References of "Scientific congresses and symposiums"
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See detailToward discovery of novel key genes for pancreatic beta cell regeneration in zebrafish
Carril Pardo, Claudio Andrès ULiege; Bergemann, David ULiege; Massoz, Laura ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 14)

Diabetes is becoming a leading health issue worldwide. It occurs under insulin resistance/deficiency and when insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell mass is dramatically reduced. Besides therapeutic ... [more ▼]

Diabetes is becoming a leading health issue worldwide. It occurs under insulin resistance/deficiency and when insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cell mass is dramatically reduced. Besides therapeutic strategies to preserve beta-cell mass and function and improve insulin treatments, beta-cell replacement constitutes a promising alternative to replenish the pancreas with functional beta-cells. Several observations of pancreatic cell plasticity has led to the hope that triggering beta-cell regeneration within the pancreas could be harnessed in future therapies. Still, mammals show limited regenerative capabilities, making difficult the study of these mechanisms. In contrast, zebrafish is extensively used for regeneration studies notably of beta-cells. We recently showed that the adult zebrafish ducts display characteristics of embryonic pancreatic progenitors that can give rise to beta-cells in physiological and induced diabetic condition*, and we determined the transcriptomic profile of zebrafish pancreatic ducts during beta-cell regeneration. To identify new genes crucial for beta-cell regeneration we plan to investigate the role of about 10 selected candidate genes by analyzing invalidating mutations created by CRISPR/Cas9. Their effect on beta-cell regeneration will be studied in 7-20 old larvae which we have established as experimental platform for functional studies. This project should help decipher the molecular mechanism of beta-cell regeneration. [less ▲]

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See detailExecutive functions in normal aging: the mediating effect of processing speed and attentional system
Gilsoul, Jessica ULiege; Simon, Jessica ULiege; Collette, Fabienne ULiege

Poster (2017, September 14)

Objective The normal aging is associated with decrease in executive functioning efficiency. However, the source of these cognitive difficulties could reside in some factors that are not executive per se ... [more ▼]

Objective The normal aging is associated with decrease in executive functioning efficiency. However, the source of these cognitive difficulties could reside in some factors that are not executive per se. Therefore, this present study is aimed at determining whether speed of processing and attentional variables would mediate the effect of age on the executive functioning. Participants and Methods Young (n = 104) and old (n = 63) participants were enrolled and carried out a large battery made of 21 executive (inhibition, shifting, working memory updating, and double task coordination), attentional (phasic alertness, selective attention, and sustained attention), and processing speed tasks. Based on Baron & Kenny’s recommendations (1986), mediation models of the age effect on the executive functioning were carried out with processing speed and attentional system taken as mediators. Results Selective attention significantly mediated the effect of age on working memory updating [􀇻R2 = 7%, p < .001]. Moreover, processing speed significantly mediated the effect of age on shifting [􀇻R2 = 7%, p < .001], working memory updating [􀇻R2 = 5%, p < .001], and double task coordination [􀇻R2 = 14%, p < .001]. Conclusions The mediating effect of age on most of the executive functions by measures of processing speed is in agreement with the literature showing a major influence of the slowdown of the processing speed on cognition (Salthouse, 1992; 2000; 2005). The age effect on inhibition did not seem to be mediated neither by the attentional variables nor the speed variables, which is in accordance with Zacks & Hasher’s hypothesis (1988). According to these authors, inhibition would be the first cognitive function to decline with age. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of SERS nanosensors for the detection of small bioactive molecules by cellular analysis in complex matrices: Application to dopamine
Dumont, Elodie ULiege; De Bleye, Charlotte ULiege; Cailletaud, Johan ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 13)

This communication reports the different steps undertaken in order to develop a new Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanosensor for the quantification of dopamine in the culture medium of PC-12 ... [more ▼]

This communication reports the different steps undertaken in order to develop a new Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) nanosensor for the quantification of dopamine in the culture medium of PC-12 cells. First, the synthesis of the SERS substrate, gold nanoparticles, and its characterization. Then the development of the method with the help of a design of experiments and the demonstration of the specificity of the method over other structurally related catecholamines. And finally, the implementation of the method on the culture medium of PC-12 cells, on an HEPES buffer having served to wash the cells and on the PC-12 cells. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison de l'impact de deux méthodes d'apprentissage sur la sécurité d'administration des médicaments : stages cliniques versus simulation
Servotte, Jean-Christophe ULiege; Galerin, Catherine ULiege; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 12)

Introduction Drug administration is the act nurses most frequently do. However, 50% of errors occur during administration. The damage these errors causes to patients, results in excess mortality rates and ... [more ▼]

Introduction Drug administration is the act nurses most frequently do. However, 50% of errors occur during administration. The damage these errors causes to patients, results in excess mortality rates and health care costs, hence leading to a major public health problem. Therefore, it is advisable to consider the training of future nurses on the practice of this delicate act. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of teaching by simulation combined with the internship on the safety administration of intravenous drugs by nursing students, compared to just the internship alone. Material and method A selection of 99 students from the bachelors’ block two of the Namur-Liege-Luxembourg Higher Institute of Nursing met the inclusion criteria under consideration. They were divided into two groups, one experimental group which participated in a simulation session and a control group, the latter did not participate in the simulation session. At the start of the research, all students were assessed by an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) with the theme of modifying infusion and syringe flow rates. They were also asked to complete a questionnaire concerning their knowledge and self-efficacy feeling related to drug administration. The experimental group then participated in the simulation sessions. The experimental group and the control group also went into four weeks of training in medical or surgical services before participating in the second stage of the study. The latter consisted of the same tests and questionnaires as stage one of the study. The evolution of the results of the two groups was first observed separately before being compared. Results The majority of the results shows that the simulation improves, in a way significantly more important than the clinical course, the acquisition of skills and knowledge, as well as the feeling of self-efficacy in drug administration. On the other hand, the assessment of the level of stress linked to drug administration and the professional attitude evaluated during the OSCE were not significantly more improved by the simulation than by the training alone (stress: p-value = 0.8269, professional attitude = 0.9857). Conclusions For the students in the experimental group, the simulation showed a positive impact on the skills, knowledge and feeling of self-efficacy associated with drug administration. Changes and continuation of the study would make it possible to go further in the generalization of results, in the evaluation of learning outcomes, and to attest to their sustainability. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom seed to vegetable and from vegetable to seed : constructing a right to existence
Hecquet, Corentin ULiege

Conference (2017, September 12)

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See detailLiDAR aérien et autres nuages de points pour la cartographie multi-échelles
Poux, Florent ULiege; Neuville, Romain ULiege; Kasprzyk, Jean-Paul ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 12)

Utilisation de nuage de points pour la cartographie 3D multi-échelles. Exemples d'utilisation et définition de workflows pour assurer l'interopérabilité lors de la fusion de données issues de différents ... [more ▼]

Utilisation de nuage de points pour la cartographie 3D multi-échelles. Exemples d'utilisation et définition de workflows pour assurer l'interopérabilité lors de la fusion de données issues de différents capteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailManaging and authenticating non-institutional users in Alma: two experiences
Brownlie, Helen; De Groof, Robert ULiege; Renaville, François ULiege

Conference (2017, September 12)

The management of patron information within Alma is primarily reliant on two systems – the creation and updating of patron information by an external system such as student management or HR systems or ... [more ▼]

The management of patron information within Alma is primarily reliant on two systems – the creation and updating of patron information by an external system such as student management or HR systems or internally within Alma itself. A recent survey of the Alma community indicated the majority of institutions utilize a mixture of these external and internal processes. In addition to providing access to affiliated staff and students more than 89% of institutions responded that they provided user accounts to non-affiliated users such as the general public, members of other academic institutions, alumni, etc. Providing authenticated access to library services for the latter group relies heavily on Alma for password management. This presentation will outline the processes in place at the University of Otago and at the University of Liège for managing and authenticating non-institutional users and the possible effect of Ex Libris' proposed changes to internal authentication. [less ▲]

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See detailSampling only 10 μL of whole blood to study the bioavailability of itraconazole formulations in rats
Kok, Miranda ULiege; Thiry, Justine ULiege; Evrard, Brigitte ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 12)

Background Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) offers a unique opportunity to collect small and accurate quantities of biological fluids. This sampling technique is of great interest for volume ... [more ▼]

Background Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) offers a unique opportunity to collect small and accurate quantities of biological fluids. This sampling technique is of great interest for volume-limited samples and for the collection of multiple samples from the same animal. This serial sample collection may reduce the number of required study animals, thereby fulfilling the three Rs rule (refine, reduce, replace). Here, we demonstrate the applicability of VAMS to study the bioavailability of drug formulations in rats. Methods Four itraconazole-containing formulations were successively administered to rats with a wash-out period of one week. VAMS was used to collect 14 whole blood samples of only 10 μL each within a time frame of 48 hours after administration of the different drug formulations. Particular attention was paid to sample preparation and stability. The extraction of itraconazole and its main metabolite hydroxy-itraconazole was optimized to provide a high recovery and minimal matrix effects. A developed and validated LC–MS/MS method was used for the quantification of the two compounds. Pharmacokinetic profiles for the different formulations were constructed and compared. Results The stability of itraconazole and hydroxy-itraconazole in dried VAMS samples of whole rat blood could not be guaranteed for more than a day when the samples were stored at room temperature. However, samples were stable for at least two weeks when stored at -80°C after sample preparation. Differences in pharmacokinetic profiles were observed for the tested drug formulations. Whole blood concentrations of itraconazole and its main metabolite were significantly higher after administration of three in-house produced formulations compared to concentrations obtained with a commercially available product. Moreover, these in vivo results could be partly related to in vitro dissolution rates of the various formulations. Conclusions VAMS is an attractive approach for bioavailability studies. Due to the low blood volumes per sampling point, the same rats can be used to compare various drug formulations. Therefore, the number of required animals can be drastically reduced. Moreover, this helps to suppress the inter-individual variability and strengthens the validity of results. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluences of feeding behaviour and forage quality on diurnal methane emission dynamics of grazing cows
Blaise, Yannick ULiege; Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Heinesch, Bernard ULiege et al

in Berckmans, Daniel; Keita, Keita (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘17 (2017, September 12)

This study aimed to evaluate diurnal methane (CH4) emission dynamics of grazing cattle and highlight their relationships with biotic factors such as the feeding behaviour as well as seasonal changes in ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate diurnal methane (CH4) emission dynamics of grazing cattle and highlight their relationships with biotic factors such as the feeding behaviour as well as seasonal changes in pasture characteristics. Existing methods to assess grazing ruminants’ daily CH4 emissions provide useful insights to investigate mitigation strategies relying on feeding and genetic selection. Nonetheless such methods based on tracer gases (SF6) or feeding bins equipped with sniffers (e.g. GreenFeed) can hardly cover diurnal CH4 emission fluctuations which can influence the accuracy of total CH4 production estimations. Previous studies in barns showed that emission dynamics strongly vary during post feeding time, leading to a possible bias in estimates of daily CH4 emissions as high as 100%. To investigate whether such fluctuations are also taking place on pasture, a portable device was designed with infrared CH4 and CO2 sensors measuring concentrations in the exhaled air at a high sampling rate (4 Hz). Six grazing dry red-pied cows were equipped with the device and motion sensors during runs of 24h to monitor CH4 and CO2 emissions and detect their feeding behaviours (grazing, rumination and other behaviours), respectively. This experiment was performed in summer and fall in order to cover seasonal changes in pasture forage quality. Methane emission was estimated from the CH4:CO2 concentration ratio and the metabolic CO2 production of the cows. As for barn studies, variations were observed in total daily CH4 emission due to the seasons and diurnal variations were also observed due to animal behaviours. Relationships between animal feeding behaviour and CH4 emissions patterns on pasture were also unravelled. [less ▲]

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See detailA tiny magic drawing board to track the penetration of magnetic flux in superconductors
Silhanek, Alejandro ULiege

Conference (2017, September 11)

Local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method for storing information, has found its place in numerous applications such as the popular magnetic drawing board toy or the widespread credit ... [more ▼]

