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See detailRole of folate receptor autoantibodies in infantile autism
RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; Quadros, E. V.; Sequeira, J. M.

in Molecular Psychiatry (2013), 18(3), 270-1

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See detailTolvaptan in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
JOURET, François ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2013), 368(13), 1258-9

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See detailResearch and innovations committee a new outlook for the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).
Donal, Erwan; Badano, Luigi; Habib, Gilbert et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2013), 14(4), 400

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See detailMitral regurgitation after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: Does the prosthesis matter?
Unger, Philippe; Dedobbeleer, Chantal; Vanden Eynden, Frederic et al

in International Journal of Cardiology (2013)

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See detailReply to the Editor
SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2012), 94(5), 1787

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See detailDetection of Thermal Emission from a Super-Earth
Demory, Brice*-Olivier; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Seager, Sara et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2012), 751(2), 28

We report on the detection of infrared light from the super-Earth 55 Cnc e, based on four occultations obtained with Warm Spitzer at 4.5 microns. Our data analysis consists of a two-part process. In a ... [more ▼]

We report on the detection of infrared light from the super-Earth 55 Cnc e, based on four occultations obtained with Warm Spitzer at 4.5 microns. Our data analysis consists of a two-part process. In a first step, we perform individual analyses of each dataset and compare several baseline models to optimally account for the systematics affecting each lightcurve. We apply independent photometric correction techniques, including polynomial detrending and pixel-mapping, that yield consistent results at the 1-sigma level. In a second step, we perform a global MCMC analysis including all four datasets, that yields an occultation depth of 131+-28ppm, translating to a brightness temperature of 2360+-300 K in the IRAC-4.5 micron channel. This occultation depth suggests a low Bond albedo coupled to an inefficient heat transport from the planetary dayside to the nightside, or else possibly that the 4.5-micron observations probe atmospheric layers that are hotter than the maximum equilibrium temperature (i.e., a thermal inversion layer or a deep hot layer). The measured occultation phase and duration are consistent with a circular orbit and improves the 3-sigma upper limit on 55 Cnc e's orbital eccentricity from 0.25 to 0.06. [less ▲]

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See detailFood safety body is bound to draw fire
Hendrickx, Kim ULg; Penders, Bart

in Nature (2012), 485(31 May 2012), 582

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See detailImmune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in Natalizumab-Associated PML
Phan-Ba, Rémy ULg; LOMMERS, Emilie ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg et al

in Neurology (2012), 78(1), 73

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See detailComments on “Uncertainty profiles for the validation of analytical methods” by Saffaj and Ihssane
Rozet, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Talanta (2012), 88

Saffaj et al., recently proposed an uncertainty profile for evaluating the validity of analytical methods using the statistical methodology of γ-confidence β-content tolerance intervals. This profile ... [more ▼]

Saffaj et al., recently proposed an uncertainty profile for evaluating the validity of analytical methods using the statistical methodology of γ-confidence β-content tolerance intervals. This profile assesses the validity of the method by comparing the method measurement uncertainty to a pre defined acceptance limit stating the maximum uncertainty suitable for the method under study. Several years earlier as stated by these authors a SFSTP (Société Française des Sciences et Techniques Pharmaceutique) commission has developed a similar profile called accuracy profile used to assess the validity of analytical methods. This accuracy profile also uses the methodology of statistical tolerance intervals, but β-expectation tolerance intervals. The uncertainty profile of Saffaj et al. and the accuracy profile of the SFSTP commission are both fulfilling the same final purpose. The core question is finally what statistical tolerance interval to use ? The aim of this letter to the editor is to discuss this question and provide arguments that β-expectation tolerance intervals should be prefered to assess the validity of the method as this type of interval give the guarantee that each future results has high probability to fall within pre-specified acceptance limits. [less ▲]

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See detailMachine perfusion in clinical trials : "machine vs. solution effects"
Treckmann, Jürgen; Moers, Cyril; Smits, Jacqueline M et al

in Transplant International (2012), 25

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See detailTribute to a living legend
Hoekstra, W.J.; Pirotte, Bernard ULg

in Current Medicinal Chemistry (2012), 19

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See detailWASP-43b: The closest-orbiting hot Jupiter
Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2011), 535

We report the discovery of WASP-43b, a hot Jupiter transiting a K7V star every 0.81 d. At 0.6-Msun the host star has the lowest mass of any star hosting a hot Jupiter. It also shows a 15.6-d rotation ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-43b, a hot Jupiter transiting a K7V star every 0.81 d. At 0.6-Msun the host star has the lowest mass of any star hosting a hot Jupiter. It also shows a 15.6-d rotation period. The planet has a mass of 1.8 Mjup, a radius of 0.9 Rjup, and with a semi-major axis of only 0.014 AU has the smallest orbital distance of any known hot Jupiter. The discovery of such a planet around a K7V star shows that planets with apparently short remaining lifetimes owing to tidal decay of the orbit are also found around stars with deep convection zones. [less ▲]

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See detailPlease Doctor, Resist NOTES!
DETRY, Olivier ULg

in Annals of Surgery (2011), 254(5), 839-840

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See detailParicalcitol for reduction of albuminuria in diabetes
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; MARIAT, Christophe; KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Journal-Lancet (The) (2011), 377

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See detailEffect of carbon doping on the structure of amorphous GeTe phase change material
Ghezzi, G. E.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Maitrejean, S. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2011), 99(15), 1519063-15190631519063

Carbon-doped GeTe is a promising material for use in phase change memories since the addition of C increases the stability of the amorphous phase. By combining x-ray total scattering experiments and ab ... [more ▼]

Carbon-doped GeTe is a promising material for use in phase change memories since the addition of C increases the stability of the amorphous phase. By combining x-ray total scattering experiments and ab initio molecular dynamics, we show that carbon deeply modifies the structure of the amorphous phase through long carbon chains and tetrahedral and triangular units centered on carbon. A clear signature of these units is the appearance of an additional interatomic distance, around 3.3 Aring in the measured pair distribution function. Besides, the first Ge-Ge and Ge-Te distances are almost not affected by doping. [less ▲]

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See detailLiver graft procurement in donors with central nervous system cancers.
Detry, Olivier ULg

in Liver Transplantation (2010), 16(7), 914-5

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See detailNatural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES): when a step forward may be a step too soon or too far.
Detry, Olivier ULg; Nsadi, Berthier; Kohnen, Laurent ULg

in Surgical Endoscopy (2010), 2010(24), 1213-1214

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See detailAllocation of ECD Kidneys Based on Donor GFR: The Choice of the Estimating Equation Matters
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Rozet, Eric ULg; Maillard, N. et al

in American Journal of Transplantation (2010), 10(6), 1493-1494

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See detailEffects of fibrates on cardiovascular outcomes.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Lancet (2010), 376(9746), 1051

