References of "Scientific congresses and symposiums"
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See detailBRAIN-TRAINS: Integrating the LCA methodology in and interdisciplinary project
Merchan Arribas, Angel ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Life Cycle approaches (2016, November 09)

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, approaching this transport issue from an ... [more ▼]

BRAIN-TRAINS is a project supported by the Belgian Federal Government that deals with the possible development of rail freight intermodality in Belgium, approaching this transport issue from an interdisciplinary perspective. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used to analyse the sustainability impact of rail freight intermodality. The rail freight system has been divided in three sub-systems: rail transport operation, rail infrastructure and rail transport equipment (locomotives and wagons). First, a SWOT analysis of the intermodal rail freight transport has been performed to identify internal characteristics and possible external trends of the intermodal rail freight transport. The most important elements identified in the SWOT analysis have been selected through a Delphi-technique with the collaboration of a panel of expert. Thirdly, the selected elements have been translated into clear and measurable parameters, defining for every parameter an input value to quantify the scenarios. The parameters are measured in “tonne-kilometre”. Finally, three divergent Belgian scenarios with a time horizon set in 2030 have been built for further analysis. These scenarios are directly linked to the third strategic goal of the European Commission’s White Paper on transport (2011), which aims to shift the 30% of road freight over 300 km to other modes such as rail transport by 2030. As a result, a best, worst and medium case scenarios have been developed, depending on whether the 30% shift has been successfully accomplished, the status quo has been maintained or the goal has not been completely reached by 2030, respectively. The direct transport emissions and energy consumption during the rail transport activity have been determined using the LCA methodology. These LCA results have been used to improve the accuracy of existing commercial databases as Ecoinvent for the Belgian situation. [less ▲]

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See detailBulk high-temperature superconducting hollow cylinders used for magnetic shielding: effect of an initial trapped field on the shielding performances.
Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Hogan, Kevin ULg et al

Poster (2016, November 09)

Bulk High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) can be used as efficient passive magnetic shields with performances exceeding those of conventional ferromagnetic materials. The most common geometry for a ... [more ▼]

Bulk High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) can be used as efficient passive magnetic shields with performances exceeding those of conventional ferromagnetic materials. The most common geometry for a superconducting shield is a bulk hollow cylinder. In this work, we investigate the magnetic shielding properties when the tube is not in the virgin state. Such a situation happens in practice when the tube has been initially subjected to a first magnetic field. The induced superconducting currents that are flowing in the tube generate a trapped magnetic moment which may deteriorate the shielding of a second field. Here we study experimentally how an initial trapped moment affects the shielding of a magnetic field, when they are both perpendicular to each other. In particular, we focus on the effect of an axial trapped moment on the transverse shielding performances and on the effect of a transverse trapped field on the axial or the transverse shielding performances. Finally, we show how the pristine state of the tube can be restored when applying an external field of adequate amplitude. The consequence for practical applications is that it is possible to recover shielding properties similar to those obtained in the virgin state without heating up the shield above its critical temperature TC. [less ▲]

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See detailLa tradition textuelle de Gerard du Frattre, un fragment d’histoire littéraire ?
Lambert, Adélaïde ULg

Conference (2016, November 09)

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See detailLa qualité des interactions enseignant/enfants pour soutenir le développement langagier à l’école maternelle
Leroy, Sandrine ULg; Bergeron-Morin, Lisandre ULg; Bouchard, Caroline et al

Conference (2016, November 08)

Si le milieu familial demeure une source importante de stimulation, l’environnement scolaire, et plus particulièrement l’éducation préscolaire (enseignement maternel en Belgique), constitue un contexte ... [more ▼]

Si le milieu familial demeure une source importante de stimulation, l’environnement scolaire, et plus particulièrement l’éducation préscolaire (enseignement maternel en Belgique), constitue un contexte privilégié pour soutenir le développement du langage et de la communication des enfants. D’une part, il est reconnu que les habiletés langagières dès la petite enfance sont un important prédicteur de la réussite éducative des enfants (Duncan et al., 2007). D’autre part, les interactions avec leur entourage y jouent un rôle primordial. À l’école maternelle, les enfants peuvent bénéficier quotidiennement d’interactions verbales riches et diversifiées, non seulement avec leur enseignant, mais également avec leurs pairs (Blain-Brière et al., 2014). Il a d’ailleurs été démontré que la qualité des interactions en contexte préscolaire joue un effet protecteur sur le développement langagier des enfants plus vulnérables, issus de milieux précarisés (Burchinal et al., 2010; Simard et al., 2013). En conséquence, les enseignants de maternelle occupent une place privilégiée pour favoriser et entretenir des interactions de qualité, propices au développement langagier. Cependant, selon des études internationales, la qualité des pratiques éducatives, surtout en matière de soutien langagier, n’est pas toujours optimale (Bouchard et al., 2010; Piasta et al., 2012), ce qui entraîne des effets plus modestes sur le développement langagier des enfants, surtout chez les plus vulnérables (Dickinson et al., 2011). Aucune étude n’a, à ce jour, été réalisée en Belgique francophone sur les pratiques utilisées dans les classes de maternelle pour soutenir le développement langagier des enfants. L’objectif du travail présenté est donc de documenter la qualité des interactions et l’utilisation de stratégies de soutien langagier par les enseignants dans les classes de deuxième maternelle en Belgique francophone, auprès enfants âgés d’environ 4 ans. Des observations in vivo sont réalisés dans douze classes de deuxième maternelle afin d’évaluer la qualité des interactions enseignant/enfants à l’aide du CLASS® Pre-K (Classroom Assessment Scoring System®, Pianta et al., 2008). Une analyse des stratégies de soutien langagier utilisées par l’enseignant complète le portrait réalisé dans chacune des classes. Ces données sont analysées en relation avec, entre autres, l’expérience professionnelle des enseignants, le nombre d’enfants dans la classe, l’indice socio-économique des écoles, le type d’activités proposées. Les résultats obtenus permettent d’engager une réflexion sur les modalités qui peuvent permettre de mieux soutenir le développement langagier des enfants dans leur contexte éducatif, plus particulièrement auprès des enfants plus vulnérables. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping a hydrodynamical model of the Southern Bight of the North Sea for impact studies
Ivanov, Evgeny ULg; Capet, Arthur ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg et al

Poster (2016, November 08)

In the frame of the Brain FaCE-It project (Functional biodiversity in a Changing sedimentary Environment: Implications for biogeochemistry and food webs in a managerial setting), the impact of fining and ... [more ▼]

In the frame of the Brain FaCE-It project (Functional biodiversity in a Changing sedimentary Environment: Implications for biogeochemistry and food webs in a managerial setting), the impact of fining and hardening resulting from dredging and wind farms installation on the sediment grain size distribution has to be assessed at the scale of the Southern Bight of the North Sea (SBNS) with a particular focus on the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ). With this aim, the ROMS-COAWST tri-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic model is implemented to simulate the hydrodynamics in the SBNS. At its open boundaries with the Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea, the model is forced with the results of a coarse resolution model available from Mercator. A high resolution of 250 m is used in the area of the BCZ where the accuracy of model predictions needs to be refined. Model currents, tides, temperature and salinity fields will be described and first validation exercises with satellite and local data will be presented and discussed in regards with the objectives of FaCE-It. In a next step, the model will be coupled with a sediment transport in order to describe the dynamics of suspended particulate materials (SPM) and the distribution of the seafloor sediment grain size. When finalized the hydrodynamic model will be coupled with a diagenetic model and will provide environmental conditions for scaling up local foodweb studies that are performed in the frame of FaCE-iT. The final aim is to assess the impact of substrate modifications due to aggregate extraction and wind farms on the biogeochemistry, benthic functionality and food webs at local (around the wind farm) and regional scales (SBNS). [less ▲]

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See detailSevere deficiency of the somatotrope GHRH/GH/IGF-1 axis induces a dramatic susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.
Farhat, Khalil ULg; Bodart, Gwennaëlle ULg; Desmet, Christophe ULg et al

Poster (2016, November 07)

Deletion of the growth hormone-releasing hormone gene (Ghrh) results in a severe deficiency of the somatotrope GHRH-GH-IGF-1 axis causing dwarf phenotype that can be reversed by GH or GHRH supplementation ... [more ▼]

