References of "Contribution to collective works"
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See detailLa libre-pensée, une religion comme une autre ? Financement public et gestion de la pluralité religieuse et philosophique en Belgique.
Husson, Jean-François ULg

in Lamine, Anne-Sophie (Ed.) Quand le religieux fait conflit. Désaccords, négociations ou arrangements (2014)

L’analyse du financement public des communautés convictionnelles livre-t-elle des éclairages particuliers sur la gestion de la pluralité religieuse ? Cet article entend répondre par la positive, au départ ... [more ▼]

L’analyse du financement public des communautés convictionnelles livre-t-elle des éclairages particuliers sur la gestion de la pluralité religieuse ? Cet article entend répondre par la positive, au départ du cas belge. Après une brève présentation de l'approche théorique (instrumentation de l'action publique) et de la situation nationale étudiée, une troisième partie propose une lecture de la gestion de la pluralité convictionnelle en traitant de l’ouverture du système (notamment aux humanismes séculiers, appelés "mouvement laïque" ou "laïcité organisée" en Belgique), du dialogue intra- et interconvictionnel ainsi que du dialogue entre les communautés convictionnelles et les pouvoirs publics. [less ▲]

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See detailDes haches néolithiques à l'époque romaine
Thiebaux, Aurélie ULg; Jadin, Ivan; Goemaere, Eric

in Demelenne, Marie; Docquier, Gilles (Eds.) Trésor ?/ Trésor ! Archéologie au coeur de l'Europe (2014)

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See detailDistinction by micro-Raman spectroscopy and chemometrical analysis of copper phthalocyanine blue polymorphs in oil-based and acrylic samples
Defeyt, Catherine ULg; Van Pevenage, Jolien; Learner, Tom et al

in Van den berg, K.J.; Burnstock, A.; de Tagle, A. (Eds.) et al Issues in Contemporary Oil Paints (2014)

Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) blue, commonly named phthalo blue is the most important synthetic organic blue pigment in the 20th and 21st century artists paints. Phthalo blue, which is adopted by artists ... [more ▼]

Copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) blue, commonly named phthalo blue is the most important synthetic organic blue pigment in the 20th and 21st century artists paints. Phthalo blue, which is adopted by artists since 1936, is a polymorphous pigment. Currently, the alpha, beta and epsilon CuPc polymorphs are used in artists paint formulations. The identification of the CuPc crystal form provides technical and chronological information relevant for studying artworks. Raman Spectroscopy (RS) is a very valuable technique for the detection of phthalo blue in paint layers. However, the spectral interpretation is not straightforward concerning the CuPc polymorph distinction. To overcome the problem we have previously developed a procedure combining RS and chemometrical analysis. The experimental results that we obtained have demonstrated its efficiency for predicting the CuPc crystal form in unknown paint samples. In the present work, this procedure was applied on oil-based and acrylic paints from Sam Francis’ studio and the Getty Conservation Institute (GCI) Reference Collection. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurophysiological basis of sleep and wakefulness
Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Schmidt, Christina ULg; Cajochen, Christian

in Garbarino, Sergio (Ed.) Sleepiness and Human Impact Assessment (2014)

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See detailLa difficile émergence de la géographie du commerce
Lemarchand, Nathalie; Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg; Soumagne, Jean

in Gasnier, Arnaud; Lemarchand, Nathalie (Eds.) Le commerce dans tous ses états. Espaces marchands et enjeux de société (2014)

Short reflective history of geography Retail

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (0 ULg)
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See detailTwo time pieces for sleep regulation: the circadian clock and the homeostatic hourglass
Cajochen, Christian; Schmidt, Christina ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg

in Garbarino, Sergio (Ed.) Sleepiness and Human Impact Assessment (2014)

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See detailLa publicité de l'administration en matière environnementale
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Michiels, Valérie (Ed.) La publicité de l'administration - Vingt ans après, bilan et perspectives (2014)

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See detailLes opérations militaires
Pirot, Pascal ULg

in Créer avant de mourir. Des oeuvres d'art dans les tranchées, 1914-1918. (2014)

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See detailIntroduction: historical and current perspectives on osteoarthritis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Arden, N; Blanco, F; Cooperr, C (Eds.) et al Atlas of Osteoarthritis (2014)

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See detailEosinophilic pulmonary diseases
Clercx, Cécile ULg; Peeters, Dominique ULg

in Bonagura, John; Twedt, David (Eds.) Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy (2014)

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See detailL'insularisation comme mode de transition, le cas de l'agriculture de conservation en Région Wallonne
Vankeerberghen, Audrey ULg; Dannevoye, Bastien ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in de Raymond, Antoine; Goulet, Frédéric (Eds.) Sociologie des grandes cultures, au coeur du modèle industriel agricole (2014)

Bien que peu connue du grand public, l'agriculture de conservation est un modèle qui se développe aujourd'hui dans les systèmes de grandes cultures de nombreux pays et qui gagne peu à peu la ... [more ▼]

Bien que peu connue du grand public, l'agriculture de conservation est un modèle qui se développe aujourd'hui dans les systèmes de grandes cultures de nombreux pays et qui gagne peu à peu la reconnaissance d'institutions publiques . L'agriculture de conservation vise à un meilleur respect de la vie du sol à travers trois principes : la réduction du travail du sol (techniques sans labour), la couverture permanente des sols et des rotations de cultures adaptées. En Europe, l’agriculture de conservation a connu un intérêt croissant à partir du milieu des années 1990. En Région wallonne (Belgique) les surfaces en non-labour représenteraient 15-20% de l’assolement en céréales d’hiver et moins de 10% pour les autres cultures (Greenotec 2012). Ce chapitre adresse la question des modalités de transition des agriculteurs wallons vers ce mode de production. Pour traiter cette problématique, nous nous appuyons sur les acquis des « Sustainability Transition Studies » (Markard 2012) afin d'analyser les modalités d'articulation entre l'agriculture de conservation et le système agricole dominant. L'articulation de la théorie multi-niveaux développée par Geels (2002) avec le concept d'innovation par retrait (Goulet et Vinck 2012) nous amènera à développer l'hypothèse de l'insularisation pour caractériser le processus de transition vers l'agriculture de conservation. La particularité de ce processus d'insularisation est que celui-ci s'effectue à travers une dynamique à la fois de détachement et de continuité avec l'agriculture dite conventionnelle. L'analyse de trajectoires d'agriculteurs présentée ici permettra d'identifier ces modalités de détachement et de continuité. Elle nous mènera également à questionner le cadre théorique proposé par Geels (2002) ainsi que la notion d'agriculture conventionnelle en elle-même. [less ▲]