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See detailMeasurement uncertainty for the analysis of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: response to Stepman and Thienpont
Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cormier, Catherine et al

in Osteoporosis International (2010), 21

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See detailPrescribed regimen is effective.
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Altman, Roy D; Hochberg, Marc C

in BMJ (Clinical Research ed.) (2010), 341

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See detailImmortal time bias and infliximab-related mortality and malignancy incidence
Fidder, H.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Van Assche, G. et al

in Gut (2010), 59

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See detailReanalysis of death risk in long-term follow-up in infliximab patients versus controls
Fidder, H.; Van Steen, Kristel ULg; Van Assche, G. et al

in Gut (2010), 59

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See detailRefractory insulin allergy : pancreas transplantation or immunosuppressive therapy alone?
Leonet, J.; Squifflet, Jean-Paul ULg; Malaise, J.

in Transplant International (2010)

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See detailImmunoglobulines intraveineuses et maladie hémolytique allo-immune du nouveau-né.
Senterre, Thibault ULg; Viellevoye, Renaud ULg; Rigo, Jacques ULg

in Archives de Pédiatrie (2010), 17(3), 299-300

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See detailProbing populations of red giants in the galactic disk with CoRoT
Miglio, Andrea ULg; Montalban Iglesias, Josefa ULg; Baudin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2009), 503

Context: The detection with CoRoT of solar-like oscillations in nearly 800 red giants in the first 150-days long observational run paves the way for detailed studies of populations of galactic-disk red ... [more ▼]

Context: The detection with CoRoT of solar-like oscillations in nearly 800 red giants in the first 150-days long observational run paves the way for detailed studies of populations of galactic-disk red giants. <BR />Aims: We investigate which information on the observed population can be recovered by the distribution of the observed seismic constraints: the frequency of maximum oscillation power (ν_max) and the large frequency separation (Δν). <BR />Methods: We propose to use the observed distribution of ν_max and of Δν as a tool for investigating the properties of galactic red-giant stars through comparison with simulated distributions based on synthetic stellar populations. <BR />Results: We can clearly identify the bulk of the red giants observed by CoRoT as red-clump stars, i.e. post-flash core-He-burning stars. The distribution of ν_max and of Δν gives us access to the distribution of the stellar radius and mass, and thus represent a most promising probe of the age and star formation rate of the disk, and of the mass-loss rate during the red-giant branch. <BR />Conclusions: CoRoT observations are supplying seismic constraints for the most populated class of He-burning stars in the galactic disk. This opens a new access gate to probing the properties of red-giant stars that, coupled with classical observations, promises to extend our knowledge of these advanced phases of stellar evolution and to add relevant constraints to models of composite stellar populations in the Galaxy. The CoRoT space mission was developed and is operated by the French space agency CNES, with the participation of ESA's RSSD and Science Programmes, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Germany, and Spain. [less ▲]

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See detailDefining a "reference population": no easy task.
Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Delanaye, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2009), 24(9), 1638

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See detailNewborns need another tune: « I will survive » sets neonatal resuscitation rhythm.
Rigo, Vincent ULg; Rigo, Jacques ULg

in Annals of Emergency Medicine (2009), 53(6), 837

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See detailWill high-resolution/high-sensitivity SPECT ensure that PET is not the only survivor in nuclear medicine during the next decade?
Seret, Alain ULg

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2009), 36(3), 533

The future of SPECT and PET is discussed is the light of the most recent advances in SPECT and in the context of the supply in isotopes

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See detailEquine atypical myopathy. Letters (equine health)
Votion, Dominique ULg; Van Galen, Gaby ULg; Marr, C. M.

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2009), 165

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See detailHumanizing the Clinical Gaze: Movies and the Empathic Understanding of Psychosis
Raballo, A.; Laroi, Frank ULg; Bell, V.

in Family Medicine (2009), 41(6), 387-388

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See detailA Staging Model to Guide Psychological Interventions in Psychosis
Raballo, A.; Laroi, Frank ULg

in Psychiatric Services (2009), 60

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See detailOn the demanding necessity of properly evaluating renal graft function in clinical trials.
Maillard, Nicolas; Alamartine, Eric; Berthoux, Francois et al

in Transplant International (2009), 22(2), 247-8

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See detailSaharan Dust Pollution: Implications for the Sahel?
de Longueville, Florence; Henry, Sabine; Ozer, Pierre ULg

in Epidemiology (Cambridge, Mass.) (2009), 20(5), 780

The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust.1 About 12% of the Saharan dust moves northwards to Europe, 28% westwards to ... [more ▼]

The main source of atmospheric mineral dust is the Sahara desert, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust.1 About 12% of the Saharan dust moves northwards to Europe, 28% westwards to the Americas, and 60% southwards to the Gulf of Guinea. Saharan dust storms can lead to particulate matter (PM) levels that exceed internationally recommended levels. Recently, special attention has been paid to the mineral PM air pollution of dust storms, which may be a serious health threat. We took a systematic review of the literature to find relevant studies on the effects of Saharan dust on air quality or human health. We searched the ISI web of knowledge database using “PM10,” “PM2.5” or “health” AND “dust storm,” “sand storm,” “African dust,” “Saharan dust,” or “dust events” without restrictions. The search extended from January 1999 to December 2008. We selected 97 articles of which 72 studied PM air pollution in Europe, 13 in the Americas, 7 in the Near East and Asia, and 4 considered international data. Only one specifically addressed air pollution in the Sahel. Four focused on human health effects—2 in the Mediterranean and 2 in the Caribbean. [less ▲]

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See detailAuditory-verbal hallucinations and ordinary verbal thought
Laroi, Frank ULg

in Psychological Medicine (2009), 39

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See detailOperational Families of Entanglement Classes for Symmetric N-Qubit States
Bastin, Thierry ULg; Krins, Stéphanie ULg; Mathonet, Pierre ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2009), 103

We solve the entanglement classification under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) for all multipartite symmetric states in the general N-qubit case. For this purpose, we ... [more ▼]

We solve the entanglement classification under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) for all multipartite symmetric states in the general N-qubit case. For this purpose, we introduce 2 parameters playing a crucial role, namely, the diversity degree and the degeneracy configuration of a symmetric state. Those parameters give rise to a simple method of identifying operational families of SLOCC entanglement classes of all symmetric N-qubit states, where the number of families grows as the partition function of the number of qubits. [less ▲]

