References of "Letter to the editor"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImportance of the creatinine calibration in the estimation of GFR by MDRD equation
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2006), 21(4), 1130-1130

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailDiarrhoea in the critically ill
Wiesen, Patricia ULg; Van Gossum, A.; Preiser, Jean-Charles ULg

in Current Opinion in Critical Care (2006), 12(2), 149-154

Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to update the knowledge on diarrhoea, a common problem in critically ill patients. Epidemiological data will be discussed, with special emphasis on ... [more ▼]

Purpose of review The purpose of this review is to update the knowledge on diarrhoea, a common problem in critically ill patients. Epidemiological data will be discussed, with special emphasis on diarrhoea in tube-fed patients and during antibiotic therapy. The possible preventive and therapeutic measures will be presented. Recent findings The need for concise definitions of diarrhoea was recently re-emphasized. The use of pump-driven continuous instead of intermittent enteral feeding is less often associated with diarrhoea. The discontinuation of enteral feeding during diarrhoea is not justified. Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea is frequent during antibiotic therapy with quinolones and cephalosporins. Formulas enriched with water-soluble fibres are probably effective to prevent diarrhoea, and promising data on the modulation of gut microflora with probiotics and prebiotics were recently released. Summary Diarrhoea is common in critically ill patients, especially when sepsis and hypoalbuminaemia are present, and during enteral feeding and antibiotic therapy. The management of diarrhoea includes generous hydration, compensation for the loss of electrolytes, antidiarrheal oral medications, the continuation of enteral feeding, and metronidazole or glycopeptides in the case of moderate to severe C. difficile colitis. The place of enteral formulas enriched with water-soluble fibres, probiotics and prebiotics is not yet fully defined. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 108 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIndexing glomerular filtration rate for body surface area is useful in obese subjects - Reply
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Depas, Gisèle ULg; Radermecker, Régis ULg et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2006), 21(3), 821-822

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe number of subsets required for OSEM reconstruction in nuclear cardiology
Seret, Alain ULg

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2006), 33(2), 231-231

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAllogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation following nonmyeloablative conditioning as treatment for hematologic malignancies and inherited blood disorders
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Storb, R.

in Molecular therapy (2006), 13(1), 26-41

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after myeloablative conditioning regimens has been an effective treatment for many patients with hematologic malignancies or inherited blood disorders ... [more ▼]

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after myeloablative conditioning regimens has been an effective treatment for many patients with hematologic malignancies or inherited blood disorders. Unfortunately, such regimens have been associated with significant toxicity, limiting their use to otherwise healthy, relatively young patients. In an attempt to extend treatment by allogeneic HCT to older patients and those with comorbid conditions, several groups of investigators have developed reduced-intensity or truly nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens, lacking such toxicity. Analogous to conventional regimens, reduced-intensity regimens both eliminated host-versus-graft (rejection) reactions and produced major anti-tumor effects. In contrast, nonmyeloablative regimens have relied on optimizing both pre-and posttransplant immunosuppression to overcome host-versus-g raft reactions, while anti-tumor responses have depended mainly on immune-mediated graft-versus-tumor effects. In this review, we define reduced-intensity and truly nonmyeloablative regimens, describe the preclinical development and clinical application of a very low intensity nonmyeloablative regimen, and review results with reduced-intensity regimens in patients with hematologic malignancies or inherited blood disorders. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRapid effects of aromatase inhibition on male reproductive behaviors in Japanese quail
Cornil, Charlotte ULg; Taziaux, Mélanie ULg; Baillien, M. et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2006), 49(1), 45-67

Non-genomic effects of steroid hormones on cell physiology have been reported in the brain. However, relatively little is known about the behavioral significance of these actions. Male sexual behavior is ... [more ▼]

Non-genomic effects of steroid hormones on cell physiology have been reported in the brain. However, relatively little is known about the behavioral significance of these actions. Male sexual behavior is activated by testosterone partly through its conversion to estradiol via the enzyme aromatase in the preoptic area (POA). Brain aromatase activity (AA) changes rapidly which might in turn be important for the rapid regulation of behavior. Here, acute effects of Vorozole (TM), an aromatase inhibitor, injected IP at different doses and times before testing (between 15 and 60 min), were assessed on male sexual behavior in quail. To limit the risk of committing both types of statistical errors (I and II), data of all experiments were entered into a meta-analysis. Vorozole (TM) significantly inhibited mount attempts (P < 0.05, size effect [g] = 0.527) and increased the latency to first copulation (P < 0.05, g = 0.251). The treatment had no effect on the other measures of copulatory behavior. Vorozole (TM) also inhibited appetitive sexual behavior measured by the social proximity response (P < 0.05, g = 0.534) or rhythmic cloacal sphincter movements (P < 0.001, g = 0.408). Behavioral inhibitions always reached a maximum at 30 min. Another aromatase inhibitor, androstatrienedione, induced a similar rapid inhibition of sphincter movements. Radioenzyme assays demonstrated that within 30 min Vorozole (TM) had reached the POA and completely blocked AA measured in homogenates. When added to the extracellular milieu, Vorozole (TM) also blocked within 5 min the AA in POA explants maintained in vitro. Together, these data demonstrate that aromatase inhibition rapidly decreases both consummatory and appetitive aspects of male sexual behavior. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImplicit memory during isoflurane anesthesia - Reply
Iselin-Chaves, Irène A.; Willems, Sylvie ULg

in Anesthesiology (2006), 105(2), 430-430

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOral antifungal-exacerbated inflammatory flare-up reactions of dermatomycosis: Case reports and review of the literature
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Tassoudji, Nazli ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2006), 7(5), 327-331

Inflammatory flare-up reactions of some dermatomycoses, particularly those caused by zoophilic fungi, are typical and potentially severe adverse effects following the intake of some oral antifungals ... [more ▼]

Inflammatory flare-up reactions of some dermatomycoses, particularly those caused by zoophilic fungi, are typical and potentially severe adverse effects following the intake of some oral antifungals. However, this condition has not previously been reported with the most frequently used antifungals in dermatology, namely fluconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine. In this report, we describe five patients, observed over a 10-year period, who presented with inflammatory exacerbations following oral antifungal therapy for dermatomycoses. We also review the literature on inflammatory reactions exacerbated by oral antifungal agents. Details of the patients' age, sex, occupation, and atopic background; the site of the lesion, its clinical and histologic features, and any systemic signs; the identity of the fungal pathogen; the antifungal agent taken by the patient; the time between drug intake and occurrence of the flare-up; the approach to management; and the outcome were documented for each patient. A PubMed literature search was also conducted, focusing on inflammatory exacerbations induced by griseofulvin, ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole, and terbinafine. The patients were four farmers and one veterinarian (all male). All primary lesions were inflammatory dermatophytoses, including one kerion. Inflammatory exacerbation of the skin lesions started 12-24 hours after the intake of oral antifungals. Mild systemic changes, including slight fever and malaise, occurred in two cases. Itraconazole 400 mg/day was implicated as the causative agent in four cases and terbinafine 250 mg/day in one case. Mycologic cultures grew Trichophyton verrucosum in four cases. Antifungal treatment was discontinued in all patients. Oral and topical corticosteroids were administered to the two patients with systemic changes; the other three patients were treated with topical corticosteroids only. Two days after the onset of corticosteroids, lower doses of itraconazole (100 mg/day) and terbinafine (125 mg/day) were reintroduced. All lesions healed after 4-5 weeks. The PubMed search did not identify any articles that described inflammatory exacerbations of dermatomycoses induced by oral antifungals. Inflammatory flare-up of der-matomycoses is a rare but potentially severe cutaneous complication of oral antifungal use. Occupational contact with animals, inflammatory dermatomycoses, and zoophilic fungi represent common features in these patients. Although evidence-based data are not available, clinical experience shows that, in addition to antifungal therapy, topical and/or systemic corticosteroids are helpful to reduce the inflammatory reactions. The cases described in this article represent the first published report of oral antifungal-exacerbated inflammatory flare-up reactions of dermatomycosis in patients taking itraconazole or terbinafine. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentification of novel and recurrent glucokinase mutations in Belgian and Luxembourg maturity onset diabetes of the young patients.
Vits, L.; Beckers, D.; Craen, M. et al

in Clinical Genetics (2006), 70(4), 355-9

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFrom the design to the clinical application of thromboxane modulators
Dogné, Jean-Michel ULg; Hanson, Julien ULg; de Leval, Xavier et al

in Current Pharmaceutical Design (2006), 12(8), 903-923

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular, pulmonary, inflammatory, and thromboembolic diseases. One of these bioactive metabolites of ... [more ▼]

Arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites are key mediators involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular, pulmonary, inflammatory, and thromboembolic diseases. One of these bioactive metabolites of particular importance is thromboxane A(2) (TXA(2)). It is produced by the action of thromboxane synthase on the prostaglandin endoperoxide H-2 (PGH(2)) which results from the enzymatic transformation of AA by the cyclooxygenases. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction, and has been involved in a series of major pathophysiological conditions. Therefore, TXA(2) receptor antagonists, thromboxane synthase inhibitors and drugs combining both properties have been developed by different laboratories since the early 1980s. Several Compounds have been launched on the market and others are tinder clinical evaluation. In the first part of this review. we will describe the physiological properties of TXA(2), thromboxane synthase and thromboxane receptors. The second part is dedicated to a description of each class of thromboxane modulators with the advantages and disadvantages they offer. In the third part. we aim to describe recent studies performed with the most interesting thromboxane modulators in major pathologies: myocardial infarction and thrombosis, atherosclerosis, diabetes, pulmonary embolism, septic shock.. preeclampsia, and asthma. Each pathology will be systematically reviewed. Finally, in the last part we will highlight the latest perspectives in drug design of thromboxane modulators and in their future therapeutic applications such as cancer, metastasis and angiogenesis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFood safety surveillance through a risk based control programme: Approach employed by the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain
Maudoux, J. P.; Saegerman, Claude ULg; Rettigner, C. et al

in Veterinary Quarterly (2006), 28(4), 140-154

The principal responsibility of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) is to guarantee the safety along the food chain. In order to accomplish this responsibility, the FASFC ... [more ▼]

The principal responsibility of the Belgian Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC) is to guarantee the safety along the food chain. In order to accomplish this responsibility, the FASFC has developed an integrated official control program to check compliance with various regulations. The original methodology developed and applied by FASFC is presented. This methodology is based on risk evaluation, statistical tools and current scientific knowledge. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInduced acute erythema and late pigmentation may not be correlated: In regards to Perera et al. (Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2005;62:1283-1290)
Nemeskéri, C.; Póti, Z.; Mayer, A. et al

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (2006), 65(1), 309-310

[No abstract available]

Detailed reference viewed: 4 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe neural correlate of (un)awareness: lessons from the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg

in Trends in Cognitive Sciences (2005), 9(12), 556-559

Consciousness has two main components: wakefulness and awareness. The vegetative state is characterized by wakefulness without awareness. Recent functional neuroimaging results have shown that some parts ... [more ▼]

Consciousness has two main components: wakefulness and awareness. The vegetative state is characterized by wakefulness without awareness. Recent functional neuroimaging results have shown that some parts of the cortex are still functioning in 'vegetative' patients. External stimulation, such as a painful stimulus, still activates 'primary' sensory cortices in these patients but these areas are functionally disconnected from 'higher order' associative areas needed for awareness. Such studies are disentangling the neural correlates of the vegetative state from the minimally conscious state, and have major clinical consequences in addition to empirical importance for the understanding of consciousness. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 292 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrecambrian geodynamics and ore formation: The Fennoscandian Shield
Weihed, Pär; Arndt, Nicholas; Billström, Kjell et al

in Ore Geology Reviews (2005), 27(1-4), 273-322

Compared with present-day global plate tectonics, Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic plate tectonics may have involved faster moving, hotter plates that accumulated less sediment and contained a thinner ... [more ▼]