Deletion of the growth hormone-releasing hormone gene (Ghrh) results in a severe deficiency of the somatotrope GHRH-GH-IGF-1 axis causing dwarf phenotype that can be reversed by GH or GHRH supplementation (Alba & Salvatori, Endocrinology 2004;145:4134). In basal conditions, the immunological phenotype of Ghrh-/- mice is not markedly disturbed except for a decrease in B cells and an increase in generation of thymic (t) Treg cells (submitted for publication). These data prompted us to investigate immune responses of Ghrh-/- mice using vaccination and infection by S. pneumoniae as models since the response to both stimuli rely on the innate immune system and B cells. Ghrh-/- mice were unable to trigger production of specific IgM and IgG against serotype 1 pneumococcal polysaccharide (PPS) after vaccination with either native PPS (Pnx23) or protein-PPS conjugate (Prev-13) vaccines. A short GH supplementation to Ghrh-/- mice (1 daily injection of 1 mg/kg GH for 4 weeks) restored IgM and IgG response to Pnx23 vaccine but not to Prev-13. This suggests that GH differently impacts on B-1, marginal zone B-2 or innate B-1 B cells. Furthermore, after intranasal instillation of a non-lethal dose of serotype 1 S. pneumoniae, Ghrh-/- mice exhibited a dramatic susceptibility reflected by bacteremia 24h after infection and a survival limit of 72 h, compared to WT C57BL/6 mice that need only 24h to clear infection. The possible impact of GH deficiency on components of the innate immune system that play an important role in defense of the respiratory tract against pneumococcal infection is under current investigation. (*Equal first and last authors. KF is supported by a research grant from the Lebanese Government; GB is Research Assistant, CD is Research Associate, and VG is Research Director at the NFSR of Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailWater Quality Management for Sustainable Aquaculture Production in Mekong delta: A Case Study in Thot Not District, Can Tho Province of Vietnam
Nguyen Thi Hai Ninh, ULg; NGUYEN Mau, Dung; HO Ngoc, Cuong

Conference (2016, November 07)

Production intensification of semi-intensive and intensive culture system has become a trend in the Mekong delta. However, the practice of these systems by small farm households usually results in water ... [more ▼]

Production intensification of semi-intensive and intensive culture system has become a trend in the Mekong delta. However, the practice of these systems by small farm households usually results in water pollution, then placing negative consequences on aquaculture yield and quality. Water quality management is therefore nowadays one of the most important in aquaculture production in the Delta. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the water quality management of aquaculture farm households in Mekong delta then to propose the feasible solutions for better water quality management in aquacullture farm in the delta. In addition to the secondary data, a total of 32 aquaculture households at ThotNot district, CanTho province was selected for direct interviews to collect the necessary primary data. The study findings show that over 46% households rated that the quality of the pond water was more polluted than it had been 3 years ago. Several causes of the pollution are chemical residues and antibiotics; too high density of fish (especially for catfish); and no sewage system. A number of measures to manage pond water quality are initially recognized such as changing water and sucking mud of ponds after each harvest; planting trees around ponds; sprinkling lime on pond bottoms and using potassium permanganate to disinfect pond water. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of shoreline changes on population in Cotonou, Benin
de Longueville, Florence; Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; Gemenne, François ULg et al

Poster (2016, November 04)

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See detailRisk management in Ivory Coast : Case Study of Population Evictions in Port-Bouët, Abidjan
Comoe, Raymond; Ozer, Pierre ULg

Poster (2016, November 04)

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See detailRecent evolution of the coastline in the Gulf of Guinea. Example of Togo and Benin (2000-2015)
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Hountondji, Yvon-Carmen; de Longueville, Florence

Poster (2016, November 04)

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See detailTowards Optimization of Thermally Induced Magnetization Switching
Ostler, Thomas ULg

Conference (2016, November 04)

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See detail« Cap-Haïtien » or « how to ‘construct’ a flood risk in a decade »
Gracius, Gracia Joseph; Ozer, Pierre ULg

Poster (2016, November 04)

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See detailWhat is going on here and now when a patient meets a family doctor? A P4 minded cybernetic observation of the consultation process.
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

Conference (2016, November 04)

The consultation is a meeting between two human beings, where one is the patient, playing the part of the sick, while the other plays the therapeutic role. It is also a meeting between knowledge and ... [more ▼]

The consultation is a meeting between two human beings, where one is the patient, playing the part of the sick, while the other plays the therapeutic role. It is also a meeting between knowledge and feeling. The doctor's knowledge/thoughts (true or false) influences the thoughts/knowledge (true or false) of the patient, in a dialectical relationship. In a way, the patient-doctor encounter is a meeting between science and conscience fitted in the symbolic world of human beings. The term science, as it is used here, encompasses the knowledge of the biological, the mental and the social being, as well as the observation of what is going on here and now, a cybernetic observation of the consultation itself, in a manner of speaking. Through his or her training, the doctor inevitably confronts the patient with the disease. It is his or her job to reveal it. He or she will be gratified to have, at least, found the evil, by always pushing the limits of diagnostic exploration. In an attempt to know better about what we are doing, we will go through a recent work on the main themes discussed by GPs during congresses ( www.hetop.eu/Q ) to examine which ones are dealing with the Quaternary prevention concept. We will ask to the participants if and when Quaternary prevention could exert a deep influence throughout their consultation process and their patients care pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailOf microbes, incidents and citizens: A look inside the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg

Conference (2016, November 04)

In this presentation, I provide an overview of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN and delve into three research lines presently being developed within the SCK-CEN social science research group: 1 ... [more ▼]

In this presentation, I provide an overview of the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN and delve into three research lines presently being developed within the SCK-CEN social science research group: 1. citizen science after Fukushima, 2. incident reporting at SCK-CEN, 3. the impact of microbes and microbiology on radioactive waste governance. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic value of serologic tests and seroprevalence of Borreliosis in horses living in southern Belgium
Cerri, Simona ULg; Meersschaert, C; Houben, Rosa et al

Poster (2016, November 04)

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See detailPeople moved and will move again
Gemenne, François ULg; de Longueville, Florence; De Bruyckere, Luka ULg et al

Poster (2016, November 04)

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See detailLes problèmes “riches” de tournées de véhicules
Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Conference (2016, November 03)

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See detailQuaternary prevention and mental health
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

Conference (2016, November 03)

Quaternary prevention, as a product of the patient doctor relationships, involves actions taken to identify patients at risk of Overmedicalisation, to protect them from unnecessary medical procedures and ... [more ▼]

Quaternary prevention, as a product of the patient doctor relationships, involves actions taken to identify patients at risk of Overmedicalisation, to protect them from unnecessary medical procedures and offer ethically acceptable alternatives. Quaternary prevention, born from the meeting between two worlds of thought, two cultural backgrounds, two kinds of anxiety implies deep implications for decision about mental health issues. There is an urgent need for quaternary prevention in primary care mental health, to counter the medicalisation of normal distressing human emotions and take care with humanity of suffering human beings. The relational bases of the P4 concept are exposed. A Continual Profesional Development session (two days) of a team of 25 French GPs based in St Etienne, France (ADEPUL, CPD society, October 2016) about “Quaternary attitude and mental health” in six steps is related. Step 1; one month before the seminar : retrieving of clinical personal experiences . Step 2; sharing experiences in little groups report synthesis. Step 3; (second day) Critical reading report experts contributions. Step 4; Disease or disease mongering in mental health case reports debate. Step 5; Pros & cons trial about ADD/H, tribunal, attorney, lawyer, jury and final judgment. Step 6; After one month, exchange of modified clinical situations related by participants. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 87 (4 ULg)
See detailLaser Cladding Finite Element Modelling Application to Ti6Al4V,
Tran, Hoang Son ULg; Brusten, Romain; Jardin, Ruben et al

Conference (2016, November 03)

Corrélation entre les champs thermiques prédits et la microstructure observée.

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See detailEntorse de cheville - Le traitement fonctionnel
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2016, November 03)

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See detailTerminologia Multilíngue de Clínica General / Medicina de Família e Comunidade
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Treuherz, Arthur; Gomes, Luis Filipe et al

Poster (2016, November 02)

Creation of the Q-Codes online knowledge base The list of themes, called Q-Codes has been elaborated in a bottom-up approach, by retrieving, in a qualitative analysis study, the themes most frequently ... [more ▼]

Creation of the Q-Codes online knowledge base The list of themes, called Q-Codes has been elaborated in a bottom-up approach, by retrieving, in a qualitative analysis study, the themes most frequently addressed by GPs when they meet in congresses. A taxonomy has been build. A multilingual terminological record has been developed for each of the 182 items identified. This work is freely available online on www.hetop.eu/Q (free access after inscription) and is supported by the Rouen (France) biomedical informatics department of the University of Rouen (France). All the data are available in the Web Ontology language (OWL-2), an ontology-ready format fit for future use in the semantic web. The product, user guide and e-learning are available on http://3cgp.docpatient.net/ The Q-codes base is aimed at several uses: • Online repository of knowledge specific to GP/FM in several languages • Online PubMed linked bibliographic system easy to use for training in GP/FM • Resource for online e-learning • Resource for analysis of content of congresses in GP/FM in joint usage with ICPC-2 and indexation of gray literature • Research area : o automatic or semi-automatic congresses indexation system o linking GP/FM to the web of data and the linked data initiative The multilingual terminology in GP/FM Out of the online database we are proud to present you the • General Practice / Family Medicine Multilingual Terminology – English version • Terminologia Multilíngue de Clínica Geral / Medicina de Família e Comunidade - Versão em Português • Terminología multilingüe de la medicina general y de familia- Versión española • Terminologie multilingue de médecine générale et de famille – Version française • Een meertalige terminologie in de huisartsgeneeskunde - Nederlandse versie • Từ điển thuật ngữ đa ngôn ngữ về y học tổng quát và y học gia đình – (Vietnamese) • -Codes and definitions will be also available online in Korean and Turkish Those 6 books (60 pages) are readable / downloadable freely online on http://3cgp.docpatient.net/ and contain an explanation of the elaboration process of the taxonomy, a tabular list of the Q-Codes, the list of their definitions and an index. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Q-Codes: General Practice / Family Medicine Online Multilingual Terminology & Knowledge Base. A semantic web based resource in English, Portuguese, French, Spanish, Dutch, Vietnamese, Turkish and Korean
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Gusso, Gustavo; Mariño, Maria Ana et al