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See detailOperational Determination of Multiqubit Entanglement Classes via Tuning of Local Operations
Bastin, Thierry ULg; Thiel, C.; von Zanthier, J. et al

in Physical Review Letters (2009), 102

We present a physical setup with which it is possible to produce arbitrary symmetric long-lived multiqubit entangled states in the internal ground levels of photon emitters, including the paradigmatic ... [more ▼]

We present a physical setup with which it is possible to produce arbitrary symmetric long-lived multiqubit entangled states in the internal ground levels of photon emitters, including the paradigmatic Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states. In the case of three emitters, where each tripartite entangled state belongs to one of two well-defined entanglement classes, we prove a one-to-one correspondence between well-defined sets of experimental parameters, i.e., locally tunable polarizer orientations, and multiqubit entanglement classes inside the symmetric subspace. [less ▲]

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See detailSevere liver dysfunction in a patient with multiple sclerosis: the guilty party is not always the disease-modifying therapy
Hotermans, C.; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg et al

in Multiple Sclerosis : Clinical & Laboratory Research (2009), 15(11), 1378-1379

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See detailDynamics of the negative thermal expansion in tellurium based liquid alloys
Otjacques, C.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Coulet, M-V et al

in Physical Review Letters (2009), 103(24), 2459014-24590142459014

Negative thermal expansion (NTE) in tellurium based liquid alloys (GeTe 6 and GeTe 12) is analyzed through the atomic vibrational properties. Using neutron inelastic scattering, we show that the ... [more ▼]

Negative thermal expansion (NTE) in tellurium based liquid alloys (GeTe 6 and GeTe 12) is analyzed through the atomic vibrational properties. Using neutron inelastic scattering, we show that the structural evolution resulting in the NTE is due to a gain of vibrational entropy that cancels out the Peierls distortion. In the NTE temperature range, these competing effects give rise to noticeable changes in the vibrational density of states spectra. Additional first principles molecular dynamics simulations emphasize the role of the temperature dependance of the Ge atomic environment in this mechanism. For comparison, we extended our study to Ge 2Sb 2Te 5 and Ge 1Sb 2Te 4 phase-change materials. [less ▲]

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See detailModerate patient-prosthesis mismatch can impact on mortality after aortic valve replacement
Dumesnil, J. G.; Magne, Julien ULg; Girerd, N. et al

in Heart (2009), 95(7), 592

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See detailPolarization vortices in germanium telluride nanoplatelets: A theoretical study
Durgun, Engin ULg; Ghosez, Philippe ULg; Shaltaf, R. et al

in Physical Review Letters (2009), 103

Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the properties of germanium telluride crystalline nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Above a diameter of 2.7 nm, we predict ... [more ▼]

Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory, we study the properties of germanium telluride crystalline nanoplatelets and nanoparticles. Above a diameter of 2.7 nm, we predict the appearance of polarization vortices giving rise to an unusual ferrotoroidic ground state with a spontaneous and reversible toroidal moment of polarization. We highlight the crucial role of inhomogeneous strain in stabilizing polarization vortices. Combined with the phase-change properties of germanium telluride, the ferrotoroidic properties could be of practical interest for ternary logic applications. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between total and specific IgE in patients with asthma from Siberia
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Ogorodova, Lyudmila; Chernyak, Boris et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (The) (2008), 121(3), 781

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See detailHard X-ray emission from eta Carinae
Leyder, Jean-Christophe ULg; Walter, R.; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2008), 477

Context: If relativistic particle acceleration takes place in colliding-wind binaries, hard X-rays and gamma-rays are expected through inverse Compton emission, but to date these have never been ... [more ▼]

Context: If relativistic particle acceleration takes place in colliding-wind binaries, hard X-rays and gamma-rays are expected through inverse Compton emission, but to date these have never been unambiguously detected. Aims: To detect this emission, observations of eta Carinae were performed with INTEGRAL, leveraging its high spatial resolution. Methods: Deep hard X-ray images of the region of eta Car were constructed in several energy bands. Results: The hard X-ray emission previously detected by BeppoSax around eta Car originates from at least 3 different point sources. The emission of eta Car itself can be isolated for the first time, and its spectrum unambiguously analyzed. The X-ray emission of eta Car in the 22-100 keV energy range is very hard (Gamma ~= 1 ± 0.4) and its luminosity is 7 × 10^33 erg s^-1. Conclusions: The observed emission is in agreement with the predictions of inverse Compton models, and corresponds to about 0.1% of the energy available in the wind collision. eta Car is expected to be detected in the GeV energy range. [less ▲]

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See detailChronic kidney disease in Taiwan.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Lancet (2008), 372(9654), 19501950-1

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See detailTransmission of lymphoma via organ transplantation
Detry, Olivier ULg

in American Journal of Transplantation (2008), 8

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See detailReproducibility of GFR measured by chromium-51-EDTA and iohexol.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Froissart, Marc et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2008), 23(12), 4077-84078

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See detailVitamin D treatment in chronic kidney disease: what we really need to know.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg

in Archives of Internal Medicine (2008), 168(18), 20452046

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See detailDetermining prevalence of chronic kidney disease using estimated glomerular filtration rate.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association (2008), 299(6), 631

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See detailCystatin C, renal function, and cardiovascular risk.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Annals of Internal Medicine (2008), 148(4), 323

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See detailCystatin C-based equations: don't repeat the same errors with analytical considerations.
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2008), 23(3), 10651065-6

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See detailCreatinine calibration in NHANES: is a revised MDRD study formula needed?
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Maillard, Nicolas et al

in American Journal of Kidney Diseases (2008), 51(4), 709709-10

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See detailEffect of the counter-ion of the basification agent on the pore texture of organic and carbon xerogels
Job, Nathalie ULg; Gommes, Cédric ULg; Pirard, René ULg et al

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2008), 354(40-41), 4698-4701

Organic and carbon xerogels were prepared by polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde in water, followed by evaporative drying and, eventually, pyrolysis. The pH of the precursor's solution was ... [more ▼]