Compared with present-day global plate tectonics, Archaean and Palaeoproterozoic plate tectonics may have involved faster moving, hotter plates that accumulated less sediment and contained a thinner section of lithospheric mantle. This scenario also fits with the complex geodynamic evolution of the Fennoscandian Shield from 2.06 to 1.78 Ga when rapid accretion of island arcs and several microcontinent-continent collisions in a complex array of orogens was manifested in short-lived but intense orogenies involving voluminous magmatism. With a few exceptions, all major ore deposits formed in specific tectonic settings between 2.06 and 1.78 Ga and thus a strong geodynamic control oil ore deposit formation is suggested. All orogenic gold deposits formed syn- to post-peak metamorphism and their timing reflects the orogenic younging of the shield towards the SW and west. Most orogenic gold deposits formed during periods of crustal shortening with peaks at 2.72 to 2.67, 1.90 to 1.86 and 1.85 to 1.79 Ga. The ca. 2.5 to 2.4 Ga Ni-Cu PGE deposits formed both as part of layered igneous complexes and associated with mafic volcanism, in basins formed during rifling of the Archaean craton at ca. 2.5 to 2.4 Ga. Svecokarelian ca. 1.89 to 1.88 Ga Ni-Cu deposits are related to mafic-ultramafic rocks intruded along linear belts at the accretionary margins of microcratons. All major VMS deposits in the Fennoscandian Shield formed between 1.97 and 1.88 Ga, in extensional settings, prior to basin inversion and accretion. The oldest "Cyprus-type" deposits were obducted onto the Archaean continent during the onset of convergence. The Pyhasalmi VMS deposits formed at 1.93 to 1.91 Ga in primitive, bimodal arc complexes during extension of the arc. In contrast, the Skellefte VMS deposits are 20 to 30 million years younger and formed in a strongly extensional intra-arc region that developed on continental or mature arc crust. Deposits in the Bergslagen-Uusimaa belt are similar in age to the Skellefte deposits and formed in a microcraton that collided with the Karelian craton at ca. 1.88 to 1.87 Ga. The Bergslagen-Uusimaa belt is interpreted as an intra-continental, or continental margin back-arc, extensional region developed on older continental crust. Iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits are diverse in style. At least the oldest mineralizing stages, at ca. 1.88 Ga, are coeval with calc-alkaline to monzonitic magmatism and coeval and possibly cogenetic subaerial volcanism more akin to continental arcs or to magmatic arcs inboard of the active subduction zone. Younger mineralization of similar style took place when S-type magmatism occurred at ca. 1.80 to 1.77 Ga during cratonization distal to the active N-S-trending subduction zone in the west. Possibly, interaction of magmatic fluids with evaporitic sequences in older rift sequences was important for ore formation. Finally, the large volumes of anorthositic magmas that characterize the Sveconorwegian Orogeny formed a major concentration of Ti in the SW part of the Sveconorwegian orogenic belt under granulite facies conditions, about 40 million years after the last regional deformation of the Sveconorwegian Orogeny, between ca. 930 and 920 Ma. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 106 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe usual causes of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction below the aortic valve in normal ventriculoarterial connection: Review of the physiopathology and surgical implications
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; CANIVET, Jean-Luc ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2005), 105(5), 475-481

Subaortic narrowing leading to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is a significant pathology that may be encountered pre- or postoperatively in both acquired or congenital cardiac disease ... [more ▼]

Subaortic narrowing leading to left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is a significant pathology that may be encountered pre- or postoperatively in both acquired or congenital cardiac disease. Through a review of the morphological features and mechanisms in the different clinical situations, the anatomic, dynamic and mixed forms of subaortic obstruction are emphasized. Knowledge of the substrate of LVOTO, its physiopathology and natural history allows to plan accordingly the surgical repair and the postoperative management. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDiscovery of a bright quasar without a massive host galaxy
Magain, Pierre ULg; Letawe, Géraldine ULg; Courbin, F. et al

in Nature (2005), 437(7057), 381-384

A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy(1,2). Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy ... [more ▼]

A quasar is thought to be powered by the infall of matter onto a supermassive black hole at the centre of a massive galaxy(1,2). Because the optical luminosity of quasars exceeds that of their host galaxy, disentangling the two components can be difficult. This led in the 1990s to the controversial claim of the discovery of 'naked' quasars(3-7). Since then, the connection between quasars and galaxies has been well established(8). Here we report the discovery of a quasar lying at the edge of a gas cloud, whose size is comparable to that of a small galaxy, but whose spectrum shows no evidence for stars. The gas in the cloud is excited by the quasar itself. If a host galaxy is present, it is at least six times fainter than would normally be expected(8,9) for such a bright quasar. The quasar is interacting dynamically with a neighbouring galaxy, whose gas might be feeding the black hole. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClinical contribution of PET neurotransmission imaging in neurological disorders
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(3), 119-136

Imaging neurotransmission in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly expanding clinical science. The present review summarizes the actual contribution of PET imaging to clinical ... [more ▼]

Imaging neurotransmission in vivo using positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly expanding clinical science. The present review summarizes the actual contribution of PET imaging to clinical problems in movement and seizure disorders and dementia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe kallikrein-kinin system: Current and future pharmacological targets
Moreau, Marie Eve; Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Molinaro, Guiseppe et al

in Journal of Pharmacological Sciences (2005), 99(1), 6-38

The kallikrein-kinin system is an endogenous metabolic cascade, triggering of which results in the release of vasoactive kinins (bradykinin-related peptides). This complex system includes the precursors ... [more ▼]

The kallikrein-kinin system is an endogenous metabolic cascade, triggering of which results in the release of vasoactive kinins (bradykinin-related peptides). This complex system includes the precursors of kinins known as kininogens and mainly tissue and plasma kallikreins. The pharmacologically active kinins, which are often considered as either proinflammatory or cardioprotective, are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes. The interest of the various components of this multi-protein system is explained in part by the multiplicity of its pharmacological activities, mediated not only by kinins and their receptors, but also by their precursors and their activators and the metal lopeptidases and the antiproteases that limit their activities. The regulation of this system by serpins and the wide distribution of the different constituents add to the complexity of this system, as well as its multiple relationships with other important metabolic pathways such as the renin-angiotensin, coagulation, or complement pathways. The purpose of this review is to summarize the main properties of this kallikrein-kinin system and to address the multiple pharmacological interventions that modulate the functions of this system, restraining its proinflammatory effects or potentiating its cardiovascular properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPain control by vagus nerve stimulation: from animal to man ... and back
Multon, Sylvie ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2005), 105(2), 62-67

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), already used as a treatment for refractory epilepsy, has also been assessed for its analgesic effect. Numerous studies report that electrical stimulation of vagal afferents ... [more ▼]

Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), already used as a treatment for refractory epilepsy, has also been assessed for its analgesic effect. Numerous studies report that electrical stimulation of vagal afferents inhibits spinal nociceptive reflexes and transmission. However results are partly contradictory, showing that the VNS effects depend on the stimulation parameters. Clinical data have been collected from VNS-implanted epileptic patients in whom pain thresolds were measured and the VNS effect on co-existing headaches was assessed. In addition, in 2 pilot studies of a few patients, VNS was used to treat resistant chronic headaches and migraines. Taken together these clinical studies tend to confirm the analgesic effect of VNS and to suggest its potential utility in chronic headache patients. In order to better define the nature of neuronal and behavioural changes induced by VNS with devices used in humans and to determine the most adequate stimulation stimulation protocols, we have used a commercially available stimulator (NCP-Cyberonics(R)) for prolonged VNS in rats. Our results show a clear antinociceptive effect of VNS in models of acute or inflammatory pain with different stimulation protocols including the one used in epileptic patients. Using immunocytochemical methods, we find that activity changes in spinal trigeminal nucleus neurons could underlie at least part of the VNS-induced analgesia. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe new Mayo clinic equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Annals of Internal Medicine (2005), 142(8), 679-680

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharmacotherapy of onychomycosis
Baran, R.; Gupta, A. K.; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy (2005), 6(4), 609-624

Fungal infections of the nails are frequent in some segments of the population. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are potential pathogens. A series of antifungal treatments are available to the clinician ... [more ▼]

Fungal infections of the nails are frequent in some segments of the population. Dermatophytes, yeasts and moulds are potential pathogens. A series of antifungal treatments are available to the clinician, differing by both their mechanistic nature and mode of administration. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of each antifungal agent are distinct. This review focuses on the characteristics of amorolfine, bifonazole, ciclopirox, fluconazole, griseofulvin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, ravuconazole, R126638 and terbinafine. Single drug treatments and combined therapies are presented. None of the current drug regimens have demonstrated reliable efficacy against all cases of onychomycosis. Treatment failures, relapses and reinfections remain stubborn problems in the management of onychomycosis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFactors promoting rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms
Van Damme, Hendrik ULg; Sakalihasan, Natzi ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2005), 105(1), 1-12

The risk for rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is widely believed to be related to its maximum diameter. Rupture occurs at the site of maximum wall stress, when it exceeds the tensile strength of ... [more ▼]

The risk for rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm is widely believed to be related to its maximum diameter. Rupture occurs at the site of maximum wall stress, when it exceeds the tensile strength of the aortic wall. Basic research confirmed that peak wall stress and aortic wall biodegradation contribute to the mechanism of aneurysm rupture. In order to highlight the role of loss in wall strength and increase in focal peak stress, the authors reviewed recent literature. The clinical relevance of these recent insights in the etiopathogenesis of aneurysm rupture is analysed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation proteome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii deduced from the genome sequencing project
Cardol, Pierre ULg; Gonzalez-Halphen, Diego; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian et al

in Plant Physiology (2005), 137(2), 447-459

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPhosphorylation of NF-kappa B and I kappa B proteins: implications in cancer and inflammation
Viatour, Patrick ULg; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg et al

in Trends in Biochemical Sciences (2005), 30(1), 43-52

Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that has crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of NF-kappaB mainly occurs via IkappaB kinase ... [more ▼]

Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor that has crucial roles in inflammation, immunity, cell proliferation and apoptosis. Activation of NF-kappaB mainly occurs via IkappaB kinase (IKK)-mediated phosphorylation of inhibitory molecules, including IkappaBalpha. Optimal induction of NF-kappaB target genes also requires phosphorylation of NF-kappaB proteins, such as p65, within their transactivation domain by a variety of kinases in response to distinct stimuli. Whether, and how, phosphorylation modulates the function of other NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins, such as B-cell lymphoma 3, remains unclear. The identification and characterization of all the kinases known to phosphorylate NF-kappaB and IkappaB proteins are described here. Because deregulation of NF-kappaB and IkappaB phosphorylations is a hallmark of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer, newly designed drugs targeting these constitutively activated signalling pathways represent promising therapeutic tools. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn XMM-Newton look at the Wolf-Rayet star WR 40 - The star itself, its nebula and its neighbours
Gosset, Eric ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Claeskens, Jean-François ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2005), 429(2), 685-704

We present the results of an XMM-Newton observation of the field of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 40. Despite a nominal exposure of 20 ks and the high sensitivity of the satellite, the star itself is not ... [more ▼]

We present the results of an XMM-Newton observation of the field of the Wolf-Rayet star WR 40. Despite a nominal exposure of 20 ks and the high sensitivity of the satellite, the star itself is not detected: we thus derive an upper limit on its X-ray flux and luminosity. Joining this result to recent reports of a non-detection of some WC stars, we suggest that the X-ray emission from single normal Wolf-Rayet stars could often be insignificant despite remarkable instabilities in the wind. On the basis of a simple modelling of the opacity of the Wolf-Rayet wind of WR 40, we show that any X-ray emission generated in the particular zone where the shocks are supposed to be numerous will indeed have little chance to emerge from the dense wind of the Wolf-Rayet star. We also report the non-detection of the ejecta nebula RCW 58 surrounding WR 40. Concerning the field around these objects, we detected 33 X-ray sources, most of them previously unknown: we establish a catalog of these sources and cross-correlate it with catalogs of optical/infrared sources. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRéponse à : Chirurgie de l'incontinence urinaire a l'effort feminine par voie transobturatrice: dehors dedans ou dedans dehors? etude anatomique comparative.
de Leval, Jean ULg; Bonnet, Pierre ULg; Waltregny, David ULg et al

in Progrès en Urologie : Journal de l'Association Française d'Urologie et de la Société Française d'Urologie (2005), 15(6), 1161-2

