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See detailHubble Space Telescope observations of variation of the O I 135.6 nm/ O I 130.4 nm ratio in Ganymede’s atmosphere
Molyneux, P. M.; Nichols, J. D.; Bannister, N. P. et al

Poster (2015, June)

We present new high-sensitivity HST/COS measurements of the atmospheric O I 135.6 nm/ O I 130.4 nm ratio at Ganymede, which we show exhibits significant spatial and temporal variability. Specifically, the ... [more ▼]

We present new high-sensitivity HST/COS measurements of the atmospheric O I 135.6 nm/ O I 130.4 nm ratio at Ganymede, which we show exhibits significant spatial and temporal variability. Specifically, the ratios observed on Ganymede’s leading hemispheres vary between 2.14±0.03 and 2.67±0.02, while on the trailing hemisphere the ratios are observed to be between 0.98±0.02 and 1.53±0.03. These high-sensitivity observations increase the signal to noise of these measurements by an order of magnitude over previous HST/STIS observations of the same [1], thus confirming that the temporal variation suggested by these previous observations is real. The emissions are excited through electron-impact excitation of Ganymede’s oxygen atmosphere by electrons which are locally accelerated within its magnetosphere [2,3]. The variation in the ratio magnitude may be explained either by variations in the ratio of atomic to molecular oxygen in the atmosphere or by a change in the temperature of the electrons exciting the emissions. An increase in the proportion of molecular oxygen acts to increase the ratio, as does a cooler electron temperature.References [1] Feldman, P. D., McGrath, M. A., Strobel, D. F., Moos, H. W., Retherford, K. D. and Wolven, B. C., HST/STIS ultraviolet imaging of polar aurora on Ganymede, Astrophys. J., Vol. 535, pp. 1085-1090, 2000. [2] Hall, D. T., Feldman, P. D., McGrath, M. A. and Strobel, D. F., The far-ultraviolet oxygen airglow of Europa and Ganymede, Astrophys. J., Vol. 499, pp. 475-481, 1998. [3] Eviatar, A., Strobel, D. F., Wolven, B. C., Feldman, P. D., McGrath, M. A. and Williams, D. J., Excitation of the Ganymede ultraviolet aurora, Astrophys. J., Vol. 555, pp. 1013-1019, 2001. [less ▲]

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See detailLes leviers de l'inovation pédagogique: contraintes externes vs régulations internes
Scheffers, Patricia ULg

in Scheffers, Patricia (Ed.) Actes du colloque (2015, June)

Depuis les années 60, la fréquence de mutations organisationnelles de l'enseignement supérieur et universitaire en Belgique s'amplifie et adopte même un rythme frénétique ces dix dernières années. Les ... [more ▼]

Depuis les années 60, la fréquence de mutations organisationnelles de l'enseignement supérieur et universitaire en Belgique s'amplifie et adopte même un rythme frénétique ces dix dernières années. Les causes sont tour à tour l'évolution des professions et la volonté politique et/ou économique de restructuration. Deux niveaux de régulations pédagogiques sont amenés à s'articuler. D'une part, celui de l'enseignant acteur-réflexif de son enseignement et d'autre part, des injonctions externes qui réorganise le cadre général. Retour d'expérience sur les innovations en Faculté d'Architecture à Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailMutation de l'image, mutation de l'intention ? L'impact des représentations numériques en composition architecturale
Cunin, Maxime; Yang, Maria C.; Elsen, Catherine ULg

in de Boissieu, Aurélie; Deshayes, Catherine; Tufano, Antonella (Eds.) Mutations du Projet - Milieux et Cultures Numériques (2015, June)

Les architectes ont toujours eu recours à de multiples représentations pour générer, faire évoluer puis communiquer leurs concepts architecturaux (tant aux pairs qu’aux usagers, ou encore aux décideurs ... [more ▼]

Les architectes ont toujours eu recours à de multiples représentations pour générer, faire évoluer puis communiquer leurs concepts architecturaux (tant aux pairs qu’aux usagers, ou encore aux décideurs). Cet article envisage comment la représentation externe impacte la perception « naïve » d’une intention architecturale, les « non experts » assumant des rôles de plus fondamentaux au sein de certains mécanismes décisionnels. Comment l’image, en pleine mutation depuis l’ère du numérique, façonne-t-elle la perception des facteurs clés (ou « attributs ») d’une intention architecturale ? L’article résume les principaux résultats d’une enquête menée en ligne via l’interface « Amazon Mechanical Turk » et générant 790 échelles d’évaluation de 6 avant-projets architecturaux. Les résultats abordent l’analyse des données en regard des différentes attributs; en regard des trois types de représentation choisies et en regard enfin des inconsistances dont font preuve les architectes eux-mêmes, étant donné l’évaluation de leurs propres projets et représentations. Ils révèlent que les attributs ne sont pas équitablement propices à un transfert d’intention exclusivement graphique et que les formes plus abstraites de représentations constituent, dans certains contextes, le moyen le plus efficace pour le transfert fidèle d’une intention architecturale. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Social (Re)construction of an Incident Reporting System: Opening-up, Closing-down, Starting over
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2015, June)

The literature on incident reporting generally describes Incident Reporting Systems (IRS) as technological tools aiming at improving safety in organizations by initiating a learning process from previous ... [more ▼]

The literature on incident reporting generally describes Incident Reporting Systems (IRS) as technological tools aiming at improving safety in organizations by initiating a learning process from previous events, in order to prevent future incidents and accidents to occur. In this respect, many studies tend to focus on “barriers to reporting” in order to understand why people report (or not) incidents in the dedicated system. Alternatively, we proposed to study IRS as socio-technical artifacts which are embedded in a specific organizational culture and which are interpreted in different ways, illustrating what has been called “interpretive flexibility”. This communication is divided in two parts. First, relying on the Social Construction Of Technology (SCOT) framework, we present the different practices and meanings attributed to the reporting of incidents within the Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK•CEN). We link these to the various modes of learning that they enable. By doing so we participate to the opening-up of the research on Incident Reporting to alternative discourses, practices and meanings, unforeseen situations and uncertainties. Second, we present the preliminary results of creative workshops during which we initiated the participatory re-construction of the IRS within the Center, drawing on and extending the results of the “opening-up” phase. By doing so, we aim at contributing to a transparent realization of the reduction of complexity leading to an informed and collective decision on what could/should be the IRS of the Center. In conclusion, we propose a reflexive analysis of this process, and we formulate tentative future research directions. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear model updating by means of identified nonlinear normal modes
Song, Mingming; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2015, June)

Modal parameters are the most common features used for linear model updating. Although the modal analysis theory does not hold for nonlinear dynamic systems, its popularity encouraged researchers to come ... [more ▼]

Modal parameters are the most common features used for linear model updating. Although the modal analysis theory does not hold for nonlinear dynamic systems, its popularity encouraged researchers to come up with an equivalent version of normal modes for nonlinear systems, i.e., nonlinear normal modes (NNMs). A nonlinear system vibrates in NNMs when all masses have periodic motions of the same period, and at any time, the position of all the masses is uniquely defined by the position of any one of them. This paper investigates the feasibility of nonlinear model updating by minimizing the difference between the model-predicted and measured/identified nonlinear normal modes. A two degree-of-freedom mass-spring system with three linear springs and a cubic nonlinear spring is considered as the case study. The energy-dependent natural frequency and NNM of the first vibration mode of the system are identified at three different levels of energy. The stiffness parameters of the system are estimated by minimizing an objective function which is defined as the discrepancy between model-predicted natural frequency and NNM of the first mode, and their identified counterparts at the three measured energy levels. Performance of the proposed updating approach is evaluated at different levels of noise and different levels of modeling errors (i.e., nonlinear model classes). [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of the morphological acceleration factor in fluvial hydraulics
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress (2015, June)

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been widely used to speed-up morphodynamic simulations, mostly in coastal applications. The value of Morfac was generally set by trial and error and ... [more ▼]

The morphological acceleration factor (Morfac) has been widely used to speed-up morphodynamic simulations, mostly in coastal applications. The value of Morfac was generally set by trial and error and little theoretical background is available to identify an optimal value of Morfac for a given application and a target level of accuracy. In the present research, we generalize the few previous theoretical analyses regarding two main aspects. First, the range of the considered parameters (Froude number, relative roughness, transport rate …) has been considerably extended to cover typical values characterizing fluvial applications and not only coastal settings. Second, we show that the optimal value of Morfac depends greatly on the specific mathematical formulation of the flow model and on the flow regime. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced Order Model for Accounting for High Frequency Effects in Power Electronic Components
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Hasan, Md. Rokibul et al

Poster (2015, June)

This paper proposes a reduced-order model of power electronic components based on the proper orthogonal decomposition. Starting from a full-wave finite-element model and several snapshots/frequencies, the ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a reduced-order model of power electronic components based on the proper orthogonal decomposition. Starting from a full-wave finite-element model and several snapshots/frequencies, the reduced-order (RO) model is constructed. Local field values (e.g. magnetic flux density, electric current density, magnetic or electric field) and global quantities (e.g. characteristic complex impedance, joule losses) can be determined for the intermediate frequencies with a very low computational cost and high accuracy. Particular attention is paid to the choice of the most suitable snapshots by means of three different greedy algorithms, the performance of which is compared. We adopt an automatic greedy algorithm that depends only on the RO model. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel mutation of the luteinizing hormone/choionic gonadotrophin receptor gene leading to Leydig cell hypoplasia type I
Potorac, Iulia ULg; Rivero-Muller, A; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in The International Journal of The Romania Society of Endocrinology - Abstract book (2015, June)

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See detailNonlinear ground vibration identification of an F-16 aircraft - Part 1: Fast nonparametric analysis of distortions in FRF measurements
Vaes, Mark; Schoukens, Johan; Peeters, Bart et al

in Proceedings of the International Forum on Aeroelasticity and Structural Dynamics (2015, June)

Although they are generally modelled as linear systems, aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena. A specific challenge encountered with fighter aircraft, besides aeroelastic ... [more ▼]

Although they are generally modelled as linear systems, aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena. A specific challenge encountered with fighter aircraft, besides aeroelastic nonlinearity, is the modelling of the wing-to-payload mounting interfaces. For large amplitudes of vibration, friction and gaps may be triggered in these connections and markedly impact the dynamic behaviour of the complete structure. In this series of two papers, the nonlinear dynamics of an F-16 aircraft is investigated using rigorous methods applied to real data collected during a ground vibration test campaign. The present work focuses on the detection, qualification and quantification of nonlinear distortions affecting frequency response function (FRF) measurements. The key idea of the approach is to excite the structure using a random signal with a user-defined amplitude spectrum, where only a set of well-selected frequencies is different from zero in the band of interest. It is demonstrated that this careful choice of the input frequencies allows, without any further user interaction, to quantify the importance of odd and even nonlinear distortions in the output spectra with respect to the noise level. At high excitation amplitude, the F-16 dynamics is found to exhibit substantial odd nonlinearities and less significant, yet not negligible, even nonlinearities. [less ▲]

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See detailA First Look at the Nonadiabatic Properties of Pulsating Accreting White Dwarfs of the GW Lib Type
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Fontaine, G.; Brassard, P. et al

in Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series (2015, June), 493

We present results of a detailed stability survey of the pulsation properties of accreting white dwarfs of the GW Lib type. This is based on several state-of-the- art white dwarf evolutionary sequences ... [more ▼]

