, Duanli; von Davier, Alina

Conference (2016, July 11)

The goal of this workshop is to provide a practical (and brief) overview of the theory on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST), and illustrate the methodologies and ... [more ▼]

The goal of this workshop is to provide a practical (and brief) overview of the theory on computerized adaptive testing (CAT) and multistage testing (MST), and illustrate the methodologies and applications using R open source language and several data examples. The implementations rely on the R packages catR and mstR that have been already or are being developed and include some of the newest research algorithms developed by the authors. This workshop will cover several topics: the basics of R, theoretical overview of CAT and MST, CAT and MST designs, assembly methodologies, catR and mstR packages, simulations and applications. The intended audience for the workshop is undergraduate/graduate students, faculty, researchers, practitioners at testing institutions, and anyone in psychometrics, measurement, education, psychology and other fields who is interested in computerized adaptive and multistage testing, especially in practical implementations of simulation using R. [less ▲]

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See detailHieroglyphic encoding: The Thot Sign-List (TSL) data model and the hieroglyphic signs in Unicode
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

Conference (2016, July 11)

In this paper, we review issues related to the existing hieroglyphic sign-lists, focusing especially on the problematic aspects of the 'Manuel de Codage' (1988) and of the so-called 'Hieroglyphica' (2000 ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we review issues related to the existing hieroglyphic sign-lists, focusing especially on the problematic aspects of the 'Manuel de Codage' (1988) and of the so-called 'Hieroglyphica' (2000) for font-designers and users alike. We propose and discuss a data model for the Thot Sign-List (TSL, in prep.). This data model shall lead to the implementation of a structured and systematically referenced hieroglyphic repertoire, which should ultimately allow a sound extension of the Egyptian Hieroglyphs in Unicode. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale study of the Carolingian mosaic of Germigny-des-Prés (Loiret, Fr
Van Wersch, Line ULg; Kronz, L.; Simon, K. et al

Conference (2016, July 08)

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See detailDiversity and evolution of transposable elements in the Arabidopsis lyrata and A. halleri genomes
Caron, Thibault; Legrand, Sylvain; Schvartzman Echenique, Maria Sol ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 07)

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See detailDu tableau au plan. Remake et transmédialité dans "Shirley" (2013) de Gustav Deutsch
Belloi, Livio ULg

Conference (2016, July 06)

Cette communication prend pour objet "Shirley" (2013), le dernier en date des films de Gustav Deutsch. Dans ce film de fiction, l'artiste autrichien vise à recréer, à incarner et à animer treize tableaux ... [more ▼]

Cette communication prend pour objet "Shirley" (2013), le dernier en date des films de Gustav Deutsch. Dans ce film de fiction, l'artiste autrichien vise à recréer, à incarner et à animer treize tableaux du grand peintre américain Edward Hopper. Partant de ce constat, il s'agit d'étudier au plus près les enjeux théoriques et esthétiques dont ce remake transmédial est porteur. [less ▲]

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See detailDébattre la mesure : l'imagination sociologique de Steve reich
Orianne, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2016, July 06)

Cette communication vise à identifier les apports de la musique de Steve Reich à la sociologie. Sa musique présente trois caractéristiques majeures : elle se compose à partir d’un matériau empirique ... [more ▼]

Cette communication vise à identifier les apports de la musique de Steve Reich à la sociologie. Sa musique présente trois caractéristiques majeures : elle se compose à partir d’un matériau empirique recueilli sur le terrain ; elle est un acte politique et culturel ; elle est une théorie des processus. La musique de Steve Reich affecte la sociologie sur ces trois points : elle interpelle le sociologue sur son métier et son engagement dans le monde social, l’interroge sur ses pratiques et ses méthodes, elle éclaire même ses propres concepts (en particulier celui de processus). L’auteur propose d’extraire du travail de composition de Steve Reich quelques éléments utiles pour le métier de sociologue : 1) une contribution à la théorie des processus sociaux ; 2) la question du rapport à l’empirie ; 3) le problème de l’engagement (politique, moral et culturel). [less ▲]

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See detailInsight on Van Dongen’s La Violoiste by hyperspectral imaging and MA-XRF
Herens, Elodie ULg; Strivay, David ULg; Walter, Philippe et al

Conference (2016, July 06)

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See detailLe stéthoscope au bout du clavier : la médecine générale belge à l'ère de l'e-Santé
Slomian, Cynthia ULg

Conference (2016, July 06)

Cette communication se propose d’explorer l’informatisation de la médecine générale en Belgique. Nous parcourrons la sociologie de la santé dans la littérature, en revenant sur les approches s’intéressant ... [more ▼]

Cette communication se propose d’explorer l’informatisation de la médecine générale en Belgique. Nous parcourrons la sociologie de la santé dans la littérature, en revenant sur les approches s’intéressant aux rôles respectifs du médecin et du malade (Parsons, 1951), à la division du travail médical (Freidson, 1984) et également à la segmentation de la profession médicale (Bucher et Strauss, 1961). Nous intégrerons ensuite un nouvel élément au raisonnement sociologique afin de compléter et dépasser les approches traditionnelles : la digitalisation de la pratique médicale. En effet, il paraît indispensable de comprendre les implications, d’une part, de l’utilisation de plus en plus fréquente des TIC par les médecins et, d’autre part, du partage de données de santé, qui est au cœur de nombre de politiques publiques en Europe et ailleurs à l’heure actuelle. Plus précisément, nous reviendrons sur les changements récents dans le paysage belge des soins de santé, qui intègre l’e-Santé au cœur des politiques publiques depuis 2013. L’étude de documents ainsi que du discours des acteurs institutionnels constituera les fondements de l’analyse exploratoire proposée. Nous espérons ainsi montrer pourquoi la sociologie de la médecine doit intégrer le numérique comme élément essentiel de compréhension pour étudier les relations entre professionnels de la santé, mais également pour considérer le colloque singulier médecin-patient sous un jour nouveau. [less ▲]

