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See detailIs there an alphabet of Moroccan cuisine? Notes on the materiality of cooking and eating.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2016, July)

Short Abstract Stemming from the ethnographic material collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group Moroccan of women in Milan to study their food practices, this paper focuses on ... [more ▼]

Short Abstract Stemming from the ethnographic material collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group Moroccan of women in Milan to study their food practices, this paper focuses on the materiality of cooking and eating through adopting a micro-structural approach. Long Abstract Inspired by the work of Lévi-Strauss (1964) aimed at identifying the relationships of mutual intelligibility underlying some social and cultural facts such as the treatment of food, this paper will focus on the materiality of cooking and eating through adopting a micro-structural approach. The ethnographic data collected during an eighteen months fieldwork conducted among a group of Moroccan women in Milan to study their cooking and eating habits will be analysed by paying particular attention to the practices and elements that made the "alphabet" of Moroccan cuisine. This means that, if we considered dishes as complex sentences which can be deciphered by people that share a same language, we could try to identify the littlest components that made them happen. Which norms regulated the combination of ingredients? Which ways of cooking described this food culture? Which gestures and embodied knowledge seemed essential to give an intelligible cultural connotation to the cooking and eating of food? Which variations were admitted? The analysis of the actors' discourses and practices will show how Lévi-Strauss approach and model to the study of foodways can meet a material culture approach and still be relevant nowadays. [less ▲]

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See detailSymposium. Quels leviers pour aider les élèves à résoudre des tâches complexes ?
Colognesi, Stéphane; Fagnant, Annick ULg; Hanin, Vanessa et al

Conference (2016, July)

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See detailModelling Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Blood Glucose Dynamics as a Monotone System
Sootla, Aivar ULg; Cescon, Marzia

Conference (2016, July)

In this presentation, we study an FDA-approved Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) blood glucose dynamics simulator used in the majority of the practical studies on Artificial Pancreas (AP). We show that ... [more ▼]

In this presentation, we study an FDA-approved Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) blood glucose dynamics simulator used in the majority of the practical studies on Artificial Pancreas (AP). We show that under some physiologically plausible assumptions, the glucoregulatory system described by the model is monotone. This means that the system generates trajectories which are monotone with respect to specific changes in initial conditions and control signals. This strong property leads to many interesting observations. By using monotonicity, for example, it becomes straightforward to compute bounds on glucose concentration subject to variations in intake of carbohydrates and insulin injections. Monotonicity also rigorously justifies recent studies on fundamental limitations in glucose control. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom nature to culture? Lévi-Strauss' legacy and the study of contemporary foodways
Mescoli, Elsa ULg; Graf, Katharina

Conference (2016, July)

n the first volume of his Mythologiques, entitled The Raw and the Cooked, Claude Lévi-Strauss argued that the preparation of food is a form of language that reveals a society's structure. For Lévi-Strauss ... [more ▼]

n the first volume of his Mythologiques, entitled The Raw and the Cooked, Claude Lévi-Strauss argued that the preparation of food is a form of language that reveals a society's structure. For Lévi-Strauss, the so-called culinary triangle of the raw, the rotten and the cooked represents a semantic field within which the various forms of transformation of food from nature into culture play a key role. Since Lévi-Strauss, following extensive changes to food production, preparation and consumption, the notion of cooking has become ever more diversified, and became increasingly contentious. Yet, the multiple ways of combining and processing ingredients still give social and cultural meanings to food and trigger the creation of sociabilities and belongings through its own destruction (Gell 1986). This panel aims to explore Levi-Strauss' legacy and evaluate its usefulness in today's context from different angles, ranging from domestic food preparation to industrial production and global circulations of food. To what extent can this concept still provide an interpretative framework of topical food issues? Which contemporary myths does it shed light on? How could it be deployed to read the history of food and link it to contemporary questions? This panel welcomes papers on the history of food preparation, contemporary food preparation, including debates in professional and multimedia circles, various forms of food production and the possible transformation of food within globalised food markets. Although mobilizing a classic anthropological theory, this panel aims to be interdisciplinary and to present a diverse range of analytical perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailPlant-insect interactions from the Late Oligocene Ebro Basin (Estadilla, Huesca, Spain): A preliminary report
Moreno-Domínguez, Rafael; Cascales-Miñana, Borja ULg; Santos, A. A. et al

Poster (2016, July)

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See detailInventaire et typologie des listes grecques et latines de produits pharmaceutiques
Ricciardetto, Antonio ULg

in Derda, Tomasz; Lajtar, Adam; Urbanik, Jakub (Eds.) Proceedings of the XXVIIth International Congress of Papyrology. Warsaw, 29 July - 3 August 2013 (2016, July)

Dans la documentation papyrologique relative aux pratiques médicales de l’Égypte gréco-romaine et byzantine, le genre des listes de produits pharmaceutiques n’a encore jamais fait l’objet, ni d’un ... [more ▼]

Dans la documentation papyrologique relative aux pratiques médicales de l’Égypte gréco-romaine et byzantine, le genre des listes de produits pharmaceutiques n’a encore jamais fait l’objet, ni d’un inventaire, ni d’une étude exhaustifs. Dans le cadre de nos recherches doctorales sur la typologie des papyrus documentaires grecs et latins à caractère médical, c’est cette lacune que l’on se propose de combler, d’une part en cataloguant, au moyen de la fiche Mertens-Pack³ du CEDOPAL, la trentaine de listes de produits pharmaceutiques provenant d’Égypte, écrites en grec sur papyrus et ostracon (IIIe s. av. J.-Chr.-VIIe s. apr. J.-Chr.), auxquelles on ajoutera deux listes latines sur tablettes de bois, provenant du camp romain de Vindolanda (c. 100p), et, d’autre part, en analysant les aspects formels, paléographiques, textuels et contextuels de ces documents médicaux qui peuvent correspondre, soit à un inventaire de droguiste, soit à une commande, soit à une ou plusieurs recettes dont l’état fragmentaire du support a fait disparaître les proportions. On comparera les données obtenues avec d’autres pièces papyrologiques, spécialement les nombreuses prescriptions médicales, ainsi que les comptes, les reçus de paiement ou encore les lettres privées relatives à des demandes de médicaments ou à la livraison de substances pharmaceutiques. [less ▲]

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See detailA Frasnian palynological assemblage from the NE Iberian Chain
Rial, Gonzalo; Cascales-Miñana, Borja ULg; Gerrienne, Philippe ULg et al

Poster (2016, July)

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See detailLeveraging orientation knowledge to enhance human pose estimation methods
Azrour, Samir ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Articulated Motion and Deformable Objects AMDO 2016 (2016, July)

Predicting accurately and in real-time 3D body joint positions from a depth image is the cornerstone for many safety, biomedical, and entertainment applications. Despite the high quality of the depth ... [more ▼]

Predicting accurately and in real-time 3D body joint positions from a depth image is the cornerstone for many safety, biomedical, and entertainment applications. Despite the high quality of the depth images, the accuracy of existing human pose estimation methods from single depth images remains insufficient for some applications. In order to enhance the accuracy, we suggest to leverage a rough orientation estimation to dynamically select a 3D joint position prediction model specialized for this orientation. This orientation estimation can be obtained in real-time either from the image itself, or from any other clue like tracking. We demonstrate the merits of this general principle on a pose estimation method similar to the one used with Kinect cameras. Our results show that the accuracy is improved by up to 45.1 %, with respect to a method using the same model for all orientations. [less ▲]

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See detailOn (Eventually) Monotone Dynamical Systems and Positive Koopman Semigroups
Sootla, Aivar ULg; Mauroy, Alexandre ULg

Conference (2016, July)

Monotone systems are dynamical systems whose solutions preserve a partial order in initial conditions for all times. It stands to reason that some systems may preserve a partial order only after an ... [more ▼]

Monotone systems are dynamical systems whose solutions preserve a partial order in initial conditions for all times. It stands to reason that some systems may preserve a partial order only after an initial transient. These systems are usually called eventually monotone. While monotone systems have an easy characterization in terms of the sign pattern of the Jacobian matrix (i.e. Kamke-M\"uller condition), eventually monotone systems have not been characterized in such an explicit manner. In order to provide such a characterization, we drew inspiration from the results for linear systems, where eventually monotone (positive) systems are studied using the spectral properties of the system (i.e. Perron-Frobenius property). In the case of nonlinear systems, a spectral characterization of nonlinear eventually monotone systems is not straightforward, but can be obtained in the framework of the so-called Koopman operator. Additionally, we explore connections between (eventual) monotonicity and (eventual) positivity of the Koopman semigroup. This allows to view our results as a generalization of the Perron-Frobenius theory to nonlinear dynamical systems. We consider a biologically inspired example to illustrate the applicability of eventual monotonicity. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of NIR hyperspectral imaging combined to chemometrics to assess the impact of tillage on the root system development of a winter wheat crop
Fraipont, Guillaume ULg; Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Baeten, Vincent et al

Poster (2016, July)

This poster presents de results of a study of the influence of tillage on the root development of a winter wheat crop. The originality of this research lies in the application of an innovative root ... [more ▼]

This poster presents de results of a study of the influence of tillage on the root development of a winter wheat crop. The originality of this research lies in the application of an innovative root quantification method based on the near infrared hyperspectral imaging. [less ▲]

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See detailTechno-economic evaluation of self-consumption with PV/battery systems under different regulation schemes
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Zucker, Andreas

in Proceedings of the 29th international conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimisation, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems (2016, July)

The recent disclosure of new and innovative home battery systems has been seen by many as a catalyser for a solar energy revolution, and has created high expectations in the sector. Many observers have ... [more ▼]

The recent disclosure of new and innovative home battery systems has been seen by many as a catalyser for a solar energy revolution, and has created high expectations in the sector. Many observers have predicted an uptake of combined PV/Battery units, which, could ultimately disconnect from the grid and lead to autonomous homes or mini-grids. However, most of the comments originating from social media, blogs or press articles lack proper cost evaluation and realistic simulations. This work aims at bridging this gap by simulating self-consumption in different EU countries, for different household profiles with or without battery. Results indicate that (1) Although decreasing at a fast pace, the cost of domestic Li-Ion storage is most likely still too high for a large-scale market uptake in Europe; (2) PV incentives based on net metering are not favourable to home batteries; (3) Home battery profitability and future uptake mainly depend on the indirect self-consumption subsidies provided by the structure of the retail prices; (4) These systems do not allow residential consumers to go off-grid. They only allow for a maximum self-sufficiency ratio close to 70%. [less ▲]

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See detailInterspecific variation of warning calls in piranhas: comparative analysis
Mélotte, Geoffrey ULg; Michel, Christian ULg; Vigouroux, Régis et al

Poster (2016, July)

Fish sounds are often considered as species-specific with unique temporal and spectral features. Differences between acoustic signals of closely related species could be considered as pre-zygotic barrier ... [more ▼]