We present results of a detailed stability survey of the pulsation properties of accreting white dwarfs of the GW Lib type. This is based on several state-of-the- art white dwarf evolutionary sequences with varying envelope compositions, from pure hydrogen to pure helium. Using the same tools as in Van Grootel et al. (2013), where we have presented the first consistent view of the ZZ Ceti instability strip, we have mapped the GW Lib instability strip over the effective temperature-surface gravity plane, and as a function of envelope composition. We find that the location of the GW Lib instability domain is a strong and continuous function of the assumed envelope composition. We can accomodate all of the known GW Lib pulsators in various strips according to their atmospheric compositions. [less ▲]

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See detailAuroral Morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn
Grodent, Denis ULg

Conference (2015, May 31)

We review the principal differences and similarities of the morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's auroral emissions. We then show some examples of UV images that are expected to be acquired with Cassini ... [more ▼]

We review the principal differences and similarities of the morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's auroral emissions. We then show some examples of UV images that are expected to be acquired with Cassini UVIS at Saturn and Juno UVS at Jupiter. [less ▲]

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See detailComparing central western Europe Mesolithic and Neolithic plant processing microwear on flint tool
Linton, Jimmy ULg; Guéret, Colas; Gassin, Bernard

Conference (2015, May 30)

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See detailDe l’ordre répressif étatique à celui de la Cour pénale internationale : la sensibilité du juge de Strasbourg à la gravité des faits en cause
Deprez, Christophe ULg

Conference (2015, May 29)

Cette présentation PowerPoint a servi de support à une communication orale dans le cadre de l'édition 2015 de la Conférence des Assistants en droit de Belgique (ACCA), organisée le 29 mai 2015 par l ... [more ▼]

Cette présentation PowerPoint a servi de support à une communication orale dans le cadre de l'édition 2015 de la Conférence des Assistants en droit de Belgique (ACCA), organisée le 29 mai 2015 par l'Université catholique de Louvain. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles caractéristiques du passage à la retraite ont un impact sur la cognition du sujet âgé ? Résultats de la cohorte AMI
Grotz, Catherine ULg; Matharan, Fanny; Amieva, Hélène et al

Conference (2015, May 29)

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See detailAntitrust and The challenge of policing « moligopolists »
Petit, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2015, May 29)

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See detailUnravelling Cemip expression and functions in the auditory portion of the inner ear.
Czajkowski, Amandine ULg; Chariot, Alain ULg; Delacroix, Laurence ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 29)

The inner ear is a complex organ composed of the vestibular system – which is the balancing system – and the cochlea – which is the earing system. The cochlea is a coiled shape organ composed of three ... [more ▼]

The inner ear is a complex organ composed of the vestibular system – which is the balancing system – and the cochlea – which is the earing system. The cochlea is a coiled shape organ composed of three main structures: the spiral ligament sitting on top of the stria vascularis, the organ of Corti with sensory hair cells and supporting cells and the spiral ganglion composed of neurons and glial cells. After an auditory stimulus, the sound wave progresses in the scala media filled with endolymph and induces a stimulation of sensory hair cells. These cells then transmit the information to the spiral ganglion neurons connected to them. Of course, the correct ionic homeostasis of endolymph is required for a good sound wave transmission. This homeostatic function is assured by the stria vascularis and the spiral ligament. The alteration of one of the structures mentioned before induces deafness. Currently, numerous genes have been associated to this kind of hearing loss. In the present work, we focus our attention Cemip – also known as KIAA1199 – that has been associated to human hereditary neurosensory deafness. Indeed, three missense mutations consisting in non-synonymous amino acid changes (R187L, R187H and H783Y) have been associated to this form of deafness. Therefore we would like to understand the role of Cemip in the cochlea. For that we have analysed Cemip mRNA pattern of expression by in situ hybridization at different developmental stages on cochlear sections. It seems Cemip mRNA is not present in the auditory portion of the inner ear at early embryonic stage 14 (E14) while it is largely present at E17 in the spiral ganglion, in supporting cells of the organ of Corti and in the spiral ligament. This expression is maintained post-nattily until P7. At P21 the expression is restricted to the spiral lamina - an osseous structure surrounding the spiral ganglion. Our on going work is aimed at revealing the biological role of Cemip in the cochlea in conditional knock-out mice. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche processuelle de la dépression : Impact de processus psychologiques l'activation ou l'évitement en fonction du sexe
Wagener, Aurélie ULg

Conference (2015, May 29)

La dépression est caractérisée par des symptômes affectifs, cognitifs et somatiques. Elle est également caractérisée par une diminution du niveau d’engagement dans des activités ce qui peut être ... [more ▼]

La dépression est caractérisée par des symptômes affectifs, cognitifs et somatiques. Elle est également caractérisée par une diminution du niveau d’engagement dans des activités ce qui peut être conceptualisé comme de l’évitement comportemental (symptôme comportemental). Il est en effet fréquent que les patients dépressifs s’engagent de moins en moins dans des activités qui leur plaisaient auparavant (voir des amis, etc.) Ce faible niveau d’activités maintient leur humeur dépressive. Cette relation entre dépression et faible niveau d’engagement dans des activités est bien établie dans la littérature scientifique mais les relations entre les processus cognitifs sous-jacents sont encore mal connues. Selon les modèles théoriques de la dépression (Beck, 2008; Lewinsohn, 1985; Watkins, 2009), cinq types de processus psychologiques (PP) sont impliqués dans la symptomatologie dépressive : les pensées négatives répétitives, les stratégies de régulation émotionnelle non-adaptées, un faible niveau de satisfaction environnementale, une image de soi négative et une tendance à l’inhibition. Nous faisons l’hypothèse que ces PP pourraient être les facteurs explicatifs de l’évitement comportemental. Par ailleurs, nous faisons également l’hypothèse que d’autres PP pourraient être considérés comme des facteurs explicatifs de l’activation comportementale : les stratégies de régulation émotionnelle adaptées, un haut niveau de satisfaction environnementale, une image de soi positive, une tendance à l’approche et un concept de soi clair. Ces PP consisteraient en des facteurs protecteurs de la dépression. Dès lors, notre objectif est d’évaluer les liens entre évitement comportemental, activation comportementale et PP. Pour ce faire, en nous basant sur le modèle de Kinderman (2013), nous avons élaboré un modèle conceptualisant l’influence que peuvent avoir les PP précités sur, d’une part, l’évitement comportemental et, d’autre part, l’activation comportementale. De plus, l’étude évalue l’adéquation de ce modèle de façon à comparer les hommes et les femmes. 477 adultes issus de populations cliniques et non-cliniques (119 hommes, 358 femmes, âge moyen = 34,25, ET = 11,85) ont complété une étude en ligne évaluant les PP (pensées négatives répétitives, stratégies de régulation émotionnelles, satisfaction environnementale, image de soi, tendance à l’inhibition/l’approche, clarté du concept de soi), l’évitement comportemental et l’activation comportementale. Différents questionnaires évaluaient chacun de ces PP. Dès lors, des scores factoriels ont été réalisés pour représenter chaque PP. Les résultats préliminaires issus d’analyses factorielles confirmatoires semblent révéler des différences entre les hommes et les femmes. Pour les hommes, une image de soi négative, des stratégies de régulation émotionnelle non-adaptées et un faible niveau de satisfaction environnementale sont liés à l’évitement comportemental alors qu’un haut niveau de satisfaction environnementale et une image de soi positive sont liés à l’activation comportementale. Pour les femmes, un faible niveau de satisfaction environnementale, des stratégies de régulation émotionnelle non-adaptées et des pensées négatives répétitives sont liées à l’évitement comportemental alors qu’un haut niveau de satisfaction environnemental et une image de soi positive sont liées à l’activation comportementale. La collecte des données étant toujours en cours, les résultats globaux seront présentés durant le congrès. Les implications cliniques de ces résultats seront discutées telles que la pertinence de travailler sur le niveau de satisfaction environnementale. [less ▲]

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See detailToward a more precise terminology for impact damage and an improved understanding of hunting weapons: First results from a large scale systematic experiment
Coppe, Justin ULg; Rots, Veerle ULg

Conference (2015, May 29)

Projectile points have recently taken an important place in debates on the complexity of Palaeolithic human behaviour. While the appearance of hunting weapons in the archaeological record was an important ... [more ▼]

Projectile points have recently taken an important place in debates on the complexity of Palaeolithic human behaviour. While the appearance of hunting weapons in the archaeological record was an important element in the past, current discussions focus a lot on the appearance of particular hunting methods. Distinctions are made between simple and complex weaponry, the latter assumed to be linked with modern humans only. While most of the identifications of hunting weapons in the archaeological record rely on the examination of so-called diagnostic impact damage, no reliable reference yet exist for distinguishing between hunting methods. We present the first results of a large-scale and systematic experiment that intends to address hunting weapons in a systematic way. A thorough survey of the literature has highlighted some existing ambiguity in current terminological frameworks for describing impact fractures. Based on our experiments, we propose some attributes that may be relevant for improving these terminologies. Attention will also be devoted to the design and conceptual framework of our experimental program and to some first results concerning the essential variables influencing damage formation. The overall goal is to improve our understanding of the different fracture phenomena and their variability in order to enhance the reliability of the identification of hunting weapons and perhaps of their projecting mode. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards an experiment based protocol for extracting and identifying residues
Cnuts, Dries ULg; Rots, Veerle ULg

Conference (2015, May 29)

Residue analysis has recently become a widely applied method in reconstructing the lifecycle of prehistoric stone tools. The identification of residues is traditionally based on the distinctive ... [more ▼]

Residue analysis has recently become a widely applied method in reconstructing the lifecycle of prehistoric stone tools. The identification of residues is traditionally based on the distinctive morphologies of the residue fragments by means of light microscopy. The majority of residue fragments, however, tend to have an amorphous structure and are therefore not easy to identify. In addition, some residue categories can only be detected by using transmitted light microscopy, which requires the extraction of residues from the tool’s surface. Yet another challenge is to determine whether the residues were deposited on the tool’s surface as a result of use or due to other processes. Here we present the results of an experimental study that addresses these methodological issues. Stone tools from a new experimental reference collection were used to test 6 different analytical methods: the observation of residues on stone tools with incident light microscopy, dry sampling using tweezers and brushes, wet sampling with micropipettes using distilled water and a tri-mixture of acetonitrile, ethanol and water, and extraction with an ultrasonic scaler or bath. The experiments demonstrate that the choice of a particular extraction procedure may influence the amount and types of residues that are extracted. This implies that the analytical method has an impact on the results of a residue analysis. Building on these data, we designed a new protocol, which was subsequently submitted to blind testing in order to test its accuracy and precision. Certain key attributes were also identified that may prove useful in distinguishing between use-related and natural residues. We discuss the importance of adapting analytical protocols to the research question of the study. [less ▲]

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See detailMaternal representations, social context and substance abuse
Halin, Stéphanie ULg; Combe, Samantha; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 28)

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See detailIs Büchi's theorem useful for you?
Rigo, Michel ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

Almost a century ago, Presburger showed that the first order theory of the natural numbers with addition is decidable. Following the work of Büchi in 1960, this result still holds when adding a function ... [more ▼]

