References of "Scientific congresses and symposiums"
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See detailTransfusion in aortic surgery
KOCH, Jean-Noël ULg

Conference (2014, September)

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See detailLe test conflictuel - un colosse aux pieds d'argile?
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

Conference (2014, September)

Cette présentation a servi de support à une communication tendant à faire le point sur l'article 27 du Code de droit international privé. La communication avait comme objectif de démontrer les difficultés ... [more ▼]

Cette présentation a servi de support à une communication tendant à faire le point sur l'article 27 du Code de droit international privé. La communication avait comme objectif de démontrer les difficultés du régime actuel d'accueil en Belgique des actes étrangers en Belgique et à formuler des pistes de solution pour améliorer ce régime. [less ▲]

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See detailReflexive Introduction to the Categorisation of the European Countryside
Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Siljkovic, Zeljka; Cuka, Anita; Pejdo, Ana (Eds.) Contempory development of European rural areas, Book of Abstracts (2014, September)

At the end of the 20th century, French rural geographers used a simple typology that encapsulates three categories of the countryside: Thirty years later, we should probably add new categories ... [more ▼]

At the end of the 20th century, French rural geographers used a simple typology that encapsulates three categories of the countryside: Thirty years later, we should probably add new categories: “agricultural countryside”, “recreational countryside”, “residential countryside”, “greying countryside”, “countryside supplying energy”, “new peasantry countryside”, “Biosphere reserves” and pay attention to other perspectives such as natural and cultural heritage, water resources protection and ecological transition. The paper discusses these old and new types of countryside and underlines main challenges that countryside faces; it shows how sensitive the categorisation could be according to the level of analysis, the period of observation and the perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailSelecting job candidates who have a propensity to exhibit change-oriented organizational citizenship behaviour.
Lothe, Benoit ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2014, September)

Purpose An abundant literature indicates that Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCBs) positively influence a number of important organizational outcomes. Furthermore, research is needed on the topic ... [more ▼]

Purpose An abundant literature indicates that Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCBs) positively influence a number of important organizational outcomes. Furthermore, research is needed on the topic of assessing and selecting applicants who have a propensity to exhibit OCB (Organ & al., 2010). Some of these behaviours are truly important to enable organization to adapt and “to make constructive changes in the work and task environment” (Choi, 2007, p.468). Examples include Voice, a challenging dimension of OCB (Dominguez & al., 2013), and Sportsmanship, that facilitate the change by reducing the diversion of resources in trivial matters (Organ & al., 2006). This exploratory study provides empirical evidence about using Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) for identifying applicants who have a propensity to exhibit change oriented OCB. Method Two SJTs were developed to comply with OCBs assessment. The OCBs framework includes behaviours relating to organizational adaptation (sportsmanship) and change (voice). OCBs were concurrently collected using self-reported measurement scales. Data were collected from 220 white collars and 139 university students through an online survey. Results Significant correlations were found between the SJT scores and overall OCB ratings. More specifics findings provided substantial evidence for the concurrent validity of the SJTs to measure change-oriented sub-dimensions of OCBs. Conclusions Researches on techniques to predict OCBs are scarce and this study is the first to address the development and validation of a SJT for the assessment of affiliative and challenging dimensions of OCBs. [less ▲]

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See detailCortical excitability dynamics of during sleep deprivation set PVT performance
Borsu, Chloé; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg; Ly, Julien ULg et al

Poster (2014, September)

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See detailComparaison du VeinoPlus Sport et du TENS sur la récupération de jeunes footballeurs
God, Maxime; LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Evrard, Frédéric et al

in 7ème Congrès National SFMES & SFTS 2014 (2014, September)

Introduction : Toute activité physique fatigue l’organisme ; les muscles produisent des métabolites et de d’acide lactique, limitant leur fonctionnement. Il est donc nécessaire de pouvoir récupérer de ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Toute activité physique fatigue l’organisme ; les muscles produisent des métabolites et de d’acide lactique, limitant leur fonctionnement. Il est donc nécessaire de pouvoir récupérer de manière efficace au plus vite. En effet, une mauvaise récupération porte préjudice à la performance et à l’état physique du sportif. Aux côtés de la récupération active et de la balnéothérapie de nouvelles techniques comme de la cryothérapie et électrostimulation ont fait leur apparition pour une meilleure récupération. Le but de cette étude était de comparer l’impact de 2 types de stimulateurs : « VeinoPlus Sport » (VPS) et « TENS » sur la récupération des footballeurs amateurs après un effort de type Yo-Yo. Matériel et méthode : Dans un contexte identique, chaque sportif (20 footballeurs; âge moyen = 17,1 ans ± 0,79) a bénéficié du VPS ou du TENS lors de 2 séances différentes après 2 efforts de type Yo-Yo, séparés d’une période de récupération. Quatre prélèvements sanguins (lactate, gaz sanguins, ions, marqueurs cardiaques…) ainsi qu’un évaluation de l’explosivité par Myotest ont été réalisés respectivement avant l’épreuve, juste après, après la récupération et après la seconde épreuve. Un questionnaire relatif à l’état de fatigue a également été rempli par les sujets. Pour l’analyse statistique, nous avons utilisé le logiciel « StatPlus » et réalisé une Anova à mesures répétées ainsi qu’un test de Scheffé. Résultats : Les sportifs ont tous parcouru une plus grande distance lors des 2èmes efforts, surtout au sein du groupe VPS, mais sans différence significative. L’épreuve a déclenché une variation significative de lactatémie, du HCO3- ainsi que de la myoglobine. L’étude des autres paramètres sanguins ainsi que des paramètres de l’explosivité n’a révélé aucune évolution significative tout au long de l’étude. Par contre en ce qui concerne les critères subjectifs (« ressenti »), les footballeurs du groupe VPS ont noté, à 12h et 24h, une moindre douleur aux jambes, une moindre sensation de fatigue, une moindre diminution de la force, une plus grande légèreté ainsi qu’un meilleur état de forme par rapport au groupe TENS. Enfin, en général, et sans noter de préférence particulière pour l’un ou l’autre des appareils, les athlètes ont préféré l’utilisation de l’électrostimulation à leur récupération habituelle. Conclusion : Cette étude ne montre que des différences mineures, non significatives, entre les deux appareils. Les 2 groupes ont parcouru une distance plus grande lors du 2ème effort. Ceci suggère que le test n’était pas épuisant, malgré les signes biologiques de « fatigue ». Cependant, sur des critères subjectifs de récupération et de bien–être, une tendance était en faveur du VPS. Ces résultats seront à prendre en compte pour de nouvelles études avec cette fois des tests plus fatigants. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison du VeinoPlus Sport et du TENS sur la récupération de jeunes footballeurs
God, Maxime; LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Evrard, Frédéric et al

in 7ème Congrès National SFMES & SFTS 2014 (2014, September)

Introduction : Toute activité physique fatigue l’organisme ; les muscles produisent des métabolites et de d’acide lactique, limitant leur fonctionnement. Il est donc nécessaire de pouvoir récupérer de ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Toute activité physique fatigue l’organisme ; les muscles produisent des métabolites et de d’acide lactique, limitant leur fonctionnement. Il est donc nécessaire de pouvoir récupérer de manière efficace au plus vite. En effet, une mauvaise récupération porte préjudice à la performance et à l’état physique du sportif. Aux côtés de la récupération active et de la balnéothérapie de nouvelles techniques comme de la cryothérapie et électrostimulation ont fait leur apparition pour une meilleure récupération. Le but de cette étude était de comparer l’impact de 2 types de stimulateurs : « VeinoPlus Sport » (VPS) et « TENS » sur la récupération des footballeurs amateurs après un effort de type Yo-Yo. Matériel et méthode : Dans un contexte identique, chaque sportif (20 footballeurs; âge moyen = 17,1 ans ± 0,79) a bénéficié du VPS ou du TENS lors de 2 séances différentes après 2 efforts de type Yo-Yo, séparés d’une période de récupération. Quatre prélèvements sanguins (lactate, gaz sanguins, ions, marqueurs cardiaques…) ainsi qu’un évaluation de l’explosivité par Myotest ont été réalisés respectivement avant l’épreuve, juste après, après la récupération et après la seconde épreuve. Un questionnaire relatif à l’état de fatigue a également été rempli par les sujets. Pour l’analyse statistique, nous avons utilisé le logiciel « StatPlus » et réalisé une Anova à mesures répétées ainsi qu’un test de Scheffé. Résultats : Les sportifs ont tous parcouru une plus grande distance lors des 2èmes efforts, surtout au sein du groupe VPS, mais sans différence significative. L’épreuve a déclenché une variation significative de lactatémie, du HCO3- ainsi que de la myoglobine. L’étude des autres paramètres sanguins ainsi que des paramètres de l’explosivité n’a révélé aucune évolution significative tout au long de l’étude. Par contre en ce qui concerne les critères subjectifs (« ressenti »), les footballeurs du groupe VPS ont noté, à 12h et 24h, une moindre douleur aux jambes, une moindre sensation de fatigue, une moindre diminution de la force, une plus grande légèreté ainsi qu’un meilleur état de forme par rapport au groupe TENS. Enfin, en général, et sans noter de préférence particulière pour l’un ou l’autre des appareils, les athlètes ont préféré l’utilisation de l’électrostimulation à leur récupération habituelle. Conclusion : Cette étude ne montre que des différences mineures, non significatives, entre les deux appareils. Les 2 groupes ont parcouru une distance plus grande lors du 2ème effort. Ceci suggère que le test n’était pas épuisant, malgré les signes biologiques de « fatigue ». Cependant, sur des critères subjectifs de récupération et de bien–être, une tendance était en faveur du VPS. Ces résultats seront à prendre en compte pour de nouvelles études avec cette fois des tests plus fatigants. [less ▲]

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See detailβ 5 tubulin and 15-protofilament microtubules appeared in supporting cells of the Corti’s organ during development in rodents
Renauld, Justine ULg; Thelen, Nicolas ULg; Johnen, Nicolas et al

Conference (2014, August 31)

A feature of the organ of Corti’s supporting cells is the presence of an abundant cytoskeleton which is mainly composed of microtubules. These supporting cells have also been shown to contain a minor ... [more ▼]