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See detailLa production en masse de microalgues: limitations actuelles, perspectives d'amélioration et applications dans le domanaine des pigments valorisables
Franck, Fabrice ULg

Conference (2016, July 06)

Actuellement les productions industrielles de microalgues sont exploitées pour diverses applications commerciales. Les cultures sont le plus souvent réalisées sur le mode photoautotrophe, c’est-à-dire ... [more ▼]

Actuellement les productions industrielles de microalgues sont exploitées pour diverses applications commerciales. Les cultures sont le plus souvent réalisées sur le mode photoautotrophe, c’est-à-dire basées sur l’absorption de lumière pour l’incorporation du carbone du CO2 dans la biomasse. Bien que les productivités atteignent des valeurs respectables par rapport aux rendements agricoles, elles restent limitées par de faibles rendements de conversion de l’énergie solaire, en comparaison avec le rendement théorique maximum. Les raisons généralement évoquées pour expliquer cette limitation sont principalement l’atténuation de la lumière dans les cultures et la saturation de la photosynthèse en surface. Les pistes d’amélioration proposées concernent d’une part la géométrie des systèmes de culture et, d’autre part, l’amélioration génétique des souches de microalgues en vue d’une meilleure efficience énergétique. Des cultures hétérotrophes en fermenteur sont également en développement. Avec les limitations actuelles de productivité, les coûts de production restent élevés pour des applications à faible valeur ajoutée. Les pigments des microalgues, par leur variété et leurs multiples débouchés, représentent une catégorie en expansion de produits économiquement viables. Ils comprennent principalement les caroténoïdes de microalgues vertes et de diatomées, ainsi que les phycobilines des cyanobactéries. [less ▲]

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See detailGamifier un quiz – Effet graduel sur la performance, l’immersion et la perception de compétence
le Maire, Nathalie ULg; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Colaux, Catherine ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 06)

Dans un contexte marqué par l’arrivée d’une génération pour laquelle les technologies, les réseaux sociaux et les jeux en ligne relèvent de l’évidence (Stein, 2013; Weiler, 2004), le jeu a souvent été ... [more ▼]

Dans un contexte marqué par l’arrivée d’une génération pour laquelle les technologies, les réseaux sociaux et les jeux en ligne relèvent de l’évidence (Stein, 2013; Weiler, 2004), le jeu a souvent été qualifié de véhicule d’une pédagogie rendant l’étudiant acteur de son apprentissage, conférant une dimension de défi aux activités éducatives et générant une motivation intrinsèque (Foster, 2008; Kang & Tan, 2008; McFarlane et al., 2002; Mitchell & Savill-Smith, 2004; Papastergiou, 2009). Ce potentiel éducatif du jeu a cependant été souvent associé à des jeux immersifs (de Freitas, 2006) requérant la mise en œuvre d’une trame narrative et dont le développement peut s’avérer couteux. L’utilisation de mini-jeux est considérée comme une solution alternative à ces « serious games » complexes car ils permettent d’enseigner un grand nombre de concepts tout en générant de faibles coûts de développement (Illanas, Gallego, Satorre, & Llorens, 2008). Ceux-ci présentent des règles basiques, sont faciles à jouer et conçus comme objets d’apprentissage de sorte qu’il soit aisé pour l’étudiant de percevoir les informations essentielles et que leur pratique soit bénéfique pour l’apprentissage (Frazer, Argles, & Wills, 2007). La gamification, à savoir la transposition des principes issus de l’univers du jeu au domaine de l’éducation (Deterding, Dixon, Khaled, & Nacke, 2011), ne porte donc pas ici sur des jeux de simulation immersifs mais vise plus réalistement la transposition à des activités d’apprentissage d’un certain nombre de principes et de leviers à l’œuvre dans des mini-jeux populaires tel que Candy Crush. La question de recherche qui a guidé l’expérience décrite ci-après concerne l’évaluation du potentiel pédagogique de l’utilisation d’un mini-jeu de ce type dans un cours de chimie générale en complément des supports pédagogiques plus classiquement utilisés en première année d’université. Concrètement, ce mini-jeu appelé « Atomica » se présente comme un quiz d’entrainement portant sur un chapitre réputé difficile du cours, l’atomistique. Ce quiz a fait l’objet de quatre versions activant chacune un nombre croissant d’éléments de gamification (indiqués en gras) décrits par plusieurs auteurs comme étant les « ingrédients » ou « building blocks » d’un bon jeu (Bunchball Inc., 2010; Dignan, 2011; Reeves & Read, 2013) : - La version contrôle du QCM se présente comme similaire aux évaluations formatives couramment utilisées à l’université ; - La version 1 segmente le QCM en six niveaux de difficulté ; - La version 2 ajoute un feedback automatisé aux niveaux de difficulté ; - La version 3 présente une version maximaliste de la gamification puisque, aux éléments précédents, elle ajoute un compte à rebours, des indices dont l’appel engendre une perte de points, un classement des meilleurs joueurs et un indicateur social (possibilité de se situer par rapport à la communauté de joueurs). Ce choix d’un dispositif graduel se justifie notamment par l’intérêt pour la détection d’un seuil à partir duquel l’ajout d’éléments de gamification fait basculer la perception d’un quiz habituel vers un artefact relevant du mini-jeu et générant ainsi un état de flow chez le joueur. Chaque version a été soumise à un groupe d’une trentaine d’étudiants, selon une procédure expérimentale contrôlée, avec pour objectif la collecte de données (en cours) sur : - L’état de flow ou expérience optimale engendré par chacune des versions (orientation comparative) défini comme un état subjectif de bien-être (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) engendrant une immersion totale dans l’activité. Afin de mesurer le flow, une échelle spécifique aux jeux éducatifs (EGameFlow) développée en 2009 (Fu, Su, & Yu, 2009) a été utilisée dans le cadre de cette étude. - Une des trois composantes du modèle de la dynamique motivationnelle de Viau, la perception du sentiment de compétence (Bandura, 1993; Pajares, 2014) considéré comme un moteur essentiel à l’apprentissage et un déterminant de l’intérêt pour une discipline scolaire. - La performance à un test de connaissance soumis aux étudiants avant et après l’expérience de jeu. Les motivations sous-tendant le processus d’exploration des mini-jeux sont à chercher du côté d’un certain discours pédagogique qui prône l’inscription d’une dimension ludique dans les apprentissages en enseignement supérieur. Nourrie par ses résultats expérimentaux, la communication proposera un retour réflexif plus général sur la valeur, les limitations et les conditions de réalisation de ce discours. [less ▲]