Almost a century ago, Presburger showed that the first order theory of the natural numbers with addition is decidable. Following the work of Büchi in 1960, this result still holds when adding a function $V_k$ to the structure, where $V_k(n)$ is the largest power of $k\ge 2$ diving $n$. In particular, this leads to a logical characterization of the $k$-automatic sequences. During the last few years, many applications of this result have been considered in combinatorics on words, mostly by J. Shallit and his coauthors. In this talk, we will present this theorem of Büchi where decidability relies on finite automata.Then we will review some results about automatic sequences or morphic words that can be proved automatically (i.e., the proof is carried on by an algorithm). Finally, we will sketch the limitation of this technique. With a single line formula, one can prove automatically that the Thue-Morse word has no overlap but, hopefully, not all the combinatorial properties of morphic words can be derived in this way. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle place accorder aux écritures de la réception dans le contexte de la formation initiale? Du comportement des futurs enseignants face à des médiations de la lecture à l'élaboration de dispositifs de formation
De Croix, Séverine ULg; Ledur, Dominique

Conference (2015, May 28)

L’exploitation des écritures de la réception en formation initiale des enseignants fait aujourd’hui l’objet d’un large consensus (Joole, 2013 ; Chabanne & Dufays, 2011; Mazauric, Fourtanier & Langlade ... [more ▼]

L’exploitation des écritures de la réception en formation initiale des enseignants fait aujourd’hui l’objet d’un large consensus (Joole, 2013 ; Chabanne & Dufays, 2011; Mazauric, Fourtanier & Langlade, 2011 ; Vanhulle & Schillings, 2004). Nous souhaitons nous interroger sur les moyens, les objectifs et les effets attendus de cette exploitation (axe 4 de l’appel à communications). Le présent projet porte, dans un premier temps, sur l’observation des réactions d’une centaine de futurs enseignants de français du secondaire, tous niveaux confondus, face à un corpus de médiations écrites de la lecture, produites par des élèves de 12 à 18 ans, lecteurs experts et en difficulté. Ces écrits relèvent de genres diversifiés (journaux de lecture, notes critiques, traces collectées à l’occasion d’un dévoilement progressif, réponses à des questions, etc.) et de statuts différents (écrits de travail ou productions finales susceptibles d’être évaluées). Les consignes d’analyse devaient conduire les étudiants à repérer les éventuelles difficultés des lecteurs (ou leurs réussites), à reconstruire les tâches, à relever différents positionnements face aux textes, etc. Nos constats mettent notamment en évidence une tendance à investir ces écrits de façon normative (prédominance des difficultés du lecteur, notamment linguistiques, au détriment d’une prise en compte des difficultés générées par les textes et/ou les tâches scolaires) et une faible conscience de la complexité de l’activité de compréhension/interprétation. L’analyse des données collectées à l’occasion de ce travail incite, dans un deuxième temps, à privilégier quatre directions pour apprendre aux futurs maitres de lecture à lire des écrits de la réception et pour les amener par ce biais à développer des compétences et gestes professionnels en didactique de la lecture littéraire : modéliser l’activité de compréhension/interprétation, identifier les éventuelles difficultés de lecture, sélectionner des textes pour la classe et les associer à des médiations adaptées, percevoir les caractéristiques et les visées des tâches (y compris anticiper les éventuels malentendus générés par celles-ci et organiser leur progression). Ces axes d’intervention seront illustrés par quelques exemples de dispositifs de formation. [less ▲]

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See detailBorderline Personality Disorder through the Rorschach test
Rommes, Jennifer; Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg

Poster (2015, May 28)

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See detailFully automated electrophoretically mediated microanalysis system for CYP1A1 activity monitoring
Farcas, Elena ULg; Servais, Anne-Catherine ULg; Lamalle, Caroline ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 28)

In order to evaluate the potentiality of capillary electrophoresis for CYP1A1 activity monitoring, an in-line method was developed with the well-known 7-ethoxycoumarin substrate. The electrophoretically ... [more ▼]

In order to evaluate the potentiality of capillary electrophoresis for CYP1A1 activity monitoring, an in-line method was developed with the well-known 7-ethoxycoumarin substrate. The electrophoretically mediated microanalysis approach was used with CYP1A1 supersomes to provide a rapid and fully automated method. The in-line homogenous enzyme assay was performed in physiological conditions (pH 7.4), whereas a MEKC buffer was used as background electrolyte. In order to reduce the analysis time, the short end injection was performed. Firstly a plug containing CYP1A1 supersomes was hydrodynamically injected into a fused silica capillary, followed by a plug of co-factor (NADPH) and substrate (7-ethoxycoumarin) and finally another plug of CYP1A1 (sandwich mode). The experimental conditions were finely investigated and tuned by design of experiment methodology. The metabolization rate measured in the optimized conditions was comparable with the one obtained after off-line metabolization. Finally, inhibition studies were conducted and a significant decrease of 7-hydroxycoumarin formation was observed using apigenin as CYP1A1 potent inhibitor. [less ▲]

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See detailRomantic relationship and delinquency : which desistance factor ?
Puglia, Rosa ULg; Lepas, Jennifer; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2015, May 28)

A large number of studies (Stouthamer-Loeber, Loeber, Wei, Farrington & Wikstrom, 2002) have shown that the quality of parent-child relationship influences delinquency behavior during adolescence. So, the ... [more ▼]

A large number of studies (Stouthamer-Loeber, Loeber, Wei, Farrington & Wikstrom, 2002) have shown that the quality of parent-child relationship influences delinquency behavior during adolescence. So, the poorer the quality of relationship between a parent and his child is, the higher the probability that the child adopts delinquent behavior. However, recent studies (Giordano et al., 2002 ; Laub et al., 1998 ; Meeus & al., 2004 ; Woordward et al., 2002) have questioned the persistence of this association when people involved in a romantic relationship. These research have shown that quality of parent-child relationship predict delinquency in adolescents and young adults who do not have an intimate partner. But in adolescents and young adults who have an intimate partner, quality of parent-child relationship becomes obsolete. To be involved in an intimate relationship leads to less delinquency. Furthermore, results are concordant with research about desistance from delinquency that have shown that marriage leads to less criminality (Forrest & Hay, 2011 ; Sampson & Laub, 1993). These studies (Meus & al., 2004 ; Sampson & Laub, 1993) specify that it is quality of relationship rather than simply being in a romantic relationship that have an impact on desistance from delinquency. From empirical research conducted with adolescents and young adults (N=283) aged from 16 to 22 years old, and from a clinical research, we have explored links between parental attachment, romantic attachment and delinquency. We wondered if romantic attachment promotes desistance from delinquency whatever parental attachment. Behavioral System Questionnaire (Wehner & Furman, 1999) and self-reported delinquency scale (Born & Gavray, 1994) have used in this context. It appears that most of the participants have been involved in a significant romantic relationship. This romantic relationship is mainly characterized by a secure attachment. So, it leads to less deviant behaviors. On the other hand, parental attachment does not lead to less deviant behaviors. It also appears that attachment style that one develops towards one’s parent is not unchangeable. Romantic relationship during adolescence and adulthood can bring emotional and relational modifications. [less ▲]

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See detailTool use and hafting in the Middle Palaeolithic of Northern Africa An on-going use-wear analysis on the Mousterian/Aterian assemblages of Ifri n’Ammar (Morocco)
Tomasso, Sonja ULg; Rots, Veerle ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

The so-called “Aterian Culture” has received attention since the early days of prehistoric archaeology in Northern Africa. Several definitions were proposed, which triggered a debate around this cultural ... [more ▼]

The so-called “Aterian Culture” has received attention since the early days of prehistoric archaeology in Northern Africa. Several definitions were proposed, which triggered a debate around this cultural concept. In particular the presence of the tanged tools was a crucial element in these debates and the tangs were considered to potentially represent the earliest indications of hafting, or at least of intentional morphological adaptations in view of hafting. In contrast to numerous typological and technological studies of Aterian and Mousterian assemblages, use-wear analyses have been scarce up until today. However, for a better understanding of several aspects of these Middle Palaeolithic “cultures”, functional data needs to be taken into consideration. Given the issue of tanged pieces, the potential of such detailed studies on production, hafting and use is high. In this paper, the first results will be presented of an on-going use-wear analysis on tools from the Aterian/Mousterian assemblages of Ifri n’Ammar. This rock shelter presents an ideal case thanks to its particularly rich and well preserved stratigraphy. Around 200 artefacts have been selected up to now, based on their degree of preservation and without restrictions on the level of the tool types. Artefacts were examined macroscopically and microscopically in a search for evidence of their production, hafting and use and an experimental program was set up. Archaeological interpretations are based on new experiments, as well as on the existing large experimental reference collection available at TraceoLab at the University of Liège. The long-term goal of the study is to use a functional approach to answer questions related to lithic assemblage variability. At Ifri n’Ammar, it is clear that the tangs occur on a variety of tools. Due to the presence of tangs in the Aterian and their absence in the Mousterian, it can be hypothesized that there was a shift in hafting techniques between the two cultures/periods. In order to understand whether this change was triggered by functional, cultural, or environmental factors, more functional data is clearly needed. [less ▲]

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See detailParental and romantic attachments in teen datings : different meanings in boys' and girls' intimacy
Courtain, Audrey ULg; Lepas, Jennifer; Boulard, Aurore ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 28)

First proposing a relational understanding of the child’s very first years, attachment theory has since then been taken into consideration in friendships and romantic relationships. Indeed, the internal ... [more ▼]

First proposing a relational understanding of the child’s very first years, attachment theory has since then been taken into consideration in friendships and romantic relationships. Indeed, the internal working models (IWM) built upon early interactions are to be used on and on in many other situations as guidelines to understand what is going on for the self, this particular other and their specific relationship. Different attachment styles are thus likely to develop: secure or insecure (anxious/preoccupied, avoidant/dismissive, fearful). Considering teen dating, attachment is deeply involved, especially for two reasons: first, a certain questioning, but also re-actualization, of the attachment to parents; second, a new kind of attachment, meaning the one to the romantic partner. These elements lead us to test hypotheses linking attachment to parents and attachment to romantic partners, but also linking these attachments to some teen dating characteristics, such as the age when first dating, the number of love relationships, the longest-lasting love relationship and the fear of intimacy. Our hypothesis was tested among 283 teenagers (mean age = 17.43) with two self-administered questionnaires (the Behavioral Systems Questionnaire and the Fear of Intimacy Scale). Our statistical analyses were made of Pearson Chi², Anova and Post-Hoc Fisher (LSD). We see three types of interesting results. First, there is a significant relationship between attachment (parental and romantic attachments) and the number of love relationships and the fear of intimacy. Second, these relationships are differently established once considered the attachment modalities. Third, gender differences appear, girls looking more influenced by their attachment style than boys. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychopathy and emotions: would emotional distancing make more efficient in cognitive tasks?
Grandjean, Sylvie; Dehon, Hedwige ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 28)

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See detailWork incapacity and chronic pain patients: Is there an impact of work incapacity on anxiety and depression?
Beaumel, Alexia; Vanootighem, Valentine ULg; Gillet, Aline ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 28)

In 2011, a report of the Federal Public Service have shown that 8.5% of the Belgian population suffers from chronic pains, which represents 938 300 belgian people (Berquin et al., 2011). These persistent ... [more ▼]