Detailed reference viewed: 44 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTransplantation of a liver graft from a living donor with early gastric cancer
Detry, Olivier ULg; De Roover, Arnaud ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg et al

in American Journal of Transplantation (2005), 5(9), 2331-2332

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (17 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRecombination in alphaherpesviruses
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Meurens, F.; Muylkens, Benoît ULg et al

in Reviews in Medical Virology (2005), 15(2, Mar-Apr), 89-103

Within the Herpesviridae family, Alphaherpesvirinae is an extensive subfamily which contains numerous mammalian and avian viruses. Given the low rate of herpesvirus nucleotide substitution, recombination ... [more ▼]

Within the Herpesviridae family, Alphaherpesvirinae is an extensive subfamily which contains numerous mammalian and avian viruses. Given the low rate of herpesvirus nucleotide substitution, recombination can be seen as an essential evolutionary driving force although it is likely underestimated. Recombination in alphaherpesviruses is intimately linked to DNA replication. Both viral and cellular proteins participate in this recombination-dependent replication. The presence of inverted repeats in the alphaherpesvirus genomes allows segment inversion as a consequence of specific recombination between repeated sequences during DNA replication. High molecular weight intermediates of replication, called concatemers, are the site of early recombination events. The analysis of concatemers, from cells coinfected by two distinguishable alphaherpesviruses provides an efficient tool to study recombination without the bias introduced by invisible or non-viable recombinants, and by dominance of a virus over recombinants. Intraspecific recombination frequently occurs between strains of the same alphaherpesvirus species. Interspecific recombination depends on enough sequence similarity to enable recombination between distinct alphaherpesvirus species. The most important prerequisite for successful recombination is coinfection of the individual host by different virus strains or species. Consequently the following factors affecting the distribution of different viruses to shared target cells need to be considered: dose of inoculated virus, time interval between inoculation of the first and the second virus, distance between the marker mutations, genetic homology, virulence and latency. Recombination, by exchanging genomic segments, may modify the virulence of alphaherpesviruses. It must be carefully assessed for the biosafety of antiviral therapy, alphaherpesvirus-based vectors and live attenuated vaccines. Copyright (C) 2004 John Wiley Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe locked-in syndrome : what is it like to be conscious but paralyzed and voiceless?
Laureys, Steven ULg; Pellas, Frédéric; Van Eeckhout, Philippe et al

in Progress in Brain Research (2005), 150(Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology), 495-511

The locked-in syndrome (pseudocoma) describes patients who are awake and conscious but selectively deefferented, i.e., have no means of producing speech, limb or facial movements. Acute ventral pontine ... [more ▼]

The locked-in syndrome (pseudocoma) describes patients who are awake and conscious but selectively deefferented, i.e., have no means of producing speech, limb or facial movements. Acute ventral pontine lesions are its most common cause. People with such brainstem lesions often remain comatose for some days or weeks, needing artificial respiration and then gradually wake up, but remaining paralyzed and voiceless, superficially resembling patients in a vegetative state or akinetic mutism, In acute locked-in syndrome (LIS), eye-coded communication and evaluation of cognitive and emotional functioning is very limited because vigilance is fluctuating and eye movements may be inconsistent, very small, and easily exhausted. It has been shown that more than half of the time it is the family and not the physician who first realized that the patient was aware. Distressingly, recent studies reported that the diagnosis of LIS on average takes over 2.5 months. In some cases it took 4-6 years before aware and sensitive patients, locked in an immobile body, were recognized as being conscious. Once a LIS patient becomes medically stable, and given appropriate medical care, life expectancy increases to several decades. Even if the chances of good motor recovery are very limited, existing eye-controlled, computer-based communication technology currently allow the patient to control his environment, use a word processor coupled to a speech synthesizer, and access the worldwide net. Healthy individuals and medical professionals sometimes assume that the quality of life of an LIS patient is so poor that it is not worth living. On the contrary, chronic LIS patients typically self-report meaningful quality of life and their demand for euthanasia is surprisingly infrequent. Biased clinicians might provide less aggressive medical treatment and influence the family in inappropriate ways. It is important to stress that only the medically stabilized, informed LIS patient is competent to consent to or refuse life-sustaining treatment. Patients suffering from LIS should not be denied the right tot die - and to die with dignity - but also, and more importantly, and pain and symptom management. In our opinion, there is an urgent need for a renewed ethical and medicolegal framework for our care of locked-in patients. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 139 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparison of liaison N-tact PTH (diasorin) and N-tact PTH SPIRMA (diasorin) in hemodialyzed patients
Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2005), 43(8), 890-891

Detailed reference viewed: 90 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGrowth of carbon nanotubes on metal nanoparticles: a microscopic mechanism from ab initio molecular dynamics simulations
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Gygi, F.; Galli, G.

in Physical Review Letters (2005), 95(9), 0961031-09610340961034

We report on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the early stages of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) growth on metal nanoparticles. Our results show that a sp2 bonded cap is formed on an ... [more ▼]

We report on ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the early stages of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) growth on metal nanoparticles. Our results show that a sp2 bonded cap is formed on an iron catalyst, following the diffusion of C atoms from hydrocarbon precursors on the nanoparticle surface. The weak adhesion between the cap and iron enables the graphene sheet to "float" on the curved surface, as additional C atoms covalently bonded to the catalyst "hold" the tube walls. Hence the SWCNT grows capped. At the nanoscale, we did not observe any tendency of C atoms to penetrate inside the catalyst, consistent with total energy calculations showing that alloying of Fe and C is very unlikely for 1 nm particles. Root growth was observed on Fe but not on Au, consistent with experiment [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 52 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTemperature-induced density anomaly in Te-rich liquid Germanium tellurides: p versus sp 3 bonding?
Bichara, C.; Johnson, M.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg

in Physical Review Letters (2005), 95(26), 2678011-26780142678014

The density anomaly of liquid Ge 0.15Te 0.85 measured between 633 and 733 K is investigated with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations at four temperatures and at the corresponding experimental ... [more ▼]

The density anomaly of liquid Ge 0.15Te 0.85 measured between 633 and 733 K is investigated with ab initio molecular dynamics calculations at four temperatures and at the corresponding experimental densities. For box sizes ranging from 56 to 112 atoms, an 8 k-points sampling of the Brillouin zone is necessary to obtain reliable results. Contrary to other Ge chalcogenides, no sp 3 hybridization of the Ge bonding is observed. As a consequence, the negative thermal expansion of the liquid is not related to a tetrahedral bonding as in the case of water or silica. We show that it results from the symmetry recovery of the local environment of Ge atoms that is distorted at low temperature by a Peierls-like mechanism acting in the liquid state in the same way as in the parent solid phases [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOù va la critique scientifique?
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Parole (2005), 33

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGrazing buffalo on flooded pastures in the Brazilian Amazon region: a review
Camarao, A. P.; Lourenco, J. B.; Dutra, S. et al

in Tropical Grasslands (2004), 38(4), 193-203

There are almost 3.5 M head of buffalo in Brazil, half of which (+/- 1.75 M animals) are in the north, particularly on Marajo Island, in the lower and middle Amazon. and on upland cultivated pastures, 16 ... [more ▼]

There are almost 3.5 M head of buffalo in Brazil, half of which (+/- 1.75 M animals) are in the north, particularly on Marajo Island, in the lower and middle Amazon. and on upland cultivated pastures, 16% in the south-cast, 15% in the northeast, 13% in the central west and 6% in the south. The objective of this work was to review the important characteristics of the native pasture ecosystems grazed by buffalo in the flooded areas of the Brazilian Amazon. Data relative to environment, pasture characteristics and animal performance are presented. Three buffalo subspecies, bubalis (water buffalo - Mediterranean. Murrah, Jafarabadi), kerebau (swamp buffalo) and fulvus (Baio type) live in the Amazon Region, their ideal habitat. They are used for meat and milk and as a source of power, and are well adapted to wet conditions. producing and reproducing in flooded native pastures, where cattle don't usually survive. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNumber of iterations when comparing MLEM/OSEM with FBP
Seret, Alain ULg

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine : Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine (2004), 45(12), 2125-2125

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHormonal regulation of brain circuits mediating male sexual behavior in birds
Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Physiology & Behavior (2004), 83(2), 329-346

Male sexual behavior in both field and laboratory settings has been studied in birds since the 19th century. Birds are valuable for the investigation of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of sexual behavior ... [more ▼]

Male sexual behavior in both field and laboratory settings has been studied in birds since the 19th century. Birds are valuable for the investigation of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of sexual behavior, because their behavior can be studied in the context of a large amount of field data, well-defined neural circuits related to reproductive behavior have been described, and the avian neuroendocrine system exhibits many examples of marked plasticity. As is the case in other taxa, male sexual behavior in birds can be usefully divided into an appetitive phase consisting of variable behaviors (typically searching and courtship) that allow an individual to converge on a functional outcome, copulation (consummatory phase). Based primarily on experimental studies in ring doves and Japanese quail, it has been shown that testosterone of gonadal origin plays an important role in the activation of both of these aspects of male sexual behavior. Furthermore, the conversion of androgens, such as testosterone, in the brain to estrogens, such as 17beta-estradiol, is essential for the full expression of male-typical behaviors. The localization of sex steroid receptors and the enzyme aromatase in the brain, along with lesion, hormone implant and immediate early gene expression studies, has identified many neural sites related to the control of male behavior. The preoptic area (POA) is a key site for the integration of sensory inputs and the initiation of motor outputs. Furthermore, prominent connections between the POA and the periaqueductal gray (PAG) form a node that is regulated by steroid hormones, receive sensory inputs and send efferent projections to the brainstem and spinal cord that activate male sexual behaviors. The sensory inputs regulating avian male sexual responses, in contrast to most mammalian species, are primarily visual and auditory, so a future challenge will be to identify how these senses impinge on the POA-PAG circuit. Similarly, most avian species do not have an intromittent organ, so the projections from the POA-PAG to the brainstem and spinal cord that control sexual reflexes will be of particular interest to contrast with the well characterized rodent system. With this knowledge, general principles about the organization of male sexual circuits can be elucidated, and comparative studies relating known species variation in avian male sexual behaviors to variation in neural systems can be pursued. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPreoptic aromatase modulates male sexual behavior: slow and fast mechanisms of action
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Baillien, M.; Cornil, Charlotte ULg et al

in Physiology & Behavior (2004), 83(2), 247-270

In many species, copulatory behavior and appetitive (anticipatory/motivational) aspects of male sexual behavior are activated by the action in the preoptic area of estrogens locally produced by ... [more ▼]