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See detailL'efficacité des pratiques d'enseignement de la compréhension en lecture : diversité des voies de la recherche actuelle
Bishop, Marie-France; Crinon, Jacques; De Croix, Séverine ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 05)

De nombreux élèves s’approprient avec difficulté les pratiques langagières de l’école, ce qui handicape lourdement tous leurs apprentissages et la suite de leur scolarité. Plus particulièrement, un ... [more ▼]

De nombreux élèves s’approprient avec difficulté les pratiques langagières de l’école, ce qui handicape lourdement tous leurs apprentissages et la suite de leur scolarité. Plus particulièrement, un déficit dans le domaine de la compréhension peut se manifester au début de l’enseignement primaire, moment des premiers apprentissages en lecture et écriture. Il est également susceptible d’apparaitre lors de l’entrée dans le secondaire, moment où l’écrit est utilisé pour s’approprier des connaissances et où sont par conséquent sollicités, dans les différentes disciplines scolaires, de nouveaux modes de lecture, peu enseignés de façon explicite. Est-il possible d’agir face aux difficultés persistantes des élèves, et d’accroitre la capacité du système éducatif à développer les acquis scolaires, en particulier ceux des élèves issus des milieux les plus précaires ? Quelles pratiques enseignantes s’avèrent les plus efficaces dans le domaine de la compréhension, et comment amener les maitres à les adopter ? Pour apporter une réponse rigoureuse, il semble pertinent de développer des recherches à large échelle et de décrire l’interaction entre les pratiques enseignantes et les performances des élèves, par le biais de prises de mesures fiables. Le symposium comportera cinq communications, issues de deux équipes de pays différents, qui toutes deux ont mené de vastes recherches empiriques sur l’efficacité des pratiques d’enseignement de la lecture-écriture, l’une à l’école élémentaire ("Lire et écrire au CP", en France) et l’autre au premier degré de l’enseignement secondaire ("Lirécrire pour apprendre", en Belgique). Les voies de recherche empruntées relèvent d’approches méthodologiques différentes : d’une part, une approche écologique, centrée sur l’analyse et l’évaluation des pratiques ordinaires de classe ; d’autre part, une approche de type expérimental, avec introduction d’un programme didactique structuré. Le symposium sera l’occasion de questionner l’intérêt, la pertinence, les limites, les difficultés de ces options méthodologiques, et de mettre en évidence leur complémentarité. En outre, chaque intervention traitera, d’une manière ou d’une autre, de la question transversale des enjeux sociaux de nos recherches. En particulier, l’on cherchera à interroger les caractéristiques des pratiques enseignantes qui se révèlent les moins différenciatrices socialement, et à vérifier la capacité de certaines de ces pratiques à faire progresser tous les élèves. Chacune des deux recherches fera l’objet d’une communication introductive qui explicitera le questionnement à l’origine de la recherche, les hypothèses, les objectifs et la méthodologie, et reprendra quelques résultats majeurs. Par ailleurs, trois communications exploreront, sur la base de données ciblées, des questions spécifiques, en lien avec l’efficacité des pratiques d’enseignement de la compréhension en lecture : - Quels sont, d’une part, les mécanismes par lesquels l’école contribue à aggraver les inégalités scolaires dans le domaine de la lecture-compréhension et, d’autre part, les pratiques susceptibles de faire progresser les élèves qui n’ont que l’école pour apprendre ? - Comment la mise en œuvre d’un outil didactique conçu à partir des besoins des plus faibles lecteurs amène-t-elle les enseignants à ajuster leurs pratiques de classe, et quels rôles les dispositifs de formation et/ou d’accompagnement peuvent-ils jouer dans l’appropriation d’un tel outil ? [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond national accounting figures: how quantification practices reshape the state
Piron, Damien ULg