In 2011, a report of the Federal Public Service have shown that 8.5% of the Belgian population suffers from chronic pains, which represents 938 300 belgian people (Berquin et al., 2011). These persistent pains may result in functional limitations on both domestic and professional domains which may lead to temporary or permanently work incapacity (Faymonville et al., 2014). These incapacities may in turn cause a social withdrawal and a tendency to focus on pain (Berquin et al., 2011). Additionally, patients are prone to emotional modifications due to persistent pain (Ossipov et al., 2010). All of these factors may contribute in the emergence of anxiety and depressive symptoms. The present study examines the impact of type of work incapacities (at work, temporary incapacity and permanent incapacity) on anxiety and depression scores as a function of diagnoses (fibromyalgia, chronic pain syndrome, back pain, polyalgia). 123 patients suffering from chronic pain completed a measure of anxiety and depression (HADS), and a self-reported questionnaire of psychological and physical disability at work. We did not found any significant effect of type of work incapacities on anxiety and depression scores. Results present tables of frequencies to illustrate the social and professional situations of patients as a function of chronic pain diagnoses. [less ▲]

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See detailAn ALE meta-analysis on the neural correlates of personal goal processing during episodic future thoughts and mind-wandering
Stawarczyk, David ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

The ability to project oneself into the future is a multi-determined mental faculty that depends on various cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. The aim of the present study ... [more ▼]

The ability to project oneself into the future is a multi-determined mental faculty that depends on various cognitive processes supported by an extended set of brain regions. The aim of the present study was to examine a crucial component of future thinking—personal goal processing—and to determine its neural correlates during both experimentally directed mental time travel towards the future and mind-wandering, a form of spontaneous thoughts characterized by a prospective bias towards upcoming events. To address this question, we performed three distinct ALE meta-analyses of brain imaging studies on episodic future thinking, mind-wandering, and personal goal processing. We then examined the commonalities and differences in brain activity between these three areas of research. The results showed that the three domains activated a common set of brain regions within the default network including the posterior inferior parietal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, lateral temporal lobe, and, most notably, the medial prefrontal cortex. Differences in activation were also observed, and the medial prefrontal cortex was more activated during personal goal processing than the other two domains. These findings suggest that the medial prefrontal cortex mediates the processing of personal goals during both episodic future thinking and mind-wandering. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterogeneity of multitasking abilities in schizophrenia.
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Laroi, Frank ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and in particular for those activities requiring multitasking capacities. Multitasking refers to ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and in particular for those activities requiring multitasking capacities. Multitasking refers to activities (e.g. preparing a meal) where the person has to: (a) carry out and alternate between different tasks that vary in terms of priority, difficulty and duration; (b) define the tasks’ targets; (c) and face unexpected problems during the realization of these tasks. Moreover, schizophrenia is characterized by a great heterogeneity in regard to their everyday life difficulties and cognitive functioning. At present, patients’ multitasking capacities have not been adequately examined in the literature due to an absence of suitable assessment strategies. We thus recently developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the complex and multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting (i.e. the Computerized Meeting Preparation Task, CMPT). The aim of this study was to examine the multitasking abilities in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and in particular the existence of subgroups of patients in regard to their performances on cognitive measures and on the CMPT. Sixty-two patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and 39 paired healthy controls completed the CMPT and a cognitive battery. The results reveal that the CMPT possesses good sensitivity and suggest three underlying constructs of multitasking (Memory, Planning and Intent), which were found to be underpinned by several cognitive functions and multitasking aspects. Moreover, cluster analyses revealed subgroups of patients differing in terms of their cognitive and CMPT performances. Taken together, these results show the need for a cognitive model of multitasking abilities in persons diagnosed with schiozphrenia. Taken together, this cognitive model and the CMPT, could be a good basis for cognitive interventions of multitasking abilities in schizophrenia. Finally, the results underline the heterogeneity of schizophrenia. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental impact assessment of rail freight intermodality
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Rasouli, Soora; Timmermans, Harry (Eds.) Current issues in transportation research - Proceedings of the BIVEC/GIBET transport research days 2015 (2015, May 28)

The European Commission’s White Paper on transport (European Commission, 2011) seeks to achieve an efficient and sustainable balance between the various transport modes. Environmental impact studies on ... [more ▼]

The European Commission’s White Paper on transport (European Commission, 2011) seeks to achieve an efficient and sustainable balance between the various transport modes. Environmental impact studies on intermodality transport show that rail freight transport is the land-based transport that has a higher environmental performance compared to intermodal road-rail and all-road transport (Fries and Hellweg, 2014), especially when electrified railway is used (Spielmann and Scholz, 2005). Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology allows us to model as best as possible the environmental impacts of several pollutants in numerous categories. For other categories such as accident damages, noise impact and land use, new developments have to be performed. For the environmental impact assessment, all life cycle phases of rail freight transport operation, rail infrastructure, and rail equipment are taken into account (Spielmann et al., 2007). [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of ageing on episodic memory encoding: an fMRI study
François, Sarah ULg; Angel, Lucie; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 28)

It is now commonly accepted that a decline in episodic memory is observed with ageing: while recollection processes are impaired, familiarity seems to be relatively preserved (a). Older individuals appear ... [more ▼]

It is now commonly accepted that a decline in episodic memory is observed with ageing: while recollection processes are impaired, familiarity seems to be relatively preserved (a). Older individuals appear to recruit prefrontal areas bilaterally when their encoding is successful, while in young adults this activation is found to be left-lateralized (b). In this study, we were interested in the differences between younger and older participant regarding cerebral activity during encoding depending on whether the item elicited recollection or familiarity during the recognition phase. Twenty young volunteers (aged 19 to 29 years old) and 19 older volunteers (aged 60 to 78 years old) were presented visual stimuli depicting objects. During a first fMRI session, they were asked to make a size judgement about them. Then, in a second phase, the subjects were shown the items previously encountered during the encoding phase, as well as distractors. Participants' task was to determine which one were new and which one were seen earlier. For the latter, they also performed a Remember-Know judgement. Data were analysed using SPM8, with an event design comparing modifications in cerebral activity between the two subjects groups during encoding (1) for the items leading to recollection during the recognition phase compared to those leading to familiarity, and (2) for the items associated with familiarity during the recognition phase compared to those which were not recognized. Results show that older adults display a heightened activity in the right middle frontal gyrus, medial cingulate and paracingulate left gyri as well as in the precuneus, bilaterally when they engage recollection processes. Given that activations in these areas did not correlate with performance, they could be interepreted either as dedifferentiation or as an attempt of the ageing brain to compensate for a less elaborate encoding. However, no increase of activity was associated with familiarity processes in older adults, possibly because they are less demanding regarding attentional resources. (a) Bugaiska, A., Clarys, D., Jarry, C., Taconnat, L., Tapia, G., Vanneste, S., & Isingrini, M. (2007). The effect of aging in recollective experience: the processing speed and executive functioning hypothesis. Consciousness and Cognition, 16(4), 797-808. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2006.11.007 (b) Duverne, S., Motamedinia, S., & Rugg, M. D. (2009). The relationship between aging, performance, and the neural correlates of successful memory encoding. Cerebral Cortex, 19(3), 733-744. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn122 [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of ageing and encoding instructions on episodic memory
Hagelstein, Catherine ULg; François, Sarah ULg; Manard, Marine ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 28)

During ageing, a decline in episodic memory is observed, characterized by decreased recollection (a). In this study, we investigated the influence of encoding instructions, intentional or incidental, on ... [more ▼]

During ageing, a decline in episodic memory is observed, characterized by decreased recollection (a). In this study, we investigated the influence of encoding instructions, intentional or incidental, on the performance of younger and older adults during an episodic memory task. Twenty young volunteers (aged 18 to 30 years old) and 20 older volunteers (aged 61 to 72 years old) participated in this experiment. The stimuli consisted of 300 black-and-white drawings of common objects. The task comprised two steps. During the encoding phase, 100 items were presented once ("hard" condition) and 100 other items were presented twice ("easy" condition). During recognition, the items from the encoding phase were presented again, as well as 100 new items. In each age group, half of the participants received incidental encoding instructions (they had to make size judgements about the objects depicted) while the other half were explicitly asked to memorize the objects presented because they would be asked to recognize them later on (intentional encoding). During recognition, they performed a Remember-Know judgement for the items they believed they had seen earlier. We carried out ANOVAs in order to test for the influence of instructions, age group and number of repetitions of the items in one hand on the percentage of recollection and on the other hand on the percentage of familiarity (p<.05). Results show a significant effect of age, with more correct recollection responses in young adults, whereas more correct familiarity was found in older adults. Furthermore, it was found that the items presented twice lead to more recollection than those presented only once. Finally, these results also suggest that in the older group of participants, only for the items presented twice, intentional encoding instructions lead to more recollection and less familiarity. This finding is consistent with previous work showing that the elderly do not easily use elaborate encoding strategies, and that they need more support (here, a second exposition to the material) in order to perform a deep encoding when they are encouraged to do so with intentional learning instructions (b). (a) Bugaiska, A., Clarys, D., Jarry, C., Taconnat, L., Tapia, G., Vanneste, S., & Isingrini, M. (2007). The effect of aging in recollective experience: the processing speed and executive functioning hypothesis. Consciousness and Cognition, 16(4), 797-808. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2006.11.007 (b) Froger, C., Bouazzaoui, B., Isingrini, M., & Taconnat, L. (2012). Study time allocation deficit of older adults: the role of environmental support at encoding? Psychology and Aging, 27(3), 577-588. doi:10.1037/a0026358 [less ▲]

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See detailExecutive functions in normal aging: Impact of cognitive reserve and objective physical activity
Gilsoul, Jessica ULg; Simon, Jessica ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg

Poster (2015, May 28)

It is now acknowledged that there exists a large inter-individual variability in age-related cognitive changes. According to Stern (2009), the cognitive reserve built up throughout the life span will make ... [more ▼]

It is now acknowledged that there exists a large inter-individual variability in age-related cognitive changes. According to Stern (2009), the cognitive reserve built up throughout the life span will make seniors more or less resilient to the deleterious effects of aging on cognition, with seniors having a high level of cognitive reserve being more prone to successfully cope with cognitive and neuronal changes. Currently, few studies have focused on the specific effects of different factors of cognitive reserve on cognition. Consequently, the objective of this study is to determine the impact of four determinants of cognitive reserve on executive functions in normal aging. Sixty-eight healthy participants aged 60 to 80 were enrolled. Regarding executive functions, Inhibition (Stroop test, Hayling test, TAP Incompatibility subtest), Shifting (TAP Flexibility subtest, Plus-Minus task), and Updating (Letter-Number Sequencing subtest from MEM III, Letter memory task, 2-back task) were assessed (Miyake et al., 2000). Cognitive reserve was measured by questionnaires assessing educational level, occupation, leisure activities and physical activity. Moreover, an accelerometer allowed quantitative measure of physical activity by recording body movements during two weeks. Group comparisons (p<0.05) showed that seniors with a high level of cognitive reserve (measured by a global composite z-score) have better updating abilities (Letter memory task and updating composite score). In order to test the influence of each cognitive reserve factor on executive functions, simple linear regressions (p<0.05) were performed. The results showed that the educational level accounts for a significant part of the variance in flexibility (TAP Flexibility) and updating (Letter-Number sequencing, 2-back and composite score). The occupational level accounts significantly for the variance of the updating composite score. Regarding the quantitative physical activity, the mean number of minutes per day in moderate or intense physical activity significantly predicted the updating composite score. These results indicate that the level of cognitive reserve is related to abilities in some executive tests, particularly updating abilities. Importantly, all aspects of cognitive reserve are not associated with the three executive processes. This indicates a specificity of the protective effect of cognitive reserve on executive abilities. [less ▲]

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See detailLe donné phénoménal de Tim Crane
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