A feature of the organ of Corti’s supporting cells is the presence of an abundant cytoskeleton which is mainly composed of microtubules. These supporting cells have also been shown to contain a minor mammalian tubulin, the β5-tubulin [1], recently related as a biomarker for cancer outcome [2] and cell proliferation [3]. It was shown that a β-tubulin isoform can specified the microtubule architecture, such as the expression of the Moth β2 in the Drosophila testes imposed the 16 protofilaments (16pf) structure on the corresponding subset of Drosophila microtubules, which normally contain 13pf [4]. Moreover, supporting cell microtubules are formed by 15pf instead of the canonical 13, a unique fact among vertebrates [5]. Such a protofilament configuration has been observed in C. elegans’ neurons which are responsible for the mechanosensory sense of touch [6]. It was also shown that these 15pf microtubules were essential to the proper functioning of these mechanosensory neurons [6]. To determine the role of this particular tubulin in the auditory organ and its possible involvement in the formation of the unusual 15pf microtubules of supporting cells, we studied the spatiotemporal localization of β5-tubulin during development in rats from embryonic day 18 until P25 (25th postnatal day). We also analyzed the localization of β5-tubulin mRNA expression in the Corti’s organ. Then we examined the fine structure of microtubules at the electron microscope level. For these experiments, we used an early postnatal stage and a late postnatal stage. Our results showed that β5-tubulin, contrary to other β-tubulins, had a unique distribution in the cochlea. This β-tubulin appeared at a postnatal stage, before the opening of the Corti’s tunnel and being restricted to supporting cells, especially in pillar and Deiters cells,. The same localization of β5-tubulin mRNA was observed by in Situ Hybridization. Electron microscopy indicated further that Pillar and Deiters cells were composed by 15-protofilament microtubules at the late postnatal stage (P25). In conclusion, all these data strongly suggest that there is a relationship between the presence of β5-tubulin and 15-protofilament microtubules in the supporting cells of the auditory organ. Further studies are now needed to elucidate their role. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of a Global Agricultural Policy on the smallholder farmers in ending hunger
Paveliuc-Olariu, Codrin; Burny, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014, August 30)

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See detailAspects économiques de la filière du vermicelle de tolomane au Vietnam
Le Thi Long, Vy; Vu Dinh, Ton; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 30)

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See detailL'agriculture de subsistance et de semi-subsistance en Roumanie
Dona, Ion; Burny, Philippe ULg

Conference (2014, August 30)

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See detailProblématique foncière chez les exploitants agricoles de la Province de Kirundo au nord du Burundi
Minani, Bonaventure; Rurema, Déo-Guide; Burny, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 30)

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See detailAmélioration des moyens d'existence durables. Une voie pour la durabilité des exploitations agricoles familiales de coton au Bénin
Assogba, Claude Gervais; Tossou, C. R.; Lebailly, Philippe ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 30)

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See detailAccelerating Random Forests in Scikit-Learn
Louppe, Gilles ULg

Conference (2014, August 29)

Random Forests are without contest one of the most robust, accurate and versatile tools for solving machine learning tasks. Implementing this algorithm properly and efficiently remains however a ... [more ▼]

Random Forests are without contest one of the most robust, accurate and versatile tools for solving machine learning tasks. Implementing this algorithm properly and efficiently remains however a challenging task involving issues that are easily overlooked if not considered with care. In this talk, we present the Random Forests implementation developed within the Scikit-Learn machine learning library. In particular, we describe the iterative team efforts that led us to gradually improve our codebase and eventually make Scikit-Learn's Random Forests one of the most efficient implementations in the scientific ecosystem, across all libraries and programming languages. Algorithmic and technical optimizations that have made this possible include: - An efficient formulation of the decision tree algorithm, tailored for Random Forests; - Cythonization of the tree induction algorithm; - CPU cache optimizations, through low-level organization of data into contiguous memory blocks; - Efficient multi-threading through GIL-free routines; - A dedicated sorting procedure, taking into account the properties of data; - Shared pre-computations whenever critical. Overall, we believe that lessons learned from this case study extend to a broad range of scientific applications and may be of interest to anybody doing data analysis in Python. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational homogenization of cellular materials with propagation of instabilities through the scales
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

Conference (2014, August 29)

The aim of this work is to develop an efficient multi–scale finite element framework to capture the buckling instabilities in cellular materials. As a classical multi–scale computational homogenization ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is to develop an efficient multi–scale finite element framework to capture the buckling instabilities in cellular materials. As a classical multi–scale computational homogenization scheme looses accuracy with the apparition of the macroscopic localizations resulting from the micro–buckling, the second–order multi–scale computational homogenization scheme1 is considered. This second–order computational framework is herein enhanced with the following novelties so that it can be used for cellular materials. First, at the microscopic scale, the periodic boundary condition is used because of its efficiency. As the meshes generated from cellular materials exhibit a large void part on the boundaries and are not conforming in general, the classical enforcement based on the matching nodes cannot be applied. A new method based on the polynomial interpolation2 without the requirement of the matching mesh condition on opposite boundaries of the representative volume element (RVE) is developed. Next, in order to solve the underlying macroscopic Mindlin strain gradient continuum of this second–order scheme by the displacement–based finite element framework, the treatment of high order terms is based on the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method to weakly impose the C1-continuity3. Finally, as the instability phenomena are considered at both scales of the cellular materials, the path following technique is adopted to solve both the macroscopic and microscopic problems4. The micro–buckling leading to the macroscopic localization and the size effect phenomena can be captured within the proposed framework. In particular it is shown that results are not dependent on the mesh size at the macroscopic scale during the softening response, and that they agree well with the direct numerical simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailResponsabilité sociale et entreprises à risque
Robert, Jocelyne ULg; Frau, Maité; al

Conference (2014, August 29)

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See detailA post-mortem study of physiopathological characteristics of genital tracts of culled dairy cows in South Vietnam.
Nguyen Kien, Cuong; Okouyi, Marcel; Hanzen, Christian ULg

Poster (2014, August 28)

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See detailInnovative lactation stage specific prediction of CH4 from milk MIR spectra
Vanlierde, Amélie; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg; Dehareng, Frédéric et al

Conference (2014, August 28)

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See detailUse of high performance computing in animal breeding
Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Poster (2014, August 28)

High-perfomance computing facilities proposing shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors are becoming available. With those clusters, parallel computing could lead to increased performances and ... [more ▼]

High-perfomance computing facilities proposing shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors are becoming available. With those clusters, parallel computing could lead to increased performances and problem sizes. However, to our knowledge and especially for variance components estimations, most software available in animal breeding, based on sparse matrices computations, do not allow parallel computing and are limited by memory accessible by the central processing unit, or allow parallel computing only for options with dense matrices computations, which limits anyway problem sizes due to storage of dense matrices. The aim was to propose simple and effective modifications for the BLUPF90 family of programs to reduce computing time with consideration of required memory. Modifications were based on academic free packages proposing solver and sparse inversion for sparse symmetric indefinite linear systems. First, modifications concerned the sparse inversion subroutine implemented in the package FSPAK. Rearrangements of 'do' loops to allow optimizations of computer operations by some compilers and addition of OpenMP directives were performed. The ordering operation was modified to more easily compare a multiple minimum degree algorithm (MMD; implemented in FSPAK) and a multilevel nested dissection algorithm (implemented in METIS 4.0.3). Second, the package PARDISO Version 5.0.0 was used instead of FSPAK. This package proposes in particular a parallel solver and sparse inversion on shared-memory multiprocessors. Modified FSPAK and PARDISO were compared to original FSPAK using MMD through REMLF90. Different models, such as univariate or bivariate (random regressions) test-day animal and single-step genomic models, were tested. All jobs were run 5 times. With an appropriate ordering algorithm, speedup for each REMLF90 iteration were up to 7.5 for modified FSPAK and up to 22.8 for PARDISO with 2 threads. With 4 threads, speedup increased to 8.3 and 32.5, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian approach integrating correlated foreign information into a multivariate genetic evaluation
Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Book of Abstracts of the 65th Annual Meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (2014, August 28)

High-perfomance computing facilities proposing shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors are becoming available. With those clusters, parallel computing could lead to increased performances and ... [more ▼]

High-perfomance computing facilities proposing shared-memory and distributed-memory multiprocessors are becoming available. With those clusters, parallel computing could lead to increased performances and problem sizes. However, to our knowledge and especially for variance components estimations, most software available in animal breeding, based on sparse matrices computations, do not allow parallel computing and are limited by memory accessible by the central processing unit, or allow parallel computing only for options with dense matrices computations, which limits anyway problem sizes due to storage of dense matrices. The aim was to propose simple and effective modifications for the BLUPF90 family of programs to reduce computing time with consideration of required memory. Modifications were based on academic free packages proposing solver and sparse inversion for sparse symmetric indefinite linear systems. First, modifications concerned the sparse inversion subroutine implemented in the package FSPAK. Rearrangements of 'do' loops to allow optimizations of computer operations by some compilers and addition of OpenMP directives were performed. The ordering operation was modified to more easily compare a multiple minimum degree algorithm (MMD; implemented in FSPAK) and a multilevel nested dissection algorithm (implemented in METIS 4.0.3). Second, the package PARDISO Version 5.0.0 was used instead of FSPAK. This package proposes in particular a parallel solver and sparse inversion on shared-memory multiprocessors. Modified FSPAK and PARDISO were compared to original FSPAK using MMD through REMLF90. Different models, such as univariate or bivariate (random regressions) test-day animal and single-step genomic models, were tested. All jobs were run 5 times. With an appropriate ordering algorithm, speedup for each REMLF90 iteration were up to 7.5 for modified FSPAK and up to 22.8 for PARDISO with 2 threads. With 4 threads, speedup increased to 8.3 and 32.5, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of meso-scale mechanical properties of poly-silicon materials
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Wu, Ling ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 27)

The miniature sizes of micro–electro–mechanical systems (MEMS) as well as the nature of their manufacturing processes, such as etching, material layer deposition, or embossing, are responsible for the ... [more ▼]

The miniature sizes of micro–electro–mechanical systems (MEMS) as well as the nature of their manufacturing processes, such as etching, material layer deposition, or embossing, are responsible for the existence of a scatter in the final dimensions, material properties ... of manufactured micro–sensors. This scatter is potentially threatening the behavior and reliability of samples from a batch fabrication process, motivating the development of non-deterministic computational approaches to predict the MEMS properties. In this work we extract the meso-scale properties of the poly-silicon material under the form of a probabilistic distribution. To this end, Statistical Volume Elements (SVE) of the micro-structure are generated under the form of a Voronoï tessellation with a random orientation for each silicon grain. Hence, a Monte-Carlo procedure combined with a homogenization technique allows a distribution of the material tensor at the meso-scale to be estimated. As the finite element method is used to discretize the SVE and to solve the micro-scale boundary value problem, the homogenization technique used to extract the material tensor relies on the computational homogenization theory. In a future work, we will investigate, in the context of MEMS vibrometers, the propagation to the macro–scale of the meso-scale distribution of the homogenized elasticity tensor, with the final aim of predicting the uncertainty on their resonance frequencies. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Silurian cryptospores from the subsurface of Saudi Arabia
Wellman, C.; Breuer, P.; Miller, M. et al

Conference (2014, August 26)

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See detailUsing milk spectral data for large-scale phenotypes linked to mitigation and efficiency
Soyeurt, Hélène ULg; Vanlierde, Amélie; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 26)

Even if producing milk efficiently has always been a major concern for producers, the direct environmental impact of their cows is becoming a novel one. Traits linked to this issue were identified as ... [more ▼]