Local polarization of a magnetic layer, a well-known method for storing information, has found its place in numerous applications such as the popular magnetic drawing board toy or the widespread credit cards and computer hard drives. Here we experimentally show that a similar principle can be applied for imprinting the trajectory of quantum units of flux (vortices), travelling in a superconducting film (Nb), into a soft magnetic layer of permalloy (Py). In full analogy with the magnetic drawing board, vortices act as tiny magnetic scribers leaving a wake of polarized magnetic media in the Py board. The mutual interaction between superconducting vortices and ferromagnetic domains has been investigated by the magneto-optical imaging technique. For thick Py layers, the stripe magnetic domain pattern guides both the smooth magnetic flux penetration as well as the abrupt vortex avalanches in the Nb film. It is however in thin Py layers without stripe domains where superconducting vortices leave the clearest imprints of locally polarized magnetic moment along their paths. In all cases, we observe that the flux is delayed at the border of the magnetic layer. Our findings open the quest for optimizing magnetic recording of superconducting vortex trajectories. [less ▲]

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See detailBuckling of steel plates at elevated temperatures: Theory of perfect plates vs finite element analysis
Maraveas, Chrysanthos ULiege; Gernay, Thomas ULiege; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Proceedings of CONFAB'17 Conference (2017, September 11)

The local buckling capacity of fire exposed thin-walled steel cross sections is affected by the reduction in strength and stiffness due to elevated temperatures and the amplitude of the initial local ... [more ▼]

The local buckling capacity of fire exposed thin-walled steel cross sections is affected by the reduction in strength and stiffness due to elevated temperatures and the amplitude of the initial local imperfections. Several researchers have proposed design methods to calculate the capacity of the plates (i.e. web and flanges) that compose these steel members at elevated temperatures, but they used different shapes of steel plates (sides ratio a/b) and different amplitudes of local imperfections. This variability in hypotheses happens because there is no clear provision defining the numerical modeling procedure for fire design of steel plates in the codes (European or US). According to the theory of perfect plates, the critical load depends of the shape of the rectangular plate (e.g. the sides ratio a/b) and the corresponding buckling mode (number of half waves), the boundary and the loading conditions. This paper reviews the existing code provisions and compares the existing design models and their assumptions for thin-walled steel cross sections. Elements of the theory of perfect plates are presented. Parametric finite element analyses are then conducted on isolated steel plates at elevated temperatures to investigate the effect of the plate shape (a/b ratio) and imperfections (amplitude and number of half wave lengths). From the analysis, the governing parameter will be estimated (a/b vs imperfections) for simulation of isolated flanges and webs. Finally, recommendations for the numerical modeling of steel plates at elevated temperatures are proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailContent Working Group Report 2016-2017
Renaville, François ULiege; Varjabedian, Kathy

Conference (2017, September 11)

Report on the activities in 2016-2017 of the Content Working Group (previously Knowledge Base Advisory Board [KBAB]).

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (11 ULiège)
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See detailWho are “the people” in populist rhetoric? The case of the “Front National” (FN) and the “Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs” (FPÖ)
Debras, François ULiege

Conference (2017, September 09)

In recent years, the “Front National” (FN) in France has claimed to be the “defender of the people” and “guarantor of their interests”. In 2017, the campaign slogan of Marine Le Pen, party leader and ... [more ▼]

In recent years, the “Front National” (FN) in France has claimed to be the “defender of the people” and “guarantor of their interests”. In 2017, the campaign slogan of Marine Le Pen, party leader and candidate in the presidential election, was “in the name of the people”. In Austria, the “Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs” (FPÖ) stood as the “voice of the oppressed majority”. The party is demanding “a direct democracy in order to let the people speak”. These elements lead us to question the notion of “the people”. How should we define “the people”? What reality does it refer to? What are the underlying political and ideological issues? Firstly, to answer this question, I aim to clarify the term “the people” in populist rhetoric. The FN and the FPÖ are often described as “far-right parties”. However, many scholars also refer to them as “populist parties”. These terms clearly need explaining. Secondly, this work will analyse the political discourse of the FN and the FPÖ. The focus will be on the political programmes and oral communication coming from their principal representatives. This analysis is discursive. It isn’t an examination of the work performed by party supporters or members (parliamentary work, action in local authorities, etc.). Apparently, the rhetoric from both parties is structured around two dichotomies: 1) the removal of social boundaries in favour of a people/elite opposition; 2) the affirmation of cultural boundaries in favour of an opposition between natives to a country and foreigners. I will explain why these notions of social and cultural boundaries have a prominent place in rhetoric in line with populist theory. The desire to suppress social boundaries, allows us to identity a first issue: sovereignty. The affirmation of cultural boundaries illustrates a second issue: unity. Finally, a third issue is transmitted through the notion of sovereignty and unity: identity. To conclude, I will return to the classification of the “Front National” and the “Freiheitliche Partei Österreichs” as “right-wing-populist” parties. I will end by answering the question: “who are ‘the people’”? This will explain why populist rhetoric responds to a feeling of unease within society and, more generally, within Western democracies. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a web-based platform for plotting, visualizing and enriching diachronic semantic maps: With a case study on the Greek and Egyptian temporal semantic field
Georgakopoulos, Athanasios ULiege; Polis, Stéphane ULiege

Conference (2017, September 09)

Semantic maps aim at detecting cross-linguistic regularities and recurrent patterns in semantic structure (Haspelmath 2003). This method was initially applied to the grammatical domain, mostly in a ... [more ▼]

Semantic maps aim at detecting cross-linguistic regularities and recurrent patterns in semantic structure (Haspelmath 2003). This method was initially applied to the grammatical domain, mostly in a synchronic perspective (with some exceptions, see, e.g., van der Auwera & Plungian 1998). Recent research, however, has drawn attention to the lexical domain, showing that the model can also include lexical semantics (see, e.g., François 2008). Intimately related to the semantic map method has been the issue of finding appropriate ways of creating those maps and of capturing visually the semantic regularities. Up until recently, the maps were plotted and drawn manually. However, Regier et al. (2013) showed that a good approximation algorithm exists for inferring semantic maps based on polysemy data. Elaborating on their method, this paper aims to demonstrate that information about the directionality and the weight of the edges can be automatically added, thereby providing valuable information regarding the paths of semantic extensions and their frequency. In order to illustrate the method, we take the example of the semantic extension of time-related lexemes (e.g. TIME, HOUR, SEASON, DAY) in Ancient Greek (8th – 1st c. BC) and Ancient Egyptian – Coptic (26th c. BC – 10th c. AD). Both languages give access to significant diachronic material, allowing us to trace long term processes of semantic change. The results of our diachronic investigations are then checked against databases giving information on synchronic polysemies (e.g., List et al. 2014). In doing so, we also assess the adequacy of the use of polysemy as a tool to investigate semantic change. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring insulin resistance in migraine: a population-based study
Streel, Sylvie ULiege; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULiege; Schoenen, Jean ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 09)

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See detailInscription, iteration, transformation
De Winter, Mélanie ULiege; Slomian, Cynthia ULiege

Conference (2017, September 09)

In “Knowledge in policy”, Freeman and Sturdy propose a phenomenology with the aim of “knowing knowledge” (Freeman & Sturdy, 2014, p. 2). Knowledge can have different forms called “inscribed”, “embodied” ... [more ▼]

In “Knowledge in policy”, Freeman and Sturdy propose a phenomenology with the aim of “knowing knowledge” (Freeman & Sturdy, 2014, p. 2). Knowledge can have different forms called “inscribed”, “embodied” and “enacted”. This framework is presented as a way to categorize and describe the form, the circulation and the transformation of knowledge in policymaking. In this paper, we intend to focus on inscribed knowledge, and particularly on documents conceived as essential artefacts of public policies (Freeman & Maybin, 2011). Freeman and Sturdy defined inscribed knowledge as “written down in texts, or represented in pictures and diagrams; or it may be incorporated into instruments, tools and machines, among other things”(Freeman & Sturdy, 2014, p. 10). This form of knowledge is particularly “stable”, “easily reproducible” and “highly mobile” so “it can be communicated or made available to many different individuals separated in time and/or space”(Freeman & Sturdy, 2014, p. 10). This statement draws from works in sociology of science and technology. These works, especially Latour’s (1987) studies of the laboratory work and Law's (1986) analysis of control at distance particularly emphasize the power of inscriptions in constraining social action over time and space. Through the analysis of the implementation of two policy plans in the Belgian healthcare sector, we question and put the role of inscriptions in perspective with moments of enactment, by focusing on meetings. We intend to show that some documents are crucial at particular moments and lose value at other moments. In the same vein, we also aim to show the importance of iteration, moments, duration, and rhythms in public action. By doing so, we show how the public policy itself is transformed through time, documents and meetings. We address this issue by drawing on two PhD researches focusing on the devising and implementation of the policy plans mentioned above. By relying on interviews, observations and document analysis, we describe the policy strategies inscribed in documents as well as key moments of both documents’ trajectories. In so doing, we emphasise that documents and meetings articulate with each other in an iterative process that in turn transforms the public policies themselves. [less ▲]

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See detailRound table. Quaternary Prevention(P4) or first do not harm.
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege; Widmer, Daniel; La Valle, Ricardo et al

Conference (2017, September 09)

Quaternary prevention (P4), born from a reflection on the doctor-patient relationship, began as an answer of family doctors facing overmedicalization. It aims to protect the patient or population against ... [more ▼]

Quaternary prevention (P4), born from a reflection on the doctor-patient relationship, began as an answer of family doctors facing overmedicalization. It aims to protect the patient or population against the danger of medicine. Harmful effects can appear with preventive activities (example: prostate cancer screening by PSA) as well as by therapeutic interventions (example: disruptive medicine). P4 promoted by the World Organization of Family Doctors (WONCA) is practiced in different ways around the world through the activity of the WONCA Special Interest Group on Quaternary Prevention and Overmedicalisation (P4&O). There are multiple initiatives and backgrounds of P4. All these multiple initiatives that lead to P4 have their origin in denouncing the inadequacies of the Hegemonic Medical Model and the excesses perpetrated in the pursuit of profit. There are many schools of thought that try to solve this situation, such as "Medicines Based on ..." These contributions are valuable but usually point to a single dimension of the problem so they do not change the situation too much. The P4, however, have understood the centrality of the political and economic dimensions and, that is why, P4 has become a movement. P4 has understood that the root causes far exceed the limits of medicine, have understood that the problem includes ethical, political, economic and epistemological aspects of medicine. It is for this reason that the definition of P4 has shifted to the function of foundational idea since the movement that has been generated around this concept has surpassed this initial definition centered in a, yet complex, but still medical vision. P4 has understood that a new model of medicine and a new pact with society is necessary. P4 is a counter-hegemonic movement with predominant development in peripheral countries. This movement includes many other perspectives developed in the central countries but is the only one that has an ideological position that discusses the current paradigm of medicine that legitimates the same causes that give rise to P4, proposing to think a new way of practice the medicine that includes Ethical values, other forms of knowledge and the return to human medicine for humans with place for uncertainty, compassion, the encounter between people and non-commodified. Justice in health care is a central aspect of this new way of conceiving the medicine that we propose. Remember what Rudolf Virchow said in the nineteenth century "Physicians are the natural advocates of the poor and social problems fall largely under their jurisdiction. Medicine is a social science, and politics is nothing more than medicine in large scale". We must reformulate our contract with society and for this we must be very clear that our loyalty must always be with the sick, the poor and those who are weak. For this new contract we must also take into account the magnitude of the power that has been given to us and to live up to such responsibility. In the Rio manifesto (2016) we propose to “Avoid and denounce the naturalization of: hunger, exclusion, manipulation, inequality, violence, racism, exploitation, which harm health more than "diseases"” . There is a better and fairer world, let's fight to get it! More about P4 on www.ph3c.org/p4 [less ▲]

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See detailUsing IPCAPS to identify fine-scale population structure
Chaichoompu, Kridsadakorn ULiege; Fentaw Abegaz, Yazew ULiege; Tongsima, Sissades et al

Poster (2017, September 09)

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See detailA method for hybrid fire testing: Development, implementation and numerical application
Sauca, Ana ULiege; Mergny, Elke ULiege; Gernay, Thomas ULiege et al

in Gillie, Martin; Wang, Yong (Eds.) Proceedings of ASFE 2017 Conference (2017, September 08)