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See detailThe neural bases of proactive and reactive control processes in healthy aging
Manard, Marine ULg; François, Sarah ULg; SALMON, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 28)

Background. Research on cognitive control suggests an age-related decline in proactive control abilities (an anticipatory form of control) whereas reactive control (consecutive to conflict detection ... [more ▼]

Background. Research on cognitive control suggests an age-related decline in proactive control abilities (an anticipatory form of control) whereas reactive control (consecutive to conflict detection) seems to remain intact [1]. As proactive and reactive control abilities were associated to specific brain networks [2], this study investigated age-related effects on the neural substrates associated to each kind of control. Method. A modified form of the Stroop task was administered to 16 young and 16 older adults in an event-related fMRI experiment. In this version of the Stroop task, three different contexts were created: (1) a mostly congruent context (MC, inducing reactive control) with a majority of congruent items, (2) a mostly incongruent context (MI, inducing proactive control) with mainly interfering items, (3) a neutral context (MN) with mainly neutral items. Preprocessing and statistical analyses were performed with SPM8 (p<.001 uncorrected). Results. Behavioral results (p<0.05) indicated faster processing of interferent items in the MI than MC context in young participants only. With regard to neuroimaging data, the comparison of the two groups showed that the processing of interferent items in the MI context is associated to decreased activity in (mainly right-sided) frontal and temporal areas in the older group. On the contrary, in the MC context, increased activity was observed in bilateral frontal areas for older compared to younger participants. Discussion. Behavioral results confirm that older participants have difficulties with the implementation of proactive control that is associated to decreased brain activity (compared to young participants) in areas underlying Stroop performance. However, the recruitment of supplementary frontal areas we observed in the reactive control condition suggests compensation processes. So, aging seems to differentially affect the neural networks associated to the various kinds of cognitive control. [less ▲]

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See detailThe more you know...........various approaches in the analysis of tools from Liang Bua, Flores Indonesia
Lentfer, Carol ULg; Stephenson, Birgitta; Cnuts, Dries ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 28)

Chipped stone flakes from sedimentary deposits from the Liang Bua site, Flores, Indonesia have been found in association with faunal remains and skeletal remains identified as Homo floresiensis. Use-wear ... [more ▼]

Chipped stone flakes from sedimentary deposits from the Liang Bua site, Flores, Indonesia have been found in association with faunal remains and skeletal remains identified as Homo floresiensis. Use-wear and well-preserved organic residues on these flakes provide an opportunity to understand subsistence and behaviour of Homo floresiensis by determining how they were manipulated and what they were used for. This paper describes the analytical techniques including various microscope and staining methodologies used in residue analyses. It compares the efficacy and describes the outcome of these techniques in relation to the functional analysis of the Liang Bua lithic assemblage. [less ▲]

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See detailThe hot Jupiter WASP-­121 b: A planet heading towards its doom
Delrez, Laetitia ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

We present here the discovery by the WASP-South survey, in close collaboration with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes, of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter. WASP-121 b is a ... [more ▼]

We present here the discovery by the WASP-South survey, in close collaboration with the Euler and TRAPPIST telescopes, of WASP-121 b, a new remarkable short-period transiting hot Jupiter. WASP-121 b is a very inflated (1.86 Rjup) Jupiter-mass (1.18 Mjup) planet that transits every 1.27 days a bright active F6V star. A notable property of WASP-121b is that its orbital semi-major axis is only 15% larger than its Roche limit, which suggests that the planet might be close to tidal disruption. Furthermore, its large size and extreme irradiation (7.1 10^9 erg s^-1 cm^-2) make it an excellent target for atmospheric studies via secondary eclipse observations. Using the TRAPPIST robotic telescope, we indeed detect its thermal emission in the z’-band at better than ~4sigma, the measured occultation depth being 603+-130 ppm. This measurement is a first for a ground-based 60cm telescope. Finally, from a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect with the CORALIE spectrograph, we infer a sky-projected spin-orbit angle of 257.8+-6 deg. This result indicates a significant misalignment between the spin axis of the host star and the orbital plane of the planet, the planet being in a nearly polar orbit. [less ▲]

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See detailStone tool hafting and use in the European Upper Palaeolithic: the first results of the analysis of Gravettian tools from Hohle Fels
Taipale, Noora ULg; Rots, Veerle ULg

Conference (2015, May 28)

European Upper Palaeolithic lithic assemblages have been so far defined largely on a typological or technological basis, while extensive studies that would utilise the full potential of microwear analysis ... [more ▼]

European Upper Palaeolithic lithic assemblages have been so far defined largely on a typological or technological basis, while extensive studies that would utilise the full potential of microwear analysis have been few. This contribution presents the first results of an ongoing PhD project dedicated to the variability in stone tool use and hafting in the Upper Palaeolithic of Central and Western Europe. The aim of the project is to understand the development as well as regional patterns in tool hafting and use in the Gravettian and Magdalenian, and thus better explain the observed morphological and technological shifts. For this purpose, samples of tools from five European key sites with well-dated sequences (Hohle Fels, Geißenklösterle, Vogelherd, Maisières-Canal, and Abri Pataud) will be analysed giving a special emphasis on hafting traces. The study wishes to promote functional analysis as an integral part of technological studies, not as a mere side note. The German cave site Hohle Fels is used here as a case study to illustrate the potential of this kind of approach. The first results of the analysis of the site’s Gravettian material will be put into a wider context of earlier published results as well as preliminary observations made on the other assemblages included in the present study. Building on these results, the impact of tool hafting and use on the morphology of Gravettian lithic implements will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTel Quel, Change et Poétique en 1970 : "l'affaire de Lausanne"
Lorent, Fanny ULg

Conference (2015, May 27)

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See detailApplication du plan d’expérience de Box-Behnken et de la méthodologie des surfaces de réponses pour optimiser une méthode de quantification de phyto-œstrogènes dans les fourrages
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Romnee, Jean-Michel et al

Conference (2015, May 27)

Dans le cadre d’un projet de valorisation des prairies, intitulé « PhytoHealth », une méthode d’analyse quantitative constituée d’une étape d’extraction à l’aide d’un bain à ultrasons, suivi d’une ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre d’un projet de valorisation des prairies, intitulé « PhytoHealth », une méthode d’analyse quantitative constituée d’une étape d’extraction à l’aide d’un bain à ultrasons, suivi d’une hydrolyse enzymatique et d’une analyse par UPLC®-MS/MS a été développée pour assurer le dosage de phyto-œstrogènes dans les fourrages. Pour alléger l’optimisation de la préparation des échantillons, la méthodologie des surfaces de réponses a été utilisée. Un plan d’expérience de Box-Behnken a été appliqué aux étapes d’extraction et d’hydrolyse. Parmi les différents facteurs pris en compte, les impacts de la nature du solvant utilisé lors de l’extraction ainsi que la température et le pH lors de l’hydrolyse, ont clairement pu être mis en évidence. L’ensemble des données générées a également permis de définir des conditions optimales d’extraction et d’hydrolyse pour chacun des composés. Ces conditions n’étant pas identiques pour chacun d’entre eux, un compromis a été trouvé afin de pouvoir analyser l’ensemble de ces composés simultanément. L’ensemble de la méthode a ensuite été validée selon les recommandations de l’EMA/CVMP/VICH/463202/2009, pour confirmer sa fiabilité et robustesse. Cette dernière, combinée au model d’ensilage en sacs sous vide, a permis pour la première fois de suivre la cinétique d’évolution de 4 phyto-œstrogènes (daidzéine, génistéine, formononétine et biochanin A) durant une période d’ensilage. [less ▲]

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See detailControl of nuclear sample polarization using optical pumping and radio-frequency methods
Lenaers, Florence ULg; Glover, Rohan ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg

Conference (2015, May 27)

Laser-cooled and trapped radioactive isotopes are now being used to probe the properties of the weak interaction in nuclear beta decay. In this context, it is essential that one be able to control the ... [more ▼]

Laser-cooled and trapped radioactive isotopes are now being used to probe the properties of the weak interaction in nuclear beta decay. In this context, it is essential that one be able to control the nuclear polarization of the atomic samples. We present two polarization/depolarization schemes for argon-35, whose mirror transition to chlorine-35 is a particularly sensitive candidate for precision measurements in nuclear beta decay. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation d'une méthode d'analyse quantitative de l'équol par UPLC®-MS/MS dans le lait de vache - Application aux laits commercialisés en Wallonie (Belgique)
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Romne, Jean-Michel et al

Conference (2015, May 27)

Dans le cadre d’un projet intitulé «PhytoHealth », une méthode d’analyse quantitative de l’équol dans le lait a été développée et validée selon les recommandations de l’EMA/CVMP/VICH/463202/2009. Celle-ci ... [more ▼]

Dans le cadre d’un projet intitulé «PhytoHealth », une méthode d’analyse quantitative de l’équol dans le lait a été développée et validée selon les recommandations de l’EMA/CVMP/VICH/463202/2009. Celle-ci est constituée d’une étape d’hydrolyse enzymatique, suivie d’une double extraction liquide/liquide et d’une analyse par chromatographie liquide ultra performante couplé à un spectromètre de masse en tandem (UPLC®-MS/MS). Une fois les différents paramètres tels que la fiabilité, sensibilité et/ou robustesse de la méthode confirmées, celle-ci a permis, pour la première fois, d’estimer la teneur en équol d’ échantillons de laits commercialisés en Wallonie. Une Cinquantaine de laits ont été prélevés aléatoirement dans les commerces durant une période définie. Tous les échantillons possédaient une teneur en équol ≥ 10ng.mL-1. En comparant les valeurs moyennes, on a constaté qu’il n’y avait pas de différence entre les 4 catégories de laits analysés (entier, demi-écrémé, écrémé et cru). Par contre, une différence hautement significative a pu être observée entre les laits provenant de la filière biologique et ceux de la filière conventionnelle. Dans le premier cas, les teneurs varient entre 10 et 50 ng.mL-1 par contre, dans le second, elles varient entre 70 et 130 ng.mL-1. Cet impact de la filière biologique sur la teneur en équol dans les laits a pu être confronté à d’autres études européennes et confirmé. [less ▲]

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See detailDense-lineability in classes of ultradifferentiable functions
Esser, Céline ULg

Conference (2015, May 27)

The Denjoy-Carleman classes are spaces of smooth functions which satisfy growth conditions on their derivatives defined through weight sequences. In this talk, given a Denjoy-Carleman class E of Beurling ... [more ▼]

The Denjoy-Carleman classes are spaces of smooth functions which satisfy growth conditions on their derivatives defined through weight sequences. In this talk, given a Denjoy-Carleman class E of Beurling type that strictly contains another non-quasianalytic class F of Roumieu type, we handle the question of knowing how large the set of functions in E that are nowhere in the class $F$ is. In particular, we prove the dense-lineability of the set of functions of $E$ which are nowhere in F. Consequences for the Gevrey classes are also given. We extend then these results to the case of classes of ultradifferentiable functions defined imposing conditions on their Fourier Laplace transform using weight functions. [less ▲]

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See detailVenus nightglow intensity and solar activity: any correlation?
Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg

Conference (2015, May 26)

We examine if any correlation is observed between the brightness of the O2 nightside airglow and the EUV solar irradiance using the full database of VIRTIS IR images. We conclude that, as was the case for ... [more ▼]