Organic and carbon xerogels were prepared by polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde in water, followed by evaporative drying and, eventually, pyrolysis. The pH of the precursor's solution was fixed at 6.0 in all cases by adding various hydroxides as basification agent. Three alkali metal hydroxides (LiOH, NaOH and KOH) and three alkaline earth metals hydroxides (Ca(OH)(2), Ba(OH)(2), Sr(OH)(2)) were used. It was found that the pore texture of the organic and carbon xerogels is totally independent on the cation size, but depends on the charge and concentration of the counter-cation. Indeed, the pore size of the alkaline earth metal loaded samples is larger than that of the alkali metal-doped xerogels. As a matter of fact, to reach the same initial pH, the concentration in alkali metal hydroxide must be twice that of the alkaline earth metal base. The effect of ions on the pore texture was thus attributed to electrostatic effects on the microphase separation process that occurs prior to gelation. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroducing atmospheric attenuation within a diffusion model room-acoustic predictions
Billon, Alexis ULg; Picaut, Judicaël; Foy, Cédric et al

in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (2008), 123(6), 4040-4043

This paper presents an extension of a diffusion model for room acoustics to handle the atmospheric attenuation. This phenomenon is critical at high frequencies and in large rooms to obtain correct ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an extension of a diffusion model for room acoustics to handle the atmospheric attenuation. This phenomenon is critical at high frequencies and in large rooms to obtain correct acoustic predictions. An additional term is introduced in the diffusion equation as well as in the diffusion constant, in order to take the atmospheric attenuation into account. The modified diffusion model is then compared with the statistical theory and a cone-tracing software. Three typical room-acoustic configurations are investigated: a proportionate room, a long room and a flat room. The modified diffusion model agrees well with the statistical theory (when applicable, as in proportionate rooms) and with the cone-tracing software, both in terms of sound pressure levels and reverberation times. [less ▲]

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See detailTime Reversal of Bose-Einstein Condensates
Martin, John ULg; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

in Physical Review Letters (2008), 101

Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted ... [more ▼]

Using Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we study the time reversibility of Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in kicked optical lattices, showing that in the regime of quantum chaos, the dynamics can be inverted from explosion to collapse. The accuracy of time reversal decreases with the increase of atom interactions in BEC, until it is completely lost. Surprisingly, quantum chaos helps to restore time reversibility. These predictions can be tested with existing experimental setups. [less ▲]

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See detailCooling by Time Reversal of Atomic Matter Waves
Martin, John ULg; Georgeot, B.; Shepelyansky, D. L.

in Physical Review Letters (2008), 100

We propose an experimental scheme which allows us to realized approximate time reversal of matter waves for ultracold atoms in the regime of quantum chaos. We show that a significant fraction of the atoms ... [more ▼]

We propose an experimental scheme which allows us to realized approximate time reversal of matter waves for ultracold atoms in the regime of quantum chaos. We show that a significant fraction of the atoms return back to their original state, being at the same time cooled down by several orders of magnitude. We give a theoretical description of this effect supported by extensive numerical simulations. The proposed scheme can be implemented with existing experimental setups. [less ▲]

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See detailAcetylcysteine and Enzymatic Creatinine: Beware of Laboratory Artefact!
Lognard, Michaël ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2007)

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See detailIs the cerebral cortex hyperexcitable or hyperresponsive in migraine?
Coppola, G.; Pierelli, F.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2007), 27(12), 1429-1439

Although migraineurs appear in general to be hypersensitive to external stimuli, they maybe also have increased daytime sleepiness and complain of fatigue. Neurophisiological studies between attacks have ... [more ▼]

Although migraineurs appear in general to be hypersensitive to external stimuli, they maybe also have increased daytime sleepiness and complain of fatigue. Neurophisiological studies between attacks have shown that for a number of different sensory modalities the migrainous brain is characterised by a lack of habituation of evoked responses. Whether this is due to increased cortical hyperexcitability, possibly due to decreased inhibition, or to an abnormal responsivity of the cortex due a decreased preactivation level remains disputed. Studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation in particular have yielded contradictory results. We will review here the available data on cortical excitability obtained with different methodological approaches in patients over the migraine cycle. We will show that these data congruently indicate that the sensory cortices of migraineurs react excessively to repetitive, but not to single, stimuli and that the controversy above hyper- versus hypo-excitability is merely a semantic misunderstanding. Describing the migrainous brain as 'hyperresponsive' would fit most of the available data. Deciphering the precise cellular and molecular underpinnings of this hyperresponsivity remains a challenge for future research. We propose, as a working hypothesis, that a thalamo-cortical dysrhythmia might be the culprit. [less ▲]

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See detailVitex agnus castus might enrich the pharmacological armamentarium for medical treatment of prolactinoma
Tamagno, G.; Burlacu, M. C.; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology & Reproductive Biology (2007), 135(1), 139-140

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See detaileosinophilic esophagitis
Leclercq, Philippe ULg; Marting, Audrey; Gast, Pierrette ULg

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2007), 357(14),

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See detailA review of the literature on neuroimaging of serotoninergic function in Alzheimer's disease and related disorders
Salmon, Eric ULg

in Journal of Neural Transmission (2007), 114(9), 1179-1185

Behavioural and psychological disorders are frequent not only in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but also in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many of them are related to serotoninergic dysfunction. In vitro ... [more ▼]

Behavioural and psychological disorders are frequent not only in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but also in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and many of them are related to serotoninergic dysfunction. In vitro biochemical measurements on brain samples show both pre- and post-synaptic impaired brain serotoninergic function in degenerative dementia, sometimes related to hyperactivity or aggressive behaviour. To date, few studies have explored in vivo 5HT2A and 5HT1A brain receptors in AD and FTD. They suggest that brain cells are lost in the associative cortices (5HT2A) and hippocampus (5HT1A) of AD patients, and in the medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortices of FTD subjects (5HT2A). Apart from reflecting a loss of local neurons, the meaning of the decrease in 5HT receptors is not yet clear and larger populations are required to establish relationships with clinical symptoms such as dementia severity and search for possible consequences for patients' behavioural and affective status. [less ▲]

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See detailPreconditioning and protection against ischaemia-reperfusion in non-cardiac organs: a place for volatile anaesthetics?
Minguet, Grégory ULg; Joris, Jean ULg; Lamy, Maurice ULg

in European Journal of Anaesthesiology (2007), 24(9), 733-745

There is an increasing body of evidence that volatile anaesthetics protect myocardium against ischaemic insult by a mechanism termed 'anaesthetic preconditioning'. Anaesthetic preconditioning and ... [more ▼]

There is an increasing body of evidence that volatile anaesthetics protect myocardium against ischaemic insult by a mechanism termed 'anaesthetic preconditioning'. Anaesthetic preconditioning and ischaemic preconditioning share several common mechanisms of action. Since ischaemic preconditioning has been demonstrated in organs other than the heart, anaesthetic preconditioning might also apply in these organs and have significant clinical applications in surgical procedures carrying a high risk of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. After a brief review on myocardial preconditioning, experimental and clinical data on preconditioning in non-cardiac tissues will be presented. Potential benefits of anaesthetic preconditioning during non-cardiac surgery will be addressed. [less ▲]