Hybrid Fire Testing (HFT) is a technique that allows assessing experimentally the fire performance of a structural element under real boundary conditions that capture the effect of the surrounding ... [more ▼]

Hybrid Fire Testing (HFT) is a technique that allows assessing experimentally the fire performance of a structural element under real boundary conditions that capture the effect of the surrounding structure. To enable HFT, there is a need for a method that is unconditionally stable, ensures equilibrium and compatibility at the interface and captures the global behaviour of the analysed structure. A few attempts at conducting HFT have been described in the literature, but it can be shown, based on the analytical study of a simple one degree-of-freedom elastic system, that the considered method was fundamentally unstable in certain configurations which depend on the relative stiffness between the two substructures, but which cannot be easily predicted in advance. In this paper, a new method is introduced to overcome the stability problem and it is shown through analytical developments and applicative examples that the stability of the new method does not depend on the stiffness ratio between the two substructures. The new method is applied in a virtual hybrid test on a 2D reinforced concrete beam part of a moment resisting frame, showing that stability, equilibrium and compatibility are ensured on the considered multiple degree-of-freedom system. Besides, the virtual HFT succeeds in reproducing the global behaviour of the analysed structure. The method development and implementation in a virtual (numerical) setting is described, the next step being its implementation in a real (laboratory) hybrid test. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative fire analysis of steel-concrete composite buildings designed following performance-based and U.S. prescriptive approaches
Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Fang, Chenyang; Gernay, Thomas ULiege

in Gillie, Martin; Wang, Yong (Eds.) Proceedings of ASFE 2017 Conference (2017, September 08)

Performance-based structural fire design provides a rational methodology for designing modern buildings with cost-effective solutions. However, in the United States, fire design still largely relies on ... [more ▼]

Performance-based structural fire design provides a rational methodology for designing modern buildings with cost-effective solutions. However, in the United States, fire design still largely relies on design at the component level using prescriptive approaches. With performance-based approaches, there is an opportunity to benefit from increased flexibility and reduced cost in the design, but these advantages need to be explicitly described and disseminated to promote this shift in paradigm. In this paper, a comparative analysis is conducted on multi-story steel-concrete buildings designed following performance-based and U.S. prescriptive approaches. The steel-concrete composite structure allows taking advantage of tensile membrane action in the slab during fire, and therefore removing the fire protection on secondary beam elements. The nonlinear finite element software SAFIR is used to model the behavior of the buildings under the standard ASTM fire and a natural fire determined using the two-zone fire model CFAST. The numerical simulations show that performance-based design can be used to achieve the required level of safety currently enforced in the U.S. prescriptive guidelines, while providing an opportunity for cost reduction in fire protection material. [less ▲]

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See detailThe γ Dor stars as revealed by Kepler: A key to reveal deep-layer rotation in A and F stars
Salmon, Sébastien ULiege; Ouazzani, R.-M.; Antoci, V. et al

in EPJ Web of Conferences (2017, September 08), 152

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See detailCreativity and Innovation
Artige, Lionel ULiege

Conference (2017, September 08)

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See detailEffect of upgrading concrete strength class on fire performance of reinforced concrete columns
Gernay, Thomas ULiege; Peric, Vlado; Mihaylov, Boyan ULiege et al

in Gillie, Martin; Wang, Yong (Eds.) Proceedings of ASFE 2017 Conference (2017, September 07)

High strength concrete (HSC) provides several advantages over normal strength concrete (NSC) and is being used in multi-story buildings for reducing the dimensions of the columns sections and increasing ... [more ▼]

High strength concrete (HSC) provides several advantages over normal strength concrete (NSC) and is being used in multi-story buildings for reducing the dimensions of the columns sections and increasing the net marketable area. However, upgrading of concrete strength class in a building may affect the fire performance, due to higher rates of strength loss with temperature and higher susceptibility to spalling of HSC compared with NSC. Reduction of columns sections also leads to increased member slenderness and faster temperature increase in the section core. These detrimental effects are well known, but their impact on fire performance of structures has not been established in terms of comparative advantage between NSC and HSC. In other words, it is not clear whether the consideration of fire resistance limits the opportunities for use of HSC for reducing the dimensions of columns sections in multi-story buildings. This research aims to address this question by comparing the fire behaviour of reinforced concrete columns made of NSC and HSC using nonlinear finite element modelling. The evolution of load bearing capacity of the columns is established as a function of the fire exposure duration. A 15-story car park structure is adopted as a case study with alternative designs for the columns based on strength classes ranging from C30 to C90. Results show that, although the replacement of NSC by HSC accelerates the reduction rate of columns capacity under fire, the columns generally have significant reserves in resistance leading to sufficient fire resistance. This study gives an insight into the impact of replacing stocky sections in NSC by more slender sections in HSC on fire resistance rating for multi-story structures. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of elevated temperature load carrying capacity of thin-walled steel members to local imperfections
Maraveas, Chrysanthos ULiege; Gernay, Thomas ULiege; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Gillie, Martin; Wang, Yong (Eds.) Proceedings of ASFE 2017 Conference (2017, September 07)

The local buckling capacity of fire exposed thin-walled steel cross sections is affected by the reduction in strength and stiffness due to elevated temperatures and by the amplitude of the initial local ... [more ▼]

The local buckling capacity of fire exposed thin-walled steel cross sections is affected by the reduction in strength and stiffness due to elevated temperatures and by the amplitude of the initial local imperfections. Several researchers have proposed design methods to calculate the capacity of these steel members at elevated temperatures, but they used different methodologies and different amplitude of local imperfections in the extensive numerical analyses that are typically at the base of these methods. This variability in hypotheses happens because there is no clear provision defining the local imperfection amplitude for fire design in the codes (European or US). EN 1993-1-5 proposes amplitude values of local imperfections for ambient temperature design, while EN 1090-2 defines a -different- maximum allowed size of fabrication tolerance during production. Meanwhile, other sizes of local imperfections have also been proposed in the literature, with values different than those from EN 1993-1-5 and EN 1090-2. This paper reviews the existing code provisions and compares the existing design models and their assumptions for thin-walled steel cross sections. Finite element analyses are then conducted on isolated steel plates at elevated temperatures to investigate the effect of local imperfections. Finally, specific amplitude of local imperfections is proposed for fire design of thin-walled steel members. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of hydroxyapatite synthesis via sol-gel process for bone reconstruction application
Tilkin, Rémi ULiege; Regibeau, Nicolas ULiege; Grandfils, Christian ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 07)

During the past few years, tissue engineering has become one of the most promising techniques to maintain, improve, or reconstruct human tissue, even complete human organs. This solution is frequently ... [more ▼]

During the past few years, tissue engineering has become one of the most promising techniques to maintain, improve, or reconstruct human tissue, even complete human organs. This solution is frequently based on the realization of temporary porous matrices, also called "scaffolds". Scaffolds are highly porous matrices notably designed to structure the development of cells, but also to guarantee the function of the implant during the regeneration process. Several materials have been proposed for the conception of scaffold. These have to meet strict criteria regarding biocompatibility, degradability, mechanical and surface properties. As a result of their biomimetism, bioceramics, like hydroxyapatite (Ca5(PO4)3(OH)), have been widely developed during the past few years for bone reconstruction. The aim of this study is the optimization of the synthesis of hydroxyapatite by sol-gel process to be used in the conception of scaffold for bone reconstruction application. In this optic, powder obtained from two synthesis processes (wet precipitation and sol-gel process) were compared with commercial hydroxyapatite. For wet precipitation process, calcium nitrate and phosphoric acid were used as reagent. For sol-gel process, calcium acetate was used as the source of calcium and triethylphosphate as the source of phosphate. Reagents were mixed and the solution was aged. The powder was then dried and sintered. Finally, particles were washed in HCl to remove CaO and then dried. Those new materials were characterized, particularly in terms of chemical composition (XRD, FTIR), crystallinity (XRD), morphology (SEM, TEM), size (TEM, DLS) and Ca/P ratio (EDX). [less ▲]

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See detailCatalytic reforming of biomass gasification tars with bimetallic catalysts
Wolfs, Cédric ULiege; Claude, Vincent; Lambert, Stéphanie ULiege

Poster (2017, September 07)

The thermochemical method called “biomass gasification” is generating emphatic interest for the production of bio-Syngas (CO+H2) since this process presents the advantage of being renewable without ... [more ▼]

The thermochemical method called “biomass gasification” is generating emphatic interest for the production of bio-Syngas (CO+H2) since this process presents the advantage of being renewable without emitting CO2. However, in practical applications, there are still some technical problems due to high concentration of tars in the outlet gas, which can condensate and clog the pipes. Previous studies have highlighted the fact that the tar elimination via catalytic reforming seem to be the more practical and economical solution. Reforming catalysts present the following properties : a tailored mesoporous texture for the support and the high dispersion of active sites like metallic nanoparticles (Ni, Pd, Fe,…) [1]. In this work, Ni based alumina catalysts and doped with a second metal (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo) are synthesized by an aqueous sol-gel process. [less ▲]

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See detailLaterality patterns for Gestalts of language
Dumitru, Magdalena ULiege; Van Calster, Laurens ULiege; Bouffier, Marion ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 07)

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See detailAdvanced oxidative treatment for waste water contamined by pharmaceutical products
Belet, Artium ULiege; Vreuls, Christelle; Gillard, Nathalie et al

Poster (2017, September 07)

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See detailValidation of a TEOS based sol-gel coating for the protection of carbon fibres against oxidation regarding their use in metal matrix composites
Montrieux, Henri-Michel ULiege; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULiege; Halleux, Jacques et al

Poster (2017, September 07)

The use of sol-gel coating on graphite substrates has sucessfuly been done. In particular, in the field of metal matrix composites, some authors state that the use and cure of TEOS sol-gel on carbon based ... [more ▼]

The use of sol-gel coating on graphite substrates has sucessfuly been done. In particular, in the field of metal matrix composites, some authors state that the use and cure of TEOS sol-gel on carbon based fibres may improve the liquid magnesium infiltration. The described mechanism is the lowering of the liquid/solid contact angle under some specific conditions of time and temperature by the occurrence of a metal-oxide exothermal chemical reaction. Furthermore the application of silica based sol-gels on carbon fibres in order to control the medium to high temperature oxidation of fibres preforms is less investigated. The primary objective is to understand more deeply the oxidation of some uncoated fibres by the comparison of ESEM observations to TGA/ATD curves. The secondary objective is to formulate and coat a TEOS based sol-gel on T300 carbon fibres and to evaluate the new oxidation behaviour. The ternary objective is to measure in a simple way the gain of oxidation resistance of some coated fibres. [less ▲]

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See detailGoing Inside Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Polymers using Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry
Haler, Jean ULiege; de la Rosa, Victor R.; Far, Johann ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 06)

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See detailOptimization and machine learning for smart-microgrids
Cornélusse, Bertrand ULiege

Conference (2017, September 06)

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See detailUsing Geophysical Hard Data to Enhance the Reliability of Hydrological Models
De Schepper, Guillaume; Paulus, Claire; Molron, J. et al

in EarthDoc (2017, September 06)

Appropriate design of geophysical experiments combined with common hydrological measurements offer opportunities to use geophysical data as hard data in hydrological models, regarding their ... [more ▼]

Appropriate design of geophysical experiments combined with common hydrological measurements offer opportunities to use geophysical data as hard data in hydrological models, regarding their conceptualisation or their calibration. Two study sites located in Wallonia, Belgium, were investigated. In the first case (fractured limestone aquifer), streaming potentials were linked to piezometric measurements, allowing us to better conceptualise the local groundwater flow model and calibrate it. In the second example (alluvial sandy aquifer), the use of 4D electrical resistivity tomography and temperature measurements appeared to be a reliable methodology to predict heat storage and recovery cycles in hydrological models with a better constrained calibration process. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatio-temporal Monitoring of Heat Storage in a Shallow Aquifer Using Electrical Resistivity 4D Imagery and DTS
Lesparre, Nolwenn ULiege; Hermans, Thomas ULiege; Nguyen, Frédéric ULiege et al

in EarthDoc (2017, September 06)

The design of groundwater heat pumps requires a good understanding of the aquifer and heat flow conditions. Issues of short-circuit or recycling between cold and hot wells have to be carefully considered ... [more ▼]

