References of "Scientific congresses and symposiums"
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See detail« Semen est sanguis christianorum » (Apol. 50, 13). Tertullien et l'hagiographie africaine
Fialon, Sabine ULg

in Lagouanère, Jérôme; Fialon, Sabine (Eds.) Tertullianus Afer. Tertullien et la littérature chrétienne d'Afrique, IIe-VIe siècle (in press)

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See detailLa contribution du CHST à l'inventaire wallon des terrains potentiellement pollués
Defechereux, Olivier ULg; Peters, Arnaud ULg

in Actes du IXème Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

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See detailInventaire et typologie des listes grecques et latines de produits pharmaceutiques conservées sur papyrus, ostracon et tablette (IIIe s. av. J.-Chr.-VIIe s. apr. J.-Chr.)
Ricciardetto, Antonio ULg

in Actes du XXVIIe Congrès international de Papyrologie (Varsovie, 29.07-3.08.2013) (in press)

Dans la documentation papyrologique relative aux pratiques médicales de l’Égypte gréco-romaine et byzantine, le genre des listes de produits pharmaceutiques n’a encore jamais fait l’objet, ni d’un ... [more ▼]

Dans la documentation papyrologique relative aux pratiques médicales de l’Égypte gréco-romaine et byzantine, le genre des listes de produits pharmaceutiques n’a encore jamais fait l’objet, ni d’un inventaire, ni d’une étude exhaustifs. Dans le cadre de nos recherches doctorales sur la typologie des papyrus documentaires grecs et latins à caractère médical, c’est cette lacune que l’on se propose de combler, d’une part en cataloguant, au moyen de la fiche Mertens-Pack³ du CEDOPAL, la trentaine de listes de produits pharmaceutiques provenant d’Égypte, écrites en grec sur papyrus et ostracon (IIIe s. av. J.-Chr.-VIIe s. apr. J.-Chr.), auxquelles on ajoutera deux listes latines sur tablettes de bois, provenant du camp romain de Vindolanda (c. 100p), et, d’autre part, en analysant les aspects formels, paléographiques, textuels et contextuels de ces documents médicaux qui peuvent correspondre, soit à un inventaire de droguiste, soit à une commande, soit à une ou plusieurs recettes dont l’état fragmentaire du support a fait disparaître les proportions. On comparera les données obtenues avec d’autres pièces papyrologiques, spécialement les nombreuses prescriptions médicales, ainsi que les comptes, les reçus de paiement ou encore les lettres privées relatives à des demandes de médicaments ou à la livraison de substances pharmaceutiques. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Blattmasken dans la mosaïque pariétale. Nymphées et bassins domestiques
Derwael, Stéphanie ULg

in Actes du XIIe colloque de l’Association Internationale pour l’Etude de la Mosaïque Antique (AIEMA) (in press)

Blattmasken belong to vegetalized human figures used in parietal decoration of nymphaei and domestic ponds. Their use depends on the process of iconographic forms’ transmission already highlighted between ... [more ▼]

Blattmasken belong to vegetalized human figures used in parietal decoration of nymphaei and domestic ponds. Their use depends on the process of iconographic forms’ transmission already highlighted between the parietal mosaic, the italic mural painting of Ist century a.C. and the African ground mosaic. This transfer is discussed in the light of two cases : the House of Neptune and Amphitrite at Herculanum and the House of the Nymphs at Neapolis. The study is based on their iconographical environments and on their typology. It highlights two different symbolic conceptions of the motive. [less ▲]

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See detailDébats européens sur les formes de la vie marine au Siècle des Lumières
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Jullien, Vincent; Nicolaidis, Efthymios; Skordoulis, Kostas (Eds.) Europe et sciences modernes, histoire d’un engendrement mutuel (in press)

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See detailImaginer l’indicible. De la mise en mouvement des images dans les récits de visions de la Trinité des hagiographes et des mystiques médiévaux (VIIe-XIIe siècles)
Close, Florence ULg

in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (in press)

Cette communication consistait en une réflexion sur les tentatives d’imagination de la Trinité divine, dogme fondamental du christianisme. Elle portait plus particulièrement sur la manière dont les clercs ... [more ▼]

Cette communication consistait en une réflexion sur les tentatives d’imagination de la Trinité divine, dogme fondamental du christianisme. Elle portait plus particulièrement sur la manière dont les clercs et les moines du haut moyen âge et du moyen âge central ont perçu, le temps d’une expérience mystique extraordinaire, les relations unissant les trois personnes divines entre elles. L'auteur pose la question du rôle et de l’importance des représentations mentales et de la traduction picturale de certains détails et mouvements – énoncés ou non dans les traités théologiques, la tradition scripturaire ou les textes liturgiques – dans le processus de compréhension et d’appréhension de ce mystère. Elle n'hésite pas à confronter des images perçues par les visionnaires aux images de la Trinité produites à la même époque (Trône de grâce, Trinité du psautier, Trinité triandrique, Trinité tricéphale/trifrons, Paternité, Trinité à deux médaillons). [less ▲]

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See detailKnowledge Transfer in Regulatory Analytical Sciences through the Implementation of Communities of Practice
Jesionkowska, Joanna; Denis, Brigitte ULg; Taylor, Philip

in Proceedings of the conference (in press)

Promoting affiliation between scientists is relatively easy, but creating larger organisational structures is more difficult, due to traditions of scientific independance, difficulties of sharing implicit ... [more ▼]

Promoting affiliation between scientists is relatively easy, but creating larger organisational structures is more difficult, due to traditions of scientific independance, difficulties of sharing implicit knowledge, and formal organisational barrers. Hence there is a need to research possibilities given by Communities of practice. This paper presents a research projet (doctoral thesis) whose goal is to implement Communities of Practice (CoP) in order to sustain knowledge transfer in regulatory analytical sciences. [less ▲]

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See detailApproches ergonomiques et approches psychosociologiques de la formation : mise en perspective conceptuelle et praxéologique
Faulx, Daniel ULg; Petit, Lucie

in Actes du 16ème Congrès de Psychologie du Travail et des Organisation de Langue Française. (in press)

From both a scientific and a practical point of view, two major trends seem to presently rule the adult training field: the psychosociological trend and the ergonomic trend. Though each one has widely ... [more ▼]

From both a scientific and a practical point of view, two major trends seem to presently rule the adult training field: the psychosociological trend and the ergonomic trend. Though each one has widely contributed in developing training in organizational human resources development, we fail to see any significant level of understanding between the two trends or any dialogue based on scientific objectivity. The aim of this present paper is to hopefully initiate a dialogue with an eye towards development in training practices. A better understanding of these main approaches would bring help to those who seek to train personnel and to better orientate their choice of training. [less ▲]

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See detail« Y a-t-il une africitas ? Une analyse statistique et quantitative trois passions de Maurétanie Césarienne »
Fialon, Sabine ULg

in Longrée, Dominique; Fialon, Sabine (Eds.) Langues anciennes et analyse statistique : cinquante ans après – Distances textuelles et intertextualités (in press)

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See detailLe système belge des brevets au 19ème siècle
Peters, Arnaud ULg

in Actes du colloque "Nouvelles sources, nouvelles approches, nouvelles méthodes dans la recherche historique (in press)

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See detailEst-il possible de cibler les acquis et les faiblesses des élèves face à la résolution de problèmes arithmétiques dans le cadre d’une évaluation externe non certificative ?
Demonty, Isabelle ULg; Fagnant, Annick ULg

in Actes du 27e colloque de l'Admée-Europe. L'évaluation à la lumière des contextes et des disciplines. (in press)

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See detailToponymie et anthroponymie dans l'Atlas linguistique de la Wallonie
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Germain, Jean; Tamine, Michel (Eds.) Actes du XVIe Colloque d'Onomastique de la Société française d’onomastique (SFO) (in press)

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See detailLes recherches sur la médecine dans l’Égypte gréco-romaine au Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire (CEDOPAL) de l’Université de Liège
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Histoire des Sciences Médicales (in press)

The paper presents the research on medicine in Greco-Roman Egypt conducted in the last forty years at the Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire (CEDOPAL) at the University of Liège. It ... [more ▼]

The paper presents the research on medicine in Greco-Roman Egypt conducted in the last forty years at the Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire (CEDOPAL) at the University of Liège. It describes the main results obtained by deciphering, editing, translating and commenting Greek and Latin medical papyri, be they literary, documentary or magical. [less ▲]

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See detailJouer, chanter et danser pour Isis
Veymiers, Richard ULg

in Gasparini, Valentino; Veymiers, Richard (Eds.) The Agents of Isiac Cults. Proceedings of the VIth International Conference of Isis Studies, Erfurt, May 6-8 2013 – Liège, September 23-24 2013 (in press)

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See detailThéorie de la restauration et Art contemporain: une conceptualisation au service de la pratique
Verbeeck, Muriel ULg; Broers, Nico

in Restauration d'Art contemporain (in press)

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See detailLe débat art-industrie dans la deuxième moitié du XIXème siècle en Belgique. Une analyse documentaire
Prina, Daniela ULg

in Actes du Neuvième congrès de l'Association des Cercles francophones d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Belgique - LVIe Congrès de la Fédération des Cercles d'Archéologie et d'Histoire de Belgique - Liège, 23-26 août 2012 (in press)

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See detailFrance et Italie à l'époque du Grand Schisme. La politique par les bannières
Masson, Christophe ULg

in Vaillancourt, Luc; Brun, Jenny (Eds.) Rumeurs, propagande et manipulation de l'opinion publique du XIVe au XVIe siècle. Actes du colloque de Québec, 20-21 mai 2011 (in press)

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See detailFranz Thedieck (1900-1995) und das Verhältnis zwischen Wissenschaft und Politik "von Weimar nach Bonn": eine biographische Annäherung
Brüll, Christoph ULg

in Thomes, Paul (Ed.) Zwischen Narration und Methode. Neue Impulse in der historischen Biographieforschung (in press)

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (4 ULg)
See detailLa bataille de (la) Ptérie. La Lydie face à la Perse (ca. 547 av. J.-C.)
Leloux, Kevin ULg

in Actes du 9e Congrès de l'Association des Cercles Francophones d'Histoire et d'Archéologie de Belgique (23-26 août 2012) (in press)