Even if producing milk efficiently has always been a major concern for producers, the direct environmental impact of their cows is becoming a novel one. Traits linked to this issue were identified as methane emission (CH4), dry matter intake (DMI) and feed efficiency (FE); however they are available on a small scale. Researches showed that CH4 could be predicted from milk mid-infrared (MIR) spectra, allowing large-scale recording at low cost. The main objective of this study was to show, using a modelling approach, that DMI and FE could be derived from milk MIR spectra. For that, knowledge of body weight (BW) is required; however it was unknown in this study. Derived procedure was based on milk yield and composition, MIR CH4, and modelled standard animal requirements, allowing the prediction of expected BW. An external validation was conducted based on 91 actual records. 95% confidence limit for the difference ranged between -0.66 and 18.84 kg for BW, from -0.02 to 0.26 kg/day for DMI, and from -0.02 to 0.002 kg of fat corrected milk/kg DM for FE. Root mean square errors were 39.66 kg, 0.56 kg/d, and 0.03 kg/DM for the 3 studied traits. P-value for the t-test was not significant for BW and DMI. This suggests the possibility to obtain expected BW and therefore DMI from MIR spectra. Single trait animal test-day models used 1,291,850 records to assess the variability of studied traits. Significant variations were observed for the lactation stage, parity, genetics, and age. These findings were in agreement with the literature except for early lactation. This suggests in conclusion that the MIR information gave similar results for DMI and CH4 for the major part of lactation. The use of this novel method to predict expected BW offers new possibilities interesting for the development of genomic and genetic tools. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of wheat root and straw in soil by use of Near Infrared hyperspectral imaging system and Partial Least Square discriminant analysis
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Baeten, Vincent et al

Poster (2014, August 26)

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with ... [more ▼]

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is proposed as a new rapid and reliable method to discriminate soil, roots and straws. NIR-HSI provides simultaneously spectral and spatial information and PLS-DA allows discrimination between classes based on spectra of each pixel linked to chemical nature of sample constituents on the image. [less ▲]

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See detailCreation of universal MIR calibration by standardization of milk spectra: example of fatty acids
Grelet, Clément; Fernandez Pierna, Juan; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 25)

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See detailIncreasing the efficiency of Organic Rankine Cycle Technology by means of Multivariable Predictive Control
Hernandez Naranjo, Jairo Andrés ULg; Desideri, Adriano ULg; Ionescu, Clara et al

Conference (2014, August 25)

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology has become very popular, as it is extremely suitable for waste heat recovery from low-grade heat sources. As the ORC system is a strongly coupled nonlinear ... [more ▼]

The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) technology has become very popular, as it is extremely suitable for waste heat recovery from low-grade heat sources. As the ORC system is a strongly coupled nonlinear multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) process, conventional control strategies (e.g. PID) may not achieve satisfactory results. In this contribution our focus is on the accurate regulation of the superheating, in order to increase the e fficiency of the cycle and to avoid the formation of liquid droplets that could damage the expander. To this end, a multivariable Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy is proposed, its performance is compared to the one of PI controllers for the case of variable waste-heat source profi les. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental study of the drying kinetic of mortar
Kahlerras, Loubna ULg

Conference (2014, August 24)

This work reports the results of an experimental study concerning on one hand the influence of water-to cement ratios (W/C), and the role of aggregates on the other hand on the drying kinetics of cement ... [more ▼]

This work reports the results of an experimental study concerning on one hand the influence of water-to cement ratios (W/C), and the role of aggregates on the other hand on the drying kinetics of cement pastes during thermal drying. Three types of cement pastes were realized and studied; cement pastes with ratios W/C 0.4, W/C 0.5 and mortar with ratio W/C 0.5. These tries present the advantage to reproduce the natural conditions met in the problems of interaction atmosphere and material. Cylindrical samples of cement of size (17 X 13) mm are dried in a convective dryer. The sample is continuously weighed during the drying test and its mass is recorded every 60 s, in the purpose to obtain the drying curves. The results show that the increase of the W/C ratio leads to an increase of the drying rate due to the increase of the initial porosity. The effect of the introduction of aggregates is observable by the comparison of the drying curve obtained for the mortar and the cement pastes. The results show a decrease of the drying kinetics with mortars. The results also show that the air drying temperature has a large impact on the drying process, increasing the temperature leading to significant drying time reduction. The Effective diffusion coefficient is calculated by comparison between the experimental results and the analytical solution of Fick’s equation written for a finite medium. [less ▲]

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See detailmodelling heat and mass transfer during convective drying of a building material
Kahlerras, Loubna ULg

Conference (2014, August 24)

The purpose of this study is to characterize experimentally the behaviour of a cement mortar during its convective drying. The work presented here focuses on mortars with water-to cement ratios (w/C) of 0 ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study is to characterize experimentally the behaviour of a cement mortar during its convective drying. The work presented here focuses on mortars with water-to cement ratios (w/C) of 0, 5. The drying tests are realized in a convective dryer designed for the drying of small samples (0 - 8g). Experiences are realized with different conditions of drying air temperature (60, 90 and 130 °C) and velocity (2, 3 and 5 m/s) the results show the influence of temperature and velocity on drying curve. Mathematical models have been used for the description of drying curves. The exponential mathematical model seems the most adequate to describe the drying curves of cement mortars, with correlation coefficients changing with the air temperature and velocity and close to unity. The convective mass and heat transfer coefficients are determined from the experimental data. The results showed that both mass and heat transfer coefficients were affected by the air temperature and velocity. The convective mass transfer coefficient changed from 0.0232m/s at V=2m/s to 0.045m/s at V=5m/s, and from 0.055 m/s at 60°c to 0.023 at 130°c. Heat transfer coefficient changed from 14.767 w/m2°c at V=2m/s to 28.64 w/m2°c at V=5m/s and from 7.71 at 60° c to 14.77 at 130°c The temperature dependency of the two coefficients was expressed using an Arrhenius-type equation and related parameters were deduced [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of robust detection techniques for local outliers in multivariate spatial data
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

Conference (2014, August 22)

Spatial data are characterized by statistical units, with known geographical positions, on which non spatial attributes are measured. Spatial data may contain two types of atypical observations: global ... [more ▼]

Spatial data are characterized by statistical units, with known geographical positions, on which non spatial attributes are measured. Spatial data may contain two types of atypical observations: global and/or local outliers. The attribute values of a global outlier are outlying with respect to the values taken by the majority of the data points while the attribute values of a local outlier are extreme when compared to those of its neighbors. Usual outlier detection techniques may be used to find global outliers as the geographical positions of the data is not taken into account in this specific search. The detection of local outliers is more complex, especially when there are more than one non spatial attributes. This talk focuses on local detection with two main objectives. First, we will shortly review some of the local detection techniques that seem to perform well in practice. Among these, one can find robust ``Mahalanobis-type'' detection techniques and a wheighted PCA approach. We suggest an adaptation to one of these to further develop its local characteristic. Then, examples and simulations, based on linear model of co-regionalisation with Matern models, are reported and discussed in order to compare in an objective way the different detection techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Simulations of Combined Transmission and Distribution Systems using Parallel Processing Techniques
Aristidou, Petros ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the 18th PSCC (2014, August 22)

Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, we propose a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition ... [more ▼]

Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, we propose a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm to provide accurate, detailed dynamic simulations of the combined system. The simulation procedure is accelerated with the use of parallel programming techniques, taking advantage of the parallelization opportunities inherent in domain decomposition algorithms. The proposed algorithm is general, portable and scalable on inexpensive, shared-memory, multicore machines. A large-scale test system is used for its performance evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling of the cyclic lipodepsipeptide Pseudodesmin A self-assembly through molecular dynamic simulations
Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Sinnaeve, Davy; Fehér, Krisztina et al

Poster (2014, August 21)

The self-assembly of short peptides into supramolecular structures represents an active field of research with potential applications, ranging from material sciences to medicine. Pseudodesmine A is a ... [more ▼]

The self-assembly of short peptides into supramolecular structures represents an active field of research with potential applications, ranging from material sciences to medicine. Pseudodesmine A is a cyclic lipodepsipeptide of nine residues which presents a moderate antibacterial activity and whose structure has been resolved by X-ray and NMR. In acetonitrile, Pseudodesmine A is monomeric while in chloroform, it has the same structure but assembles in a supramolecular complex. This structure could associate with membranes and be responsible for the biological activity of the peptide. Comparison of NMR data in the two solvents has given indications on the intermolecular contacts that arise in chloroform and a model for the self-association was proposed. To study in more details this assembly, molecular dynamics simulations have been carried on. The resultswere compared with detailed information given by NMR, regarding the dimensions of the assembly and the orientation of the individual peptide building blocks inside the supramolecular assembly. In acetonitrile, the simulations show that the peptide has transient interactions while in chloroform, interactions between monomers are always observed. In agreement with NMR, these interactions arise mainly between the backbone protons of the LEU1 and the GLN2, the GLN2 sidechain and the loop located on the opposite end of the monomer structure. From 10 simulations of dimerization, hydrogen bonds were followed and specific interaction patterns were identified regarding the hydrogen bonds formed. Peptide interactions are mainly described by 13 interaction patterns characterized by 2 to 4 hydrogen bonds. In dimers, the peptides can have a linear, a perpendicular or a side by side configuration. From the linear dimer, it is possible to reconstruct filaments and, by combining a linear and a lateral dimer, it is possible to build fibrils with multifilaments, as found in the NMR-derived model. Two self-consistent supramolecular models can be built from dimers and they present a very good correlation with NMR data regarding the supramolecular organization. Besides, the perpendicular dimer can gives peptide rings that can also explain the potential ability of this peptide to form ion pores in membranes. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling of the cyclic lipodepsipeptide Pseudodesmin A self-assembly through molecular dynamic simulations
Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Sinnaeve, Davy; Fehér, Krisztina et al

Conference (2014, August 20)

The self-assembly of short peptides into supramolecular structures represents an active field of research with potential applications, ranging from material sciences to medicine. Pseudodesmine A is a ... [more ▼]

The self-assembly of short peptides into supramolecular structures represents an active field of research with potential applications, ranging from material sciences to medicine. Pseudodesmine A is a cyclic lipodepsipeptide of nine residues which presents a moderate antibacterial activity and whose structure has been resolved by X-ray and NMR. In acetonitrile, Pseudodesmine A is monomeric while in chloroform, it has the same structure but assembles in a supramolecular complex. This structure could associate with membranes and be responsible for the biological activity of the peptide. Comparison of NMR data in the two solvents has given indications on the intermolecular contacts that arise in chloroform and a model for the self-association was proposed. To study in more details this assembly, molecular dynamics simulations have been carried on. The resultswere compared with detailed information given by NMR, regarding the dimensions of the assembly and the orientation of the individual peptide building blocks inside the supramolecular assembly. In acetonitrile, the simulations show that the peptide has transient interactions while in chloroform, interactions between monomers are always observed. In agreement with NMR, these interactions arise mainly between the backbone protons of the LEU1 and the GLN2, the GLN2 sidechain and the loop located on the opposite end of the monomer structure. From 10 simulations of dimerization, hydrogen bonds were followed and specific interaction patterns were identified regarding the hydrogen bonds formed. Peptide interactions are mainly described by 13 interaction patterns characterized by 2 to 4 hydrogen bonds. In dimers, the peptides can have a linear, a perpendicular or a side by side configuration. From the linear dimer, it is possible to reconstruct filaments and, by combining a linear and a lateral dimer, it is possible to build fibrils with multifilaments, as found in the NMR-derived model. Two self-consistent supramolecular models can be built from dimers and they present a very good correlation with NMR data regarding the supramolecular organization. Besides, the perpendicular dimer can gives peptide rings that can also explain the potential ability of this peptide to form ion pores in membranes. [less ▲]