Conference (2016, November 02)

The session is devoted to the launch of an online knowledge database specific to GP / FM. This work is the result of a two years’ work of a cooperative project between participants from 12 countries and 8 ... [more ▼]

The session is devoted to the launch of an online knowledge database specific to GP / FM. This work is the result of a two years’ work of a cooperative project between participants from 12 countries and 8 languages. People are now used to the International classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2) which addresses the clinical issues in GP/FM , ie Symptoms, Process and Diagnosis. We have work on non-clinical issues i.e. all themes addressed by GPs during congresses which concern organizational, ethical, structure, teaching or patient related issues not encompassed by ICPC-2. The letter Q was used to name Q-Codes because this letter wasn’t yet used in ICPC-2. Q-codes are a classification of non-clinical items in General Practice / Family Medicine (GP/FM). Q-codes are a classification of non-clinical items in General Practice / Family Medicine (GP/FM). After a demonstration of the Q-Codes terminology and of the online database, we are proud to present to you a new GP/FM terminology in 6 languages freely available online. Relevant urls are : • for Q-Codes knowledge base http://www.hetop.eu/Q • for user guide and download http://3cgp.docpatient.net/ Contact marc.jamoulle@doct.ulg.ac.be [less ▲]

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See detailLa compétitivité du transport intermodal
Limbourg, Sabine ULg

Conference (2016, November 02)

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See detailLife Cycle Costing for a Near Zero Energy Building in Jordan: Initial Study
Attia, Shady ULg; Al-Khuraissat, Maysoon

in The 5th Architectural Jordanian International Conference (2016, November 01)

Green Building movement has grown in Jordan for the last 10 year for environmental and financial reasons directly related to energy consumption and cost. Despite the few success stories, green design and ... [more ▼]

Green Building movement has grown in Jordan for the last 10 year for environmental and financial reasons directly related to energy consumption and cost. Despite the few success stories, green design and green buildings are not yet the norm in the building sector in the country. One main concern for design engineers as well as investors and building owners is the extra cost green building will bring compared to traditional one. This assumption is wrong since a building cost should be analyzed through its life cycle, which not only include design and construction but also operation and maintenance costs as well. Since issuing the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Law No. 13 of 2012, Jordan opened a new era in the RE and EE, a changing point directly related to this law is the ability to sell electricity production to electricity companies and not only being consumers. The building sector is a direct winner if designers and engineers make right decisions. An ambitious but possible goal is to design and build Net Zero Buildings, which are buildings that produce energy as much as they consume. The aim of this paper is to provide real life cost-effective building strategies and design scenarios that will lead to a successful near Zero Energy Building in Jordan. The paper will use a representative residential apartment in the city of Amman (135- 155 m2) as the base case for the study. The design will be upgraded to include main green building strategies recommended for the climatic zone, provide loads for required systems, and test them all against performance and cost. Design scenarios will be tested and refined tell reach the best design formula that will be both functional and cost effective. The paper will provide a list of recommendations for best economically feasible design solutions and system selections that can lead to a near Zero Energy Building in Jordan for residential apartments. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Order Phase Transition in FePt/FeRh Bilayers
Ostler, Thomas ULg; Barton, Craig; Hrkac, Gino et al

Conference (2016, November 01)

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See detailLiturgie, cérémonial et architecture des églises des congrégations féminines implantées en ville sur la « dorsale catholique » (XVe-XVIIIe siècles)
Piront, Julie ULg

Conference (2016, November)

Dans les églises des congrégations féminines, la problématique du « voir » est étroitement associée au « ne pas être vu ». Plus encore que leurs homologues masculins, moniales et religieuses, implantées ... [more ▼]

Dans les églises des congrégations féminines, la problématique du « voir » est étroitement associée au « ne pas être vu ». Plus encore que leurs homologues masculins, moniales et religieuses, implantées en milieu urbain tout en étant soumises à la stricte clôture, ont dû trouver des solutions architecturales qui satisfassent à ces deux exigences. Dans ce contexte, les enjeux se focalisent en particulier sur l’articulation de l’église « extérieure » et de l’église « intérieure » – pour reprendre l’expression de Carlo Borromeo – où se déroulent les principaux moments de la vie liturgique de la communauté. En examinant les églises de trois ordres méconnus implantés aux frontières de la catholicité entre le XVe et le XVIIIe siècle (chanoinesses du Saint-Sépulcre, bénédictines réformées de la Paix Notre-Dame et annonciades célestes), il s’agit d’analyser tant la forme (plan, décor, mobilier) que la fonction des nouvelles constructions, mais aussi les aménagements – bien moins connus – des églises monastiques préexistantes et des maisons particulières acquises lors de la fondation. [less ▲]

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See detailRobustness of spatial autocorrelation tests
Ernst, Marie ULg

Poster (2016, November)

Spatial autocorrelation expresses the dependence between values at neighbouring locations. Testing if the spatial autocorrelation is significant may confirm or deny the need to consider spatial analysis ... [more ▼]

Spatial autocorrelation expresses the dependence between values at neighbouring locations. Testing if the spatial autocorrelation is significant may confirm or deny the need to consider spatial analysis over the classical one. Indeed, the analysis of spatial data is only meaningful if the spatial components bring information. Several measures of spatial autocorrelation are defined in the literature. Moran’s index, Geary’s ratio and Getis-Ord statistic are the most used statistics. Tests based on these measures have been developed in the literature using asymptotic and permutation results. They are used in practice in many fields, for instance in geography, economics, biogeosciences, medicine, ... However, these tests should be cautiously applied because they are not robust. A single contaminated observation can significantly modify their results. This poster is composed of two parts. Firstly, the robustness of already available tools for measuring spatial autocorrelation will be analysed. Secondly, alternative methods will be proposed to robustly test the spatial autocorrelation. [less ▲]

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See detailContrôle de la variabilité interannuelle de la composition du phytoplancton de la Baie de Calvi (Corse) par les facteurs environnementaux
Goffart, Anne ULg; Andral, Bruno; Baldi, Yoann et al

Conference (2016, November)

Le but de la présentation est de synthétiser les connaissances sur le contrôle de la dynamique du phytoplancton par les contraintes environnementales dans un site de référence méditerranéen. L’étude est ... [more ▼]

Le but de la présentation est de synthétiser les connaissances sur le contrôle de la dynamique du phytoplancton par les contraintes environnementales dans un site de référence méditerranéen. L’étude est réalisée en Baie de Calvi (Corse) à la station PHYTOCLY (42°34.85'N, 08°43.71'E) où des séries temporelles haute fréquence de données physiques, chimiques et biologiques sont réalisées depuis 1979. Depuis 2006, l’acquisition des données de subsurface et le traitement des échantillons, qui inclut des analyses HPLC de contenu pigmentaire du phytoplancton et des comptages de flore totale, sont réalisés grâce au soutien de la DCE. En Baie de Calvi, l’intensité de la rigueur hivernale, identifiée par deux proxys, la température de l’eau et le nombre de jours de vent fort, contrôle le réapprovisionnement en sels nutritifs des couches de surface et le développement du bloom phytoplanctonique (détails dans Goffart et al., 2015, Progress in Oceanography). Lors des années caractérisées par un hiver rigoureux (e.g. 2010), le bloom phytoplanctonique hivernal se développe pendant la période d’eau froide (eau de subsurface ≤13.5°C). Il est dominé par les diatomées et les cryptophycées, deux groupes qui montrent une préférence marquée pour les eaux froides et riches en sels nutritifs. Lorsque l’hiver est très doux (e.g. 2007), la disponibilité en sels nutritifs est réduite et le bloom ne se développe pas. Les diatomées et les cryptophycées sont absentes, et les communautés phytoplanctoniques sont dominées par les prymnesiophycées pico- et nanoplanctoniques et les cyanobactéries. Les résultats de l’étude permettent aussi : • de fixer les limites de la variabilité naturelle du phytoplancton dans un site de référence méditerranéen, • d’expliquer les variations interannuelles de biomasse et de composition phytoplanctonique, • de définir les préférences écologiques des différents groupes phytoplanctoniques, • d’établir des courbes d’évolution saisonnière des principaux groupes phytoplanctoniques qui intègrent la variabilité interannuelle liée aux variations climatiques. La connaissance acquise au cours de cette étude permet de contribuer au développement d’indices de qualité intégrant la composition du phytoplancton (e.g. indice de composition I C MEDIT) et de tester des méthodes de surveillance à grande échelle (e.g. croisement des suivis pigmentaires réalisés à haute fréquence et de l’imagerie satellitaire), contribuant ainsi à la mise en œuvre des politiques publiques (DCE, DCSMM). [less ▲]