We examine if any correlation is observed between the brightness of the O2 nightside airglow and the EUV solar irradiance using the full database of VIRTIS IR images. We conclude that, as was the case for the NO airglow observed during the Pioneer Venus mission, no response to solar activity is observed. [less ▲]

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See detailProcess-based method for groundwater resource vulnerability mapping with regards to solute contamination at the surface
Popescu, Cristina; Brouyère, Serge ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 26)

Numerous groundwater vulnerability methods have been developed taking into consideration a variable number of factors. The most common techniques are based on calculation of an index expressing the ... [more ▼]

Numerous groundwater vulnerability methods have been developed taking into consideration a variable number of factors. The most common techniques are based on calculation of an index expressing the protective effect of underground formations overlying the groundwater resource. However, it has been shown that different overlay and index methods applied to the same system can yield dramatically dissimilar results (among others, Gogu et al., 2003). The limitation of most of these methods is related to their use of a qualitative definition of groundwater vulnerability, as opposed to a definition based on a quantitative description of contaminant migration. A process-based point of view is proposed and based on three factors describing a pollution event (Brouyère et al., 2001): (1) the transit time from the source to the target, (2) the duration of the contamination breakthrough at the target, (3) the ratio between the maximum concentration at the target to the released concentration at the contamination source. The assessment can then be based on the impulse response at the ‘target’ to a Dirac-type solicitation (point, unit mass, instantaneous source of pollution), considering only physical hydrodispersive processes for intrinsic vulnerability and both physical and biochemical processes for specific vulnerability. The breakthrough curve obtained after a vertical transfer through the overlying layers can be computed pixel by pixel. Automatically processing the columns with identical characteristics, 1D partially saturated flow and solute transport computations are performed. Different maps are obtained for the three above mentioned factors. On the basis of these results, different vulnerability maps can be built according to the weighting coefficients agreed by the local community or decision makers. This concept allows a clear distinction between conventional aspects and process-based results in the building of a final vulnerability indicator. This methodology has the further advantage to consider the possible impact of runoff conditions occurring at the land surface and possibly leading to lateral contamination of groundwater through downstream preferential infiltration features. To solve this problem, Popescu et al. (2004 & 2008) and Dassargues et al. (2009) proposed a method for quantifying a lateral “dangerosity” coefficient using runoff coefficients based on land use, slopes, and soil properties. A test application is illustrated on a case-study located in a limestone basin in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailPropagation of uncertainties in the modelling of MEMS resonators (using a 3-scale probabilistic approach)
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 26)

In order to ensure the accuracy of MEMS vibrometers, the first resonance frequency should be predicted at the design phase. However, this prediction is subjected to randomness: there is a scatter in the ... [more ▼]

In order to ensure the accuracy of MEMS vibrometers, the first resonance frequency should be predicted at the design phase. However, this prediction is subjected to randomness: there is a scatter in the reached value resulting from the uncertainties involved in the manufacturing process. The purpose of this work is to take into account these uncertainties of the microstructure. The objective is a non-deterministic model that can be used since the design stage. The material is the source of uncertainties: the beam resonator is made of a polycrystalline material in which each grain has a random orientation. Solving the problem with a full direct numerical simulation combined to a Monte-Carlo method allows the probability density function of the resonance frequency to be computed. However this methodology is computationally expensive due to the number of degrees of freedom required to study one sample, motivating the development of a computationally efficient method. Towards this end a 3-scales stochastic model for predicting the resonance frequency of a micro-beam made of a polycrystalline linear anisotropic material is described. At the lower scale, we model the micro-structure with micro-volume elements. Due to the small-scale involved, the representativity of these micro-volume elements is not achieved and thus Statistical Volume Elements (SVE) are considered. These SVEs are generated under the form of a Voronoï tessellation, each grain being assigned a random orientation. Computational homogenization is applied over the SVEs, along with a Monte-Carlo procedure, to obtain a stochastic characterization of the elasticity tensor at the second scale of interest, the meso-scale. The spatial correlation between SVEs is also estimated. A generator based on spectral methods is implemented. Afterwards, using a stochastic finite element method, these meso-scale uncertainties are propagated by taking account of the spatial correlation up to the higher scale to predict the probabilistic behavior of the MEMS resonator. [less ▲]

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See detailA stochastic multiscale analysis for MEMS stiction failure
Hoang Truong, Vinh ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 26)

Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces, such as van der Waals forces and ... [more ▼]

Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces, such as van der Waals forces and capillary forces. Stiction is a multiscale problem which is characterized by three different lengths: the MEMS device characteristic length, the roughness of the contacting surfaces, and the distance range of the adhesive forces. Because MEMS surfaces roughness and adhesive force distances are of comparable scales, the randomness in the contacting surfaces can result in important uncertainties on the interacting forces, and in turn lead to a scatter in the MEMS structural behavior. The purpose of this work is to quantify the uncertainties on the macro stiction behavior of a MEMS structure due to the randomness in its contacting surfaces. A full analysis, such as the combination of a Monte-Carlo simulation to generate random surfaces combined with finite element (FE) analyses to model the stiction behavior, is expensive in terms of the computational cost due to the difference in the scales between the macro characteristic length and the distance range of the adhesive forces. Thus, in this work, we develop a stochastic multiscale analysis. At the micro scale, the uncertainties in the interacting forces between two rough surfaces are investigated. The power spectral density function of the surface is characterized from experimental topology measurements, and interacting surfaces are then generated as Gaussian random surfaces. For each generated random surface, the interacting adhesive forces are calculated by using a modified Dejarguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT) model. The resulting adhesive contact forces can be integrated using the finite element method at the structural scale by associating to each discretized contacting point a sampled surface. We then use the Monte-Carlo method to quantify the uncertainties in the stiction behavior of the MEMS device. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity and vulnerability to groundwater overexploitation by a ‘pressure state impact’ and process based approach
Beaujean, Jean; Lemieux, Jean-Michel; Therrien, René et al

Conference (2015, May 26)

A methodology is developed for proposing a groundwater vulnerability assessment in a Pressure-State-Impact causal chain that is familiar to decision makers. The ‘Driver Pressure State Impact Response’ ... [more ▼]

A methodology is developed for proposing a groundwater vulnerability assessment in a Pressure-State-Impact causal chain that is familiar to decision makers. The ‘Driver Pressure State Impact Response’ (DPSIR) framework, for describing interactions between society and the environment, defines a chain of Drivers that exert Pressures on the State of a given resource, such as groundwater, which then generates an Impact that will require an appropriate Response (Kristensen, 2004). The method is here based on the calculation of sensitivity coefficients for a user-defined groundwater state for which several physically-based indicators are proposed. These sensitivity coefficients reflect the easiness with which the groundwater state transmits pressures into impacts. They are grouped into a vulnerability matrix of pressures and impacts that quantify vulnerability for every combination of causal links identified in the DPSIR chain. For that reason, the sensitivity coefficients are converted to vulnerability, using the concept of ‘transgressing a given threshold’, which is commonly used in socioeconomic sciences (Luers et al. 2003). The concept of ‘rising above a given concentration threshold’ can be used for groundwater quality issues. The concept of ‘falling below a given piezometric head threshold’ can be used for groundwater quantity issues as aquifer overexploitation problems. Outside the careful selection of the sensitivity analysis method that can significantly influence the computational effort (Beaujean et al., 2013), emphasis is given to the illustration of the general methodology on a simple groundwater quantity case (of an alluvial aquifer with concerns related to water supply) demonstrating the potential use of this general and physically based vulnerability assessment method. While the methodology is general, the choice of causal chains has to be made prior to the calculation. The vulnerability is also related to a damaged state and is related to the ‘distance’ between the current state and a given threshold. This choice is arbitrary such that the vulnerability is sensitive to the choice of the threshold. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la spécification à la création de nouvelles catégorisations sociales: Le cas de francophones vivant en Flandre et de néerlandophones vivant en Wallonie
Dassargues, Alix ULg

Conference (2015, May 26)

Nos recherches doctorales visent à étudier la manière dont des individus en situation d’allophonie « illégitime » se catégorisent socialement. Puisqu’aucune catégorie identitaire légitime (c.-à-d ... [more ▼]

Nos recherches doctorales visent à étudier la manière dont des individus en situation d’allophonie « illégitime » se catégorisent socialement. Puisqu’aucune catégorie identitaire légitime (c.-à-d. institutionnalisée par les dictionnaires, les médias, les politiciens ou autres instances légitimatrices (Bourdieu 1982)) ne rend compte de la situation de francophones vivant en Flandre (région belge unilingue néerlandophone) et de néerlandophones vivant en Wallonie (région belge unilingue francophone excepté une petite communauté germanophone institutionnellement reconnue et territorialisée), ces individus conceptualisent le champ social de façon originale afin qu’il corresponde à leurs propres expériences de vie (Harder 2010 : 18). En se basant sur des principes tels que la légitimité d’un lexème dans l’espace discursif ou encore le caractère idiolectal ou non d’une catégorisation, nous nous proposons d’observer les modes de conceptualisation de l’identité par des locuteurs particulièrement aptes à formuler des catégorisations originales du champ social puisque leurs expériences de vie ne font pas l’objet de catégorisations légitimes. À partir de transcriptions d’entretiens semi-directifs, nous avons examiné le discours de témoins afin d’analyser leurs conceptualisations du champ social à travers les catégorisations qu’ils emploient. Nous prenons en compte les catégories légitimes et illégitimes citées dans les témoignages selon leur institutionnalisation (présence ou non dans les dictionnaires et dans les discours médiatiques) et la manière dont elles sont considérées par les locuteurs (catégorie considérée comme légitime ou non par les locuteurs). De la sorte, une typologie de nouvelles catégorisations identitaires a pu être établie sur la base d’une analyse linguistique : spécification d’un lexème légitime par une proposition relative , spécification d’un signifié par un redoublement de certains signifiants légitimes , spécification d’un signifié par l’instauration d’une gradation dans l’adéquation avec une catégorie légitime (stéréotype institutionnalisé) , modifications de signifiés dans des catégorisations légitimes , création de nouvelles catégorisations à partir d’adjectifs et de lexèmes légitimes , création de métaphores en transposant l’expérience d’un domaine conceptuel des catégories sociales (cf. Lakoff & Johnson 1980). Cette recherche interdisciplinaire suggère que la construction de sens s’établit à partir d’autres connaissances déjà organisées entre elles (Harder 2010:113) et partagées par une communauté d’individus. En choisissant le thème ambitieux de l’identification (ou la catégorisation) de soi et des autres, cette recherche permet également de transposer les connaissances de la linguistique cognitive au domaine social. Ainsi, elle confirme notamment que le modèle sémantique basé sur un prototype (Rosch 1978; Lakoff 1987) est adéquat pour rendre compte de la construction individuelle du sens dans le champ social. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout the Regularity of Cantor's Bijection
Simons, Laurent ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2015, May 25)

In 1878, Cantor proved that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the points of the unit line segment [0,1] and the points of the unit square [0,1]². Since this application is defined via ... [more ▼]

In 1878, Cantor proved that there exists a one-to-one correspondence between the points of the unit line segment [0,1] and the points of the unit square [0,1]². Since this application is defined via continued fractions, it is very hard to have any intuition about its smoothness. In this talk, we explore the regularity and the fractal nature of Cantor's bijection, using some notions concerning the metric theory and the ergodic theory of continued fractions. This talk is based on a joint work with S. Nicolay. [less ▲]

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See detailCharles Juliet : Du portrait a-posteriori à l’écriture de soi L’adresse à la mère comme tentative de désenfouissement dans Lambeaux
Vandormael, Thomas ULg