Chacun sait que chez les anciens Grecs, Crésus passait pour un roi richissime à la tête d’un des plus puissants royaumes de son temps. En apportaient la preuve ses nombreuses offrandes consacrées au ... [more ▼]

Chacun sait que chez les anciens Grecs, Crésus passait pour un roi richissime à la tête d’un des plus puissants royaumes de son temps. En apportaient la preuve ses nombreuses offrandes consacrées au sanctuaire de Delphes, visibles de tous. L’épisode de sa mort sur un bûcher, un des moments les plus dramatiques de son existence, fut évoqué par nombre d’auteurs anciens et elle a fait l’objet de représentations figurées tout au long de l’Antiquité. Enfin, il ne faut pas oublier que pour un Grec du VIe siècle, l’homme passait pour constituer comme un rempart infranchissable protégeant les cités grecques de la côte d’Asie Mineure contre la puissance montante des Perses de Cyrus II le Grand. Ainsi la défaite inattendue du roi lydien face aux troupes perses en Ptérie constitue-t-elle un épisode décisif de l’époque archaïque grecque dans la mesure où elle signe la fin prochaine du royaume lydien et de son formidable maître. Les cités grecques d’Asie Mineure allaient vite devoir face à leur destin : une soumission aux Perses puis leur révolte entraînant les terribles guerres médiques. Dans notre exposé, on mettra l’accent sur les causes de cette bataille décisive perdue par Crésus à Ptérie, sur son déroulement et ses enjeux à la lumière des sources à notre disposition. On sera amené à analyser le tracé de la Route royale empruntée par le dernier descendant de Gygès pour se rendre en Cappadoce ; on aura ainsi l’occasion de voir que son existence est bien antérieure à l’arrivée des Perses en Anatolie occidentale. Enfin notre exposé présentera la localisation exacte de la ville de Ptérie, une question débattue depuis longtemps mais que des fouilles archéologiques récentes ont permis d’éclairer. [less ▲]

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See detailConfesseur du Prince : un profil singulier ? L’exemple de la cour espagnole de Bruxelles au XVIIe siècle.
Pirlet, Pierre-François ULg

in Les clergés de cour en Europe (fin XVe siècle - XVIIIe siècle). Service religieux et service politique dans les systèmes curiaux - Actes du colloque[Titre à préciser] (in press)

Au cœur de l'espace de la cour, le confesseur du Prince présente un profil singulier. La relation qu'il entretient avec son pénitent est unique : tenu à l'obéissance envers le souverain ou son ... [more ▼]

Au cœur de l'espace de la cour, le confesseur du Prince présente un profil singulier. La relation qu'il entretient avec son pénitent est unique : tenu à l'obéissance envers le souverain ou son représentant pour les aspects temporels, ce religieux a la faculté unique d'examiner, de conseiller et de juger la spiritualité du premier personnage de l'État. Attaché à la personne du Prince, les relations de cet ecclésiastique avec les autres courtisans ne peuvent être appréhendées au moyen d'une grille de lecture hiérarchisant les rapports sociaux : échappant à l'organisation laïque – mais pas protocolaire – de la cour et ne dépendant pas directement de la Chapelle royale, le confesseur bénéficie d'une autonomie relative. En outre, son pouvoir politique, en partie officiel grâce aux dignités et charges dont ce religieux est pourvu, est avant tout perçu comme une magistrature d'influence à la portée difficilement mesurable. Enfin, les obligations matérielles liées à l'appartenance de ce prélat à un ordre religieux achèvent de distinguer cet ecclésiastique des autres serviteurs princiers. Cette communication visera à distinguer les particularités de la charge de confesseur princier au sein de la société de cour. L'étude portera particulièrement sur la cour de Bruxelles durant la première moitié du xviie siècle. [less ▲]

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See detailsynthéticité et intuition en mathématiques contemporaines : Kant au-delà de Kant
Mazurkiewicz, Stany ULg

in Eikasia. Revista de Filosofia. (in press)

Ce texte entend réévaluer l'idée de "pure synthèse intellectuelle" que l'on trouve chez Kant. Celle-ci cadre avec la pratique mathématique et métamathématique postérieure à Kant. Elle permet de dépasser l ... [more ▼]

Ce texte entend réévaluer l'idée de "pure synthèse intellectuelle" que l'on trouve chez Kant. Celle-ci cadre avec la pratique mathématique et métamathématique postérieure à Kant. Elle permet de dépasser l'alternative entre l'intuitionnisme développé dans la Critique de la raison pure et la fondation de la mathématique sur une logique formelle analytique. Je montre que cette idée convient à Bolzano et à Dedekind, dont je soutiens que les projets sont irréductibles à du logicisme et qui sont dès lors bien plus "kantiens" qu'il n'y paraît. [less ▲]

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See detailO insecabilis unitas ? Augustinisme et théologie politiques
Close, Florence ULg

in Depreux, Philippe; Esders, Stefan (Eds.) La productivité d'une crise: le règne de Louis le Pieux (814-840) et la transformation de l'Empire carolingien / Produktivität einer Krise: Die Regierungszeit Ludwigs des Frommen (814-840) und die Transformation des karolingischen Imperium » (Limoges, mars 2011) (in press)

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See detailIn search of the painters of the Theban necropolis in the 18th dynasty. Prolegomena to an analysis of painterly practices in the tomb of Amenemope (TT29)
Laboury, Dimitri ULg; Tavier, Hugues

in Angenot, Valérie; Tiradritti, Francesco (Eds.) Artists and Painting in Ancient Egypt (in press)

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See detailBlattmasken. Un motif iconographique mêlant frontalité et dynamisme végétal
Derwael, Stéphanie ULg

in Actes du colloque « Images Fixes/Images en mouvement » (in press)

Fixité et mouvement coexistent fréquemment dans l’imagerie antique. Les Blattmasken en sont la parfaite illustration, car ils se caractérisent à la fois par une frontalité presque exemplaire et par un ... [more ▼]

Fixité et mouvement coexistent fréquemment dans l’imagerie antique. Les Blattmasken en sont la parfaite illustration, car ils se caractérisent à la fois par une frontalité presque exemplaire et par un dynamisme végétal insufflé par les feuilles dont ils sont composés. Les quatre exemples choisis pour illustrer ce propos correspondent chacun à une formule particulière d’intégration des têtes végétalisées dans leur environnement immédiat. Celles-ci peuvent en effet être isolées de tout contexte végétal, intégrées dans un décor de rinceaux, ou encore structurellement liées à celui-ci en lui donnant naissance ou en émergeant de l’une de ses volutes. Cette forme de végétalisation de la figure humaine semble se rattacher à une hybridation plutôt qu’à une métamorphose. Cette fusion des règnes humain et végétal révèle une symbolique complexe qu’il conviendra de préciser. [less ▲]

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See detailCodifying ‘Sacred Laws’ in Ancient Greece
Carbon, Jan-Mathieu ULg; Pirenne-Delforge, Vinciane ULg

in Jaillard, Dominique; Nihan, Christophe (Eds.) Legal Codification in Ancient Greece and Ancient Israel (in press)

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See detailLe débat sur la véritable nature du corail
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Actes du IXe Congrès de l’Association des Cercles francophones d’Histoire et d’Archéologie de Belgique (in press)

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See detailLe développement de la compétence scripturale en FLS/FLE à l'université à l'aide des TIC : perceptions, pratiques et pistes d'exploitation
Dezutter, Olivier; Bleys, Françoise; Poirier, Vicky et al

in Les Centres de langues et la mise en œuvre des politiques linguistiques dans l’enseignement supérieur : Enseignement – Recherche - Mobilités (in press)

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See detailInventer. Le jeune Descartes et les voies de l’inventio en 1619-1620
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg

in Savini, Massimiliano (Ed.) Les écrits de jeunesse de Descartes (in press)

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See detailFaire les courses au quotidien. L’approvisionnement alimentaire d’un groupe de migrantes marocaines en Italie en temps de crise
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

in Matagne, Geoffroy; Van Ingelgom, Virginie (Eds.) Actes du colloque Politiques de crise, crises du politique (in press)

La crise généralisée qui, depuis quelques années, a affaibli les économies de nombre d’états, a eu des conséquences sur la typologie des migrations internationales : les trajectoires, les projets, les ... [more ▼]

La crise généralisée qui, depuis quelques années, a affaibli les économies de nombre d’états, a eu des conséquences sur la typologie des migrations internationales : les trajectoires, les projets, les destinations, les départs se sont modifiés en fonction de nouveaux facteurs auxquels les individus et les groupes étaient confrontés . A côté de ces macro-dynamiques globales, la crise a également engendré des changements dans la vie quotidienne des migrants lorsqu’ils étaient déjà partis et qu’ils s’étaient déjà installés ailleurs. Dans ce cadre, ma contribution vise à analyser les pratiques d’approvisionnement alimentaire d’un groupe de migrantes marocaines en Italie mettant en place des stratégies pour faire face aux conséquences concrètes de la crise économique (notamment la diminution de leur pouvoir d’achat en conséquence de leur précarité professionnelle). Au travers de plusieurs déplacements dans la ville où elles habitaient et de la mobilisation des réseaux familiaux alimentant des circuits informels d’échange de biens, ces femmes satisfaisaient leurs différentes exigences – parmi lesquelles le désir de performer des préparations propres à leur mémoire incorporée – tout en répondant aux contraintes économiques déterminées par la crise. Je vais ainsi démontrer qu’en dépit des difficultés rencontrées, ces femmes arrivaient à exercer une agency dans le nouvel espace vécu et à se positionner de façon active au travers de leurs choix et conduites quotidiennes. [less ▲]

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See detail"Gens" isiaque et intailles. L’envers de la médaille
Veymiers, Richard ULg

in Iossif, Panagiotis; de Callataÿ, François; Veymiers, Richard (Eds.) Greek Coins and their Images: "Noble" Issuers, "Humble" Users? (in press)

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See detail« La Supplicatione di Italia al re di Francia. Sur un témoin retrouvé (ms. Firenze, Biblioteca Buonarroti, 95) »
Moreno, Paola ULg

in Encuentros / Desencuentros. Italia y España en los siglos XIV y XVI : Textos y contextos, Actes du Colloque Intarnational, México City. (in press)