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See detailDeriving a global antioxidant score for commercial juices by multivariate graphical and scoring techniques: applications to blackcurrant juice
Tabart, Jessica; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dardenne, Nadia ULg et al

in Preedy (Ed.) Processing and Impact on Antioxidants in Beverages (2014)

Blackcurrants constitute an important source of potential health promoting phytochemicals (e.g. phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid) due to their antioxidant properties. Only small portions of berries are ... [more ▼]

Blackcurrants constitute an important source of potential health promoting phytochemicals (e.g. phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid) due to their antioxidant properties. Only small portions of berries are consumed fresh, most of their intake coming from processed foods, such as juices. Seven techniques were used to measure antioxidant capacity and antioxidant compounds of 10 juices. This yielded a large disparity of results. No single test, even the most popular ORAC assay, is able to compare the antioxidant capacity of similar food matrix such as blackcurrant juices. By combining tests from a large battery of « antioxidant » assays, it is possible to improve the discrimination of a food matrix by establishing a Global Antioxidant Score (GAS) which correlates well with graphical representations like Chernoff faces or stars. The latter approaches may help food industry managers and authorities to compare their « antioxidant » products with those existing on the market. [less ▲]

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See detailCulture, vous avez dit Kultur? Kulturarbeit zwischen Selbstbestimmung und Selbstfindung
Brüll, Christoph ULg

in Lejeune, Carlo; Brüll, Christoph (Eds.) Grenzerfahrungen. Eine Geschichte der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens. Vol. 5: Säuberung, Wiederaufbau, Autonomiediskussionen (1945-1973) (2014)

Kulturarbeit war seit den 1920er Jahren in den ehemaligen Kreisen Eupen-Malmedy politisiert und seit den 1930er Jahren ideologisiert. Nach 1945 gab es keine Kulturarbeit in der Muttersprache dieser ... [more ▼]

Kulturarbeit war seit den 1920er Jahren in den ehemaligen Kreisen Eupen-Malmedy politisiert und seit den 1930er Jahren ideologisiert. Nach 1945 gab es keine Kulturarbeit in der Muttersprache dieser Menschen mehr. Die Region sollte französisiert werden. Erst Mitte der 1950er Jahre begannen Bürger in den deutschsprachigen Gemeinden, sporadisch aktiv Kulturarbeit zu betreiben. Diese stand unmittelbar in einem politischen Spannungsfeld, das immer wieder neu zwischen Akteuren an der Basis, dem Bezirkskommissar Hoen, der Provinz Lüttich und den kulturellen Dienststellen des Zentralstaates Belgiens ausgelotet werden musste. Christoph Brüll stellt sich mehrere Fragen: Haben sich hier Grundpositionen herausgebildet, die auch den politischen Diskurs später bestimmten? Welcher Akteur verfolgte welche Ziele mit welchen Mitteln? War der kulturelle Frühling Initialzündung, Begleiter oder nur Folge des „politischen Frühlings“ in der Region? Er liefert zahlreiche neue Fakten und formuliert neue Meinungen zu einem Politikbereich, der die ureigenste Besonderheit der deutschsprachigen Belgier widerspiegelt. Der Titel „Kulturarbeit zwischen Fremdbestimmung und Selbstfindung“ verdeutlicht auch hier, dass er transregionale Einflüsse aufgreift, um diese regional runterzubrechen. [less ▲]

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See detail« De l’inventaire », Commentaire des articles 1175 à 1184 du Code judiciaire
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Procédures particulières et droit judiciaire de la famille, 3e édition, P. Moreau (coord.) (2014)

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See detailBacterial cell wall growth, shape and division.
Derouaux, Adeline ULg; Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Den Blaauwen, Tanneke et al

in Bacterial Membranes: Structural and Molecular Biology (2014)

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See detailEuropeesrechtelijke aspecten inzake BTW
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Vandebergh, Henri (Ed.) BTW-Handboek (2014)

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See detailAnomie de Rimbaud
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Brissette, Pascal; Luneau, Marie-Pier (Eds.) Deux siècles de malédiction littéraire (2014)

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See detail"Je n'aime pas mon accent américaine": quelle culture discursive pour quelle conscience normative chez les étudiants Erasmus?
Meunier, Deborah ULg

in Dervin, Fred; Machart, Régis (Eds.) Les nouveaux enjeux des mobilités et migrations académiques (2014)

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See detailThe case of Belgium
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg

in Schaltegger, Stefan; Windolph, Sara; Harms, Dorli (Eds.) et al Corporate Sustainability in International Comparison - State of Practice, Opportunities and Challenges (Forthcoming) (2014)

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See detailCrowdsourced Monitoring, Citizen Empowerment and Data Credibility: The case of Observations.be
Farah, Jihad ULg

in Murgante, Beniamino; Sanjay, Misra; Rocha, Anna Maria (Eds.) et al Computational Science and its applications - ICCSA 2014 (2014)

Crowdsourcing is today a revolutionary phenomenon changing pro- foundly our ways of communicating and producing. This article is interested in two issues that are crucial to its development and impacts ... [more ▼]