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See detailMOTOR CONTROL LEARNING AT THE LUMBAR SPINE USING SENSOR-BASED POSTURAL FEEDBACK: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Matheve, T.; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Claes, G. et al

in Back to Specific Low Back Pain (2016, November)

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See detailSpecific detection of blood derived products in animal feed using UPLC-MS/MS
Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline ULg; Dieu, Marc; Veys, Pascal et al

Poster (2016, November)

Blood derived products are valuable animal products used in feed for their nutritional value and their positive effects on growth and health. Nevertheless, since the BSE crisis, their use is strictly ... [more ▼]

Blood derived products are valuable animal products used in feed for their nutritional value and their positive effects on growth and health. Nevertheless, since the BSE crisis, their use is strictly regulated. Blood meal and blood products (hemoglobin powder and plasma powder) of bovine origin are totally prohibited. Blood meal and blood products of porcine origin are authorised in aquafeed, whereas only blood products are allowed to be used in feed intended for other non-ruminant. The detection of the type of protein and the species of origin is therefore crucial to ensure feed safety. With the current official methods for the detection of PAPs, light microscopy and PCR, it is not always possible to specifically identify this type of protein source. The objective of our work was to set-up a routine mass spectrometry method for a qualitative detection of blood meal and hemoglobin powder of bovine and porcine origin in feed. The method was based on the detection of species-specific peptides biomarkers identified in a previous study by a non-targeted approach. All biomarkers were peptides of α and β hemoglobin subunits. Proteins were extracted using a TCA/acetone protein precipitation protocol followed by purification with a 2-D Clean-Up Kit (GE Healthcare, USA). After an in-solution trypsin digestion step, analyses were performed by liquid chromatography (Acquity system, Waters, UK) coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (Xevo TQS, Waters, UK) with electrospray ionisation. The acquisition and processing of data was carried out by MassLynx software (v. 4.1, Waters) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) design was made using the open-source software Skyline (https://skyline.gs.washington.edu/labkey/project/home/software/Skyline/begin.view). Reference hemoglobin powder was used to select MRM transitions for each peptide biomarkers and to optimise their collision energy. Commercial feed material and compound feed containing or free from blood derived products were then analysed. Selected transitions were present in materials or feed known to contained blood derived product of the same origin and absent in the others. Artificially contaminated feed with various contamination levels were also analysed in order to evaluate the influence of matrix composition and to experimentally determine the limit of detection. A first estimation of the LOD was around 0.05 % w/w which was below the LOD imposed by the EC for animal proteins detection method. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient Computation of the Minimum of Shape Quality Measures on Curvilinear Finite Elements
Johnen, Amaury ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Toulorge, Thomas et al

in Procedia Engineering (2016, November), 163

We present a method for computing robust shape quality measures defined for any order of finite elements. All type of elements are considered, including pyramids. The measures are defined as the minimum ... [more ▼]

We present a method for computing robust shape quality measures defined for any order of finite elements. All type of elements are considered, including pyramids. The measures are defined as the minimum of the pointwise quality of curved elements. The computation of the minimum, based on previous work presented by Johnen et al. (2013) [1] and [2], is very efficient. The key feature is to expand polynomial quantities into Bézier bases which allows to compute sharp bounds on the minimum of the pointwise quality measures. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques et évolution de la force après rééducation de la rupture de coiffe des rotateurs
Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Schwartz, Cédric ULg; MAHIEU, Xavier ULg et al

in Abstract Book des XVIIIèmes RENCONTRES ISOCINETIQUES MEDIMEX / ROTSCHILD (2016, November)

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See detailPreoptic glutamate and estradiol release during male sexual behavior
de Bournonville, Catherine ULg; de Bournonville, Marie-Pierre ULg; Aourz, Najat et al

Poster (2016, November)

Beside its long-term control by steroids, male sexual behavior is also modulated by neuroestrogens in a dynamic way (within minutes) in a number of species ranging from fishes to mammals. Studies in male ... [more ▼]

Beside its long-term control by steroids, male sexual behavior is also modulated by neuroestrogens in a dynamic way (within minutes) in a number of species ranging from fishes to mammals. Studies in male Japanese quail have also identified following exposure to a receptive female a rapid decrease in the activity of brain aromatase (AA) the enzyme responsible for the conversion of androgens into estrogens. These effects occur mainly within the medial preoptic nucleus (POM), a sexually dimorphic structure of the preoptic area that plays a key role in the activation of male sexual behavior and contains the highest AA in the brain. In vitro studies demonstrated that AA can be rapidly inhibited by calcium-dependent phosphorylations of the enzyme triggered by the activation of AMPA and kainate receptors. We confirmed here this rapid effect of glutamate on AA by injecting kainate in the POM of anesthetized males and measuring AA in the tissue after brain collection. AA in POM was inhibited in the kainate-injected hemisphere compared to the control hemisphere injected with vehicle. In a second experiment, we showed by in vivo microdialysis that glutamate is released in POM during copulation. These results thus suggest that glutamate controls dynamic changes of AA that occur in the brain during sexual interactions. To confirm that the decrease in AA leads to an actual reduction of local estradiol concentration, we quantified via microdialysis and radioimmunoassay changes in estradiol concentration in the male POM during sexual interactions with a female. Surprisingly, a dramatic elevation of estradiol was observed during copulation. Estradiol has been shown to enhance acutely male sexual motivation, therefore the function of its increase in the POM could be to maintain motivation during the entire sexual encounter. The decrease of AA observed ex vivo after copulation would then reflect a compensatory mechanism to restore baseline pre-copulatory conditions. Importantly, these results highlight that although long-term changes in AA are often used as a proxy for local estradiol concentrations, these two measures can show major short-term discrepancies possibly reflecting variations in estrogen turnover. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Base of Fabia Fabiana from Acci (Guadix, Granada). A Reassessment
Veymiers, Richard ULg; Gasparini, Valentino

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailAre fatigue-related EMG parameters correlated to trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by the Sorensen test?
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; George, F.; Matheve, T. et al

in Vleeming, Andry (Ed.) 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain - Progress in Evidence based diagnosis and treatment (2016, November)

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See detailComparisons of estimated GFR and Cockcroft Gault equations: calibration against relative risk for all-cause mortality.
Warnock, DG; van den Brand, JAJG; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg et al

Poster (2016, November)

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See detailThe closure of arteriovenous fistula is associated with a significant acceleration of eGFR decline in kidney transplant recipients
Jouret, François ULg; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; VANDERWECKENE, Pauline ULg et al

Poster (2016, November)

Background The creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) may retard chronic kidney disease progression in the general population. Conversely, there is limited literature regarding the impact of AVF closure ... [more ▼]

Background The creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) may retard chronic kidney disease progression in the general population. Conversely, there is limited literature regarding the impact of AVF closure on renal function in kidney transplant recipients (KTR). Methods All KTR were retrospectively identified from 01/01/2007 to 31/12/2013, and grouped into: (0) no AVF; (1) closed AVF; and (2) left open AVF. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) upon MDRD and FAS equations. Linear mixed models calculated the slope and intercept of eGFR decline versus time, starting at 3 months post transplantation (Tx). Comparative analyses of eGFR slopes were performed among groups, as well as before vs after AVF closure in group 1. For the latter, time was balanced before vs after AVF closure, with at least 10 observations per patient. Results The cohort included 285 KTR (Table 1), with a median follow-up of 1750 days [1665; 2028]. Focusing on group 1, AVF closure occurred after a mean time of 653 ± 441 days post Tx, with a thrombosis/ligation ratio of 19/95. Balanced study periods before vs after AVF closure lasted 15.7 and 14.9 months, respectively. No difference was found between corresponding intercepts (p, 0.11). By contrast, eGFR slopes were significantly different before (0.043 ml/min/year) versus after (-0.176 ml/min/year) AVF closure (p, 0.0115). Similar observations were obtained using FAS equation Conclusion A significant acceleration of eGFR decline is observed over the 15 months following the closure of functioning AVF in KTR. [less ▲]

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See detailMotor control learning at the lumbar spine using sensor-based postural feedback: Preliminary results of a randomized controlled trial
Matheve, T.; Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Claes, G. et al

in Vleeming, Andry (Ed.) 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain - Progress in Evidence based diagnosis and treatment (2016, November)

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See detailCROSS-CULTURAL TRANSLATION, VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY OF THE FRENCH VERSION OF THE « PAIN BELIEFS QUESTIONNAIRE »
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Duvallon, Louise ULg; Roussel, N. et al

in Back to Specific Low Back Pain (2016, November)

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See detailPhraséodidactique en FLM : exploitation des ressources lexicographiques
Steffens, Marie ULg; Poulin, Laurence