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See detailMetropolitan governance rescaling in Belgium, France and United Kingdom. Studying boundaries of urban governments through the application of an analytical framework for institutional changes.
Breuer, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, August 20)

Second tier European cities (small metropolis or regional cities) are subject to permanent reconfigurations of their governance. These changes are the response to both external and internal ... [more ▼]

Second tier European cities (small metropolis or regional cities) are subject to permanent reconfigurations of their governance. These changes are the response to both external and internal transformations. On the one side, they are facing external pressures as increased competition between cities, European integration, legislative evolution or paradigm switch. On the other side, cities are dealing with internal problems: urban sprawl, socio-spatial segregation, actors’ fragmentation, financial issues, etc. These tensions renew themselves and take various shapes. They are wondering cities governance and ways to manage them. To cope with new challenges in a new context, cities are trying to reconfigure their collective action in a new spatiality and with new coordination modes. In this context, inherited institutional boundaries – that could be seen as obsolete or inadequate in a changing World – are particularly under pressure. Cities governments and their spatial limits are a central issue for researchers, politicians and urban actors, and a major component of the urban or metropolitan governance. Although second-tier cities are an essential part of the “polycentric system of European cities”, attention has essentially been focused on large metropolis and capital cities, where the problem occurred earlier. Furthermore, there is an extended literature on institutional change and the “rescaling”, but research mainly focused on the response of cities to economic changes; few analysis offer a good comprehension of particular trajectories and evolution of cities limits which are highly embedded in local context. These shortcomings make the reading of contemporary mutations particularly complex for local actors. Our paper presents our research on the development and the validation of an analytical framework to interpret changes in cities’ governments boundaries. We improved and used a framework based on institutional change and social change, which combined both institutional design theories and self-organization theories. The analytical framework had been tested on the last decades government limits changes of regional cities and small metropolis in France (Saint-Étienne, Metz), United Kingdom (Sheffield) and Belgium (Liège, Brussels). The research was carried on with historical and geographical data collected during research stays in each of these cities: historical evolution of cities limits, legislation’ development, urbanization trajectory, etc. The research leads to some conclusions. Firstly, it is possible to develop a generic analytical framework to identify and interpret mutations of city government limits. This framework helps to make a systematic identification of actors’ dynamics, internal or external pressure and spatial changes, and go ahead apparent dichotomy between quick adjustment and high stability of some governance configuration. Secondly, the analytical model shows there is a common scheme of city limits evolution, which is driven among others things by European common dynamics (specifically economic and political dynamic). Thirdly, despite similarities in cities government boundaries changes, the analytical model demonstrates the importance of local contexts to understand individual evolutions and the specific trajectory of a city’ limits. [less ▲]

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See detailThe taste bud and the form. Ethnography of sensory labs
Vangeebergen, Thomas ULg

Conference (2014, August 20)

Sensory analyses present an opportunity to challenge classical dualism, especially when it is about taste. During long-term fieldworks, I accompanied several types of sensory expert panels, which had the ... [more ▼]

Sensory analyses present an opportunity to challenge classical dualism, especially when it is about taste. During long-term fieldworks, I accompanied several types of sensory expert panels, which had the mission to discriminate different sorts of products and define their respective sensory profile. I was interested to observe the period of training to understand how those people had acquired their expertise, and how their attention toward their own sensations were entangled to scientific infrastructures. Using sensory ethnographic methods, I assisted to the emergence of a particular world, in which the classical categories for science practices and taste perception were completely blurred. To establish a common truth, through sturdy and stable categories, appears to be compatible with personal moods and dispositions, singular and hedonic judgments, sociocultural grounded sensorium, contingent elements, and indeterminate parameters. Resorting to standard tests, educated and coached judges, statistical treatments, specific vocabulary, comparisons to physic-chemical analysis and various other apparatuses, these labs tempt to define and assess some food products. The goal of those examinations could be multiple: to outline consumers¿ feelings and choices, to check the quality of production, to search new applications, or to improve a current array. What interested me is the quest to an object practically exploitable in an industrial and commercial context, avoiding all kind of idiosyncratic experiences. In this presentation, I would tempt an analysis of those particular tests, focusing on the double bind of testing products and testing consumers, and searching to assess the causes of organoleptic variability. [less ▲]

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See detailCommémorations et souvenirs d'août 1914 à Liège
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

Conference (2014, August 20)

Comment, au fil des décennies, a-t-on célébré à Liège et dans sa région, le souvenir des événements d’août 1914, à commencer par la bataille de Liège et la résistance des forts ? Comment les autorités et ... [more ▼]

Comment, au fil des décennies, a-t-on célébré à Liège et dans sa région, le souvenir des événements d’août 1914, à commencer par la bataille de Liège et la résistance des forts ? Comment les autorités et les Liégeois eux-mêmes ont-ils contribué à construire la mémoire de ce mois tragique ? Comment, notamment, la presse locale a-t-elle rendu compte de ces manifestations ? Cette communication analyse l’évolution du contexte commémoratif liégeois de 1924 à 2004. Dans l’entre-deux-guerres, le souvenir d’août 1914 est extrêmement vif : les rescapés sont encore très nombreux, la germanophobie s'exprime avec force et le contexte international interfère puissamment sur la commémoration. Après la Seconde Guerre, un triple enjeu s’impose : gérer la concurrence ou la confusion de la mémoire et du souvenir entre les deux conflits mondiaux, entretenir la flamme de ce souvenir alors que le temps s’écoule et que les survivants se raréfient, et enfin appréhender un contexte international, lié notamment à la guerre froide, dans lequel l’Allemagne (de l’Ouest) est avant tout un partenaire politique et économique. En outre, dès les années 1970 mais surtout 1980, l'idée d'un tourisme mémoriel se fraie un chemin dans une région en pleine reconversion économique. [less ▲]

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See detailLe poids d'août 1914 dans les relations belgo-allemandes (1914-1964)
Brüll, Christoph ULg

Conference (2014, August 20)

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See detailA multifractal analysis of air temperature signals based on the wavelet leaders method
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

Conference (2014, August 20)

We present the wavelet leaders method (introduced by S. Jaffard) as a tool to study the Hölder regularity of signals, which is closely related to some functional spaces. We use the associated multifractal ... [more ▼]

We present the wavelet leaders method (introduced by S. Jaffard) as a tool to study the Hölder regularity of signals, which is closely related to some functional spaces. We use the associated multifractal formalism to show that surface air temperature signals are monofractal, i.e. these are regularly irregular. Then we use this result to establish a climate classification of weather stations in Europe which matches the Köppen-Geiger climate classification. This result could give rise to new criteria to determine the effectiveness of current climatic models. [less ▲]

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See detailEarthquake imprints on 400 years of marine sedimentation in the western Gulf of Corinth, Greece
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Beck, Christian et al

Poster (2014, August 18)

The Corinth rift is one of the fastest spreading rifts on Earth. In the western tip of the Rift, no major historical earthquake (Mw≥6) is known for the last 300 yrs, while the geodetic extension rate is ... [more ▼]

The Corinth rift is one of the fastest spreading rifts on Earth. In the western tip of the Rift, no major historical earthquake (Mw≥6) is known for the last 300 yrs, while the geodetic extension rate is the highest of the whole Corinth Rift. The question of seismic hazard is consequently particularly relevant. In this framework, we investigated the offshore sediments in order to look for sedimentary signature of past earthquakes. 12 short gravity cores have been retrieved in different environments: two shelves (40 and 100 m deep), one sub-basin (180 m deep) and the deep Gulf axis (330 m deep). The cores are 0.5 to 0.85 m long, permitting to analyze up to 400 yrs of sedimentation. Several sedimentological analyses have been performed: magnetic susceptibility, grain-size, XRF, ASM. Chronology is based on 137Cs and 210Pb decay. In parallel, an in-depth analysis of existing and newly found documents has been done to re-interpret macroseismic intensity fields of historical earthquakes and to build an updated earthquake catalogue for the area. These new data allowed us to estimate a macroseismic intensity threshold for submarine slope failures in the area, based on 16 reported events. Sedimentary events have been identified in all cores. On the first shelf, despite a visually homogenous, silty, sedimentation, 3 events have been highlighted by high resolution grain-size analysis and 210Pb decay profile’s disturbances. The upper one could be a back-wash flow tsunami deposit. On the second shelf, 4 high-concentration density flow deposits occurred with a recurrence time of ~58 yrs. In the canyon and in the sub-basin, sandy turbidites occurred with recurrence times of ~26 and ~56 years respectively. The possible seismic origin of these deposits is discussed based on their sedimentary characteristics and the macroseismic intensities assessed for the sediments source areas for each core location. [less ▲]

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See detailMitigation strategies versus Adaptation strategies
Gengler, Nicolas ULg

Conference (2014, August 17)

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See detailMapping key pollutants in the English Channel region: the Channel Catchments Cluster (3C) cross-border project
Richir, Jonathan ULg; Pini, Jennifer; Watson, Gordon

Conference (2014, August 16)

The EU Water Framework Directive was a response to concerns about the previous disparate ways in which water quality was managed under Member State law and early European Directives. Within this context ... [more ▼]

The EU Water Framework Directive was a response to concerns about the previous disparate ways in which water quality was managed under Member State law and early European Directives. Within this context, the Interreg IVA France (Channel) England Region established the ‘sustainable environmental development of this common space’ as one of its priorities to integrate areas that face common problems. The wide variety of cooperative cross-border projects have brought together UK and French scientists and environmental managers to develop practical environmental management tools for the region (3Cs cluster). Using the Solent in the UK as a case study, maps of key pollutants (e.g. metals such as Zn and Cu) will be produced to assess their spatial diversity within the sediment. The incorporation of historical datasets will also provide a temporal component. The inclusion of bioavailable fractions (using sequential extraction methods) will enable the pollutants to be linked to the tissue concentrations of key benthic species such as the polychaete Nereis virens and possible impacts. Not only will this information provide a detailed account of the water quality of key areas of the English Channel, but it will also highlight the gaps in the data and sampling regimes that are necessary to achieve good environmental status for the future, thus ensuring more effective European environmental policy regarding the long-term protection and conservation of aquatic ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailMetropolitan governance of European medium-size cities. Linking cities trajectories and mode of governance.
Breuer, Christophe ULg

Conference (2014, August 16)

In the past few years, an increased attention has been paid to the effect of governance on regional development and trajectories. It is commonly argued by scholars and practitioners that governance is a ... [more ▼]

In the past few years, an increased attention has been paid to the effect of governance on regional development and trajectories. It is commonly argued by scholars and practitioners that governance is a key factor of regional competitiveness and differentiation. In this context, some institutions as the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations (UN) or the European Commission (EC) claim that a better governance (or actually “good governance”) leads to better places to live, enhanced competitiveness and less segregation. In the same time, research, public efforts and investments has been focused on metropolitan regions as lever for economic development. If there is a consensus on the role of governance on metropolitan and urban development, researches mainly focused on cases analysis and bigger metropolis regions. Few empirical studies tried to link metropolitan governance and metropolitan trajectories in European Union, particularly for medium-size cities and metropolitan area (100.000 - 1.000.000 inhabitants), which represents a significant proportion of the European population and economy. Nowadays, some exploratory researches based on the Urban Audit (European Commission) and complementary surveys give us additional information on governance of such cities. In our research, we aimed to explore the link between metropolitan governance of medium-sized cities and their trajectories. We used latest data from the European Commission (Urban Audit, Perception survey, Regional Statistic Database - Eurostat) and additional sources for socio-economic, environmental and governance indicators (especially metropolitan governance typology). We integrated in our work previous researches on this topic. Our exploratory research pointed out pattern and similarities in European medium-sized cities governance and trajectories. Despite some difficulties to distinguish governance effects to other determinants of well-being and competitiveness, it opens questions on “governance matters” leitmotiv, public policy adequacy and innovation capacity in European cities. [less ▲]