Crowdsourcing is today a revolutionary phenomenon changing pro- foundly our ways of communicating and producing. This article is interested in two issues that are crucial to its development and impacts. On one hand, it in- vestigates the forms and limits of crowdsourcing-related citizen empowerment. It is less concerned by the now recognized fact that crowdsourcing is empower- ing, but rather focuses on the ways it does so and the architecture of the rela- tions between citizens, scientists and institutions in this new context. On the other, it discusses the question of credibility of data produced through crowd- sourcing. This question represents, in fact, the Achilles’ heel that destabilizes the rise of citizen power in the face of experts and institutions. In its discussion of these two issues, the article relies on a particularly interesting case study: the online platform of participatory monitoring of biodiversity in Belgium Observa- tions.be. The creation of databases is an occasion here for reflexivity, learning and mobilisation. It is also an occasion for the liberation of the lay citizen, as an individual, from the straightjackets delimiting the institutional, scientific and associative spaces where he remains a subject, a collaborator or a member – al- ways in a subordinate position. He becomes a peer producer, partner and discussant. More important, learning and action networks that develop in the platform cut transversally through the three spheres. We find unexpected and new cooperations between citizen, scientists and civil servants. Likewise, ac- tions developed through the platform, mainly reporting, counting campaigns and early alert systems attest new modes of action that transgress the functional and ontological division of the three spheres. [less ▲]

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See detailLower Palaeozoic palaeo(bio)geographies
Wellman, C.H.; Steemans, Philippe ULg; Vecoli, M.

in Harper, D.A.T.; Servais, T. (Eds.) Early Palaeozoic biogeography and palaeogeography (2014)

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See detailOrigine et Unité de la vertu dans le "Protagoras"
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Collette, Bernard; Delcomminette, Sylvain (Eds.) L'Unité des vertus dans l'Antiquité (2014)

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See detailNeuroimaging in Disorders of Consciousness
Bodart, Olivier ULg; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in Filippi, M. (Ed.) Oxford Textbook of Clinical Neurology (2014)

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See detailLe Deuil de l'entre-deux-guerres. Sartre et la littérature engagée
Denis, Benoît ULg

in Van Beveren, Julien (Ed.) Littérature, langue et didactique. Hommages à Jean-Louis Dumortier (2014)

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 ULg)
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See detail« De la présomption et de la déclaration d’absence et de la déclaration judiciaire de décès », Commentaire des articles 1226 et 1227 du Code judiciaire
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Procédures particulières et droit judiciaire de la famille, 3e édition, P. Moreau (coord.) (2014)

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See detail« De la renonciation à succession », Commentaire de l’article 1185 du Code judiciaire
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Procédures particulières et droit judiciaire de la famille, 3e édition, P. Moreau (coord.) (2014)

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See detailGilles de Rais : Quattrocento come noi?
Curreri, Luciano ULg

in Nobili, Sebastiana; Roda, Vittorio; Ruozzi, Gino (Eds.) Studi in onore di Alfredo Cottignoli (2014)

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See detailHatching
Juchmes, Roland ULg; Leclercq, Pierre ULg

in Fornabai, Michelle (Ed.) Ink, An A to Z of Ink in Architecture (2014)

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See detailQuestioni intorno alla lingua italiana nella stampa quotidiana nazionale
Aresti, Alessandro ULg

in Gargiulo, Marco (Ed.) Lingua e cultura italiana nei mass media. Uno sguardo interdisciplinare (2014)

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See detailThe Role of the Iberian States on the EU-LA Interregionalism
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Söderbaum, Fredrik; Baert, Francis; Scaramagli, Tiziana (Eds.) Intersecting Inter-Regionalism. Regions, Global Governance and the EU. (2014)

La présente contribution se penche sur le rôle des Etats européens dans la construction de la stratégie de l'UE à l'égard de l'Amérique latine. Les pays ibériques et plus particulièrement l'Espagne ... [more ▼]

La présente contribution se penche sur le rôle des Etats européens dans la construction de la stratégie de l'UE à l'égard de l'Amérique latine. Les pays ibériques et plus particulièrement l'Espagne constituent les interfaces entre l'Europe communautaire et l'Amérique latine. [less ▲]

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See detailFigurations et médiogrammes. Les micro-fictions du Petit Bottin des Lettres et des Arts
Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in Glinoer, Anthony; Lacroix, Michel (Eds.) Romans à clef. Les ambivalences du réel (2014)

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See detailBergson, les discours de guerre (1914-1918). Propagande et philosophie
Caeymaex, Florence ULg

in Kisukidi, Yala Nadia; François, Arnaud; Riquier, Camille (Eds.) et al Annales bergsoniennes VII : Bergson, l'Allemagne, la guerre de 1914 (2014)

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See detailSigmund Freud. Pour introduire le narcissisme
Gauvry, Charlotte ULg

in Aucouturier, Valérie; Parot, Françoise (Eds.) Psychanalyse. Métapsychologie, concepts et dissidences (2014)

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See detailLecture de la finitude
Pieron, Julien ULg

in Cormann, Grégory; Feron, Olivier (Eds.) Question anthropologique et phénoménologie : Autour du travail de Daniel Giovannangeli (2014)

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See detailStress et santé des dirigeants de PME
Angenot, Arnaud ULg; Schippers, Nathalie ULg; Eubelen, Isabelle et al

in Sarnin, Philippe; Kouabenan, Dongo Rémi; Bobillier-Chaumont, Marc-Eric (Eds.) et al Santé et bien-être au travail : Des méthodes d'analyse aux actions de prévention (2014)

Comme l’atteste l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale ([INSERM], 2011), il est aujourd’hui devenu nécessaire de pouvoir mieux identifier les sources de stress chez les travailleurs ... [more ▼]

Comme l’atteste l’Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale ([INSERM], 2011), il est aujourd’hui devenu nécessaire de pouvoir mieux identifier les sources de stress chez les travailleurs indépendants. Parmi ceux-ci, les dirigeants de Petites et Moyennes Entreprises (PME) sont fréquemment victimes de problèmes de santé liés à une charge physique et mentale élevées (Bournois, Duval-Hamel, Scarengella & Roussillon, 2007 ; Gunnarsson, Vingard & Josephson, 2007). S’appuyant sur ces constats, cette étude a eu pour objectif d’évaluer leur sentiment d’épuisement professionnel et de déterminer les causes de stress spécifiques au milieu entrepreneurial. Pour ce faire, une enquête par questionnaire écrit a été menée à la demande de différentes organisations patronales belges du secteur de la construction et de la vente. [less ▲]

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See detailDeel IV De belastingplichtige
Peeters, Bart ULg

in Vandebergh, Henri (Ed.) BTW-Handboek (2014)