Conference (2015, May 25)

Lambeaux propose un diptyque de portraits. Dans la première partie, celui de la mère biologique. Dans la seconde, celui de l’auteur lui-même et au sein de celui-ci, enfin, le portrait de la mère adoptive ... [more ▼]

Lambeaux propose un diptyque de portraits. Dans la première partie, celui de la mère biologique. Dans la seconde, celui de l’auteur lui-même et au sein de celui-ci, enfin, le portrait de la mère adoptive. La dimension vocative explicite de la narration en constitue à la fois l’originalité et le paradoxe. Le recours au « Tu » dans l’ensemble du texte fait advenir une poétique de l’adresse en laquelle se cristallise la spécificité du récit de filiation propre à l’autofiction de la littérature contemporaine : différent du simple devoir de mémoire ou encore de la - très en vogue - commémoration, il se situe plutôt du côté de la restitution, à laquelle il y a deux sens à donner : à la fois reconstituer ce qui fut et s’est défait, et rendre leur existence à ceux qui s’en sont trouvés dépouillés en faisant apparaître ce qui demeure enfoui et dont on n’a pu hériter. Pour répondre au silence d’une mère qu’il n’a pas connue et qui elle-même n’a pas pu s’exprimer, faute d’accès au langage ou d’une présence pour l’écouter, Juliet choisit l’instantané et l’immédiateté d’un discours d’interpellation au présent et la forme du dialogue avec les morts, forcément toujours en partie déjà voué à l’échec. Dès lors, notre propos souhaite interroger comment le choix du vocatif permet un dédoublement fécond du sujet,faisant advenir une relation de soi à soi qui déjoue les processus classiques de l'autobiographie. [less ▲]

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See detailGestion des déchets nucléaires en France et en Belgique: Quelle place pour la critique ?
Parotte, Céline ULg

Conference (2015, May 25)

Depuis les années 1970, avec la multiplication des controverses scientifiques (Callon, Lascoumes et Barthe 2001), souvent liées à des mouvements pacifistes en environnementalistes ; nous assistons à la ... [more ▼]

Depuis les années 1970, avec la multiplication des controverses scientifiques (Callon, Lascoumes et Barthe 2001), souvent liées à des mouvements pacifistes en environnementalistes ; nous assistons à la naissance d’un flux d’incertitude et de critique politico-sociale, dirigée principalement vers le monde scientifique, sa production et ses hésitations. Il est malaisé de prévoir si cela mènera à une réelle désolidarisation des notions de science, technologie et progrès, mais il reste à supposer que cette critique permettra une gestion plus réflexive des effets majeurs du développement scientifique et technologique (Schot et Rip 2009). En d’autres termes, bien que les liens entre les idéologies du progrès et de la technologie restent très souvent puissants et non remis en question, on assiste au même moment à une critique sociale des conséquences sur le processus de gestion des choix technologiques qui s’y rapportent. Cette contribution propose de s’attarder sur le cas de la gouvernance socio technique de la gestion des déchets hautement radioactifs depuis le « tournant participatif » opéré dans les années 90 en France et en Belgique. Il s’agit de poser un regard critique sur l’apparition d’un nouveau mode de gouvernance plus participatif (au travers de l’inclusion de nouveaux acteurs) et ses conséquences. Dans quelle mesure ceux-ci redéfinissent-ils les positionnements du monde scientifique au sein du processus décisionnel ? Comment le monde scientifique reçoit-il les critiques qui lui sont adressées ? Plutôt que des tendances globales, cette contestation témoigne le plus souvent d’une mosaïque d’activités critiques dynamiques, concurrentes ou complémentaires dont les effets semblent faire vaciller — ou à tout le moins mettre sous tension — l’organisation, les routines et les institutions des sociétés modernes (Delvenne 2011). Cette mosaïque reflète le dynamisme des acteurs sociaux qui propagent leurs agendas et défendent leurs intérêts à travers la négociation de concessions, l’enchevêtrement de décisions et la cristallisation de rapports de force. En d’autres termes, les avancées d’un projet comme la gestion des déchets nucléaires ne sont pas la progression inéluctable d’un processus uniformément accepté par toutes les tendances de la société. En réalité, il existe une multitude d’acteurs qui influencent sans cesse la nature de ses contours. Ces acteurs sociaux bénéficient d’espaces politiques et institutionnels divers pour exprimer leurs préférences et tenter de transformer durablement les critiques qu’ils formulent en actions politiques qui trouvent un écho plus large au sein de la société. [less ▲]

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See detailElectric current crowding in nanostructured conductors
Silhanek, Alejandro ULg

Conference (2015, May 24)

When current stream lines are forced to depart from their rectilinear trajectory due to the presence of an obstacle, they conglomerate at the sharp bends encountered on their paths. The consequent current ... [more ▼]

When current stream lines are forced to depart from their rectilinear trajectory due to the presence of an obstacle, they conglomerate at the sharp bends encountered on their paths. The consequent current crowding is present in normal metals as well as in superconductors and has been, since long ago, identified as a key player in electromigration phenomena leading to failure in integrated circuit interconnects while might also be at the origin of local ablation in planar plasmonic structures. More recently, current crowding has been recognized as an important factor limiting the performance of superconducting single-photon detectors, leading to flux quanta motion rectification, or being a source of unwanted ratchet signal and depletion of surface barriers for magnetic flux penetration. In this talk, we will also show that in nanostructured superconductors at low temperatures, current crowding can trigger abrupt flux avalanches developing well defined geometrical patterns. Our experimental findings are backed up to the finest details, by simulations based on a phenomenological thermomagnetic model which, in turn, can be used to predict such complex structures and, given its reliability, allows one to estimate physical variables of more difficult experimental access, such as the local values of temperature and electric field. [less ▲]

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See detailAlain Robbe-Grillet face à l'entretien journalistique : paradoxes
Lorent, Fanny ULg

Conference (2015, May 22)

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See detailBifurcation Analysis of Large-Scale Dynamical Systems Using the Harmonic Balance Method
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 22)

The harmonic balance (HB) method has been widely used in the past few years, as a numerical tool for the study of nonlinear industrial models. However, in its classical formulation the HB method is ... [more ▼]

The harmonic balance (HB) method has been widely used in the past few years, as a numerical tool for the study of nonlinear industrial models. However, in its classical formulation the HB method is limited to the approximation of periodic solutions. The present paper proposes to extend the method to the detection and tracking of codimension-1 bifurcations in the system parameters space. As an application, the frequency response of a spacecraft and its bifurcations are studied, together with two nonlinear phenomena, namely quasiperiodic oscillations and detached resonance curves. [less ▲]

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See detailElectron paramagnetic resonance and fluorescence studies on potential anticancer properties of two new Ru(II) complexes : preliminary results
Collienne, Simon ULg; Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 22)

Fight against cancer is a priority of today’s research. Since the discovery of the anticancer properties of cisplatin (CisPt) in 1965 by Rosenberg [1], the treatment of cancer by chemotherapy has known ... [more ▼]

Fight against cancer is a priority of today’s research. Since the discovery of the anticancer properties of cisplatin (CisPt) in 1965 by Rosenberg [1], the treatment of cancer by chemotherapy has known great improvements. Unfortunately, CisPt has several side effects and is not effective against all kinds of cancer. Nevertheless its use highlights the great potential of organometallic compounds in the treatment of cancer [2]. Here we investigated the potential anticancer properties of two new organometallic compounds based on ruthenium II : [RuCl(p-cymene)(S2C.IDip)]+(PF6)- and [RuCl(p-cymene)(S2C.ICy)]+(PF6)-, named as LDO436 and LDO437 respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of inulin and wheat bran in the creep feed of neonatal piglets
Li, Bing ULg; Leblois, Julie ULg; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 22)

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See detailModulatory effects of Ruthenium (II)-based complexes on oxidative stress induced by activated HL60 cells and Neutrophils
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Collienne, Simon ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

Conference (2015, May 22)

There is a growing interest on the use of metal-based chemotherapeutic agents to fight different types of cancers [1]. The most used family of the organometallic compounds is platinum derivatives whose ... [more ▼]

There is a growing interest on the use of metal-based chemotherapeutic agents to fight different types of cancers [1]. The most used family of the organometallic compounds is platinum derivatives whose Cisplatin (CisPt) is the lead compound used for the treatment of various cancers including lung, testis, gastric, breast, etc. Nevertheless, beside its recognized therapeutic effects, side effects such as gastric toxicity and acute kidney failure were observed during the treatment, limiting its clinical use. Other compounds are currently studied and among them, Ruthenium (Ru) complexes have gained more importance for their less toxicity and lower aggressive effect on healthy tissues than CisPt. Ru-complexes are also more resorbed and excreted [2]. Numerous studies focused on the mechanisms of action of Ruthenium compounds to fight cancer, including antioxidant or pro-oxidant activity. During inflammation, activation and infiltration of neutrophils contribute to oxidant stress playing a crucial role in tumor development. Likewise, the degranulation of neutrophil causes the release of myeloperoxidase (MPO) which reacts with H2O2 to catalyze redox reactions. A therapeutic target to control inflammation is the modulation of oxidant enzymes and cells involved in radical species production and redox reactions. Because Ruthenium compounds can easily enter into cancer cells, a series of Ru(II)-complexes newly synthesized were used for this purpose. They were first tested for their radical scavenging activities using ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays. Amongst them, compound 1 (LD0436) and compound 2 (LD04037) were then studied for their ability to modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by inflammatory cells like human promyelocytic leukemia cell line (HL 60) and neutrophils (PMN) using fluorescence, chemiluminescence (CL) and electron spin resonance ESR techniques. The toxicity of those Ru-complexes against HL-60 and neutrophils was checked using Trypan blue exclusion assay. Altogether, CL and ESR findings indicate that both complexes 1 (LD0436) and 2 (LD0437) exhibit a dose-dependent inhibitory activity compared to CisPt, gallic acid, curcumin and quercetin, which were taken as reference molecules in the different systems investigated. Similarly, the tested complexes also display an antioxidant profile on the substrate oxidation catalyzed by peroxidase such as MPO mainly involved in acute and chronic inflammatory situations. 1: (RuCl(p-Cymen)(S2C.IDip)]+(PF6)-], 2: (RuCl(p-Cymen)(S2C.Icy)]+(PF6)-] References: 1. Ceresa C, Brawin A, Cavaletti G, Trinidad A et al., (2014) Current Medicinal Chemistry 20(21), 2237-2265. 2. Liu, Y, Zhang X, Zhang R, et al., (2011) European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry. 1974-1980. [less ▲]

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See detailExploration de facteurs cognitifs et thymiques en lien avec les symptômes psychotiques : Analyses en clusters.
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Laroi, Frank ULg; Nuyens, Filip et al

Conference (2015, May 22)

Introduction Il est maintenant reconnu qu’il existe différentes trajectoires possibles au développement et au maintien des symptômes psychotiques tels que les hallucinations et les idées délirantes. Ces ... [more ▼]