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See detailMarker vaccines and the impact of their use on diagnosis and prophylactic measures
Vannier, P.; Capua, I.; Le Potier, M. F. et al

in Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International des Epizooties (2007), 26(2), 351-372

Molecular biology and technical advances in DNA recombination have ushered in a new era in vaccinology. This article examines the recent development of specific marker vaccines and examines the impact of ... [more ▼]

Molecular biology and technical advances in DNA recombination have ushered in a new era in vaccinology. This article examines the recent development of specific marker vaccines and examines the impact of their use on the diagnosis and prevention of major infectious diseases. Gene-deleted vaccines, DIVA strategies (differentiating infected from vaccinated animals) and similar methods have been successfully applied in the control and eradication of Aujeszky's disease, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, classical swine fever, foot and mouth disease and, recently, avian influenza. The efficacy and performance of existing marker vaccines and their companion diagnostic tools (which should be assesed by an independent body) are discussed, as are the ways in which these tools are deployed by competent authorities. The limits and the advantages of the use of marker vaccines are carefully analysed in the light of practical experiences. Although these vaccines can limit the speed and the extent of virus dissemination and thus reduce the number of animals slaughtered, marker vaccines are no substitute for sanitary measures. Early detection and warning systems and the quick implementation of sanitary measures, including stamping out, remain key issues in the control of highly contagious diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailObscured and unobscured AGN populations in a hard-X-ray selected sample of the XMDS survey
Tajer, M.; Polletta, M.; Chiappetti, L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2007), 467(1), 73-91

Aims. Our goal is to probe the populations of obscured and unobscured AGN investigating their optical-IR and X-ray properties as a function of X-ray flux, luminosity and redshift within a hard X-ray ... [more ▼]

Aims. Our goal is to probe the populations of obscured and unobscured AGN investigating their optical-IR and X-ray properties as a function of X-ray flux, luminosity and redshift within a hard X-ray selected sample with wide multiwavelength coverage. Methods. We selected a sample of 136 X-ray sources detected at a significance of >= 3 sigma in the 2-10 keV band (F2-10 greater than or similar to 10(-1)4 erg cm(-2) s(-1)) in a similar to 1 deg(2) area in the XMM Medium Deep Survey (XMDS). The XMDS area is covered with optical photometry from the VVDS and CFHTLS surveys and infrared Spitzer data from the SWIRE survey. Based on the X-ray luminosity and X-ray to optical ratio, 132 sources are likely AGN, of which 122 have unambiguous optical - IR identification. The observed optical and IR spectral energy distributions of all identified sources are fitted with AGN/galaxy templates in order to classify them and compute photometric redshifts. X-ray spectral analysis is performed individually for sources with a sufficient number of counts and using a stacking technique for subsamples of sources at different flux levels. Hardness ratios are used to estimate X-ray absorption in individual weak sources. Results. 70% of the AGN are fitted by a type 2 AGN or a star forming galaxy template. We group them together in a single class of "optically obscured" AGN. These have "red" optical colors and in about 60% of cases show significant X-ray absorption (N-H > 10(22) cm(-2)). Sources with SEDs typical of type 1 AGN have "blue" optical colors and exhibit X-ray absorption in about 30% of cases. The stacked X-ray spectrum of obscured AGN is flatter than that of type 1 AGN and has an average spectral slope of Gamma = 1.6. The subsample of objects fitted by a star forming galaxy template has an even harder stacked spectrum, with Gamma similar to 1.2-1.3. The obscured fraction is larger at lower fluxes, lower redshifts and lower luminosities. X-ray absorption is less common than "optical" obscuration and its incidence is nearly constant with redshift and luminosity. This implies that at high luminosities X-ray absorption is not necessarily related to optical obscuration. The estimated surface densities of obscured, unobscured AGN and type 2 QSOs are respectively 138, 59 and 35 deg(-2) at F > 10-14 erg cm(-2) s(-1). [less ▲]

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See detailSexual versus individual differentiation: the controversial role of avian maternal hormones
Carere, C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism (2007), 18(2), 73-80

Avian embryos are exposed not only to endogenous sex steroids, which are produced by their gonads and have a key role in sexual differentiation, but also to maternal steroids transferred into the egg yolk ... [more ▼]

Avian embryos are exposed not only to endogenous sex steroids, which are produced by their gonads and have a key role in sexual differentiation, but also to maternal steroids transferred into the egg yolk, which can modulate the development of individual differences in behavior. Studies of maternal hormones have primarily focused on ultimate questions (evolutionary trade-offs, functional significance), whereas proximate mechanistic questions have been largely ignored. A central problem that must be addressed is how exposure to maternal hormones affects the individual phenotype without interfering with sexual differentiation. Separate effects could result from the action of different hormones, at different doses or at different times, on different targets. [less ▲]

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See detailExercise ventilation inefficiency in heart failure: pathophysiological and clinical significance
Tumminello, G.; Guazzi, M.; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg et al

in European Heart Journal (2007), 28(6), 673-678

Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome characterized by myocardial dysfunction and a poor prognosis. Among multiple markers of severity, an exercise ventilation inefficiency has important clinical and ... [more ▼]

Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome characterized by myocardial dysfunction and a poor prognosis. Among multiple markers of severity, an exercise ventilation inefficiency has important clinical and prognostic value. The pathophysiology determining exercise ventilatory inefficiency is complex and not definitively clarified. Three different mechanisms have been identified: (i) increased dead space, (ii) early occurrence of lactic acidosis, and (iii) abnormal chemoreflex and/or metaboreflex activity. Besides its prognostic value, abnormal ventilation can be influenced by pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies such as beta-blockers, selective cyclic 3'-5' guanosine monosphosphate phosphodiesterase inhibitors, physical training, and nocturnal continuous positive airway pressure. There is an increasing interest for the exercise periodic breathing, which is frequently associated with HF syndrome and has prognostic importance. The precise mechanisms sustaining exercise periodic breathing are not fully defined but ventilatory and metabo-haemodynamic hypotheses have been proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimated glomerular filtration rate
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Annals of Internal Medicine (2007), 146(1), 74-74

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See detailPrevention and treatment of major blood loss
Detry, Olivier ULg; De Roover, Arnaud ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg

in New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2007), 357(12), 1261-1261