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See detailNiche conservatism and conservation biology of Lepilemur in northwest Madagascar
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Schwitzer, Christoph et al

Conference (2014, August 14)

The main goals of our study is to verify the existence and extent of niche conservatism in three closely related species within the genus Lepilemur, and to draw conclusions on the applicability of ... [more ▼]

The main goals of our study is to verify the existence and extent of niche conservatism in three closely related species within the genus Lepilemur, and to draw conclusions on the applicability of conservation protocols to a broader array of Lepilemur species. The genus is an exemplary of the mammalian fauna of Madagascar which high biological diversity is under increasingly severe threat from anthropogenic degradation of its forest habitats. This study focuses particularly on three poorly-known Lepilemur taxa: L. sahamalazensis, L. dorsalis and L. mittermeieri, uplisted into one of the threatened categories of the IUCN Red List.The genus is particularly negatively affected by deforestation and habitat fragmentation and all have a small distribution range, fairly small total populations. Their pattern of distribution appears to have been established through vicariant speciation, probably driven by changes in the configuration of the hydrographic system. Such a pattern permits to expect a high level of niche conservatism. We present here our preliminary results of an exploratory mission on 1) evaluation of Lepilemur abundance in forest patches on the Ampasindava Peninsula, the Sahamalaza Peninsula and the Manongarivo Special Reserve 2) sleeping sites characteristics of the three studied species. [less ▲]

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See detailVirus indexing and sanitation of international banana collection: insights from a 5-year collaborative effort
De Clerck, Caroline ULg; Parmenter, Kathleen; Vandenhouwe, Ines et al

Conference (2014, August 14)

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See detailAnalysis of spray retention on a 3D black-grass plant model as a function of spray nozzle and formulation using a process-driven approach
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 13)

The efficiency of spray application of foliar plant protection products can be variable because of the different amount of spray solution intercepted and retained by leaves. On one hand, the spray ... [more ▼]

The efficiency of spray application of foliar plant protection products can be variable because of the different amount of spray solution intercepted and retained by leaves. On one hand, the spray interception by plants is affected by nozzle kind, size and operating pressure as well as by the plant architecture. On the other hand, the spray retention is affected by application parameters resulting from droplet size and velocity as well as spray mixture physicochemical properties. In this paper, spray retention is tackled with a physical approach at the droplet scale. The methodology deals with high-speed imaging to characterize droplet impacts; adhesion, rebound or shatter on small excised leaf areas and the spray granulometry. The 3D reconstruction of a black-grass plant involves a structured light technique. The overall spray retention was determined by using an interception algorithm combined with a process-driven retention approach as a function of the spray nozzle and formulation used. The interception model allowed determining the spray retention by a single plant and discriminating application parameters by explaining the variability resulting from various droplet size distributions intercepted by single plant. Such a model can be used to increase the understanding of interactions between spray techniques and plant architectures. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailBarley (Hordeum distichon L.) roots produce volatile aldehydes via the lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase pathway with a strong age-dependent pattern
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Delaplace, Pierre ULg; du Jardin, Patrick ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 13)

In chemical ecology, the roles played by root-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in biotic interactions and the quantitative analysis of such chemicals in root tissues remain poorly documented. In ... [more ▼]

In chemical ecology, the roles played by root-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in biotic interactions and the quantitative analysis of such chemicals in root tissues remain poorly documented. In this context, this study aims at using a fully automated gas chromatography – mass spectrometry methodology allowing both identification and accurate quantification of VOCs produced by roots of a monocotyledonous plant species at five selected developmental stages from germination to the end of tillering. Results show that barley roots mainly produce four volatile aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. These molecules are well-known linoleic and linolenic acid derivatives produced via the lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase pathway of higher plants. Our findings contrast with analyses documented on aboveground barley tissues that mainly emit C6 aldehydes, alcohols and their corresponding esters. Multivariate statistical analyses performed on individual VOC concentrations indicate quantitative changes in the volatile profile produced by barley roots according to plant age. Barley roots produced higher total and individual VOC concentrations when young seminal roots emerged from the coleorhizae compared to older phenological stages. Moreover, results also show that the C6/C9 volatile aldehyde ratio was the lowest at the end of tillering while the maximum mean value of this ratio was reached in seven day-old barley roots. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign of biocompatible and responsive hydrogels and nanogels made from poly(2-oxazoline)s
Legros, Camille ULg; Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; tam, Michael et al

Conference (2014, August 12)

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See detailExperimental study of the magnetic shielding performances of a Bi2223 tube closed by a Bi2223 cap.
Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Hogan, Kevin ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 12)

A superconducting tube can be used as an efficient magnetic shield. However, the shielding factor (defined as the ratio between the applied magnetic induction and the magnetic induction measured inside ... [more ▼]

A superconducting tube can be used as an efficient magnetic shield. However, the shielding factor (defined as the ratio between the applied magnetic induction and the magnetic induction measured inside the tube) decreases towards tube extremities because of the field penetration through the open ends of the tube. To improve the performances at tube extremities, the tube should be closed. This can be achieved by using a superconducting vessel or by closing both extremities with a cap. The purpose of the present work is to study experimentally the shielding performances of a Bi2223 tube closed by a superconducting Bi2223 cap. The cap is a circular plate with a diameter equal to the outer diameter of the tube and there is no superconducting joint between the cap and the tube. Our interest is to characterize the effect of the cap on the shielding factor distribution along the tube axis when only one extremity of the tube is closed. We also study the effect of the gap size between the cap and the tube in axial configuration. Finally, a tube closed at its both ends is also characterized. All experiments are carried out at 77K. The tube is subjected to a quasi-static (“DC”) uniform magnetic field. A Hall probe measures the three components of the local magnetic induction along the axis of the tube as a function of the applied magnetic induction. Results show that the shielding performances in the axial configuration are highly improved at the closed extremity as the cap reduces the penetration through the open end. The shielding factor distribution along the tube axis is affected by the presence of the cap. For an open tube, the shielding factor is maximum near the center and decreases towards both extremities. For the tube closed at one extremity, the shielding factor is maximum at the closed extremity and decreases towards the center. Moreover, the shielding factor distribution between the tube center and the open extremity is not affected by the presence of the cap. The experimental results show that, a small gap between the tube and the cap, which can be necessary for applications, does not strongly affect the magnetic shielding performances of the assembly. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness and efficiency of multivariate coefficients of variation
Aerts, Stéphanie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg; Ruwet, Christel ULg

Conference (2014, August 12)

The coefficient of variation is a well-known measure used in many fields to compare the variability of a variable in several populations. However, when the dimension is greater than one, comparing the ... [more ▼]

The coefficient of variation is a well-known measure used in many fields to compare the variability of a variable in several populations. However, when the dimension is greater than one, comparing the variability only marginally may lead to controversial results. Several multivariate extensions of the univariate coefficient of variation have been introduced in the literature. In practice, these coefficients can be estimated by using any pair of location and covariance estimators. However, as soon as the classical mean and covariance matrix are under consideration, the influence functions are unbounded, while the use of any robust estimators yields bounded influence functions. While useful in their own right, the influence functions of the multivariate coefficients of variation are further exploited in this talk to derive a general expression for the corresponding asymptotic variances under elliptical symmetry. Then, focusing on two of the considered multivariate coefficients, a diagnostic tool based on their influence functions is derived and compared, on a real-life dataset, with the usual distance-plot. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic shielding properties of a bulk Bi-2223 superconducting hollow cylinder subjected to an inhomogeneous magnetic field
Hogan, Kevin ULg; Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 12)

Bulk superconducting materials are well suited for magnetic shielding applications. At low frequencies, the performances of superconductors are higher than those of conventional ferromagnetic materials ... [more ▼]

Bulk superconducting materials are well suited for magnetic shielding applications. At low frequencies, the performances of superconductors are higher than those of conventional ferromagnetic materials. In shielding applications, two situations may be encountered. The first one corresponds to the case where the screen has to shield a volume from the magnetic field in its environment; this corresponds to an “immunity” problem. In the second situation, the screen has to prevent the magnetic field generated by an electronic device from perturbing its environment; this is an “emission” problem. So far, superconducting screens have been extensively studied in “immunity” and were subjected to uniform magnetic fields. In “emission”, the magnetic field is no longer uniform because a local magnetic source has to be placed inside the screen. In this work, we have studied experimentally at 77K the magnetic flux penetration in a Bi-2223 superconducting hollow cylinder subjected to a non-uniform quasi-static magnetic field generated by a small coil placed inside the sample. Two configurations were investigated: axial and transverse; corresponding respectively to the situation where the axis of the coil is coaxial or perpendicular to the axis of tube. We also investigate the influence of the sweep rate of the magnetic field on the magnetic shielding performances. Planar and circular (i.e. at constant distance of the tube) mappings of the magnetic field at proximity of the external surface of the tube were obtained thanks to a bespoke experimental setup using a three axes miniature Hall probe. It was observed that the three components of the magnetic field measured outside are affected differently by the superconducting screen. A simple one-dimensional model based on the conservation of magnetic flux and the Bean model was developed for the axial configuration. It was found to be in accordance with experimental data. It allows one to predict the maximal magnetic flux that can be generated inside the coil before the tube is fully penetrated and a magnetic field is measured outside the tube. Finally, it was observed that the inner surface of the tube is subjected to a magnetic field higher than the one at the same place without the tube. This concentration phenomenon arises because of the diamagnetic behaviour of the superconductor. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Neurocognitive Underpinnings of Multitasking Capacities in Persons Diagnosed with Schizophrenia
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Levaux, Marie-Noëlle ULg et al

Poster (2014, August 10)

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and in particular during multitasking activities. Multitasking refers to activities where the person has ... [more ▼]

Difficulties in everyday life activities are core features of persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, and in particular during multitasking activities. Multitasking refers to activities where the person has to: carry out and alternate between different tasks that vary in terms of priority, difficulty and duration; define the tasks’ targets; and where the person is faced with unexpected problems during the realization of these tasks (Burgess, 2000). However, the neurocognitive underpinnings of multitasking have never been explored in schizophrenia. Further, only two cognitive models exist in the literature, based on a student sample (Logie et al., 2011) and a neurological sample (Burgess et al., 2000). Both of these models suggest three primary constructs including Memory, Planning and Intent. However, there are several limitations related to the way multitasking was evaluated in these studies. We thus developed a computerized real-life activity task designed to take into account the multitasking nature of certain everyday life activities where participants are required to prepare a room for a meeting – the Computerized Meeting Preparation Task (CMPT). Using this new task, and based on previous studies (Burgess et al., 2000; Logie et al., 2011), the aim of the present study was to evaluate a new cognitive model of multitasking ability and that takes into account certain cognitive processes that are not integrated in existing models. Fifty-seven individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 41 matched healthy controls completed the CMPT. Participants were also evaluated with a battery of cognitive tests. The results suggest that the CMPT has a good sensitivity. Moreover, structural equation modelling confirmed the three underlying constructs of multitasking (Memory, Planning and Intent) which are underpinned by several cognitive functions and multitasking aspects. Taken together, this new cognitive model and the CMPT could be a good basis for cognitive intervention on multitasking. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance on a Computerized Shopping Task in Bipolar Disorder and Alcohol Dependency
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Michel, Céline; Pellegrini, Nadia et al