In many species, copulatory behavior and appetitive (anticipatory/motivational) aspects of male sexual behavior are activated by the action in the preoptic area of estrogens locally produced by testosterone aromatization. Estrogens bind to intracellular receptors, which then act as transcription factors to activate the behavior. Accordingly, changes in aromatase activity (AA) result from slow steroid-induced modifications of enzyme transcription. More recently, rapid nongenomic effects of estrogens have been described and evidence has accumulated indicating that AA can be modulated by rapid (minutes to hour) nongenomic mechanisms in addition to the slower transcriptional changes. Hypothalamic AA is rapidly down-regulated in conditions that enhance protein phosphorylation, in particular, increases in the intracellular calcium concentration, such as those triggered by neurotransmitter (e.g., glutamate) activity. Fast changes in brain estrogens can thus be caused by aromatase phosphorylation as a result of changes in neurotransmission. In parallel, recent studies demonstrate that the pharmacological blockade of AA by specific inhibitors rapidly (within 15-45 min) down-regulates motivational and consummatory aspects of male sexual behavior in quail while injections of estradiol can rapidly increase the expression of copulatory behavior. These data collectively support an emerging concept in neuroendocrinology, namely that estrogen, locally produced in the brain, regulates male sexual behavior via a combination of genomic and nongenomic mechanisms. Rapid and slower changes of brain AA match well with these two modes of estrogen action and provide temporal variations in the estrogen's bioavailability that can support the entire range of established effects for this steroid. (C) 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSynaptic and extrasynaptic neurotransmitter receptors in glial precursors' quest for identity
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Gallo, Vittorio

in Glia (2004), 48(3), 185-196

It is widely established that neurotransmitter receptors are expressed in non-neuronal cells, and particularly in neural progenitor cells in the postnatal central nervous system. The functional role of ... [more ▼]

It is widely established that neurotransmitter receptors are expressed in non-neuronal cells, and particularly in neural progenitor cells in the postnatal central nervous system. The functional role of these receptors during development is unclear, but it needs to be revisited now that cells previously considered restricted to glial lineages have been shown to generate neurons. The present review integrates recent advances, to shed new light on how neurotransmitter receptors may, alternatively, serve as excitable mediators of neuron-glia and neuron-neuroblast interactions. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPET imaging in assessing gastrointestinal tumors
Hustinx, Roland ULg

in Radiologic Clinics of North America (2004), 42(6), 1123

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA spectroscopic study of the non-thermal radio emitter Cyg OB2#8A: Discovery of a new binary system
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Manfroid, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2004), 424(3), 39-42

We present the results of a spectroscopic campaign revealing that the non-thermal radio emitter Cyg OB2 #8A is an O6+O5.5 binary system. We propose the very first orbital solution indicating a period of ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a spectroscopic campaign revealing that the non-thermal radio emitter Cyg OB2 #8A is an O6+O5.5 binary system. We propose the very first orbital solution indicating a period of about 21.9 days. The system appears to be eccentric (0.24+/-0.04) and is likely seen under a rather low inclination angle. The mass ratio of the components is close to unity. The impact of the binarity of this star in the framework of our understanding of non-thermal radio emission from early-type stars is briefly discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAutomated sample preparation-fractionation for the measurement of dioxins and related compounds in biological matrices: a review
Focant, Jean-François ULg; Pirard, Catherine; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Talanta (2004), 63(5), 1101-1113

This article reviews some of the recent developments in the extraction and clean-up areas of biological samples dedicated to dioxin and related compound analysis. A brief introduction on the major dioxin ... [more ▼]

This article reviews some of the recent developments in the extraction and clean-up areas of biological samples dedicated to dioxin and related compound analysis. A brief introduction on the major dioxin contamination events, which have occurred in the food chain, is given to illustrate the need of fast high throughput methods in case of crises. The emphasis of this paper is the method development based upon reliable instrumental extraction techniques for rapid sample processing and automation such as; supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and, solid-phase extraction (SPE). The PLE and SPE are also discussed in conjunction with the use of a multi-column automated clean-up system that can accommodate up to 5 g of extracted lipids. The fractionation in sub-groups of analytes during the clean-up process allows the isolation of various types of toxicants from a single sample and illustrates the versatility of the system. An integrated extraction and clean-up instrument is finally presented in terms of feasibility and attainable sample turnover for the parallel processing of liquid and solid biological samples. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComments on "interpreting proper orthogonal modes of randomly excited linear vibration systems"
Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

in Journal of Sound & Vibration (2004), 274(3-5), 1091-1092

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe need for clinical guidance in the use of calcium and vitamin D in the management of osteoporosis: a consensus report
Boonen, S.; Rizzoli, R.; Meunier, P. J. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2004), 15(7), 511-519

A European Union (EU) directive on vitamins and minerals used as ingredients of food supplements with a nutritional or physiological effect (2002/46/EC) was introduced in 2003. Its implications for the ... [more ▼]

A European Union (EU) directive on vitamins and minerals used as ingredients of food supplements with a nutritional or physiological effect (2002/46/EC) was introduced in 2003. Its implications for the use of oral supplements of calcium and vitamin D in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis were discussed at a meeting organized with the help of the World Health Organization ( WHO) Collaborating Center for Public Health Aspects of Rheumatic Diseases (Liege, Belgium) and the support of the WHO Collaborating Center for Osteoporosis Prevention (Geneva, Switzerland). The following issues were addressed: Is osteoporosis a physiological or a medical condition? What is the evidence for the efficacy of calcium and vitamin D in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis? What are the risks of self-management by patients in osteoporosis? From their discussions, the panel concluded that: (1) osteoporosis is a disease that requires continuing medical attention to ensure optimal therapeutic benefits; (2) when given in appropriate doses, calcium and vitamin D have been shown to be pharmacologically active (particularly in patients with dietary deficiencies), safe, and effective for the prevention and treatment of osteoporotic fractures; (3) calcium and vitamin D are an essential, but not sufficient, component of an integrated management strategy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in patients with dietary insufficiencies, although maximal benefit in terms of fracture prevention requires the addition of antiresorptive therapy; (4) calcium and vitamin D are a cost-effective medication in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis; (5) it is apparent that awareness of the efficacy of calcium and vitamin D in osteoporosis is still low and further work needs to be done to increase awareness among physicians, patients, and women at risk; and (6) in order that calcium and vitamin D continues to be manufactured to Good Manufacturing Practice standards and physicians and other health care professionals continue to provide guidance for the optimal use of these agents, they should continue to be classified as medicinal products. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTime dependent risk of gastrointestinal complications induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use: a consensus statement using a meta-analytic approach
Richy, F.; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Ethgen, Olivier ULg et al

in Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases (2004), 63(7), 759-766

OBJECTIVES: To provide an updated document assessing the global, NSAID-specific, and time dependent risk of gastrointestinal (GI) complications through meta-analyses of high quality studies. METHODS: An ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To provide an updated document assessing the global, NSAID-specific, and time dependent risk of gastrointestinal (GI) complications through meta-analyses of high quality studies. METHODS: An exhaustive systematic search was performed. Inclusion criteria were: RCT or controlled study, duration of 5 days at least, inactive control, assessment of minor or major NSAID adverse effects, publication range January 1985 to January 2003. The publications retrieved were assessed during a specifically dedicated WHO meeting including leading experts in all related fields. Statistics were performed conservatively. Meta-regression was performed by regressing NSAID adjusted estimates against study duration categories. RESULTS: Among RCT data, indolic derivates provided a significantly higher risk of GI complications related to NSAID use than for non-users: RR = 2.25 (1.00; 5.08) than did other compounds: naproxen: RR = 1.83 (1.25; 2.68); diclofenac: RR = 1.73 (1.21; 2.46); piroxicam: RR = 1.66 (1.14; 2.44); tenoxicam: RR = 1.43 (0.40; 5.14); meloxicam: RR = 1.24 (0.98; 1.56), and ibuprofen: RR = 1.19 (0.93; 1.54). Indometacin users had a maximum relative risk for complication at 14 days. The other compounds presented a better profile, with a maximum risk at 50 days. Significant additional risk factors included age, dose, and underlying disease. The controlled cohort studies provided higher estimates: RR = 2.22 (1.7; 2.9). Publication bias testing was significant, towards a selective publication of deleterious effects of NSAIDs from small sized studies. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis characterised the "compound" and "time" aspects of the GI toxicity of non-selective NSAIDs. The risk/benefit ratio of such compounds should thus be carefully and individually evaluated at the start of long term treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 49 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPrevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis with pharmacological therapy: practice and possibilities
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Journal of Internal Medicine (2004), 255(6), 615-628

Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is a common disease that will become more prevalent in the future, with costly implications for public health. Prevention of the disease and its consequences, namely ... [more ▼]

Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is a common disease that will become more prevalent in the future, with costly implications for public health. Prevention of the disease and its consequences, namely fractures, is therefore, important for both the individual and society. This review discusses: the goals of PMO prevention; the identification of women at risk, including the use of bone mineral density and bone turnover markers; the relevance in the prevention setting of various current guidelines for PMO management; recent data on therapeutic options for the treatment and prevention of PMO, in particular bisphosphonates, hormone replacement therapy and several other new pharmacological agents. It concludes that it is crucial for PMO prevention to start before disease onset and that, in the light of recent evidence, the existing guidelines need updating if they are to continue to be relevant. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImmunocytochemical localization of aromatase in sensory and integrating nuclei of the hindbrain in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
Evrard, H. C.; Harada, N.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (2004), 473(2), 194-212

The distribution of the estrogen synthesizing enzyme (aromatase) in the hindbrain (rhombencephalon and mesencephalon) of male adult quail was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Aromatase-immunoreactive ... [more ▼]

The distribution of the estrogen synthesizing enzyme (aromatase) in the hindbrain (rhombencephalon and mesencephalon) of male adult quail was investigated by immunocytochemistry. Aromatase-immunoreactive neuronal structures (perikarya and fibers bearing punctate structures) were observed in sensory (trigeminal, solitary tract, vestibular, optic tectum) and integrating (parabrachial, periaqueductal, cerulean, raphe) nuclei. Besides the expression of aromatase in these well-delineated nuclei, dense to scattered networks of immunoreactive fibers were found dispersed throughout the hindbrain and, in particular, in its rostral and dorsal parts. To a lesser extent, they were also present throughout the premotor nuclei of the reticular formation and in various fiber tracts. In contrast, no immunoreactive signal was found in motor nuclei, and in most of the statoacoustic (cerebellum, cochlear, olive, pontine, part of vestibular) nuclei. The expression of aromatase in perikarya and fibers in areas of the adult hindbrain where estrogen receptors have been identified previously suggests a role for estrogens locally produced in the regulation of sensory and integrating functions, contrary to the widespread assumption that these functions are regulated exclusively by steroids produced in the gonads. (C) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCrural or pedal artery revascularisation for limb salvage: is it justified
Van Damme, Hendrik ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2004), 104(2), 148-157

With the ageing of population, the incidence of limb-threatening ischemia increases. In chronic critical limb ischemia, peripheral arterial occlusive disease almost always involves infrainguinal and ... [more ▼]

With the ageing of population, the incidence of limb-threatening ischemia increases. In chronic critical limb ischemia, peripheral arterial occlusive disease almost always involves infrainguinal and infragenicular vessels. Fortunately, recent advances in vascular surgery made arterial reconstruction of crural and pedal vessels possible. Should crural or pedal bypass surgery be offered to these frail, polyvascular patients, or is primary amputation a preferable treatment option in case of advanced limb-threatening ischemia? In order to answer this controversial question, the author analysed recent literature data on the feasibility and durability of infrapopliteal bypasses. The quality of life was also considered as an outcome measure. Finally, the cost-effectiveness of both treatment modalities (limb-saving distal bypass versus primary amputation) was assessed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHeadache with focal neurological signs or symptoms: a complicated differential diagnosis
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Sandor, P. S.

in Lancet Neurology (2004), 3(4), 237-245

Headache syndromes can be associated with focal neurological symptoms or signs. Good knowledge of primary headaches, a detailed history and a thorough clinical examination are prerequisites for their ... [more ▼]

Headache syndromes can be associated with focal neurological symptoms or signs. Good knowledge of primary headaches, a detailed history and a thorough clinical examination are prerequisites for their differential diagnosis. The neurological symptoms produced by the migraine aura are the most characteristic and recognisable. However, structural lesions, such as vascular malformations, can produce similar symptoms to migraine with aura, which highlights that paraclinical investigations are necessary in most patients with headache and focal neurological symptoms. In this review, we provide an overview of the differential diagnosis of the most common headache disorders with focal neurological symptoms or signs to refresh the practising neurologist's differential diagnostic knowledge for the clinical situation and to aid the teaching of neurology residents. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 62 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEuropean College of Rabbit Medicine and Surgery?
Vindevogel, Henri ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2004), 154(13), 412-412