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See detailBovine herpesvirus 1 infection and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis
Muylkens, Benoît ULg; Thiry, Julien ULg; Kirten, P. et al

in Veterinary Research (2007), 38(2), 181-209

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine ... [more ▼]

Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), classified as an alphaherpesvirus, is a major pathogen of cattle. Primary infection is accompanied by various clinical manifestations such as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, abortion, infectious pustular vulvovaginitis, and systemic infection in neonates. When animals survive, a life-long latent infection is established in nervous sensory ganglia. Several reactivation stimuli can lead to viral re-excretion, which is responsible for the maintenance of BoHV-1 within a cattle herd. This paper focuses on an updated pathogenesis based on a molecular characterization of BoHV-1 and the description of the virus cycle. Special emphasis is accorded to the impact of the latency and reactivation cycle on the epidemiology and the control of BoHV-1. Several European countries have initiated BoHV-1 eradication schemes because of the significant losses incurred by disease and trading restrictions. The vaccines used against BoHV-1 are described in this context where the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals is of critical importance to achieve BoHV-1 eradication. [less ▲]

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See detailFeline herpesvirus
Gaskell, Rosalind; Dawson, Susan; Radford, Alan et al

in Veterinary Research (2007), 38(2, FEB-MAR), 337-354

Feline herpesvirus (FHV-1; felid herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1)) is an alphaherpesvirus of cats closely related to canine herpesvirus-1 and phocine herpesvirus-1. There is only one serotype of the virus and it is ... [more ▼]

Feline herpesvirus (FHV-1; felid herpesvirus 1 (FeHV-1)) is an alphaherpesvirus of cats closely related to canine herpesvirus-1 and phocine herpesvirus-1. There is only one serotype of the virus and it is relatively homogenous genetically. FeHV-1 is an important cause of acute upper respiratory tract and ocular disease in cats. In addition, its role in more chronic ocular disease and skin lesions is increasingly being recognised. Epidemiologically, FeHV-1 behaves as a typical alphaherpesvirus whereby clinically recovered cats become latently infected carriers which undergo periodic episodes of virus reactivation, particularly after a stress. The primary site of latency is the trigeminal ganglion. Conventional inactivated and modified-live vaccines are available and protect reasonably well against disease but not infection, although viral shedding may be reduced. Genetically engineered vaccines have also been developed, both for FeHV-1 and as vector vaccines for other pathogens, but none is as yet marketed. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition metal transport
Krämer, Ute; Talke, Ina N.; Hanikenne, Marc ULg

in FEBS Letters (2007), 581(12 Sp. Iss. SI), 2263-2272

Transition metal transporters are of central importance in the plant metal homeostasis network which maintains internal metal concentrations within physiological limits. An overview is given of the ... [more ▼]

Transition metal transporters are of central importance in the plant metal homeostasis network which maintains internal metal concentrations within physiological limits. An overview is given of the functions of known transition metal transporters in the context of the unique chemical properties of their substrates. The modifications of the metal homeostasis network associated with the adaptation to an extreme metalliferous environment are illustrated in two Brassicaceae metal hyperaccumulator model plants based on cross-species transcriptomics studies. In a comparison between higher plants and unicellular algae, hypotheses are generated for evolutionary changes in metal transporter complements associated with the transition to multicellularity. (c) 2007 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe RIFLE criteria: are the foundations robust?
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg et al

in Critical Care Medicine (2007), 35(11), 26692669-70

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See detailGeneration of Symmetric Dicke States of Remote Qubits with Linear Optics
Thiel, C.; von Zanthier, J.; Bastin, Thierry ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2007), 99

We propose a method for generating all symmetric Dicke states, either in the long-lived internal levels of N massive particles or in the polarization degrees of freedom of photonic qubits, using linear ... [more ▼]

We propose a method for generating all symmetric Dicke states, either in the long-lived internal levels of N massive particles or in the polarization degrees of freedom of photonic qubits, using linear optical tools only. By means of a suitable multiphoton detection technique, erasing Welcher-Weg information, our proposed scheme allows the generation and measurement of an important class of entangled multiqubit states. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman erythroleukemia: is the two-hit model of mouse leukemogenesis valid in human disease?
Coulon, Séverine; Vandekerckhove, Julie; Dussiot, Michael et al

in Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (2007)

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See detailMapping, fine mapping, and molecular dissection of quantitative trait loci in domestic animals
Georges, Michel ULg

in Annual Review of Genomics & Human Genetics (2007), 8

Artificial selection has created myriad breeds of domestic animals, each characterized by unique phenotypes pertaining to behavior, morphology, physiology, and disease. Most domestic animal populations ... [more ▼]

Artificial selection has created myriad breeds of domestic animals, each characterized by unique phenotypes pertaining to behavior, morphology, physiology, and disease. Most domestic animal populations share features with isolated founder populations, making them well suited for positional cloning. Genome sequences are now available for most domestic species, and with them a panoply of tools including high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism panels. As a result, domestic animal populations are becoming invaluable resources for studying the molecular architecture of complex traits and of adaptation. Here we review recent progress and issues in the positional identification of genes underlying complex traits in domestic animals. As many phenotypes studied in animals are quantitative, we focus on mapping, fine mapping, and cloning of quantitative trait loci. [less ▲]

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See detailElectronic and structural transitions in dense liquid sodium
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Schwegler, E.; Bonev, S. A.

in Nature (2007), 449(7161), 448-451451

At ambient conditions, the light alkali metals are free-electron-like crystals with a highly symmetric structure. However, they were found recently to exhibit unexpected complexity under pressure 1-6. It ... [more ▼]

At ambient conditions, the light alkali metals are free-electron-like crystals with a highly symmetric structure. However, they were found recently to exhibit unexpected complexity under pressure 1-6. It was predicted from theory 1.2 - and later confirmed by experiment 3-5 - that lithium and sodium undergo a sequence of symmetry-breaking transitions, driven by a Peierls mechanism, at high pressures. Measurements of the sodium melting curve 6 have subsequently revealed an unprecedented (and still unexplained) pressure-induced drop in melting temperature from 1,000 K at 30 GPa down to room temperature at 120 GPa. Here we report results from ab initio calculations that explain the unusual melting behaviour in dense sodium. We show that molten sodium undergoes a series of pressure-induced structural and electronic transitions, analogous to those observed in solid sodium but commencing at much lower pressure in the presence of liquid disorder. As pressure is increased, liquid sodium initially evolves by assuming a more compact local structure. However, a transition to a lower-coordinated liquid takes place at a pressure of around 65 GPa, accompanied by a threefold drop in electrical conductivity. This transition is driven by the opening of a pseudogap, at the Fermi level, in the electronic density of states - an effect that has not hitherto been observed in a liquid metal. The lower-coordinated liquid emerges at high temperatures and above the stability region of a close-packed free-electron-like metal. We predict that similar exotic behaviour is possible in other materials as well. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum Imaging with Incoherent Photons
Thiel, C.; Bastin, Thierry ULg; Martin, John ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2007), 99