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailKnowledge and beliefs of health care professionals performing thrust spinal manipulations on these techniques: A preliminary study
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; TOUSSAINT, Geoffrey ULg; Grosdent, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Vleeming, Andry (Ed.) 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain - Progress in Evidence based diagnosis and treatment (2016, November)

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See detailBeliefs in the general population regarding the "cracking" or "popping" noise from spine thrust manipulation
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Baeri, D.; TOUSSAINT, Geoffrey ULg et al

in Vleeming, Andry (Ed.) 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain - Progress in Evidence based diagnosis and treatment (2016, November)

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See detailGlomerular filtration rate in healthy living potential kidney donors: a meta-analysis.
Pottel, H; Hoste; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg

Poster (2016, November)

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See detailShould hamstring muscles be stretched by flexing the hip while keeping the knee extended or by flexing the hip with a flexed knee and then extending the knee?
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Wolfs, Sébastien ULg; Chevalier, M. et al

in Vleeming, Andry (Ed.) 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain - Progress in Evidence based diagnosis and treatment (2016, November)

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See detailNitric Oxide nightglow from IUVS disk images
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Schneider; Gonzàlez-Galindo et al

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailCartels in the EU: who appeals and who wins?
Gautier, Axel ULg

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailCLINICAL ASSESSMENT TEST OF FEAR AVOIDANCE FOR CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN PATIENT
SOMVILLE, Pierre-René ULg; Valoir, M.; Demoulin, Christophe ULg

in Back to Specific Low Back Pain (2016, November)

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See detailOn the Analysis of Internet Paths with DisNETPerf, a Distributed Paths Performance Analyzer
Wassermann, Sarah ULg; Casas, Pedro; Donnet, Benoît ULg et al

in Proc. 10th IEEE Workshop on Network Measurements (WNM) (2016, November)

Traceroute is the most widely used Internet path analysis tool today to study the topology of the Internet and to diagnose routing failures as well as poor performance events. A major limitation of ... [more ▼]

Traceroute is the most widely used Internet path analysis tool today to study the topology of the Internet and to diagnose routing failures as well as poor performance events. A major limitation of traceroute when the destination is not controllable by the user is its inability to measure reverse paths, i.e., the path from any given destination back to the source. This is a major drawback for ISPs, who need to understand the performance of the Internet paths connecting popular services (e.g., YouTube and Facebook) to their customers. Even if public servers and distributed measurement platforms can provide partial reverse path visibility through ad-hoc measurements, there is still a need for a structured approach capable of analyzing the performance of Internet paths connecting any pair of nodes (servers, routers, hosts, etc.). While the problem of reverse traceroute has been addressed in the past, proposed techniques rely on IP address spoofing – which might lead to security concerns, and assume the availability of certain route-tracking options –, which might not be available. In this paper, we introduce and evaluate DisNETPerf, a new tool which provides exactly the same type of information as traceroute, but for paths connecting arbitrarily selected nodes. DisNETPerf works by firstly locating probes (i.e., measurement points) that are the closest to a given target node, using them to perform traceroute measurements from the target point-of-view to a given destination for path performance monitoring and troubleshooting purposes. We propose two techniques for probe location, and demonstrate that the reverse path (from server to users) can be measured with very high accuracy in certain scenarios. We also analyze relevant characteristics of Internet paths and distributed measurement platforms, which reinforce the applicability and relevance of DisNETPerf in current Internet. [less ▲]

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See detailStability and Consistency of the LISP Pull Routing Architecture
Li, Yue; Saucez, Damien; Iannone, Luigi et al

in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Network Measurements (WNM) (2016, November)

Future Internet has been a hot topic for the last decade. One of the approaches put forward in order to revise the Internet architecture is LISP~--~Locator/ID Separation Protocol, which leverages the ... [more ▼]

Future Internet has been a hot topic for the last decade. One of the approaches put forward in order to revise the Internet architecture is LISP~--~Locator/ID Separation Protocol, which leverages the separation of the identifier and the locator roles of IP addresses. Contrary to the classical push model used by the BGP-based routing architecture, LISP relies on a pull model. In particular, routing information is pulled from a new network element, the Mapping System, to provide the association between the identifier (i.e., the address used to identify a host inside a domain) and a list of locators (i.e., the addresses to locate an attachment point) upon an explicit query. In this paper, we evaluate a LISP Mapping System deployment in the public LISP Beta Network from two standpoints: Stability and Consistency. Our measurements show that the mapping information is stable over time and consistent between the different mapping entities and the vantage points. Our analysis shows that there are cases where the Mapping System is unstable and/or inconsistent, hence, beside proposing a taxonomy in order to classify them, we carry out an in-depth investigation of such cases so to provide hints on how to improve the performance of LISP. [less ▲]

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See detailLe statut des imams en Belgique
Husson, Jean-François ULg

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailSpinal pain in elite field hockey players: A systematic review
Roussel, N.A.; Rottiers, J.; Lemmens, J. et al

in Vleeming, Andry (Ed.) 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain - Progress in Evidence based diagnosis and treatment (2016, November)

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See detailA single group session of pain physiology education is effective to improve the understanding of neurophysiology of pain in patients with chronic low back pain
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Brasseur, Pauline; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Vleeming, Andry (Ed.) 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain - Progress in Evidence based diagnosis and treatment (2016, November)

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See detailLONG TERM PROGNOSIS OF MODERATE OR SEVERE LEFT-SIDED CARDIAC VALVULAR REGURGITATIONS IN HORSES
Leroux, Aurélia ULg; Goudmaeker, Apolline; Fraipont, Audrey ULg et al

in Proceedings of the 9th ECEIM Congress (2016, November)

Mitral and aortic regurgitations (MR and AR) are common in horses. Unlike mild valvular regurgitations, long-term prognosis of moderate or severe MR and AR is suspected to be guarded since they might ... [more ▼]

Mitral and aortic regurgitations (MR and AR) are common in horses. Unlike mild valvular regurgitations, long-term prognosis of moderate or severe MR and AR is suspected to be guarded since they might induce congestive heart failure (CHF). The aim of this study is to perform a long-term follow-up of horses with moderate or severe MR and/or AR to confirm this prognosis. Firstly medical files of horses with moderate or severe MR and/or AR that had a follow-up, were retrospectively reviewed over a 15-years period (2000-2015). Clinical and echocardiographic data of 25 horses with moderate or severe MR (16/25) or AR (8/25) or both (1/25) were considered. All horses had undergone 2 or more echocardiographic exams 6 months to 10 years apart. Eight horses developed CHF (4 MR and 4 AR) and all died/were euthanized. Diastolic left ventricular internal diameter, left atrial diameter and pulmonary artery diameter were/became above reference values in 17/25 horses but no significant difference was observed between the first and the follow-up measurements (Student's t-test, p<0.05). Secondly follow-up data of additional horses with moderate or severe MR was collected by telephone survey. Owners of 27 horses agreed to answer the survey 1 to 6 years after diagnosis. Ten horses with CHF had died, 3/27 had developed CHF, 10/27 had remained clinically stable and 4/27 had died of non-cardiac causes. Results of this study confirm that moderate or severe MR and AR carry a guarded to poor long-term prognosis as 40% (21/52) of the studied horses developed CHF. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular and functional characterization of the unconventional interaction partners of CXCR7 and their role in virus-associated tumorigenesis
Meyrath, Max Marc Roger ULg; Szpakowska, Martyna; Ollert, Markus et al

Poster (2016, November)

CXCR7 is an atypical and enigmatic chemokine receptor playing crucial roles in numerous physiological processes but also in viral infection and cancer. To date, the exact functions and signaling ... [more ▼]

CXCR7 is an atypical and enigmatic chemokine receptor playing crucial roles in numerous physiological processes but also in viral infection and cancer. To date, the exact functions and signaling properties of CXCR7 are still a matter of debate. Unlike other chemokine receptors, CXCR7 is proposed to act as a scavenging receptor for its ligands, to trigger arrestin-dependent signaling and possibly classical G-protein mediated signaling. Besides its two endogenous chemokines CXCL11 and CXCL12 and the virus-encoded chemokine vCCL2, accumulating evidence suggest that CXCR7 interacts with several non-chemokine ligands such as the pro-angiogenic peptide Adrenomedullin (ADM). Furthermore, calcitonin receptor like receptor (CLR) and receptor activity modifying proteins (RAMPs), constituting the main ADM receptor, might crosstalk with CXCR7 conferring the receptor alternative functions. While the interactions of CXCR7 with classical chemokine ligands are now well characterized, little is known about the interdependence of ADM and the membrane interacting partners with CXCR7, the signaling pathways activated as well as their roles in viral infection and tumorigenesis. The aims of this PhD project are to 1) unravel the role and impact of CLR and RAMPs on the binding, scavenging and signaling properties of CXCR7 towards the different ligands ADM, CXCL12, CXCL11 and vCCL2. Additionally, by using state-of-the-art techniques like Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (BRET), we will 2) inquire the ability of CXCR7 to heterodimerize with CLR and RAMPs. Lastly, since CXCR7 and RAMPs were described to be upregulated upon infection by several tumorigenic viruses, 3) a detailed expression profile of all the ligands and partners of CXCR7 in a herpesvirus-induced cancer model will be determined and will help to reveal the role of CXCR7 in viral associated tumorigenesis. This project will allow improving our level of understanding of CXCR7 regulation and functions and will open new therapeutic directions for selective CXCR7 inhibition. [less ▲]