Conference (2016, July 05)

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See detail"Lirécrire pour apprendre": enjeux et méthodologie d'une recherche expérimentale en milieu naturel
Wyns, Marielle; De Croix, Séverine ULg; Dellisse, Sébastien et al

Conference (2016, July 05)

Les spécificités et les difficultés de la « lecture pour apprendre » au début du secondaire sont à l’origine du projet de recherche longitudinale de type expérimental « Lirécrire pour apprendre ». Ses ... [more ▼]

Les spécificités et les difficultés de la « lecture pour apprendre » au début du secondaire sont à l’origine du projet de recherche longitudinale de type expérimental « Lirécrire pour apprendre ». Ses principaux objectifs sont : d’expérimenter un programme didactique centré sur le développement de la compréhension et de la production des textes à visée informative, de tester la valeur de cet outil sur un large échantillon d’élèves de première année de l’enseignement secondaire, et d’évaluer les conditions d’implémentation et de mise en œuvre de l’outil les plus favorables au changement de pratiques pédagogiques et au maintien de l’innovation. Pendant deux ans (2014-2016), un instrument didactique est expérimenté dans 85 classes de français de première secondaire, issues de 19 établissements belges contrastés (en termes d’indice socio-économique). Cet outil, centré sur l’enseignement explicite des stratégies de compréhension en lecture, a été élaboré dans le souci de prendre en compte les difficultés langagières que rencontrent de nombreux élèves face aux usages scolaires des écrits informatifs (Nonnon, 2007 ; Cèbe & Goigoux, 2007). Il est mis en œuvre par 19 enseignants, répartis dans trois conditions : un groupe « contrôle » et deux conditions expérimentales – les enseignants bénéficient, dans la première de ces conditions, d’une formation à l’utilisation de l’outil ; dans la seconde, de cette même formation et d’un accompagnement en équipe. Dans le cadre de cette communication introductive, nous présenterons les constats à l’origine de la recherche, ainsi que les hypothèses de départ. Nous mettrons ensuite en lumière les enjeux d’une telle recherche, dans les domaines de l’accompagnement des difficultés de lecture au début du secondaire (Baye, Lafontaine, Vanhulle, 2003), et du changement de pratiques des enseignants (Rowan & Miller, 2007). Nous présenterons enfin le design de la recherche, décrirons et questionnerons la méthodologie utilisée pour la collecte de données et les analyses engagées et envisagées. D’autres résultats de recherche – relatifs, d’une part, aux effets de l’instrument didactique sur les performances des élèves en lecture et, d’autre part, aux conditions d’appropriation de l’outil par les enseignants – seront détaillés dans deux communications également présentées dans ce symposium. [less ▲]

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See detailThe economic effectiveness of economic land supply
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg; Vandermeer, Marie-Caroline

Conference (2016, July 05)

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See detailStocks de Carbone Organique et des incertitudes
Chartin, Caroline; Krüger, Inken ULg; Carnol, Monique ULg et al

Conference (2016, July 05)

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See detailQuelles conditions favorisent le changement de pratiques lors de la mise en oeuvre d'un dispositif didactique?
Dellisse; De Croix, Séverine ULg; Dumay, Xavier et al

Conference (2016, July 05)

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See detailInterkultureller Transfer und Transformation von Literatur am Beispiel von Herta Müllers "Atemschaukel" und seiner französischen Übersetzung "La bascule du souffle" von Claire de Oliveira
Houscheid, Karin ULg

Conference (2016, July 04)

Wird ein literarisches Werk in eine andere Sprache übersetzt, kommt es nicht nur zu einem sprachlichen, sondern auch zu einem kulturellen Transfer von Literatur. Bei diesem Transfer erfährt das Werk ... [more ▼]

Wird ein literarisches Werk in eine andere Sprache übersetzt, kommt es nicht nur zu einem sprachlichen, sondern auch zu einem kulturellen Transfer von Literatur. Bei diesem Transfer erfährt das Werk unterschiedliche Transformationen, die unter anderem der Adaptation an den jeweiligen Sprach- und Kulturraum dienen. Welche Transformationen ein literarisches Werk beim Übergang in einen anderen Sprach- und Kulturraum erfährt, mit welchen Vermarktungs- und Gestaltungsstrategien es dem neuen Zielpublikum angepasst wird und wie dieses „neue“ Werk im Anschluss von seinen Lesern rezipiert wird, soll am Beispiel von Herta Müllers Atemschaukel und seiner französischen Übersetzung La bascule du souffle von Claire de Oliveira dargelegt werden. Dazu wird auf die unterschiedliche Gestaltung der Cover, die Übersetzung des Titels, den werbenden Klappentext und die damit verbundenen Strategien der Verlage eingegangen. Die Analyse der Rezeptionszeugnisse erlaubt es anschließend zu überprüfen, inwiefern die interkulturellen Transferstrategien die Lektüre und das Urteil der Leser beeinflussen. [less ▲]