We propose a technique to obtain subwavelength resolution in quantum imaging with potentially 100% contrast using incoherent light. Our method requires neither path-entangled number states nor multiphoton ... [more ▼]

We propose a technique to obtain subwavelength resolution in quantum imaging with potentially 100% contrast using incoherent light. Our method requires neither path-entangled number states nor multiphoton absorption. The scheme makes use of N photons spontaneously emitted by N atoms and registered by N detectors. It is shown that for coincident detection at particular detector positions a resolution of lambda/N can be achieved. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of kinetic models of multi-walled CNT synthesis
Pirard, Sophie ULg; Douven, Sigrid ULg; Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg

in Carbon (2007), 45(15), 3050-3052

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See detailTreating gliomas with glucocorticoids: from bedside to bench
Piette, Caroline ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2006), 112(6), 651-664

Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of gliomas to decrease tumour-associated oedema and to reduce the risk of acute encephalopathy associated with radiotherapy. However, the mechanisms by which ... [more ▼]

Glucocorticoids are used in the treatment of gliomas to decrease tumour-associated oedema and to reduce the risk of acute encephalopathy associated with radiotherapy. However, the mechanisms by which glucocorticoids work are still largely unknown. In this paper, we survey the experimental and clinical evidence for the effects of glucocorticoids on tumour cell proliferation, apoptosis and sensitivity to chemotherapy, angiogenesis and vascular permeability. We then review current guidelines on the choice of molecule, dose and duration of glucocorticoid treatment for gliomas. [less ▲]

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See detailRenal extraction of cystatin C
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Cavalier, Etienne ULg; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2006), 21(11), 3333-3333

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See detailCarbon dioxide in European coastal waters
Borges, Alberto ULg; Schiettecatte, L. S.; Abril, Gwenaël et al

in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2006), 70(3), 375-387

We compiled from literature annually integrated air-water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) computed from field measurements, in 20 coastal European environments that were gathered into 3 main ecosystems ... [more ▼]

We compiled from literature annually integrated air-water fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) computed from field measurements, in 20 coastal European environments that were gathered into 3 main ecosystems: inner estuaries, upwelling continental shelves and non-upwelling continental shelves. The comparison of annual cycles of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)) in 5 contrasting continental shelves provided insights into the biogeochemical drivers of the CO2 fluxes. The latter were also investigated by comparing CO2 fluxes to net ecosystem (NEP) and net community production (NCP) in 3 contrasted coastal ecosystems. Air-water CO2 fluxes were scaled at European regional level and compared to fluxes of atmospheric CO2 in other aquatic and terrestrial compartments. Continental shelves are significant sinks for atmospheric CO2 at an average rate of -1.9 molC m(-2) yr(-1) that scaled at European level corresponds to an absorption of atmospheric CO2 of -68.1 TgC yr(-1). This sink is equivalent to the one reported for the terrestrial biosphere of -66.1 TgC yr(-1), based on carbon-stock change models. Estuaries are significant sources of CO2 to the atmosphere at an average rate of 49.9 molC m(-2) yr(-1) that is higher than the CO2 emission to the atmosphere from rivers, streams and lakes. The scaled emission of CO2 to the atmosphere from inner estuaries of about 67.0 TgC yr(-1) would almost fully balance the sink of atmospheric CO2 computed for continental shelves. However, the scaled emission of CO2 from estuaries to the atmosphere is inconsistent with the potential emission of CO2 based on the fate of river organic carbon during estuarine transit. This discrepancy is most probably due to the poorly constrained surface area estimate of inner estuaries. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNF-kappa B activation by double-strand breaks
Habraken, Yvette ULg; Piette, Jacques ULg

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2006), 72(9), 1132-1141

Cellular response to DNA damage is complex and relies on the simultaneous activation of different networks. It involves DNA damage recognition, repair, and induction of signalling cascades leading to cell ... [more ▼]

Cellular response to DNA damage is complex and relies on the simultaneous activation of different networks. It involves DNA damage recognition, repair, and induction of signalling cascades leading to cell cycle checkpoint activation, apoptosis, and stress related responses. The fate of damaged cells depends on the balance between pro- and antiapoptotic signals. in this decisive life or death choice, the transcription factor NF-kappa B has emerged as a prosurvival actor in most cell types. As corollary, it appears to be associated with tumorigenic process and resistance to therapeutic strategies as it protects cancerous cells from death. in this review, we will focus on NF-kappa B activation by double-strand breaks inducing agents, such as ionizing radiation and DNA topoisomerase I and II inhibitors routinely used in cancer therapy. Coinciding with the 20th anniversary of the NF-kappa B discovery, major steps of the DSB-triggered cascade have been recently identified. Two parallel cascades are necessary for NF-kappa B activation. The first one depends on ATM (activated by double-strand breaks) and the second on PIDD (activated by an unknown stress signal). The phosphorylation of NEMO by ATM is the point of convergence of these two cascades. The identification of ATM/NEMO complex as the long searched "nuclear to cytoplasm" signal leading to IKK activation is also a major piece of the puzzle. The knowledge of the precise steps leading to DSB-initiated NF kappa B activation will allow the development of specific blocking compounds reducing its prosurvival function. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe alternative NF-kappa B pathway from biochemistry to biology: Pitfalls and promises for future drug development
Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2006), 72(9), 1161-1179

The past two decades have led to a tremendous work on the transcription factor NF-kappa B and its molecular mechanisms of activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B is controlled by two main ... [more ▼]