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See detailNeurostimulation for Headaches: Where Are We? Where Are We Going?
MAGIS, Delphine ULg

in May, Arne; Baron, Ralf (Eds.) Headache and Pain (2014)

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See detailApparitions, disparitions. Vers une histoire des pratiques d’édition en Belgique
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Varry, Dominique (Ed.) 50 ans d'histoire du livre : 1958-2008 (2014)

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See detailLa biodiversité en Wallonie, 40 ans après l'adoption de la loi sur la conservation de la nature
Born, Charles-Hubert; Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Peeters, Alain

in Born, Charles-Hubert (Ed.) Le droit de la conservation de la nature (2014)

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See detailCorneosurfametry and corneoxenometry.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; REGINSTER, Marie-Annick ULg

in Berardesca, Enzo; Wilhelm, K.P.; Maibach, H.I. (Eds.) Non invasive diagnostic techniques in clinical dermatology. (2014)

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See detailUn développement récent de la pensée de Daniel Giovannangeli
Seron, Denis ULg

in Cormann, Grégory (Ed.) Questions anthropologiques et phénoménologie: Autour du travail de Daniel Giovannangeli (2014)

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See detailD'une rive à l'autre. La mise en récit des stéréotypes de la cécité
Havelange, Carl ULg

in Verine, Bertrand (Ed.) Dire le non-visuel. Approches multidisciplinaires des discours sur les perceptions autres que la vue (2014)

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See detailLotze en Amérique. Le renouveau réaliste en philosophie chez Santayana
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

in Boccaccini, Federico (Ed.) Lotze et son héritage. Son influence et son impact sur la philosophie du XXème siècle (2014)

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See detailL'agonie, la mort et les funérailles de Pierre d'Aubusson († 1503), grand maître de Rhodes et cardinal
Marchandisse, Alain ULg; de Vaivre, Jean-Bernard; Vissière, Laurent

in Dumont, Jonathan; Marchandisse, Alain; Bousmar, Éric (Eds.) et al Le Corps du Prince (2014)

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See detailAssessment of Patient Comfort During Palliative Sedation: Is it always Reliable?
Deschepper, R; Bilsen, J; Laureys, Steven ULg

in Annual Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine (2014)

"When death knocks at the door of our ward, we do not easily open the door”, an intensivist once said. In the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department, care is strongly focused on cure and ... [more ▼]

"When death knocks at the door of our ward, we do not easily open the door”, an intensivist once said. In the intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department, care is strongly focused on cure and resuscitation. Notwithstanding the technological progress made in intensive and emergency medicine, a substantial number of the patients admitted to the ICU cannot be saved. In these cases, it is important to make a timely shift from curative efforts to palliative care, so that futile and burdensome interventions can be avoided. When death becomes imminent, a major concern of the family members and caregivers is to assure maximal comfort during the dying process. A central aspect of good end-of-life care is to keep the patient, as much as possible, free of pain and other kinds of distress. However, many critically ill patients often suffer from symptoms such as pain and delirium. More than 50 % of critically ill patients in the ICU experience moderate to severe pain and pain in critically ill patients often remains untreated [1]. [less ▲]

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See detailWool Economy in the Royal Archive of Mari during the Sakkanakku Period
Colonna d'Istria, Laurent ULg

in Breniquet, Catherine; Michel, Cécile (Eds.) WOOL ECONOMY IN THE ANCIENT NEAR EAST AND THE AEGEAN (2014)

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See detailCircadian and homeostatic regulation of sleepiness and cognition and its neuronal underpinnings
Schmidt, Christina ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg; Chellappa, Sarah Laxhmi ULg

in Garbarino, Sergio (Ed.) Sleepiness and Human Impact Assessment (2014)

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See detailAccompaniment and quality in childcare services: the emergence of a culture of professionalization
Pirard, Florence ULg; Barbier, Jean-Marie

in Oberhuemer, Pamela; Brooker, Liz; Parker-Rees, Rod (Eds.) Professional Issues in Work with Babies and Toddlers (2014)

This article addresses various educational cultures observed today in a variety of training and professional development contexts in the field of early childhood education. The paper also analyses methods ... [more ▼]

This article addresses various educational cultures observed today in a variety of training and professional development contexts in the field of early childhood education. The paper also analyses methods of developing and implementing training or professional 'accompaniment'. This notion of 'accompaniment' has been developed in the context of French-speaking countries, especially in rela­tion to the development of childcare services and the search for quality. From a case study using 'accompaniment' as a professional development initiative to consider freedom of movement for children aged birth to three years as a quality criterion in daily educational practice, the article illustrates the importance of considering innovation in the professional development of early years educators, not only as a new initiative in this specific context, but also as a signifier of the wider emergence of a new culture of professionalization where actions, actors and environment undergo change simultaneously. [less ▲]

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See detailMusique et musiciens de Liège en terre d’Empire sous le règne de Ferdinand de Bavière (1612-1650)
Corswarem, Emilie ULg

in Candoni, Jean-François; Gauthier, Laure (Eds.) Les grands centres musicaux de l’espace germanophone (XVIIe-XIX’ siècles), Préface de Christophe Charle (2014)

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See detailLes industries à pointes foliacées lors du passage du Paléolithique moyen au supérieur dans les régions septentrionales de l’Europe
Flas, Damien ULg

in Otte, Marcel (Ed.) Néandertal / Cro Magnon. La rencontre (2014)

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See detailDas Land der vielen Grenzen. Räume, Landschaft, Menschen
Brüll, Christoph ULg; Dries, Joseph; Quadflieg, Peter M.

in Lejeune, Carlo; Brüll, Christoph (Eds.) Grenzerfahrungen. Eine Geschichte der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens. Vol. 5: Säuberung, Wiederaufbau, Autonomiediskussionen (1945-1973) (2014)

„Landschaften, Räume sind nicht bloß vorhandene Realitäten, sondern auch und vor allem Überbleibsel der Vergangenheit. Vergangene Horizonte werden für uns neu gemalt, neu geschaffen durch die gebotenen ... [more ▼]