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See detailHow elites talk about their political career: Metaphors in spontaneous and informal political discourse
Heyvaert, Pauline ULg

Conference (2016, July 02)

It has often been acknowledged that political discourse is a genre that naturally allows for metaphor use. Moreover, recent research has demonstrated the importance of analysing the political impact of ... [more ▼]

It has often been acknowledged that political discourse is a genre that naturally allows for metaphor use. Moreover, recent research has demonstrated the importance of analysing the political impact of these metaphors: “Examining metaphors that appear in political discourse provides insights into the way speakers understand their situation, and how they seek to accomplish their ends” (Ritchie, 2013). Previous research (Perrez&Reuchamps, 2014) has demonstrated the usefulness of applying Steen’s three-dimensional model of metaphor analysis in communication to a corpus of political discourse. I therefore propose to apply this model to a particular type of elite discourse. The corpus used for this research consists of biographical interviews conducted with Walloon politicians, each describing at length their personal political career within the political dynamics of their country. This corpus offers an interesting ground of investigation because of its spontaneous and informal character. Moreover, most studies on the use of metaphors in political discourse tend to focus on elite discourse with the underlying assumption that elites might knowingly use metaphors to convince the audience. What is interesting with our corpus, is that the interviews do not have a clear addressee or audience. Analysing the form, and particularly the metaphor use of these interviews comes with a number of questions: (i) do politicians use metaphors in spontaneous discourse; (ii) if so, when and (iii) why do they use these metaphors, i.e. do they use them with a specific purpose, as for example explaining a complex political issue, or not? To assess the extent to which politicians use metaphors in spontaneous discourse, we conducted a corpus analysis by applying the MIPVU procedure (Steen et al., 2010) in order to identify potential metaphorical contexts. In line with Steen’s three-dimensional model, we subsequently analysed the identified metaphors by making a distinction between three different layers of metaphor, respectively at the linguistic, conceptual and communicative level. [less ▲]

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See detailHeritage Conservation in River Corridor Cities. The Case of Tripoli, Lebanon.
Ginzarly, Manal ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

Conference (2016, July)

This article recognizes rivers as cultural heritage landscapes, as an integral component of cities common heritage and an element of collective memory and identity. It is based on the consideration that ... [more ▼]

This article recognizes rivers as cultural heritage landscapes, as an integral component of cities common heritage and an element of collective memory and identity. It is based on the consideration that analysis of the socio-spatial relationship between the river and urban structure at different historical period can further lead to knowledge about the river contribution in forming the identity and sense of place of an urban area. This knowledge can be used to inform urban conservation as well as development practices to support the integral spatial and cultural relation between the city and the river in order to maintain the character of river city. This article takes the historic core in the city of Tripoli, Lebanon as a case study where conservation practices have followed a monument centric approach focusing on the restoration of heritage buildings and sites and neglecting the cultural value of the Abu Ali River flowing through the city. It conducts a multi- dimensional morphological analysis that is based on archival review and field work to extract the social value of the river and its contribution to the urban morphology of the city. [less ▲]

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See detailBioclimatism in Architecture : an evolutionary perspective from vernacular architecture to eco-adaptive architecture
Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2016, July)

The well-known Darwinian evolutionary theory (1859) introduced natural selection as the most important mechanism of evolutionary processes at every level from biological systems, including species ... [more ▼]

The well-known Darwinian evolutionary theory (1859) introduced natural selection as the most important mechanism of evolutionary processes at every level from biological systems, including species, individual organisms… to molecules such as DNA or proteins. In architecture we observe similar evolution processes which lead to the development of various architectural movements and concepts from common primitive living structures. The study points out that the development of bioclimatism in architecture has followed the pattern of a natural evolutionary process in which “natural selection” is likely motivated by several factors, including resources and environment problems, and driven by different mechanisms including novel building design concepts and methods, new standards and codes, discoveries in building science and construction costs. Finally, this study investigates new motivations in the era of climate change whose effects are expected to introduce more challenges as well as more trends towards a sustainable built environment through the new concept of Eco-adaptive architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom nature to culture? Lévi-Strauss' legacy and the study of contemporary foodways
Mescoli, Elsa ULg; Graf, Katharina

Conference (2016, July)

n the first volume of his Mythologiques, entitled The Raw and the Cooked, Claude Lévi-Strauss argued that the preparation of food is a form of language that reveals a society's structure. For Lévi-Strauss ... [more ▼]

n the first volume of his Mythologiques, entitled The Raw and the Cooked, Claude Lévi-Strauss argued that the preparation of food is a form of language that reveals a society's structure. For Lévi-Strauss, the so-called culinary triangle of the raw, the rotten and the cooked represents a semantic field within which the various forms of transformation of food from nature into culture play a key role. Since Lévi-Strauss, following extensive changes to food production, preparation and consumption, the notion of cooking has become ever more diversified, and became increasingly contentious. Yet, the multiple ways of combining and processing ingredients still give social and cultural meanings to food and trigger the creation of sociabilities and belongings through its own destruction (Gell 1986). This panel aims to explore Levi-Strauss' legacy and evaluate its usefulness in today's context from different angles, ranging from domestic food preparation to industrial production and global circulations of food. To what extent can this concept still provide an interpretative framework of topical food issues? Which contemporary myths does it shed light on? How could it be deployed to read the history of food and link it to contemporary questions? This panel welcomes papers on the history of food preparation, contemporary food preparation, including debates in professional and multimedia circles, various forms of food production and the possible transformation of food within globalised food markets. Although mobilizing a classic anthropological theory, this panel aims to be interdisciplinary and to present a diverse range of analytical perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailQuadratic reformulations of nonlinear binary optimization problems
Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2016, July)