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See detailLes acteurs des cultes isiaques et leurs images
Veymiers, Richard ULg

in Gasparini, Valentino; Veymiers, Richard (Eds.) The Agents of Isiac Cults. Proceedings of the VIth International Conference of Isis Studies, Erfurt, May 6-8 2013 – Liège, September 23-24 2013 (in press)

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See detailUn contrat d'apprentissage du IIIe siècle avant notre ère : P.Heid. III 226
Ricciardetto, Antonio ULg

in Ricciardetto, Antonio; Marganne, Marie-Hélène (Eds.) Actes de la Journée d'étude internationale "En marge du Serment hippocratique : contrats et serments dans le monde gréco-romain" (in press)

Réexamen de l'unique contrat d'apprentissage de médecin connu à ce jour (P.Heid. III 226), daté des années 215/213 avant notre ère et de provenance inconnue. Considéré comme un faux par P. Sattler, son ... [more ▼]

Réexamen de l'unique contrat d'apprentissage de médecin connu à ce jour (P.Heid. III 226), daté des années 215/213 avant notre ère et de provenance inconnue. Considéré comme un faux par P. Sattler, son premier éditeur (1963), puis, comme un exercice scolaire (Fr. Uebel, 1965), ce document écrit en grec au verso d'un compte pour la construction d'un bâtiment (P. Heid. III 225, c. 250 av. J.-Chr.) est aussi le seul contrat d'apprentissage attesté pour l'époque ptolémaïque. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des ecclésiastiques dans les armées françaises d’Italie à l’époque du Grand Schisme d’Occident (1382-1411)
Masson, Christophe ULg

in Actes du colloque Armée et religion, XVe–XIXe siècles (in press)

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See detailUPLC®-MS/MS, an analytical tool for the accurate and rapid quantification of phytoestrogen metabolites in milk
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Jasselette, Christophe; Romnee, Jean-Michel et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)

The term ‘phytoestrogen’ is used to define a wide variety of nonsteroidal compounds that occur naturally in many plants. When they are absorbed by cows, these polyphenolic compounds undergo ... [more ▼]

The term ‘phytoestrogen’ is used to define a wide variety of nonsteroidal compounds that occur naturally in many plants. When they are absorbed by cows, these polyphenolic compounds undergo biotransformation by specific bacteria present in the gastrointestinal tract. The resulting metabolites are absorbed in the organism and some are excreted in milk. The impact of these compounds on human health divides opinion. Some scientists believe that they might have adverse health effects. Others believe the opposite, especially with regard to their microbial metabolites, such as equol. Whatever one's view on the subject, scientists need accurate, sensitive and rapid analytical methods in order to continue the research on clarifying the phytoestrogen issue. Cow's milk is an animal product that is common in the human diet, and it is therefore important to evaluate its content of phytoestrogen metabolites. In order to study the human intake of equol via commercial milk, an analytical method was developed and validated following EMA/CVMP/VICH/463202/2009 guidelines. Enzymatic hydrolysis was used to release the equol. It was then extracted using double liquid/liquid extraction and analyzed using UPLC®-MS/MS, with an analysis runtime of only 5 min. This analytical method produced a linear calibration curve with a high correlation coefficient (R2≥0.996) between 5 and 1,000 ng mL−1. Good intra- and inter-day precision (RSDs≤5.3% and ≤5.2%, respectively) and accuracy (bias≤8.6%) were achieved. The recovery rate differed slightly among the different types of milk, ranging between 60.6±1.09% and 82.3±5.21%. Good method repeatability was observed (RSDs<15%). There was neither a matrix effect nor a carry-over effect, and the sample extracts were stable during storage for at least 7 days at −21°C and 5°C. In order to apply the proposed method and obtain an initial estimate of equol concentration in cow’s milk in Belgium, 44 samples of various brands found in several supermarkets and 5 raw milk samples from Walloon farms were analyzed. Equol was found in all the samples analyzed, with a concentration ranging from 10 to 50 ng mL−1 for conventional milk and from 70 to 130 ng mL−1 for organic milk. These results were compared with other European studies and the same trend was observed. The results obtained show the specificity, sensitivity and precision of this method for analyzing oestrogenic metabolite-equol in cow’s milk. This study should be extended to include a greater number of samples and be implemented over a longer period to see if there is a correlation between livestock practice and/or sample origins with the equol content in milk. The addition of other phytoestrogen compounds with this method, using UPLC®-MS/MS technology, could also lead to more reliable monitoring of these compounds in dairy production. [less ▲]

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See detailHybrid processing of SCADA and synchronized phasor measurements for tracking network state
Alcaide-Moreno, Boris; Fuerte-Esquivel, Claudio; Glavic, Mevludin ULg et al

in Proc. IEEE PES General Meeting (in press)

This paper proposes a new tracking state estimator aimed at following some of the dynamics of the network state (bus voltage phasors) by a hybrid processing of SCADA and synchronized phasor measurements ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new tracking state estimator aimed at following some of the dynamics of the network state (bus voltage phasors) by a hybrid processing of SCADA and synchronized phasor measurements. The latter are assumed to be available in limited number. To avoid time skew effects, only the SCADA measurements received since the last execution of the estimator are processed. To ensure observability, estimated SCADA measurements are used as pseudo-measurements. The procedure includes a prediction, an innovation analysis and a correction step. The latter consists of solving a constrained least-squares optimization. The simulation results refer to a test system undergoing large disturbances, evolving to long-term voltage instability or stabilized by emergency control. The proposed method appears to satisfactorily track the overall network evolution, even during those severe conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailAntiquité tardive et christianisme africains dans l'Africa romana : un bilan historiographique
Fialon, Sabine ULg

in Ruggeri, Paola (Ed.) L’Africa romana XX. Momenti di continuita e rottura : bilancio di 30 anni di convegni de l’Africa romana (in press)

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See detailCanals and drains. Sewers in the Early Jezireh Palatial Complex of Tell Beydar
Van der Stede, Véronique ULg; Debruyne, Michel

in Thuesen, I. (Ed.) Near Eastern Archaeology at the Beginning of the 3rd Millennium AD. 2nd International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Carsten Niebuhr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 22-26 mai 2000 (in press)

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See detailFaire de la musique : rythmes et rapports chez Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Bazantay, Pierre; Bonnet, Antoine; Frangne, Pierre-Henry (Eds.) Mallarmé et la Musique, la Musique et Mallarmé (in press)

Inséparable du processus d'autonomisation du discours poétique et de la radicalisation que ce processus connaît chez lui, sur fond de propagande wagnérienne et de propagation du vers libre, le modèle ... [more ▼]

Inséparable du processus d'autonomisation du discours poétique et de la radicalisation que ce processus connaît chez lui, sur fond de propagande wagnérienne et de propagation du vers libre, le modèle musical prend, dans l'esthétique de Mallarmé, l'aspect d'un système de rapports généralisés à tous les paramètres de l'écrit. L'inhérence réciproque que le poète établit entre la "Musique" et les "Lettres", représentation imaginaire dont Un Coup de dés constitue la contrepartie réalisée, répond d'un côté à un matérialisme de la forme et de l'autre à un idéalisme fictif, voulant que les structures verbales et prosodiques s'offrent en miroir du système de rapports avec quoi se confond, en sa finitude sans extériorité, l’univers même. [less ▲]

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See detailJacques de Coïmbre (1433-1459), un cardinal lusitano-bourguignon
Marchandisse, Alain ULg; Masson, Christophe ULg; Sommé, Monique

in Évêques et cardinaux princiers et curiaux (XIVe-début XVIe siècle). Des acteurs du pouvoir. Actes du colloque de Lille-Tournai, 18-19 mars 2011 (in press)

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See detailThe Twelve Years Truce (1609-1621): Archdukes' confessors, spirituality and politics in Flanders.
Pirlet, Pierre-François ULg

in Libros de la corte (in press)

Iñigo de Brizuela and Andrés de Soto, both confessors of the Archdukes were key figures at Brussels' court. Each of them used to influence the policy, using different bias. But they weren't trying to ... [more ▼]

Iñigo de Brizuela and Andrés de Soto, both confessors of the Archdukes were key figures at Brussels' court. Each of them used to influence the policy, using different bias. But they weren't trying to reach similar goals: Brizuela carefully acted to preserve Spanish interests in the Catholic Netherlands, while de Soto struggled for a Catholic victory. Their political actions and its reasons will be covered by this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailApports de la luminescence à la chronologie de la basilique Saint-Seurin de Bordeaux
Bouver, Armel; Guibert, Pierre; Sapin, Christian et al

in Apports de la luminescence à la chronologie de la basilique Saint-Seurin de Bordeaux (in press)

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See detailThe materiality of Intangible Cultural Heritage: food and social encounters.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

in AA.VV. (Ed.) Procedings of SHARING CULTURES 2015 - 4th International Conference on Intangible Heritage (in press)

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as ... [more ▼]

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as representative of national food cultures, were chosen to illustrate a shared heritage that historically took a shape around the Mediterranean sea. This heritage, still concretely performed, needed to be stated and preserved against the globalization of food practices. Institutional and political dynamics, occurring on a transnational level, triggered this process, which is nevertheless not detached from the communities involved. Common people played a fundamental role not only in promoting the patrimonialization process itself, but above all in concretely perpetuating some traditions and in spreading them in the contemporary world. In particular, some different cultural groups that found themselves living a common territory and social context thanks to migration, began dialoguing about their own food traditions, starting from some shared elements. As a consequence, some gastronomies interact through people’s practices and define in relation one to the other. This is the case, among others, of Moroccan and Italian cuisine. Throughout a doctoral research conducted within a group of Moroccan women living in the North of Italy, I collected an amount of ethnographic materials showing how social encounters developed through food. The influence of the patrimonialization process on these encounters made people try to find similarities among different traditional practices or to describe some ways of reinterpreting them in reason of the new context. My presentation will focus on these dynamics, thus proving that the Intangible Cultural Heritage is indeed grounded on materiality, that is, in this case, the concrete performance of food practices and their pragmatic effects on relations among humans. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ propos de l’écologie du discours heuristique
Job, Pierre ULg; Gilot, Marguerite ULg

in Actes du 4ième congrès international sur la théorie anthropologique du didactique (TAD) : Évolutions contemporaines du rapport aux mathématiques et aux autres savoirs à l'école et dans la société (in press)