The design of groundwater heat pumps requires a good understanding of the aquifer and heat flow conditions. Issues of short-circuit or recycling between cold and hot wells have to be carefully considered. Surface geophysical methods allow monitoring subsurface processes without additional perturbations of the medium. Within available methods, the electrical resistivity imagery (ERI) applied in time-lapse (TL) is appropriate. Here, we monitored with ERI and distributed temperature sensors (DTS) a heat plume propagation during an experiment of hot water injection in a shallow aquifer. DTS and TL ERI measurements acquired from two boreholes provide a local estimate of the heat propagation through the medium. TL ERI were also performed from a grid at surface to follow the 3D plume shape formation and evolution through time. The different complementary data validate the potential of surface TL ERI for monitoring in 3D the behavior of shallow heat plumes. ERI highlight the heterogeneity of the aquifer by distinguishing regions with higher or lower hydraulic conductivity. In the higher hydraulic conductivity zone, the heat might be evacuated through water flow, while in the lower hydraulic conductivity area heat storage is achievable. Thus, in that last region the plume temperature decreases progressively with time. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of Temperature with Time-lapse Electrical Resistivity Using the Prediction-focused Approach -A Field Case
Hermans, Thomas ULiege; Nguyen, Frédéric ULiege; Caers, Jef

in EarthDoc (2017, September 06)

Standard inversion of time-lapse geophysical suffers from spatially and temporally varying resolution due to the regularization procedure used during the inversion process. In this study, we apply the ... [more ▼]

Standard inversion of time-lapse geophysical suffers from spatially and temporally varying resolution due to the regularization procedure used during the inversion process. In this study, we apply the recently developed prediction-focused approach (PFA) to directly estimate temperature with electrical resistance data, without classic tomographic inversions. PFA is based on a set of prior subsurface models coherent with our prior knowledge of the site. From this set of models, we generate a prior set of temperature distribution and resistance data mimicking the field experiment. Then, we use dimension-reduction techniques to derive a direct relationship between the data and the desired prediction. The use of canonical correlation analysis linearize the relationship and allows using Gaussian regression to sample the posterior. In this paper, we demonstrate the ability of PFA to process time-lapse ERT data during a field experiment. We propose an analysis of time-lapse reciprocals to derive an error model and generate the posterior distribution of temperature. We validate the results using direct measurements in the aquifer. This successful application opens new ways to process and integrate geophysical data in hydrogeological model. [less ▲]

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See detailProtein-polysaccharide complexes, a tool for protein delivery in CaCO3 microparticles
Ramalapa, Bathabile ULiege; Crasson, Oscar ULiege; Vandevenne, Marylène ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 06)

INTRODUCTION The controlled delivery of proteins within calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles is currently widely investigated. The success of these carriers has been driven by the ionic interactions ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION The controlled delivery of proteins within calcium carbonate (CaCO3) particles is currently widely investigated. The success of these carriers has been driven by the ionic interactions between proteins and particles making the encapsulation of proteins highly dependent on the pH of reaction solutions and the isoelectric point of the protein.1 This poses a great limitation on the successful loading of proteins into microparticles. In this study, we explored the use of polysaccharide-protein interactions to strongly enhance the encapsulation of proteins in CaCO3 microparticles. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS Previously, Vandevenne and colleagues2 inserted a human chitin binding domain (ChBD) that has intrinsic affinity for hyaluronic acid (HA) into β-lactamase (BlaP). This generated chimeric protein, named BlaPChBD, was shown to be fully bifunctional. In this study this hybrid protein (BlapChBD) was associated to HA and successfully loaded into CaCO3 microparticles using super critical CO2 technology aided by the templating effect of HA on CaCO3. Furthermore, thrombin cleavage sites were engineered on both sides of the inserted ChBD in the chimeric BlaP so that release of the protein from the microparticles could be easily achieved by protease cleavage. The microparticles were characterised for size, surface charge, poly-morphism and protein loading and in-vitro release assays were performed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The presence of ChBD inserted into the β-lactamase increased the encapsulation of the protein by 6-fold when complexed with HA (Fig. 1). In addition, we also showed that the encapsulated BlaP remains stable during this process using kinetic reaction of β-lactam hydrolysis. Our data showed that vaterite CaCO3 microparticles of sizes ranging between 4 and 7 µm were produced. We were also able to demonstrate that thrombin cleavage increased the release of the protein from the microparticles within 36 hours from <25% to 87% (Fig. 2). In conclusion, the presence of ChBD successfully improved the encapsulation yield of the protein while retaining up to 81% of its activity. CONCLUSION Protein-polysaccharide complexation demonstrates an excellent approach for the delivery of sensitive biomacromolecules which can otherwise be complicated due to electrostatic hindrances. Future prospects include using the methods we have developed for encapsulation of therapeutic proteins and using calcium carbonate as a carrier and scaffold in bone regeneration for example. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of the electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12 spinel as negative electrodes for lithium-ion batteries prepared by sol gel and spray drying methods
Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULiege; Piffet, Caroline ULiege; Berardo, Loris ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 05)

Energy is considered as the lifeblood of modern society. Rechargeable batteries are the most promising to meet the human needs concerning the energy storage thanks their high energy density and high ... [more ▼]

Energy is considered as the lifeblood of modern society. Rechargeable batteries are the most promising to meet the human needs concerning the energy storage thanks their high energy density and high energy efficiency. Most difficult challenges of the development of promising rechargeable batteries concern the electrode materials. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) is one the most promising anode materials for Li-ion batteries, as it demonstrates very stable cycling stability and excellent safety. Its high operating potential (~1.5 V) allows to avoid the formation of SEI during the first cycle. The three-dimensional structure offers LTO excellent reversibility due to the near zero volume strain during the Li+ ion intercalation and deintercalation cycling. The main objective of this study on LTO samples was to evidence the effect of synthesis method and thermal conditions on their structural, morphological and electrochemical properties [1, 2]. The results demonstrate the strong influence of the synthesis route (Sol-Gel and spray-drying methods) and the thermal treatment on the capacity, cyclability and rate capability of the LTO spinel in Li-half-cell and Li-ion full-cell (see Figure 1). References [1] A. Mahmoud, J. M. Amarilla, K. Lasri, I. Saadoune, Electrochim. Acta 93 (2013) 163-172. [2] A. Mahmoud, J. M. Amarilla, I. Saadoune, Electrochim. Acta 163 (2015) 213-222. [less ▲]

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See detailOrdovician to Early Devonian from South America: a state of the art - review
Rubinstein, C.V.; Garcia Muro, V.J.; Gerrienne, Philippe ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September 05)

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See detailSurface solar radiation modelling over 1900-2014: comparison between the regional climate model MAR and reanalyses
Wyard, Coraline ULiege; Doutreloup, Sébastien ULiege; Belleflamme, Alexandre ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September 04)

Many studies show that the surface solar radiation has underwent large variations over the second half of the 20th century as a result of variations in cloud cover and aerosol loading in the atmosphere ... [more ▼]

Many studies show that the surface solar radiation has underwent large variations over the second half of the 20th century as a result of variations in cloud cover and aerosol loading in the atmosphere. However, it is difficult to build strong conclusions before the 1950s because of the observations scarcity. The evolution of the surface solar radiation has been reconstructed over 1900-2014 using the regional model MAR (« Modèle Atmosphérique Régional ») which has recently been chosen to be part of the EURO-CORDEX project, thanks to the CORDEX.be project. Simulations were performed at a horizontal resolution of 5 km over a domain of 600 x 550 km² covering Belgium. Boundary conditions were provided by four reanalysis products: ERA-interim (1979-2014) completed by the ERA40 (1958-1978), NCEP/NCAR-v1 (1948-2014), ERA-20C (1900-2010) and 20CRV2C (1900-2010). Surface solar radiation measurements from the Global Energy Balance Archive and cloud cover observations from Belgocontrol covering 1966-2007 were used for the evaluation of the MAR model and the forcing reanalyses. Results show that MAR produces much better results than the reanalyses. The driving reanalyses can generate divergent trends while they assimilate observations and are supposed to represent the same climate. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial hybridization and its implications on housing in Brussels and Amsterdam
Uyttebrouck, Constance ULiege; Teller, Jacques ULiege

Conference (2017, September 04)

This paper aims to address the effects of labour market mutations on housing through an analysis of “spatial hybridization”, focusing on the qualitative comparison of Brussels and Amsterdam. The objective ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to address the effects of labour market mutations on housing through an analysis of “spatial hybridization”, focusing on the qualitative comparison of Brussels and Amsterdam. The objective is to provide first elements of context, methodology and results of a wider on-going research. In the first section, we highlight underlying trends, in particular the emergence of NWoW in a context of new economy, and current issues on the housing market (flexibilisation, commodification, gentrification). Then, we discuss the relevance of applying path dependence in our research, before presenting our two case-study cities from a historical perspective and pointing out innovative practices and the current public discourse. Finally, we discuss differences and similarities through four elements of comparison: functional mix at the block level, service-oriented housing, economic and housing paths. The discussion is based on our literature review, early policy analysis and interviews with key-stakeholders. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical Mechanism of TiMnSn4 as Anode Material for Li-ion Batteries
Lippens, Pierre-Emmanuel; Jumas, Jean-claude; Olivier-Fourcade, Josette et al

Conference (2017, September 04)

Li-ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles or energy storage systems for intermittent energy sources, due to their high energy density, light weight and long cycle ... [more ▼]

Li-ion batteries are widely used in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles or energy storage systems for intermittent energy sources, due to their high energy density, light weight and long cycle life. However, the performances must be continuously improved, which requires the development of new electrode materials. Carbon is commercially used for the anode but its specific capacity is limited to 372 mAh g-1 due to the electrochemical insertion mechanism involving only 1 Li per 6 C. In order to increase the specific capacity, Sn was considered as electrochemically active element although it is about ten times heavier than C. This is due to the alloying/dealloying mechanism with up to 4.4 Li per Sn, providing a theoretical capacity of 992 mAh g-1. However, the Sn ↔ Li4.4Sn reversible transformations are associated with large volume variations responsible for capacity fading.Tin intermetallic compounds of the form MSnx, where M is a transition metal, were proposed to overcome this problem. The first lithiation transforms the pristine material into Li7Sn2/M nanocomposites where the M nanoparticles are expected to buffer the volume variations [1]. However, the delithiation process is more complex involving a possible back reaction of M with Sn, which could play a crucial role in the cycling stability. Such reaction was observed for Ni3Sn4 [2] and MnSn2 [3] but not for FeSn2 [4]. In addition, TiSnx intermetallics show very poor electrochemical activity [5]. The present work concerns the tin based ternary phase TiMnSn4 as new anode material for Li-ion batteries. This compound is of particular interest because it contains two different transition metals that are expected to react differently with Sn during delithiation, if we consider the previous results obtained for MnSnx and TiSnx. TiMnSn4 was obtained by mechanosynthesis to optimize the microstructure and characterized by different experimental tools and DFT (density functional theory) calculations. We propose an analysis of the reaction mechanism based on operando X-ray diffraction and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy combined with a DFT interpretation of the electrochemical potential curve. References 1) M. Chamas, M.T. Sougrati, C. Reibel, P.E. Lippens, Chem. Mater. 25, 2410 (2013). 2) K.K.D. Ehinon, S. Naille, R. Dedryvère, P.E. Lippens, J.C. Jumas, D. Gonbeau, Chem. Mater. 20, 5388 (2008). 3) A. Mahmoud, M. Chamas, J.C. Jumas, B. Philippe, R. Dedryvère, D. Gonbeau, I. Saadoune, P.E. Lippens, J. Power Sources 244, 246 (2013). 4) M. Chamas, P.E. Lippens, J.C. Jumas, K. Boukerma, R. Dedryvère, D. Gonbeau, J. Hassoun, S. Panero, B. Scrosati, J. Power Sources 196, 7011 (2011). 5) A. Ladam, L. Aldon, P.E. Lippens, J. Olivier-Fourcade, J.C. Jumas, C. Cenac-Morthe, Hyperfine Interact. 237, 51 (2016). [less ▲]

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See detailIntrasite spatial analysis based in a Geographic Information System and apply to extensive Middle Palaeolithic open-air sites in northern France. The example of Caours (Somme, France).
Moreau, Gwénaëlle ULiege; Locht, Jean-Luc; Auguste, Patrick