Poster (2014, August 10)

Persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder and alcohol dependency are frequently subject to cognitive impairments and encounter difficulties during everyday life activities. However, little is known how ... [more ▼]

Persons diagnosed with bipolar disorder and alcohol dependency are frequently subject to cognitive impairments and encounter difficulties during everyday life activities. However, little is known how these deficits interact in real life. Moreover, previous studies have primarily used questionnaires or observational methods to assess everyday life functioning, both of which contain a number of limits. In order to address some of these limits, we developed a computerized real-life activity task, in particular, a shopping task where participants are required to shop for a list of 8 grocery store items in a virtual supermarket. Twenty individuals diagnosed with alcoholic dependence and 21 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder were compared with healthy controls (20 and 21, respectively), matched for age, sex and educational level. All participants completed the shopping task, and both clinical groups were evaluated with an extensive battery of cognitive tests (assessing executive functioning, attention, processing speed and memory), clinical scales and a measure of real world functioning. Results showed that, for both clinical groups, performance on the computerized shopping task significantly differentiated patients and healthy controls for a number of variables, especially total time to complete the shopping task. Performances on shopping task variables, in both clinical groups, were also significantly correlated with cognitive tests measuring processing speed, episodic memory, cognitive flexibility and inhibition. Finally, performances on the computerized shopping task were significantly correlated with real world functioning in both patient groups. These findings suggest that the computerized task used in the present study provides a valid indication of the level of real world functioning for these clinical populations, and therefore may be viewed as a valuable instrument in both an evaluation and remediation context. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of entomopathogenic fungi in mosquito control: which kind of production for which efficiency?
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Delvigne, Frank ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

Poster (2014, August 06)

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are zoonotic vectors responsible for numerous infectious diseases of medical and veterinary importance such as filariasis, malaria and encephalitis. As part of an ... [more ▼]

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are zoonotic vectors responsible for numerous infectious diseases of medical and veterinary importance such as filariasis, malaria and encephalitis. As part of an integrated vector control, entomopathogenic fungi could be developed as biopesticides in two ways: spores and metabolites recognized as effective virulence factors. Solid-state fermentation enhances spore production and induces the secretion of metabolites quantitatively and qualitatively different from submerged fermentation, which impairs fungal metabolic efficiency. In this context, we showed high spore productivity of solid-state media based on agro-industrial substrates as wheat bran. Spores remained pathogenic, as revealed by classical toxicity tests and electron microscopy. However, the absence of free water makes culture parameter variations difficult to control in large-scale. Recently, we performed a bioreactor design intended for simultaneous spore and metabolite production, combining the technological advantages of submerged and solid-state fermentations. Biofilm fermentation (i.e. growth of fungal biomass on an inert support immerged in a nutrient medium) is a tremendous production system favouring the secretion of insecticidal metabolites in the liquid medium as we showed recently. This is also an interesting tool to provide an overview of the complexity of the metabolic pathways involved in the regulation of extracellular metabolites secretion because corresponding genes are reported to be differentially expressed from classical fermentation systems. Researches in vector control are currently intensified. In this context, the identification of genes and metabolites specifically expressed during biofilm fermentation will help to develop new technologies related both to the design of bioreactor and the production of insecticidal proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailRestoration of threatened metallophyte populations in Katanga (D.R. Congo): lessons learnt.
Le Stradic, Soizig ULg; Seleck, Maxime ULg; Le Brun, Julie et al

Conference (2014, August 05)

One of the current major challenges consists in integrating economic activities with environmental integrity and social concerns. One of the world’s largest concentrations of copper and cobalt deposits is ... [more ▼]

One of the current major challenges consists in integrating economic activities with environmental integrity and social concerns. One of the world’s largest concentrations of copper and cobalt deposits is located in Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo) and represents an important source of income for the country. Unique communities and several endemic species are hosted on copper outcrops and are threatened by the extension of mining activities in the area. In theory, translocation or transplantation of structuring and/or endemic species is a suitable substitute to spontaneous succession and a good mean to rescue and conserve the more threatened species. Here we present briefly the global framework developed with a mining company in order to conserve and restore the biodiversity of Cu-Co communities, including, among others, translocation and transplantation of highly threatened species. We recorded low survival of translocated individuals. An alternative was then to produce seedlings of endemic and/or structuring species under nursery conditions for their later transplantation in degraded areas or for conservation purposes. However, the diversity of plant forms and life-forms found in such tropical area limited the production of many species. We highlighted that poor understanding of many of these tropical plants often hampered their regeneration and their use in restoration program. As already noticed, transplantation results are not always reported, especially in case of failure, while such results appear as even more important than successes and have to be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailIntraspecific variation of copper tolerance of four endemic plant species from the katangan Copperbelt (D. R. Congo)
Boisson, Sylvain ULg; garin, olivier; Seleck, Maxime ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 04)

Harsh ecosystems are at the origin of speciation processes in plant communities. In metalliferous areas, plants develop physiological adaptations to tolerate metal excesses which lead to high species and ... [more ▼]

Harsh ecosystems are at the origin of speciation processes in plant communities. In metalliferous areas, plants develop physiological adaptations to tolerate metal excesses which lead to high species and population diversity. South of the Katanga province (D.R. Congo), plant communities occur on soils with one of the world’s largest concentrations of copper and cobalt. More than 600 species including 54 endemics are distributed along a copper gradient (up to 10 000 mg kg-1 available Cu) and the populations are isolated on more than 100 copper hills scattered in miombo forest. In order to improve restoration strategies of threatened species, we aimed to identify intraspecific copper tolerance of 4 endemic plant species from katangan copper outcrops: Crotalaria cobalticola, Diplolophium marthozianum, Gladiolus ledoctei and Triumfetta welwitschii. Seeds were collected in 3 different populations in the katangan Copperbelt and sown according three soil contamination modalities: control (no addition of Cu), 100 mg kg-1 and 1000 mg kg-1 of Cu concentration using hydrated copper (II) sulfate. For each combination (species x populations x soils), we had 10 repetitions. For each population, sample of 5 seeds was weighed before seedling in pot in November 2013. One individual by pot was kept for measures. Height (cm), number of leaves, number of flowers and number of fruits were measured once a week during one rainy season. For all species, no significant difference of copper tolerance appeared between populations. In contrast, populations had distinct germination rate and growth rate, especially for T. welwitshii and D. marthozianum. C. cobalticola grew significantly better in highly contaminated soil than other soils. G. ledoctei did not show any significant difference between populations and soil treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailFeeding ecology of harpacticoid copepod species: Insights from stable isotopes analysis and fatty acid profiling
Mascart, Thibaud ULg; De Troch, Marleen; Remy, François ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 04)

Understanding how biodiversity influence ecosystem functioning is a major research question in current ecology research. Trophic diversity within communities strongly affects ecosystem functioning through ... [more ▼]

Understanding how biodiversity influence ecosystem functioning is a major research question in current ecology research. Trophic diversity within communities strongly affects ecosystem functioning through trophic interactions between species. Various studies tackled ecosystem functioning via interactions between trophic guilds such as bottom-up and top-down control. However, few studies focussed on interspecific variability in the feeding ecology of organisms with overlapping trophic niche. Here, we in a North-Western Corsican Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadow and its variability over one year. The extensive P. oceanica meadows are occasionally interrupted by bare sand patches which serve as deposition and accumulation area for detritus, mainly derived from senescent macrophytes. These macrophytodetritus accumulation harbour a diverse community of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda). The most abundant harpacticoids and their potential food sources (i.e. macrophytodetritus, epiphytic biofilm, macroalgae and particulate matter) were analysed for stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N). Bayesian mixing model (SIAR) showed a minor contribution of macrophytodetritus while the epiphytic biofilm, present on the macrophytodetritus, appeared to be the major food source of harpacticoid copepods. In order to distinguish the several components of the epiphytic biofilm and their contribution, fatty acid profiling was used. The outcome revealed a general harpacticoid diet preference towards diatoms and bacteria, however specialisation for certain components seemed to reduce competition between harpacticoid species. In conclusion, our results underline the importance of multiple biomarker species-specific analysis, especially in complex and dynamic environments where a wide variety of potential trophic niches are present. [less ▲]

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See detailTurnover rates of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the amphipod Gammarus aequicauda: insights for trophic studies of Mediterranean macrophytodetritus accumulation.
Remy, François ULg; Melchior, Aurélie; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

Conference (2014, August 04)

A quite diverse and abundant macrofauna assemblage is found in the Mediterranean Sea in exported Posidonia oceanica macrophytodétritus accumulations along with meiofauna, microalgae, fungi and bacteria ... [more ▼]

A quite diverse and abundant macrofauna assemblage is found in the Mediterranean Sea in exported Posidonia oceanica macrophytodétritus accumulations along with meiofauna, microalgae, fungi and bacteria. This study focused on a dominant vagile macroinvertebrate species living and feeding in exported dead P.oceanica leaves litter from Calvi Bay (Corsica, France): Gammarus aequicauda. Results of gut content observations and stable isotope analysis (SIAR data) showed clearly that G. aequicauda is the most important dead P. oceanica consumer with up to 50% of dead leaves contribution. An isotopic turnover experiment was conducted with 3 controlled simultaneous treatments: 1. amphipod feeding for 43 days, 2. Green algae feeding for 30 days and 3. Posidonia oceanica litter feeding for 30 days. Individuals (n = 12 to 16) have been sampled every 7 days and whole individual stable isotope analysis have been conducted. An exponential decay regression model and calculations resulted in half-lives for C ranging from 11.72 days (treatment 1) to 51.62 days (treatment 3). Treatment 2 data did not allow us to fit a curve, consequence of a potentially very low turnover rate. For N, no significant increase or decrease of the δ15N values have been observed, and we thus concluded that δ15N was at the equilibrium from the beginning to the end of the experiment. It appears that amphipods feeding on low quality food (high to very high C/N ratio) like algae and Neptune grass dead leaves, show a lower turnover rate for C than amphipods feeding on a high quality animal food (low C/N ratio). Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotope “Trophic Enrichment Factor” (TEF) were calculated for treatments where δ13C or δ15N were at the equilibrium at the end of the experiment. Calculated TEF for nitrogen ranged from 0.53‰ ± 0.439 to 0.96‰ ± 0.424 for treatment 2 and 3 (consistent with detritus-feeder invertebrate values) and was 2.91‰ ± 0.558 for treatment 1 (consistent with predator invertebrate values). For C calculations, a TEF of 0,81‰± 0.39 for treatment 1 and a TEF of 1.19‰ ± 0.824 for treatment 3 were calculated. [less ▲]