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See detail"Arianisme “vandale” et controverse religieuse : le cas de la Disputatio Cerealis contra Maximinum"
Fialon, Sabine ULg

in Wolff, Étienne (Ed.) Afrique vandale. Littérature, religion et politique (in press)

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See detailSyntactic polygraphs - A formalism extending both constituency and dependency
Kahane, Sylvain; Mazziotta, Nicolas ULg

in Proceedings of the 14th Meeting on Mathematics of Language (MOL 2015) (in press)

Syntactic analyses describe grouping operations that explain how words are combined to form utterances. The nature of these operations depends on the approach. In a constituency-based approach, grouping ... [more ▼]

Syntactic analyses describe grouping operations that explain how words are combined to form utterances. The nature of these operations depends on the approach. In a constituency-based approach, grouping operations are ordered, or stratified, part-whole relations. In a dependency-based approach, grouping operations identify a governor (or head), i.e. they are directed hierarchical relations between words. It is possible to convert a constituency tree into a dependency tree by dereifying the nodes, by identifying the governor and by removing the stratification of the part-whole relations. Polygraphs combine the two types of information into a single structure and are therefore a more powerful formalism. By relaxing constraints, polygraphs also allow to underspecify both kinds of information. [less ▲]

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See detailModes de lecture des Blattmasken dans la peinture murale romaine
Derwael, Stéphanie ULg

in Actes du XIIe colloque de l'Association Internationale pour l’étude de la Peinture Murale Antique (in press)

L’utilisation de la Blattmaske dans les décors pariétaux peints se fait selon diverses modalités. Pour en comprendre pleinement le sens, il convient de considérer le motif dans son contexte ornemental et ... [more ▼]

L’utilisation de la Blattmaske dans les décors pariétaux peints se fait selon diverses modalités. Pour en comprendre pleinement le sens, il convient de considérer le motif dans son contexte ornemental et architectural. Il s’agit tout d’abord de préciser le mode d’insertion des « têtes végétalisées » dans le reste de la décoration de la paroi. Car s’il est vrai qu’elles peuvent faire l’objet d’un jeu formel, elles ne doivent pas pour autant être considérées comme de purs éléments décoratifs. La mise en série dans des bandes « ornementales », l’isolement dans un cadre, ou encore le positionnement stratégique à un endroit clef d’une composition, accordent en effet au motif différents niveaux de lecture. L’analyse conjointe du décor ambiant permet par ailleurs de préciser davantage l’interprétation de l’image. Les Blattmasken se voient effectivement associées à différents motifs, parmi lesquels les êtres hybrides, ou encore les scènes marines ou dionysiaques. Enfin, il convient de préciser le contexte architectural dans lequel le motif est employé, la portée du message véhiculé par le programme décoratif dépendant de la fonction de la pièce et du bâtiment. [less ▲]

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See detailValidated ready-to-use GC-MS/MS method for dioxin analysis in food and feed following the new EU Regulations
L'Homme, Benjamin ULg; Sandy, Chris; Scholl, Georges ULg et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (in press)

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See detailBattista Guarino, 'Sermone del cane e del cavallo'. Un texte inconnu à la cour des Este
Valenti, Gianluca ULg; Van den Abeele, Baudouin

in Actes du Colloque international Chevaux, chiens, faucons. L’art vétérinaire antique et médiéval à travers les sources écrites, archéologiques et iconographiques (in press)

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See detailÉVOLUTION DE LA TENEUR EN EAU LE LONG D’UNE TOPOSEQUENCE FORESTIERE ARGILO-LIMONEUSE
Deraedt, Deborah ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg

in Milieux Poreux et Transferts Hydriques (in press)

For the hydrological modeling of forested watersheds, the understanding of the forest hydrodynamic is essential. This study focusses on the hydrology of a Belgian forested plot with high stoniness and ... [more ▼]

For the hydrological modeling of forested watersheds, the understanding of the forest hydrodynamic is essential. This study focusses on the hydrology of a Belgian forested plot with high stoniness and steep slope. The soil water content is monitored at several positions on the toposequence and at different depth. During rain events, peak in soil water content are observed in different depth depending on the position along the toposequence. [less ▲]

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See detailRamses. An Annotated Corpus of Late Egyptian
Winand, Jean ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg; Rosmorduc, Serge

in Kousoulis, P. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Xth IAE Congress (Rhodos, 2008) (in press)

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See detailLe Portrait d'homme en armure de Giovanni Gerolamo Savoldo, un portrait présumé de Gaston de Foix
Fagnart, Laure ULg

in Barreto, Joana (Ed.) Voir Gaston de Foix. La construction paradoxale d'un mythe national. Actes de la journée d'études tenue au Palazzo Venezia de Rome le 22 juin 2013 (in press)

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See detailRésolution de problèmes arithmétiques et représentations schématiques : comment évaluer l’efficacité d’approches didactiques contrastées ?
Fagnant, Annick ULg; Auquière, Amélie ULg; Vlassis, Joëlle

in Actes du 27e colloque de l'Admée-Europe. L'évaluation à la lumière des contextes et des disciplines. (in press)

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See detailLa question des « objets » d’évaluation dans les différentes disciplines : Discussion du symposium
Fagnant, Annick ULg

in Actes du 27e colloque de l'Admée-Europe. L'évaluation à la lumière des contextes et des disciplines. (in press)

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See detailStructuring the lexicon
Polis, Stéphane ULg; Winand, Jean ULg

in Kousoulis, P. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Xth IAE Congress (Rhodos, 2008) (in press)

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See detailEVALUATION OF FISH EXPOSURE TO POP-LIKE (ORGANOTIN) COMPOUNDS IN SEPETIBA BAY (RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL) THROUGH HEPATIC TOTAL TIN CONCENTRATIONS
Paiva, TC; Schilithz, PF; Bisi, TL et al

in Organohalogen Compounds (2016, August)

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See detailUnderstanding how people with MS get tired while walking
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Phan-Ba, Rémy; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Multiple Sclerosis Journal (2015, October 09)

BACKGROUND. Walking impairment is frequent, appears early in the disease course of MS patients (MSP), and is perceived as the most disabling symptom. When walking, patients get tired more and differently ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND. Walking impairment is frequent, appears early in the disease course of MS patients (MSP), and is perceived as the most disabling symptom. When walking, patients get tired more and differently than healthy people (HP) [Phan-Ba et al PLOS 2012]. This limits their walking perimeter. Understanding this phenomenon is thus important to suggest adequate therapies at the right time. OBJECTIVE. Our aim is to understand how MSP get tired while walking compared to HP. Two groups of MSP are considered: those with a low disability level (MSPL) and those with a high one (MSPH). We consider two criteria to measure the disability: the EDSS and the deceleration index (DI) [Phan-Ba et al PLOS 2012]. The limit between the groups is set at DI=0.8 and EDSS=3 (inclusive for MSPL). METHODS. Many gait characteristics (GC) have been measured with the system GAIMS along a 500m path walked as fast as possible. The dataset gathers 464 visits of HP and 70 of MSP. Some people have been assessed several times. There are 33 visits in the group MSPL with the EDSS criterion, and 25 with the DI criterion. Statistical tests (Welch) were performed on the differences and relative differences of the GC measured during the first and last 100m of the test to detect differences between HP and MSPL, and between MSPL and MSPH, as in [ECTRIMS 2012 P755]. RESULTS. Both criteria for defining the groups lead to similar conclusions. For many GC, the distributions of the variations are significantly different between MSPL and MSPH. The largest difference is for the relative difference of speed (p=0.000119 for EDSS and p=0.000021 for DI). In contrast, only the variation of the average lateral distance between the feet, which is related to the size of the base of support (and thus to the balance) shows a very significant difference between HP and MSPL (p=0.000116 for EDSS and p=0.000120 for DI). The balance does not seem to change much from MSPL to MSPH. Besides, we note that the variance decreases slightly from HP to MSPL and increases a lot from MSPL to MSPH. CONCLUSIONS. Statistically, from the motor fatigue point of view, it seems that the course of the MS disease is divided in two different stages. In the first one, MSP get more tired than HP because of a deterioration of the balance. Then, in the second one, their fatigue becomes related to a faster decrease of the walking speed. This suggests that physical therapy exercises focused on the balance could be given to MSP in the early stage of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailOuverture des travaux
Valenti, Gianluca ULg; Miesse, Hélène ULg

Conference (2015, October 01)

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See detailL’institution de la contre-culture
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

Conference (2015, October)

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See detailFormer des enseignants soucieux de réduire les inégalités d'apprentissage ou comment tenir le cap entre réponse aux demandes et inertie. Analyse de cas d'un centre de formation d'enseignants en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

Conference (2015, October)

Dans cette contribution, nous analyserons l'évolution des enjeux et priorités que s'est progressivement donné le Centre interfacultaire de formation des enseignants (Cifen) de l'Université de Liège depuis ... [more ▼]

Dans cette contribution, nous analyserons l'évolution des enjeux et priorités que s'est progressivement donné le Centre interfacultaire de formation des enseignants (Cifen) de l'Université de Liège depuis sa création officielle en 1995, et nous nous interrogerons sur leur pertinence. Comment prendre la mesure des changements effectivement mis en place, apprécier leur pertinence, réguler leurs effets, éviter l'essoufflement des partenaires du système ? Telles sont quelques unes des questions qui baliseront notre contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining Features for Cover Song Identification
Osmalsky, Julien ULg; Embrechts, Jean-Jacques ULg; Foster, Peter et al

in 16th International Society for Music Information Retrieval Conference (2015, October)

In this paper, we evaluate a set of methods for combining features for cover song identification. We first create multiple classifiers based on global tempo, duration, loudness, beats and chroma average ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we evaluate a set of methods for combining features for cover song identification. We first create multiple classifiers based on global tempo, duration, loudness, beats and chroma average features, training a random forest for each feature. Subsequently, we evaluate standard combination rules for merging these single classifiers into a composite classifier based on global features. We further obtain two higher level classifiers based on chroma features: one based on comparing histograms of quantized chroma features, and a second one based on computing cross-correlations between sequences of chroma features, to account for temporal information. For combining the latter chroma-based classifiers with the composite classifier based on global features, we use standard rank aggregation methods adapted from the information retrieval literature. We evaluate performance with the Second Hand Song dataset, where we quantify performance using multiple statistics. We observe that each combination rule outperforms single methods in terms of the total number of identified queries. Experiments with rank aggregation methods show an increase of up to 23.5 % of the number of identified queries, compared to single classifiers. [less ▲]