Conference (2017, September 02)

During middle Palaeolithic, northern France was occupied only by Neanderthals groups. However, the succession of glacial and interglacial periods explain a complex and discontinuous settlement, which ... [more ▼]

During middle Palaeolithic, northern France was occupied only by Neanderthals groups. However, the succession of glacial and interglacial periods explain a complex and discontinuous settlement, which involved complication in the study of the population dynamics at regional scale. Thereby, some aspects of Neanderthals behaviour are still obscure: in many cases, the sites function have to be precise. The intrasite spatial analysis will help us to answer those questions through the description of human activity areas and their interactions. However, for Middle Palaeolithic sites, we can’t see systematically on the field the spatial organisation directly, we sometimes need modelization. Therefore, we started to build a spatial analysis protocol based on a Geographic Information System and rely on sites of Caours and Beauvais (France). They are two open air sites that are exceptionally well preserved and displaying a large amount of faunal and lithic rests. Our protocol’s aim is showing the existence of a spatial organisation in form of artefacts concentration area. We first hypothesize with mesh analysis – or density, widely used in archaeology. Nevertheless, this method is limited by subjective choices like that of the mesh analysis. For that reason, we decided to use another methodology based on artefacts density but also on the distance between each other: The Kernel Density Estimation. Then, we will specified the function of this areas in a life space and their interactions through the spatial distribution of different lithic artefacts and faunal remains. [less ▲]

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See detailMunicipalities’ understanding and importance of the concept of Smart Cities: an exploratory analysis in Belgium
Desdemoustier, Jonathan ULiege; Crutzen, Nathalie ULiege; Giffinger, Rudolf

Conference (2017, September 01)

Even if an increasing number of scientific publications are dealing with it, the concept of “smart city” is not yet well defined and it is not fully understood (Anthopoulos and Vakali 2012; Caragliu,Bo ... [more ▼]

Even if an increasing number of scientific publications are dealing with it, the concept of “smart city” is not yet well defined and it is not fully understood (Anthopoulos and Vakali 2012; Caragliu,Bo, and Nijkamp 2009; Lazaroiu and Roscia 2012). Due to the lack of a proper conceptualization, defined method or credentials for smart cities (Angelidou 2015; Nam and Pardo 2011), cities across the geographical spectrum claim themselves 'smart' with self-congratulatory note (Hollands 2008). Despite this increasing popularity of smart cities, there are few critical discourse and rigorous analytical or statistical analyses of the concept and its application on urban territories (Caragliu, Bo, and Nijkamp 2009; R G Hollands 2015; Kitchin 2015; Vanolo 2014). This paper aims at understanding where Belgian municipalities stand in the field of smart city in 2016. How Belgian municipalities approach the phenomenon smart city? Which focus in smart city -sustainable, technologic, creative and human-do attract Belgian municipalities? The paper answers to these questions thanks to a comprehensive territorial analysis of the country, a presentation of current trends on smart cities in the three Belgian regions, and the construction of a typology of municipalities’ understandings of the phenomenon. It also analyses how these understandings impact priorities and smart city developments of Belgian municipalities. It investigates how they affect municipal priorities in the six dimensions of the smart city and their state of development in some key smart city fields. Finally, it examines how do this typology is related to the municipal perception of difficulty to set up smart city projects and the relevance of the concept for their territories. The data used comes from the results of a quantitative research amongst Belgian municipalities carried out in 2016 by the Smart City Institute. The research points out key statistical observations around the smart city phenomenon in Belgium. A typology with four different understandings (technological, holistic, specialized and inexistent) emerged from the analyses. [less ▲]

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See detailA bottom-up approach to the analysis of deliberate metaphors in Belgian political discourse
Heyvaert, Pauline ULiege

Conference (2017, September 01)

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See detailA First Look at the Prevalence and Persistence of Middleboxes in the Wild
Edeline, Korian ULiege; Donnet, Benoît ULiege

in International Teletraffic Congress (2017, September)

Recent years have seen an uprise in the development of middleboxes functionalities (CGNATs, proxies, accelerators, etc), participating so in the ossification of the Internet. In parallel, various ... [more ▼]

Recent years have seen an uprise in the development of middleboxes functionalities (CGNATs, proxies, accelerators, etc), participating so in the ossification of the Internet. In parallel, various solutions have been developed to detect or circumvent unwanted middleboxes interferences such as UDP-based middlebox-proof transports (Google's QUIC, PLUS), middlebox-proof extensions to TCP (HICCUPS, TCPcrypt), and middlebox traversal mechanisms (STUN, ICE, PLUS). All those solutions make the assumption of ubiquitous middleboxes. However, a view of their actual deployment in the wild, in IPv4 wired networks, is missing. In particular, knowing how autonomous systems (ASes) deploy middleboxes in terms of prevalence and persistence would provide additional relevant information to Internet topology models. In this paper, we aim at filling this gap. Based on a large-scale measurement campaign, we highlight different characteristics of middlebox deployment within ASes to elicit middleboxes profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailCould indolic glucosinolates root profiling be correlated to Brassica napus L. cadmium stress tolerance?
Durenne, Bastien ULiege; Blondel, Alodie; Druart, Philippe et al

Poster (2017, September)

Glucosinolates profiling among Brassicaceae and Brassica napus L. especially is largely studied regarding biotic stress. Nevertheless literature review could lead to suppose that theses secondary ... [more ▼]

Glucosinolates profiling among Brassicaceae and Brassica napus L. especially is largely studied regarding biotic stress. Nevertheless literature review could lead to suppose that theses secondary metabolites hugely produced within Brassicaceae family can interact in regards to cadmium stress as well. Sulfate primary metabolism plays an important role to Brassica napus L. cadmium stress tolerance and glucosinolates could serve as sulfate pool under such stress conditions. We describe here an in vitro experiment performed under sterile and controlled conditions showing the relationship between Brassica napus L. var. Es Astrid tolerance to a low concentration of cadmium and a decrease of a major indolic glucosinolates produced by the roots of this variety. Phenotyping results obtained from these cadmium stress conditions confirm also that Brassica napus L. remains a highly cadmium tolerant species probably due to glucosinolates root metabolism particularly. [less ▲]

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See detailSemantic Background Subtraction
Braham, Marc ULiege; Pierard, Sébastien ULiege; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULiege

in IEEE International Conference on Image Processing (ICIP), Beijing 17-20 September 2017 (2017, September)

We introduce the notion of semantic background subtraction, a novel framework for motion detection in video sequences. The key innovation consists to leverage object-level semantics to address the variety ... [more ▼]

We introduce the notion of semantic background subtraction, a novel framework for motion detection in video sequences. The key innovation consists to leverage object-level semantics to address the variety of challenging scenarios for background subtraction. Our framework combines the information of a semantic segmentation algorithm, expressed by a probability for each pixel, with the output of any background subtraction algorithm to reduce false positive detections produced by illumination changes, dynamic backgrounds, strong shadows, and ghosts. In addition, it maintains a fully semantic background model to improve the detection of camouflaged foreground objects. Experiments led on the CDNet dataset show that we managed to improve, significantly, almost all background subtraction algorithms of the CDNet leaderboard, and reduce the mean overall error rate of all the 34 algorithms (resp. of the best 5 algorithms) by roughly 50% (resp. 20%). Note that a C++ implementation of the framework is available at http://www.telecom.ulg.ac.be/semantic. [less ▲]

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See detailPast mining areas as rural capital – Perspectives from Bucovina and Wallonia
Schmitz, Serge ULiege; Dubois, Charline ULiege; Vanderheyden, Vincent ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September)

In this paper, we consider old mining sites in two very different contexts, a post-socialist Carpathians area and a Western European area that knew precocious industrialisation. How these past mining ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we consider old mining sites in two very different contexts, a post-socialist Carpathians area and a Western European area that knew precocious industrialisation. How these past mining areas could develop and enhance rural development and heritage landscapes? [less ▲]

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See detailPRELIMINARY STUDY ON BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS UNDER IMPACT LOADING
D'Antimo, Marina ULiege; Latour, Massimo; Rizzano, Gianvittorio et al

in Proceedings CTA 2017 (2017, September)

Recent catastrophic events have pointed out the necessity of ensuring the integrity for structures under “exceptional” events. Since many years, the University of Liège is involved in different activities ... [more ▼]

Recent catastrophic events have pointed out the necessity of ensuring the integrity for structures under “exceptional” events. Since many years, the University of Liège is involved in different activities and projects mainly related to the robustness assessment of structures. The robustness of a structure is the capacity of the system to remain globally stable after events not directly ac- counted for in the design, like impact, fire or consequences of a human error, leading to a reason- able damage when compared to the original cause. Particular attention has been dedicated to the loss of column scenario with analytical and numerical investigations. As a contribution to differ- ent European projects (FREEDAM and ROBUSTIMPACT), experimental campaigns have been carried out or are currently undergoing, with the aim of understanding the behaviour of different joint typologies under impact loads. The experimental campaigns have the goal to underline the influence of the strain-rate of the joint components on the behaviour of the tested connections. In the present paper, an overview on the design criteria for the ongoing experimental campaign, on the preliminary results and findings is given and critically analysed. Particularly, an application in the field of the FREEDAM project is presented. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of beam-to-column joints on the robustness of earthquake-resistant moment-resistant frames
Francavilla, Antonella; Latour, Massimo; Rizzano, Gianvittorio et al

in Proceeding of Eurosteel 2017 conference (2017, September)

Robustness of Moment Resistant Frames (MRFs) designed according to current seismic codes and subjected to a loss-of-column scenario is strictly linked to the deformation capacity of beam-to-column ... [more ▼]

Robustness of Moment Resistant Frames (MRFs) designed according to current seismic codes and subjected to a loss-of-column scenario is strictly linked to the deformation capacity of beam-to-column connections, which are usually subjected to combined axial and bending loads. In the seismic design of steel frames, once avoided the yielding of columns, a global dissipative collapse mechanism has to be ensured by imposing the formation of plastic hinges at the ends of the beams or in the connections and guarantying, provided that the elements involved in plastic range have an adequate energy dissipation capacity. Within this framework, the aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of the response of the connections designed for seismic application on the global behaviour of MRFs under a loss-of-column scenario providing an accurate modelling of connections subjected to combined axial and bending loads. To this scope four different beam-to-column joints designed for seismic actions, previously tested under cyclic load history at the STRENGTH laboratory of Salerno University, have been modelled and introduced in a case-study structure, whose response has been assessed by means of push-down analyses. The performances of the analysed frames have been analysed and is compared using the Residual Reserve Strength Ratio (RRSR) index combined with the energy balance method. [less ▲]

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See detailA Techno-Functional Study of the Aterian Technocomplex at Ifri n'Ammar
Tomasso, Sonja ULiege; Rots, Veerle ULiege

Poster (2017, September)

The tanged tools of the Aterian technocomplex have generally formed the central point in debates on early indications of hafting (Clark, 1970). However, in order to obtain a true understanding of the ... [more ▼]

The tanged tools of the Aterian technocomplex have generally formed the central point in debates on early indications of hafting (Clark, 1970). However, in order to obtain a true understanding of the specificity of this technocomplex, it is essential to study entire assemblages and understand the characteristics of and the relation between the tanged and non-tanged tool component, both on a technological and on a functional level. Until today no functional studies were yet undertaken on complete Aterian tool assemblages. We present the results of the technological and use-wear analysis of the non-tanged tool component of the Aterian assemblage of Ifri n’Ammar (Morocco) and focus on aspects of tool use and hafting. The rock shelter of Ifri n’Ammar, located in the eastern Moroccan Rif, is known for its rich stratified lithic assemblages, dating to 83 ± 6 ka to 130 ± 8 ka for the upper levels and to 145 ± 9 to 171 ± 12 ka for the lower levels (Richter et al., 2010). In the framework of the recently published dating results of other maghrebian sites (Dörschner et al., 2016), Ifri n’Ammar takes an important position within discussions on the chronological attribution of the Aterian: a large time span extended from MIS 6 to MIS 3 [3]. The sequence has provided a large diversity of tool morphologies which offer the possibility to contribute to the discussion about use and hafting of tanged and non-tanged tools. Aside from the tanged tools and foliates, the material from comparable Aterian assemblages can be defined by the presence of side scrapers, end-scrapers, denticulates, such as blades, bladelets or Levallois cores (Bouzouggar and Barton, 2012). Despite the frequent presence of post-depositional surface alterations, reliable functional interpretations could be identified on a large number of tools. Previous studies had already confirmed that the tanged tools were used while hafted for hunting and animal processing activities (Tomasso and Rots, 2017). Also a variety of tasks and gestures could be identified on the non-tanged tools based on a combination of diagnostic macro- and microscopic wear traces. Interestingly, also the non-tanged tool component shows evidence of hafting, indicating the existence of a variety in hafting techniques. The integration of the functional results on the non-tanged and tanged tool component allows addressing questions on tool variability, diversity in tool morphology and site function. We argue that the results highlight the importance of the site for improving our understanding of the North African MSA. [less ▲]