Introduction Il est maintenant reconnu qu’il existe différentes trajectoires possibles au développement et au maintien des symptômes psychotiques tels que les hallucinations et les idées délirantes. Ces phénomènes sont également en lien avec différents mécanismes cognitifs (e.g. style d’encodage, impulsivité) et facteurs thymiques (e.g. anxiété, dépression). Cependant, le poids de ces facteurs peut certainement varier en fonction des différentes trajectoires. Objectifs L’objectif de cette étude est d’explorer l’impact de différents facteurs cognitifs et thymiques sur les symptômes psychotiques dans un large échantillon issu de la population normale afin d’essayer d’en faire ressortir des profils différents avec l’aide d’analyses en clusters. Les mesures suivantes ont été incluses : Launay-Slade Hallucinations Scale, Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief, Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait). [less ▲]

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See detailMake the ureter your friend
Bonnet, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, May 22)

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See detailQuels profils caractérisés par l'humeur, l'activation comportementale et les stratégies de régulation émotionnelle pouvons-nous identifier dans une population adulte ?
Wagener, Aurélie ULg

Conference (2015, May 22)

The behavioural model of depression put forward that the level of activities in depressed patients decreases which maintains their low mood. Depressed patients are also known to use non-adaptive cognitive ... [more ▼]

The behavioural model of depression put forward that the level of activities in depressed patients decreases which maintains their low mood. Depressed patients are also known to use non-adaptive cognitive coping strategies (e.g. rumination, catastrophizing). Previous research underlined that cognitive coping strategies predict the level of activation (non-adaptive cognitive coping strategies predict a low level of activation). According to the dimensional approach of psychopathology, we hypothesised that sub-groups of depressed and non-depressed adults could be identified depending on their level of activation and the kind of cognitive coping strategies they use. In order to test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationships between the level of activation, the cognitive coping strategies, anxiety and depression with a cluster-analysis approach. 762 adults (530 women, 232 men; mean age= 31.54, SD= 12.08) completed an online survey assessing the above-mentioned variables with self-reports measures (BADS-SF, CERQ, BDI-II, STAI-Y B). Results identified four clusters that differed according to the level of activation, the cognitive coping strategies, the anxiety and the depression. For instance, one of the four classes highlighted that non-active depressed adults used catastrophizing and rumination contrary to another classes of active non-depressed ones. These results, providing interesting guidelines for psychological interventions, will be discussed further during the congress. [less ▲]

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See detailAnatomy of the pelvis re-designed
Bonnet, Pierre ULg

Conference (2015, May 21)

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See detailCARRIAGE OF CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE IN HOSPITAL PATIENTS IN SPAIN, INCLUDING MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE ISOLATES
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg; Van Broeck, Johan et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI ... [more ▼]

Increasing age, several co-morbidities, environmental contamination, antibiotic exposure and other intestinal perturbations appear to be the greatest risk factors for C. difficile infection (CDI). Therefore, hospitalized patients are considered particularly vulnerable to CDI. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of C. difficile in a Spanish hospital and to characterize the isolates with respect to the PCR-ribotype, antibiotic resistance and toxin activity. In addition, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed in order to study clonal relationships between C. difficile isolates obtained from two different countries. Culture of samples was performed in a selective medium cycloserine cefoxitin fructose cholate. An identification of the isolated colonies was done by PCR detection of tpi, tcdA, tcdB and cdtA genes. Toxic activity was confirmed by a cytotoxic immunoassay. Further characterization was performed by PCR ribotyping. MLST was used in order to determine genetic relationships between Spanish and Belgian C. difficile isolates recovered from hospital patients in both countries. C. difficile was frequently detected in hospitalized patients. The isolates belonged to different PCR ribotypes, including type 027. Most of the strains obtained harboured tcdA and tcdB genes. The number of positive faecal samples considerably increased among elderly patients over 65 years old. The multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) analysis showed that some Spanish and Belgian isolates cluster in the same lineage. This study reveals the circulation of toxigenic C. difficile in a Spanish hospital. The relatedness between Belgian and Spanish isolates indicate a common source or a lack of diversity from some PCR-ribotypes. Moreover, data obtained suggest that the combination of ribotyping and MLST is a good tool for the inter-laboratory comparison of strains among different countries. Continuous inter-country surveillance is suitable to understand the spread of C. difficile isolates among hospitalized patients. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of ageing on episodic memory encoding: an fMRI study
François, Sarah ULg; Angel, Lucie; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

It is now commonly accepted that a decline in episodic memory is observed with ageing: while recollection processes are impaired, familiarity seems to be relatively preserved (a). Older individuals appear ... [more ▼]

It is now commonly accepted that a decline in episodic memory is observed with ageing: while recollection processes are impaired, familiarity seems to be relatively preserved (a). Older individuals appear to recruit prefrontal areas bilaterally when their encoding is successful, while in young adults this activation is found to be left-lateralized (b). In this study, we were interested in the differences between younger and older participant regarding cerebral activity during encoding depending on whether the item elicited recollection or familiarity during the recognition phase. Twenty young volunteers (aged 19 to 29 years old) and 19 older volunteers (aged 60 to 78 years old) were presented visual stimuli depicting objects. During a first fMRI session, they were asked to make a size judgement about them. Then, in a second phase, the subjects were shown the items previously encountered during the encoding phase, as well as distractors. Participants' task was to determine which one were new and which one were seen earlier. For the latter, they also performed a Remember-Know judgement. Data were analysed using SPM8, with an event design comparing modifications in cerebral activity between the two subjects groups during encoding (1) for the items leading to recollection during the recognition phase compared to those leading to familiarity, and (2) for the items associated with familiarity during the recognition phase compared to those which were not recognized. Results show that older adults display a heightened activity in the right middle frontal gyrus, medial cingulate and paracingulate left gyri as well as in the precuneus, bilaterally when they engage recollection processes. Amongst those regions, the precuneus seems to underlie compensatory processes, allowing the elderly to perform a richer encoding, as it was previously suggested for recollection processes during recall (c). However, no increase in activity was associated with familiarity processes in older adults, possibly because they are less demanding regarding attentional resources. (a) Bugaiska, A., Clarys, D., Jarry, C., Taconnat, L., Tapia, G., Vanneste, S., & Isingrini, M. (2007). The effect of aging in recollective experience: the processing speed and executive functioning hypothesis. Consciousness and Cognition, 16(4), 797-808. doi: 10.1016/j.concog.2006.11.007 (b) Duverne, S., Motamedinia, S., & Rugg, M. D. (2009). The relationship between aging, performance, and the neural correlates of successful memory encoding. Cerebral Cortex, 19(3), 733-744. doi:10.1093/cercor/bhn122 (c) Angel, L., Bastin, C., Genon, S., Balteau, E., Phillips, C., Luxen, A., . . . Collette, F. (2013). Differential effects of aging on the neural correlates of recollection and familiarity. Cortex, 49(6), 1585-1597. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.10.002 [less ▲]

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See detail"Tell me about Self." Clarté de soi et souvenirs définissant le soi: Particularités du self chez des individus souffrant d'un trouble de l'humeur
Boulanger, Marie ULg; Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

Poster (2015, May 21)

The present study focusses on a particular kind of autobiographical memories called self-defining memories (SDMs). SDMs are highly pertinent for self-building because they help to define in the most ... [more ▼]

The present study focusses on a particular kind of autobiographical memories called self-defining memories (SDMs). SDMs are highly pertinent for self-building because they help to define in the most clearly way our perception of ourselves. If literature showed that depressed and bipolar patients suffer from autobiographical memory (AM) disturbances, SDMs have not been studied a lot since yet in these two disorders. Then, the present study pursues two main aims: (1) to assess SDM’s characteristics and (2) to assess the relationship between the ability to retrieve SDM’s and self-concept clarity. To reach our objective, 17 depressed and 16 bipolar patients are compared to 17 healthy subjects. Participants are asked to complete SDMs procedure that is recalling six important events which happened in their life. These SDMs are assessed on four variables: specificity, impact, valence, meaning making, contain. Self-concept clarity and mood are also assessed. Preliminary results do not highlight difference between our groups on specificity. Marginal effects appear for meaning making with healthy subjects recalling more meaning making events. Results show that depressed patients present a mood congruence. The final results will be presented during the convention, as data-collection is on-going and will end in April. Experimental and clinical implications of our results will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing employees propensity to engage in OCB: incremental validity of SJT beyond personality.
Lothe, Benoit ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg; Scius, Anthony et al

Conference (2015, May 21)

This study presents the validation results of a SJT developed in collaboration with a Belgian french speaking mutual insurance company for the assessment of employees OCB. The purpose is to provide ... [more ▼]

This study presents the validation results of a SJT developed in collaboration with a Belgian french speaking mutual insurance company for the assessment of employees OCB. The purpose is to provide empirical evidence concerning the validity of using the SJT by examining the issues of OCB criterion validity, incremental validity beyond a personality inventory, applicant perception and SJT transparency level. The SJT was developed in-house and following relevant literature recommendations (Weekley, Ployhart & Holtz, 2006). Data were collected on 117 white-collar employees. Three other measurements were concurrently collected: OCB using Williams & Anderson (1991) self-reported scales, personality using the Gosling, Rentfrow & Swann (2003) ten item inventory (TIPI) and applicant perception using SPJS (Bauer, & al., 2001). An open-ended question was used to access the extent to which applicants are able to identify the SJT criteria. Results indicated that the SJT is a relevant predictor of OCB (r = .42; p<.001). The SJT also provides incremental explanation of the OCB criteria beyond the personality inventory (∆R² = .11; p<.001). There was in average an agreement about the acceptability of the SJT in terms of perceived procedural justice. No relationships were found between applicant ability to correctly identify the SJT criteria and SJT score or OCB self-rating. This study is to our knowledge among the first attempt to develop and validate a tool to fill the gap on how to predict employees OCB (Organ, Podsakoff & Podsakoff, 2010). Implications for the personnel selection and current limitations will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMaladaptive emotion regulation strategies and stress sensitivity mediate the relation between adverse life events and attenuated psychotic symptoms.
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Dessart, Gregory; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

Introduction There is now solid evidence for a relation between Adverse Life Events (ALE) and psychotic symptoms in both patients with psychosis and in the general population. A recent study has shown ... [more ▼]

Introduction There is now solid evidence for a relation between Adverse Life Events (ALE) and psychotic symptoms in both patients with psychosis and in the general population. A recent study has shown that this relation may be partially mediated by stress sensitivity. However, other factors that may mediate this relation, such as emotion regulation strategies, have not yet been examined in the literature. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the mediation effect of both emotion regulation strategies and stress sensitivity in the relation between ALE and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms in the general population. Results Results demonstrated that the relation between ALE and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (i.e. hallucinations and delusions) was mediated by maladaptive emotion regulations strategies. Discussion Although it is most likely that there are several possible trajectories leading to the formation of positive psychotic symptoms, the results of the present study suggest that one such trajectory may involve the maladaptive regulation of negative emotions alongside a certain vulnerability after experiencing highly distressing ALE. Hence, interventions aiming to enhance adaptive emotion regulation strategies and diminish the utilization of maladaptive strategies should be regarded as an integral part of psychological treatment schemes in the context of psychotic symptoms. Conclusion In summary, the present study demonstrated that the relation between ALE and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms is mediated by maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailAgroecology: Unity into diversity
Hatt, Séverin ULg; Artru, Sidonie ULg; Boeraeve, Fanny ULg et al

Poster (2015, May 21)

What does agroecology suggest ? Next to the theoretical agroecological principles, we present illustrative examples from farming practices, through the food system, up to the way of carrying agricultural ... [more ▼]

What does agroecology suggest ? Next to the theoretical agroecological principles, we present illustrative examples from farming practices, through the food system, up to the way of carrying agricultural research and education. [less ▲]

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