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See detailTime ordering shuffling for improving background subtraction
Laugraud, Benjamin ULg; Latour, Philippe ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems (ACIVS) (2015, October)

By construction, a video is a series of ordered frames, whose order is defined at the time of the acquisition process. Background subtraction methods then take this input video and produce a series of ... [more ▼]

By construction, a video is a series of ordered frames, whose order is defined at the time of the acquisition process. Background subtraction methods then take this input video and produce a series of segmentation maps expressed in terms of foreground objects and scene background. To our knowledge, this natural ordering of frames has never been questioned or challenged. In this paper, we propose to challenge, in a prospective view, the natural ordering of video frames in the context of background subtraction, and examine alternative time orderings. The idea consists to change the order before background subtraction is applied, by means of shuffling strategies, and to re-order the segmentation maps afterwards. For this purpose, we propose several shuffling strategies and show that, for some background subtraction methods, results are preserved or even improved. The practical advantage of time shuffling is that it can been applied to any existing background subtraction seamlessly. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enseignement-apprentissage du néerlandais en Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles: objectifs, méthodes, résultats
Rasier, Laurent ULg; Hiligsmann, Philippe

Conference (2015, September 30)

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See detailStability and Aging of Phase Change Materials : An Ab Initio Perspective
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, September 17)

Data recording with Phase Change Materials is a much studied topic as the writing/erasing characteristics, cyclability and downscaling properties of these materials allow for efficient data storage in ... [more ▼]

Data recording with Phase Change Materials is a much studied topic as the writing/erasing characteristics, cyclability and downscaling properties of these materials allow for efficient data storage in future generations of devices. Nevertheless, some aspects of phase change materials are limiting their performances and delaying their wider technological application. First, aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance PCMs since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. One difficulty encountered in the simulation of these amorphous systems is that the direct generation of an amorphous structure by quenching a liquid using Density Functional Theory (DFT) based Molecular Dynamics leads to one sample with a small number of atoms, and, hence of small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, corresponding to different bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys, selected to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal. On the other hand its electronic properties drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous, as compared to the crystal [1]. A second problem faced by PCMs is the fact that data recording is limited at high temperature due to the increased propensity to recrystallize. One approach to counter this is to stabilize the PCM using impurity atoms such as C or N. Using DFT and the analysis of the mechanical properties (constraints theory), we demonstrate how these impurity atoms modify the rigidity of the network, which is experimentally correlated with the activation energy for crystallization [2]. Finally, the crystal phase itself has been shown to have variable conductivities depending on the thermal history and annealing conditions. If this could be used profitably for multi-level recording, it also indicates that the crystal is undergoes some temporal evolution. Using DFT, we clarify the stability behavior of GST crystal and show that the metal-insulator transition is driven by the migration of intrinsic vacancies and an Anderson localization transition [3]. [1] J.Y Raty, W. Zhang, J. Luckas, C. Chen, R. Mazzarello, C. Bichara and M. Wuttig, Nat. Comm. (2015) [2] G. Ghezzi, J.Y. Raty, S. Maitrejean, A. Roule, E. Elkaim and F. Hippert, Applied Physics Letters, 99 (2011) 151906 [3] W. Zhang, A. Thiess, P. Zalden, R. Zeller, P. H. Dederichs, J-Y. Raty, M.Wuttig, S. Blügel et R. Mazzarello, Nature Materials 11 (2012) 952 [less ▲]

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See detailIconic virtues of diagrams. Peirce and ampliative reasoning
Leclercq, Bruno ULg

Conference (2015, September 08)

In his Critic of pure reason, Immanuel Kant notoriously claimed that, being grounded on the forms of sense intuition, arithmetical and geometrical propositions are both synthetic (i.e. informative) and a ... [more ▼]

In his Critic of pure reason, Immanuel Kant notoriously claimed that, being grounded on the forms of sense intuition, arithmetical and geometrical propositions are both synthetic (i.e. informative) and a priori. Bernard Bolzano, followed in this by the logicist movement (from Gottlob Frege to Rudolf Carnap), answered that the generality and necessity of mathematical propositions and proofs can only be grounded on conceptual analysis. Even though, just like Frege, he is one of the fathers of formal logic, Charles Sanders Peirce provides some semiotic reasons to think that Kant was right: diagrams do convey general meanings and provide some knowledge which is necessary yet non-trivial. Unlike logical analysis, visual presentation of concepts in schemas or diagrams helps to explore concepts by stressing some of their “side” features in such a way that new knowledge is gained: « diagrams evolve what was involved » (CP4/86). This is why, according to Kant’s notion of intuitive construction, mathematical inferences are not merely deductive but are inventive and ampliative. My talk aims at identifying some iconic virtues of diagrams which, according to Peirce, explain their epistemic productivity. A first one lies in the “formal” nature of icons, which allows them to express syntactic relations between descriptive (symbols) and demonstrative (indices) components of structured information. On this respect, even algebraic and ideographic expressions are icons exhibiting a general form – a “rheme” – in which places for indices are filled with variables “x” and “y” meaning “any individual”. For this reason, even though they are singular, diagrams are “abstractions” in the sense that they represent relations rather than their terms. Only with this in prospect can a second, and more studied, feature of diagrams matter, namely their two-dimensionality, which helps to exhibit complex relations that cannot be seen on linear linguistic expressions. Finally, a third feature of diagrams lies in their imaginary rather than referential character. Icons connote without denoting, and therefore they can be informational without this information being limited to singular individuals. Furthermore, this non referential character of icons is what makes them open to virtual exploratory manipulations that allow to consider and investigate possibilities which in turn inform us on not obvious properties of the presently visible configuration. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional occurence of greenhouses gases in groundwater: Initial results in shallow Belgian aquifers.
Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Gesels, Julie ULg; Tseng, Jean Hsiao-Chun et al

Poster (2015, September)

Currently, the lack of robust, context-distributed subsurface greenhouses gases (GHG) concentrations data is a key bottleneck to reduce the uncertainty range of GHG groundwater input to continental ... [more ▼]

Currently, the lack of robust, context-distributed subsurface greenhouses gases (GHG) concentrations data is a key bottleneck to reduce the uncertainty range of GHG groundwater input to continental surface water bodies such as rivers or lakes estimates. Carbon dioxyde (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxyde (N2O) are likely to be indirectly transferred to the atmosphere through groundwater discharge into continental surface water bodies. We aim to extend regional-scale estimates of indirect GHG emissions by screening, in numerous hydrogeological (such as alluvial, sandstone, chalk and limestone aquifers) and land use contexts (such as industrial and agricultural), the occurence of these gases. Here, we report and discuss CO2, CH4 and N2O concentrations from an initial survey conducted over selected sites (n= 40) within shallow (0-100 m depth) aquifers in Wallonia (Belgium) for the first time. The preliminary results obtained in this study show that the range of GHG concentrations varies between 5160 and 47544 ppm, 0 and 1064 nmol.L-1, as well as 1 and 5637 nmol.L-1 for the partial pressure of CO2, CH4 and N2O respectively. This new and unique regional dataset provides a first step in developping a refined understanding of favorable contexts for GHG occurence in groundwater which may be used to reduce the uncertainties related to indirect emissions of GHG through groundwater-surface water transfers. [less ▲]

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See detailA perfect estimation of a background image does not lead to a perfect background subtraction: analysis of the upper bound on the performance
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

The quest for the “best” background subtraction technique is ongoing. Despite that a considerable effort has been undertaken to develop flexible and efficient methods, some elementary questions are still ... [more ▼]

The quest for the “best” background subtraction technique is ongoing. Despite that a considerable effort has been undertaken to develop flexible and efficient methods, some elementary questions are still unanswered. One of them is the existence of an intrinsic upper bound to the performance. In fact, data are affected by noise, and therefore it is illusory to believe that it is possible to achieve a perfect segmentation. This paper aims at exploring some intrinsic limitations of the principle of background subtraction. The purpose consists in studying the impact of several limiting factors separately. One of our conclusions is that even if an algorithm would be able to calculate a perfect background image, it is not sufficient to achieve a perfect segmentation with background subtraction, due to other intrinsic limitations. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of the Vadose Zone Experimental Setup as an innovative in situ characterization method for the vadose zone: a case study at an industrial contaminated site in Belgium
Fernandez de Vera, Natalia ULg; Beaujean, Jean ULg; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

The development of protection and remediation plans for contaminated soil and groundwater require a detailed understanding of the transport of pollutants in the subsurface. However, such understanding is ... [more ▼]

The development of protection and remediation plans for contaminated soil and groundwater require a detailed understanding of the transport of pollutants in the subsurface. However, such understanding is affected by the lack of spatial and temporal coverage provided by the current in situ characterization technologies. A new system has been developed in order to overcome such limitations. The vadose zone experimental setup is a new development combining cross-hole geophysics and the Vadose Zone Monitoring System (VMS). In cross-hole geophysics, an injection of an electrical current using electrodes installed in vertical boreholes is triggered. From measured potential differences, spatial patterns related with subsurface heterogeneities, water content and solute concentrations are inferred. The VMS allows continuous measurements of water content at different depths of the vadose zone, as well as water sampling. The system is formed by a flexible sleeve containing monitoring units along its depth which is installed in a slanted borehole. The system was installed at a former industrial site in Belgium, where soil and groundwater are contaminated with BTEX, PAH, and heavy metals. Two VMS were installed in two slanted boreholes on site, together with four vertical boreholes containing electrodes for geophysical measurements. The site was initially monitored under natural recharge conditions. Water content sensors located along the VMS registered fast wetting and draining reactions to rainfall events followed by the activation of water transport through fractures. Results from soil water samples show continuous evolution of water chemistry with depth, due to disequilibrium between infiltrated water and the hydrochemical conditions in the unsaturated zone. Subsequently, a saline tracer was injected in the surface. The transport of the tracer in the subsurface was monitored via cross-hole and surface geophysics. Results from imaging reflect the evolution of a plume through vertical and lateral transport and dilution. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear Background Filter to Improve Pedestrian Detection
Wang, Yi; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Su, Song-Zhi et al