A {\em pseudo-Boolean function} is a real-valued function $f(x)=f(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)$ of $n$ binary variables, that is, a mapping from $\{0,1\}^n$ to $\mathbf R$. \emph{Nonlinear binary optimization ... [more ▼]

A {\em pseudo-Boolean function} is a real-valued function $f(x)=f(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)$ of $n$ binary variables, that is, a mapping from $\{0,1\}^n$ to $\mathbf R$. \emph{Nonlinear binary optimization problems} of the form \begin{equation}\label{eq:PBO} \min \{ f(x) : x \in \{0,1\}^n \}, \end{equation}, where $f$ is a pseudo-Boolean function expressed as a multilinear polynomial in its variables, are notoriously difficult. For a pseudo-Boolean function $f(x)$ on $\{0,1\}^n$, we say that $g(x,y)$ is a \emph{quadratization} of $f$ if $g(x,y)$ is a quadratic polynomial depending on $x$ and on $m$ \emph{auxiliary} binary variables $y_1,y_2,\ldots,y_m$ such that $f(x)= \min \{ g(x,y) : y \in \{0,1\}^m \} $ for all $x \in \{0,1\}^n$. By means of quadratizations, minimization of $f$ is reduced to minimization (over the extended set of variables) of the quadratic function $g(x,y)$. This is of practical interest because minimization of quadratic functions has been thoroughly studied for the last few decades, and much progress has been made in solving such problems exactly or heuristically. This talk addresses two main types of questions. First, we want to determine the minimum number of auxiliary $y$-variables required in a quadratization of an arbitrary function~$f$. This question is rather natural since the complexity of minimizing the quadratic function $g(x,y)$ heavily depends (among other factors) on the number of binary variables~$(x,y)$. We establish tight lower and upper bounds on the number of auxiliary variables needed in such a reformulation. Next, we determine more precisely the number of auxiliary variables required by quadratizations of \emph{symmetric} pseudo-Boolean functions $f(x)$, i.e., functions whose value only depends on the number of variables equal to~$1$. [less ▲]

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See detailOn (Eventually) Monotone Dynamical Systems and Positive Koopman Semigroups
Sootla, Aivar ULg; Mauroy, Alexandre ULg

Conference (2016, July)

Monotone systems are dynamical systems whose solutions preserve a partial order in initial conditions for all times. It stands to reason that some systems may preserve a partial order only after an ... [more ▼]

Monotone systems are dynamical systems whose solutions preserve a partial order in initial conditions for all times. It stands to reason that some systems may preserve a partial order only after an initial transient. These systems are usually called eventually monotone. While monotone systems have an easy characterization in terms of the sign pattern of the Jacobian matrix (i.e. Kamke-M\"uller condition), eventually monotone systems have not been characterized in such an explicit manner. In order to provide such a characterization, we drew inspiration from the results for linear systems, where eventually monotone (positive) systems are studied using the spectral properties of the system (i.e. Perron-Frobenius property). In the case of nonlinear systems, a spectral characterization of nonlinear eventually monotone systems is not straightforward, but can be obtained in the framework of the so-called Koopman operator. Additionally, we explore connections between (eventual) monotonicity and (eventual) positivity of the Koopman semigroup. This allows to view our results as a generalization of the Perron-Frobenius theory to nonlinear dynamical systems. We consider a biologically inspired example to illustrate the applicability of eventual monotonicity. [less ▲]

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See detailThe mechanical control of peri-implant bone remodeling investigated by in vivo imaging and in silico modeling
Li, Zihui; Betts, Duncan; Kuhn, Gisela et al

Conference (2016, July)

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See detailIs there an alphabet of Moroccan cuisine? Notes on the materiality of cooking and eating.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2016, July)

Short Abstract Stemming from the ethnographic material collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group Moroccan of women in Milan to study their food practices, this paper focuses on ... [more ▼]

Short Abstract Stemming from the ethnographic material collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group Moroccan of women in Milan to study their food practices, this paper focuses on the materiality of cooking and eating through adopting a micro-structural approach. Long Abstract Inspired by the work of Lévi-Strauss (1964) aimed at identifying the relationships of mutual intelligibility underlying some social and cultural facts such as the treatment of food, this paper will focus on the materiality of cooking and eating through adopting a micro-structural approach. The ethnographic data collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group of Moroccan women in Milan to study their cooking and eating habits will be analysed by paying particular attention to the practices and elements that made the "alphabet" of Moroccan cuisine. This means that, if we considered dishes as complex sentences which can be deciphered by people that share a same language, we could try to identify the littlest components that made them happen. Which norms regulated the combination of ingredients? Which ways of cooking described this food culture? Which gestures and embodied knowledge seemed essential to give an intelligible cultural connotation to the cooking and eating of food? Which variations were admitted? The analysis of the actors' discourses and practices will show how Lévi-Strauss approach and model to the study of foodways can meet a material culture approach and still be relevant nowadays. [less ▲]