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSalmonella spp. in food of animal origin: a continuous threat for public health?
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Daube, Georges ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(4), 174-193

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in ... [more ▼]

Salmonella is a mesophilic bacterium that share common characteristics with Enterobacteriaceae. Two species are described: Salmonella enterica and Salmonella bongori. Beside the fact that the infection in host cells requires type III secretion-systems, little is known, at present, about virulence mechanisms. Among the cultural detection methods, the use of semi-solid media seems more efficient than the others for Salmonella recovery. The techniques based on genetic amplification may be useful in order to further characterize the isolated strains. Salmonella can be isolated from the intestine of numerous animal species and its survival in the surroundings may be quite long. Several serotypes may cause clinical salmonellosis while others may be responsible for animal species of a carrier state. In this abstract, the influence of swine production system will be developed. The sustainable and ongoing surveillance are justified by the fact that Salmonella leads to numerous foodborne cases and outbreaks and is responsible of important economic and social costs. This surveillance aims to improve the sanitary quality of food from "farm to fork". The preventive methods available for the pre-harvest production step and for the slaughterhouse will be also evoked. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 137 (11 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFacteurs influençant la consommation alimentaire et les performances zootechniques du porc sevré: perception et caractéristiques de l'aliment
Laitat, Martine ULg; De Jaeger, F.; Vandenheede, Marc ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2004), 148(1), 15-29

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers ... [more ▼]

Weaning is a critical period for piglets. Promoting solid food ingestion in the farrowing pen and early after weaning is essential to optimise piglets' performance, health and welfare. A lot of papers report studies about pigs' perception of the feed's organoleptic properties. Pigs are attracted by specific flavors and show taste acuity for the five basic stimuli. The choice of pigs for a diet formulation is mainly based on the protein content of the food and the absence of toxin or anti-nutritional contaminants. They also tend to prefer eating pellets and crumbles rather than meal. Weaned pigs readily accept liquid feed. Wet/dry feeders give the possibility to the pigs to mix water and food at the same place and notably allow them to eat faster when they are fed meal. However, wet feeding may induce greater food wastage. The influence of food visual aspect on feed intake in pigs has been little assessed. Visual and auditory stimuli produced by the feeding behaviour of penmates have although a better-known impact on feed intake in this species. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 61 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDifferential effects of testosterone on protein synthesis activity in male and female quail brain
Dermon, C. R.; Stamatakis, A.; Giakoumaki, S. et al

in Neuroscience (2004), 123(3), 647-666

In Japanese quail, testosterone (T) increases the Nissl staining density in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in relation to the differential activation by T of copulatory behavior. The effect of T on ... [more ▼]

In Japanese quail, testosterone (T) increases the Nissl staining density in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in relation to the differential activation by T of copulatory behavior. The effect of T on protein synthesis was quantified here in 97 discrete brain regions by the in vivo autoradio-graphic C-14-leucine (Leu) incorporation method in adult gonadectomized male and female quail that had been treated for 4 weeks with T or left without hormone. T activated male sexual behaviors in males but not females. Overall Leu incorporation was increased by T in five brain regions, many of which contain sex steroid receptors such as the POM, archistriatum and lateral hypothalamus. T decreased Leu incorporation in the medial septum. Leu incorporation was higher in males than females in two nuclei but higher in females in three nuclei including the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus. Significant interactions between effects of T and sex were seen in 13 nuclei: in most nuclei (n=12), T increased Leu incorporation in males but decreased it in females. The POM boundaries were defined by a denser Leu incorporation than the surrounding area and incorporation was increased by T more in males (25%) than in females (15%). These results confirm that protein synthesis in brain areas relevant to the control of sexual behavior can be affected by the sex of the subjects or their endocrine condition and that T can have differential effects in the two sexes. These anabolic changes should reflect the sexually differentiated neurochemical mechanisms mediating behavioral activation. (C) 2003 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFactors associated with recurrent hamstring injuries
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Sports Medicine (2004), 34(10), 681-695

A history of muscle injury represents a predominant risk factor for future insult in that muscle group. The high frequency of re-injury and persistent complaints after a hamstring strain comprise major ... [more ▼]

A history of muscle injury represents a predominant risk factor for future insult in that muscle group. The high frequency of re-injury and persistent complaints after a hamstring strain comprise major difficulties for the athlete on return to athletic activities. Some of the risk factors associated with the possible recurrence of the injury are, in all probability, already implicated in the initial injury. One can distinguish between those events peculiar to the sport activity modalities (extrinsic factors) and other contributing factors based on the athletes individual features (intrinsic factors). For both categories, the persistence of mistakes or abnormalities in action represent an irrefutable component contributing to the re-injury cycle. Additional factors leading to chronicity can come from the first injury per se through modifications in the muscle tissue and possible adaptive changes in biomechanics and motor patterns of sporting movements. We emphasise the role of questionable approaches to the diagnosis process, drug treatment or rehabilitation design. To date, the risk factors examined in the literature have either been scientifically associated with injury and/or speculated to be associated with injury. In this context, quantifying the real role of each factor remains hypothetical, the most likely ones corresponding to inadequate warm-up, invalid structure and the content of training, muscle tightness and/or weakness, agonist/antagonist imbalances, underestimation of an extensive injury, use of inappropriate drugs, presence of an extensive scar tissue and, above all, incomplete or aggressive rehabilitation. Such a list highlights the unavoidable necessity of developing valid assessment methods, the use of specific measurement tools and more rigorous guidelines in the treatment and rehabilitation. This also implies a scientific understanding as well as specifically qualified medical doctors, physiotherapists and trainers acting in partnership. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 169 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailResponse to novelty as a predictor for drug effects: the pitfalls of some correlational studies
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Brabant, Christian ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Psychopharmacology (2004), 173(1-2), 221-224

In recent years, an individual's response to novelty has been postulated to predict its response to drugs of abuse and particularly to their addictive properties (Piazza et al. 1990). The hypothesis of a ... [more ▼]

In recent years, an individual's response to novelty has been postulated to predict its response to drugs of abuse and particularly to their addictive properties (Piazza et al. 1990). The hypothesis of a relationship between the response to novelty and the effects of addictive drugs was supported by a number of animal studies that reported correlations between responses to a novel environment and various effects of drugs, such as their locomotor stimulant effects, their reinforcing action or their propensity to be self-administered (Piazza et al. 1990; Klebaur et al. 2001; Carey et al. 2003; Shimosato and Watanabe 2003). Most of these studies concluded that an animal's response to novelty predicts its subsequent response to drug administration. However, correlational studies are sometimes hampered by methodological and statistical weaknesses that preclude a proper interpretation of the results. The two most frequent weaknesses are the lack of consideration for the correlation in the control group and the calculation of spurious correlations. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPotential neuroprotective properties of atracurium and cisatracurium in neurosurgical anaesthesia
Hans, Pol ULg; Bonhomme, Vincent ULg

in European Journal of Anaesthesiology (2004), 21(4), 334-335

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDomestic-animal genomics: deciphering the genetics of complex traits
Andersson, L.; Georges, Michel ULg

in Nature Reviews Genetics (2004), 5(3), 202-212

One of the 'grand challenges' in modern biology is to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity within and among species. Thousands of years of selective breeding of domestic animals has ... [more ▼]

One of the 'grand challenges' in modern biology is to understand the genetic basis of phenotypic diversity within and among species. Thousands of years of selective breeding of domestic animals has created a diversity of phenotypes among breeds that is only matched by that observed among species in nature. Domestic animals therefore constitute a unique resource for understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic variation. When the genome sequences of domestic animals become available the identification of the mutations that underlie the transformation from a wild to a domestic species will be a realistic and important target. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSubtle trisomy 12q24.3 and subtle monosomy 22q13.3: Three new cases and review
Rodriguez, L.; Guardia, N. M.; Herens, Christian ULg et al

in American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A (2003), 122A(2), 119-124

The high resolution G-bands (850 bands) karyotype have made it possible to identify small chromosome anomalies (5 megabases) which are now microscopically visible. New techniques have been improved, such ... [more ▼]

The high resolution G-bands (850 bands) karyotype have made it possible to identify small chromosome anomalies (5 megabases) which are now microscopically visible. New techniques have been improved, such as the Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with subtelomeric probes, which can be employed to detect cryptic chromosome alterations not visible microscopically. We present three cases which had been remitted for a high resolution karyotype. The high resolution G-band karyotype and the FISH techniques led us to conclude that the three cases were carriers of a similar subtle chromosomal alteration. Case I is a new born female with developmental and psychomotor delay, hypotonia, and long limbs with arachnodactily. A high resolution G-band karyotype showed an abnormal chromosome 22. FISH techniques confirmed a der(22)t(12;22)(q24.31;q13.3). Case II is a 12-year-old girl, with growth retardation, long shaped face with thick eyebrows, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip with severe mental retardation (still no language), with a phenotype very similar to that of his sister: long shaped face, thick eyebrows, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip. A high resolution G-band karyotype also showed in Case II and III an abnormal chromosome 22, studied by FISH techniques which confirmed a der(22)t(12;-22)(q24.3; q13.3) in both cases. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNeuroimaging tools to rate regional atrophy, subcortical cerebrovascular disease, and regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism: consensus paper of the EADC
Frisoni, G. B.; Scheltens, P. H.; Galluzzi, S. et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2003), 74(10), 1371-1381

Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive ... [more ▼]

Neuroimaging is a mainstay in the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment. The often equivocal clinical pictures, the prognostic uncertainty of the earliest stages of mild cognitive impairment, and the subtle brain changes mean that neuroimaging techniques are of potentially great incremental diagnostic value. A number of methods, ranging from very simple subjective visual ratings to highly sophisticated computerised tools, have been developed, which allow rating of structural and functional brain changes. The choice of the method is not obvious, and current guidelines provide no indications on which tools should be preferred. In this paper, we give indications for tools with demonstrated accuracy for detecting regional atrophy, cerebrovascular disease, and regional brain function, and discuss these according to increasing technological complexity, ranging from those with high feasibility that can be used at the patient's bedside to highly technological ones that require trained personnel and specific hardware and software. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImaging of large vessel vasculitis with (18)FDG PET: illusion or reality? A critical review of the literature data
Belhocine, Tarik; Blockmans, Daniel; Hustinx, Roland ULg et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2003), 30(9), 1305-1313

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) plays a major role in the management of oncology patients. Owing to the singular properties of the glucose tracer, many patients ... [more ▼]

Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) plays a major role in the management of oncology patients. Owing to the singular properties of the glucose tracer, many patients suffering from non-malignant diseases such as inflammatory or infectious diseases may also derive clinical benefit from the appropriate use of metabolic imaging. Large vessel vasculitides such as giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis are other examples that may potentially extend the field of (18)FDG PET indications. The purpose of the present article is to assess the feasibility of metabolic imaging in vasculitis on the basis of the current literature data. In particular, the clinical context and the (18)FDG imaging patterns seen in patients with large vessel vasculitis are analysed in order to identify potential indications for metabolic imaging. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMechanisms of Actions of Inhaled Anesthetics
Seutin, Vincent ULg

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2003), 349(9), 909-910

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFavourable outcome of a brain trauma patient despite bilateral loss of cortical somatosensory evoked potential during thiopental sedation
Robe, Pierre; Dubuisson, Annie ULg; Bartsch, Sébastien et al

in Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry (2003), 74(8), 1157-1158

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPeripheral vascular surgery: Update on the perioperative non-surgical management for high cardiac risk patients
Stammet, P.; Senard, Marc ULg; Roediger, Laurence ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2003), 103(3), 248-254