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

In this paper, we propose a simple nonlinear filter which improves the detection of pedestrians walking in a video. We do so by first cumulating temporal gradient of moving objects into a motion history ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we propose a simple nonlinear filter which improves the detection of pedestrians walking in a video. We do so by first cumulating temporal gradient of moving objects into a motion history image (MHI). Then we apply to each frame of the video a motion-guided nonlinear filter whose goal is to smudge out background details while leaving untouched foreground moving objects. The resulting blurry-background image is then fed to a pedestrian detector. Experiments reveal that for a given miss rate, our motion-guided nonlinear filter can decrease the number of false positives per image (FPPI) by a factor of up to 26. Our method is simple, computationally light, and can be applied on a variety of videos to improve the performances of almost any kind of pedestrian detectors. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of Diffure Aurora on Mars
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; Schneider; Jain et al

Conference (2015, September)

The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2014) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft has discovered diffuse aurora in Mars’ northern hemisphere spanning a wide range of geographic latitudes ... [more ▼]

The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS, McClintock et al., 2014) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft has discovered diffuse aurora in Mars’ northern hemisphere spanning a wide range of geographic latitudes and longitudes (Figure 1). This widespread aurora differs from the small auroral patches discovered by the SPICAM instrument onboard the Mars Express spacecraft (Bertaux et al., 2005; Leblanc et al., 2008; Gérard et al., submitted; Soret et al., submitted) restricted to regions of crustal magnetic fields in the southern hemisphere. Furthermore, the northern diffuse aurora appears to peak at altitudes below 100 km, while the crustal field aurora peaked around 120 km. [less ▲]

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See detailThe materiality of Intangible Cultural Heritage: food and social encounters.
Mescoli, Elsa ULg

Conference (2015, September)

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as ... [more ▼]

Following the patrimonialization process of the Mediterranean diet, some gastronomies found themselves involved within a common framework of food traditions. Some regional practices, indicated as representative of national food cultures, were chosen to illustrate a shared heritage that historically took a shape around the Mediterranean sea. This heritage, still concretely performed, needed to be stated and preserved against the globalization of food practices. Institutional and political dynamics, occurring on a transnational level, triggered this process, which is nevertheless not detached from the communities involved. Common people played a fundamental role not only in promoting the patrimonialization process itself, but above all in concretely perpetuating some traditions and in spreading them in the contemporary world. In particular, some different cultural groups that found themselves living a common territory and social context thanks to migration, began dialoguing about their own food traditions, starting from some shared elements. As a consequence, some gastronomies interact through people’s practices and define in relation one to the other. This is the case, among others, of Moroccan and Italian cuisine. Throughout a doctoral research conducted within a group of Moroccan women living in the North of Italy, I collected an amount of ethnographic materials showing how social encounters developed through food. The influence of the patrimonialization process on these encounters made people try to find similarities among different traditional practices or to describe some ways of reinterpreting them in reason of the new context. My presentation will focus on these dynamics, thus proving that the Intangible Cultural Heritage is indeed grounded on materiality, that is, in this case, the concrete performance of food practices and their pragmatic effects on relations among humans. [less ▲]

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See detailSimple median-based method for stationary background generation using background subtraction algorithms
Laugraud, Benjamin ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Braham, Marc ULg et al

in International Conference on Image Analysis and Processing (ICIAP) (2015, September)

The estimation of the background image from a video sequence is necessary in some applications. Computing the median for each pixel over time is effective, but it fails when the background is visible for ... [more ▼]

The estimation of the background image from a video sequence is necessary in some applications. Computing the median for each pixel over time is effective, but it fails when the background is visible for less than half of the time. In this paper, we propose a new method leveraging the segmentation performed by a background subtraction algorithm, which reduces the set of color candidates, for each pixel, before the median is applied. Our method is simple and fully generic as any background subtraction algorithm can be used. While recent background subtraction algorithms are excellent in detecting moving objects, our experiments show that the frame difference algorithm is a technique that compare advantageously to more advanced ones. Finally, we present the background images obtained on the SBI dataset, which appear to be almost perfect. The source code of our method can be downloaded at http://www.ulg.ac.be/telecom/research/sbg . [less ▲]

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See detailGalland épigraphiste et philologue classique
Famerie, Etienne ULg

in Bauden, Frédéric; Waller, Richard (Eds.) Actes du Colloque "Antoine Galland (1646-1715) : orientaliste, antiquaire, numismate, humaniste" (2015, September)

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See detailBifacial serrated technology in the southern African Still Bay: new data from Sibudu Cave, Kwazulu-Natal
Schmid, Viola; Porraz, Guillaume; Rots, Veerle ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

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See detailTwinkling Lights in the Nightside Upper Atmosphere: How Nightglow Contributes to our Understanding of Global Dynamics
Brecht, Amanda; Bougher, S.; Stiepen, Arnaud ULg et al

Conference (2015, September)

Upper atmospheres of planets continuously emit photons in the UV, Visible, and IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these emissions are classified as airglow, which includes dayglow and ... [more ▼]

Upper atmospheres of planets continuously emit photons in the UV, Visible, and IR regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Some of these emissions are classified as airglow, which includes dayglow and nightglow. There are several mechanisms to create these emissions, but this presentation will focus on nightglow emissions resulting from photochemistry of neutral components. These neutral components originate on the dayside and are transported from the dayside to the nightside of a planet, where they subsequently undergo chemical reactions yielding nightglow. Nightglow emissions serve as effective tracers for planetary middle and upper atmosphere global wind systems due to their variable peak brightness and spatial distributions. The main planetary focus for this presentation will be on Mars and Venus’ atmospheres, due to the similar chemical constituents which populate their upper atmospheres. Currently, NO UV nightglow has been observed (e.g. Venus Express, Mars Express) on both Venus and Mars, while O2 IR nightglow has only been observed on Venus but is predicted to be seen on Mars. The observations show variations in time and location (latitude, local time, and altitude). The locations of the maximum nightglow intensities on each planet are different, but are supportive of the general picture of these two planet’s global circulation patterns. Model implications for both nightglows on both planets can provide valuable insight and understanding of the dynamical and chemical processes creating the nightglow emission variability. Two three-dimensional general circulation models will be utilized: the Venus Thermospheric General Circulation Model (VTGCM) and the Mars Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (MGITM). The model output will be compared to nightglow datasets for each planet individually and planet to planet, to contrast the variations of the nightglow features and the underlying drivers for those variations. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst Results From MAVEN’s Imaging UV Spectrograph
Schneider; McClintock; Stewart et al

Conference (2015, September)

We report the first results from The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft orbiting Mars. The instrument is accomplishing its ... [more ▼]

We report the first results from The Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph (IUVS) aboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile and EvolutioN (MAVEN) spacecraft orbiting Mars. The instrument is accomplishing its goals of characterizing the atmospheric composition and structure, enabling studies of atmospheric escape that will contribute to our understanding of Mars’ atmospheric evolution. In addition, the instrument has made unexpected discoveries concerning meteor showers, aurora and nightglow on Mars. [less ▲]

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See detailControlling factors and occurrence of inorganic and organic compounds in groundwater of urban and industrial areas
Gesels, Julie ULg; Dollé, Fabien ULg; Leclercq, Julie et al

Conference (2015, September)

A relatively extensive survey of groundwater contaminants is performed in urban and industrial contexts, at the regional scale (Walloon Region of Belgium), outside spots of contamination related to ... [more ▼]

A relatively extensive survey of groundwater contaminants is performed in urban and industrial contexts, at the regional scale (Walloon Region of Belgium), outside spots of contamination related to contaminated sites. More specifically, the most detected inorganic trace elements and organic contaminants are identified and their levels of occurrence are described statistically. Mechanisms that can explain their occurrence in groundwater are discussed. From a more pragmatic point of view, the data set has been also used to derive upper limits of pollutant background concentrations to be used in decision-making related to the management of contaminated groundwater in urban and industrial environments. The results presented are based on 243 samples from 8 sectors located in different geological contexts and different urban and industrial contexts. Each groundwater sample was analyzed for 19 inorganic trace elements, 61 organic micro-pollutants and 10 major and minor elements. Five physico-chemical parameters were measured in the field, at the time of sampling to determine the environmental conditions prevailing in groundwater. For comparison, existing groundwater analyses in natural context, available for the entire Walloon Region, were compiled from several databases. Cumulative distribution function plots allow comparing the distributions of inorganic trace elements in urban and industrial sectors to those obtained at the scale of the entire Walloon region. Cumulative distribution function plots are also used to compare the distribution of the inorganic trace elements in the different lithologies, in urban and industrial contexts. The composition of groundwater is altered in urban and industrial sectors with increased concentrations for most inorganic trace elements and organic contaminants. Anthropogenic influence is not limited to inputs of pollutants but also to alterations of subsurface environmental conditions, in particular redox conditions, resulting in the mobilization of pollutants. The influence of lithology is also marked in the data set. [less ▲]

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See detailA new hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers
Willems, Thibault ULg; Hakoun, Vivien ULg; Renard, Philippe et al

Conference (2015, September)

Groundwater flow modelling in karst aquifers represents a real challenge that requires adapted methods. The applicability of an innovative hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers ... [more ▼]

Groundwater flow modelling in karst aquifers represents a real challenge that requires adapted methods. The applicability of an innovative hybrid approach for modelling groundwater flow in karst aquifers, namely the Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell (HFEMC) method, is evaluated. The hybrid approach consists in combining a classical finite element (FE) model, to model slow flow in the rock matrix, with spatially distributed lumped reservoirs, to model fast flow in the karst conduits network. Water exchanges between the rock matrix and the conduits network are accounted for by means of an internal Fourier boundary conditions (BC). This BC (1st order exchange relation) allows to control the magnitude of water transfers between fast and slow flow domains. We tested the applicability of the HFEMC method on a schematic synthetic domain and on a real karst system. In the synthetic case analysis, we discussed dynamic processes of groundwater storage occurring in the karst system during a recharge pulse. The study focuses on the influence of selected parameters on representative variables such as the discharge curve of the karst system or pressure and mass transfers between conduits and rock matrix sub-domains. In this way, an inversion of the hydraulic gradient between karst conduits and the surrounding rock matrix is shown to occur during the recharge pulse. This phenomenon results in a temporary storage of water from conduits to the rock matrix, which impacts the modelled discharge curve. The first test performed on a real study site, the Noiraigue spring karst system (Jura mountains, Switzerland), exemplify the use of two separated lumped reservoirs for describing the conduits network, which allows to consider two base levels in the karst system. It also points out the challenges to face when modelling a complex natural karst system with the HFEMC approach. The results obtained show that the HFEMC approach is a good candidate to model groundwater flow in karst aquifers. [less ▲]