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See detailBeam-to-column joints, column bases and joint components under impact loading
Demonceau, Jean-François ULiege; Vanvinckenroye, Hélène ULiege; D'Antimo, Marina ULiege et al

in Proceeding of Eurosteel 2017 conference (2017, September)

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorist attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. For more than 10 years, the ... [more ▼]

Recent events such as natural catastrophes or terrorist attacks have highlighted the necessity to ensure the structural integrity of buildings under exceptional events. For more than 10 years, the University of Liege is strongly involved in researches on the response of structures further to such exceptional events through participations to national or European research projects. In particular, the University of Liege has contributed very recently to a European research project entitled ROBUSTIMPACT investigating the behaviour of steel or steel-concrete composite building structures subjected to impact loading and proposing simplified procedures to predict the response of such structures under the considered scenario. As a contribution to this research project, an experimental test campaign was realised in Liège; the objective was to study the behaviour of beam-to-column joints, of column bases and of most of their constitutive components under impact loading and, in particular, to highlight the influence of the strain rate effects on the response of the studied joints and components. The proposed paper first describes the conducted test campaign with all the required details about the tested specimens and the testing setup; then the analysis of the so-obtained experimental results is presented. Finally authors’ views on how to account for the strain rate effects in analytical approaches for joint design is briefly expressed. [less ▲]

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See detailReliability of a standardized protocol for bedside quadriceps strength measurement in critically ill patients
ROUSSEAU, Anne-Françoise ULiege; Freycenon, Gaëlle ULiege; KELLENS, Isabelle ULiege et al

in Intensive Care Medicine Experimental (2017, September), 5(S2), 327

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See detailNumerical analysis of the fire resistance of high-strength steel circular columns
Tondini, Nicolas; Demonceau, Jean-François ULiege

in Proceeding of Eurosteel 2017 conference (2017, September)

High strength steels (HSS) have specific chemical compositions, which primarily depend on rolling tempering techniques, element thickness and the producer. Nonetheless, EN1993-1-12 related to HSS up to ... [more ▼]

High strength steels (HSS) have specific chemical compositions, which primarily depend on rolling tempering techniques, element thickness and the producer. Nonetheless, EN1993-1-12 related to HSS up to S700 grade does not provide any additional note on the design of steel structures subjected to fire and the designer is referred to EN1993-1-2 valid up to S460 grade. This paper presents the results of a numerical analysis on the behaviour at elevated temperature of Circular Hollow Sections (CHS) columns made of HSS. In details, three full-scale HSS CHS columns with average measured yield strength of 822 MPa and 3.15 m long were tested under the standard ISO fire with constant eccentric compression load. Two members were made of a cross section 323.9 mm x 10 mm and one of a cross section 355.6 mm x 12 mm. The constant applied loads during the tests were respectively equal to 10%, 14% and 19% of the axial capacity of the columns at ambient temperature. Then, a nonlinear thermomechanical finite element model made of solid elements was developed by means of ABAQUS. A fully-coupled analysis using Geometrically and Materially Nonlinear Imperfect Analysis (GMNIA) was employed meaning that the temperature field was determined together with the stress-displacement fields. The calibration of the numerical model was carried out against experimental data by exploiting the thermal and the mechanical properties of steel provided in EN1993-1-2. A sensitivity analysis was performed to highlight the main parameters that affect the simulation results, i.e. mesh size, residual stresses, geometrical imperfections etc. The calibration process showed a good agreement between the numerical results and the experimental outcomes both in terms of failure temperature and of failure mode. With the calibrated model, it was finally possible to perform a preliminary parametric analysis by varying the applied load and the column relative slenderness to assess the appropriateness of the buckling curve included in EN1993 -1-2 to predict the fire resistance of HSS CHS columns. [less ▲]

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See detailVINYLIC COPOLYMERS FOR PH-SENSITIVE LIPID NANOCAPSULES
Pautu, Vincent ULiege; Lepeltier, Elise; Debuigne, Antoine ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

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See detailA two-step methodology for human pose estimation increasing the accuracy and reducing the amount of learning samples dramatically
Azrour, Samir ULiege; Pierard, Sébastien ULiege; Geurts, Pierre ULiege et al

in Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (2017, September)

In this paper, we present a two-step methodology to improve existing human pose estimation methods from a single depth image. Instead of learning the direct mapping from the depth image to the 3D pose, we ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present a two-step methodology to improve existing human pose estimation methods from a single depth image. Instead of learning the direct mapping from the depth image to the 3D pose, we first estimate the orientation of the standing person seen by the camera and then use this information to dynamically select a pose estimation model suited for this particular orientation. We evaluated our method on a public dataset of realistic depth images with precise ground truth joints location. Our experiments show that our method decreases the error of a state-of-the-art pose estimation method by 30%, or reduces the size of the needed learning set by a factor larger than 10. [less ▲]

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See detailVisco-plastic Chaboche model for nickel-based alloys under anisothermal cyclic loading
Morch, Hélène ULiege; Duchene, Laurent ULiege; Habraken, Anne ULiege

in Proceedings of the XIV International Conference on Computational Plasticity (2017, September)

The mechanical behavior of visco-plastic materials such as nickel-based alloys is highly dependent on temperature. Some characteristics such as viscosity, hardening, static recovery, dynamic recovery have ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of visco-plastic materials such as nickel-based alloys is highly dependent on temperature. Some characteristics such as viscosity, hardening, static recovery, dynamic recovery have more or less influence on the overall behavior depending on the considered temperature. The unified constitutive model developed by Chaboche [1] is very efficient in representing this complexity as it is very adaptable and can contain many features. A basic Chaboche model contains a viscosity law and one or several hardening equations. Within these hardening equations, it is possible to add several features that will represent the complex behavior of the material. The aim of this study is to understand the role of the different parameters and the influence of the different features in an advanced Chaboche model adapted to cyclic anisothermal loading. This specific model was also developed in [2],[3]. However, part of this study is based on particular cases where different features of the model are analyzed [4]–[6]. [less ▲]

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See detailLes références à la maladie et à son traitement dans les archives de Zénon
Ricciardetto, Antonio ULiege

in Histoire des Sciences Médicales (2017, September), LI(2), 153-162

Amongst the 1837 papyri from the archive of Zenon, the private secretary to Apollonius, finance minister to Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC), about twenty private Greek letters refer to ailments ... [more ▼]

Amongst the 1837 papyri from the archive of Zenon, the private secretary to Apollonius, finance minister to Ptolemy II Philadelphus (285-246 BC), about twenty private Greek letters refer to ailments suffered either by the sender or the recipient of the letter, or by a third party. How do these letters, which were not written by medical professionals, designate and describe diseases, their evolution and their outcome? This paper attempts to answer this question, while highlighting the contribution of these documents to the history of health and illness in Ptolemaic Egypt. [less ▲]

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See detailPhoto-Ionization GCxGC-HRTOF/MS for Aviation Fuel Characterization
Giri, Anupam ULiege; Courtiade; Racaud et al

Conference (2017, September)

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See detailLocals in the Wasteland: The Non-Intended Side Effects of (In)Sensible Local Participatory Technology Development.
Parotte, Céline ULiege

Conference (2017, September)

Implementing high-level radioactive wastes programs on a territory remain a sensitive step for nuclear waste management organizations. At this stage, the preferred solution of radioactive wastes programs ... [more ▼]

Implementing high-level radioactive wastes programs on a territory remain a sensitive step for nuclear waste management organizations. At this stage, the preferred solution of radioactive wastes programs (geological disposal) and their technological developments become highly visible and this is why the new instruments and strategies such as participatory technology development (PDT) have been adopted to tackle the territorial development of geological disposal technology. Considering the coproduction between territory and program (Jasanoff 2004), this presentation focuses on two siting processes of radioactive wastes programs, in France and in Canada to analyze the influence of in(sensible) local participatory technology development strategy and the influence of invited critics (Wynne 2007) on the industrial project. Our results show that frameworks of the participatory technology development have been designed very differently (with or without publics). Consequently, two undesirable, mostly non-intended side effects of information local committees (non) integration have appeared. In France, a closed PDT transformed invited critics as non-invited one. In Canada, a weak engagement of publics has occurred with an opened PDT. In both case, new socio-technical adjustments have occurred in those programs. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to encourage conservators to produce knowledge. The CeROArt ‘lab’: Looking back at ten years of experience
Verbeeck, Muriel ULiege

in Bridgland, Janet (Ed.) Linking Past and Future (2017, September)

Knowledge transmission through a scientific publication is something that can be taught and learned. The CeROArt journal started a project that it has supported and developed over the past ten years to ... [more ▼]

Knowledge transmission through a scientific publication is something that can be taught and learned. The CeROArt journal started a project that it has supported and developed over the past ten years to provide educational support to first-time authors who have graduated in conservation, to encourage them to publish their work. This experience, conducted in Open Access with the support of several European training courses, highlights the skills acquired at the end of their studies in terms of scientific communication. It can also be used to consider several avenues for stimulating knowledge pro- duction outside the academic environment. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterotrophy compared to phototrophy for growth characteristics and pigment compositions in batch cultures of four green microalga
Le Thanh Tung, ULiege; Corato, Amélie ULiege; Gerards, Thomas ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

Growth curves of four species of green microalgae have been compared under photoautotrophy, heterotrophy and dim-light-assisted heterotrophy during batch cultivation in small-scale multicultivators ... [more ▼]

Growth curves of four species of green microalgae have been compared under photoautotrophy, heterotrophy and dim-light-assisted heterotrophy during batch cultivation in small-scale multicultivators equipped with automated optical density acquisition. The results showed that the most relevant biomass productivity parameter (based on Vmax) can be estimated after proper correction of growth curves. For photoautotrophic cultures, Vmax showed no clear relationship to µmax, the specific growth rate measured during exponential phase. Heterotrophic cultures, which are not limited by light penetration, can be characterized by their µmax values, which showed a broad range of values depending more on species than on carbon source (glucose or acetate). Weak light (defined as unable to sustain photoautotrohic growth) had only minor effects on heterotrophic growth in terms of biomass but, for some species, could be used to promote pigment accumulation up to levels comparable to those found under photoautotrophy, as revealed by HPLC analysis. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterisation of a secondary carotenoid producer microalga of the genus Coelastrella
Corato, Amélie ULiege; Franck, Fabrice ULiege; Jacques, Philippe ULiege

Poster (2017, September)

Some green microalgae synthesize secondary carotenoids as protecting agents under stress. These pigments have high value as feed supplement for aquaculture and as health products. The most promising ... [more ▼]

Some green microalgae synthesize secondary carotenoids as protecting agents under stress. These pigments have high value as feed supplement for aquaculture and as health products. The most promising pigment is astaxanthin, because of its antioxidant, antitumoral and anti-inflamatory properties. The most used natural source of this pigment is the microalga Haematococcus pluvialis. However this species grows slowly and lacks robustness for easy cultivation. Therefore, other species are investigated for astaxanthin production. Here, we identified a locally isolated strain as Coelastrella sp. that is a secondary carotenoid producer. [1] A known typical feature of this genus, that we could observed in the strain by scanning electron microcopy, is the presence of meridional ribs. [2] We analyzed the culture conditions and concluded that this strain grows both autotrophically and heterotrophically and is able of fast change in pigment composition under controlled stress conditions. Thanks to HPLC analyses, we determined that the strain accumulates a variety of secondary carotenoids, among which: astaxanthin, cantaxanthin and echinenone. Unidentified compounds will be further analyzed by mass spectrometry. [less ▲]