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See detailScreening for genetic causes of GH hypersecretion
Rostomyan, Liliya ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailExcited hyperons of the N = 2 band in the 1/Nc expansion
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Bled Workshops in Physics (2016, November), 17(1), 25-31

The spectrum of excited baryons in the $N$ = 2 band is reanalyzed in the $1/N_c$ expansion method, with emphasis on hyperons. Predictions are made for the classification of these excited baryons into SU(3 ... [more ▼]

The spectrum of excited baryons in the $N$ = 2 band is reanalyzed in the $1/N_c$ expansion method, with emphasis on hyperons. Predictions are made for the classification of these excited baryons into SU(3) singlets, octets and decuplets. [less ▲]

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See detailSPINAL PAIN IN ELITE FIELD HOCKEY PLAYERS: A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY
Lemmens, J.; Rottiers, J.; Demeure, I. et al

in Back to Specific Low Back Pain (2016, November)

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See detailSpinal pain in elite field hockey players: A cross sectional study
Roussel, N.A.; Demeure, I.; Demoulin, Christophe ULg et al

in Vleeming, Andry (Ed.) 9th Interdisciplinary World Congress on Low Back and Pelvic Girdle Pain - Progress in Evidence based diagnosis and treatment (2016, November)

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See detailP2X1 ion channel is critical for vascular integrity in inflammation
Wéra, Odile ULg; Delierneux, Céline; Servais, Laurence ULg et al

Poster (2016, November)

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See detailBlood meal and blood products detection using Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy
Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline ULg; Abbas, Ouissam; Taira, Aurélien et al

Poster (2016, November)

In Europe, ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) and blood products are not allowed to be used in feed for farmed animal. In contrast, blood meal and blood products of porcine origin are both ... [more ▼]

In Europe, ruminant processed animal proteins (PAPs) and blood products are not allowed to be used in feed for farmed animal. In contrast, blood meal and blood products of porcine origin are both authorised in aqua feed, whereas only porcine blood products are allowed to be used in feed intended for other non-ruminants. Besides official methods (light microscopy and PCR), complementary methods are developed in order to refine the by-products identification. By-products derived from blood are one of these products for which additional information are needed. Indeed, these prohibited materials sometimes cannot be distinguished from those authorised (e.g. milk powder) using official methods. The aim of this work was to develop a fast and easy method to detect blood meal and blood products. This study was based on the detection of hemoglobin in animal feed by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). To achieve this goal, preliminary tests were carried out on reference material (hemoglobin and albumin purchased from Sigma Aldrich) in order to determine appropriate conditions (solvent) and parameters (offset values) for hemoglobin detection. Selected settings were then applied to analyse protein extracts of commercial feed material derived from blood. The results obtained on blood meal and blood products (hemoglobin powder and plasma powder) showed fluorescence spectral bands that characterise hemoglobin. In order to determine whether the method was fit for the purpose, real commercial compound feeds known to contain or to be free from blood products or blood meal were analysed. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to these spectra showed that it was possible to discriminate samples containing hemoglobin from those that do not contain. This result confirmed that SFS is a promising screening method for the detection of hemoglobin in animal feed. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitut de droit International’s Crisis (1873-1890’)
Genin, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailHolographie numérique en infrarouge lointain - Applications aérospatiales
Georges, Marc ULg; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Languy, Fabian ULg et al

Conference (2016, November)

L'holographie numérique en infrarouge lointain, utilisant un laser CO2 émettant vers 10 µm et des caméras thermiques à microbolomètres, permet la mesure de grandes déformations et de s'affranchir des ... [more ▼]

L'holographie numérique en infrarouge lointain, utilisant un laser CO2 émettant vers 10 µm et des caméras thermiques à microbolomètres, permet la mesure de grandes déformations et de s'affranchir des perturbations environnementales plus facilement qu'en lumière visible. Nous l'appliquons dans le cas de structures spatiales subissant des cyclages thermiques en régime cryogénique sous vide, ce qui induit des déplacements de grande ampleur. Nous passerons en revue les différentes expériences effectuées au Centre Spatial de Liège et discuterons des recherches en cours, notamment pour utiliser des longueurs d'onde plus grande (ondes Terahertz) [less ▲]

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See detailRécupération musculaire après plastie LCA : conséquences sur le retour au sport
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Abstract Book des XVIIIèmes RENCONTRES ISOCINETIQUES MEDIMEX / ROTSCHILD (2016, November)

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See detailWet-aging vs. Dry-aging : influence sur la tendreté et la stabilité oxydative des viandes Charolaises
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Teixeira Gonçalves, André ULg; Krantz, Mike et al

Poster (2016, November)

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of aging conditions (dry-aging vs. wet-aging) and time (7, 28, 49 and 70 days) on tenderness, color and lipid stability of Charolais beef. Three longissimus ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to compare the effect of aging conditions (dry-aging vs. wet-aging) and time (7, 28, 49 and 70 days) on tenderness, color and lipid stability of Charolais beef. Three longissimus dorsi of Charolais cows were dry- or wet-aged for up to 70 days at 2 °C. At different times, part of these samples was cut into steaks, vacuum packaged and stored during 4 days at 4 °C + 8 days at 8 °C. The following parameters were evaluated at different intervals: pH, tenderness (Warner–Bratzler peak shear force), color (CIE L*a*b*), myoglobin oxidation (K/S572:K/S525 ratio) and lipid oxidation (TBARS). No difference in tenderness was observed between the two aging techniques. The sensitivity of samples to oxidation was influenced by the aging technique (wet-aging > dry-aging). For the studied samples, aging beyond 28 days could be considered excessive from an organoleptical point of view. [less ▲]

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See detailSpeech style manipulations in dysarthria in French-speaking children: Acoustic findings.
Ancelle, Josephine; Moya Gale, G.; Hetrick, B et al

Poster (2016, November)

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See detailEvaluation et gestion des scenarii de dysfonctionnement des barrages-réservoirs en Belgique
Liégeois, Benoît; Pirotton, Michel ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Sûreté des barrages et enjeux (2016, November)

Belgium has fifteen structures included in the list of large dams of the International Committee on Large Dams. Six are managed by Engie Company, the other nine are owned by the Walloon regional public ... [more ▼]

Belgium has fifteen structures included in the list of large dams of the International Committee on Large Dams. Six are managed by Engie Company, the other nine are owned by the Walloon regional public authority. The Belgian legislator has never enacted specific rules for large dams. However, managers have always been concerned with this issue. They developed procedures and methods that were subject to exchanges of experience with their counterparts, in particular through the Belgian Committee on Large Dams. In this ongoing research of security, the impact of multiple failure scenarios (dam break, quick emptying …) on the people and the environment downstream of dams is a particular focal point. An impact study has been conducted for the main plants. This study is based on a deterministic numerical method. The methodology, the assumptions regarding the failure mode or emptying and the lessons learned from the analyses are presented. These results are an important step in the assessment and the management of risks. Indeed, regulations were recently enacted for the management and the coordination of any activity likely to seriously impact public safety during crisis periods. These rules apply therefore for large dams. In this context, managers have established an emergency plan for each structure. This paper provides a broad overview on the issues of the evaluation and the management of dysfunction risks of Belgian dams, as well as on approaches and collaborations initiated between the private managers and public authority. [less ▲]

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See detailWeak performance of glomerular filtration rate equations in stable lung/liver transplant recipients compared to 51Cr-EDTA clearance.
Navaux, Emilie; Gustot, Thierry; Racape, Judith et al

Conference (2016, November)

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See detailLife cycle assessment of on-site accelerated food waste composter
Groslambert, Sylvie ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg; Finet, Sébastien

Poster (2016, November)

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See detailL’âgisme chez les étudiants en médecine
Corvol, Aline; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Gentric, Armelle et al

Poster (2016, November)