„Landschaften, Räume sind nicht bloß vorhandene Realitäten, sondern auch und vor allem Überbleibsel der Vergangenheit. Vergangene Horizonte werden für uns neu gemalt, neu geschaffen durch die gebotenen Spektakel: Die Erde ist, wie unsere Haut, dazu verdammt, die Spuren unserer alten Verletzungen zu bewahren.“ Diese Aussage des französischen Historikers Fernand Braudel ruft dazu auf, Landschaften und Räume zu lesen und zu interpretieren. Dies wollen wir als quasi institutionalisierten Einstieg in allen Bänden tun. Die Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft – aktuell auf der Suche nach einem griffigeren Namen – ist ein zeitgenössisches Kunstgebilde. Diese Grenzlandschaft zwischen Maas und Rhein, zwischen deutschem und französischem Kulturraum sollte in jeder Zeit geografisch anders gefasst und in ihrer Wechselwirkung zu den Nachbarregionen dargestellt werden. In diesem Einstiegskapitel gilt es deshalb, die Region zunächst einfach geografisch zu umschreiben. Christoph Brüll, Joseph Dries und Peter M. Quadflieg haben dann gefragt: Was lässt sich an der Landschaft zwischen Göhl und Our für den Zeitraum von 1945 bis 1973 ablesen? Welche alten Verletzungen können wir beobachten? Welche zukunftsweisenden Entwicklungen lassen sich an der Landschaft bereits ablesen? [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse du fonctionnement différentiel des items des versions papier et informatisée d’un test de classement en anglais, langue seconde, en présence de patrons de réponses inappropriés
Béland, Sébastien; Magis, David ULg; Raîche, Gilles

in Blais, Jean-Guy; Gilles, Jean-Luc; Tristan-Lopez (Eds.) Bienvenue au 21e siècle : Evaluation des apprentissages et technologies de l’information et de la communication (2014)

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See detailRamesside Registers of Égyptien de Tradition: the Medinet Habu Inscriptions
Gillen, Todd Jonathan ULg

in Grossman, Eitan; Polis, Stéphane; Stauder, Andréas (Eds.) et al On Forms and Functions: Studies in Ancient Egyptian Grammar (2014)

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See detailMultiscale Modeling of Ultrafast Magnetization Dynamics
Ostler, Thomas ULg; Barker, J.; Evans, R. F. L. et al

in Ultrafast Magnetism I (2014)

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See detailTerritoire - « Préface » et Chapitre premier : « Y a-t-il unité de la littérature belge dans les deux langues ? »
Hamélius, Paul ULg

in Dozo, Björn-Olav; Provenzano, François (Eds.) Historiographie de la littérature belge : une anthologie (2014)

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See detailQu'entend-on par paysage de qualité? Résultats d'une enquête auprès d'experts roumains et wallons
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg; Teleuca, Alexandra et al

in Kim, Doo-Chul; Viegas Firmino, Ana Maria; Ichikawa, Yasuo (Eds.) Globalization and New Challenges of Agricultural and Rural Systems (2014)

The European Landscape Convention stresses that “the landscape has an important public interest role in the cultural, ecological, environmental and social fields, and constitutes a resource favourable to ... [more ▼]

The European Landscape Convention stresses that “the landscape has an important public interest role in the cultural, ecological, environmental and social fields, and constitutes a resource favourable to economic activity”. Among other recommendations, signatory countries are committed to assess their landscapes, “taking into account the particular values assigned to them by the interested parties and the population concerned” (Council of Europe 2000). However, assessing landscapes out of a specific framework is not an easy task due to the multiple functions that landscapes perform. Brandt, Tress and Tress (2000) pointed five basic functions: ecological, economic, sociocultural, historical and aesthetic. Relating to these multiple functions, stakeholders may have different points of view on the quality of landscape. In a current bilateral research project funded by Wallonie Bruxelles International and the Romanian Academy, the authors exchange practices concerning landscape monitoring in high value rural landscapes. The paper presents the results of a survey among landscape experts in both countries. Forty-two landscape experts, from Wallonia and Romania, had to specify their level of agreement on fifty-two Likert items regarding landscape quality indicators. A consensus appears about an idyllic landscape characterised by a small human influence. Experts point unanimously the absence of pollution, sustainable farming, the awareness of the inhabitants about landscape, and the aesthetic value as necessary characteristics. Even if the consensus is weaker, both landscape connectivity and regional heritage seem to be other important indicators to assess landscape quality. At the opposite end, the species rarity, the hilliness, a mention in tourist guides, or the presence in the art matter little. The survey stresses also that experts’ advice differs concerning biodiversity indicators, economic potential, and the presence of modern items in the landscape. Generally, Romanian experts stress more the biocentric approach of landscape while Walloon experts may assign importance to urban or industrial landscapes. Finally, the paper suggests nine features worth to be considered when assessing landscapes. [less ▲]

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See detailFunctional neuroanatomy of disorders of consciousness
Di Perri, Carol; Stender, Johan; Laureys, Steven ULg et al

in CAVANNA, Andrea (Ed.) Epilepsy and behavior Alteration of Counsciousness in Epilepsy (2014)

Our understanding of the mechanisms of loss and recovery of consciousness, following severe brain injury or during anesthesia, is changing rapidly. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that patients ... [more ▼]

Our understanding of the mechanisms of loss and recovery of consciousness, following severe brain injury or during anesthesia, is changing rapidly. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with chronic disorders of consciousness and subjects undergoing general anesthesia present a complex dysfunctionality in the architecture of brain connectivity. At present, the global hallmark of impaired consciousness appears to be amultifaceted dysfunctional connectivity pattern with both within-network loss of connectivity in awidespread frontoparietal network and between-network hyperconnectivity involving other regions such as the insula and ventral tegmental area. Despite ongoing efforts, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of consciousness after severe brain injury are not thoroughly understood. Important questions remain unanswered:What triggers the connectivity impairment leading to disorders of consciousness? Why do some patients recover from coma, while others with apparently similar brain injuries do not? Understanding these mechanisms could lead to a better comprehension of brain function and, hopefully, lead to new therapeutic strategies in this challenging patient population. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Case of Belgium
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg

in Schaltegger, S; Windolph, S; Harms, Dorli (Eds.) et al Corporate Sustainability in International Comparison - State of Practice, Opportunities and Challenges (2014)