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See detailX-rays from magnetic massive OB stars
Petit, V.; Cohen, D. H.; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in IAU Symposium (2014, August 01)

The magnetic activity of solar-type and low-mass stars is a well known source of coronal X-ray emission. At the other end of the main sequence, X-rays emission is instead associated with the powerful ... [more ▼]

The magnetic activity of solar-type and low-mass stars is a well known source of coronal X-ray emission. At the other end of the main sequence, X-rays emission is instead associated with the powerful, radiatively driven winds of massive stars. Indeed, the intrinsically unstable line-driving mechanism of OB star winds gives rise to shock-heated, soft emission (~0.5 keV) distributed throughout the wind. Recently, the latest generation of spectropolarimetric instrumentation has uncovered a population of massive OB-stars hosting strong, organized magnetic fields. The magnetic characteristics of these stars are similar to the apparently fossil magnetic fields of the chemically peculiar ApBp stars. Magnetic channeling of these OB stars' strong winds leads to the formation of large-scale shock-heated magnetospheres, which can modify UV resonance lines, create complex distributions of cooled Halpha emitting material, and radiate hard (~2-5 keV) X-rays. This presentation summarizes our coordinated observational and modelling efforts to characterize the manifestation of these magnetospheres in the X-ray domain, providing an important contrast between the emission originating in shocks associated with the large-scale fossil fields of massive stars, and the X-rays associated with the activity of complex, dynamo-generated fields in lower-mass stars. [less ▲]

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See detailMise en réseau des acteurs, des activités et des produits touristiques dans les chefferies de l’Ouest -Cameroun
Lekane Tsobgou, Dieudonné ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Bokwa, Anita (Ed.) Changes, Challenges, Responsability. IGU 2014 Book of Abstracts (2014, August)

Cette recherche propose comme défis a relever, d’élaborer des dispositifs, des outils et la méthodologie de mise en réseau dans le secteur du tourisme dans les Chefferies de l'Ouest du Cameroun. La ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche propose comme défis a relever, d’élaborer des dispositifs, des outils et la méthodologie de mise en réseau dans le secteur du tourisme dans les Chefferies de l'Ouest du Cameroun. La communication discute des logiques (construit processuel) de la mise en réseau d’acteurs, d’activités et de ressources territoriales dans un circuit touristique [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and comparison of proteome patterns of English Grain Aphids on resistant and susceptible wheat
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Barrios San Martin, Joceline; C. RAMÍREZ, Claudio et al

Poster (2014, August)

Some varieties of wheat are resistant to some aphid clones of the English Grain Aphid (Sitobion avenae). This study used 2D-DIGE coupled with protein identification by Maldi-Tof-MS to compare the proteome ... [more ▼]

Some varieties of wheat are resistant to some aphid clones of the English Grain Aphid (Sitobion avenae). This study used 2D-DIGE coupled with protein identification by Maldi-Tof-MS to compare the proteome patterns of English Grain Aphids on resistant (Llareta) and susceptible (Huayún) wheat lines. Aphids were exposed to wheat during 2 weeks (short term: ST) and 4 weeks (long term: LT). Four treatments were compared: Llareta-ST, Llareta-LT, Huayún-ST, Huayún-LT. Experiment was conducted using different Sitobion avenae clones whose symbionts were previously characterized. Results showed that aphids had low performance on resistant plants. Seventy-two protein spots showed significant quantitative differences among the four treatment groups. Proteomic approach will allow a better understanding of interaction mechanisms between aphids and wheat. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of wheat root and straw in soil by use of NIR hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy and Partial Least Square discriminant analysis
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Baeten, Vincent et al

in Szilvássy, Zoltán; Pepó, Péter; Csajbók, József (Eds.) Book of Abstracts, ESA XIIIth Congress : ESA, Debrecen 25-29 August 2014 (2014, August)

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with ... [more ▼]

Monitoring of root systems development and crop residues decomposition is only possible if these constituents can be discriminated from soil and quantified. In this work, Near Infrared (NIR) combined with Hyperspectral Imaging (HSI) and Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) is proposed as a new rapid and reliable method to discriminate soil, roots and straws. NIR-HSI provides simultaneously spectral and spatial information and PLS-DA allows discrimination between classes based on spectra of each pixel linked to chemical nature of sample constituents on the image. [less ▲]

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See detailRelaxations for multi-period optimal power flow problems with discrete decision variables
Gemine, Quentin ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 18th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC'14) (2014, August)

We consider a class of optimal power flow (OPF) applications where some loads offer a modulation service in exchange for an activation fee. These applications can be modeled as multi-period formulations ... [more ▼]

We consider a class of optimal power flow (OPF) applications where some loads offer a modulation service in exchange for an activation fee. These applications can be modeled as multi-period formulations of the OPF with discrete variables that define mixed-integer non-convex mathematical programs. We propose two types of relaxations to tackle these problems. One is based on a Lagrangian relaxation and the other is based on a network flow relaxation. Both relaxations are tested on several benchmarks and, although they provide a comparable dual bound, it appears that the constraints in the solutions derived from the network flow relaxation are significantly less violated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe quest for rurality in Wallonia in 2013 (Belgium)
Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Bokwa, Anita (Ed.) Changes, Challenges Responsability. IGU 2014 Book of Abstarcts. (2014, August)

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See detailX-raying the winds of the evolved massive binary HDE228766
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Mahy, Laurent; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

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See detailThe role of segmentation and investor recognition through the lens of cross-listing activity
Mouchette, Xavier ULg; Muller, Aline ULg; Carrieri, Francesca

Conference (2014, August)

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See detailImprovement of defect detection in shearography by using Principal Component Analysis
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Lièvre, Nicolas; Georges, Marc ULg

in Proceedings of Conference on Interferometry XVII: Techniques and Analysis (2014, August)

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See detailConsequences of Selection for Environmental Impact Traits in Dairy Cows
Kandel, Purna Bhadra ULg; Vanderick, Sylvie ULg; Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Proceedings, 10th World Congress of Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (2014, August)

Genetic selection programs aiming to mitigate methane (CH4) emissions require the estimation of genetic correlations with other production and economical traits and predicted selection response. CH4 ... [more ▼]

Genetic selection programs aiming to mitigate methane (CH4) emissions require the estimation of genetic correlations with other production and economical traits and predicted selection response. CH4 intensity was predicted from Mid-infrared spectra of milk samples from Holstein cows. Genetic correlations between CH4 intensity and milk yield (MY) was -0.68, fat yield (FY) -0.13, protein yield (PY) -0.47, somatic cell score (SCS) 0.07, longevity 0.05, fertility 0.31, body condition score (BCS) 0.17. Adding 25% relative weight on CH4 intensity to the current Walloon selection index, the response to selection would reduce CH4 intensity by 24%, increase MY by 30%, FY by 17%, PY by 29%, SCS by -14%, longevity by 24% but also reduce fertility by 11% and BCS by 13%. In conclusion, environmental traits can be added without jeopardizing production traits, but energy balance related traits have to be protected. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey about diffusion and adoption of glycaemic controller in European intensive care units
Penning, Sophie ULg; Pironet, Antoine ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey et al

Conference (2014, August)

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See detailA quantitative analysis of the effect of flexible loads on reserve markets
Mathieu, Sébastien ULg; Louveaux, Quentin ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 18th Power Systems Computation Conference (PSCC) (2014, August)

We propose and analyze a day-ahead reserve market model that handles bids from flexible loads. This pool market model takes into account the fact that a load modulation in one direction must usually be ... [more ▼]

We propose and analyze a day-ahead reserve market model that handles bids from flexible loads. This pool market model takes into account the fact that a load modulation in one direction must usually be compensated later by a modulation of the same magnitude in the opposite direction. Our analysis takes into account the gaming possibilities of producers and retailers, controlling load flexibility, in the day-ahead energy and reserve markets, and in imbalance settlement. This analysis is carried out by an agent-based approach where, for every round, each actor uses linear programs to maximize its profit according to forecasts of the prices. The procurement of a reserve is assumed to be determined, for each period, as a fixed percentage of the total consumption cleared in the energy market for the same period. The results show that the provision of reserves by flexible loads has a negligible impact on the energy market prices but markedly decreases the cost of reserve procurement. However, as the rate of flexible loads increases, the system operator has to rely more and more on non-contracted reserves, which may cancel out the benefits made in the procurement of reserves. [less ▲]

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See detailAphid - symbiont interactions : multitrophic "omic" approaches to investigate multitrophic interactions
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

« Omics » found recent developments due to significant improvement and availability of both separation and identification methods. For proteomics, functional information’s linked to the studied proteins ... [more ▼]

« Omics » found recent developments due to significant improvement and availability of both separation and identification methods. For proteomics, functional information’s linked to the studied proteins was brought when compared to genomic approach. For these reasons, a panel of tools is available to determine the proteome patterns related to differential adaptation of insects to cope with plant defence mechanisms or to transmit virus. The adaptation and metabolic changes of aphids in relation to host plants focusing on the role of the bacterial endosymbionts was investigated. Use of artificial diet including diverse antibiotics but also the comparison of proteomes related to whole aphid and respective purified bacterial symbionts were studied to identify the respective origin and function of proteins constituting the studied proteomes. Diverse methods including 2D-DIGE, liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and data bank investigations were developed. From the proteome investigation, characterisation of good and bad virus vectors was also performed in different aphid - plant - virus models. Particular proteins of interest were selected. This broad proteomic approach will be discussed as an interesting and reliable tool to study the biologically involved proteins from aphids in response to several environmental changes [less ▲]

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See detailStructural identifiability analysis of a cardiovascular system model
Pironet, Antoine ULg; Dauby, Pierre ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey et al

Conference (2014, August)

A simple experimentally validated cardiovascular system model has been shown to be able to track the evolution of various diseases. The model has previously been made patient-specific by adjustment of its ... [more ▼]

A simple experimentally validated cardiovascular system model has been shown to be able to track the evolution of various diseases. The model has previously been made patient-specific by adjustment of its parameters on the basis of a minimal set of hemodynamic measurements. However, this model has not yet been shown to be structurally identifiable, which means that the adjusted model parameters may not be unique. The model equations were manipulated to show that, from a theoretical point of view, all of their parameters can be exactly retrieved from a restricted set of model outputs. However, this set of model outputs is still too large for a clinical application, because it includes left and right ventricular pressures. Consequently, further hypotheses that determine some model parameter values have to be made for the model to be clinically applicable. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary approaches and fractionations to study lower termite symbiotic system and ligno-cellulose digestion
Bauwens, Julien ULg; Brasseur, Catherine ULg; Tarayre, Cédric ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

Wood-feeding termites are a considerable source of enzymes active on ligno-cellulosic compounds. These enzymes are produced by the termite host and some representatives of its symbiotic microbial ... [more ▼]