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See detailDisrupted interaction between self and memory in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
Genon, Sarah ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

Conference (2016, July)

In humans, self and memory processes interact as evidenced by the self reference (SRE) and self reference recollection effects (SRRE). However, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), this relationship ... [more ▼]

In humans, self and memory processes interact as evidenced by the self reference (SRE) and self reference recollection effects (SRRE). However, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), this relationship can be disrupted. This was evidenced by impaired SRE and SRRE in AD for recognition of adjectives previously judged for self-relevance, as well as recall of names of people previously linked to the self. For both materials, a qualitative impairment of the recollective experience for the self-related items was also observed in AD. A neuroimaging approach suggested that reduced SRE is related to decreased grey matter volume in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC). Thus, retrieval of recent self-related memories is impaired in relation to altered high-order processes in lPFC in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception of pitch accuracy in melodies: A categorical or continuous phenomenon?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Franz, Simone; Poeppel, David

Conference (2016, July)

In western music, a semitone constitutes a theoretical and perceptual boundary between tones and is defined as a unit for categorical perception of intervals (Burns & Ward, 1978). However, melodic ... [more ▼]

In western music, a semitone constitutes a theoretical and perceptual boundary between tones and is defined as a unit for categorical perception of intervals (Burns & Ward, 1978). However, melodic perception does not rely exclusively on this category but also involves the notion of ‘correctness’. If we usually classify melodies as “in tune” or “out of tune” depending on the size of interval deviations (smaller than a semitone) along melodies, the transition between the two categories remains unclear. This study examines the process involved in pitch accuracy perception. Twenty-five participants identified melodies as “in tune” or “out of tune” and rated their confidence for each answer. The pitch manipulation consisted of the enlargement of an interval in 5 cent steps (from 0 to 50 cent deviation). The interval deviated was either a Major 2nd or a Perfect 4th and occurred in the middle or end of a 6-tone melody. The task was run twice, before and after an explicit definition of the two labels. Repeated measure ANOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of the deviation on the proportion of in- tune answers and on the confidence levels. For the participants who were able to learn the labels (n = 20), the proportion of in tune answers varies greatly according to the amplitude of the deviation and depended on the size of the interval manipulated. Associated with the confidence level measurement, the identification data support a categorical perception process. Interestingly, explicitly learning the labels increased the overall confidence but did not modify drastically the profile of the categories and the process behind the categorization. This study suggests that explicit learning is not necessary to develop higher order categories relative to “correctness”. Nevertheless, such a process seems limited to certain intervals. Further investigation of other intervals and individual differences seems promising to better understand the mechanisms underlying music perception. [less ▲]

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See detailCOST Action FA1407: Empowering NGS technologie for study and diagnostic of plant viruses
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Petter, François

Conference (2016, July)

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See detailModelling Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Blood Glucose Dynamics as a Monotone System
Sootla, Aivar ULg; Cescon, Marzia

Conference (2016, July)

In this presentation, we study an FDA-approved Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) blood glucose dynamics simulator used in the majority of the practical studies on Artificial Pancreas (AP). We show that ... [more ▼]

In this presentation, we study an FDA-approved Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) blood glucose dynamics simulator used in the majority of the practical studies on Artificial Pancreas (AP). We show that under some physiologically plausible assumptions, the glucoregulatory system described by the model is monotone. This means that the system generates trajectories which are monotone with respect to specific changes in initial conditions and control signals. This strong property leads to many interesting observations. By using monotonicity, for example, it becomes straightforward to compute bounds on glucose concentration subject to variations in intake of carbohydrates and insulin injections. Monotonicity also rigorously justifies recent studies on fundamental limitations in glucose control. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’activation à la précarité : analyse de deux dispositifs d’intervention sociale
Gérard, Julie ULg; Vrancken, Didier ULg

Conference (2016, July)

La lutte contre le chômage de longue durée et l’exclusion sociale par un retour à l’emploi représentent des enjeux essentiels des politiques actives du marché du travail. C’est pourquoi, cette ... [more ▼]

La lutte contre le chômage de longue durée et l’exclusion sociale par un retour à l’emploi représentent des enjeux essentiels des politiques actives du marché du travail. C’est pourquoi, cette communication s’intéresse aux effets de l’intervention sociale sur les demandeurs d’emploi à partir de l’analyse de deux dispositifs d’activation situés en Belgique francophone : une Entreprise de Formation par le Travail et une agence de Titres-Services. Au moyen d’une étude qualitative reposant sur une soixantaine d’observations de situations d’interactions réalisée entre bénéficiaires et « travailleurs du social » (consultant, assistant social, formateur, etc.) et, d’une quarantaine d’entretiens semi-directifs, nous rendrons compte de l’action de ces deux dispositifs dans le domaine de l’insertion-socioprofessionnelle. Nous illustrerons combien, par l’articulation de politiques d’emploi à vocation universelle et de politiques particularistes destinées aux personnes les plus fragiles, ces dispositifs génèrent de véritables trappes à précarité. À terme, nous montrerons combien le maintien de ces dernières soulève la question du développement progressif d’un nouveau régime de protections, opérant a minima, voire par défaut, auprès des publics peu qualifiés face à la menace sourde que font peser le marché noir et, plus largement, l’informalité du travail. [less ▲]

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See detailFast and not furious: an inquiry into the current low-risk/high-gain configuration of public participation
Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Charlier, Nathan ULg et al