Fish sounds are often considered as species-specific with unique temporal and spectral features. Differences between acoustic signals of closely related species could be considered as pre-zygotic barrier and could be related to the evolutionary history of the species. In the present study, sounds were recorded and compared in eight piranha species (Serrasalmus elongatus, Serrasalmus marginatus, Serrasalmus compressus, Serrasalmus manueli, Serrasalmus spilopleura, Serrasalmus rhombeus, Serrasalmus eigenmanni and Pygocentrus nattereri) in order to evaluate the potential role of acoustic communication as a driving force in the clade diversification. The same kind of sound-producing mechanism was found in all the species: sonic muscles originate on vertebrae and attach to a tendon surrounding ventrally the bladder. Contractions of the sound-producing muscles force swimbladder vibration. Having the same kind of sound-producing mechanism, the calling features of the eight piranha species show logically many common characteristics. In all the species, the calls are harmonic sounds composed of several pulses without inter-pulse interval. It was possible to discern species-specific sounds, but the differences among species could be, in part, explained by the size. Only the sounds of S. elongatus and S. manueli are really distinguishable from the other species. Serrasalmus elongatus differed by having a higher number of pulses and high-pitched fundamental frequency, whereas S. manueli differed by having long pulse periods and a low fundamental frequency. In the framework of this study, acoustic communication cannot be considered as the main driving force in the diversification process of piranhas. Behavioral studies are however needed to clearly understand the eventual role of the calls during the spawning events. [less ▲]

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See detailQuadratic reformulations of nonlinear binary optimization problems
Crama, Yves ULg

Conference (2016, July)

A {\em pseudo-Boolean function} is a real-valued function $f(x)=f(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)$ of $n$ binary variables, that is, a mapping from $\{0,1\}^n$ to $\mathbf R$. \emph{Nonlinear binary optimization ... [more ▼]

A {\em pseudo-Boolean function} is a real-valued function $f(x)=f(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n)$ of $n$ binary variables, that is, a mapping from $\{0,1\}^n$ to $\mathbf R$. \emph{Nonlinear binary optimization problems} of the form \begin{equation}\label{eq:PBO} \min \{ f(x) : x \in \{0,1\}^n \}, \end{equation}, where $f$ is a pseudo-Boolean function expressed as a multilinear polynomial in its variables, are notoriously difficult. For a pseudo-Boolean function $f(x)$ on $\{0,1\}^n$, we say that $g(x,y)$ is a \emph{quadratization} of $f$ if $g(x,y)$ is a quadratic polynomial depending on $x$ and on $m$ \emph{auxiliary} binary variables $y_1,y_2,\ldots,y_m$ such that $f(x)= \min \{ g(x,y) : y \in \{0,1\}^m \} $ for all $x \in \{0,1\}^n$. By means of quadratizations, minimization of $f$ is reduced to minimization (over the extended set of variables) of the quadratic function $g(x,y)$. This is of practical interest because minimization of quadratic functions has been thoroughly studied for the last few decades, and much progress has been made in solving such problems exactly or heuristically. This talk addresses two main types of questions. First, we want to determine the minimum number of auxiliary $y$-variables required in a quadratization of an arbitrary function~$f$. This question is rather natural since the complexity of minimizing the quadratic function $g(x,y)$ heavily depends (among other factors) on the number of binary variables~$(x,y)$. We establish tight lower and upper bounds on the number of auxiliary variables needed in such a reformulation. Next, we determine more precisely the number of auxiliary variables required by quadratizations of \emph{symmetric} pseudo-Boolean functions $f(x)$, i.e., functions whose value only depends on the number of variables equal to~$1$. [less ▲]

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See detailPaleoenvironmental implications in the dried lake sediments (Amik Lake, Southern Turkey)
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg et al

Poster (2016, July)

The Amik Basin in the Eastern Mediterranean region has been continuously inhabited since 6000 – 7000 BC. The study focuses on the sedimentary record of the Amik Lake located in the central part of the ... [more ▼]

The Amik Basin in the Eastern Mediterranean region has been continuously inhabited since 6000 – 7000 BC. The study focuses on the sedimentary record of the Amik Lake located in the central part of the basin. Our objective is to constrain major paleo-environmental changes in the area over the last 4000 years and to unravel possible human impacts on the sedimentation. A diverse array of complementary methods was applied on the 6 m long record. Mineralogical (XRD), and geochemical (XRF) analyses were performed. The age of the record is constrained combining radionuclide and radiocarbon dating. A high sedimentation rate of 0.12 cm/yr was inferred at the studied site. The 4000 years (since ~1800 BC) long record shows that significant fluctuations of the lake level and the riverine system inflow into the Amik Lake occurred. The Late Bronze lowstand led to punctual dryings of the lake at the end of the Bronze/Iron Age transition. At that time, the rivers yielded a large terrigenous input linked to strong soil erosion related mainly to deforestation and exploitation of mineral resources. During the Roman and later periods, upland soils were partly depleted and the riverine system completely transformed by channelization (anthropic) that led to a marshification of the Amik Basin [1]. Chemical and mineralogical composition of sediments is quite diversified reflecting the significant geological variation of drainage basins. Periods with strong aggradation linked to major increase in erosion were identified and characterized by high amount of Cr, Ni and Zr. Levels relatively rich in fluorite, richterite, enstatite, hornblende and chrysotile are a result of the erosion of the ophiolitic rocks from the surrounding Amanos Mountains. These levels are interpreted as periods of relatively high physical erosion, while more humid periods led to more intensive weathering. Consequently, the dominance of kaolinite, muscovite/illite and talc indicates a climate with contrasting seasons. During the most recent period a marked increase in terrigenous minerals associated with a rise in dolomite indicates ungoing erosion as well as the drying-out of the lake. [1] T.J. Wilkinson, L. Rayne, Water History, 2, 115-144 (2010). [less ▲]

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See detailBioclimatism in Architecture : an evolutionary perspective from vernacular architecture to eco-adaptive architecture
Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

Conference (2016, July)

The well-known Darwinian evolutionary theory (1859) introduced natural selection as the most important mechanism of evolutionary processes at every level from biological systems, including species ... [more ▼]

The well-known Darwinian evolutionary theory (1859) introduced natural selection as the most important mechanism of evolutionary processes at every level from biological systems, including species, individual organisms… to molecules such as DNA or proteins. In architecture we observe similar evolution processes which lead to the development of various architectural movements and concepts from common primitive living structures. The study points out that the development of bioclimatism in architecture has followed the pattern of a natural evolutionary process in which “natural selection” is likely motivated by several factors, including resources and environment problems, and driven by different mechanisms including novel building design concepts and methods, new standards and codes, discoveries in building science and construction costs. Finally, this study investigates new motivations in the era of climate change whose effects are expected to introduce more challenges as well as more trends towards a sustainable built environment through the new concept of Eco-adaptive architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailPerception of pitch accuracy in melodies: A categorical or continuous phenomenon?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Franz, Simone; Poeppel, David

Conference (2016, July)

In western music, a semitone constitutes a theoretical and perceptual boundary between tones and is defined as a unit for categorical perception of intervals (Burns & Ward, 1978). However, melodic ... [more ▼]

In western music, a semitone constitutes a theoretical and perceptual boundary between tones and is defined as a unit for categorical perception of intervals (Burns & Ward, 1978). However, melodic perception does not rely exclusively on this category but also involves the notion of ‘correctness’. If we usually classify melodies as “in tune” or “out of tune” depending on the size of interval deviations (smaller than a semitone) along melodies, the transition between the two categories remains unclear. This study examines the process involved in pitch accuracy perception. Twenty-five participants identified melodies as “in tune” or “out of tune” and rated their confidence for each answer. The pitch manipulation consisted of the enlargement of an interval in 5 cent steps (from 0 to 50 cent deviation). The interval deviated was either a Major 2nd or a Perfect 4th and occurred in the middle or end of a 6-tone melody. The task was run twice, before and after an explicit definition of the two labels. Repeated measure ANOVAs were conducted to examine the effect of the deviation on the proportion of in- tune answers and on the confidence levels. For the participants who were able to learn the labels (n = 20), the proportion of in tune answers varies greatly according to the amplitude of the deviation and depended on the size of the interval manipulated. Associated with the confidence level measurement, the identification data support a categorical perception process. Interestingly, explicitly learning the labels increased the overall confidence but did not modify drastically the profile of the categories and the process behind the categorization. This study suggests that explicit learning is not necessary to develop higher order categories relative to “correctness”. Nevertheless, such a process seems limited to certain intervals. Further investigation of other intervals and individual differences seems promising to better understand the mechanisms underlying music perception. [less ▲]

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See detailLoad modulation strategies of residential heat pumps for demand-response programs with different thermal storage options
Georges, Emeline ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

in Proceedings of the 4th International High Performance Buildings Conference at Purdue (2016, July)

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See detailDroplet manipulation on fiber networks
Weyer, Floriane ULg; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd et al

Poster (2016, July)

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See detailSensitivity of the breaching process in the case of overtopping induced fluvial dike failure
Rifai, Ismail ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in River Flow 2016 Proceedings (2016, July)

Fluvial dikes are common structures constructed for flow channelization, prevention of river bed lateral migration and for flood protection purposes. Their aging increases their vulnerability to extreme ... [more ▼]

Fluvial dikes are common structures constructed for flow channelization, prevention of river bed lateral migration and for flood protection purposes. Their aging increases their vulnerability to extreme hydro-logical events, and subsequently may cause their failure. Many laboratory studies of overtopping induced dike failure were conducted, dealing mainly on normal configurations (i.e. dam break configuration) without ac-counting for the influence of a parallel flow. The fluvial dike breaching process remains, therefore, insuffi-ciently studied. A simplified model assuming a parameterized evolution of the breach geometry has been de-veloped to evaluate the fluvial breaching process. Results showed a sensitivity of the breaching process to the main channel configuration and to the flow conditions. Also, the evolution mode that was prescribed for the breach cross-section strongly influences the breaching duration and the sediment discharge [less ▲]

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See detailHeavy methane to explain the unexplained recent methane growth ?
Bader, Whitney ULg; Strong, Kim; Walker, Kaley

Poster (2016, July)

Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas emitted by human activities in the Earth’s atmosphere. Although it is roughly 200 times less abundant than carbon dioxide, it is a 28 times more ... [more ▼]

Methane (CH4) is the second most important greenhouse gas emitted by human activities in the Earth’s atmosphere. Although it is roughly 200 times less abundant than carbon dioxide, it is a 28 times more potent greenhouse gas. Approximately one fifth of the changes in the Earth’s balance energy caused by human-linked greenhouse gases since the beginning of industrialization (~1750) is due to methane. Methane is emitted by both natural sources and human activities. Indeed, methane can be emitted to the atmosphere through coal mining, oil and gas exploitation, rice cultures, domestic ruminant animals, biomass burning, waste management, wetlands, termites, methane hydrates and ocean. In the atmosphere, methane is mainly destroyed by the radical hydroxyl, also called the detergent of the atmosphere, and therefore plays a major role on the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere. Since the beginning of the industrialization, atmospheric methane concentrations have increased by 260% to reach 1824 pbb in 2013. From the 1980s until the beginning of the 1990s, atmospheric methane was significantly on the rise, then stabilized during 1999-2006 to rise again afterwards. To this day, the source or sink responsible of this latter increase remains unexplained. Through each emission process, heavy molecules of methane (with one additional neutron either on a carbon or on one hydrogen atom) are emitted along methane (12CH4). The main heavy molecules of methane, called isotopologues (13CH4 and CH3D), are respectively ~110 and ~60 000 times less abundant than methane. Despite their small abundances, they give crucial information on the concentration of methane in the atmosphere and its evolution. Indeed, both isotopologues are emitted with specific emission ratio depending on the emission sources. Determining isotopic ratio of atmospheric methane is therefore a unique tracer of its budget. While the non-monotonous trend of methane is subject of an extensive number of studies, to our knowledge, no study of the isotopic ratio of methane derived from ground-based solar observations has been published to date. Measurements of heavy methane from Fourier Transform InfraRed spectra recorded with state of the art spectrometers installed at Eureka [Arctic, Canada] and Toronto [Ontario, Canada] along with analysis of observations collected by a portable instrument [Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer for the Infrared, PARIS-IR], installed at Eureka will help fill this gap. Indeed, the produced time series, compared with the corresponding satellite observations (ACE-FTS) products will ease data interpretation and contribute to a global view of the question of isotopologues. [less ▲]

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See detailLeibniz et J.S. Bach
Dony, Arthur ULg

in Li, Wenchao (Ed.) "Für unser Glück oder das Glück anderer" : Vorträge des X. Internationalen Leibniz-Kongresses (2016, July)

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See detailCoherent backscattering in the Fock space of Bose- and Fermi-Hubbard systems
Engl, Thomas; Dujardin, Julien; Tisserond, Emilie et al

Poster (2016, July)

Coherent backscattering generally refers to a significant and robust enhancement of the average backscattering probability of a wave within a disordered medium, which from a semiclassical point of view ... [more ▼]

Coherent backscattering generally refers to a significant and robust enhancement of the average backscattering probability of a wave within a disordered medium, which from a semiclassical point of view arises due to the constructive interference between backscattered trajectories and their time-reversed counterparts. We recently investigated the manifestation of this wave interference phenomenon in the Fock space of a disordered Bose-Hubbard system of finite extent [1], which can potentially be realized using ultracold bosonic atoms within optical lattices. Preparing the atoms in a well-defined Fock state of the lattice and letting the system evolve for a finite time will, for suitable parameters of the system and upon some disorder average over random on-site energies of the lattice, generally give rise to an equidistribution of the occupation probability within the energy shell of the Fock space that corresponds to the initial energy of the system, in accordance with the quantum microcanonical ensemble. We find, however, that the initial state is twice as often encountered as other Fock states with comparable total energy, which is a consequence of coherent backscattering [1]. Most recently, we showed that this phenomenon also arises in spin 1/2 Fermi-Hubbard rings that involve Rashba hopping terms (which combine inter-site hoppings with spin flips and arise from spin-orbit coupling), for which a newly developed semiclassical theory [2] correctly predicts a coherent enhancement of the occupation probabilities of the initial state and its spin-flipped counterpart. Moreover, performing a global spin flip within this Fermi-Hubbard system will give rise to significant spin echo peaks on those two Fock states, which is again a consequence of quantum many-body interference [3]. The semiclassical predictions of these enhancements and peaks are found to be in very good agreement with numerical findings obtained from the exact quantum time evolution within this Fermi-Hubbard system. [1] T. Engl, J. Dujardin, A. Argüelles, P. Schlagheck, K. Richter, and J. D. Urbina, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 140403 (2014). [2] T. Engl, P. Plößl, J. D. Urbina, and K. Richter, Theoretical Chemistry Accounts 133, 1563 (2014). [3] T. Engl, J. D. Urbina, and K. Richter, arXiv:1409.5684. [less ▲]

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See detailDisrupted interaction between self and memory in patients with Alzheimer’s disease
Genon, Sarah ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg et al

Conference (2016, July)

In humans, self and memory processes interact as evidenced by the self reference (SRE) and self reference recollection effects (SRRE). However, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), this relationship ... [more ▼]

In humans, self and memory processes interact as evidenced by the self reference (SRE) and self reference recollection effects (SRRE). However, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), this relationship can be disrupted. This was evidenced by impaired SRE and SRRE in AD for recognition of adjectives previously judged for self-relevance, as well as recall of names of people previously linked to the self. For both materials, a qualitative impairment of the recollective experience for the self-related items was also observed in AD. A neuroimaging approach suggested that reduced SRE is related to decreased grey matter volume in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC). Thus, retrieval of recent self-related memories is impaired in relation to altered high-order processes in lPFC in AD. [less ▲]

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See detailSize and Value Matter But Not the Way You Thought
Lambert, Marie ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg; Fays, Boris ULg

Conference (2016, July)

We propose a simple but fundamental methodological change to Fama and French (1993) factor construction procedure. Consistent with Lambert and Hübner (2013) sequential sorting procedure to classify stocks ... [more ▼]

We propose a simple but fundamental methodological change to Fama and French (1993) factor construction procedure. Consistent with Lambert and Hübner (2013) sequential sorting procedure to classify stocks, our methodology controls ex ante for pricing errors produced by multifactor models. Our size and value factors deliver less specification errors when used to price portfolios, especially regarding low size and high B/M stocks. Furthermore, this alternative framework generates much stronger “turn-of-the-year” size and “through-the-year” book-to-market effects than conventionally documented. The factors also display a slight competitive advantage on the taxonomy of low turnover market anomalies defined by Novy-Marx and Velikov (2015). [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a Multipath TCP Aware Load Balancer
Lienardy, Simon ULg; Donnet, Benoît ULg

in Applied Networking Research Workshop (2016, July)

Multipath TCP has been recently introduced in order to allow a better resource consumption and user quality-of-experience. This is achieved by allowing a connection between two hosts through multiple ... [more ▼]

Multipath TCP has been recently introduced in order to allow a better resource consumption and user quality-of-experience. This is achieved by allowing a connection between two hosts through multiple subflows. However, with the rise of middleboxes and inherent Internet ossification, the large-scale deployment of this TCP extension is difficult. In particular, a load balancer at the entry point of a data center may forward subflows to different servers, canceling so the advantages of Multipath TCP. In this paper, we introduce MpLB, a Multipath TCP aware load balancer that fixes this particular issue without any modification to the Multipath TCP protocol itself. We demonstrate advantages of MpLB through a proof-of-concept. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of Mezoneuron benthamianum, a plant traditionally used against malaria in Guinea
Tchinda Tiabou, Alembert ULg; Loua, Jean; Esters, Virginie ULg et al

Poster (2016, July)

Despite some improvements in malaria control, this parasitic disease remains a major public health problem in many African countries, causing about 400 000 deaths/year through the continent, mainly by ... [more ▼]

Despite some improvements in malaria control, this parasitic disease remains a major public health problem in many African countries, causing about 400 000 deaths/year through the continent, mainly by children under the age of five (WHO, 2015). In Guinea, the leaves of Mezoneuron benthamianum Baill. are traditionally used to treat malaria (Traore et al., 2013) and showed a good antiplasmodial activity in an antiprotozoal in vitro screening (Traore et al., 2014), as well as promising results in a preliminary small-scale ethnomedical study (unpublished data), encouraging us to continue the study of this plant. The aim of this work was to evaluate the activity of M. benthamianum leaves extracts against P. falciparum using an in vitro test model (p-LDH assay) and to undertake a bio-guided fractionation to identify the compounds responsible for the activity. Hydroethanolic extracts (70% v/v) of M. benthamianum leaves showed a moderate in vitro activity against P. falciparum 3D7, with IC50 = 22.5 – 32.6 µg/ml, depending on the batch; while a dark precipitate formed during ethanol evaporation showed higher activity (IC50 = 6,5µg/ml). The bioguided fractionation was performed on this most active fraction and allowed the isolation of three diterpens, two flavonoids, resveratrol, gallic acid and its ethylester, β-sitosterol glucoside and pheophorbide derivatives. The active compounds belong to several phytochemical classes, including flavonoids, pheophorbide and gallic acid derivatives, contributing together to the global antiplasmodial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract against P. falciparum parasite. This study gives some concrete evidence to support the ethnopharmacological use of Mezoneuron benthamianum leaves extract in the management of malaria. The active compounds can be further studied for their antiplasmodial potential, as well as their suitability to be used as quality markers for the standardization of this herbal drug from the Guinean traditional pharmacopeia. [less ▲]

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See detailValidity and reliability of the French translation of the Patient-Related Tennis Elbow Evaluation Questionnaire
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; DELVAUX, François ULg; SCHAUS, Jean ULg et al

in Crossing borders through sport science (2016, July)

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was created to measure pain and ... [more ▼]

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was created to measure pain and functional disabilities specifically reported in patient with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). Developed in English, this questionnaire has since then been translated into several languages but not in French. Objectives: The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this new version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). Methods: The PRTEE was cross-culturally adapted into French according to the international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants filled in the PRTEE-F twice, and the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) once. Internal consistency (with Cronbach’s alpha), test-retest reliability (with intra-class correlation (ICC)), convergent and divergent validity (by calculating the Spearman’s correlation coefficients with the DASH and some sub scales of the SF-36, respectively) were assessed. Results: The PRTEE was translated in French without problem. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.83) and for each items (ICC 0.71-0.9) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (good convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlations with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. Conclusions: The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French the PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating the French-speaking patient with lateral elbow tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe mechanical control of peri-implant bone remodeling investigated by in vivo imaging and in silico modeling
Li, Zihui; Betts, Duncan; Kuhn, Gisela et al

Conference (2016, July)

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See detailPlanifier les leçons de stage
Scheepers, Caroline ULg

Conference (2016, July)

Il semble que la recherche se soit abondamment consacrée à ces écrits professionnalisants de nature scientifique et/ou réflexive que sont les mémoires professionnels, les portfolios ou les journaux de ... [more ▼]

Il semble que la recherche se soit abondamment consacrée à ces écrits professionnalisants de nature scientifique et/ou réflexive que sont les mémoires professionnels, les portfolios ou les journaux de bord. Mais si ces écrits visent à professionnaliser les enseignants, au sens où ils cherchent à leur faire acquérir des compétences professionnelles solides et des composantes identitaires positives (Beckers, 2007), ils restent généralement l’apanage du seul cursus académique. Une fois diplômés, les enseignants novices sont appelés à produire de véritables écrits professionnels, au rang desquels les préparations de cours occupent une place de choix. Dès lors, s’observe un hiatus certain entre les écrits en formation et les écrits du praticien. Ce hiatus peut s’expliquer et être légitimé par plusieurs motifs. Il n’en reste pas moins que les préparations de cours s’inscrivent au cœur du métier d’enseignant. Nous avons affaire à un écrit pleinement professionnalisant, mais aussi à un écrit professionnel tout à fait central dans la vie quotidienne des praticiens. Pourtant, les préparations, pour omniprésentes qu’elles soient dans les cursus académiques préparant au métier et dans les pratiques des enseignants, constituent une sorte de point aveugle pour la recherche. Ainsi, dès 2002, Jaubert et Rebière estimaient que les préparations de cours des stagiaires avaient fait l’objet de très peu d’investigations : or, insistent-elles, la préparation écrite constitue un écrit traditionnel emblématique pour la culture du monde enseignant (2002 : 130). L’ouvrage édité par Daunay (2011) à propos des écrits professionnels des enseignants consacre certains de ses chapitres à cette problématique, mais de très nombreuses questions restent à envisager. Un récent numéro des Cahiers pédagogiques (n°518, 2015) quant à lui, se penche sur les écrits professionnels des praticiens en exercice. Précédemment (Scheepers, 2013), j’ai pu interroger des enseignants, novices ou chevronnés, sur les stratégies qu’ils utilisent pour planifier leur intervention didactique. Mon article dans le Français aujourd’hui (Scheepers, 2014) envisage notamment les postures adoptées par les stagiaires dans leurs préparations et les spécificités propres aux séquences visant à faire écrire les élèves. Une autre de mes contributions (Scheepers, à paraître) envisage un corpus de plusieurs dizaines de préparations écrites par des stagiaires sous l’angle du triangle didactique (Houssaye, 1988), ce qui permet d’examiner comment se déclinent dans ces traces sémiotiques spécifiques ces trois dimensions que sont l’élève, le savoir et l’enseignant. Mais, en matière de préparations de cours, beaucoup reste à faire sur un plan scientifique. Lors de cette table ronde, je tenterai d’établir une synthèse quant à mes recherches relatives à la planification des apprentissages, dimension centrale pour l’entrée dans le métier d’enseignant. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetocapillary self-assemblies: Swimming and micromanipulation
Grosjean, Galien ULg; Hubert, Maxime ULg; Lagubeau, Guillaume et al

Poster (2016, July)

Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures, by a combination of a magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and an attraction due to the interfacial deformation. These structures are ... [more ▼]

Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures, by a combination of a magnetic dipole-dipole interaction and an attraction due to the interfacial deformation. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number locomotion. Such microswimmers provide a basis for micromanipulation applications such as transport of micro-objects, local mixing of fluids or surface cleaning. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications of the multiple timescale spectral analysis in wind engineering
Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Zingoni, Alphose (Ed.) Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Computation (2016, July)

The random response of civil engineering structures to the buffeting action of wind loads is typically composed of several components, usually referred to as the background component, in the low fre ... [more ▼]

The random response of civil engineering structures to the buffeting action of wind loads is typically composed of several components, usually referred to as the background component, in the low fre- quency zone and the resonant component(s) in the neighborhood of modal natural frequencies. It has become customary to study separately and add the contributions of these components to the total response, at least as far as the second order response (variance of structural responses) is concerned. Such a decomposition exists but is less usual for the computation of covariances of modal coordinates or of structural displacements, which are in turn necessary for the determination of internal stresses. The question of such a decomposition also holds for nonlinear systems, or even for the higher statistical moments of a linear structural system, should the response be non Gaussian. With very wide ranges of applicability, the Multiple Timescale Spectral Analysis summarizes under a unified framework recent works aiming at the development of such decompositions. This paper briefly pictures this particular theory based on perturbation methods, and provides illustrations of its applicability to the problems cited above. [less ▲]

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See detailNew antimalarial compounds isolated from Poupartia borbonica, a Mascarene Islands endemic plant
Ledoux, Allison ULg; Jansen, Olivia ULg; St-Gelais, Alexis et al

Poster (2016, July)

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See detailDistinct cerebral metabolic patterns related to high pain sensitivity in episodic or chronic migraine patients and healthy volunteers
D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; Lisicki Martinez, Marco ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg et al

in Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience (2016, July)

Introduction Allodynia, i.e. pain evoked by a non-painful stimulus, is prevalent in chronic pain and in migraine where it augments with disease severity and chronicity [1]. Central sensitization is ... [more ▼]

Introduction Allodynia, i.e. pain evoked by a non-painful stimulus, is prevalent in chronic pain and in migraine where it augments with disease severity and chronicity [1]. Central sensitization is thought to be the culprit [2]. It is not known, however, which central areas are involved. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether brain metabolism in subjects that are more sensitive to pain is different between migraine patients and healthy controls. Subjects and methods Quantitative heat sensory testing on the forehead and 18FDG-PET were performed in 55 subjects: 20 healthy volunteers (HV, 21-59 years, 5M), 21 patients with episodic migraine in the interictal phase (MO, age range: 20-63 years, 5M) and 14 patients with chronic migraine (CM, age range: 22-62 years, 1M). The 3 cohorts were subdivided according to the median heat pain threshold into subgroups with low and high pain thresholds. PET results were compared between these subgroups in each cohort. Data analyses were restricted to areas of the pain/salience matrix. Results There was no significant difference in heat pain thresholds between HV (median: 43.7 °C), MO median: 44.2°C) and CM (median: 43.3°C) (p=0.64). In an SPM-ANOVA, a contrast modelling the potential gradual effect of increased differences in pain sensitivity in relation to disease severity showed significant metabolic changes in bilateral thalamus and midbrain (p < 0.001). Additional analyses revealed that hypometabolic areas in subgroups with a low heat pain threshold differed between HV (anterior cingulate and somatosensory cortices), MO (lower pons and somatosensory cortex) and CM (midbrain and thalamus) (Figure 1). Conclusion Overall migraine patients do not have reduced heat pain thresholds. However, hypometabolic areas related to high thermal pain sensitivity are strictly cortical in HV, but comprise the pons in episodic migraine and are restricted to midbrain and thalamus in chronic migraine. The distinct central correlates of heat pain sensitivity in migraine patients might therefore represent a biomarker of migraine and its chronification. Legend to figure Figure 1. Hypometabolic areas in low pain threshold subgroups in HV (green), MO (orange) and CM (red). p < 0.01 for display purpose. Résumé en Français: Titre: Métabolisme cérébral distinct en relation avec la sensibilité à la douleur entre sujets sains, migraine épisodique et migraine chronique. Les migraineux ont une sensibilité anormale à la douleur. Les mécanismes cérébraux en sont inconnus. Nous avons comparé le métabolisme cérébral chez des sujets sains et chez des migraineux épisodiques ou chroniques et correlé les résultats avec le seuil douloureux. Les aires cérébrales hypométaboliques liées à un seuil douloureux bas diffèrent entre groupes: régions corticales chez les sujets sains, aires corticales et sous-corticales dans la migraine épisodique, régions sous-corticales dans la migraine chronique .Le contrôle central de la douleur semble modifié distinctement dans les formes de migraine, ce qui pourrait en constituer un biomarqueur et avoir des implications thérapeutiques. [less ▲]

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See detailBRAIN-TRAINS: Scenario development to explore intermodal rail transport expansion in, from and towards Belgium
Troch, Frank; Vanelslander, Thierry; Sys, Christa et al

Conference (2016, July)

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See detailTowards an Observatory for Network Transparency Research
Neuhaus, Stephan; Münter, Roman; Edeline, Korian ULg et al

in Applied Networking Research Workshop (2016, July)

The Internet is full of middleboxes that change packets and flows. In fact, there is probably no IP or TCP header that is not affected by at least one middlebox. Obviously, middleboxes impede path ... [more ▼]

The Internet is full of middleboxes that change packets and flows. In fact, there is probably no IP or TCP header that is not affected by at least one middlebox. Obviously, middleboxes impede path transparency, i.e., the idea that an exchange of messages results in more or less the same packets, no matter what path the packets takes. But no one seems to have a truly global view of what middleboxes do to packets on what Internet paths, which would however be an essential knowledge for new transport protocols to be successfully deployed. We address these concerns in the MAMI project by building an observatory of path transparency measurements. The project hosts an extensive set of path transparency measurements - we believe it to be the first dataset to deal specifically with middlebox involvement. In this paper, we describe that Observatory and a number of questions that we want to address with the data in that Observatory. Eventually, the project will provide public access to that Observatory so that researchers and the interested public can ask their own questions about path transparency issues and middlebox involvement. [less ▲]

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See detailLifetime stability study of a NIR hyperspectral imaging system
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Bodson, Bernard ULg; Baeten, Vincent et al

Conference (2016, July)

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See detailLe dossier CAPAES : outil de professionnalisation des formateurs?
Scheepers, Caroline ULg

Conference (2016, July)

Aujourd’hui, les formateurs des hautes écoles belges francophones sont tenus de décrocher le CAPAES, pour lequel il faut avoir validé des cours universitaires et avoir présenté devant une commission ... [more ▼]

Aujourd’hui, les formateurs des hautes écoles belges francophones sont tenus de décrocher le CAPAES, pour lequel il faut avoir validé des cours universitaires et avoir présenté devant une commission composite un dossier professionnel. Lequel dossier mobilise de solides compétences réflexives, puisque son auteur doit faire état de son parcours professionnel, mais aussi analyser et décrire un dispositif didactique dans lequel il est impliqué et dont il doit montrer le caractère professionnalisant. Ma contribution vise à rendre compte d’une vaste enquête adressée aux formateurs qui réalisé ce dossier professionnel. Qu’ont-ils appris par le biais de cette épreuve? Quelles difficultés ont-ils rencontrées ? Quelles tensions ont émergé ? Ont-ils été soutenus pour effectuer la tâche prescrite ? Estiment-ils qu’elle fut professionnalisante? Ont-ils révisé leurs conceptions en matière d’écriture ? Enfin, ont-ils reconsidéré leur façon d’encadrer les tâches d’écriture des étudiants? [less ▲]

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See detailChallenge testing with Brochothrix thermosphacta on minced pork meat shows interest to couple metagenetics to metabolomics to study food spoilage
Baré, Ghislain ULg; Cauchie, Emilie ULg; Leenders, Justine ULg et al

Poster (2016, July)

The spoilage of perishable foods is mainly caused by bacterial activity. The risk of unwanted bacterial growth is particularly high in the minced pork meat. In this work, the natural microbial ... [more ▼]

The spoilage of perishable foods is mainly caused by bacterial activity. The risk of unwanted bacterial growth is particularly high in the minced pork meat. In this work, the natural microbial contaminants of the minced pork meat were followed by 16S ribosomal DNA deep sequencing (metagenetics) during aging tests at different temperatures. Brochothrix thermosphacta MM008 strain was selected as one of the main contaminants responsible for the spoilage of the meat. Minced pork meat previously sterilized by gamma irradiation was inoculated with B. thermosphacta MM008 for challenge tests measuring growth and then incubated at different temperatures. Minced meat samples were taken and analyzed by H-NMR 1D at time 0 and at final time (from 14 to 19 days, depending on the incubation temperature). Orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that samples, regardless of the incubation temperature, could be splitted into 3 groups according to their spectral profile: 1) samples taken at time 0, 2) samples inoculated with B. thermosphacta and taken at final time, 3) samples uninoculated, taken at final time. From the analysis of the metabolomics data, higher concentrations of glycerol, glucose, taurine, lactate, carnitine, betaine and glycine were identified in the samples of uninoculated minced pork meat and an increased production of creatine, acetate and acetone was found in the samples of minced pork meat inoculated with B. thermosphacta MM008. These observations showed that -omics technologies (metagenetics and metabolomics) could be used conclusively to study microbial spoilage of minced pork meat. [less ▲]

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See detailSolo vs. duet in different virtual rooms: On the consistency of singing quality across conditions
Fischinger, Timo; Kreutz, Gunter; Larrouy, Pauline ULg

Poster (2016, July)

Previous research on vocal pitch accuracy revealed insights into the fundamentals of singing. However, most of the research on singing focused on the analysis of single voices, whereas few aYempts have ... [more ▼]

Previous research on vocal pitch accuracy revealed insights into the fundamentals of singing. However, most of the research on singing focused on the analysis of single voices, whereas few aYempts have been made to tackle the challenge of analyzing mulTtrack recordings of singing ensembles. In addiTon, singers have to adjust their way of singing with respect to a given venue’s acousTcal environment (e.g., small room vs. a comparaTvely large space like a church). If it is common that musical performances are greatly influenced by room acousTcs, studies on the effects of room acousTcal features during ensemble singing are rare. In order to invesTgate singing performances across various condiTons, we manipulated the singing condiTon (unison, canon, solo) as well as the acousTcal feedback by applying diverging virtual rooms. Three duets with female singers (N = 6) were asked to sing three different melodies using headset microphones to record each singer separately. Recordings took place in the communicaTon acousTc simulator (CAS) at the House of Hearing (Oldenburg, Germany) to be able to provide different simulated acousTcal spaces (i.e., cathedral, classroom, and dry condiTon) to the singers. ObjecTve measures were performed on each recording and confirmed that the singers sang the melodies with high precision (small pitch interval deviaTons) hardly affected by singing condiTons or by the type of acousTcal feedback. However, the singers tended to driH (larger deviaTons of the tonal center) when singing in canon compared to solo and unison singing. Overall, the analysis of the pitch accuracy showed a general effect of condiTon (i.e., unison, canon, solo), but no general effect of acousTcal feedback and no interacTon between the two variables under study. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformances comparison of a laser ultrasonic system using 10.6 µm infrared or 532 nm visible generation beam for the investigation of CFRP
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Walter, Julien; Brouillette, Tomy et al

Conference (2016, July)

The investigation of complex shaped carbon fiber parts is a common need of the industry. Classical ultrasonic systems are commonly used, wide-spread and very efficient. However, these techniques are often ... [more ▼]

The investigation of complex shaped carbon fiber parts is a common need of the industry. Classical ultrasonic systems are commonly used, wide-spread and very efficient. However, these techniques are often limited to simple shape objects. Major problems arise when the shape of the element to be investigated is complex (peak, valley, small radius of curvature…). To overcome these problems laser ultrasonic systems can be used and the recent developments show promising results. Laser ultrasonic systems can use different wavelengths for ultrasound generation. Usually CO2 lasers emitting at 10.6 µm wavelength are used. When a laser ultrasonic system is mounted on a robotic arm, very complex shaped objects can be considered. However, the optical fibers for 10.6 µm wavelength are not capable to cope with laser ultrasonic system requirements. Therefore, infrared systems use jointed articulated beam delivery systems which reduce the flexibility of the robot arm and significantly limit the feasible scan paths. To circumvent this limitation, an all-fibered laser ultrasonic system can be used. In our case the ultrasound is generated with a pulsed laser operating at 532 nm. This system is placed on a robotic arm, the beam delivery is performed through an optical fiber only. Therefore, this system is capable of analyzing very complex shaped objects due to the use of optical fiber only for laser beam transport. But visible generation is known to be less efficient and produces lower quality signals. In order to balance the advantages and limitations of both of these systems a CFRP plate including artificial defects has been investigated with different ultrasonic systems. First we used classical phased-array ultrasounds as a reference to compare the performances of visible and infrared generation systems. The plate has then been investigated with a 10.6 µm laser ultrasonic system. The results are compared with an all-fibered laser ultrasonic system working at 532 mn wavelength. Data acquired by each system allow comparing the visibility of the ultrasonic echoes and the amplitude of background noise. We observe the impact of frequency filtering. We show the main differences on the A-scans and C-scan generated by each system. From these elements, we show the advantages and limitations of each system for the investigation of CFRP with a focus on complex shaped object. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’activation à la précarité : analyse de deux dispositifs d’intervention sociale
Gérard, Julie ULg; Vrancken, Didier ULg

Conference (2016, July)

La lutte contre le chômage de longue durée et l’exclusion sociale par un retour à l’emploi représentent des enjeux essentiels des politiques actives du marché du travail. C’est pourquoi, cette ... [more ▼]

La lutte contre le chômage de longue durée et l’exclusion sociale par un retour à l’emploi représentent des enjeux essentiels des politiques actives du marché du travail. C’est pourquoi, cette communication s’intéresse aux effets de l’intervention sociale sur les demandeurs d’emploi à partir de l’analyse de deux dispositifs d’activation situés en Belgique francophone : une Entreprise de Formation par le Travail et une agence de Titres-Services. Au moyen d’une étude qualitative reposant sur une soixantaine d’observations de situations d’interactions réalisée entre bénéficiaires et « travailleurs du social » (consultant, assistant social, formateur, etc.) et, d’une quarantaine d’entretiens semi-directifs, nous rendrons compte de l’action de ces deux dispositifs dans le domaine de l’insertion-socioprofessionnelle. Nous illustrerons combien, par l’articulation de politiques d’emploi à vocation universelle et de politiques particularistes destinées aux personnes les plus fragiles, ces dispositifs génèrent de véritables trappes à précarité. À terme, nous montrerons combien le maintien de ces dernières soulève la question du développement progressif d’un nouveau régime de protections, opérant a minima, voire par défaut, auprès des publics peu qualifiés face à la menace sourde que font peser le marché noir et, plus largement, l’informalité du travail. [less ▲]

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See detailGeochemistry and mineralogy approaches to characterize brick and its lake sediments sources: Antioch Roman City (Southern Turkey)
El Ouahabi, Meriam ULg; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Benjelloun, Yacine et al

Poster (2016, July)

The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Southern Turkey) is situated close to the Antioch city. This last is located near the Amik Lake (Lake of Antioch) and close to the junction between the active ... [more ▼]

The Roman aqueduct of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (Southern Turkey) is situated close to the Antioch city. This last is located near the Amik Lake (Lake of Antioch) and close to the junction between the active Dead Sea fault and the East Anatolian fault. During the Roman period, the Amik Plain was more densely occupied than at any time in its history [1]. The study focuses on the bricks and the lake sediments characterization in order to determine the source area as well as the technical production used at this period. For this purpose, several bricks were sampled on different parts of the city's aqueducts. Furthermore, a core of about 6 m of sediments was also collected from the dried Amik Lake. The bricks were characterized through a mineralogical (XRD) and chemical (PIXE-PIGE) approaches. Unfired clay fraction remained as inclusion in the brick was separated and then analysed using XRD. Geochemical composition and clay mineralogy were performed on the raw sediments from the Amik Lake in order to compare the source area. Technological test will be performed on the raw clay sediments from the Amik Lake in the purpose to understand the production techniques used at this time. The age of the brick production was previously dated to the Roman Period [2]. The synthesis of all the data attested the Amik Lake sediment as the raw material for the bricks of the aqueduct. Clay mineral composition from the Roman period deposited in the lake is smectite, illite, kaolinite and small amount of mixed-layer clays. The similar clays composition is found in the remained clays on the brick used for the aqueduct construction. Fast and heterogeneous firing practice characterized the manufacturing of these materials due to the rapid need for the materials during the post-seismic repairs after earthquakes that are mentioned in historical written works. [1] J. Casana, Geomorphology, 101, 429-442 (2008) [2] Y. Benjelloun, J. de Sigoyer, J. Carlut, A. Hubert-Ferrari, H. Dessales, H. Pamir, V. Karabacak, Comptes Rendus Geoscience, 347, 170-180 (2015) [less ▲]

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See detailFirst on-sky results with ARGOS at LBT
Orban De Xivry, Gilles ULg; Rabien, Sebastian; Busoni, Lorenzo et al

in First on-sky results with ARGOS at LBT (2016, July)

One year and an half after ARGOS first light, the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) laser guided ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system has been operated on both sides of the LBT. The system fulfills ... [more ▼]

One year and an half after ARGOS first light, the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) laser guided ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) system has been operated on both sides of the LBT. The system fulfills the GLAO promise and typically delivers an improvement by a factor of 2 in FWHM over the 4'×4' field of view of both Luci instruments, the two near-infrared imagers and multi-object spectrographs. In this paper, we report on the first on-sky results and analyze the performances based on the data collected so far. We also discuss adaptive optics procedures and the joint operations with Luci for science observations. [less ▲]

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See detailCOST Action FA1407: Empowering NGS technologie for study and diagnostic of plant viruses
Massart, Sébastien ULg; Petter, François

Conference (2016, July)

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See detailA vascular plant precursor from North Gondwana
Cascales-Miñana, Borja ULg; Gerrienne, Philippe ULg

in 4th International Meeting of Agora Paleobotanica, Brussels 7-10 July 2016 (2016, July)

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See detailContinuous monitoring of transient groundwater fluxes using the Finite Volume Point Dilution Method
Jamin, Pierre ULg; Brouyère, Serge ULg

Conference (2016, July)

Groundwater flux is the driving force of solute contaminant dispersion through aquifers. Accurate groundwater flux measurement and monitoring is thus crucial for assessing the fate of contaminants in the ... [more ▼]

Groundwater flux is the driving force of solute contaminant dispersion through aquifers. Accurate groundwater flux measurement and monitoring is thus crucial for assessing the fate of contaminants in the saturated zone. Unfortunately, classical measurement such as pumping or slug tests based on the Darcy’s law and hydraulic gradient may lead to cumulated errors and provide no more than a snapshot measurement only representative of a given time. There is a need for a technique able to perform a continuous monitoring of groundwater fluxes, and moreover in aquifer where rapid changes of groundwater fluxes occur such as aquifers influenced by surface water, by nearby pumping or by fast precipitation recharge. Alternative methods, such as point dilution tracer tests to obtain a direct measurement of local groundwater fluxes, are promising In this study, the Finite Volume Point Dilution Method (FVPDM) was applied to continuously monitor groundwater fluxes of the alluvial aquifer of the River Meuse, in Liège (Belgium). The experimental setup consisted in the monitoring of a transient groundwater fluxes generated by a step pumping test that lasted 40 hours. Two FVPDM were performed simultaneously in two piezometers screened in two different part of the aquifer. Piezometric heads were also monitored in several piezometer located around the pumping well. Next to this original experimental setup, a mathematical solution has been developed to interpret data from FVPDM performed under transient state in order to deduce the continuous evolution of groundwater flux. The experiment demonstrated the ability of the FVPDM for monitoring transient groundwater fluxes, even if the changes of groundwater flux occurs rapidly. The FVPDM turned out to be very sensitive to small changes in groundwater flux. The FVPDM interpretation also showed that the upper part of the aquifer is affected by slower groundwater fluxes than the lower and coarser part. Furthermore, distinct hydraulic behavior were determined between the upper and lower part of the aquifer. This could not have been revealed by conventional pumping tests using only drawdown data for interpretation. The mathematical solution allowed to determine the groundwater flux at every moment of the test even if the FVPDM had not reached the stabilized phase that usually guarantee its good precision. These results illustrate the great interest of the FVPDM method for monitoring of contaminant fluxes in groundwater if coupled with a real time measurement of contaminant concentration. One of the main perspective is to perform a long term (several months) monitoring of groundwater fluxes in an aquifer influenced by river stages variations in order to prove the ability of the FVPDM for continuous long term monitoring and better characterize the exchanges between groundwater and surface water. [less ▲]

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See detailLaser Ultrasound for NDT: investigation of the generation beam shape
Languy, Fabian ULg; Perrard, Aurélie; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg et al

Poster (2016, July)

Usually laser ultrasonic systems use an infrared laser operating at 10 µm to generate the ultrasound in CFRP objects. However this system suffer from an important drawback: optical fiber cannot be used to ... [more ▼]

Usually laser ultrasonic systems use an infrared laser operating at 10 µm to generate the ultrasound in CFRP objects. However this system suffer from an important drawback: optical fiber cannot be used to transport the high energy beam from the laser output to the target which limits the flexibility of the system to investigated complex shaped objects. To overcome this issue, visible light can be used to generate ultrasound. In our case we use a fiber-coupled laser operating at 532 nm. The output end of the optical fiber is placed on an industrial robot arm. The investigated object remains stationary while the optical fiber mounted on the robot arm scan the object. This system offers large flexibility but laser generation at 532 nm is known to be less efficient than CO 2 system emitting at 10 µm. Increasing the visible pulse power is one of the options but optics and CRFF object will be damaged before the same echo level as CO2 generation can be obtained. An alternative solution consists in the investigation of the generation beam size and shape. We recently developed an optical design composed of an axicon lens able to generate annular beam. The diameter of the beam can be adapted. If the axicon lens is removed the optical system provides a disk whose diameter can also be adapted onto the investigated object. Ray-traycing simulations performed with ASAP and experimental beam profile investigated with a beam profiler show good agreement between theoretical and experimental optical design. An experimental comparison between ring and disk shapes will be presented. The comparisons take into account the beam diameter and the beam intensity but also the effect of the angle of incidence will be presented. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent together: How cooperative networks contribute to sustaining workers’ participation as an institutional differentiation
Soetens, Aurélie ULg; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

Conference (2016, July)

This conceptual article aims at understanding how unconventional organizations may maintain distinctive organizing norms, rules and practices over time despite various constraining factors stemming from ... [more ▼]

This conceptual article aims at understanding how unconventional organizations may maintain distinctive organizing norms, rules and practices over time despite various constraining factors stemming from the institutional environment. It proposes a framework of inward-outward identity work and legitimation that describes how workers’ co-operative networks may help workers’ co-operatives sustaining workers’ participation over time. It is argued that by mobilizing the identity collectively constructed by organizations in the network, and by justifying the institutional differentiation in front of external constituents, networks may alter the legitimacy judgments of audiences and mediate the salience of institutional demands. In particular, they may secure social acceptance and ensure the maintenance of the institutional differentiation over time. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of a mountain ultra-marathon on cardiac biomarkers
Le Goff, Caroline ULg; Gergelé, Laurent; Kaux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Crossing borders through sport science (2016, July)

Objectives. While moderate exercise has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, consequences of a supra-physiological effort are not clear yet. In particular, the physiological consequences of ... [more ▼]

Objectives. While moderate exercise has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system, consequences of a supra-physiological effort are not clear yet. In particular, the physiological consequences of ultramarathons need to be further documented. The aim of the study was to assess the changes of various cardiac biomarkers after a mountain ultra-marathon. Material and methods. Blood and urine samples were collected on 28 runners (17 men) participating to the Ultra-Trail du Mont Blanc (105km, total positive elevation: 5600 m) at 3 different times: before the race (Pre), within 1 h after the finish (Post) and 7 days after the finish (D+7). Several biomarkers involved in heart disease (coronary syndrome, heart failure and fibrosis) and in inflammation were assayed on different analyzers such a COBAS® (for CKMB,TnThs, NT-proBNP, H-FABP and CRPs) and KRYPTOR® (for Copeptin). ST2 was measured manually with the Presage kit from CRITICAL DIAGNOSTIC®. Results. Plasma levels of cardiac markers (CKMB, TnThs, NT-proBNP, copeptin, H FABP, ST2) and inflammation (CRPs) increased significantly at Post. Means values increased from Pre to Post as follows: 2.3 to 91.9 UI/L for CKMB (p<0.0001); 7.6 to 31.7 ng/L for TnThs (p<0.0001); 41.7 to 1190.5 ng/L for NT-proBNP, 4.2 to 22.9 pmol/L for copeptin (p=0.001); 3.6 to 107.8 ng/mL for H-FABP (p<0.0001), 29.7 to 126.2 ng/mL for ST2 (p<0.0001); 0.5 to 29.1 mg/L for CRPs (p<0.0001). With the exception of a few (H-FABP, ST2, CRPs) biomarkers in some subjects, all values were back to Pre values at D+7. Discussion-conclusion. Prolonged strenuous running exercise caused an elevation in cardiac biomarkers. Elevation in CK-MB levels lacks specificity for cardiac damage as runners have increased CKMB from skeletal muscles as well. Previous studies suggested that exercise induced TnThs elevation is a benign reversible physiologic phenomenon but this parameter, as well as H-FABP, could be a sign of ischemia. Different phenomena occurred such as stretch of myocytes causing an increase in pressure or volume and neurohormonal activation which can explain the Copeptine and NT-proBNP increase, while ST2 is a biomarker of cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. CRP is an acute phase compound that tends to increase following a strenuous and prolonged bout of exercise and/or muscular injury. As the values tended to return within the normal reference range values within 7 days after the race, our study suggests that there is no permanent structural damage at the myocardium level. [less ▲]

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See detailNew spore data from the Lower Devonian Posongchong Formation from Wenshan, Yunnan, China
Cascales-Miñana, Borja ULg; Rial, Gonzalo; Xue, Jinzhuang et al

in 4th International Meeting of Agora Paleobotanica, Brussels 7-10 July 2016 (2016, July)

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See detailObservational signatures of past mass-exchange episodes in massive binaries : The cases of LSS 3074 and HD 17505
Raucq, Françoise ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

Poster (2016, July)

Mass and angular momentum exchanges through Roche Lobe Overflow interactions within close massive binaries are known to play an important role in the subsequent evolution of the components of such systems ... [more ▼]

Mass and angular momentum exchanges through Roche Lobe Overflow interactions within close massive binaries are known to play an important role in the subsequent evolution of the components of such systems, and produce several observational signatures, such as asynchronous rotation and altered chemical compositions, that remain once the stars detach again. We have started to investigate these effects in a sample of massive O-star binaries that are thought to have previously experienced a Case A Roche Lobe Overflow episode. Using phase-resolved spectroscopy, we perform the disentangling of the optical spectra of the two stars. The reconstructed primary and secondary spectra re then analysed with the CMFGEN model atmosphere code to determine stellar parameters such as the effective temperatures, surface gravities and rotational velocities, and to constrain the chemical composition of the components. In this contribution, we present the results of our analyses of LSS 3074 (O5.5I + O6.5-7I, P = 2.1852 days), together with the analyses of its photometric lightcurve and orbital solution. We also present the first results of our analyses of the triple system HD17505 ([O7.5V + O7.5V, P = 8.57 days] + O6.5III). [less ▲]

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See detailInternal structures of clusters in driven granular gas
Noirhomme, Martial ULg

Poster (2016, July)

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See detailSmart co-phasing system for segmented mirror telescopes
Simar, Juan Felipe ULg; Stockman, Yvan ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg

Poster (2016, June 30)

One of the main challenges in space observations is to observe always fainter and more compact objects. This can be achieved by increasing the telescope diameters. So, increasing the primary mirror ... [more ▼]

One of the main challenges in space observations is to observe always fainter and more compact objects. This can be achieved by increasing the telescope diameters. So, increasing the primary mirror diameters of the telescopes is the challenge solution but it is technically impossible to manufacture monolithic mirrors larger than 10m in diameter. The use of segmented mirrors thus becomes mandatory. This paper describes the results of a light co-phasing setup mounted in laboratory. This setup is able to correct a piston from 200μm to 15 nm based on coarse (200μm to 300nm) and fine (300nm to 15nm) measurement methods. Both measurements are then chained in a feedback system in order to completely co-phase and keep the segments aligned. [less ▲]

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See detailUnveiling new stellar companions from the EXOZODI survey : follow up
Marion, Lindsay ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg; Ertel, Steve et al

Poster (2016, June 30)

In 2012, we have conducted a survey of nearby main sequence stars with VLTI/PIONIER to search for the presence of circumstellar dust. We focused on the use of the closure phases and the square ... [more ▼]

In 2012, we have conducted a survey of nearby main sequence stars with VLTI/PIONIER to search for the presence of circumstellar dust. We focused on the use of the closure phases and the square visibilities in a combined way to search for faint companions around the whole sample. In this process, we found four new stellar companions, for which we conducted follow-up observations in 2014. This follow up allows us to confirm the four detections, and to detect another new companion. Only the case of HD202730 remains ambiguous. [less ▲]

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See detailFast and not furious: an inquiry into the current low-risk/high-gain configuration of public participation
Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Charlier, Nathan ULg et al

Conference (2016, June 29)

For several years scholars pointed at the development of a “participatory turn” in science, technology and innovation (STI). Decisively informed by STS, “public involvement” and then “public engagement” ... [more ▼]

For several years scholars pointed at the development of a “participatory turn” in science, technology and innovation (STI). Decisively informed by STS, “public involvement” and then “public engagement” with STI have been enacted in a broad array of participatory experiments across Europe. These experiments were usually informed by rhetoric of citizen empowerment and distributed governance, against the limitations of technocratic approaches and traditional innovation processes, in order to “enrich”, “deepen”, “broaden” the knowledge base of our democracies. As “embarked researchers”, STS scholars played a crucial role in facilitating and legitimizing the organization of participatory events engaging a variety of publics. This paper will rely on the knowledge and expertise we gathered when organizing multiple participatory events over the last decade, while still trying maintain a critical distance with regard to our own engagement and the types of participation we contributed to enact. More specifically, we propose to draw on the lessons learnt from two recent projects, the organization of a citizens’ summit (Europe Wide Views on Sustainable Consumption) and a prospective study to gauge the potential of involving users in a Living Lab in the health sector in Wallonia. These two projects produced different publics (“citizens-consumers” or “users”), were informed by different political rationales (“sustainability” or “inclusive innovation”), took place in diverse settings (a European FP7 project or a project funded by the Walloon Region) and connected to several narratives of public empowerment through participation (“being heard in policymaking” or “accelerating and improving health”). Our contribution maps and compares the different instrumental and strategic framings of the engagement of publics in those two projects, emphasizing the roles attributed to fabricated publics but also the construction of categories such as the “state” and the “economy”. It unpacks some critical issues related to the methods and techniques used in the concrete implementation of participatory exercises such as, for example, the relation between the assigned tasks, the allowed forms of dialogue between the participants, the room for engagement with the issue(s) at stake and the broader understanding of processes these inputs were supposed to contribute to. Our analysis highlights a tension between the justificatory rationales for public engagement and its specific enactments. In these fast and optimized exercises, participants and their inputs become resources that need to be methodologically maximized and from which “value” may be extracted for instrumental use, i.e. innovation or policy-making. In this configuration in which, we argue, most participation experiments are stuck, the increasing involvement of publics in either policy-making or innovation will only be likely to produce low risk and high gain for powerful actors, who manage to take the best advantage of unpaid and uncritical labour from participants. Due attention (including self-reflexive critique) will be paid to alternative framings and critical insights, which were methodologically eliminated or ‘tamed’ to avoid threatening the design of the overall participatory exercise. By externalizing critique to favour unconditional compliance with imposed notions of the “greater good”, we scrutinize the risk for participation to become a mere space of experimentation for the sake of innovation and economic growth. Furthermore, we argue that critical scholarly work should help to move beyond this particular division of labour and responsibilities between the spheres of science, society and the state in order to avoid re-enacting traditional conceptions of the policy-making process and innovation pathways. [less ▲]

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See detailMerging carbon dioxide utilisation, bioresources and CO2-based process for sustainable low carbon footprints polyurethanes
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 29)

Making plastics more sustainable by valorizing waste CO2 as a cheap, inexhaustible and renewable feedstock is an early stage technology with strong innovation potential that imposes itself as a strategic ... [more ▼]

Making plastics more sustainable by valorizing waste CO2 as a cheap, inexhaustible and renewable feedstock is an early stage technology with strong innovation potential that imposes itself as a strategic driver for developing future low carbon footprints materials and technologies. With a global production estimated to 18 million tons for 2016, polyurethane (PU) is one of the most important polymers in our everyday life with applications in automotive, in building and construction, in coating, in the medical field, as flexible and rigid foams for thermal and/or acoustic insulation. Industrially, PU is produced by step-growth polymerization between di- or polyisocyanates and di- or polyols. However, isocyanates are extremely toxic compounds and made from even more toxic and explosive phosgene. Prolonged exposure to isocyanates vapour results in serious health damages such as skin irritation, asthma or DNA mutation whereas phosgene causes death. Because of the toxicity issues of these compounds associated to drastic changes in the REACH regulations limiting/banning the use of isocyanates, there is a need today to develop new greener and safer alternatives to produce PU. Valorising CO2 as C1 feedstock for producing precursors entering in the synthesis of polyurethanes by a non-isocyanate route (NIPU) is a promising route to solve this challenge the polyurethane sector is facing. Through its global objective focussing on the synthesis of isocyanate-free low carbon footprint foamed materials for thermal insulation this research highlights benefits of merging bio-resources with carbon dioxide transformation and “physical” utilization. The success of the project relies on 3 key steps involving: i) The synthesis of bio- and CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates using new highly efficient organocatalysts: Due to the low reactivity of CO2 versus epoxides, addition of catalysts in the reaction medium is necessary. If lot of catalysts have been developed, their use generally suffers from some drawbacks. Indeed, most of the metal-based catalysts are highly sensitive to hydrolysis and oxidation or/and poorly selective and additionally, some of them are toxic whereas less/non-toxic and eco-friendly organocatalysts such as ionic liquids and halide salts are generally only efficient at very high temperature and pressure, so favouring the decomposition of catalyst. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new highly-efficient bicomponent homogeneous organocatalyst that showed unexpected catalytic activity for the fast (within a few minutes) and selective addition of CO2 onto model epoxides and epoxidized vegetable oils under solvent-free and mild experimental conditions. The use of this powerful dual organocatalyst was further extended to the first organocatalytic coupling of CO2 with less reactive oxetanes to produce hydroxyl telechelic oligocarbonate entering the synthesis of CO2-sourced conventional PUs. ii) The synthesis of sustainable non-isocyanate polyurethanes: Sustainable NIPUs were produced by step-growth polymerization between the so-produced bio- and CO2-sourced cyclic carbonates and biosourced amino-telechelic comonomers derived from linseed fatty acids according to a process compatible with existing industrial infrastructures (extrusion). iii) The foaming of NIPUs: Sustainable foams with thermal insulation were produced by the supercritical CO2 assisted foaming technology. Due to its solubility in polymers, CO2 can replace conventional flammable VOCs and ozone depletion chemical or physical blowing agents such as diazo compounds, hydrocarbons (pentane, isopentane…) or inert gases (nitrogen…) to produce (ultra)lightweight microcellular foams. By finely choosing the CO2 impregnation and the foaming conditions, foams with a thermal conductivity as low as 0.052 Wm-1K-1 were produced. Our study shows that CO2 is not only sequestered in the material for long-term application, but is also valorized as a blowing agent in the production of sustainable thermally insulating NIPU foams. Such low carbon footprints materials will contribute to energy conservation and savings by reducing CO2 emissions [less ▲]

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See detailExploring potentialities of RanbP2-type Zinc Fingers in RNA-binding proteins design
De Franco, Simona ULg; Vandenameele, Julie ULg; Galleni, Moreno ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 29)

Transcriptomes consist of several classes of RNAs, whose roles are central to innumerable biological processes as well as diseases. These observations justify the increasing interest in the engineering of ... [more ▼]

Transcriptomes consist of several classes of RNAs, whose roles are central to innumerable biological processes as well as diseases. These observations justify the increasing interest in the engineering of functionalized RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to specifically manipulate RNA function. In this context, the RanBP2-type Zinc Finger (ZF) domain emerged as a suitable scaffold for single-stranded RBPs design. The present study aimed to identify the sequence-specificity of several naturally occurring RanBP2-type ZFs by in vitro selection and use the natural variation in their substrate to create arrays of ZF domains displaying customized specificity. A parallel kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of ssRNA-ZFs interaction was performed by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) and BioLayer Interferometry (BLI), respectively. Although our data showed that only little variations in the recognized sequence could be observed for the studied ZFs, they contribute to elucidate the molecular basis for the RanBP2-type ZF-ssRNA interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailNational PESS report : Belgium
Cloes, Marc ULg; Mouton, Alexandre ULg

Conference (2016, June 29)

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See detailCitizen science in the nuclear field: An exploration of its potential in governing nuclear incidents, accidents, and post-disaster situations
Van Oudheusden, Michiel ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel; Van Hoyweghen, Ine et al

Conference (2016, June 28)

Citizen science (CS) is a form of science developed and enacted by citizens, typically with citizen volunteers collecting and/or analyzing various kinds of data. As CS serves public purposes (e.g ... [more ▼]

Citizen science (CS) is a form of science developed and enacted by citizens, typically with citizen volunteers collecting and/or analyzing various kinds of data. As CS serves public purposes (e.g. educational goals) and emanates within democratic and participatory cultures (e.g. the open science movement), it potentially broadens scientific research and facilitates public participation in science policy. Whereas the role of CS is well documented in fields such as amateur astronomy, biohacking, video gaming, etc., there is a dearth of research about the role of CS in the nuclear field. Yet, following the 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, CS has demonstrably contributed to filling knowledge and information gaps, as citizens in the affected areas monitor radioactivity in the environment and communicate about environmental risks (e.g. Citizens’ Radioactivity Monitoring Project). In this process, citizen scientists have voiced ardent criticism of government and industry, as these institutes are seen to deliberately inhibit open knowledge sharing. Taking these insights as an entry point, this paper probes the potential of CS in the governance of nuclear incidents/accidents, emergency situations, and in post-disaster recovery. Drawing on past and present CS initiatives connected to nuclear incidents and accidents in Japan, the USA, Canada, and the UK, it conceptualizes the social spaces in which CS emerges; ascertains which knowledge, information and decision-making challenges CS addresses; and determines which collective lessons can be drawn to ensure more legitimate and socially robust nuclear governance. Particular attention is given to the role governments, industries, and established scientists can, and should, assume as potential facilitators, patrons, or challengers of a more collective, open approach to disaster preparedness and response. The latter category comprises social scientists, who in Japan have been criticized for “disengaging” with CS practice, thereby limiting opportunities for contextual learning about disasters and even hampering post-trauma disaster recovery. The paper engages with the following conference themes: The future role of publics in processes of government/governance; Empowering publics in new innovation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping and investigating phase anomalies in GPS data onboard Low Earth Orbiters
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Bruinsma, Sean; Loyer, Sylvain et al

Poster (2016, June 28)

To face important societal challenges like sea level variations, climate change and natural hazards management (tsunami detection, earthquakes, crustal deformations…), modern science rely more and more on ... [more ▼]

To face important societal challenges like sea level variations, climate change and natural hazards management (tsunami detection, earthquakes, crustal deformations…), modern science rely more and more on precise geodesy. Precise Orbit Determination (POD) is of major concern in the frame of altimetry or gravity recovery missions like GOCE or GRACE. Using the GPS receiver onboard, orbits at cm-level accuracy are generally achieved in both kinematic and reduced-dynamic approaches using dual frequency code and phase measurements. GPS data processing generally uses the Ionospheric-Free (IF) combination to get rid of the ionospheric delay, which is varying with the season, latitude, local time and solar activity. However, large discrepancies in the orbit determination are still observed over polar and equatorial regions, which turn into artefacts and errors in the derived scientific products (gravity field, sea surface height…). More precisely, large RMS values are strongly correlated to phase anomalies occurring on GPS receivers: cycle slips, data unavailability or enhanced measurement noise, especially on L2 signal. Phase anomalies are generally observed when the satellite orbit crosses regions where ionospheric scintillations occur, which are defined as rapid fluctuations in phase and amplitude of the GNSS signals. The occurrence of scintillations exhibits large day-to-day variations and depends mainly on geomagnetic latitude, season and local time. At low latitudes, maximum occurrence of scintillations is observed 15-20° on either side of the geomagnetic equator. Scintillations also occur at auroral and polar latitudes, where their intensity increases with increasing geomagnetic activity. This paper aims at detecting, mapping and understanding the phase anomalies experienced by LEO satellites and analyzing their correlation with geomagnetic activity, latitude, season and local time. Several LEO satellites at different altitudes are analyzed (e.g. SWARM, GRACE or JASON), which allows a multi-layer analysis of the underlying ionospheric phenomenon, including scintillation. The latter are generally measured with several indices, like the amplitude index S4 or the phase index SigmaPhi (σφ), which are usually derived from 100Hz measurements performed by dedicated scintillation monitors. In this study, we compute a similar index (called pseudo-σφ) using GPS phase data at 1Hz coming from POD GNSS antenna. A detailed study of the occurrence rate and the severity of pseudo-σφ, together with cycle slips and other spurious phase data, will be performed for different LEO satellites. [less ▲]

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See detailA Selective and Highly Sensitive MIR Photoacuostic Sensor for Trace Gas Monitoring
Lassen, M; Lamar, L; Balslev-Harder, D et al

Conference (2016, June 28)

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See detailHolocene paleoclimate reconstructions from belgian continental archives
Allan, Mohammed ULg; VERHEYDEN, sophie; CRUCIFIX, Michel et al

Poster (2016, June 28)

Speleothems and peatbogs presented in Belgium are interesting archives for atmospheric pollution record and climate variability. Both archives are reliable continental environmental archives of high ... [more ▼]

Speleothems and peatbogs presented in Belgium are interesting archives for atmospheric pollution record and climate variability. Both archives are reliable continental environmental archives of high interest due to their dating possibilities and their possibility to preserve multi-proxy records of environmental and climatic dynamics. Combining studies on speleothems and peatbogs from the same area will provide an age-constrained reconstruction of climatic variability at annual resolution for key intervals of the Holocene. The reconstructed precipitation and temperature curves in NW European settings, as proposed in HOPES, are essential to better constrain the Northern Hemisphere climatic record and to test climate models. Our strategy is derived from a comparative study of two continental archives speleothems and peatbogs. Time series of elemental and stable isotope geochemistry will be established for the 2 archives. For peatbog, the reconstructions of temperature (derived from stable C and O isotope), precipitation (derived from humification) and dust flux (from elementary geochemical signature) would track climate changes with subdecadal resolution. As an innovative part, Laser Ablation analyse of elemental geochemistry on impregnated peat section will allow to reach an annual resolution in the dust flux. For speleothems, records of temperature (derived from oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of calcite) and effective rainfall (derived from geochemical ratios) would reach a seasonal resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the temporal dynamics of suspended sediment fluxes using discrete sampling and continuous turbidity measurements in the Meuse and Scheldt watersheds (Wallonia, Belgium)
Van Campenhout, Jean ULg

Conference (2016, June 27)

Soil erosion may be apprehended at different scales and different time intervals in order to quantify the transport of suspended sediment at the outlet of large watersheds. In the Walloon region, several ... [more ▼]

Soil erosion may be apprehended at different scales and different time intervals in order to quantify the transport of suspended sediment at the outlet of large watersheds. In the Walloon region, several projects were conducted to estimate the erosion rates in watersheds ranging from 16 to 2900 km². Both discrete sampling methods (allowing the coverage of a large area through field campaigns during major floods or moderate hydrological events) and continuous turbidity measurements devices (studying a small number of locations with a small sampling interval and a wide range of sampled flow rates) were tested in these projects. At the region scale (Figure 1), the mean annual sediment erosion rate reaches several hundreds of tons per square kilometre and per year in the loess belt (Senne, Dyle and Gette watersheds) with a huge sensibility to extreme hydrological events while the mean annual sediment transport value reaches 20 t.km-2.yr-1 in Lorraine, 34 t.km-2.yr-1 in Ardenne and 69 t.km-2.yr-1 in Entre-Vesdre-et-Meuse. The aims of our researches are 1) the determination of the effect of the sampling frequency on the annual sediment transport rate estimation ; 2) the definition of the prerequisites to perform efficient turbidity measurements in rivers with high suspended load concentrations ; 3) the identification of the sources of errors due to the interpolation methods through a comparison of several methods proposed in the literature allowing the quantification of long-term erosion rates using a small number of discrete samples ; 4) the observation and explanation of clockwise and anti-clockwise hysteresis loops in relationship with the sequence of floods occurring in large watersheds and 5) the highlighting of the regional differentiation in the erosion rates, particle size and proportion of organic matter in the suspended load samples due to spatial variations of the soil substrate and the land cover characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailNappe Vibration Mitigation Techniques for Free-overfall Structrures
Lodomez, Maurine ULg; Crookston, Brian M.; Tullis, Blake P. et al

in Full Proceedings: Hydraulic Structures and Water System Management (2016, June 27)

Nappe vibration is a phenomenon that has been witnessed in the field for a variety of different free overflow hydraulic structures operating at low heads, such as fountains, crest gates, and weirs. This ... [more ▼]

Nappe vibration is a phenomenon that has been witnessed in the field for a variety of different free overflow hydraulic structures operating at low heads, such as fountains, crest gates, and weirs. This phenomenon is visually characterized by oscillations in the thin nappe cascading downstream of the control structure. These oscillations can produce a significant level of noise and acoustic pressure waves, which can increase the environmental and societal impacts of the hydraulic structure. As a result, a detailed investigation has been undertaken to identify practical and effective mitigation solutions for free-overfall structures where nappe vibration may be of concern. Research is being performed with a prototype-scale linear weir (weir length of 3.5 m and fall height of 3 m) located at the Engineering Hydraulics laboratory of the University of Liège, to assess the effectiveness of various crest modifications and any corresponding impacts to hydraulic efficiency (i.e., flow rate). The test matrix includes the optimization (position and spacing of elements) of three mitigation solutions which are projecting bolts, deflectors and step. In addition, a high-speed camera and audio equipment have been used to evaluate effectiveness of the configurations in reducing nappe vibration. Finally, this practical study has identified countermeasures suitable for retrofits and new construction, easy to construct, durable, hydraulically efficient, and with minimal potential for debris collection. [less ▲]

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See detailConception of a near-IR spectrometer for ground-based observations of massive stars
Kintziger, Christian ULg; Desselle, Richard ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg et al

Poster (2016, June 27)

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships ... [more ▼]

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument that intends to observe massive stars. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the scientific requirements and telescope characteristics, the entire optical design of the spectrograph is presented. Specific optical elements, such as a toroidal lens, are introduced to improve the instrument’s performances. Then, the verification of predicted optical performances is investigated through optical analyses such as resolution checking. Eventually, the star positioning system onto the central fiber core is explained. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantification of nitrogen stress on winter wheat by multispectral vision based on reflectance measurements and textural descriptors
Marlier, Guillaume ULg; Gritten, Fanny; Fraipont, Guillaume ULg et al

Conference (2016, June 27)

Hand-held sensors (SPAD meter, N-Tester, …) are used for detecting the leaves nitrogen concentration (Nc) on the basis of an optical detection of the chlorophyll concentration. These devices are active ... [more ▼]

Hand-held sensors (SPAD meter, N-Tester, …) are used for detecting the leaves nitrogen concentration (Nc) on the basis of an optical detection of the chlorophyll concentration. These devices are active sensors: an internal radiation source emits light and transmission through a leaf is measured in the red (650 nm) and in the near-infrared (920 nm) spectral regions. These devices present several drawbacks. The nitrogen concentration is gained by an indirect way through the chlorophyll concentration and the leaves have to be fixed in a defined position for the measurements. These drawbacks could be overcome by an imaging device that measures the canopy reflectance. In this context, the objective of the paper is to analyse the potential of different image parameters for estimating nitrogen concentration. The tests were carried out on parcels submitted to total nitrogen inputs of 180 kg N.ha-1 but with different fertilization modalities. Reference Nc measurements were obtained by the Kjeldahl method and a Hydro N-Tester (Yara). The developed imaging system comprised a CMos camera and a set of 22 interference filters ranging from 450 to 950 nm mounted on a wheel steered by a stepper motor. The image acquisition and the motor rotation were controlled by a program written in C++. The crop was imaged vertically at one meter height. The raw images presented 1280x1024 pixels covering an area of approximately 0.5x0.4 m and were recorded with a 12-bit luminance resolution. To deal with the natural irradiance variability of the scene, a white reference was used and the integration time was automatically adjusted for each image. The image treatment included the segmentation of Photosynthetically Active Leaves (PAL) by using Bayes theorem and the computation of the mean PAL reflectance after correction of background and illumination fluctuations. Nc was estimated on the basis of the 22 filters by Partial Least Square (PLS) method and by four filters selected by Best Subset Selection (BSS). In comparison with the Kjeldahl method, the estimation of Nc by the Hydro N-Tester, the PLS and the BSS (filters 600-80, 950-100, 650-40 and 450-80 nm) gave determination coefficient and standard error respectively equal to of 0.53, 0.29 %; 0.67, 0.21%; 0.56 and 0.25%. This indicated that the full multi-spectral approach gave significantly better Nc estimation than a portable device and suggested that a camera equipped with four filters would give similar results. In addition to these promising results, the Nc measurement were correlated to leaf area measurements and textural descriptors. For this purpose, image analysis based on Grey Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), Fourier transform and spatial autocorrelation were performed to characterize the nitrogen state of the crop. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical education and leisure: What’s the link?
Cloes, Marc ULg

Conference (2016, June 27)

All around the world, practitioners and researchers point out that people are becoming less and less physically active and adopt more and more sedentary behaviours. Such changes in the Human lifestyle ... [more ▼]

All around the world, practitioners and researchers point out that people are becoming less and less physically active and adopt more and more sedentary behaviours. Such changes in the Human lifestyle could have dramatic consequences as pointed out by the ‘Designed to move’ movement (Morris, 2013). To fight against that irresistible evolution, the need of a multisectorial approach is illustrated by the complexity of the socio-ecological model (Sallis et al., 2006). It underlines the large array of variables that play in the physical activity that someone is able to integrate into his/her life. Nevertheless, school has been identified as one major pillar of the promotion of an active lifestyle (van Sluijs et al., 2007). According to the knowledge and specific competences that they acquire during their studies, physical education (PE) teachers are considered as the potential cornerstones of such action (Tappe & Burgeson, 2004). While it was traditionally focused on the development of the youth’s physical, motor, and social competences of the students, since two decades, PE is increasingly more associated to the preparation of physically educated citizens. It means that what the students learn during their PE lessons should be useful outside the school and for a lifelong term. This concept is become a determining pedagogical principle: the physical literacy (Whitehead, 2013). In parallel, PE teachers are now requested to play a role on the health of their students despite if few evidence confirm that they can be successful in influencing the future behaviours of the children/adolescents to who they teach (Green, 2014). New pedagogical approaches are proposed nowadays in order to increase the effectiveness of the PE teachers’ intervention. This is linked to another pedagogical principle: accountability. Leisure activities enter progressively in the PE curriculum. Students benefit of more experiences that they could operate in their community. This requires more partnerships between school and leisure actors in order to implement original projects. Students must learn to become autonomous and smart decision makers able to identify the way to integrate PA in their leisure. [less ▲]

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See detailMonitoring the ionosphere using new GNSS
Warnant, René ULg; Deprez, Cécile ULg; Wautelet, Gilles ULg et al

Conference (2016, June 27)

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See detailThree years of harvest with the vector vortex coronagraph in the thermal infrared
Absil, Olivier ULg; Mawet, D.; Karlsson, M. et al

in Evans, C.; Simard, L.; Takami, H. (Eds.) Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy VI (2016, June 26)

For several years, we have been developing vortex phase masks based on sub-wavelength gratings, known as Annular Groove Phase Masks. Etched onto diamond substrates, these AGPMs are currently designed to ... [more ▼]

For several years, we have been developing vortex phase masks based on sub-wavelength gratings, known as Annular Groove Phase Masks. Etched onto diamond substrates, these AGPMs are currently designed to be used in the thermal infrared (ranging from 3 to 13 μm). Our AGPMs were first installed on VLT/NACO and VLT/VISIR in 2012, followed by LBT/LMIRCam in 2013 and Keck/NIRC2 in 2015. In this paper, we review the development, commissioning, on-sky performance, and early scientific results of these new coronagraphic modes and report on the lessons learned. We conclude with perspectives for future developments and applications. [less ▲]

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See detailStrain induced vortex core switching in planar magnetostrictive nanostructures
Ostler, Thomas ULg

Conference (2016, June 26)

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See detailPeri-implant soft tissue integration
LAMBERT, France ULg

Conference (2016, June 25)

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See detailThe implication of short-term memory in numerical magnitude processing: evidence from Turner syndrome
Attout, Lucie ULg; Noël, Marie-Pascale; Rousselle, Laurence ULg

Poster (2016, June 24)

Most studies on early magnitude representation focused on the visual modality with no possibility to disentangle the influence of visuo-spatial skills and short-term memory (STM) abilities on visual ... [more ▼]

Most studies on early magnitude representation focused on the visual modality with no possibility to disentangle the influence of visuo-spatial skills and short-term memory (STM) abilities on visual quantification processes. In order to specify the influence of visuo-spatial and STM processing on numerical abilities, a series of magnitudes comparison tasks differing on visuo-spatial processing requirement (no/high), on the nature of the magnitude to be processed (continuous/discrete/symbolic magnitude) and on WM demands (simultaneous/sequential presentation) were administred to twenty patients with Turner syndrome (TS), a genetic condition characterized by poor mathematical achievement, low spatial skills and reduced STM abilities. Our results showed a lower acuity than a control group matched on verbal IQ when participants with TS compared the numerical magnitudes of stimuli presented sequentially (low visuo-spatial processing and high STM load: Dot sequence and Sound sequence). No difference was observed in the numerical comparison of sets presented simultaneously or when comparing continuous and symbolic magnitude stimuli. Besides, the group difference in sequential tasks disappeared when controlling for STM abilities. These results highlight the importance of STM abilities to extract numerosity through a sequential presentation and underline the importance of considering the impact of format presentation on magnitude judgments. [less ▲]

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See detailMarijan Molé à l'aube du nouveau comparatisme indo-iranien
Swennen, Philippe ULg

Conference (2016, June 24)

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