This review of the recent literature regarding perioperative management in peripheral vascular surgery emphasizes some of the important features for the 2003 state-of-the-art on non surgical perioperative ... [more ▼]

This review of the recent literature regarding perioperative management in peripheral vascular surgery emphasizes some of the important features for the 2003 state-of-the-art on non surgical perioperative care for these high cardiac risk patients. The most adapted preoperative cardiac evaluation for each patient is guided by its individual risk factors and clinical history. Perioperative medication should nowadays consist of pre- and postoperative beta-blockers and acetyl salicylic acid, both reducing cardiac morbidity and mortality. Neuraxial locoregional anaesthesia techniques are reasonable alternatives to general anaesthesia because of their potential advantages, by reducing postoperative inflammatory response and reducing procoagulating activity, and increasing peripheral vascular graft patency, but the individual benefit/risk balance has always to be evaluated for patients submitted to aggressive antithrombotic therapy. During the postoperative course, early detection and treatment of postoperative myocardial ischemia or infarction by ST wave changes and/or cardiac enzyme control has to be considered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStaging of primary cervical cancers: the role of nuclear medicine
Belhocine, Tarik; Kridelka, Frédéric ULg; Thille, Alain ULg et al

in Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology (2003), 46(3), 275-284

In nuclear medicine, [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) and lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy (LM/SL) may significantly improve the staging of primary ... [more ▼]

In nuclear medicine, [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) and lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy (LM/SL) may significantly improve the staging of primary cervical cancers. Indeed, the disease progresses in a 'level by level' fashion to regional nodes through the lymphatic channels, and also to extra-nodal sites via the hematogenous stream. Additionally, the sub-optimal efficacy of routine radiological protocols, while new combined therapies are proving to be more efficient, stresses the need for alternative staging procedures. Current data suggest that LM/SL accurately reflects the regional lymph node status in early stage cervical cancers, and thus could avoid unnecessary complete lymphadenectomies. Also, whole body (18)FDG PET may provide valuable insights on extra-pelvic and distant tumor spreading, with a significant impact on treatment choices. If these promising results are confirmed on large controlled trials, LM/SL and (18)FDG PET imaging could be incorporated in the routine staging work-up of primary cervical cancers. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailXMM-Newton high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of the Wolf-Rayet object WR 25 in the Carina OB1 association
Raassen, A. J. J.; van der Hucht, K. A.; Mewe, R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2003), 402(2), 653-666

We report the analysis of the first high-resolution X-ray spectra of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) object WR25 (HD 93162, WN6ha+O4f) obtained with the reflection Grating spectrometers (RGS) and the European photon ... [more ▼]

We report the analysis of the first high-resolution X-ray spectra of the Wolf-Rayet (WR) object WR25 (HD 93162, WN6ha+O4f) obtained with the reflection Grating spectrometers (RGS) and the European photon imaging cameras (EPIC-MOS and PN) CCD spectrometers on board the XMM-Newton satellite. The spectrum exhibits bright emission lines of the H- and He-like ions of Ne, Mg, Si and S, as well as Fe XVIII to Fe XX and Fe XXV lines. Line fluxes have been measured. The RGS and e pi c spectra have been simultaneously fitted to obtain self-consistent temperatures, emission measures, and elemental abundances. Strong absorption by the dense WR stellar wind and the interstellar medium (ISM) is observed equivalent to N-H = 7x10(21) cm(-2). Multi-temperature (DEM) fitting yields two dominant components around temperatures of 7.0 and 32 MK, respectively. The XMM intrinsic (i.e. unabsorbed, corrected for the stellar wind absorption and the absorption of ISM) X-ray luminosity of WR25 is L-x(0.5-10 keV) = 1.3x10(34) erg s(-1), and L-x(0.5-10 keV) = 0.85 x 10(34) erg s(-1), (when correcting for the ISM only) assuming d = 3.24 kpc. The obtained chemical abundances are subsolar, except for S. This may be real, but could equally well be due to a weak coupling to the continuum, which is strongly influenced by the absorption column density and the subtracted background. The expected high N-abundance, as observed in the optical wavelength region, could not be confirmed due to the strong wind absorption, blocking out its spectral signature. The presence of the Fe XXV emission-line complex at similar to6.7 keV is argued as being indicative for colliding winds inside a WR+O binary system. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImaging gliomas with positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography
Bénard, François; Romsa, Jonathan; Hustinx, Roland ULg

in Seminars in Nuclear Medicine (2003), 33(2), 148-162

Over the last two decades the large volume of research involving various brain tracers has shed invaluable light on the pathophysiology of cerebral neoplasms. Yet the question remains as to how best to ... [more ▼]

Over the last two decades the large volume of research involving various brain tracers has shed invaluable light on the pathophysiology of cerebral neoplasms. Yet the question remains as to how best to incorporate this newly acquired insight into the clinical context. Thallium is the most studied radiotracer with the longest track record. Many, but not all studies, show a relationship between Tl-201 uptake and tumor grade. Due to the overlap between tumor uptake and histologic grades, Tl-201 cannot be used as the sole noninvasive diagnostic or prognostic tool in brain tumor patients. However, it may help differentiating a high-grade tumor recurrence from radiation necrosis. MIBI is theoretically a better imaging agent than Tl-201 but it has not convincingly been shown to differentiate tumors according to grade. MDR-1 gene expression as demonstrated by MIBI does not correlate with chemoresistance in high grade gliomas. Currently, MIBI's clinical role in brain tumor imaging has yet to be defined. IMT, a radio-labeled amino acid analog, may be useful for identifying postoperative tumor recurrence and, in this application, appears to be a cheaper, more widely available tool than positron emission tomography (PET). However, its ability to accurately identify tumor grade is limited. 18 F-2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET predicts tumor grade, and the metabolic activity of brain tumors has a prognostic significance. Whether FDG uptake has an independent prognostic value above that of histology remains debated. FDG-PET is effective in differentiating recurrent tumor from radiation necrosis for high-grade tumors, but has limited value in defining the extent of tumor involvement and recurrence of low-grade lesions. Amino-acid tracers, such as MET, perform better for this purpose and thus play a complementary role to FDG. Given the poor prognosis of patients with gliomas, particularly with high-grade lesions, the overall clinical utility of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and PET in characterizing recurrent lesions remains dependent on the availability of effective treatments. These tools are thus mostly suited to the evaluation of treatment response in experimental protocols designed to improve the patients' outcome. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMembrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase and TIMP-2 in tumor angiogenesis
Sounni, Nor Eddine ULg; Janssen, M.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Matrix Biology (2003), 22(1), 55-61

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of over 23 secreted and cell-surface associated enzymes that cleave or degrade various pericellular substrates. In addition to virtually ... [more ▼]

The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a multigene family of over 23 secreted and cell-surface associated enzymes that cleave or degrade various pericellular substrates. In addition to virtually all extracellular matrix (ECM) compounds, their targets include other proteinases, chemotactic molecules, latent growth factors, growth factor-binding proteins and cell surface molecules. The MMP activity is controlled by the physiological tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs). There is much evidence that MMPs and their inhibitors play a key role during extracellular remodeling in physiological situations and in cancer progression. They have other functions that promoting tumor invasion. Indeed, they regulate early stages of tumor progression such as tumor growth and angiogenesis. Membrane type MMPs (MT-MMPs) constitute a new subset of cell surface-associated MMPs. The present review will focus on MT1-MMP which plays a major role at least, in the ECM remodeling, directly by degrading several of its components, and indirectly by activating pro-MMP2. As our knowledge on the field of MT1-MMP biology has grown, the unforeseen complexities of this enzyme and its interaction with its inhibitor TIMP-2 have emerged, often revealing unexpected mechanisms of action. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science B.V/Intemational Society of Matrix Biology. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (2 ULg)
Full Text
See detailAnatomical and histological aspects of the tonsils in sheep
Gabriel, Annick ULg; Cocquyt, G.; Van den Broeck, W.

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(4, AUG-SEP), 251-258

Since the 1st April 2002, the European Union has extended the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy testing in ruminants by including sheep and goats in the survey studies. In small ruminants, presence ... [more ▼]

Since the 1st April 2002, the European Union has extended the Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy testing in ruminants by including sheep and goats in the survey studies. In small ruminants, presence of the agent of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy was demonstrated in tonsils, so these are considered as specified risk materials. This article gives an overview of the anatomical localisation and histological structure of the tonsils in small ruminants. Anatomically, 6 different tonsils can be distinguished: 3 are located in the oropharyngeal tract (tonsilla palatina, tonsilla lingualis, tonsilla veli palatini), 2 in the nasopharyngeal tract (tonsilla pharyngea and tonsilla tubaria), and one in the laryngopharyngeal tract (tonsilla paraepiglottica). Several tonsils show a cryptic overlying epithelium (cryptic tonsil) whereas other don't (non-cryptic tonsil). Several immunological features of the tonsils are described. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 69 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’herpèsvirose canine
Ronsse, V.; Poulet, H.; Verstegen, J. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(2, APR-MAY), 65

Canine herpesvirus is known to be a causal agent of reproduction disorders and diseases of the upper respiratory system. Subclinical infections are also frequently observed. The interest for the virus has ... [more ▼]

Canine herpesvirus is known to be a causal agent of reproduction disorders and diseases of the upper respiratory system. Subclinical infections are also frequently observed. The interest for the virus has risen in recent years especially since latency has been demonstrated and a new vaccine has been developed. In this review article we will successively deal with virus characteristics, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis as well as therapy and prevention. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChlamydomonas reinhardtii as a eukaryotic photosynthetic model for studies of heavy metal homeostasis and tolerance
Hanikenne, Marc ULg

in New Phytologist (2003), 159(2), 331-340

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a useful model of a photosynthetic cell. This unicellular eukaryote has been intensively used for studies of a number of physiological processes such as ... [more ▼]

The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a useful model of a photosynthetic cell. This unicellular eukaryote has been intensively used for studies of a number of physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen assimilation, flagella motility and basal body function. Its easy-to-manipulate and short life cycle make this organism a powerful tool for genetic analysis. Over the past 15 yr, a dramatically increased number of molecular technologies (including nuclear and organellar transformation systems, cosmid, yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries, reporter genes, RNA interference, DNA microarrays, etc.) have been applied to Chlamydomonas . Moreover, as parts of the Chlamydomonas genome project, molecular mapping, as well as whole genome and extended expressed sequence tag (EST) sequencing programs, are currently underway. These developments have allowed Chlamydomonas to become an extremely valuable model for molecular approaches to heavy metal homeostasis and tolerance in photosynthetic organisms. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 201 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailJL 13, an atypical antipsychotic: A preclinical review
Ellenbroek, B. A.; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg

in Cns Drug Reviews (2003), 9(1, Spring), 41-56

The extensive pharmacological evaluation of JL 13 as an atypical antipsychotic drug has revealed a close similarity to clozapine, however with some major advantages. JL 13 was characterized as a weak D-2 ... [more ▼]