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See detailIUVS observations of Nitric Oxide nightglow
Stiepen, Arnaud ULg; The IUVS team

Conference (2015, September)

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See detailExploring the schizophrenic hyperreflexivity on the Rorschach test
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Bataille, Jennifer; Mormont, Christian ULg et al

Poster (2015, August 28)

L’hyper-réflexivité schizophrénique peut être définie comme une attitude particulière de la conscience consistant à interroger de façon explicite et réflexive des phénomènes généralement implicites et ... [more ▼]

L’hyper-réflexivité schizophrénique peut être définie comme une attitude particulière de la conscience consistant à interroger de façon explicite et réflexive des phénomènes généralement implicites et préréflexifs (Sass, 2014). Notre hypothèse est que ce mécanisme se manifeste dans les protocoles du test de Rorschach des sujets schizophrènes (Englebert, 2013). Pour l’éprouver, nous avons administré le test à douze sujets schizophrènes. L’originalité de cette recherche repose sur une seconde présentation des planches (trois jours plus tard) qui a permis d’évoquer avec les sujets la permanence de leurs perceptions et de discuter de l’acception commune de celles-ci (pensez-vous que la plupart des autres personnes pourrait voir ce que vous voyez ?). Les résultats confirment notre hypothèse, tant au niveau quantitatif (les marqueurs de l’hyper-réflexivité que nous avions identifiés se retrouvent dans la majorité des protocoles) que qualitatif (phrases suggérant une interrogation épistémologique du test, par exemple). Enfin, nous remarquerons que l’attitude schizophrénique envers le test de Rorschach est assez subtile puisqu’elle identifie le fondement épistémologique du test reposant sur la nécessité d’une fausse perception – une « violation de la réalité » selon Exner (2003). Les sujets schizophrènes mettent en évidence la règle implicite sur laquelle repose le test qui consiste à ne pas donner la seule véritable bonne réponse (systématique) au test qui est « une tache ». [less ▲]

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See detailA Rorschach study of the borderline personality
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Rommes, Jennifer; Mormont, Christian ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 28)

Nous étudions les manifestations psychologiques au test de Rorschach de sujets présentant un diagnostic de trouble de la personnalité borderline. Dans la continuité des études de Mormont (1969) et Mihura ... [more ▼]

Nous étudions les manifestations psychologiques au test de Rorschach de sujets présentant un diagnostic de trouble de la personnalité borderline. Dans la continuité des études de Mormont (1969) et Mihura (2006), nous avons administré le test à 15 sujets selon les recommandations du Système Intégré. Nos résultats indiquent les tendances spécifiques suivantes : une affectivité qui tend à être extratensive ou ambiéquale (86,7% des sujets), une proportion élevée de réponses couleur/forme (80%), un nombre élevé d’abstractions (66,7%), un nombre important de réponses « agressives » (80%) et « morbides » (86,7%). Une altération variable du testing de la réalité apparait pour chaque protocole. Notons la présence importante (80%) de références personnelles (PER). Signalons également la présence constante de termes particuliers dans le verbatim : énonciation de la couleur rouge (sang, amour), caractère dysphorique de certaines réponses (monstrueux, diabolique), ainsi que des perceptions duales (le bien/le mal). En conclusion, notre étude suggère que le Rorschach en Système Intégré, repérant en première approche des éléments psychologiques que l'on peut raisonnablement mettre en rapport avec la sémiologie clinique et la théorie des personnalités borderlines, l'approfondissement de la recherche peut laisser espérer une meilleure compréhension de ce trouble complexe. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Rorschach and the theory of art: the sublime and the formal
Englebert, Jérôme ULg; Sass, Louis

Conference (2015, August 28)

Together with the crucial work of standardization initiated by Exner, a future focus for research on the Rorschach test concerns the psychological significance of the variables. The Comprehensive System ... [more ▼]

Together with the crucial work of standardization initiated by Exner, a future focus for research on the Rorschach test concerns the psychological significance of the variables. The Comprehensive System has a solid empirical basis offering impressive validity and reliability. By contrast, study and discussion of the psychological correlates of the different codes and their interpretation remains something of a work-in-progress, in much need of both speculative hypotheses and theoretical reflection. In this context, we hope to offer an original hypothesis that is rooted in esthetic theory (Schiller, Burke, Schopenhauer), literature (Stendahl), the philosophy of art (Kant), and existential philosophy (Heidegger). In this paper we propose to introduce the notion of the « sublime », which is to be distinguished from the « beautiful », in order to provide a way of interpreting the significance of both Vista (V) and Form Dimension (FD) responses in the Rorschach. The sublime is associated with a submersion of the cognitive faculties, even a state of feeling overwhelmed, in contrast with the clarity of the beautiful, which is associated with an experience of things being circumscribed in space and under the cognitive/perceptual control of the subject. Our reflection will lead into discussion of the links between perception and anxiety, and to the distinction to be made between anxiety and fear. In concluding, we will take up the adaptive dimension of Vista and FD responses, insofar as they reflect, in accord with Rorschach (1921) and Exner (2003), various forms of introspective awareness. [less ▲]

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See detailNegative Relative Clauses in Late Egyptian. A Functional Perspective
Sojic, Nathalie ULg

Poster (2015, August 26)

The poster contains a functional taxonomy of the negative relative clauses in Late Egyptian

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See detailChallenges for the restoration of dry calcareous grasslands in quarries: does nature need help?
Pitz, Carline ULg; Piqueray, Julien; Harzé, Mélanie ULg et al

Conference (2015, August 26)

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii ... [more ▼]

In order to maximize the biodiversity potential of dry calcareous grasslands in former quarries two options are available to managers: (i) allow species to spontaneously recolonize the site, (ii) implement technical support for ecosystem restoration. This study aimed at characterizing the spontaneous communities established in dry area of unexploited quarries and at comparing communities encountered to the succession panel of dry grasslands. To evaluate the ecological succession in quarries, three successional stages where defined: (i) less than three years; (ii) three to 20 years; and (iii) more than 20 years after exploitation. For each successional stage, six parcels were selected and 20 1m2 plots were randomly marked in each parcel. All selected parcels presented dry grasslands abiotic conditions: filtering and stony soils and south orientation. During the 2014 vegetation period, percentage cover of higher plant species was recorded in each plot. Explaining environmental variables including coordinates, altitude, slope (degrees), soil depth, exposure, maximum vegetation height, bare ground cover, moss cover, and shrub cover (%) were measured. Our main results showed that, over decades of time, the ecological succession in dry area of unexploited quarries does not approach a typical formation of dry calcareous grassland. Most recolonizations tended to form meadows communities, except for three sites belonging to a specific landscape context. Potential implications for future quarries restoration will be discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailBiotechnological potential of novel bacterial strains isolated on the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Martin, Renée ULg; Barbeyron, Tristan et al

Conference (2015, August 18)

Bacteria associated with algae are underexplored despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. These bacterial communities are known to ... [more ▼]

Bacteria associated with algae are underexplored despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. These bacterial communities are known to represent great potential for the production of diverse bioactive compounds, such as specific glycoside hydrolases, as they interact in multiple complex ways with their host. Furthermore, enzymes from marine bacteria have original properties, like cold-adapted, halotolerant and highly stable, which are constantly searched out by bio-industries. The aim of our study was to identify bacteria, associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum, showing diverse polysaccharolytic activities. To isolate cultivable microorganisms, algal thalli of Ascophyllum nodosum were swabbed with sterile cotton tips and marine agar plates were inoculated. Three-hundred isolated bacteria were screened for agarase, kappa- and iota-carrageenase, and sulfatase activities on specific marine media. Thirty-two bacteria with polysaccharolytic activities were isolated and a part of their 16S rDNA (8F-1492R) were amplified and sequenced. Twenty-seven were classified as Flavobacteriia and five as Gammaproteobacteria. Putative new strains and species of Zobellia, Maribacter, Cellulophaga, Shewanella, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Colwellia were identified by phylogenetic analysis. All those genera are well-known to colonize algal surface but only some of them are famous to degrade algal polysaccharides (Zobellia, Maribacter, Cellulophaga, and Pseudoalteromonas). However, all those novel bacterial strains/species showed multiple and diverse enzymatic activities (agarase, iota-and kappa-carrageenase, cellulase, beta-glucosidase, sulfatase and/or amylase activities). Genomics libraries with their DNA were constructed in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis and are screened to identify the genes coding for the observed enzymatic activities. Those novel glycoside hydrolases from unknown marine bacteria should have original and innovative properties with great biotechnological potential. [less ▲]

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See detailUSING OF AN EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN TO CHARACTERIZE THE CONVECTIVE DRYING BEHAVIOR OF DIFFERENT SLUDGES
Fraikin, Laurent ULg; Salmon, Thierry ULg; Herbreteau, Benjamin et al

in Drying Technology (2015, August 18), 33(11), 1302-1308

Drying appears as a major step prior to valorization of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This study uses an experimental design on different sludges to highlight the drying behavior according to ... [more ▼]

Drying appears as a major step prior to valorization of sludge from wastewater treatment plant. This study uses an experimental design on different sludges to highlight the drying behavior according to drying conditions, storage and extrusion. This research is performed with industrial view, but on a single cylinder sample, and focuses on five responds: maximum drying flux, time to reach 95% of dry matter, final volume, critical moisture and slowing-down coefficient. [less ▲]

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See detailAGING MECHANISMS IN AMORPHOUS PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

Conference (2015, August 18)

Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have ... [more ▼]