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See detailLas astucias de la ilusión. El ”caso” Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Sanz Roig, Diana (Ed.) Bourdieu después de Bourdieu (2014)

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See detailL'instance arbitrale et le temps
Caprasse, Olivier ULg

in Saletti, A.; van Compernolle, J.; van Drooghenbroeck, J.-F. (Eds.) L'arbitre et le juge étatique - Etudes de droit comparté à la mémoire de Giuseppe Tarzia (2014)

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See detailAre Simple Calculation Models always on the Safe Side?
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Schaumann, Peter (Ed.) Festschrift Peter Schaumann (2014)

This paper examines the question whether simple calculation models are always on the safe side compared to advanced calculation models. This question is examined for the shadow effect, for the contact ... [more ▼]

This paper examines the question whether simple calculation models are always on the safe side compared to advanced calculation models. This question is examined for the shadow effect, for the contact between steel and concrete in composite steel-concrete floors, for the buckling curves of steel sections and, finally, for the factors κ1 and κ2 applied to the bending resistance of steel beams. [less ▲]

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See detailWays of Being a Child in a Dispersed Family: Multi-parenthood and migratory debt between France and Mali (Soninke homeland)
Razy, Elodie ULg

in Veale, Andrea; Donà, Giorgia (Eds.) Children, migration & globalization: New Mobilities (2014)

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See detailLes esclaves malfaiteurs dans l'Egypte romaine
Straus, Jean ULg

in Tallet, Gaëlle; Zivie-Coche, Christiane (Eds.) Le Myrte et la Rose. Mélanges offerts à Françoise Dunand par ses élèves, collègues et amis (2014)

Crimes commited by slaves in Roman Egypt

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See detailComment utiliser les mythes pour construire un discours sur la santé mentale
Absil, Gaëtan ULg; Govers, Patrick ULg; Santerre, Honorine et al

in Valastro, O.M. (Ed.) Mythanalyses postmodernes de la santé mentale (2014)

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See detailNail surface topography and onychochronobiology.
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg

in Berardesca, E.; Wilhelm, K.P.; Maibach, H.I. (Eds.) Non invasive diagnostic techniques in clinical dermatology. (2014)

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See detailLes animateurs de la vie littéraire en Belgique francophone : de leur rôle interne à leur position de médiateur transnational
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg

in Blanchard, Nelly; Thomas, Mannaig (Eds.) Des littératures périphériques (2014)

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See detailLyrical Cartographies: Re-Drawing the Boundaries of the Black Atlantic in Dionne Brand's A Map to the Door of No Return and At the Full and Change of the Moon
Mergeai, Mathilde ULg

in Durán Almarza, Liamar; Álvarez López, Esther (Eds.) Diasporic Women's Writing of the Black Atlantic: (En)Gendering Literature and Performance (2014)

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See detailLes collections éditoriales et la construction nationale
Ceballos Viro, Alvaro ULg; Francois, Jeromine ULg

in Rivalan Guégo, Christine; Nicoli, Miriam (Eds.) La collection. Essor et affirmation d'un objet éditorial (2014)

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See detailLa communication écrite médiée par les technologies (CEMT) en contexte universitaire : un défi pour les enseignants de FLE/S
Bleys, Françoise; Eid, Rodine; Dezutter, Olivier et al

in Defays, Jean-Marc; Géron, Geneviève (Eds.) Hommage à Luc Collès – Tome 1 : des langues aux cultures (2014)

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See detailcrown rot disease of bananas
Lassois, Ludivine ULg; de Lapeyre de Bellaire

in Bautista-Banos, Silvia (Ed.) Postharvest Decay, control strategies (2014)

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See detailIntroduction
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Feron, Olivier

in Cormann, Grégory; Feron, Olivier (Eds.) Question anthropologique et phénoménologie. Autour du travail de Daniel Giovannangeli (2014)

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See detailThe geographical societies of Brussels and Antwerp, and their focus on Africa in the period preceding the Berlin Conference (1876-1885)
Vandersmissen, Jan ULg

in Van Schuylenbergh, Patricia; Lanneau, Catherine; Plasman, Pierre-Luc (Eds.) L'Afrique belge aux XIXe et XXe siècles. Nouvelles recherches et perspectives en histoire coloniale. (2014)

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See detailInfractions fiscales et blanchiment de capitaux : retour sur les évolutions récentes
Bourgeois, Marc ULg

in Van Molle, M. (Ed.) Blanchiment de capitaux et professions juridiques (2014)

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See detailUne décennie de recherche et de réflexion sur la formation, l'enseignement et l'apprentissage de l'histoire-géographie à l'école primaire au Québec
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

in Larouche, Marie-Claude; Anderson, Araujo-Oliveira (Eds.) Les sciences humaines à l'école primaire québécoise. Regards croisés sur un domaine de recherche et d'intervention (2014)

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See detailDer theatrale „Korridor“. E.T.A. Hoffmanns Literalität der Inszenierung und ihre Medien. Vom textuellen Metadrama zur theatralen Narration
Küpper, Achim ULg

in Küpper, Achim; Ulbrecht, Siegfried (Eds.) Theatralität in Literatur, Kunst und Kultur (= Germanoslavica, num. thém. spécial 25.2) (2014)

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See detailUn dépôt de deux poignards en silex du Grand Pressigny à « La Pièce de Prézault - La Varenne », commune de Parçay-sur-Vienne (Indre-et-Loire).
Pailler, Y.; Arquille, J.; Gardère, P. et al

in Entre archéologie et écologie, une Préhistoire de tous les milieux. Mélanges offerts à Pierre Pétrequin. (2014)

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See detailAnatomie des récifs de marbre rouge frasniens belges
Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Toussaint, Jacques (Ed.) Les carrières de l'entité de Rochefort. Du marbre et des hommes (2014)

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See detailLe fonds d’archives Louis Hjelmslev
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Sofia, Estanislao; Chepiga, Valentina (Eds.) Archives et manuscrits de linguistes (2014)