Conference (2016, June 29)

For several years scholars pointed at the development of a “participatory turn” in science, technology and innovation (STI). Decisively informed by STS, “public involvement” and then “public engagement” ... [more ▼]

For several years scholars pointed at the development of a “participatory turn” in science, technology and innovation (STI). Decisively informed by STS, “public involvement” and then “public engagement” with STI have been enacted in a broad array of participatory experiments across Europe. These experiments were usually informed by rhetoric of citizen empowerment and distributed governance, against the limitations of technocratic approaches and traditional innovation processes, in order to “enrich”, “deepen”, “broaden” the knowledge base of our democracies. As “embarked researchers”, STS scholars played a crucial role in facilitating and legitimizing the organization of participatory events engaging a variety of publics. This paper will rely on the knowledge and expertise we gathered when organizing multiple participatory events over the last decade, while still trying maintain a critical distance with regard to our own engagement and the types of participation we contributed to enact. More specifically, we propose to draw on the lessons learnt from two recent projects, the organization of a citizens’ summit (Europe Wide Views on Sustainable Consumption) and a prospective study to gauge the potential of involving users in a Living Lab in the health sector in Wallonia. These two projects produced different publics (“citizens-consumers” or “users”), were informed by different political rationales (“sustainability” or “inclusive innovation”), took place in diverse settings (a European FP7 project or a project funded by the Walloon Region) and connected to several narratives of public empowerment through participation (“being heard in policymaking” or “accelerating and improving health”). Our contribution maps and compares the different instrumental and strategic framings of the engagement of publics in those two projects, emphasizing the roles attributed to fabricated publics but also the construction of categories such as the “state” and the “economy”. It unpacks some critical issues related to the methods and techniques used in the concrete implementation of participatory exercises such as, for example, the relation between the assigned tasks, the allowed forms of dialogue between the participants, the room for engagement with the issue(s) at stake and the broader understanding of processes these inputs were supposed to contribute to. Our analysis highlights a tension between the justificatory rationales for public engagement and its specific enactments. In these fast and optimized exercises, participants and their inputs become resources that need to be methodologically maximized and from which “value” may be extracted for instrumental use, i.e. innovation or policy-making. In this configuration in which, we argue, most participation experiments are stuck, the increasing involvement of publics in either policy-making or innovation will only be likely to produce low risk and high gain for powerful actors, who manage to take the best advantage of unpaid and uncritical labour from participants. Due attention (including self-reflexive critique) will be paid to alternative framings and critical insights, which were methodologically eliminated or ‘tamed’ to avoid threatening the design of the overall participatory exercise. By externalizing critique to favour unconditional compliance with imposed notions of the “greater good”, we scrutinize the risk for participation to become a mere space of experimentation for the sake of innovation and economic growth. Furthermore, we argue that critical scholarly work should help to move beyond this particular division of labour and responsibilities between the spheres of science, society and the state in order to avoid re-enacting traditional conceptions of the policy-making process and innovation pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailA Selective and Highly Sensitive MIR Photoacuostic Sensor for Trace Gas Monitoring
Lassen, M; Lamar, L; Balslev-Harder, D et al

Conference (2016, June 28)

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See detailCitizen science in the nuclear field: An exploration of its potential in governing nuclear incidents, accidents, and post-disaster situations
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel; Van Hoyweghen, Ine et al

Conference (2016, June 28)

Citizen science (CS) is a form of science developed and enacted by citizens, typically with citizen volunteers collecting and/or analyzing various kinds of data. As CS serves public purposes (e.g ... [more ▼]

Citizen science (CS) is a form of science developed and enacted by citizens, typically with citizen volunteers collecting and/or analyzing various kinds of data. As CS serves public purposes (e.g. educational goals) and emanates within democratic and participatory cultures (e.g. the open science movement), it potentially broadens scientific research and facilitates public participation in science policy. Whereas the role of CS is well documented in fields such as amateur astronomy, biohacking, video gaming, etc., there is a dearth of research about the role of CS in the nuclear field. Yet, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, CS has demonstrably contributed to filling knowledge and information gaps, as citizens in the affected areas monitor radioactivity in the environment and communicate about environmental risks (e.g. Citizens’ Radioactivity Monitoring Project). In this process, citizen scientists have voiced ardent criticism of government and industry, as these institutes are seen to deliberately inhibit open knowledge sharing. Taking these insights as an entry point, this paper probes the potential of CS in the governance of nuclear incidents/accidents, emergency situations, and in post-disaster recovery. Drawing on past and present CS initiatives connected to nuclear incidents and accidents in Japan, the USA, Canada, and the UK, it conceptualizes the social spaces in which CS emerges; ascertains which knowledge, information and decision-making challenges CS addresses; and determines which collective lessons can be drawn to ensure more legitimate and socially robust nuclear governance. Particular attention is given to the role governments, industries, and established scientists can, and should, assume as potential facilitators, patrons, or challengers of a more collective, open approach to disaster preparedness and response. The latter category comprises social scientists, who in Japan have been criticized for “disengaging” with CS practice, thereby limiting opportunities for contextual learning about disasters and even hampering post-trauma disaster recovery. The paper engages with the following conference themes: The future role of publics in processes of government/governance; Empowering publics in new innovation processes. [less ▲]

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