Aging phenomena are common to all amorphous structures, but of special importance in phase change materials (PCM) since it impedes the realization of multi-level memories. Different interpretations have been proposed, but we focus here on the structural relaxation of amorphous GeTe, chosen because it is the simplest system that is representative of the wider class of GST alloys, lying along the GeTe-Sb2Te3 composition line of the GeSbTe phase diagram. The direct melt-and-quench DFT based Molecular Dynamics approach leads to models with a few hundred atoms, and, hence a small number of atomic environments. Here we sample a large number of local atomic environments, and bonding schemes, by chemically substituting different alloys to favor different local atomic structures. This enables spanning a larger fraction of the configuration space relevant to aging. GST alloys are known to display complex bonding that does not follow the chemist’s “octet-rule”. This lead to many controversies, especially concerning the local structure around Ge atoms. We overcome this problem by using state of the art non local DFT-MD, including the so-called van der Waals corrections. This leads to more clearly defined environments that are thoroughly analyzed. We can then identify their fingerprints in the available structural experimental data and assess their stability to find the driving forces leading to the structural relaxation. The calculated electronic properties nicely match the most recent photothermal deflection spectroscopy experiments. Our results support a model of the amorphous phase and its time evolution that involves an evolution of the local (chemical) order towards that of the crystal (by getting rid of homopolar bonds), and an evolution of its electronic properties that drift away from those of the crystal, driven by an increase of the Peierls-like distortion of the local environments in the amorphous [1]. [1] J.Y Raty, W. Zhang, J. Luckas, C. Chen, R. Mazzarello, C. Bichara and M. Wuttig, Nature Comm. To appear. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric metal pollution over the last 250 years inferred from speleothem geochemistry
Allan, Mohammed ULg; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; verheyden, sophie

Conference (2015, August 17)

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios from two speleothems from the Han-sur-Lesse cave in southern Belgium were measured in order to study the ability of speleothems to act as archives of atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Lead concentrations and isotope ratios from two speleothems from the Han-sur-Lesse cave in southern Belgium were measured in order to study the ability of speleothems to act as archives of atmospheric pollution. To address this aim we analyzed trace elemental Al and Pb compositions by LA-ICP-MS and ICP-MS as well as Pb isotopes by MC-ICP-MS. The results help to identify three Pb-enriched intervals: from 1880 to 1905 AD, from 1945 to 1965 AD, and from 1975 to 1990 AD. The speleothem record is consistent with the evolution of atmospheric pollution in Belgium. Lead isotope ratios confirm that coal and gasoline combustion, combined with regional metallurgical activities, were the predominant Pb pollution sources in the stalagmites during the last 250 years. This research underscores the importance of speleothems as a valuable tool for the discrimination between anthropogenic and natural lead contributions in the environment and consequently for quantifying the anthropogenic contribution or determining natural background values in continental settings. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical modeling of lateral dike breaching due to overtopping
Rifai, Ismail; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in River, Coastal and Estuarine Morphodynamics, RCEM 2015 (2015, August)

Dikes are commonly used as defense structures for river flow channelization, protecting population and property from floods and against lateral riverbed migration. However, the aging of these structures ... [more ▼]

Dikes are commonly used as defense structures for river flow channelization, protecting population and property from floods and against lateral riverbed migration. However, the aging of these structures, combined with their increased vulnerability to extreme hydrological events may cause the dikes to breach, and subsequently to break. Furthermore, statistics show that flow overtopping is the main cause of dike failure, which emphasizes the need to understand thoroughly the process of breaching. Indeed, from a risk management perspective it is particularly important to have a detailed understanding of the mechanisms (e.g. internal erosion, overtopping erosion) underlying the formation of breaches due to overtopping and reliable information on flows passing through them. Conversely, the current knowledge of breaching mechanisms remains fragmented, especially because dike failure involves complex interactions between flows, materials of the structure, soil and foundations. The existing studies have addressed partially these interactions as the considered idealized dikes were generally homogenous, the piping erosion unaccounted for and the overtopping replicated in a dam-break like configuration. Yet, river embankments are subjected to high flow velocities parallel to the direction of the dike and to flow in the floodplain, which highly influence the shape of the breach and its evolution. The objective of the present work is to fill this gap. A laboratory experimental investigation is planned in the National Laboratory for Hydraulics and Environment (LNHE) of EDF R&D (France) and in the research group Hydraulics in Environmental and Civil Engineering (HECE) of the University of Liege (Belgium), reproducing realistic configurations of river dikes, accounting for the tangential flow in both main channel and floodplain. It enables thus the assessment of, on the one hand, the effect of the increase of the water level, and on the other hand, the influence of waves. The laboratory tests also consider the effect of a surface layer and composition of the dike core by testing different material mixtures. Geometry and composition of the idealized dikes are representative of typical field dikes, based on the similarity theory. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Triclosan affect hearing development of Cyprinodon variegatus larvae?
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Benichou, Farida; Pinte, Nicolas et al

Poster (2015, August)

The aquatic environment represents the final sink for many chemicals, including bactericidal agents. Among them Triclosan (TCS) has been shown to affect the thyroid system of teleost. Larval stages are ... [more ▼]

The aquatic environment represents the final sink for many chemicals, including bactericidal agents. Among them Triclosan (TCS) has been shown to affect the thyroid system of teleost. Larval stages are particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of endocrine disrupters because of potential impairment of fish development and behaviour. Thyroid hormones are critical to the development of the brain and auditory system. Thus, TCS could affect the development of the brain and hearing. The aims of this study were: to investigate hearing development in sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus) using the ABR technique (Auditory Brainstem Response) and to investigate the effects of triclosan on hearing development. Exposure to TCS was conducted from fertilization of eggs on at concentrations likely to be found in the environment: 20, 50 and 100 µgl-1. We characterized previously the ontogenic variation of thyroid hormones in embryos and larvae of sheepshead minnows. We observed an increase of thyroid hormones level around the 12th and the 15th day post hatching (dph), that may be associated with the transition from larval to juvenile stage during the development of this species. We concluded, that this period could be defined as a critical exposure window to pollutants. We determined hearing thresholds for sheepshead minnows of different ages. Our sheepshead minnows show ontogenic variations in the hearing ability during their development. At 30 days post hatching, their hearing ability is quite bad, with a narrow bandwidth of detected frequencies. But their hearing ability considerably enhance during their development to reach the adult hearing ability at around 80 days post hatching when this species reach sexual maturity. So we observe during the developmental phase of this fish species clear ontogenic improvements of the hearing ability and they showed an ontogenetic expansion in the frequency bandwidth they were able to detect. The effects of TCS in this development have yet to be determined but will be fully discussed. This study proposes an interesting new endpoint in thyroid disruption research. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of triclosan exposure in shape changes of sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) during early development and metamorphosis
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Dussenne, Mélanie et al

Conference (2015, August)

Thyroid hormones are essential for normal development, and for maintenance of normal physiological functions in vertebrates [1, 2]. In fish, thyroid hormones are involved in the control of osmoregulation ... [more ▼]

Thyroid hormones are essential for normal development, and for maintenance of normal physiological functions in vertebrates [1, 2]. In fish, thyroid hormones are involved in the control of osmoregulation, metabolism, somatic growth and post-hatching metamorphosis [1, 3, 4]. The regulation of thyroid hormone bioavailability in tissues and cells represents a very complex and unique web of feedback systems [2]. In fish and other vertebrates the thyroid cascade involves two components. First, thyroxine (T4) biosynthesis and secretion are largely under central control by the brain–pituitary–thyroid axis [5]. Second, there is the conversion of T4 to its biologically active form 3,5,3-triiodothyronine (T3) and its metabolism and receptor-mediated actions that seems largely to be under peripheral control in extra-thyroidal tissues [6]. The accumulation in the aquatic environment of anthropogenic chemicals, among which are endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that alter normal hormonal regulation, is having dramatic consequences for humans and wildlife. Numerous chemicals disrupt thyroid homeostasis affecting thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis and transport, and cellular uptake and metabolism [7, 8]. Triclosan (TCS) is a synthetic chlorinated phenolic compound with a generalized use as an antimicrobial and preservative in many personal care and household products [9-11]. As a result of disposal of TCS through sewage systems and insufficient/variable removal by wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) [9], widespread contamination with TCS has been detected in several countries, particularly in aquatic ecosystems, WWTP influents and effluents; sludges and biosolids; surface or ground water; drinking water; and aquatic sediments [9-11]. TCS and its metabolites have been detected in tissues and body fluids of aquatic organisms including fish, revealing they are accumulating in the food chain [9-11] and TCS has also been detected in human blood, breast milk and urine [9-11]. The structural similarity of TCS with THs [9] suggest it may have adverse effects on the thyroid system. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which TCS disrupts the thyroid axis. TCS effects on fish thyroid axis have not been investigated. It is possible, that the TCS toxic effects reported in fish embryos, larvae and adults [9-11] might be caused, at least in part, through its effect on the thyroid system. We determined how TCS affect ontogenic variations of thyroid hormones in developing sheepshead minnow larvae. Knowing that thyroid hormones are involved in somatic growth and post-hatching metamorphosis, we also tested the hypothesis that TCS alter the development of these larvae. To do this, we used landmark-based geometric morphometric methods. These methods allowed us to analyse the pure shape variations of our developing larvae, regardless orientation, position, and size. [less ▲]

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See detailNiche-innovations between breaks and continuities with the regime? A case study into the dairy sector in Belgium
Feyereisen, Marlène ULg; Melard, François ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

Conference (2015, August)

Today, the absolute dichotomy between alternative food networks (AFNs) and the conventional agrofood system tends to be obsolete. Indeed, many AFNs are far from being radical and are more likely to ... [more ▼]

Today, the absolute dichotomy between alternative food networks (AFNs) and the conventional agrofood system tends to be obsolete. Indeed, many AFNs are far from being radical and are more likely to maintain relations with the current socio-technical regime between breaks and continuities. This contribution is a complement to the Transition Theory and the Multi-Level Perspective by underlying the fragile borders between the two levels of the niche-innovations and the socio-technical regime: some imperfect projects, full of contradictions, are participating to the transition of the system. And this is particularly true in the case of highly locked in systems. The dairy sector in Western European countries is one of those highly locked in systems. Our case study, the Belgian fair-trade milk “Fairebel”, is a project built by dairy farmers to react to the 2009 dairy crisis and to the increasingly neoliberal dairy sector; and to get a better price (or fair price) for their activity. However, the concretization of this project brought its share of contradictions regarding the common definition of fair trade milk. As a result, the “Fairebel” project maintains relations between breaks and continuities with the regime. This contribution suggests modes of governance for the stakeholders of these non-radical niches which are precious to engage change in highly locked in system without being picked up by the dominant regime and thus, keep this regime under pressure. [less ▲]

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