The extensive pharmacological evaluation of JL 13 as an atypical antipsychotic drug has revealed a close similarity to clozapine, however with some major advantages. JL 13 was characterized as a weak D-2 antagonist, both in vitro and in vivo, with a strong affinity for the D-4 and the 5-HT2A receptors. It has no affinity for the 5-HT2C receptor. In vivo microdialysis experiments in rat showed that JL 13, like clozapine, preferentially increased extracellular dopamine concentrations in the prefrontal cortex compared to nucleus accumbens or striatum. Behavioral studies showed that JL 13, like clozapine, has the profile of an atypical antipsychotic. Thus, JL 13 did not antagonize apomorphine-induced stereotypy nor did it produce catalepsy, but it antagonized apomorphine-induced climbing in rodents. It was inactive against d-amphetamine-induced stereotypy but antagonized d-amphetamine-induced hyperactivity in the mouse. Likewise, in the paw test, it was more effective in prolonging hindlimb retraction time than prolonging forelimb retraction time. Like other antipsychotic drugs, JL 13 reversed the apomorphine- and amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. In a complex temporal regulation schedule in the dog, JL 13 showed a high resemblance with clozapine without inducing sialorrhea, palpebral ptosis or any significant motor side effects. In rats and squirrel monkeys JL 13 induced a high degree of generalization (70%) to clozapine. Regarding behavioral toxicology, JL 13 did not produce dystonia or Parkinsonian symptoms in haloperidol-sensitized monkeys. After acute administration, again like clozapine, JL 13 induced only a transient increase in circulating prolactin. Last but not the least, regarding a possible hematological toxicity, unlike clozapine, JL 13 did not present sensitivity to peroxidase-induced oxidation. Moreover, its electrooxidation potential was close to that of loxapine and far from that of clozapine. Taking all these preclinical data into account, it appears that JL 13 is a promising atypical antipsychotic drug. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailElectrophysiological studies in migraine: a comprehensive review of their interest and limitations
Ambrosini, Anna; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg; Sandor, P. et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2003), 23(Suppl. 1), 13-31

Electrophysiological methods may help to unravel some of the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine. Lack of habituation is the principal and most reproducible interictal abnormality in sensory ... [more ▼]

Electrophysiological methods may help to unravel some of the pathophysiological mechanisms of migraine. Lack of habituation is the principal and most reproducible interictal abnormality in sensory processing in migraineurs. It is found in evoked potential (EP) studies for every stimulation modality including nociceptive stimuli, and it is likely to be responsible for the increased intensity dependence of EP. We have hypothesized that deficient EP habituation in migraine could be due to a reduced preactivation level of sensory cortices because of hypofunctioning subcortico-cortical aminergic pathways. This is not in keeping with simple hyperexcitability of the cortex, which has been suggested by some, but not all, studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). A recent study of the effects of repetitive TMS on visual EP strongly supports the hypothesis that migraine is characterized by interictal cortical hypoexcitability. With regard to pain mechanisms in migraine, electrophysiological studies of trigeminal pathways using nociceptive blink and corneal reflexes have confirmed that sensitization of central trigeminal nociceptors occurs during migraine attacks. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUltradispersity of diamond at the nanoscale
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Galli, G.

in Nature Materials (2003), 2(12), 792-795795

Nanometre-sized diamond has been found in meteorites, protoplanetary nebulae, and interstellar dusts, as well as in residues of detonation and in diamond films. Remarkably, the size distribution of ... [more ▼]

Nanometre-sized diamond has been found in meteorites, protoplanetary nebulae, and interstellar dusts, as well as in residues of detonation and in diamond films. Remarkably, the size distribution of diamond nanoparticles seems to be peaked around 2-5 nm, and to be largely independent of preparation conditions. We have carried out ab initio calculations of the stability of nanodiamond as a function of surface hydrogen coverage and of size. We have found that at about 3 nm, and for a broad range of pressures and temperatures, particles with bare, reconstructed surfaces become thermodynamically more stable than those with hydrogenated surfaces, thus preventing the formation of larger grains. Our findings provide an explanation of the size distribution of extraterrestrial and of terrestrial nanodiamond found in ultradispersed and ultracrystalline diamond films. They also provide an atomistic structural model of these films, based on the topology and structure of 2-3 nm diamond clusters consisting of a diamond core surrounded by a fullerene-like carbon network [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailQuantum confinement and fullerenelike surface reconstructions in nanodiamonds
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Galli, G.; Bostedt, C. et al

in Physical Review Letters (2003), 90(3), 0374011-03740140374014

We present x-ray absorption and emission experiments and ab initio calculations showing that the size of carbon diamond must be reduced to at least 2 nm, in order to observe an increase of its optical gap ... [more ▼]

We present x-ray absorption and emission experiments and ab initio calculations showing that the size of carbon diamond must be reduced to at least 2 nm, in order to observe an increase of its optical gap, at variance with Si and Ge where quantum confinement effects persist up to 6-7 nm. In addition, our calculations show that the surface of nanodiamond particles larger than sime 1 nm reconstructs in a fullerenelike manner, giving rise to a new family of carbon clusters: bucky diamonds. Signatures of these surface reconstructions are compatible with pre-edge features observed in measured absorption spectra [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComments on Pouillot, R., Gerbier, G. & Gadner, I.A. “TAGS”, a program for the evaluation of test accuracy in the absence of a gold standard
Berkvens, D. L.; Speybroeck, N.; Lesaffre, E. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2003), 59

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInstrumental investigations in primary headache. An updated review and new perspectives
Friberg, L.; Sandrini, G.; Janig, W. et al

in Functional Neurology (2003), 18(3, JUL-SEP), 127-144

While some instrumental techniques are clearly useful for differentiating symptomatic forms from primary headache, the usefulness of certain other techniques, neurophysiological investigations in ... [more ▼]

While some instrumental techniques are clearly useful for differentiating symptomatic forms from primary headache, the usefulness of certain other techniques, neurophysiological investigations in particular, in clinical practice is still debated. A Task Force of the European Federation of Neurological Societies has recently proposed guidelines and recommendations on the use of neurophysiological tests and neuroimaging procedures in non-acute headache. This article reviews many of the most important literature references relevant to this topic and looks at the prospects for future research. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailNeuroendocrinology of song behavior and avian brain plasticity: Multiple sites of action of sex steroid hormones
Ball, G. F.; Riters, L. V.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology (2002), 23(2), 137-178

Seasonal changes in the brain of songbirds are one of the most dramatic examples of naturally occuring neuroplasticity that have been described in any vertebrate species. In males of temperate-zone ... [more ▼]

Seasonal changes in the brain of songbirds are one of the most dramatic examples of naturally occuring neuroplasticity that have been described in any vertebrate species. In males of temperate-zone songbird species, the volumes of several telencephalic nuclei that control song behavior are significantly larger in the spring than in the fall. These increases in volume are correlated with high rates of singing and high concentrations of testosterone in the plasma. Several song nuclei express either androgen receptors or estrogen receptors, therefore it is possible that testosterone acting via estrogenic or androgenic metabolites regulates song behavior by seasonally modulating the morphology of these song control nuclei. However, the causal links among these variables have not been established. Dissociations among high concentrations of testosterone, enlarged song nuclei, and high rates of singing behavior have been observed. Singing behavior itself can promote cellular changes associated with increases in the volume of the song control nuclei. Also, testosterone may stimulate song behavior by acting in brain regions outside of the song control system such as in the preoptic area or in catecholamine cell groups in the brainstem. Thus testosterone effects on neuroplasticity in the song system may be indirect in that behavioral activity stimulated by testosterone acting in sites that promote male sexual behavior could in turn promote morphological changes in the song system. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGravitational lensing in quasar samples
Claeskens, Jean-François ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics Review (2002), 10(4), 263-311

The first cosmic mirage was discovered approximately 20 years ago as the double optical counterpart of a radio source. This phenomenon had been predicted some 70 years earlier as a consequence of General ... [more ▼]

The first cosmic mirage was discovered approximately 20 years ago as the double optical counterpart of a radio source. This phenomenon had been predicted some 70 years earlier as a consequence of General Relativity. We present here a summary of what we have learnt since. The applications are so numerous that we had to concentrate on a few selected aspects of this new field of research. This review is focused on strong gravitational lensing, i.e. the formation of multiple images, in QSO samples. It is intended to give the reader an up-to-date status of the observations and to present an overview of its most interesting potential applications in cosmology and astrophysics, as well as numerous important results achieved so far. The first section follows an intuitive approach to the basics of gravitational lensing and is developed in view of our interest in multiply imaged quasars. The astrophysical and cosmological applications of gravitational lensing are outlined in Sect. 2 and the most important results are presented in Sect. 5. Sections 3 and 4 are devoted to the observations. Finally, conclusions are summarized in the last section. We have tried to avoid duplication with existing (and excellent) introductions to the field of oravitational lensing. For this reason, we did not concentrate on the individual properties of specific lens models, as these are already well presented in Narayan and Bartelmann (1996) and on a more intuitive ground in Refsdal and Surdej (1994). Wambsganss (1998) proposes a broad view on gravitational lensing, in astronomy; the reviews by Fort and Mellier (1994) and Hattori et al. (1999) deal with lensing by galaxy clusters, microlensing in the Galaxy and the local group is reviewed by Paczynski (1996) and a general panorama on weak lensing is given by Bartelmann and Schneider (1999) and Mellier (1999). The monograph on the theory of gravitational lensing by Schneider, Ehlers and Falco (1992) also remains a reference in the field. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhole-body FDG-PET imaging in the management of patients with cancer
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Bénard, François; Alavi, Abass

in Seminars in Nuclear Medicine (2002), 32(1), 35-46

Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is increasingly used for the management of patients with cancer. The technique is now well accepted by most physicians as an effective ... [more ▼]

Fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging is increasingly used for the management of patients with cancer. The technique is now well accepted by most physicians as an effective complement to the existing imaging modalities. For many malignancies, PET achieves high sensitivity and specificity. The critical role of this powerful technique is realized increasingly in the day-to-day practice of oncology. This is particularly true for the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The contribution of PET for the selection of patients eligible for curative treatments in this setting is well established. Convincing data also exist to support the use of PET for evaluating patients with recurrent colorectal carcinoma, for staging and restaging lymphomas, and for diagnosing recurrent thyroid carcinoma in the presence of elevated thyroglobulin and negative I-131 scans. Other indications include staging of various recurrent malignancies, such as breast cancer, melanoma, and head and neck and gynecologic carcinomas. Existing data are limited for the determination of the impact of PET in certain malignancies, and further studies, which should include outcome information, will allow clarification of the role of this modality for such indications. Despite the small number of studies specifically designed to assess changes in management plans for some malignancies after performing PET the overall favorable results are encouraging enough at this time to include this modality as an essential element of the practice of modern oncology. Finally, the evolving role of PET imaging as a predictor of response after local or systemic treatment may add a major dimension to the application of this novel technique. Copyright (C) 2002 by WB. Saunders Company. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’herpèsvirus B du singe, un agent d’anthropozoonose méconnu
Meurens, F.; Gallego, P.; Bourgot, I. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(1, FEB-MAR), 1-8

B-virus or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) is a zoonotic alphaherpesvirus enzootic in Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca that is genetically and antigenically closely related to the human herpesvirus ... [more ▼]

B-virus or Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CeHV-1) is a zoonotic alphaherpesvirus enzootic in Asian monkeys of the genus Macaca that is genetically and antigenically closely related to the human herpesvirus 1 and the human herpesvirus 2. CeHV-1 infection is highly prevalent (80% to 100%) in adult macaques and may lead to fulminant encephalomyelitis with severe aftereffects or even causing death in humans. Since its discovery in 1933, it has been positively linked with two dozen human deaths. B-virus disease in humans usually resulted from breach of primary skin or mucosal defenses and subsequent contamination of the site with virus. Timely antiviral intervention is a good mean of reducing CeHV-1 associated morbidity and preventing a fatal outcome. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailStratégies de prévention des avortements provoqués par les herpèsvirus et les pestivirus de ruminants
Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(3, JUN-JUL), 161

Bovine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-4) and caprine herpesvirus (CpHV-1) are responsible of abortion. Abortions caused by BoHV-1 happen during outbreaks of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesviruses 1 and 4 (BoHV-1 and BoHV-4) and caprine herpesvirus (CpHV-1) are responsible of abortion. Abortions caused by BoHV-1 happen during outbreaks of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis whereas BoHV-4 is associated with abortion but is not a very high risk factor. CpHV-1 infection is not yet identified in Belgium and in France. Bovine and ovine pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea and Border disease viruses, respectively, provoke abortions mainly during the first half of gestation. At the herd level, the prevention of abortion caused by these viruses can be achieved by the control of virus circulation with the help of vaccination or the elimination of persistently infected animals. At the individual level, immunisation with inactivated vaccines induces a high humoral response with high levels of neutralising antibodies, able to prevent the viremia and foetus infection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDoes the P(2X1del) variant lacking 17 amino acids in its extracellular domain represent a relevant functional ion channel in platelets?
Oury, Cécile ULg; Toth-Zsamboki, Emese; Vermylen, Jos et al

in Blood (2002)

In this letter, we questionned the existence of a ADP responsive P2X1 protein variant in platelets.