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See detailTraduction et validation du "Exercise-Induced Leg Pain Questionnaire" pour les patients francophones
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Hagelstein, Thibaut; Van Beveren, Julien et al

in 10ème Congrès Commun SFMES-SFTS (2017, September)

Contexte : L’EILP-G a été développé afin d’évaluer la sévérité des symptômes affectant la fonction physique et les capacités sportives chez des patients présentant des douleurs de jambe à l’effort. Le ... [more ▼]

Contexte : L’EILP-G a été développé afin d’évaluer la sévérité des symptômes affectant la fonction physique et les capacités sportives chez des patients présentant des douleurs de jambe à l’effort. Le questionnaire a déjà été traduit en anglais et en grec. Objectifs : Le but de cette étude est de traduire et de réaliser une adaptation interculturelle du questionnaire EILP-G en français ainsi que d’en évaluer ses propriétés psychométriques. Matériel et Méthode : Le processus de traduction et d’adaptation interculturelle de l’exercise-induced leg pain questionnaire for German-speaking patients (EILP-G) a été guidé par les recommandations internationales d’adaptation interculturelle de questionnaires mesurant l’état de santé. Six étapes ont été respectées : (1) traduction française initiale, (2) synthèse de traduction française, (3) traduction inverse allemande, (4) comité d’expert, (5) test de la version pré-finale, (6) approbation du comité d’expert. 84 sujets furent recrutés et répartis en 3 groupes afin de tester l’EILP-FR : un groupe de sujets pathologiques (n=28), des sportifs à risque de développer ce type de pathologie (n=28) et des étudiants en sciences de la motricité asymptomatiques (n=28). Tous les sujets (n=84) ont rempli le questionnaire français à deux reprises avec un intervalle de 7 à 10 jours, parallèlement au Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) afin de pouvoir évaluer la fiabilité et la validité de l’EILP-FR. Résultats : L’EILP-FR indique une fidélité test-retest très bonne concernant le score total (ICC 0,96). Il en va de même pour le score total de chaque sous-groupe (ICC 0,88-0,94) ainsi que pour chaque item (0,75-0,92). Le questionnaire français présente une cohérence interne élevée (0,93). La corrélation entre l’EILP-FR et le SF-36 est modérée pour le score total (0,51;p<0.001). Une corrélation forte se présente entre le questionnaire et une partie des sous-échelles convergentes du SF-36 (PF, RP et BP ; chaque p<0.001). Les sous-échelles divergentes évaluant les propriétés psychologiques du SF-36 présentent toutes une corrélation faible et statistiquement non-significatives (RE, SF, VT), excepté MH (p<0.05). Aucun effet plancher ou plafond n’a été détecté. Conclusion : La version française, adaptée de la version originale EILP-G, a été traduite et adaptée interculturellement avec succès. L’EILP-FR est un questionnaire fiable et valide pour évaluer les patients francophones souffrant de douleurs chroniques de jambe à l’effort. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptation interculturelle du questionnaire"Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale » pour les patients francophones
Buckinx, Fanny ULiege; Remy, Gaël; Bornheim, Stephen ULiege et al

in 10ème Congrès Commun SFMES-SFTS (2017, September)

Introduction : Le syndrome fémoro-patellaire est l'un des problèmes du genou les plus fréquemment rencontrés. Il se caractérise par une douleur antérieure du genou dans les activités mettant en charge l ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Le syndrome fémoro-patellaire est l'un des problèmes du genou les plus fréquemment rencontrés. Il se caractérise par une douleur antérieure du genou dans les activités mettant en charge l'articulation fémoro-patellaire. Le Kujala Anterior Knee Pain Scale (Kujala AKPS) est un questionnaire utilisé pour évaluer les symptômes subjectifs, telles que les limitations fonctionnelles et la douleur antérieure du genou. Le questionnaire a déjà été traduit et validé en turc, en portugais brésilien, en persan, en chinois, et en néerlandais. Le but de cette étude est de traduire ce questionnaire en français afin d'en évaluer sa fiabilité et sa validité. Matériel et méthode : La traduction et l’adaptation interculturelle du questionnaire ont été réalisées selon les recommandations internationales comprenant 6 étapes : traduction initiale, synthèse des traductions, traduction de retour vers la langue d’origine, comité d'experts, test de la version pré-finale et approbation du comité d'experts. Une fois la version française obtenue, les participants (n=101) ont rempli 2 fois le Kujula AKPS à un intervalle de 7 jours, et le Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) afin d'en évaluer les propriétés psychométriques (la cohérence interne, la fidélité test-retest et la validité de construit). Résultats : Le Kujula AKPS montre une fidélité test-retest élevée pour le score total (ICC 0,97). La traduction française possède une cohérence interne élevée (0,87). Le Kujula AKPS possède une corrélation forte avec une partie des sous-échelles convergentes du SF-36 (PF, RP et BP). Il y a une corrélation faible ou modérée avec les sous-échelles divergentes du SF-36 (MH, SF et VT). Il n’y a pas d’effet plancher et plafond. Conclusion : La version française du questionnaire Kujula AKPS étant facilement compréhensible, elle semble avoir une bonne adaptation interculturelle. Cette étude a démontré que le Kujula AKPSF est fiable et valide pour les patients francophones souffrant d'un syndrome rotulien. [less ▲]

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See detailDietary inulin supplementation promotes weight loss in obese individuals
Hiel, Sophie; Rodriguez, Julie; Gianfrancesco, Marco ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULiège)
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See detailNew filamentous mutant of Yarrowia lipolytica and its use in biofilm bioreactors
Vandermies, Marie ULiege; Kar, Tambi ULiege; Denies, Olivia ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is widely investigated for its unusual metabolic properties. Among them is the ability of Y. lipolytica to adopt an ovoid or hyphal morphology according to ... [more ▼]

The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is widely investigated for its unusual metabolic properties. Among them is the ability of Y. lipolytica to adopt an ovoid or hyphal morphology according to environmental conditions. The mechanism of dimorphic transition involves numerous genes, which have been poorly documented to date. Here, we report on the isolation of a filamentous mutant from an insertion mutagenesis library, the subsequent identification of the mutated gene, and the use of this filamentous mutant in biofilm bioreactors. [less ▲]

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See detailSMART RIVERS 2017
Rigo, Philippe ULiege; MUSKATIROVIC, JASNA; JAIMURZINA, AZHAR et al

in SMART RIVERS 2017, Pittsburgh (PIANC) (2017, September)

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (4 ULiège)
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See detailSmallest salable patent practicing unit (SSPPU) and component licensing: Why $1 is not $1?
Gautier, Axel ULiege

Conference (2017, September)

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See detailTowards understanding the function of JOINTLESS gene in tomato inflorescence
Huerga Fernandez, Samuel ULiege; Gómez Roldán, Maria Victoria; Orman-Ligeza, Beata ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

The lack of fruit abscission is a trait of great agronomical value. In tomato, the jointless phenotype, referring to the lack of abscission zone (AZ) in the flower pedicel, has been obtained by two ... [more ▼]

The lack of fruit abscission is a trait of great agronomical value. In tomato, the jointless phenotype, referring to the lack of abscission zone (AZ) in the flower pedicel, has been obtained by two independent mutations, named jointless (j) and jointless-2 (j-2). The corresponding genes encode MADS-box transcription factors, as shown in 2000 for J (Mao et al. 2000) and very recently for J-2, known as SlMBP21 (Gomez-Roldan et al., 2017). Similar to the quartet model of MADS-box protein complexes regulating floral organ formation, J and J-2 interact with MADS-box partners, among which MACROCRALYX (MC), to regulate AZ formation (Liu et al. 2014). In addition to - or in connection with - AZ formation, J acts during the building of the inflorescence to regulate meristem fate. Indeed j mutants produce leafy inflorescences characterized by faster flower maturation and resumption of vegetative meristems (Périlleux et al. 2014). For these traits, j is epistatic to j-2. The involvement of J in the regulation of meristem fate is consistent with the roles of its closest homologs in Arabidopsis, AGAMOUS LIKE 24 (AGL24) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP). Our goal is to identify J targets in order to unravel its multiple functions in the tomato inflorescence. [less ▲]

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See detailLes modes d'acquisition et de transmission du savoir médical dans l'antiquité gréco-romaine
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULiege

in Histoire des Sciences Médicales (2017, September), 51(2), 163-173

This paper aims to define and describe the ways of acquiring and transmitting medical knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity through an analysis of literary, archaeological, and, primarily, papyrological ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to define and describe the ways of acquiring and transmitting medical knowledge in Greco-Roman Antiquity through an analysis of literary, archaeological, and, primarily, papyrological sources. The methods and practices revealed by these sources include experiment, analogy, and imitation, oral and written teaching, the composition and copying of books (illustrated or not), as well as the elaboration of commentaries, abridgments, questionnaires, and word lists. These modes of knowledge transfer were intended not only for medical practitioners and students, but also for philiatroi, for generally educated people, as well as for scribes, and eventually tachygraphers, of medical books. [less ▲]

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See detailUseful tools for genome editing in the non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
Vandermies, Marie ULiege; Denies, Olivia ULiege; Nicaud, Jean-Marc et al

Poster (2017, September)

The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is increasingly used for the production of recombinant proteins or biomolecules with biotechnological or pharmaceutical applications. The development of such ... [more ▼]

The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is increasingly used for the production of recombinant proteins or biomolecules with biotechnological or pharmaceutical applications. The development of such a cell factory requires steps of genome editing that rely on selectable markers. The recently identified EYK1, encoding erythrulose kinase, can serve as an efficient catabolic selectable marker for genome editing in Y. lipolytica. Besides, the cloning-free strategy developed here simplifies the construction of disruption cassettes for genome editing in Y. lipolytica. [less ▲]

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See detailTargeted mutagenesis of orphan GPCRs of the SREB family
Laschet, Céline ULiege; Dupuis, Nadine ULiege; Geubelle, Pierre ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

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See detailComparaison entre infiltrations de plasma riche en plaquettes et d’acide hyaluronique pour le traitement des tendinopathies patellaires
Kaux, Jean-François ULiege; Roberjot, Mathieu; Samson, Antoine

in 10ème Congrès Commun SFMES-SFTS (2017, September)

Introduction : Le traitement des tendinopathies patellaires reste difficile. C’est la raison pour laquelle de nouveaux traitements ont été développés, parmi lesquels les injections de plasma riche en ... [more ▼]

Introduction : Le traitement des tendinopathies patellaires reste difficile. C’est la raison pour laquelle de nouveaux traitements ont été développés, parmi lesquels les injections de plasma riche en plaquettes (PRP) ou d’acide hyaluronique (AH). Certaines séries cliniques ont précédemment évalué l’effet du PRP dans le traitement des tendinopathies patellaires proximales. Une revue systématique récente a conclu que les PRP pouvait être recommandé comme traitement dans cette indication. Récemment, l’AH en injection a été proposé comme traitement des tendinopathies. Certaines études fondamentales montrent des résultats encourageants sur la capacité de l’AH à promouvoir le glissement du tendon, de réduire les adhérences et améliorer son organisation architecturale. Quelques observations cliniques confirment également son impact sur la douleur et la fonction de patients avec tendinopathies. Méthodes : Trente-trois sportifs avec tendinopathies patellaires proximales non soulagés après plus de trois mois de traitements rééducatif classique ont été inclus dans l’étude. Dix-huit d'entre eux (groupe 1) ont reçu une injection de PRP pauvre en leucocytes (obtenu à l’aide d’un appareil d’aphérèse) et 15 autres sujets (groupe 2) ont bénéficié de 2 injections d’AH à 1 semaine d’intervalle; les 2 groupes ont bénéficié d’une rééducation standardisée post-infiltration. Concernant le suivi de la pathologie, une évaluation de la douleur par une échelle visuelle analogique (EVA), des scores algo-fonctionnels (IKDC, VISA-P), un algomètre de pression, un test isocinétique (associé à une EVA)) ainsi qu’une échographie du tendon patellaire (US) ont été réalisés à 3 reprises (avant injection, après 6 semaines, 3 mois après les injections). Résultats : Les résultats de l’EVA (p < 0,01), de l’algomètre de pression (p < 0,01), les scores IKDC (p < 0,01) et VISA-P (p < 0,01) montrent une amélioration significative dans les deux groupes, mais pas pour les résultats US. Pour le groupe 1, les tests isocinétiques montrent des résultats significatifs pour les ischio-jambiers à C60 °/ s, avec une amélioration de son couple de pointe maximale (p = 0, 01) pour le membre pathologique et une amélioration des différences bilatérales (p = 0,0002). Pour le groupe 2, l’amélioration du couple de pointe maximale du quadriceps à C240 ° /s est significative (p < 0,01) pour le genou pathologique après les injections après 6 semaines seulement. L’EVA associé aux tests isocinétiques diminue considérablement pour tous les modes de contraction au terme des trois mois d’études. Conclusions : Les infiltrations de PRP et d’HA peuvent toutes les 2 améliorer les symptômes de tendinopathie patellaire proximale, même si les résultats sont légèrement meilleurs au sein du groupe PRP. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiating pre- and post-grazing pasture heights using a 3D camera: a prospective approach
Andriamandroso, Andriamasinoro ULiege; Castro Muñoz, Eloy ULiege; Blaise, Yannick ULiege et al

in Berckmans, Daniel; Keita, Alassane (Eds.) Precision Livestock Farming ‘17 (2017, September)