Introduction: Des stéréotypes négatifs liés à l’avancée en âge sont fréquemment observés en population générale. Des études ont montré que ces stéréotypes sont plus puissants que ceux liés à l’origine ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Des stéréotypes négatifs liés à l’avancée en âge sont fréquemment observés en population générale. Des études ont montré que ces stéréotypes sont plus puissants que ceux liés à l’origine ethnique, au sexe ou à l’orientation sexuelle. Lorsqu’ils sont présents chez les soignants, ces stéréotypes peuvent entrainer des discriminations et limiter l’accès aux soins des personnes âgées (Schroyen et al., 2016). Il a en outre été démontré qu’un comportement d’aide injustifiée pouvait favoriser la perte d’autonomie chez une personne âgée. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer la force des stéréotypes âgistes chez les étudiants en médecine et de rechercher les facteurs qui y sont associés. Méthodes: Un questionnaire écrit informatisé a été proposé aux étudiants en médecine des facultés de Rennes, Brest et Liège, de la 2ème à la 6ème année. Il associe trois mesures : l’Adaptation française de Fraboni Scale of Ageism, une tâche de fluence verbale à propos du vieillissement et de la jeunesse, et une mesure de la stigmatisation liée à l’âge par estimation de pourcentages. Résultats: Des données ont été obtenues pour 570 étudiants à Rennes et 485 à Liège; le recueil de données se poursuit à Brest. Les premières analyses confirment que l’âgisme est largement répandu chez les étudiants en médecine, avec des résultats globalement similaires à Rennes et Liège. Les étudiants de sexe masculins, ceux qui ont peu de contact avec des personnes âgées, ou qui ont des contacts jugés de mauvaise qualité, sont plus susceptibles d’exprimer des stéréotypes âgistes. Le fait d’avoir fait un stage dans un service de gériatrie ou d’avoir bénéficié d’un enseignement de la gériatrie ne semble pas influencer significativement ces stéréotypes. Conclusion: L’enseignement de la gériatrie aux étudiants en médecine doit prendre en compte la fréquence des stéréotypes âgistes. Nos résultats étant soumis à un biais de désirabilité sociale, des études portant sur les stéréotypes implicites (inconscients) seraient utiles. Une meilleure connaissance de l'âgisme et de ses déterminants chez les étudiants en médecine est nécessaire à l'élaboration d'approches pédagogiques susceptibles de limiter les conséquences de ces stéréotypes sur la qualité des soins aux personnes âgées [less ▲]

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See detailATTITUDES AND BELIEFS CONCERNING LOW BACK PAIN AMONG PHYSIOTHERAPY STUDENTS IN BELGIUM AND THE NETHERLANDS: A CROSSSECTIONAL STUDY
Leysen, M.; Nijs, J.; Van Wilgen, C.P. et al

in Back to Specific Low Back Pain (2016, November)

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See detailDevices for less invasive surfactant therapy: a manikin study
RIGO, Vincent ULg; Debauche, Christian; Maton, Pierre et al

in European Journal of Pediatrics (2016, November), 175(11), 1756

Background: “Less invasive surfactant therapy” (LIST), or tracheal instillation of surfactant through a small catheter in spontaneously breathing infants, is gaining popularity. Different catheters are ... [more ▼]

Background: “Less invasive surfactant therapy” (LIST), or tracheal instillation of surfactant through a small catheter in spontaneously breathing infants, is gaining popularity. Different catheters are currently used for this purpose: a nasogastric tube inserted with (LISA) or without (Take Care) Magill’s forceps, a 13 cm 16G adult angiocath (MIST), a 30 cm F4 angiography catheter (Stockholm). We developed a specific device by combining a F5 umbilical catheter and an intubation stylet (Liege). We aimed to compare those 5 devices using INSURE as a reference. Methods: 20 neonatologists from 4 institutions supporting different surfactant instillation policies intubated 2 manikin heads with the 5 catheters and an endotracheal tube in a predetermined random sequence. Water was flushed trough the catheter. Video review provided times between laryngoscope (T1) or catheter insertion (T2) in the mouth and water flowing from the trachea. Participants gave an ease of use score (range: 1-9) for each catheter. Results: Procedural times were longer with the Take Care method and shorter with the Liège device (Table). Failure rates were higher for LIST procedures than for INSURE. Take Care and LISA were rated as more difficult, while Liège, Stockholm and INSURE were considered easier. Conclusions: LIST procedures remain difficult, even on a manikin. The choice of catheter is important. A device combining the rigidity of a stylet with the soft distal end of an umbilical catheter is associated with procedures of shorter duration and is considered easier by neonatologists. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of rep-PCR as molecular typing method for dermatophytes
SACHELI, Rosalie ULg; ADJETEY BAHUN, Akolé ULg; DARFOUF, Rajae ULg et al

Conference (2016, October 29)

Background The distinction of dermatophytes strains by conventional methods is problematic due to a lack of reliable characteristics between isolates. The ability to identify individual organisms allows ... [more ▼]

Background The distinction of dermatophytes strains by conventional methods is problematic due to a lack of reliable characteristics between isolates. The ability to identify individual organisms allows identification of infection sources, such as communal swimming and public washing rooms and apply appropriate control measures. Several outbreaks of dermatophytes infection have already been described in Europe and the feasibility of comparing DNA fingerprints is of interest in this particular field. We have successfully applied the rep-PCR method for typing dermatophytes species such as Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton violaceum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex (T.mentagrophytes complex). Methods The Diversilab® system (bioMérieux, France) has been used to perform rep-PCR. Strains of M. audouinii (116) and T. violaceum (23) were collected during a national survey conducted by the National Reference center (NRC) for mycoses (Liège) in Belgium from February 2013 to March 2014. Strains of T. mentagrophytes complex (32) are part of the national collection of the NRC collected between 2012 and 2015. Results The Diversilab® is able to distinguish different subspecies between the same species complex as it was confirmed with the T. mentagrophytes complex. For this group of strains, two major groups are clearly visible after Diversilab analysis and correspond to white strains (ITS sequenced as T. interdigitale) and yellow strains (ITS sequenced as A. benhamiae) of T. mentagrophytes complex. Both groups share only 70% of similarity. Within a same species of dermatophyte, the Rep-PCR is also able to define several subgroups sometimes linked with epidemiological factors. Inside the T. violaceum strains circulating in Belgium, two different DNA fingerprints have been found. These two subgroups were well separated regarding the geographical location in Belgium (Wallonia and Flanders). Inside the M. audouinii species, 6 different DNA fingerprints have been detected with a main group. The degree of similarity between these six groups is comprised between 85,6% and 94%. Strains belonging to the six groups were defined as M. audouinii by ITS sequencing. Conclusion The DiversiLab® system with the Rep-PCR technology proved to be an efficient method for dermatophytes molecular typing. It is highly sensitive to discriminate small genotypic variation between two strains within the same species which is not possible with other molecular methods such as ITS sequencing. Inside the T. mentagrophytes complex, it permits to easily distinguish the yellow zoophilic strains from the white anthropophilic strain, hardly possible by microscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailLa formation de la classe bourgeoise
Oulc'hen, Hervé ULg

Conference (2016, October 29)

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See detail"Madame Bovary c'est moi"
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, October 29)

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See detailSiamo tutti animisti ? L'interazione con gli altri animali attraverso la cura del loro spirito
Servais, Véronique ULg

Conference (2016, October 29)

L’hypothèse générale qui sous-tend cette conférence est que le mental animal est une perception émergente liée aux conditions de l’interaction entre une personne humaine et un animal. Si on compare la ... [more ▼]

L’hypothèse générale qui sous-tend cette conférence est que le mental animal est une perception émergente liée aux conditions de l’interaction entre une personne humaine et un animal. Si on compare la manière dont un chercheur ou un propriétaire d’animal de compagnie perçoivent les caractéristiques mentales de leur animal, il est évident que le type de « mind » qui est perçu est le produit d’une interaction, d’une manière de se relier au monde de la vie, ainsi que d’un certain nombre de conceptions sur « ce qu’est » un animal. C’est ainsi que des modalités relationnelles différentes vont amener un sujet à expérimenter/découvrir des minds animaux très différents. C’est à cela que je vous propose de nous intéresser ici [less ▲]

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See detailHow to measure accurately blood pressure in hemodialysis patients?
VANDERWECKENE, Pauline ULg; SAINT-REMY, Annie ULg; KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg

Conference (2016, October 29)

Objective : Blood pressure (BP) control in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients is a major challenge and could explain the controversial results about its cardiovascular risk. Our study aimed to assess the ... [more ▼]

Objective : Blood pressure (BP) control in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients is a major challenge and could explain the controversial results about its cardiovascular risk. Our study aimed to assess the contribution of two ambulatory techniques of measurements compared with office BP (OBP): ambulatory monitoring during a maximum of 44h interdialytic period (ABPM) and home blood pressure (HBPM) during a variable period of days in prevalent HD patients. Methodology : 43 prevalent chronically HD patients (M=28; F=15), mean age 68.3±13 years were submitted to a 44h monitoring of BP (Spacelabs 90207) from the end of an HD session to 10 minutes before the next session, immediately followed by a 7days HBPM (Omron M6). Office BP was the mean of pre-dialysis BP or post-dialysis-BP recorded over 2 weeks (6 HD sessions). Hypertension was defined as BP equal or higher than 140/90 mmHg for pre-HD, 130/80 mmHg for post-HD, 130/80 mmHg for 44 h ABPM and 135/85 mmHg for HBPM. Results : Good correlations were noted between ABPM and HBPM for the diagnosis of hypertension in HD patients. Both ambulatory techniques give the same proportion of masked hypertension and white coat hypertension compared with OBP (25%). The best diagnostic precision was noted for the longest periods of recordings (44h for ABPM and 7days for HBPM). Shorter periods were more practical for the patients but less precise for high BP identification. HBPM was more appreciated than ABPM by the patients Conclusion : ABPM and HBPM identified a quarter of patients with a particular phenotype of hypertension not correctly classified by OBP. HBPM should be first recommended in HD (at least 1 week/month). As ABPM provides unique information for nocturnal BP, it could be proposed 1 time/year in all patients. [less ▲]