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAdsorption of selenium wires in silicalite-1 zeolite: a first order transition in a microporous system
Bichara, C.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Pellenq, RJ-M

in Physical Review Letters (2002), 89(1), 016101-1-016101-016101-4016101-016101-4

A tight binding grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of the adsorption of selenium in silicalite-1 zeolite is presented. The calculated adsorption-desorption isotherms exhibit characteristic features of ... [more ▼]

A tight binding grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation of the adsorption of selenium in silicalite-1 zeolite is presented. The calculated adsorption-desorption isotherms exhibit characteristic features of a first order transition, unexpected for adsorption in a microporous system with pore size of the order of 0.5 to 0.6 nm. We analyze this behavior as a result of the favored twofold coordinated chain structure of selenium that grows inside the complex three-dimensional microchannel network of silicalite. This analysis is confirmed by simpler calculations of a lattice gas-type model [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHeat shock proteins. I : Classification and roles in pathological processes
Wirth, Delphine; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(4), 201-216

All living systems have evolved mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the face of rapid environmental changes. When exposed to elevated temperatures, most of the cells activate the synthesis of a specific ... [more ▼]

All living systems have evolved mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the face of rapid environmental changes. When exposed to elevated temperatures, most of the cells activate the synthesis of a specific group of proteins called Heat Shock Proteins (Hsps). This heat shock response, under control of specific transcription factors, the Heat Shock factors (HSF), is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, from bacteria to humans. Heat Shock Proteins are classified into families according to their molecular weight (Hsp 25, 40, 70, 90, 105). They play the role of molecular chaperones by binding and protecting other molecules (proteins, RNAs). The function of Hsp is to prevent accumulation of non-native proteins either by assisting proper folding of polypeptides or by driving them to proteosome pathway for degradation. Hsps are involved in various pathological processes that are accompanied by protein alterations such as chronic or degenerative diseases. This review describes structural and functional characteristics of the six main Hsps classes. It also focuses on their respective role in highly studied pathologies. The diversity of Hsps implications in these diseases explains that they became recently a strategic target in development of new therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 105 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHigh resolution X-ray spectroscopy of zeta Puppis with the XMM-Newton reflection grating spectrometer
Kahn, S. M.; Leutenegger, M. A.; Cottam, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 365

We present the first high resolution X-ray spectrum of the bright O4Ief supergiant star zeta Puppis, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on-board XMM-Newton. The spectrum exhibits bright ... [more ▼]

We present the first high resolution X-ray spectrum of the bright O4Ief supergiant star zeta Puppis, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on-board XMM-Newton. The spectrum exhibits bright emission lines of hydrogen-like and helium-like ions of nitrogen, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon, as well as neon-like ions of iron. The lines are all significantly resolved, with characteristic velocity widths of order 1000-1500 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. The nitrogen lines are especially strong, and indicate that the shocked gas in the wind is mixed with CNO-burned material, as has been previously inferred for the atmosphere of this star from ultraviolet spectra. We find that the forbidden to intercombination line ratios within the helium-like triplets are anomalously low for N VI, O VII, and Ne IX. While this is sometimes indicative of high electron density, we show that in this case, it is instead caused by the intense ultraviolet radiation field of the star. We use this interpretation to derive constraints on the location of the X-ray emitting shocks within the wind that are consistent with current theoretical models for this system. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe P2Y1 receptor antagonist adenosine-2',5'-diphosphate non-selectively antagonizes the platelet P2X1 ion channel.
Oury, Cécile ULg; Toth-Zsamboki, Emese; Tytgat, Jan et al

in Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2001)

This letter indicates a lack of specificity of a platelet P2Y1 receptor antagonist.

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCorrect regimen of fluoride and calcium reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in postmenopausal osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Rovati, L; Setnikar, I

in Osteoporosis International (2001), 12

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (3 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailIatrogenic thyrotoxicosis. Causal circumstances, pathophysiology and principles of treatment. Review of the literature
Meurisse, Michel ULg; Preud'Homme, Laurence ULg; Lamberty, Geoffrey ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2001), 101(6), 257-266

Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical syndrome that results when tissues are exposed to high levels of circulating thyroid hormones. In most instances, thyrotoxicosis is due to hyperthyroidism, a term reserved ... [more ▼]

Thyrotoxicosis is the clinical syndrome that results when tissues are exposed to high levels of circulating thyroid hormones. In most instances, thyrotoxicosis is due to hyperthyroidism, a term reserved for disorders characterized by overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Nevertheless, thyrotoxicosis may also result from a variety of conditions other than thyroid hyperfunction. The present report focuses on the etiologies, pathophysiology and treatment of iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis. Iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis may be caused by 1) subacute thyroiditis (a result of lymphocytic infiltration, cellular injury, trauma or radiation) with release of preformed hormones into circulation, 2) excessive ingestion of thyroid hormones ("thyrotoxicosis factitia"), 3) iodine-induced hyperthyroidism (radiological contrast agents, topical antiseptics or other medications). Among these causes of iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis, that induced by the iodine overload and cytotoxicity associated with amiodarone represents a significant challenge. Successful management of amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis requires close cooperation between endocrinologists and endocrine Surgeons. Surgical treatment may have a leading yet often underestimated role in view of the potential life-threatening severity of this disease, whereas others kinds of iatrogenic thyrotoxicosis are usually treated conservatively. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Peer Reviewed
See detailLaparascopic management of a unicornuate uterus with two cavitated, non-communicating rudimentary horns
NISOLLE, Michelle ULg; Donnez, Jacques

in Human Reproduction (2000), 15(8), 1873-4

Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPredictive value of ovarian endometriosis?
NISOLLE, Michelle ULg; Donnez, Jacques

in Fertility and Sterility (2000), 73(2), 419-20

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailEvidence of a reentrant Peierls distortion in liquid GeTe
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Godlevsky, V.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2000), 85(9), 1950-1953

The local atomic order of semiconducting liquid GeTe is studied using first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations. Our work points out a high degree of alternating chemical order in the liquid and ... [more ▼]

The local atomic order of semiconducting liquid GeTe is studied using first-principles molecular-dynamics simulations. Our work points out a high degree of alternating chemical order in the liquid and demonstrates the presence of a Peierls distortion close above the melting temperature. This distortion, absent in the high temperature crystalline structure of NaCl type, is a remnant of the atomic arrangement in the A7 low temperature crystalline phase. It disappears slowly with temperature, as the liquid evolves from a semiconducting to a metallic state. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHepatitis C virus transmission following invasive medical procedures
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg et al

in Journal of Internal Medicine (1999), 245(1), 107-108

Detailed reference viewed: 55 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSequentially compressive and intrusive mechanisms in mercury porosimetry of carbon blacks
Pirard, René ULg; Sahouli, Bendida; Blacher, Silvia ULg et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (1999), 217(1), 216-217

The mechanism of mercury penetration in two different commercial carbon blacks is studied. We show that the volume variation measured by mercury porosimetry in these systems is due to three successive ... [more ▼]

The mechanism of mercury penetration in two different commercial carbon blacks is studied. We show that the volume variation measured by mercury porosimetry in these systems is due to three successive mechanisms, which occur as the pressure increases: (1) mercury invasion of voids between macroscopic grains, (2) compaction and elastic compression of macroscopic grains, (3) intrusion in the voids of aggregates formed by primary particles. The cumulative surface calculated by the Rootare-Prenzlow equation (S-RP) in the intrusion part and the BET surface area measured by nitrogen adsorption (S-BET) are compared. (C) 1999 Academic Press. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHigh-Resolution Optical and Near-Infrared Imaging of the Quadruple Quasar RX J0911.4+0551
Burud, I.; Courbin, F.; Lidman, C. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (1998), 501

We report the detection of four images in the recently discovered lensed QSO RX J0911.4+0551. With a maximum angular separation of 3."1, it is the quadruply imaged QSO with the widest known angular ... [more ▼]

We report the detection of four images in the recently discovered lensed QSO RX J0911.4+0551. With a maximum angular separation of 3."1, it is the quadruply imaged QSO with the widest known angular separation. Raw and deconvolved data reveal an elongated lens galaxy. The observed reddening in at least two of the four QSO images suggests differential extinction by this lensing galaxy. We show that both an ellipticity of the galaxy ( epsilon _{{min}}=0.075 ) and an external shear ( gamma _{{min}}=0.15 ) from a nearby mass have to be included in the lensing potential in order to reproduce the complex geometry observed in RX J0911.4+0551. A possible galaxy cluster is detected about 38" from RX J0911.4+0551 and could contribute to the X-ray emission observed by ROSAT in this field. The color of these galaxies indicates a plausible redshift in the range of 0.6-0.8. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImage Deconvolution of the Radio Ring PKS 1830-211
Courbin, F.; Lidman, C.; Frye, B. L. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (1998), 499

New high-quality Keck and ESO images of PKS 1830-211 are presented. By applying a powerful new deconvolution algorithm to these optical and infrared data, both images of the flat spectrum core of the ... [more ▼]

New high-quality Keck and ESO images of PKS 1830-211 are presented. By applying a powerful new deconvolution algorithm to these optical and infrared data, both images of the flat spectrum core of the radio source have been identified. An extended source is also detected in the optical images which is consistent with the expected location of the lensing galaxy. The source counterparts are very red at I-K~7 , which suggests strong Galactic absorption with additional absorption by the lensing galaxy at z=0.885 and is consistent with the detection of high-redshift molecules in the lens. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 5 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailClassical support for non-dispersive two electron wave packets in the driven helium atom
Schlagheck, Peter ULg; Buchleitner, A.

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (1998), 31(11), 489-495

We present numerical evidence for the existence of a classically non-ionizing, highly correlated two-electron configuration which emerges from the frozen planet configuration of helium exposed to an ... [more ▼]

We present numerical evidence for the existence of a classically non-ionizing, highly correlated two-electron configuration which emerges from the frozen planet configuration of helium exposed to an electromagnetic field of linear polarization. A static electric field parallel to the polarization axis prevents this configuration from transverse ionization. We argue that the corresponding nonlinear resonance island in 12D phase space supports nondispersive wave packets of the helium atom in combined oscillating and static electric fields. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDifferentiation between begnin and malignant breast lesions with MR imaging and scintimammography
Servais, Fabienne; Blocklet, Didier; Seret, Alain ULg et al

in Radiology (1997), 205(1), 283

No abstract for this letter.

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe geometry of the quadruply imaged quasar PG 1115+080: implications for H_0_.
Courbin, F.; Magain, Pierre ULg; Keeton, C. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997), 324

Time delay measurements have recently been reported for the lensed quasar PG 1115+080. These measurements can be used to derive H_0_, but only if we can constrain the lensing potential. We have applied a ... [more ▼]

Time delay measurements have recently been reported for the lensed quasar PG 1115+080. These measurements can be used to derive H_0_, but only if we can constrain the lensing potential. We have applied a recently developed deconvolution technique to analyze sub-arcsecond I band images of PG 1115+080, obtained at the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) and the Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). The high performance of the deconvolution code allows us to derive precise positions and magnitudes for the four lensed images of the quasar, as well as for the lensing galaxy. The new measurement of the galaxy position improves its precision by a factor of 3 and thus strengthens the constraints on the lensing potential. With the new data, a range of models incorporating some of the plausible systematic uncertainties yields H_0_=53^+10^_-7_km/s/Mpc. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)