Grasslands management involves the monitoring of both animal and plant components. Recent precision livestock farming developments have focused on high-rate monitoring of grazing animals to enhance ... [more ▼]

Grasslands management involves the monitoring of both animal and plant components. Recent precision livestock farming developments have focused on high-rate monitoring of grazing animals to enhance livestock productivity and welfare. The evolution of grass resource during the grazing process is not being overlooked by graziers and researchers, but grass characteristics, such as height, dry matter content, productivity or density, are still measured using low frequency and sometimes destructive and time-consuming methods; such as quadrat, sward-sticks, rising plate meters. This study investigated the potential of using 3D cameras to assess sward physical characteristics. Main objectives were: (1) to define the correct way to capture images, particularly the camera position above the ground and, (2) to assess if differences in sward height were detectable. Couples of images differing in grass height were captured on the same spot with a 3D camera at different above-ground heights (30, 40, 50 cm) on a ryegrass-white clover pasture. Pregrazing height was 15cm and post-grazing sward was simulated by cutting at 2 cm. Histograms of intensity performed on greyscale images showed differences between pre- and post-grazing sward. As expected, overall darker pixels were observed for pre-grazing images (p<0.01) and whiter pixels for post-grazing images (p<0.01), indicating longer distances consistent with lower forage biomass. Images taken at a distance of 30 and 40 cm could identify these differences. Further developments require improving the calibration of the camera and developing image analysis method to estimate more plant characteristics such as density or dry matter content. [less ▲]

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See detailDamage Detection in Structures Based on Principal Component Analysis of Forced Harmonic Responses
Golinval, Jean-Claude ULiege

in Procedia Engineering (2017, September)

An approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) is considered here to tackle the problem of structural damage detection. The key idea of PCA is to reduce a large number of measured data to a much ... [more ▼]

An approach based on principal component analysis (PCA) is considered here to tackle the problem of structural damage detection. The key idea of PCA is to reduce a large number of measured data to a much smaller number of uncorrelated variables while retaining as much as possible of the variation in the original data. PCA is applied here to the problem of damage detection in structures submitted to harmonic excitation. When processing vibration measurements, it can be shown that the basis of eigenvectors (called the proper orthogonal modes) span the same subspace as the mode-shape vectors of the monitored structure. Thus the damage detection problem may be solved using the concept of subspace angle between a reference subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of the initial (undamaged) structure and the subspace spanned by the eigenvectors of the current (possibly damaged) structure. The method is illustrated on the example of a real truss structure for damage detection and is combined to a model updating technique for damage localization. [less ▲]

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See detailFlowering roots: Insensitive Root Growth 1 contributes to photoperiod-induced root responses in Arabidopsis.
Orman-Ligeza, Beata ULiege; Detry, Nathalie ULiege; Tocquin, Pierre ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

The capacity to perceive and respond to seasonal changes of day length is essential for flowering plants. Under favourable photoperiod, a mobile stimulus synthesized in leaves moves to the shoot apex and ... [more ▼]

The capacity to perceive and respond to seasonal changes of day length is essential for flowering plants. Under favourable photoperiod, a mobile stimulus synthesized in leaves moves to the shoot apex and triggers the expression of genes required for the transition to flower initiation. Although transition from vegetative to reproductive state also encompasses a transcriptional response in roots, the internal signalling pathways and how root system architecture adjusts to this changing status remain elusive. Here we show in Arabidopsis that root growth rate increases upon a transfer to flowering-inductive long days while remaining constant under short days. To elucidate genetic components of this response, we performed a meta-analysis of available root-growth and flowering-related arrays and selected genes with overlapping transcriptional profiles for further analyses. Loss of function in a member of the basic leucine zipper transcription factor gene family, hereafter named Insensitive Root Growth-1 (IRG1), was found to suppress photoperiod-response of root growth with no defect in flowering time. We show that sucrose, but neither glucose nor mannitol in the growth medium under long days, is needed to trigger this response. In addition, extending the photoperiod with non-photosynthetic far red light had no effect on root growth of irg-1 mutant, alike wild type Col-0. The expression level of IRG1 in the roots remains low during the daytime and peaks late at night, suggesting that this gene is regulated by the clock’s evening loop. Taken together, our results suggest that IRG1 may be involved in sucrose-mediated stimulation of root growth during the night phase in Arabidopsis. The functional characterisation of IRG1 is currently underway. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of Paul Philippot on the theory and history of conservation/restoration
Stoner, Joyce; Verbeeck, Muriel ULiege

in Bridgland, Janet (Ed.) Linking Past and Future (2017, September)

Paul Philippot (1925–2016) was an influential conservation theoretician and author in addi- tion to serving as an important leader or col- laborator with major conservation institutions in Europe (ICR ... [more ▼]

Paul Philippot (1925–2016) was an influential conservation theoretician and author in addi- tion to serving as an important leader or col- laborator with major conservation institutions in Europe (ICR, ICCROM, IIC, UNESCO, ICOM, etc.). He was an art historian born into a Belgian fam- ily of conservator-restorers. The authors were privileged to interview him in 1997, 2009 and 2015. Verbeeck discusses Philippot’s relation to and reinterpretation of the philosophy of Cesare Brandi, his definition of restoration as both an intellectual judgment and a critical act, and his influence on the establishment of an interdis- ciplinary curriculum for pioneer training pro- grams. Stoner describes Philippot’s emphasis on the impact of language on communication of philosophical concepts in his 1997 interview in addition to key points in his publications once they were available in English, especially his de- scription of patina as the normal effect that time has on material and the search for equilibrium in cleaning paintings. [less ▲]

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See detailPromoting "health literacy friendly" healthcare institutions
Henrard, Gilles ULiege

Poster (2017, September)

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See detailAn active bacterial community linked to high chl-a concentrations in Antarctic winter-pack ice and evidence for the development of an anaerobic sea-ice bacterial community
Eronen-Rasimus; Luhtanen, A.-M.; Rintala, J.-M. et al

Poster (2017, September)

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See detailPedagogical and didactic adaptations of a mathematics course to a student-centred education in an architecture programme
Jancart, Sylvie ULiege; Seijkens, Nicolas ULiege; Silvestre, Aude ULiege

Conference (2017, September)

This presentation will focus on both didactic and pedagogical reflections teaching mathematics in architecture programme in order to support the experience and learning of first year students. Led in ... [more ▼]

This presentation will focus on both didactic and pedagogical reflections teaching mathematics in architecture programme in order to support the experience and learning of first year students. Led in order to promote the students’ intrinsic motivation (Deci & Ryan, 1985) and support our didactic reflections, an inventory of mathematical difficulties encountered by freshmen in their program has been established. This inventory also served the purpose of demystifying mathematics and valuing them through a place in a cursus more rooted in the profession (Wigfield and Eccles, 2000). Sorted according to the skills involved, the relevant difficulties pointed out by students were mostly found in two courses, topography and structure. Several examples will be presented demonstrating the lack of transfer between the disciplines, students studying formulas without understanding them. To counter this lack of transfer, pedagogical reflections about our current teaching were developed thanks to the Feedback First-Year Project (FFYP) developed in the University of Liège. In this context, three significant devices set up in mathematics were developed. The first one is an online-oriented prerequisite test implemented on our academic online platform. The second one is an intermediate test based on true/false quizzes and the third one a simulation of the real exam with peer interventions. According to Nicol’s recommendations (2009), each of these features is completed with specific feedbacks specially designed in order to impact several dimensions of their motivation. [less ▲]

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See detailTD-GCxGC-HRTOFMS in biological applications 
Focant, Jean-François ULiege; Pesesse, Romain ULiege; Dubois, Lena ULiege et al

Conference (2017, September)

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See detailSynthesis, characterization, and durability study of Pt-Co hollow nanoparticles deposited on carbon xerogel electrocatalysts for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)
Zubiaur, Anthony ULiege; Asset, Tristan ULiege; Olu, Pierre-Yves et al

Poster (2017, September)

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts are generally made of carbon black (CB)supported platinum-based nanoparticles. However, the properties of CBs, as described by RodríguezReinoso [1 ... [more ▼]

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) catalysts are generally made of carbon black (CB)supported platinum-based nanoparticles. However, the properties of CBs, as described by RodríguezReinoso [1], are not optimal for electrocatalysis. A possible solution to the drawbacks of CBs is the use of synthetic nanostructured materials with a controllable and reproducible texture and with a pure, known and constant chemical composition; carbon xerogels (CX) exhibit such properties [2]. Recently, various highly dispersed CX-supported Pt nanoparticles catalysts (Pt/CX) have been synthesized via several methods, such as the strong electrostatic adsorption (SEA) [3] or the charge-enhanced dry impregnation (CEDI) [4]. However, the decrease of the Pt mass contained in the PEMFC electrodes, in particular at the cathode where the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is processed, remains a major challenge. Improving the ORR mass activity is currently best achieved by alloying Pt with 3d-transition metal atoms such as cobalt (Co). These alloys perform better than the ORR because the substitution of some Pt atoms by 3d-metal atoms with smaller radius leads to a modified Pt electronic structure [5]. The synthesis and durability of Pt-Co hollow particles/CX (Fig. 1) is currently being studied in our groups. The results indicate that the specific and mass activity of the bimetallic hollow particles dispersed on CX is ca. 10 times higher than that of pure Pt/CB. The first durability results show good stability of the hollow particles structure. Performances and accelerated stress tests (ASTs) in PEMFCs were finally performed. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation and characterization of Silicon-carbon composite powders using recycled Silicon from solar cells as anode material in Li-ion batteries
Eshraghi, Nicolas ULiege; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULiege; Berardo, Loris ULiege et al

Poster (2017, September)

Currently, silicon (Si) coming from the recycling of solar cells is a non-valued fraction. The principal aim of this work is the development of silicon recovered during the dismantling of solar panels as ... [more ▼]

Currently, silicon (Si) coming from the recycling of solar cells is a non-valued fraction. The principal aim of this work is the development of silicon recovered during the dismantling of solar panels as electrode material for Li-ion batteries. The main technological challenge associated with the use of silicon in this type of application is to control the volume expansion during charge/discharge cycles. This drawback could be avoided through the formation of Silicon/carbon composites in which the size of the silicon particles and their dispersion must be controlled. In this research, we develop a carbon matrix consisting of graphene or carbon nanotubes (CNT) that allow the incorporation of silicon particles coated with a carbon layer (Si@C/C). The process is divided in two main steps : I) the grinding of leached Si wafer pieces in order to extract pure Si powder and then a mixed aqueous suspension of this recycled Si and an organic carbon source (Acetic acid, Ascorbic acid or Lactose) is spray-dried followed by heat treatment to generate the coating of silicon particles with carbon (Si@C). Then, II) aqueous suspension of Si@C and graphene/CNT is spray dried and calcined to obtain the final composite structure (Si@C/C). The morphology of composite materials is analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performance of Si@C/C composites are characterized by galvanostatic charge-discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). [less ▲]

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