Wood-feeding termites are a considerable source of enzymes active on ligno-cellulosic compounds. These enzymes are produced by the termite host and some representatives of its symbiotic microbial community, and are of particular interest in regard second generation biofuel. However, the complexity of microbial interactions renders micro-organisms isolation very difficult. Culture-independent methods permitted to gather a large amount of data and to understand a little more the role of each microbial population, particularly the prokaryotes. Proteomics allows working on the final product of gene expression, and corresponds more to the real operation of the digestive system. In order to investigate such a complex system, it is necessary to use multidisciplinary approaches and to fractionate this system. Zymography or affinity chromatography are used in parallel of routine proteomics techniques such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis associated to MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and nano-LC ESI-MS/MS. We used an artificial-diet based rearing to induce changes in microbial population balance. We performed preliminary assay to investigate the glycosylated proteome in the hindgut of a lower termite, using Multi-Lectin Affinity Chromatography (M-LAC) and enzymatic activity of harvested fractions was assessed on cellulosic substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Identifiability Analysis of a Cardiovascular System Model
Pironet, Antoine ULg; Dauby, Pierre ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey et al

in Preprints of the 19th World Congress (2014, August)

A simple experimentally validated cardiovascular system model has been shown to be able to track the evolution of various diseases. The model has previously been made patient-specific by adjustment of its ... [more ▼]

A simple experimentally validated cardiovascular system model has been shown to be able to track the evolution of various diseases. The model has previously been made patient-specific by adjustment of its parameters on the basis of a minimal set of hemodynamic measurements. However, this model has not yet been shown to be structurally identifiable, which means that the adjusted model parameters may not be unique. The model equations were manipulated to show that, from a theoretical point of view, all of their parameters can be exactly retrieved from a restricted set of model outputs. However, this set of model outputs is still too large for a clinical application, because it includes left and right ventricular pressures. Consequently, further hypotheses that determine some model parameter values have to be made for the model to be clinically applicable. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of pulmonary hypertension in dogs with chronic pulmonary diseases by thoracic ct-angiography.
Couvreur, T.; Roels, Elodie ULg; Merveille, Anne-Christine ULg et al

in Proceedings of the ECVDI Meeting, Utrecht - Netherlands - 27-30 August 2014 (2014, August)

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See detailCrop association to improve aphid biological control
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

Poster (2014, August)

This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within ... [more ▼]

This research focused on the development of sustainable alternative methods to control aphids, giving special emphasis on cultural practices and plant management systems. Increasing the diversity within crops may have several beneficial effects on pest control, creating attractive habitats for indigenous beneficial fauna and simultaneously deterring pests (“push-pull” approach). In this field study, two wheat/pea associations (mixed cropping and strip cropping) where compared to monocultures of pea and wheat. The abundance and diversity of adult aphidophagous beneficials (predators and parasitoids) were accessed weekly, using yellow traps, while aphids were observed directly on plants. All individuals were identified down to the level of species. In both crops, the percentage of aphid infestation and density of colonies were significantly higher in monocultures during the abundance periods. The mixing was particularly beneficial for the pea, while strip cropping was more efficient for the wheat. Concerning beneficials, their abundance was also significantly higher in monocultures, comparing with the other treatments. This study shows that increasing diversity within crops can prevent them from aphid infestations. However, additional methods are needed to attract more efficiently the aphidophagous beneficials, in order to promote the natural control of aphids. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailDeveloping situational judgment tests to assess organizational citizenship behaviours
Lothe, Benoit ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2014, August)

a) Purpose As Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCBs) positively influence a number of important outcomes (e.g. job performance, unit productivity, organizational efficiency, etc.) and are valued by ... [more ▼]

a) Purpose As Organizational Citizenship Behaviours (OCBs) positively influence a number of important outcomes (e.g. job performance, unit productivity, organizational efficiency, etc.) and are valued by managers as well, Organ, Podsakoff and Podsakoff (2010) assert the need “to try to identify and select those job candidates who have a propensity to exhibit these behaviours” (p.314). This study provides some empirical evidence about using Situational Judgment Tests (SJTs) for this specific target and allows us to discuss the main methodological issues in the development of such SJTs. b) Method Based on relevant best practices and recommendations from the literature (e.g. Weekley, Ployhart & Holtz, 2006), two distinct SJTs were especially developed to comply with OCBs assessment. The two SJTs differ on their job specificity degree (project manager in the industrial sector vs transversal function in the services sector), both propose ten different work related situations and, for each stem, five action proposals are available. Data were collected through online survey on two different samples (220 white collars professionals and 291 university students). Professionals were allowed to choose which SJT they wanted to participate, students were randomized within the two SJTS. An experimental manipulation of the response instructions (ipsative vs normative) was added within the student sample. OCBs were concurrently collected using self-reported measurement scales. c) Results In both samples (respectively professionals and students), the internal consistency was higher for the “job specific” SJT (α = .79 & .81) than for the “transversal job” SJT (α = .49 & 64). Notwithstanding, significant relations were found between the SJT scores and overall OCB ratings for both of the SJT forms in each of the two samples (r ranged from .30 to .57). Other specifics findings also provided substantial evidence for the concurrent validity of the SJTs to measure sub-dimensions of OCBs (altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, loyalty and voice). d) Conclusions This study is, to our knowledge, the first to address the development and validation of a SJT for the assessment of OCBs. Review of the literature indicates that researches on techniques to predict OCBs are scarce and the present findings appear to surpass the average personality traits validity coefficients (r= .20) according to Organ & al. (2010)’s meta-analysis. There are two main practical implications. The first is the opportunity to use OCBs-SJTs as an alternative to assess applicants OCBs for job-specific or generic personnel selection issue. The second is to provide methodological development advices (e.g. the choice of response instruction) to ensure the SJT match the OCBs assessment requirement. Principal current limitations call for further research development that will be discussed: using different sources of OCBs rating, testing the incremental validity on personality tests, determining whether OCBs-SJTs are correlated with cognitive ability and establishing criterion validity with job performance. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray emission from magnetic massive stars
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Petit, Véronique; Rindbrand, Mélanie et al

Poster (2014, August)

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Peer Reviewed
See detailPrediction of Body Weight of Primiparous Dairy Cows Throughout Lactation
Vanrobays, Marie-Laure ULg; Vandenplas, Jérémie ULg; Hammami, Hedi ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 10th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production (2014, August)

Body weight (BW) can be computed using linear conformation traits (CBW). However, these traits are recorded mostly once during a lactation. Therefore, predicted BW (PBW) is needed throughout the lactation ... [more ▼]

Body weight (BW) can be computed using linear conformation traits (CBW). However, these traits are recorded mostly once during a lactation. Therefore, predicted BW (PBW) is needed throughout the lactation (e.g., allowing feed intake prediction in milk recording systems). A two-step procedure was developed to obtain PBW using a random regression test-day model using CBW as observations. Added second step consisted in changing prior distribution for additive genetic random effects using results from first step to predict again PBW. This method was applied on 24,919 primiparous Holstein cows having 25,061 CBW to obtain PBW for 232,436 test-days. Results showed that applying both steps provided more accurate estimates than using only the first step. Furthermore, this procedure predicting PBW throughout lactation is also extremely flexible because actual BW can also be used together with CBW, the prediction model being able to accommodate different levels of accuracies. [less ▲]

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See detailCreation of universal MIR calibration by standardization of milk spectra: example of fatty acids
Grelet, Clément; Fernandez Pierna, Juan; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Book of abstracts of the 65th annual meeting of the European Federation of Animal Science (2014, August)

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See detailAdvanced optimization methods for power systems
Panciatici, Patrick; Campi, M.C.; Garatti, S. et al

in Proceedings of the 18th Power Systems Computation Conference (2014, August)

Power system planning and operation offers multitudinous opportunities for optimization methods. In practice, these problems are generally large-scale, non-linear, subject to uncertainties, and combine ... [more ▼]

Power system planning and operation offers multitudinous opportunities for optimization methods. In practice, these problems are generally large-scale, non-linear, subject to uncertainties, and combine both continuous and discrete variables. In the recent years, a number of complementary theoretical advances in addressing such problems have been obtained in the field of applied mathematics. The paper introduces a selection of these advances in the fields of non-convex optimization, in mixedinteger programming, and in optimization under uncertainty. The practical relevance of these developments for power systems planning and operation are discussed, and the opportunities for combining them, together with high-performance computing and big data infrastructures, as well as novel machine learning and randomized algorithms, are highlighted. [less ▲]

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Peer Reviewed
See detailWhich agritourism for which suburban countryside? A heuristic and comparative analysis in Wallonia and Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg (part 2)
Dubois, Charline ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Ianos, Ioan (Ed.) Rural life and rural systems between tradition and integrated urban-rural development (2014, August)

Mutations, transformations, transitions are keywords which open the door to many questions regarding the global European agriculture. The resources of the rural countryside in Europe are subject to many ... [more ▼]

Mutations, transformations, transitions are keywords which open the door to many questions regarding the global European agriculture. The resources of the rural countryside in Europe are subject to many pressures. Agricultural activities are decreasing and farmers are losing importance. In some northwestern European countryside, the declining agriculture compels to diversify activities in farms. Some farmers need to rethink their business goals in order to successfully sustain their operations in the economic space. In many areas, one of the solutions suggested is the development of agritourism. Agritourism in Wallonia and in the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg is a tourist activity proposed by the farmer in his farm. While addressing the challenges and countering threats of their agriculture, both suburban areas present many advantages and opportunities for tourism development. Different tourist and leisure developments are conceived and proposed. The activity is reinforced by popular images of sustainability and ecology. Is agritourism a universal solution or is it a reflected contextualized solution? In the Tel-Aviv CSRS meeting, in 2010, we presented a communication on this issue. While the theoretical review and the aim of the first paper were well presented, the empirical results were not well documented because we were at the beginning of the PhD research. Today, we propose, in this paper, to improve information and to answer to the different comments from the members of the commission. Agritourism should be defined, localized, differentiated. Between 2010 and 2014, we conducted interviews of Walloon and Luxembourg tenants (n = 33), surveys among potential tourists (n = 1148) in seven tourist places, interviews of privileged witnesses (n = 31), and field observations. Working on two regions of Western Europe which had not been analyzed previously, the Walloon and Luxembourg suburban countryside, we want to understand the agritourism dynamics, the factors that influence the location and development, and the images of farm tourism. The purpose of this research is to understand the geographical relationship between agritourism, countryside, local resources, agriculture, and tourism specialization. This issue is underdeveloped in the literature and our PhD thesis contributes to fill this gap. We scrutinize the spatial distribution of agritourism in both regions, the logic of emergence of tourism in a farm, the links between these tourist functions and these agricultural functions. We analysed the tenants and visitors’ reasons and motivations in regards of the regional and local context. Finally, we build a typology of the countryside according to agritourism. We conclude that the farm diversification should pay attention to several local and regional factors to succeed in a win-win combination of tourism and agriculture. These factors are listed in a heuristic model, which is a user-friendly tool to think future development of agritourism in the European countryside. [less ▲]

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See detailSurvey about diffusion and adoption of glycaemic controller in European intensive care units
Penning, Sophie ULg; Pironet, Antoine ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey et al

in Proceedings of the 19th IFAC Conference (2014, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (7 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailInsulin Sensitivity Variability during Hypothermia
Sah Pri, Azurahisham; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Pretty, Christopher et al

in Proceedings of the 19th IFAC Conference (2014, August)

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg)