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See detailEtude du potentiel des sous-produits vinicoles pour des applications à haute valeur ajoutée
Berchem, Thomas ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg

Conference (2016, January 19)

Grape growing is one of the largest crops around world. Grape pomaces seem to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are ... [more ▼]

Grape growing is one of the largest crops around world. Grape pomaces seem to be an interesting source of bio-based molecules but, despite this potential, these byproducts are untapped. Their uses are limited to poor value added applications like composting, agricultural spreading or bioethanol. This work focuses on high value added valorisation possibilities of grape pomace. It takes part in the current trend of using natural bioactive molecules in pharmaceutical, cosmetic or food industry, through the extraction of polyphenols. Firstly, chemical characterization is performed on grape pomace from two grape varieties (Cabernet sauvignon and Pinot noir) in order to determine variability. Secondly, the same approach is applied to grape seeds and skins. Finally, a method of extraction of polyphenols is developed. Results shown in this work tend to indicate a high valorisation potential of grape pomace thank to the identification of compounds like bioactive molecules and especially polyphenols (0.7% in seeds and 0.4% in skins) as well as high concentrations of other compounds in seeds (lignin (43-53%), grape oil (12%), proteins (12%)) and in skins (lignin (20%), tartaric acid (4%), proteins (10%)) of which the valorisation potential from wine-making byproducts needs to be explored. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison des performances des modèles d'analyse discriminante PLS et SVM
Eylenbosch, Damien ULg; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Baeten, Vincent et al

Poster (2016, January 19)

Les performances des modèles d’analyses discriminantes PLS (Partial Least Squares) et SVM (Support Vector Machines) ont été comparées dans une étude qui avait pour objectif de discriminer des spectres ... [more ▼]

Les performances des modèles d’analyses discriminantes PLS (Partial Least Squares) et SVM (Support Vector Machines) ont été comparées dans une étude qui avait pour objectif de discriminer des spectres proches infrarouges sur base d'images hyperspectrales de racines et de pailles de froment en vue de les quantifier. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of response surface methodology to optimize samples preparations in laboratory
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Romnee, Jean-Michel; Lognay, Georges ULg

Conference (2016, January 17)

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See detailBiomarqueurs dans l'arthrose et acide hyaluronique
Henrotin, Yves ULg

Conference (2016, January 16)

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See detailFormer les futurs enseignants à l’évaluation et évaluer pour former : deux logiques complémentaires ?
Hindryckx, Marie-Noëlle ULg

Conference (2016, January 15)

Pour cette table ronde, les deux angles d’entrée choisis étaient ceux de l’apprentissage de l’évaluation (Comment les futurs enseignants sont-ils formés à l’évaluation ?) et de l’évaluation pour ... [more ▼]

Pour cette table ronde, les deux angles d’entrée choisis étaient ceux de l’apprentissage de l’évaluation (Comment les futurs enseignants sont-ils formés à l’évaluation ?) et de l’évaluation pour l’apprentissage (Comment l’évaluation des pratiques enseignantes peut-elle contribuer à leur développement professionnel ?). Si ces deux voies d’entrée ont déjà été largement documentées, l’originalité de cette table-ronde a été de chercher à les relier en interrogeant le potentiel de l’évaluation (des pratiques enseignantes) comme outil de formation (des enseignants) à l’évaluation. Chacun des intervenants devait apporter un regard différent sur cette problématique, en fonction des spécificités de son champ de recherche, du domaine de formation dans lequel il intervient. La première intervention (Richard Etienne) a permis de poser un cadre de réflexion en abordant la question sous un angle « transversal », sans envisager de didactique spécifique et sans cloisonner sur un seul type de dispositif. Les deux autres interventions ont envisagé la problématique sous des angles différents mais complémentaires : dans le cadre d’un cours dédié à l’évaluation destiné notamment à de futurs enseignants du primaire d’abord (Lucie Mottier Lopez) ; dans le cadre d’un cours de didactique de la biologie destiné à de futurs enseignants du secondaire ensuite (MN Hindryckx). [less ▲]

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See detailQuel outil d’entrainement pour des étudiants en médecine évalués par QCM en physique ?
Marique, Pierre-Xavier ULg; Van de Poël, Jean-François ULg; Hoebeke, Maryse ULg

Conference (2016, January 14)

La réforme des études de médecine mise en application dès la rentrée académique de septembre 2012 en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles a introduit une liste abondante de prérequis dans les cours dits de « ... [more ▼]

La réforme des études de médecine mise en application dès la rentrée académique de septembre 2012 en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles a introduit une liste abondante de prérequis dans les cours dits de « sciences fondamentales » (physique, chimie, biologie) et favorisé l’évaluation sous forme de questions à choix multiples en première année de bachelier. Or, les étudiants sortant de l’enseignement secondaire maitrisent rarement, pour de multiples raisons, l’ensemble des prérequis. Par ailleurs, ils sont très peu entrainés à ce mode d’évaluation et n’en maitrisent donc pas les spécificités. Lors de leur arrivée à l’université, les causes d’échec des étudiants sont multiples. Parmi celles-ci, nous pouvons citer le temps d’adaptation de l’étudiant au système d'enseignement supérieur, la difficulté d’apprendre la nouvelle matière vue au cours (problèmes de méthode de travail, quantité de matière plus importante, laps de temps plus court pour l’assimiler, …) et, éventuellement, une mauvaise maitrise des prérequis. Cela nous a poussé à développer un outil de soutien à l'apprentissage pour le cours de physique. Nous avons opté pour une plate-forme en ligne afin qu’elle soit accessible à chaque instant et de n’importe quel endroit, moyennant une connexion internet. L’étudiant peut notamment y travailler la nouvelle matière ou les prérequis via une série de tests formatifs présentés sous forme de QCM. L’étudiant peut à tout moment générer un test selon trois paramètres : la(les) matière(s) qu’il souhaite travailler, le temps qu’il désire y consacrer et le niveau de maitrise qu’il souhaite atteindre à ce moment-là. La matière vue au cours a préalablement été décomposée en cinq grands thèmes. L’étudiant peut, lors de l’ouverture d’une session, choisir un ou plusieurs de ces thèmes. Le nombre de questions figurant dans son test formatif dépendra de la durée qu’il aura préalablement sélectionnée (30, 60, 90 ou 120 minutes). Un barème de 10 questions par heure, identique aux conditions d’examens, est appliqué. L’étudiant pourra, en outre, choisir un niveau parmi trois échelons de difficulté. Les questions portant sur chacune des cinq matières, issues notamment des examens des années antérieures, ont été évaluées par plusieurs membres de l’équipe pédagogique et un niveau de difficulté de 1 à 4 leur a été attribué. Le niveau de la question est établi sur la base de 4 critères : abstraction, réflexion, mixité et niveau mathématique. Chaque évaluateur de questions donne un score de 1 à 3 à chacun des critères et ce, pour chaque question. Le total sur l’ensemble des critères fixera le niveau général de la question. Le critère d’abstraction est lié à l’abstraction de l’énoncé et de la réponse attendue. Le deuxième critère évalue la réflexion développée par l’étudiant pour répondre à la question qui lui est posée, et donc notamment le nombre d’étapes de résolution. Le critère de mixité est lié à la diversité des sujets intervenant dans un problème. Le dernier critère est lié au niveau de mathématique que requiert la résolution de la question ou du problème de physique. La moyenne des différentes évaluations fournit alors le niveau de la question. Afin de vérifier la concordance des évaluations, le Kappa de Fleiss a été mesuré et nous indique une concordance moyenne. Vingt ensembles de questions ont été créés, soit un par niveau de difficulté de question et par matière. Une attention particulière est apportée à la rédaction des questions, notamment afin de respecter les règles de conception développées par Leclercq (Leclercq, 1986) et sériant les niveaux d’abstraction des questions selon les taxonomies de Bloom (Bloom, 1956). Une fois les trois paramètres sélectionnés par l’étudiant, un test formatif est généré automatiquement. Un nombre de questions, fixé par la durée choisie par l’étudiant, est tiré aléatoirement en respectant le niveau de difficulté (du test) que l’étudiant a choisi. Le niveau « faible » de test proposera uniquement des questions de niveaux 1 et 2, le niveau « moyen », des questions de niveaux 1, 2 et 3 et le niveau « fort » des questions de niveaux 2, 3 et 4. L’étudiant pourra visualiser son état d’avancement dans la maitrise de chacun des thèmes grâce à un rapport qu’il pourra à tout moment générer. Dans le futur, ce rapport détaillera également quel type (théorie, application directe de formule, problèmes, …) de questions l’étudiant a tendance à réussir ou rater. Une vue simplifiée et ludique, à l’aide de médailles à gagner sera également proposée à l’étudiant. A l’aide de cette vue simplifiée et du rapport complet, l’équipe pédagogique pourra travailler plus efficacement avec l’étudiant si ce dernier demande un rendez-vous de remédiation. En effet, sur la base des rapports, les membres de l’équipe pédagogique pourront facilement et rapidement cibler les difficultés précises rencontrées par l’apprenant et lui proposer des pistes concrètes de travail pour y remédier. Outre cet outil, la plate-forme propose le travail des prérequis et de la nouvelle matière sous différentes formes (vidéos d’expérience à commenter, résolution guidée de problèmes, forums, questions débats, …). Cette diversité d’outils proposés a pour but d’augmenter la motivation des étudiants selon la théorie de Viau (Viau, 1994). Ces outils ont été présentés précédemment (Marique, 2014). [less ▲]

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See detailÉvaluation de la réflexivité au travers de portfolios
Housen, Marie ULg; Pirard, Florence ULg

Conference (2016, January 14)

Notre étude s’inscrit dans une expérience d’enseignement et d’apprentissage avec portfolio expérimentée depuis 2010 (Pirard & Lambert, 2015) et exploite une sélection de matériel recueilli durant l’année ... [more ▼]

Notre étude s’inscrit dans une expérience d’enseignement et d’apprentissage avec portfolio expérimentée depuis 2010 (Pirard & Lambert, 2015) et exploite une sélection de matériel recueilli durant l’année académique 2014-2015 auprès de cent soixante étudiants universitaires inscrits au cours « Questions et Pratiques d’Éducation du Jeune Enfant » (QPEJE) dispensé en première année du master en Sciences de l’Éducation de l’Université de Liège. Elle propose des analyses de « traces de réflexivité » (Derobertmasure & Dehon, 2012, p.31) créées lors de la rédaction de portfolio. Dans cette expérience, le portfolio est considéré d’abord comme un outil de développement intégré dans un dispositif d’enseignement qui fait appel à la réflexivité. Il permet aux étudiants de garder trace de leurs apprentissages au fil des activités proposées dans un dispositif d’enseignement universitaire qui articule des temps présentiels à d’autres activités telles que les lectures en ligne, les possibilités d’échange sur un forum, des visites de terrain, la rencontre de professionnels, des analyses vidéoscopiques. Des questions clés sont proposées aux étudiants afin de structurer leur portfolio et le développement de leur pensée. Elles concernent leurs représentations du jeune enfant et des conditions éducatives à privilégier dans un cadre professionnel ainsi que leurs perceptions des enjeux éducatifs spécifiques au secteur. Des documents vidéo filmés dans des institutions éducatives par des praticiens sont consultables en ligne. Il leur est demandé d’en sélectionner un de le décrypter et de l’analyser d’abord de manière spontanée, ensuite référencée à l’aide des différentes ressources théoriques mises à leur disposition en ligne. On peut considérer que ce dispositif d’enseignement présente les deux grandes caractéristiques, qui, selon Chaubet (2010), permettent de stimuler la réflexivité : 1) agir en situation de travail authentique ou vraisemblable (dans notre cas les vidéos et la visite en milieu d’accueil) 2) confronter à l’altérité (la visite de terrain, les échanges avec les professionnel-le-s et les débats menés en classe). Le portfolio devient en fin de parcours un objet d’évaluation individuelle. Il constitue aussi la base d’un rapport commun, lui-même évalué, à deux, trois ou quatre étudiants qui sont invités à confronter, analyser et synthétiser leurs représentations du jeune enfant, des conditions éducatives et leur perceptions des enjeux éducatifs ; leur décryptage et analyse de situations éducatives filmées. La réflexivité fait partie des critères d’évaluation finale tels que le propose Deum et Vanhulle (2008). L’importance accordée au développement de la réflexivité et à son évaluation dans ce dispositif nous conduit à analyser rétrospectivement l’évaluation réalisée de portfolios. La référence au modèle théorique de la réflexivité d’Hatton & Smith (1995) adapté par Michaud & Alin (2010) permet une gradation de la réflexivité en termes de niveaux. Il prend en compte le caractère développemental de la réflexion. Quatre niveaux de réflexion y sont décrits : descriptif sans réflexion, descriptif, argumentatif et critique. Néanmoins, il importe de préciser que ces différents niveaux ne doivent pas être compris comme une hiérarchie en termes de « valeurs ». En effet, les résultats d’une recherche d’Hatton et Smith (2005) ont permis de montrer que la phase descriptive sans réflexion constitue un palier nécessaire au niveau suivant. Dès lors, dans notre analyse ce n’est pas seulement l’atteinte du niveau de réflexion critique qui nous permet de conclure à l’aboutissement d’une pratique réflexive de qualité mais bien « […] le recours équilibré à chacune des différentes familles de processus » (Derobertmasure, 2012). L’apport de Michaud et Alin (2010) permet d’étayer ces différents niveaux de réflexivité en y précisant pour chacun des indicateurs de fond (justification des choix, processus mis en œuvre, cohérence des idées, …), des indicateurs de forme portant sur la structure et la temporalité des écrits et enfin un indicateur d’implication estimé par la manière dont l’auteur se présente dans son portfolio (je, il, on et nous). Les indices réflexifs de notre échantillon de portfolio ont été classés par plusieurs codeurs au sein de cette grille afin de nous permettre d’évaluer d’une part, le niveau de réflexivité atteint et d’autre part, l’utilisation équilibrée des quatre niveaux. [less ▲]

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See detailL'accompagnement professionnel et les conceptions de l'évaluation
Pirard, Florence ULg

Conference (2016, January 14)

La notion d’accompagnement est largement utilisée dans le champ éducatif en référence à des dispositifs inscrits dans une culture de l’éducation relativement récente. Pour Barbier (2005), trois cultures ... [more ▼]

La notion d’accompagnement est largement utilisée dans le champ éducatif en référence à des dispositifs inscrits dans une culture de l’éducation relativement récente. Pour Barbier (2005), trois cultures de l’éducation se sont développées successivement. Dans la première, la culture de l’enseignement, le savoir constitue la référence centrale du travail éducatif avec l’hypothèse d’une transformation identitaire fondée sur l’appropriation. L’espace éducatif peut alors être vu comme un espace spécialisé de mise à disposition de savoirs sous une forme appropriative par « l’élève ». Il est fondé sur des rapports à l’environnement pensés en termes de conceptualisation-application (rapport théorie-pratique). Sa figure emblématique est celle de l’enseignant détenteur et transmetteur de savoirs. L’apparition de nouveaux savoirs ou de nouvelles disciplines est considérée comme le moteur du changement. Cette culture de l’enseignement, la plus présente dans le champ de l’éducation (y compris en éducation des adultes), conçoit l’intervention éducative essentiellement selon une logique de communication. Lui correspondent « des pratiques d’ingénierie didactique, ordonnées autour de la conception et de l’évaluation de séquences d’activités de mise en scène et d’appropriation de savoirs ou de concepts : planification de cours, scénarios didactiques, logiciels éducatifs, etc. » (Barbier, 2009, p. 465). Dans la seconde culture dite de la formation et qui se serait développée à côté et parfois en réaction au monde de l’enseignement, la notion de capacité (aptitude, savoir, savoir-faire, savoir-être) est considérée comme la référence centrale du travail éducatif qui repose sur l’hypothèse d’une transformation identitaire fondée sur la notion de transfert. Ici l’espace éducatif devient un espace spécifique, « protégé » de production de nouvelles capacités chez « l’apprenant » susceptibles d’être transférées dans d’autres situations. Sa figure emblématique est celle du formateur organisateur de situations spécifiques d’apprentissage. Les rapports à l’environnement sont conçus en termes de décontextualisation-recontextualisation. L’apparition de nouvelles pratiques ou de nouveaux champs de pratiques spécialisées est considérée comme le moteur du changement. Cette culture de la formation conçoit et organise « l’intervention éducative comme un espace-temps de transformation de capacités chez les apprenants (… ;) elle a permis l’éclosion et le développement de l’ingénierie de formation sous sa forme canonique, puisque, tout en les distinguant, elle rapporte explicitement les espaces-temps éducatifs aux espaces-temps du travail et de la vie sociale. C’est ce qui a permis l’éclosion de la réflexion sur les objectifs, définis en termes d’activités ou de comportements attendus, et sur leurs liens avec les projets et l’évaluation » (Barbier, 2009, p. 465). Les rapports dialectiques entre ces deux premières cultures de l’éducation ont contribué à l’émergence, dans les années nonante, d’une troisième culture : la culture de la professionnalisation qui considère la notion de compétence comme la référence centrale du travail éducatif avec l’hypothèse d’une transformation identitaire fondée sur la notion de transformation conjointe de l’action et de(s) acteur(s). L’espace éducatif devient un espace de développement de compétences en situation d’activité évolutive et sa figure emblématique est celle de l’accompagnateur du développement professionnel des « praticiens » ou des « opérateurs ». Les rapports à l’environnement sont pensés en termes de transformation conjointe de l’action et de l’environnement de l’action. Le moteur du changement se traduit, dans ce cas, par l’apparition de pratiques de gestion d’opérations combinées, auparavant disjointes. Cette culture de la professionnalisation conçoit et organise « l’espace-temps de la production des biens et services comme un espace de développement de compétences (…). Elle permet l’éclosion de ce que l’on peut appeler aujourd’hui l’ingénierie de la professionnalisation ou d’organisation d’activités de travail susceptibles d’induire un développement de compétences individuelles et/ou collectives » (Barbier, 2009, p. 465). L’analyse de dispositifs dans le secteur de l’accueil de l’enfance dans lequel nous étions directement impliquées grâce à une démarche de théorisation ancrée nous a permis de montrer que la référence à l’accompagnement peut renvoyer à au moins trois logiques très différentes chez les accompagnateurs et étroitement liées à des cultures différentes de la qualité de service et de l’évaluation (Pirard 2007, Pirard & Barbier, 2012; Pirard, Camus, Barbier, accepted; Pirard, à paraître). L’accompagnement dit « guidé vers une qualité normative » considère l’accompagnement comme une forme de soutien aux professionnels sensés s’approprier de manière active les principes éducatifs établis et les appliquer selon des manières jugées acceptables dans leur contexte particulier de travail. Les visées de production sont centrales tout comme l’’évaluation externe dans le chef de l’accompagnateur qui fortement impliqué dans le soutien et le guidage des pratiques et projets professionnels, introduit une extériorité par les normes auxquelles il se réfère pour juger de leur adéquation et conseiller, le cas échéant, leur réorientation (régularisation au sens de Vial). Ces normes renvoient à des critères prédéfinis et voulus validés scientifiquement. L’accompagnement « différencié pour une qualité intersubjective » est centré sur les spécificités des professionnels et des services et le soutien à autrui dans le développement de son identité propre. Pour ce faire, l’accompagnement vise surtout le développement d’attitudes professionnelles et de capacités transversales à transférer en situation de travail. L’évaluation interne y est prédominante ; l’accompagnateur veille à ouvrir un espace de débat où peut être exprimé une diversité de points de vue sans qu’un consensus ne soit nécessairement recherché. L’essentiel semble se jouer ici dans le processus de réflexion engagé chez professionnels en fonction de valeurs et des repères propre davantage que dans un résultat déterminé en fonction de critères précis. Enfin, « l’accompagnement interactif pour une qualité effective » repose sur l’hypothèse d’une transformation conjointe des actions (les pratiques éducatives mises en œuvre quotidiennement), des acteurs (les praticiens en charge des enfants, leurs encadrants au bénéfice des enfants et des familles), voire de l’environnement (l’ensemble des services inscrits dans une dynamique locale). La dimension interactive de l’accompagnement se réalise notamment dans la recherche de points de ralliement qui engagent ensemble praticiens et accompagnateurs dans des actions sources d’apprentissages mutuels. L’évaluation interactive et négociée impliquant accompagnateur et accompagnés est davantage privilégiée postulant que les projets peuvent être recadrés, les pratiques régulées vers d’autres possibles, les normes réinterprétées à la lumière des situations éducatives co-analysées par les différentes parties en fonction de critères dont le sens devient progressivement partagé. La présentation de ce modèle à partir de dispositifs menés dans le secteur de l’accueil de l’enfance sera l’occasion dans le symposium d’éprouver sa pertinence dans d’autres secteurs d’activité, en particulier celui de l’enseignement. [less ▲]

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See detailThe bison valley: Ormesson (Seine-et-Marne, France), a key open-air site for the study of Palaeolithic groups from the Middle Palaeolithic to the Badegoulian
Touzé, Olivier ULg; Bodu, Pierre

Conference (2016, January 14)

In the Paris Basin, open-air Palaeolithic sites generally belong to the final Magdalenian with examples such as Pincevent, Etiolles and Verberie. It is on these sites that the palethnographic approach of ... [more ▼]

In the Paris Basin, open-air Palaeolithic sites generally belong to the final Magdalenian with examples such as Pincevent, Etiolles and Verberie. It is on these sites that the palethnographic approach of A. Leroi-Gourhan and his disciples was elaborated. However, for a long time, periods prior to the end of the Upper Palaeolithic did not focus a lot of attention, certainly because of the absence of well-preserved sites, but also because of a relative lack of interest on behalf of researchers who were working on this vast area. Thanks to a collective research project developed in the early 2000’s at the French National Center for Scientific research (CNRS), entitled “The Early Upper Palaeolithic of the centre and the south of the Paris Basin”, new data were collected leading to the development of an excavation program on the site of Ormesson (Seine-et-Marne) that began in 2009. After seven years of functioning, this program, initially focused on a Gravettian occupation dated 26500 uncal. BP and linked to bison hunting, has permitted the identification of four others occupations ranging from the end of the Middle Palaeolithic to the Badegoulian, and also including the Châtelperronian and the Middle Solutrean periods. The excellent state of preservation of these occupations leads us, besides the study of the environmental context (topography, plant environment, fauna, availability of raw materials, etc.), to a better understanding of subsistence economies and settlements functioning developed during 30000 years of human presence at this site. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic diversity of seagrass detritus copepods: A consequence of species-specific specialization or a random diet?
Mascart, Thibaud; De Troch, Marleen; Remy, François ULg et al

in PeerJ PrePrints (2016, January 13), 4

One of the major ecological research questions is understanding how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning. Unravelling interspecific feeding preferences of organisms with overlapping trophic ... [more ▼]

One of the major ecological research questions is understanding how biodiversity influences ecosystem functioning. Unravelling interspecific feeding preferences of organisms with overlapping trophic niches will give part of the answer. Subsequently, the present study displays the trophic diversity of a benthic copepod community in a North-Western Corsican Posidonia oceanica seagrass ecosystem. These seagrass meadows are often interrupted by bare sand patches serving as deposition area for loose detritus. The accumulated macrophytodetritus, mainly derived from senescent macrophytes, harbour a diverse community of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda). The most abundant copepods (i.e. three harpacticoids and one calanoid, belonging to different eco-morphological types) and their potential food sources (i.e. macrophytodetritus, epiphytic biofilm and suspended organic matter) were analysed for stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N) and total lipids content. The results revealed a harpacticoid copepod feeding preference towards the epiphytic biofilm, while calanoid copepods preferred suspended organic matter. Additionally, a species-specific composition variation revealed finer partitioning of food resources (e.g. different micro-organisms present in the biofilm like bacteria, diatoms, fungi) over time.In conclusion, results showed species-specific food preferences, resulting in trophic niche and resource partitioning. Every eco-morphological type seems to cope in different ways with temporal fluctuations of food sources to comply with their nutritional needs. This illustrates the high resilience of the copepod community present in macrophytodetritus accumulations. Moreover, our results underlined the importance of multiple biomarker species-specific analysis in trophic ecology studies, especially in complex and dynamic environments offering numerous food items to consumers. [less ▲]

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See detailL'évaluation des enseignements et les politique qualité au Liban et en Belgique
Detroz, Pascal ULg

Conference (2016, January 13)

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See detailPsychological factors contributing to childlessness
Naziri, Despina ULg

Conference (2016, January 13)

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See detailHow do Rhizobacterial Volatiles Influence Root System Architecture, Biomass Production and Allocation of the Model Grass Brachypodium distachyon?
Delaplace, Pierre ULg; Ormeño - Lafuente, Elena; Nguyen, Minh ULg et al

Conference (2016, January 12)

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly considered as a complement of conventional inputs in agricultural systems. Their effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile ... [more ▼]

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria are increasingly considered as a complement of conventional inputs in agricultural systems. Their effects on their host plants are diverse and include volatile-mediated growth enhancement. The present study aims at assessing the effects of bacterial volatile production on the biomass production and the root system architecture of Brachypodium distachyon (L.) Beauv. (line Bd-21). An in vitro experimental set-up allowing plant-bacteria interaction through the gaseous phase without any physical contact was used to screen 19 bacterial strains for their growth promotion ability over a 10-day cocultivation period. Using principal component analysis followed by hierarchical clustering and two-way analysis of variance, five groups of bacteria were defined and characterized based on their combined influence on biomass production and root system architecture. The observed effects range from unchanged to highly increased biomass production coupled with increased root length and branching. Primary root length was only increased by the volatile compounds emitted by Enterobacter cloacae JM22 and Bacillus pumilus T4. Overall, the most significant results were obtained with Bacillus subtilis GB03 which induced a 81% increase in total biomass and enhanced total root length, total secondary root length and total adventitious root length by 88, 196 and 473% respectively. The analysis of the emission kinetics of bacterial volatile organic compounds is underway and should lead to the identification of volatile compounds candidates responsible for the observed growth promotion effects. Taking into account the inherent characteristics of our in vitro system, the next experimental steps are identified and discussed from a fundamental and applied viewpoint. [less ▲]

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See detailI grecismi in Gaio
Rochette, Bruno ULg

Conference (2016, January 11)

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See detailBien soigner l'arthrose: un enjeu capital pour notre société!
Henrotin, Yves ULg

Conference (2016, January 07)

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See detailIndo-Trinidadian Women and the Indian Public Sphere: Women under the Influence?
Munos, Delphine ULg

Conference (2016, January 06)

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULg)
See detailDoes Fomalhaut A Have an Asteroid-belt Analog?
Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George; Defrere, Denis ULg et al

in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts (2016, January 01)

Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris like the water ice-line ... [more ▼]

Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris like the water ice-line easily accessible. Here we present ALMA cycle 1, 870 μm (345 GHz) observation targeted at the inner part of the Fomalhaut system with a synthesized beam of 0.45"x0.37" (~3 AU linear resolution at the distance of Fomalhaut) and a rms of 26 μJy per beam. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the ALMA data enable us to place strong constraints on the nature of the warm excess revealed by Spitzer and Herschel observations. We detect a point source at the star position with a total flux consistent with thermal emission from the stellar photosphere. No structures that are brighter than 3 σ are detected in the central 15 AUx15 AU region. Modeling the spectral energy distribution using parameters expected for a dust-producing planetesimal belt indicates a radial location in the range ˜8-15 AU. This is consistent with the location where ice sublimates in Fomalhaut, i.e., an asteroid-belt analog. We also provide a new interpretation for the emission structure in the inner 10 AU region revealed by interferometric measurements at 2 and 8-13 μm as dust naturally connected to this proposed asteroid belt by Poynting-Robertson drag, dust sublimation, and magnetically trapped nano grains. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Accreting Protoplanet: Confirmation and Characterization of LkCa15b
Follette, Katherine B.; Miller Close, Laird; Males, Jared et al

in American Astronomical Society Meeting Abstracts (2016, January 01)

We present a visible light adaptive optics direct imaging detection of a faint point source separated by just 93 milliarcseconds (~15 AU) from the young star LkCa 15. Using Magellan AO's visible light ... [more ▼]

We present a visible light adaptive optics direct imaging detection of a faint point source separated by just 93 milliarcseconds (~15 AU) from the young star LkCa 15. Using Magellan AO's visible light camera in Simultaneous Differential Imaging (SDI) mode, we imaged the star at Hydrogen alpha and in the neighboring continuum as part of the Giant Accreting Protoplanet Survey (GAPplanetS) in November 2015. The continuum images provide a sensitive and simultaneous probe of PSF residuals and instrumental artifacts, allowing us to isolate H-alpha accretion luminosity from the LkCa 15b protoplanet, which lies well inside of the LkCa15 transition disk gap. This detection, combined with a nearly simultaneous near-infrared detection with the Large Binocular Telescope, provides an unprecedented glimpse at a planetary system during epoch of planet formation. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cabinet de papier de Jean Jacques Boissard (1528-1602). Réception de l’Antiquité et collectionnisme
De Marco, Rosa ULg

in Bourdieu, Catherine (Ed.) Collections et collectionneurs dans les Trois-Évêchés (2016, January)

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See detailHysteresis identification using nonlinear state-space models
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Esfahani, Alireza; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIV (2016, January)

Most studies tackling hysteresis identification in the technical literature follow white-box approaches, i.e. they rely on the assumption that measured data obey a specific hysteretic model. Such an ... [more ▼]

Most studies tackling hysteresis identification in the technical literature follow white-box approaches, i.e. they rely on the assumption that measured data obey a specific hysteretic model. Such an assumption may be a hard requirement to handle in real applications, since hysteresis is a highly individualistic nonlinear behaviour. The present paper adopts a black-box approach based on nonlinear state-space models to identify hysteresis dynamics. This approach is shown to provide a general framework to hysteresis identification, featuring flexibility and parsimony of representation. Nonlinear model terms are constructed as a multivariate polynomial in the state variables, and parameter estimation is performed by minimising weighted least-squares cost functions. Technical issues, including the selection of the model order and the polynomial degree, are discussed, and model validation is achieved in both broadband and sine conditions. The study is carried out numerically by exploiting synthetic data generated via the Bouc-Wen equations. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle molecule force spectroscopy on synthetic foldamers
Devaux, Floriane ULg; Li, Xuesong; Ivan, Huc et al

Poster (2016, January)

Inspired by the many folded conformations of the molecular machineries responsible for chemical reactions and mechanical tasks in nature, such as enzyme catalysis and duplication in nucleic acids ... [more ▼]

Inspired by the many folded conformations of the molecular machineries responsible for chemical reactions and mechanical tasks in nature, such as enzyme catalysis and duplication in nucleic acids, chemists have been developing the syntheses of artificial folded molecular architectures, namely foldamers (Guichard and Huc, 2011). The investigation of these molecules using AFM-based Single Molecule Force Spectrosocopy (SMFS) allows the elucidation of both mechanochemical properties and conformational dynamics on the unimolecular scale in solution. The stepwise synthesis of aromatic oligoamide-based foldamers was designed (Jiang et al., 2003; Huc, 2004) to produce well-defined helically-folded molecular architectures. A poly(ethylene oxide) PEO tether was coupled to one end of the foldamer. This tether design enables the coupling with the AFM tip and increases the number of potentially accessible physicochemical parameters through SMFS experiments. SMFS pulling experiments on this system yielded specific and reproducible force-extension patterns characteristic of single foldamers. Those patterns were further analyzed to determine unfolding forces and dynamics as well as to propose mechanistics hypotheses of the unfolding process. Several helical foldamers presenting variable lengths were considered. Experiments in multiple solvents pointed out a variation in the foldamer stability, leading to different average forces values. This last study enabled us to modulate the intramolecular interactions responsible for the folding and to evaluate the mechanochemical properties of the helix. The force values measured for those foldamers are higher than those previously measured in natural biopolymers (Clausen-Schaumann et al., 2000; Janshoff et al., 2000), showing a high stability under a load and a propensity for the development of emergent properties. In addition, the increased stability of these aromatic oligoamide foldamers was confirmed by the observation of almost instantaneous reversibility of the unfolding under load. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we detect adaptive radiations in marine fishes?
Santini, Francesco; Carnevale, Giorgio; Marrama, Giuseppe et al

Conference (2016, January)

The concept of adaptive radiation, according to which a biological lineage undergoes elevated rates of species diversification while at the same time experiencing divergence along ecological axis, is ... [more ▼]

The concept of adaptive radiation, according to which a biological lineage undergoes elevated rates of species diversification while at the same time experiencing divergence along ecological axis, is often invoked in evolutionary studies to explain the astonishing diversity of groups such as the cichlids of the African rift lakes, silverswords plants and honeycreeper birds in Hawaii, and anole lizards in the Neotropics. Recent surveys of the scientific literature, however, revealed that most studies of adaptive radiation do not recover the expected signal of early burst of lineage diversification, and in several animal groups rates of cladogenesis and phenotypic evolution may often be unlinked, thus creating complex patterns in the tempo of lineage and trait diversification. Furthermore, in spite of the dramatic increase in number of studies of the tempo and mode of evolution in marine fishes during the past decade, very little evidence has been uncovered to support the idea that adaptive radiations played a role in generating their staggering diversity, and even when a signal of radiation is recovered this virtually never conforms to the “traditional” early burst scenario. Using examples from our research on diverse groups of marine teleost fishes such as jacks and allies (Carangoidei), pufferfish and allies (Tetraodontiformes) and snappers (Lutjanidae), we will discuss why it is so difficult to recover a signal of adaptive radiation in general, and early burst in particular, and offer some suggestions on how to test for these patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailMobilité pastorale au Sahel et en Afrique de l’Ouest : essai de synthèse
HIYA MAIDAWA, Moustapha; Andres, Ludovic ULg; yamba, boubacar et al

Conference (2016, January)

La mobilité pastorale joue un rôle important dans la vie socio-économique des populations au Sahel et en Afrique de l’Ouest. Cependant, à travers la littérature, on perçoit la mobilité comme responsable ... [more ▼]

La mobilité pastorale joue un rôle important dans la vie socio-économique des populations au Sahel et en Afrique de l’Ouest. Cependant, à travers la littérature, on perçoit la mobilité comme responsable de la dégradation de l’environnement, l’émission de gaz à effet de serre, la désertification, la faible performance économique, etc. (AUBREVILLE A, 1949 ; HUBERT H, 1920; LAMPREY H, 1975). Toutefois, à partir de la fin des années 1990 un nouvel regard s’est orienté vers l’élevage mobile avec son rôle dans la lutte contre la désertification et le maintien de la biodiversité (BOURBOUZE A. et al, 2002 ; EL AICH A, WATERHOUSE A, 1999). Cette synthèse bibliographique tente de dégager le rôle et la place de la mobilité pastorale dans la vie socio-économique et environnementale au Sahel et en Afrique de l’Ouest. De plus, cette synthèse fait ressortir le lien entre la mobilité et les mutations foncières que vivent le pastoralisme et la mobilité au Sahel. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of a standardisation procedure on an international network of MIR instruments for milk analysis
Grelet, Clément ULg; Fernandez Pierna, Juan A.; Dardenne, Pierre et al

Poster (2016, January)

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See detailComment de futurs enseignants du secondaire supérieur en psychologie et sciences de l’éducation apprennent à évaluer les apprentissages
Francois, Nathalie ULg; Noël, Stéphanie ULg

Conference (2016, January)

Cette communication exposera le dispositif mis en place dans le cadre d’une formation d’enseignants du secondaire supérieur en psychologie et sciences de l’éducation pour amener les étudiants à acquérir ... [more ▼]

Cette communication exposera le dispositif mis en place dans le cadre d’une formation d’enseignants du secondaire supérieur en psychologie et sciences de l’éducation pour amener les étudiants à acquérir des compétences d’évaluation des apprentissages. Ces futurs agrégés effectuent des stages dans l’enseignement général mais également dans l’enseignement professionnalisant. Dans ce dernier, ils s’adressent essentiellement à des élèves inscrits dans des formations à des métiers de l’interaction humaine (éducateurs, puéricultrice, animateur, aide familiale…) et sont donc amenés à développer et à évaluer des compétences professionnelles. Lors d’un premier module préparant au stage au sein de l’enseignement général, les futurs enseignants (FE) sont invités, au sein du cours de didactique disciplinaire, à découvrir selon des démarches inductives, les trois grandes familles de tâches du métier d’enseignant : préparer une séquence de cours, gérer un microenseignement, évaluer les apprentissages. Pour cette troisième famille de tâches, les FE vont s’essayer tout d’abord à l’élaboration d’une évaluation de contenus sur base de leur microenseignement. Dans un second temps, ils sont confrontés à l’évaluation d’une tâche complexe. Une mise en situation leur permet de jouer le rôle d’un enseignant en sciences humaines qui évalue une revue de presse présentée oralement par des personnes qui endossent le rôle d’élèves (par le biais de capsules vidéo). Ces mises en situation permettent ensuite, sur la base des notes attribuées et des critères et indicateurs élaborés, de débattre de l’évaluation, de ce qu’elle recouvre et du cadre théorique qui permet de la soutenir (validité, cohérence, objectivité, critères) (Beckers, 2011). Lors du second module consacré à la préparation du stage dans l’enseignement qualifiant, les FE sont invités à évaluer et annoter des copies authentiques d’élèves futurs agents d’éducation. Cette troisième mise en situation est à nouveau l’occasion de discuter des critères et indicateurs d’évaluation mais également de sa fonction régulatrice (Beckers, 2007). [less ▲]

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See detail"Quand voyager mentalement dans le temps est difficile) - Une étude comparative des souvenirs et projections définissant le soi chez des patients dépressifs et des sujets contrôles sains
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Thirion, Julie; PITCHOT, William ULg et al

Poster (2016, January)

INTRODUCTION. Les patients dépressifs présentent des difficultés à effectuer le voyage mental dans le temps, une des fonctions principales de la mémoire autobiographique, c’est-à-dire à se projeter ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION. Les patients dépressifs présentent des difficultés à effectuer le voyage mental dans le temps, une des fonctions principales de la mémoire autobiographique, c’est-à-dire à se projeter mentalement dans le passé et le futur. Cette étude s’intéresse à des événements passés et futurs potentiels particuliers qui sont les souvenirs et les projections futures définissant le soi (SDS et PFDS, respectivement). Les SDS et les PFDS sont des événements autobiographiques particuliers hautement pertinents pour l’identité de l’individu et qui l’aident à se définir. Plus précisément, les SDS sont considérés comme une cristallisation des liens entre mémoire et identité. Le premier objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer les caractéristiques de ces SDS et des PFDS (spécificité, intégration, valence émotionnelle, modification de la valence émotionnelle pour les SDS) chez des patients dépressifs, en comparaison à des sujets contrôles sains. Le second objectif est d’évaluer les liens entre les caractéristiques des SDS et des PFDS avec la clarté du concept de soi. HYPOTHÈSES. Les patients dépressifs rapporteront des SDS et des PFDS moins spécifiques, moins intégrés et plus négatifs que les sujets contrôles sains. Ceci sera en lien avec une faible clarté du concept de soi. MÉTHODE. 19 patients dépressifs et 17 sujets contrôles sains appariés (sexe, âge, niveau d’éducation) ont évoqué des SDS et des PFDS en fonction de domaines de vie (ex. : relations familiales, hobbies, emploi/carrière). RÉSULTATS. La récolte des données est toujours en cours. Les résultats préliminaires mettent en évidence que les patients dépressifs évoquent des SDS et des PFDS moins intégrés que les sujets contrôles. Les patients dépressifs rapportent également davantage de séquence de contamination dans le rappel de SDS (la valence de l’événement lorsqu’il s’est déroulé était positive et devient négative lors de l’évocation du souvenir). DISCUSSION. Les résultats obtenus confirment partiellement nos hypothèses. Ces résultats semblent cohérents avec certains biais préalablement observés dans l’évocation de souvenirs autobiographiques tels que le biais de congruence à l’humeur. Les implications cliniques de ces résultats seront discutées. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental study of isolated response curves in a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIV (2016, January)

In the present paper, the observation and characterization of isolated response curves (IRCs) are experimentally reported in the case of a nonlinear system consisting of two masses sliding on an ... [more ▼]

In the present paper, the observation and characterization of isolated response curves (IRCs) are experimentally reported in the case of a nonlinear system consisting of two masses sliding on an horizontal guide. Transverse springs are attached to one mass to provide the nonlinear restoring force, and a harmonic motion of the complete system is imposed by prescribing the displacement of their supports. The existence of an IRC is related to a 3:1 internal resonance between the two modes of the system. The observed IRC is studied in detached and merged conditions using swept-sine excitations and system perturbations. [less ▲]

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See detailUne forme compliquée d'hypercalcémie hypocalciurique familiale
Potorac, Iulia ULg; BETEA, Daniela ULg; MALAISE, Olivier ULg et al

in Abstract book - Symposium "Perspectives in Endocrinology" (2016, January)

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See detailA Comparison of Reduced Order Modeling Techniques Used in Dynamic Substructuring
Roettgen, Daniel; Seeger, Benjamin; Tai, Wei Che et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIV (2016, January)

Experimental dynamic substructuring is a means whereby a mathematical model for a substructure can be obtained experimentally and then coupled to a model for the rest of the assembly to predict the ... [more ▼]

Experimental dynamic substructuring is a means whereby a mathematical model for a substructure can be obtained experimentally and then coupled to a model for the rest of the assembly to predict the response. Recently, various methods have been proposed that use a transmission simulator to overcome sensitivity to measurement errors and to exercise the interface between the substructures; including the Craig-Bampton, Dual Craig-Bampton, and Craig-Mayes methods. This work compares the advantages and disadvantages of these reduced order modeling strategies for two dynamic substructuring problems. The methods are first used on an analytical beam model to validate the methodologies. Then they are used to obtain an experimental model for structure consisting of a cylinder with several components inside connected to the outside case by foam with uncertain properties. This represents an exceedingly difficult structure to model and so experimental substructuring could be an attractive way to obtain a model of the system. [less ▲]

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See detailReappraisal of the deep Devonian strata under the Mons Basin
Licour, L.; Dupont, N.; Swennen, R. et al

Conference (2016, January)

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See detailThe genetic causes of pituitary gigantism
Rostomyan, Liliya ULg; Lysy, P; Desfilles, C et al

in Abstract book - Symposium "Perspectives in Endocrinology" (2016, January)

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See detailReview of shrubs and trees in intensive ruminant systems in temperate areas
Vandermeulen, Sophie ULg; Ramìrez-Restrepo, Carlos Alberto; Beckers, Yves ULg et al

Conference (2016, January)

Using shrubs and trees as forage for ruminants is common in extensive production systems in the tropics, as well as the Mediterranean region and mountain areas. In temperate Europe, the intensification of ... [more ▼]

Using shrubs and trees as forage for ruminants is common in extensive production systems in the tropics, as well as the Mediterranean region and mountain areas. In temperate Europe, the intensification of agriculture led to a decline in the numbers of woody perennials on farmlands. A review of the potential uses of shrubs and trees in temperate intensive systems shows that this concept is rather recent. Few studies have been investigating the potential outputs and limitations of shrubs and trees forage in production systems, while in Belgium and other European countries, agro-environmental policies are promoting the establishment of hedgerows and woody strips that provide shelter to animals against variable climate conditions. Furthermore, it has been found that ruminant species browse the plants, or alternatively, the forage is harvested and fed fresh or preserved as hay, silages or pellets. In both cases, consequences on feed intake control, woody plant survival, dry matter (DM) production and forage quality in terms of crude protein content reduction have been documented. In addition, depending on the plant species and the preservation method, bio-active plant metabolites such as condensed tannins (CT) are also present in the range of less than 1 to more than 100 g/kg foliage DM. Overall, CT may reduce ruminal N degradation, methanogenesis and nematode parasites infestation, while enhancing microbial-protein synthesis, feed use efficiency and systemic animal physiology. Planting shrubs and trees into the agricultural landscape (i.e. silvopastoral system) can further improve biodiversity and environmental services. Nevertheless, agronomic practices, farm management or environmental policy limitations may reduce the use of this fodder resource. Therefore, although silvopastoral systems seem promising in temperate ruminant systems, the current knowledge to their introduction and efficient management need to be cautiously considered. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust Subspace Identification of a Nonlinear Satellite Using Model Reduction
Dossogne, Tilàn ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIV (2016, January)

The frequency-domain nonlinear subspace identification (FNSI) method has recently been successfully applied to large-scale nonlinear structures. One of the key features of FNSI is the nonlinear ... [more ▼]

The frequency-domain nonlinear subspace identification (FNSI) method has recently been successfully applied to large-scale nonlinear structures. One of the key features of FNSI is the nonlinear generalisation of the stabilisation diagram. However, as in linear system identification, the selection of the model order in the diagram is complicated by the presence of spurious poles, resulting from noise and modelling errors. Spurious poles have been shown to strongly perturb the estimation of the nonlinear coefficients. The present paper establishes a constructive procedure to discriminate between spurious and genuine poles. This procedure is derived in modal space and is based on a dominancy index and on model reduction techniques. It is demonstrated on a complete satellite structure possessing nonsmooth nonlinearities and high modal density. Spurious frequency variations in the nonlinear coefficients are proved to be effectively removed, significantly improving the quality of the overall identified model. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced span spray: Part 3: Design of a narrow span nozzle
De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg et al

in Aspect of Applied Biology (2016, January)

Optimisation of the droplet spectra of the agricultural spray may increase the spray application efficiency. The optimal spray would contain only the most efficient droplets in term of speed and size ... [more ▼]

Optimisation of the droplet spectra of the agricultural spray may increase the spray application efficiency. The optimal spray would contain only the most efficient droplets in term of speed and size. Therefore, this paper is presenting the first steps of the design of a narrow span nozzle in order to produce an optimised spray. The starting geometry is a splash plate nozzle with a disk ending with structures (i.e. tooth, grooves, and needles) that would separate the liquid sheet into jets. These jets would be in the Rayleigh regime which has the advantage of producing narrower droplet spectra than liquid sheet break-up. The present project aims to design a hydraulic nozzle producing a spray with a narrow drop size distribution in order to increase the agricultural spray application efficiency. In the present paper the first project steps are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscussion du symposium intitulé : "L’étude des pratiques d’évaluation sommative des enseignants : une urgence pour comprendre les compétences professionnelles en jeu ? "
Fagnant, Annick ULg

Conference (2016, January)

Symposium organisé par Lucie Mottier Lopez et Raphaël Pasquini.

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See detailReduced span spray – Part 1: Retention
Massinon, Mathieu ULg; De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Ouled Taleb Salah, Sofiene ULg et al

in Aspect of Applied Biology, International Advances in Pesticide Application (2016, January)

Maximising treatment efficiency for a given target lies mainly on depositing a maximum part of the spray volume within an optimal droplet size range, which has to be as narrow as possible to reduce ... [more ▼]

Maximising treatment efficiency for a given target lies mainly on depositing a maximum part of the spray volume within an optimal droplet size range, which has to be as narrow as possible to reduce retention variability and drift issues. The present work focuses on exploring the effect of span factor of the droplet size distribution on the final retention by a 3D target plant using a modelling approach with the final aim of guiding the development of a reduced span nozzle (Reduced span spray – Part 3: Design of narrow span nozzle). Five droplet size spans have been tested for three VMD and three wetting scenarios on the same 3D plant architecture. Performing a screening of the different parameters involved in spray retention with a modelling approach based on a deeper understanding of leaf/droplet interactions is a valuable approach for highlighting the optimal droplet size distribution maximising droplet retention for a given target/formulation combination. [less ▲]

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See detailObtaining nonlinear frequency responses from broadband testing
Gourc, Etienne ULg; Grappasonni, Chiara ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIV (2016, January)

The objective of the paper is to obtain the frequency response curves of nonlinear mechanical systems from broadband testing. The proposed approach consists in coupling an identification method with a ... [more ▼]

The objective of the paper is to obtain the frequency response curves of nonlinear mechanical systems from broadband testing. The proposed approach consists in coupling an identification method with a continuation method. Specifically, the frequency-domain nonlinear subspace identification (FNSI) method is first used to derive an experimental model of the structure in state space from broadband measurements. The harmonic balance method coupled with arclength continuation then utilizes this experimental model to compute the frequency response curves of the system. The method is demonstrated using a numerical example. [less ▲]

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See detailResilience to environmental pressure through quality food demand. The case of Romania
Petrescu, Dacinia Crina; Petrescu-Mag, Ruxandra Malina; Burny, Philippe ULg

in Babes-Bolyai University (Ed.) 11th International Conference on "Environmental Legislation, Safety Engineering and Disaster Management": book of abstracts (2016)

The paper focuses on the Romanian consumer behavior and perceptions related to meat consumption, following that it is deeply embedded in the Romanian dietary food culture. The meat consumption is an ... [more ▼]

The paper focuses on the Romanian consumer behavior and perceptions related to meat consumption, following that it is deeply embedded in the Romanian dietary food culture. The meat consumption is an indicator of the population welfare degree and it is often used in assessing the food safety. The novelty lies in the investigation of meat consumption hindering factors, with a special emphasis on those related to the environmental protection. The main research objective was to evaluate the importance attached by consumers to meat products safety in order to develop resilience to environmental pressure through quality food production and consumption. Statistical analysis revealed the interest in meat free-off antibiotics, hormones and no genetically modified. From a pratical perspective, the results indicate directions that policy-making should follow to adapt the production sector to the market demands, along with promoting a more sustainable consumption pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailLes anaphores rhétoriques : des rafales de motifs ?
Longrée, Dominique ULg; Mayaffre, Damon; Mellet, Sylvie

in Mayaffre, Damon; Poudat, Céline; Vanni, Laurent (Eds.) et al Statistical Analysis of Textual Data, Proccedings of 13th International Conference on Statistical Analysis od Textual Data, 7-10 June 2016, Nice (2016)

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See detailUnexpected sensitivity of the annual net ecosystem exchange to the high frequency loss corrections in a grazed grassland site in Belgium
Mamadou, Ossénatou ULg; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULg; De Ligne, Anne ULg et al

Poster (2016)

The eddy covariance technique is widely used to measure CO2 and other gas fluxes. However, eddy covariance fluxes are affected by systematic errors that must be corrected. Among them, high frequency loss ... [more ▼]

The eddy covariance technique is widely used to measure CO2 and other gas fluxes. However, eddy covariance fluxes are affected by systematic errors that must be corrected. Among them, high frequency loss corrections are particularly important in this regard, especially when using a closed-path infrared gas analyzer. In this study, we compared three approaches to do these corrections for CO2 fluxes and evaluated their impact on the carbon balance an intensively grazed grassland site in Belgium . In the first approach, the computation of correction factors was based on the measured sensible heat cospectra (‘local’ cospectra), whereas the other two were based on theoretical models (Kaimal et al., 1972). The correction approaches were validated by comparing the nighttime eddy covariance CO2 fluxes corrected with each approach and in situ soil respiration measurements. We found that the local cospectra differed from the Kaimal theoretical shape, although the site could not be considered ‘difficult’ (i.e., fairly flat, homogeneous, low vegetation, sufficient measurement height), appearing less peaked in the inertial subrange. This difference greatly affected the correction factor, especially for night fluxes. Night fluxes measured by eddy covariance were found to be in good accord with in situ soil respiration measurements when corrected with local cospectra and to be overestimated when corrected with Kaimal cospectra. As the difference between correction factors was larger in stable than unstable conditions, this acts as a selective systematic error and has an important impact on annual fluxes. On the basis of a 4-year average, at DTO the errors reach 71-150 g C m-2 y-1 for net ecosystem exchange (NEE), 280-562 g C m-2 y-1 for total ecosystem respiration (TER) and 209-412 g C m-2 y-1 for gross primary productivity (GPP), depending on the approach used. We finally encourage site PIs to check the cospectrum shape at their sites and, if necessary, compute frequency correction factors on the basis of local cospectra rather than on Kaimal cospectra. [less ▲]

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See detailA new index to measure the human well-being in Wallonia and its communes (South of Belgium)
Burny, Philippe ULg

in Petropoulos, D.; Kyriazopoulos, G. (Eds.) 1st International Conference of Development and Economy (ICODECON) 2-4 October 2015: The advantages and disadvantages of Economic Crises: Conference proceedings (2016)

In 2012, the Walloon Government ordered the Walloon Institute for Prospective, Evaluation and Statistics (IWEPS) to calculate five indexes in order to guide and evaluate the public actions, together with ... [more ▼]

In 2012, the Walloon Government ordered the Walloon Institute for Prospective, Evaluation and Statistics (IWEPS) to calculate five indexes in order to guide and evaluate the public actions, together with the GDP. The index for the conditions of human well-being (CWBI) is presently the first step in the elaboration of the wellbeing index. The methodology is the one used by the Council of Europe. Actually, the CWBI is calculated by using 60 basic indicators, gathered into 8 families. After normalisation, the CWBI is the arithmetic mean of the 60 basic indicators, each of them having the same weight. The CWBI was calculated for the 262 communes of Wallonia and varies from 0.428 to 0.674, with a regional mean of 0.572. An opposition between urban and rural communes clearly appears, the last ones having the best scores. Communes along the borders of Germany and Luxemburg have the highest indexes, while communes in the old industrial areas have the lowest scores. Employment, income, family relations and security are the factors which are the most narrowly linked to the CWBI. At the communal level, social and security expenses per capita have a significant and negative correlation coefficient with the CWBI. In the future, in order to elaborate a finer index, new data, up to now not directly available, will be collected at the communal level, about quantitative and qualitative aspects. [less ▲]

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See detailImplications of spatial and temporal variation in point technology in KwaZulu-Natal during the MSA
Bader, Gregor; Porraz, Guillaume; Rots, Veerle ULg et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailPain assessment and treatment
Chatelle, Camille ULg

Conference (2016)

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See detailDo Burundians have a more positive perception of older people than immigrants or Belgians?
Marquet, Manon ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Nindaba, Desiderate et al

in International Psychogeriatrics (2016), 27(Supplement 1), 70-172

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See detailNew challenges for the Vietnamese aquaculture sector
Nguyen Thi Khanh Hong, ULg; Tran Thi Nang Thu; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Nanhua University; Vietnam University of Commerce; Hue College of Economics (Eds.) International Conference "The economy of Vietnam in the integration period: opportunities and challenges: Proceedings (2016)

The supply chain of seafood in Vietnam has not been effectively designed and operated, and has not contributed to the sustainability of the sector. Problems include the protection of resources ... [more ▼]

The supply chain of seafood in Vietnam has not been effectively designed and operated, and has not contributed to the sustainability of the sector. Problems include the protection of resources, limitations in traceability, food safety issues and lack of branding/eco-certification. The objective of this article is first to characterize the recent development of this sector of economic activity. Particular attention will be linked to the importance of aquaculture in the trade balance of Vietnam. The authors also describe the issues that arise in the various constituent links in the aquaculture industry in Vietnam. [less ▲]

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See detailErosion and sedimentation in a hydropower project: assessing impacts and opportunities
Dewals, Benjamin ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Schüttrumpf, Holger (Ed.) Offene Gewässer: Strahlwirkung, Fischaufstieg, Fischabstieg, Sedimente, Schadstoffe (2016)

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See detailProjet Neworld: Evaluation informatisée des capacités de multitâches en neuropsychiatrie
Laloyaux, Julien ULg; Van Der Linden, M; Levaux, M-N et al

in Encéphale (L') (2016)

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See detailNouveautés sur le monitorage de la profondeur d’anesthésie
BONHOMME, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016)

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See detailSparse plus low-rank autoregressive identification in neuroimaging time series
Liegeois, Raphaël ULg; Mishra, Bamdev ULg; Zorzi, Mattia et al

in Proceedings of CDC 2015 (2016)

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See detailDes chevaliers irréfléchis ? Panique et témérité dans les traités d’art militaire (c. 1330-c. 1530)
Masson, Christophe ULg

in Trévisi, Marion; Vissière, Laurent (Eds.) Le feu et la folie. L’irrationnel et la guerre (fin du Moyen Âge-1920) (2016)

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See detailRole of double-stranded DNA in allergic airway inflammation.
Marichal, Thomas ULg

Conference (2016)

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See detailThe effect of aging on associative memory for semantically-related word pairs
Folville, Adrien; Delhaye, Emma ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

Poster (2016)

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See detailImpact of estetrol on breast cancer development, metastatic dissemination and angiogenesis
Gallez, Anne ULg; Gérard, Céline ULg; BLACHER, Silvia ULg et al

Poster (2016)

The increased risk of breast cancer and thromboembolism in women who take Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) currently is a major public health problem. The discovery of novel molecules with better safety ... [more ▼]

The increased risk of breast cancer and thromboembolism in women who take Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) currently is a major public health problem. The discovery of novel molecules with better safety profile would provide useful advances for patient care. Estretrol (E4) appears as a promising candidate for HRT. Indeed, in contrast to current treatment containing ethinyl estradiol or estradiol (E2), E4 has a minimal impact on liver cells activity supporting a decreased incidence on thromboembolic events. In preclinical studies, E4 has been effective against the main symptoms of menopause such as hot flushes, vaginal atrophy, and osteoporosis, from a starting dose of 0.3 mg/kg/day. The aim of this study was to define the impact of E4 on breast cancer development when it is used at concentrations effective for menopause symptom relief. Treatment of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer-developing mice (MMTV-PyMT) with several concentrations of E4 has shown that 0.3 mg/kg/day E4 did not increase tumor development and metastasis dissemination. However, at 3mg/kg/day, E4 increased the growth of hormone-dependent tumors and their metastatic dissemination in ovariectomized and intact mice. This effect was similar to the one observed with E2 used at 0.08 mg/kg/day. In an in vivo model of ER-negative tumors, we observed that 3mg/kg/day E4 improved tumor growth by increasing angiogenesis, and subsequently decreasing necrosis and tumor hypoxia. In contrast, 0.3 mg/kg/day E4 did not induce any of these effects on ER-negative tumors and tumor microenvironment. In conclusion, we have shown that 0.3 mg/kg/day E4, already reported to prevent menopause symptoms, does not increase breast tumor growth, metastasis dissemination, and angiogenesis. However, similarly to E2, higher concentrations of E4 are pro-tumorous. These results support that E4, if it is used in strictly controlled clinical applications, could have no or only limited impact on breast cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailPermutations and shifts
Charlier, Emilie ULg

in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (2016), 9840

The entropy of a symbolic dynamical system is usually defined in terms of the growth rate of the number of distinct allowed factors of length $n$. Bandt, Keller and Pompe showed that, for piecewise ... [more ▼]

The entropy of a symbolic dynamical system is usually defined in terms of the growth rate of the number of distinct allowed factors of length $n$. Bandt, Keller and Pompe showed that, for piecewise monotone interval maps, the entropy is also given by the number of permutations defined by consecutive elements in the trajectory of a point. This result is the starting point of several works of Elizalde where he investigates permutations in shift systems, notably in full shifts and in beta-shifts. The goal of this talk is to survey Elizalde's results. I will end by mentioning the case of negative beta-shifts, which has been simultaneously studied by Elizalde and Moore on the one hand, and by Steiner and myself on the other hand. [less ▲]

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See detailThe syntax-semantics Interface in Earlier Egyptian: A Case study in Verbs of Cognition
Winand, Jean ULg

in Coping with Obscurity: The Brown Workshop on Earlier Egyptian Grammar (2016)

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See detailDo the elderly feel older after exposure to negative aging stereotypes?
Marquet, Manon ULg; Missotten, Pierre ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg

in International Psychogeriatrics (2016), 27(Supplement 1), 70-172

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See detailHistoire et expérience fondatrice dans Sein und Zeit
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2016)

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See detailTree light capture and spatial variability of understory light increase with species mixing and tree size heterogeneity
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Ameztegui, Aitor; Courbaud, Benoît et al

Conference (2016)

Structurally heterogeneous forest ecosystems are generally considered to be more productive, resistant and resilient to future changes than simplified ones. The quantity of solar radiation available to ... [more ▼]

Structurally heterogeneous forest ecosystems are generally considered to be more productive, resistant and resilient to future changes than simplified ones. The quantity of solar radiation available to trees and the vegetation layer has been suggested to be a central driver among the possible mechanisms proposed to explain a greater productivity of heterogeneous stands. The idea that trees of different species and sizes can occupy complementary positions in space has led to the hypothesis that interception of radiation could increase in mixed and multi-layered forest stands, which should thus lead to an increase in production. In addition, the long-term sustainability of structurally heterogeneous forests with multiple coexisting species can only be ensured if the variability in light availability in the understory is sufficient for all species to be able to survive, grow and reproduce. However, better occupancy of canopy space should lead to reduced variability in understory light conditions. In this study, we investigate whether increasing overstory heterogeneity results in greater light capture by trees and greater variability in understory light. Greater light capture has been suggested as a possible explanation for the overyielding of complex stands and the greater variability in understory light as a mechanism for continuous recruitment of juvenile trees of various species. Based on allometric relationships developed in previous studies, we modeled the three-dimensional structure of forest stands (50 x 50 m) with 3 typical forest structures (single-layered, multi-layered and reverse j-shaped), 10 forest compositions combining beech, oak, fir and pine, 3 levels of basal area, and a fixed mean tree diameter (Figure 1). We predicted understory light conditions using the forest light interception model SAMSARALIGHT. The importance of each factor on understory light availability and variability was analyzed with three-way analyses of covariance. We found no evidence that increasing compositional or structural heterogeneity reduces understory light transmittance or increases tree light capture. Understory light transmittance in mixed stands was always intermediate between that is corresponding pure stands of the species involved in the mixture. Moreover, light transmittance slightly increased with increasing heterogeneity in forest structure. Stands composed of a single homogeneous tree layer transmitted less light than stands with two or more tree layers or stands composed of two or more species. Stand composition had the strongest influence on understory light in our simulations. Stand density was the second most important factor while heterogeneity in tree size had little effect. Compositional heterogeneity increased the variability in understory light conditions in some cases such as in fir-pine mixtures but adding beech to mixtures with oak generally limited variability in understory light, except in stands with very low basal area. Size inequality therefore increased understory light variability little and mainly in pure stands. The advantage of heterogeneous forest stands seems to lie in opportunities for the natural regeneration of various species to benefit from a diversity of light conditions in the understory rather than in opportunities to enhance light capture by the overstory although this effect depends on tree species composition. [less ▲]

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See detailSolving the inverse dynamics of a flexible 3D robot for a trajectory tracking task
Lismonde, Arthur ULg; Sonneville, Valentin; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics (MMAR), 2016 21th International Conference on (2016)

The end-effector trajectory tracking of robotic manipulators with flexible links requires advanced control concepts. In order to compute the feedforward component of the control scheme, the inverse ... [more ▼]

The end-effector trajectory tracking of robotic manipulators with flexible links requires advanced control concepts. In order to compute the feedforward component of the control scheme, the inverse dynamics of such flexible 3D multibody system is solved using an optimal control method. The robot is modeled using nonlinear finite elements formulated on the SE(3) group. Hence singularity and parameterization issues that can arise from 3D rotations are avoided. A numerical example of a 3D flexible arm is analyzed to demonstrate the capabilities of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental validation of heat transport modeling in district heating networks
Sartor, Kevin ULg

in Proceedings of Conference (2016)

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling technics are required to ... [more ▼]

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling technics are required to consider the dynamic behaviour of district heating network to design them correctly, spare investment costs and limit the heat losses related to the use of a too high operating temperature. For the same reasons, the DHN control or retrofit of installations also requires the assessment of the DHN dynamic behaviour. To achieve this, the heat transport in DHN, which is one of the key issues in the behaviour of a whole centralized heating system, has to be correctly modelled. Previous work evidenced current limitations of one dimensional finite volume method to model heat transport in pipes and proposed an alternative method considering the thermal losses and the inertia of the pipes. The present contribution intends to experimentally validate this model on a test rig facility available in the Thermodynamics laboratory of the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium) and on an existing district heating network. For both experimental facilities, the current model shows good agreement between experimental data and simulation results for a large range of water velocities. Moreover, it is shown that the thermal inertia of the pipe has a significant influence on the outlet pipe temperature profile. [less ▲]

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See detailNew insghts into nociception monitoring during general anesthesia
BONHOMME, Vincent ULg

Conference (2016)

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See detailFaire de la musique : rythmes et rapports chez Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Bonnet, Antoine; Frangne, Pierre-Henry (Eds.) Mallarmé et la Musique, la Musique et Mallarmé (2016)

Inséparable du processus d'autonomisation du discours poétique et de la radicalisation que ce processus connaît chez lui, sur fond de propagande wagnérienne et de propagation du vers libre, le modèle ... [more ▼]

Inséparable du processus d'autonomisation du discours poétique et de la radicalisation que ce processus connaît chez lui, sur fond de propagande wagnérienne et de propagation du vers libre, le modèle musical prend, dans l'esthétique de Mallarmé, l'aspect d'un système de rapports généralisés à tous les paramètres de l'écrit. L'inhérence réciproque que le poète établit entre la "Musique" et les "Lettres", représentation imaginaire dont Un Coup de dés constitue la contrepartie réalisée, répond d'un côté à un matérialisme de la forme et de l'autre à un idéalisme fictif, voulant que les structures verbales et prosodiques s'offrent en miroir du système de rapports avec quoi se confond, en sa finitude sans extériorité, l’univers même. [less ▲]

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See detailGalectin-1 is involved in osteoclast biology
Muller, Joséphine ULg; Binsfeld, Marilène; DUBOIS, Sophie ULg et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailExperimental nonlinear identification of an aircraft with bolted connections
De Filippis, Giovanni; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Proceedings of the International Modal Analysis Conference (IMAC) XXXIII (2016)

Aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena, especially as they constantly become lighter and hence more flexible. One specific challenge that is regularly encountered is the modeling ... [more ▼]

Aircraft structures are known to be prone to nonlinear phenomena, especially as they constantly become lighter and hence more flexible. One specific challenge that is regularly encountered is the modeling of the mounting interfaces between aircraft subcomponents. Indeed, for large amplitudes of vibration, such interfaces may loosen and, in turn, trigger complex mechanisms such as friction and clearances. In this context, the present work intends to investigate the nonlinear dynamics of the Morane–Saulnier Paris aircraft, accessible at ONERA. This aircraft possesses multiple bolted connections between two external fuel tanks and wing tips. The objective of the paper is specifically to carry out an adequate identification of the numerous nonlinearities affecting the dynamics of this full-scale structure. Nonlinearity detection and the subsequent subspace-based parameter estimation have been performed on experimental data, collected during an on-ground test campaign. Nonlinearity detection is first achieved by the comparison of frequency response functions estimated at low excitation level, with those obtained at high amplitude level, yielding insight towards accurately characterizing the behavior of the bolted connections. Then, a nonlinear subspace identification method is applied to measured data to estimate the linear and nonlinear parameters of the structure and novel strategies and tools that overcome specific arisen problems are developed. [less ▲]

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See detailIndoor Joinery and Furniture Made for Eighteenth-Century Houses in Liège (Belgium)
Gilles, Isabelle ULg

in Sosnowska, Philippe; Charruadas, Paulo; Fraiture, Pascale (Eds.) et al From Carpentry to joinery : floors and ceilings, shutters and frames, doors and panelling in medieval and modern architecture (2016)

Though few eighteenth-century houses in Liège have conserved their original wooden furniture or fittings, archival research reveals that these elements constituted a key aspect of the domestic interior ... [more ▼]

Though few eighteenth-century houses in Liège have conserved their original wooden furniture or fittings, archival research reveals that these elements constituted a key aspect of the domestic interior. The present work draws largely on a series of public announcements known as Rendages proclamatoires which concerned property belonging to orphans sold by public auction, that exist. From 1697 to 1765, these sources provided descriptions of 257 houses situated within the city walls. The wooden furniture and fittings of eighteenth-century Liegerian houses can clearly be seen to be pertain to far more than the sole history of joinery: they also tell the story of Liege’s domestic living spaces in terms of social structure and cultural change. As such they eloquently illustrate the fact that it is only by taking into account the Old Regime’s conception of architecture as a total entity that we can today work towards establishing an increasingly just, coherent and complete understanding of ancient edifices. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of cell growth on/in modified polymer matrices as scaffolds for tissue engineering
Markvicheva, E.; Drozdova, M.; Demina, T. et al

Poster (2016)

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See detailLes aspects financiers du contrat d'entreprise. Questions choisies
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Kohl, Benoît (Ed.) Droit de la construction (2016)

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See detailTechnical diversity within the tanged-tool Gravettian: new results from Belgium
Touzé, Olivier ULg; Flas, Damien; Pesesse, Damien

in Quaternary International (2016), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2015.11.034

Located at the interface between the Paris and the Rhine Basins and the more northern territories of Europe, Belgium contains several Gravettian occupations, both open-air and in caves. The available ... [more ▼]

Located at the interface between the Paris and the Rhine Basins and the more northern territories of Europe, Belgium contains several Gravettian occupations, both open-air and in caves. The available documentation is unfortunately limited by the earliness of the excavations conducted at most sites. Stratified records in karstic context, primarily excavated in the 19th century, are particularly affected by this situation. The analysis of Gravettian lithic technological behaviours can, however, rely on two open air sites excavated in the late 20th century which provide more rigorous data: Maisières-Canal and Station de l'Hermitage. These two sites have been the focus of comparisons that highlight their similarities, both in terms of the lithic industry and location. In fact, the former stands out for the presence of tanged tools, a typological marker which is usually associated with the Early Gravettian of Western Europe. In this article, we present a new study that evidences the differences in the lithic technical systems represented at these sites. After a presentation of the most recent data, we consider the causes that may be responsible for such diversity, highlighting the possible role of the chronological factor, but also of the existence of an original technical tradition in north-western Europe during the appearance and development of the Gravettian. [less ▲]

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