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See detail"Hilf dir selbst, so hilft dir Gott!" Verzerrende Geschichtsbilder und fehlendes Selbstbewusstsein
Brüll, Christoph ULg; Cremer, Freddy; Mießen, Werner

in Lejeune, Carlo; Brüll, Christoph (Eds.) Grenzerfahrungen. Eine Geschichte der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft Belgiens. Vol. 5: Säuberung, Wiederaufbau, Autonomiediskussionen (1945-1973) (2014)

Das unitaristische und zentralistische Belgien war in Brüssel oder Löwen schon in den 1960er Jahren nur noch ein Trugbild. Das Land war spürbar im Aufbruch. Doch diese seismographischen Wellen wurden in ... [more ▼]

Das unitaristische und zentralistische Belgien war in Brüssel oder Löwen schon in den 1960er Jahren nur noch ein Trugbild. Das Land war spürbar im Aufbruch. Doch diese seismographischen Wellen wurden in den Ostkantonen kaum registriert. Die innerbelgischen Autonomiediskussionen, auf die Ende der 1960er Jahre schließlich auch die Deutschsprachigen eine Antwort finden sollten, überwältigten diese traumatisierte Minderheit. Hat sie ihre Autonomie wirklich erkämpft oder ist diese das Nebenprodukt der sich stets verschärfenden Auseinandersetzungen zwischen den beiden großen Volksgruppen in Belgien? Welche Interessengruppen haben das demokratische Miteinander mit welchen Zielen bestimmt? Sie liefern Einsichten in einen komplexen Aspekt der politischen Geschichte Ostbelgiens, wobei sie geschickt die Außenperspektive nutzen, um die Mechanismen in Ostbelgien in ein neues Licht zu stellen. Ausgehend von (so die Titel) „Verzerrenden Geschichtsbildern und fehlendem Selbstbewusstsein“ überschreiben sie die spannende Reise in die demokratischen Anfänge der heutigen Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft mit der markanten Aussage von Leo Tindemans „Hilf dir selbst, so hilft dir Gott!“ [less ▲]

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See detailLes périodes du Paléolithique supérieur
Flas, Damien ULg

in Toussaint, Michel; Pirson, Stéphane (Eds.) Le patrimoine archéologique de Wallonie. Les chasseurs-cueilleurs du Paléolithique et du Mésolithique (2014)

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See detailCommerce et âges. Les jeunes et les seniors, des acteurs et des cibles privilégiés
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg; Wegnez, Léon ULg

in Gasnier, Arnaud; Lemarchand, Nathalie (Eds.) Le commerce dans tous ses états. Espaces marchands et enjeux de société (2014)

Analysis of the role of age in the purchasing behavior and inclusion of this feature by distributors with focus on young and seniors

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See detailGoûts, dégoûts et savoir-vivre : Histoire d'un silence
Von Hoffmann, Viktoria ULg

in Delfosse, Annick; Glesener, Thomas (Eds.) Lire, écrire et éduquer à la Renaissance. Mélanges en l'honneur du Professeur Franz Bierlaire (2014)

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See detailAnthropogenic effects in landscapes: Historical context and spatial pattern
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Vranken, Isabelle ULg; Andre, Marie ULg

in Hong, S.-K.; Bogaert, Jan; Min, Q. (Eds.) Biocultural Landscapes: Diversity, Functions and Values (2014)

Bio-cultural landscapes are characterized by anthropogenic pattern features, of which the measurement constitutes a key step in landscape analysis. Metrics and strategies for this measurement of ... [more ▼]

Bio-cultural landscapes are characterized by anthropogenic pattern features, of which the measurement constitutes a key step in landscape analysis. Metrics and strategies for this measurement of anthropogenic patterns and their dynamics are discussed, considering the pattern/process paradigm, the patch-corridor- matrix model and the complementarity of landscape composition and configuration as conceptual benchmarks. Historically, noticeable anthropogenic effects are accepted to have appeared in landscapes after the invention of agriculture and further trends of landscape change could be linked to the development of agriculture. Through time, a sequence of landscape dynamics with three stages is expected, in which a natural landscape matrix is initially substituted by an agricultural one; urban patch types will later on dominate the matrix as a consequence of ongoing urbanization. The importance of the development of agriculture and its productivity for the evolution of settlements, villages and cities is emphasized. Anthropogenic change of landscapes confirms the status of geographical space as a limited resource. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium
Boularbah, Hakim ULg; Marquet, Charlotte; Sepulchre, Joe

in Dispute resolution 2014 (2014)

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See detailOnderzoek van de private huisvestingsmarkt in België in het kader van de Diversiteitsbarometer
Loopmans, Maarten; Minon, Caroline; Perrin, Nathalie ULg et al

in Interfederaal Gelijke Kansen Centrum (Ed.) Diversiteitsbarometer Huisvesting (2014)

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See detailMetabolic responses to exercise and training
Votion, Dominique ULg

in Hinchcliff K.W; Kaneps A.J.; Geor R.J. (Eds.) Equine Sport Medicine and Surgery (2014)

This chapter reviews the whole-body and muscular metabolic responses and also describes the effects of training adaptation on these processes.

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See detailBeyond Immigrant Integration Debates and Policies. An EU Multicultural Citizenship ?
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Martiniello, Marco; Rath, Jan (Eds.) An Introduction to Immigrant Incorporation Studies. European Perspectives. (2014)

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See detailL'exercice du pouvoir dans les sociétés en Belgique
Caprasse, Olivier ULg; Aydogdu, Roman ULg

in Le pouvoir dans les sociétés (2014)

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See detail« De l’apposition des scellés et de la levée des scellés », Commentaire des articles 1148 à 1174 du Code judiciaire
Moreau, Pierre ULg

in Procédures particulières et droit judiciaire de la famille, 3e édition, P. Moreau (coord.) (2014)

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See detailPROPRIETES PHYSICO-CHIMIQUES ET FONCTIONNALITES TECHNOLOGIQUES DES MATIERES GRASSES VEGETALES Quelques applications alimentaires
Danthine, Sabine ULg

in Christophe, Lavelle (Ed.) Science culinaire : Matière, procédés, dégustation (2014)