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See detailActualités fiscales européennes: impacts sur les impôts directs en Belgique
Richelle, Isabelle ULg

Conference (2016, October 29)

actualités en matière de fiscalité européenne - impôts directs

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See detailPhenomenological and logical foundations of geometry
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

Conference (2016, October 29)

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See detailThe BCCM/ULC collection to conserve the biodiversity and explore the applied potential of Polar cyanobacteria
Becker, Pierre; SZTERNFELD, P; ANDJELKOVIC, M et al

Poster (2016, October 28)

In the Polar Regions, Cyanobacteria represent key primary producers and are the main drivers of the food webs in a wide range of aquatic to terrestrial habitats. For example, they build benthic microbial ... [more ▼]

In the Polar Regions, Cyanobacteria represent key primary producers and are the main drivers of the food webs in a wide range of aquatic to terrestrial habitats. For example, they build benthic microbial mats in lakes and soil crusts in terrestrial biotopes. They may present interesting features to survive freeze/thaw cycles, seasonally contrasted light intensities, high UV radiations, dessication and other stresses. The BCCM/ULC public collection funded by the Belgian Science Policy Office since 2011 aims to gather a representative portion of the polar cyanobacterial diversity with different ecological origins (limnetic mats, soil crusts, cryoconites, endoliths…). It makes it available for researchers to study the taxonomy, evolution, adaptations to harsh environmental conditions, and genomic make-up. It presently includes 226 cyanobacterial strains, with 119 being of Antarctic origin (catalogue: http://bccm.belspo.be/catalogues/ulc-catalogue-search). An ISO 9001 certificate was obtained for the public deposition and distribution of strains, as part of the multi-site certification for the BCCM consortium. The morphological identification shows that the strains belong to the orders Synechococcales, Oscillatoriales, Pleurocapsales, Chroococcidiopsidales and Nostocales. The 16S rRNA and ITS sequences of the strains are being characterized. Our results show that the Antarctic strains are positioned into 25 OTUs (sequences with > 97,5% 16S rRNA similarity), and thus, represent a quite large diversity. In addition, cyanobacteria are known to produce a wide range of secondary metabolites (e.g. alkaloids, cyclic and linear peptides, polyketides) with bioactive potential. Among these bioactive metabolites, some display antibiotic, anticancer or antifungal effects. In collaboration with the BCCM/IHEM collection of biomedical fungi, a screening of cyanobacterial strains from BCCM/ULC was performed in order to discover potential new antifungal drugs. The analysis of a first set of methanol extracts from 15 different strains put in evidence the antifungal activity of a Phormidium priestleyi isolate. The latter remains active up to 0.5% (v/v) of fungal culture and was able to inhibit the growth of various fungal species among Candida, Cryptococcus, Aspergillus, and Penicillium. The raw extract was subjected to HPLC and a fraction containing the active molecule was obtained. This molecule appeared to be a thermostable hydrophobic compound. Moreover, in vitro toxicological analyses suggest that the compound has a general cytotoxic effect that could be inhibited by the mammalian metabolism. Further analyses are needed to identify the molecule and to determine if it could be a candidate for a new antifungal drug. In summary, the BCCM/ULC public collection serves as a Biological Resource Centre to conserve ex situ and document the biodiversity of polar cyanobacteria, as well as a repository for discovery of novel bioactive compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ‘cyanobiome’ of Svalbard, High Arctic
Stelmach Pessi, Igor ULg; Laughinghouse, H Dail; Velazquez, David et al

Poster (2016, October 28)

Over the last decades, the Arctic has experienced a warming trend that is nearly twice as high as the global average, a phenomenon known as ‘Arctic amplification’. The impact of warmer temperatures on ... [more ▼]

Over the last decades, the Arctic has experienced a warming trend that is nearly twice as high as the global average, a phenomenon known as ‘Arctic amplification’. The impact of warmer temperatures on Arctic ecosystems is still unclear. Cyanobacteria are the key primary producers in freshwater and terrestrial Arctic ecosystems, where they are the driver for numerous ecological functions. For a better understanding of the impacts of climate change on Arctic ecosystems, baseline knowledge on cyanobacterial diversity and distribution is crucial. Here we investigate, for the first time, the biogeographic patterns of cyanobacterial communities across Svalbard, using 454 pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. Samples were taken from distinct ecosystems and biogeographic zones. We also compare the studied communities with similar Antarctic communities. [less ▲]

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See detailLes masques de Sartre: de l'anthropologie à Frantz Fanon et Hubert Lyautey
Cormann, Grégory ULg

Conference (2016, October 28)

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See detailDeriving cultural heritage values: the use of social media
Ginzarly, Manal ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Old and New Media for the Image of the Landscape (2016, October 28)

Nel 2011 l’UNESCO ha adottato la Raccomandazione sul Paesaggio Storico Urbano che mira al riconoscimento e all'identificazione della stratificazione e dell'interconnessione dei valori - naturali e ... [more ▼]

Nel 2011 l’UNESCO ha adottato la Raccomandazione sul Paesaggio Storico Urbano che mira al riconoscimento e all'identificazione della stratificazione e dell'interconnessione dei valori - naturali e culturali, materiali e immateriali, internazionali e locali – riscontrabili in qualsiasi città storica, concepita come un “patrimonio vivente” delle comunità. In tale visione il patrimonio culturale urbano è un elemento riconosciuto non solo dagli esperti, ma dalle intere società che ne valutano gli elementi identitari mirando a conservarli per le generazioni future. La Raccomandazione, in particolare, sostiene che per l'interpretazione e la conservazione del patrimonio culturale si può beneficiare di metodi di valutazione tradizionali e di metodi innovativi basati su dati geo-localizzati e sui dati digitali dei social media, come tweets geo-localizzati, impronte digitali e foto su Flickr. Il presente contributo illustra una metodologia basata sull’analisi delle immagini su Flickr. Dai risultati ottenuti si è evinto che proprio l’indagine dei social media può contribuire ad una comprensione significativa dei valori culturali del contesto urbano, fornendo così la possibilità di una migliore integrazione dei valori socio-culturali riconosciuti dalla collettività nei processi di conservazione e di pianificazione urbana. [less ▲]

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See detailCase report: Ovarian fibroma in a mare – Hormonal considerations
Ponthier, Jérôme ULg; Salciccia, Alexandra ULg; Parrilla Hernandez, Sonia ULg et al

in Reproduction in Domestic Animals (2016, October 27), 51(supplement 2), 132

This report shows that, as in humans, AMH as well as steroids productions are low in case of ovarian fibroma, thus preserving normal cyclicity.

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See detailINFLUENCE OF THE DATASETS CHOICE ON LCA RESULTS: EXAMPLE OF GLUCOSE PRODUCTION
Gerbinet, Saïcha ULg; Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

Conference (2016, October 27)

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production to be able to study material produce from glucose. Glucose is general-ly produced from corn or wheat ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study is to have a good understanding of the environmental impact of glucose production to be able to study material produce from glucose. Glucose is general-ly produced from corn or wheat. Since agricultural processes are known to be difficult to evaluate by LCA, the results obtained with two different LCA databases, Gabi and EcoIn-vent, are compared in this work. The production of glucose from raw materials can be divided in two steps: the agricul-tural step allowing the plant production, and the conversion step including the extraction of the starch from the plant and its hydrolysis into glucose. Preliminary results underline the high impact of the agricultural step, so a special attention has been paid to these data. Specific Belgian data collected by the Walloon Agricultural Research Centre (CRA-W) (2014) [1] have been used as primary data (yield, amount of fertilizers, etc.), either using EcoInvent or Gabi datasets background data to model fertilizers, diesel consumption, etc. A third model was built using only data available in Ecoinvent for corn and wheat cultures. For the conversion step, literature data have been used along with some industrial data. As few studies are available in the literature concerning starch hydrolysis, the focus has been placed on data validation (mass balance checks, cross-reference information, etc.). Based on these multiple sources, it is possible to compare the LCA results for the pro-duction of 1 kg of glucose for three different cases, summarized in the following table. Table 1: Summary of modelled cases Agricultural step Conversion steps Primary data Dataset Primary data Dataset Case 1 Belgian GaBi Literature + Industry GaBi Case 2 Belgian Ecoinvent Literature + Industry Ecoinvent Case 2 Ecoinvent Literature + Industry Ecoinvent The results obtained using these three models will be presented, at both the inventory and impact assessment steps. They show significant differences and highlight the need to understand in depth the involved assumptions when developing the datasets, in addition to the ones adopted for the inventory. These differences in results lead to higher uncer-tainties, allowing only to have a range of possible values as a result. We make the choice to only communicate this range of value and not an absolute value when communicating the results of this study but this leads to some disadvantages such as difficulties in com-parison, etc. [less ▲]

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