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See detailDomesticating Practices: The Case of Arabian Babblers
Despret, Vinciane ULg

in McHugh, Susan; Marvin, Garry (Eds.) Routledge Handbook of Human–Animal Studies (2014)

The “Arabian babblers” are observed in the Neguev desert for more than 40 years. These birds live in cooperative groups. They offer presents to feed each other, they endanger themselves by mobbing raptors ... [more ▼]

The “Arabian babblers” are observed in the Neguev desert for more than 40 years. These birds live in cooperative groups. They offer presents to feed each other, they endanger themselves by mobbing raptors or by coming to the rescue of group members. They play and they also often dance together. All these behaviors have received various and controversial interpretations in the scientific literature. Following the actual field’s work, one may observe that these interpretations are closely linked to the way scientists observe the birds, or even deal with them. Different practices not only construe but actually “produce” different birds. Roughly said, some of the observers take a “subjectivist” stance and interact with the birds, the other one takes an “objectivist” stance, and keeps distance from them. Each of these practices has different effects, on the birds, and on the theories. These birds therefore appear just at the edge of the categories of wild/domesticated/feral, their identity seeming to change accordingly to the ethologist who observes them. [less ▲]

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See detailAir-Sea Interactions of Natural Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) in a Changing Climate
Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Bange, Hermann W.; Gruber, Nicolas et al

in Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions of Gases and Particles (2014)

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See detailHombre de letras, escritor, autor: declinación social de una función simbólica
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Zapata, Juan (Ed.) La invención del autor. Nuevas aproximaciones al estudio sociológico y discursivo de la figura autorial (2014)

EL LIBRO El presente volumen pretende introducir en el ámbito hispanoamericano las nuevas aproximaciones teóricas y las diferentes apuestas metodológicas surgidas durante las dos últimas décadas para ... [more ▼]

EL LIBRO El presente volumen pretende introducir en el ámbito hispanoamericano las nuevas aproximaciones teóricas y las diferentes apuestas metodológicas surgidas durante las dos últimas décadas para abordar el estudio de la figura del autor y el problema de la autorialidad. Desde el desafío lanzado por Michel Foucault en su ensayo "¿Qué es un autor?", y que encabeza esta compilación, se han producido distintas respuestas y elaboraciones por parte de un grupo de investigadores que provienen de coordenadas geográficas tan diversas como Francia, Bélgica, Suiza, Canadá e Israel. Estos son los escritores que integran en su mayor parte esta compilación, con temas como la historia de la figura autorial, la imagen y la postura de autor, y el dilema y los mitos del autor moderno; además, el texto ofrece aplicaciones concretas, tanto desde una perspectiva europea (mediante el estudio de autores como Arthur Rimbaud, Gide, Pierre Michon y Jean Rouaud) como desde una colombiana (con análisis sobre José Asunción Silva, Jorge Gaitán Durán, Fernando Vallejo y Efraim Medina Reyes). La invención del autor permite conocer los desarrollos más actuales y destacados en la materia, y abre numerosos ejes de investigación en una temática especialmente importante y sensible en la actualidad, pero sobre la cual se ha publicado muy poco en nuestro medio; de ahí la importancia de esta antología para el debate académico. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly Bronze Age Houses in Upper Mesopotamia: Evidence of Dwellings or Private Enterprises?
Mas, Juliette ULg

in Buccellati, Federico; Helms, Tobias; Tamm, Alexander (Eds.) House and Household Economies in 3rd Millennium B.C.E. Syro-Mesopotamia (2014)

This paper deals with the research I carried out on domestic architecture and private economy during Early Bronze Age in Upper-Mesopotamia. Archaeological records, as well as textual evidence, has been ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the research I carried out on domestic architecture and private economy during Early Bronze Age in Upper-Mesopotamia. Archaeological records, as well as textual evidence, has been used to try to define private households activities and their relationships with official institutions. Households were the main source of production, distribution and consumption during the Early Bronze Age. As it seems that these private economic entities produced goods and crafts in their own houses, analyzing domestic architecture could be a way to approach Mesopotamian economic activities. In Northern Mesopotamia the economic system was already strongly articulated; beyond palatial organizations it was also largely based on private group activities, often structured by kinship. [less ▲]

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See detailL’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants : une mesure à la hauteur ?
Detroz, Pascal ULg

in Fallon, Catherine; Leclercq, Bruno (Eds.) Leurres de la qualité dans l'enseignement supérieur ? Variations internationales sur un thème ambigu (2014)

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See detailMedical management of urinary incontinence and retention disorders
Hamaide, Annick ULg

in Twedt, David; Bonagura, John (Eds.) Kirk's Current Veterinary Therapy; Small Animal Practice, XV (2014)

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See detailImmigrant Incorporation Studies in Europe. An Introduction
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Martiniello, Marco; Rath, Jan (Eds.) An Introduction to Immigrant Incorporation Studies. European Perspectives (2014)

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See detailPierres à aiguiser
Thiebaux, Aurélie ULg

in Cattelain, Laureline; Cattelain, Pierre; Nicolas, Noémie (Eds.) Vestiges gallo-romains du sud de l'Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse (2014)

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See detailD'Alexandrie à Constantinople : l'acquisition et la transmission du savoir en anatomie et en chirurgie, de la période hellénistique à la période byzantine
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Perdicoyanni-Paleologou, Helen (Ed.) History of anatomy and surgery from Antiquity to the Renaissance (2014)

This paper proposes to reconstruct the means of acquisition and transmission of anatomical and surgical knowledge in the period from the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC) to the reign of Constantine ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes to reconstruct the means of acquisition and transmission of anatomical and surgical knowledge in the period from the death of Alexander the Great (323 BC) to the reign of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (913-959), through the study of archaeological, epigraphic, papyrological and manuscript sources. These testimonies bring to view strategies such as observation, experimentation, analogy and imitation, as well as oral and written teaching, redaction and copy of books (illustrated or not), elaboration of commentaries, abridgments, questionnaires and word-lists. A distinction will be drawn between texts which were addressed to physicians and medical students, on the one hand, those which were destined to philiatroi and to an educated readership, and finally those which might interest copyists and eventually tachygraphists. [less ▲]

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