The past two decades have led to a tremendous work on the transcription factor NF-kappa B and its molecular mechanisms of activation. The nuclear translocation of NF-kappa B is controlled by two main pathways: the classical and the alternative NF-kappa B pathways. The classical NF-kappa B pathway activates the IKK complex that controls the inducible degradation Of Most I kappa B family members that are I kappa B alpha, I kappa B beta, I kappa B epsilon and p105. The alternative NF-kappa B pathway induces p100 processing and p52 generation through the activation of at least two kinases, which are NIK and IKK alpha. Genetic studies have shown that IKK gamma is dispensable for the alternative pathway, which suggests the existence of an alternative IKK alpha-containing complex. It is noteworthy that activation of particular p52 heterodimers like p52/RelB requires solely the alternative pathway while activation of p52/p65 or p52/c-Rel involves a "hybrid pathway". Among others, LT beta R, BAFF-R, CD40 and RANK have the ability to induce the alternative pathway. The latter plays some roles in biological functions controlled by these receptors, which are the development of secondary lymphoid organs, the proliferation, survival and maturation of B cell, and the osteoclastogenesis. Exacerbated activation of the alternative pathway is potentially associated to a wide range of disorders like rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis or B cell lymphomas. Therefore, inhibitors of the alternative pathway could be valuable tools for the treatment of inflammatory disorders and cancers. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLessons learnt from carotid artery trials
Van Damme, Hendrik ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2006), 106(5), 489-499

The objective of the authors is to assess the natural history of carotid artery disease and the role of carotid intervention in preventing ipsilateral stroke. The development of endovascular techniques ... [more ▼]

The objective of the authors is to assess the natural history of carotid artery disease and the role of carotid intervention in preventing ipsilateral stroke. The development of endovascular techniques for correction of carotid artery stenoses made this less invasive technique very popular, with an inherent risk of unregulated overuse by a variety of medical specialists, who are not always well informed on the natural history of carotid artery disease. It re-opened the discussion on the value of carotid endarterectomy for stroke prophylaxis. This ongoing debate offers the opportunity to distil evidence-based guidelines for the management of extracranial carotid artery stenoses. In recent papers, some authors expressed doubts on the validity and general applicability of the results of the pivotal randomised trials of carotid endarterectomy. The excellent results in terms of operative outcome and long term stroke prevention would, according to certain comments, not be attainable in routine practice. Another criticism of carotid endarterectomy is its higher operative morbidity in terms of cranial nerve lesions and myocardial infarctions, compared to endovascular procedures. This consideration is, for some authors, the main reason to espouse carotid artery stenting as a better alternative to carotid endarterectomy. Any evidence supporting this point of view is missing. The supposed equivalence or non-inferiority of carotid artery stenting is purely speculative. The aim of this review paper is to summarize the crude data of carotid surgery trials. The authors aim to answer four questions. For which lesions is carotid endarterectomy most beneficial ? Are the results of randomised carotid surgery trials biased by the selection of patients ? Is operative morbidity, other than stroke, under-estimated ? Is carotid artery stenting safe and efficacious ? An in-depth review with a critical analysis is made of recently published and on-going trials, comparing carotid surgery with percutaneous carotid angioplasty. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal models of migraine: looking at the component parts of a complex disorder
Bergerot, A.; Holland, P. R.; Akerman, S. et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2006), 24(6), 1517-1534

Animal models of human disease have been extremely helpful both in advancing the understanding of brain disorders and in developing new therapeutic approaches. Models for studying headache mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Animal models of human disease have been extremely helpful both in advancing the understanding of brain disorders and in developing new therapeutic approaches. Models for studying headache mechanisms, particularly those directed at migraine, have been developed and exploited efficiently in the last decade, leading to better understanding of the potential mechanisms of the disorder and of the action for antimigraine treatments. Model systems employed have focused on the pain-producing cranial structures, the large vessels and dura mater, in order to provide reproducible physiological measures that could be subject to pharmacological exploration. A wide range of methods using both in vivo and in vitro approaches are now employed; these range from manipulation of the mouse genome in order to produce animals with human disease-producing mutations, through sensitive immunohistochemical methods to vascular, neurovascular and electrophysiological studies. No one model system in experimental animals can explain all the features of migraine; however, the systems available have begun to offer ways to dissect migraine's component parts to allow a better understanding of the problem and the development of new treatment strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailAn unusual false-positive fetal RHD typing result using DNA derived from maternal plasma from a solid organ transplant recipient
Minon, J. M.; Senterre, J. M.; Schaaps, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Transfusion (2006), 46(8), 1454-1455

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See detailNew approaches and old controversies to postoperative pain control following cardiac surgery
Roediger, Laurence ULg; Larbuisson, Robert ULg; Lamy, Maurice ULg

in European Journal of Anaesthesiology (2006), 23(7), 539-550

Objective: To evaluate the effect of postoperative pain control in cardiac surgical patients on morbidity, mortality and other outcome measures. Background: New approaches in pain control have been ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate the effect of postoperative pain control in cardiac surgical patients on morbidity, mortality and other outcome measures. Background: New approaches in pain control have been introduced over the past decade. The impact of these interventions, either alone or in combination, on perioperative outcome was evaluated in cardiac surgical patients. Methods: We searched Medline for the period of 1980 to the present using the key terms analgesics, opioid, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cardiac surgery, regional analgesia, spinal, epidural, fast-track cardiac anaesthesia, fast-track cardiac surgery, myocardial ischaemia, myocardial infarction, postoperative care, accelerated care programmes, postoperative complications, and we examined and discussed the articles that were identified to be included in this review. Results: Pain management in cardiac surgery is becoming more important with the establishment of minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass surgery and fast-track management of conventional cardiac surgery patients. Advances have been made in this area and encompass specific techniques, such as central neuraxial blockade or selective nerve blocks, and drugs (opioids, sedative-hypnotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Ideally, these therapies provide not only patient comfort but also mitigate untoward cardiovascular responses, pulmonary responses, and other inflammatory and secondary sympathetic responses. The introduction of these newer approaches to perioperative care has reduced morbidity, but not mortality, in cardiac surgical patients. Conclusions: Understanding perioperative pathophysiology and implementation of care regimes to reduce the stress of cardiac surgery, will continue to accelerate rehabilitation associated with decreased hospitalization and increased satisfaction and safety after discharge. Reorganization of the perioperative team (anaesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses and physical therapists) will be essential to achieve successful fast-track cardiac surgical programmes. Developments and improvements of multimodal interventions within the context of 'fast-track' cardiac surgery programmes represents the major challenge for the medical professionals working to achieve a 'pain and risk free' perioperative course. [less ▲]

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See detailDiarrhea induced by high doses of nicotinamide in dialysis patients
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Weekers, Laurent ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Kidney International (2006), 69(10), 1914-1914

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See detailIs brain estradiol a hormone or a neurotransmitter?
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Ball, G. F.

in Trends in Neurosciences (2006), 29(5), 241-249

Mounting evidence indicates that, besides their well-known hormonal mode of action at the genetic level, estrogens such as 17 beta-estradiol also influence brain function by direct effects on neuronal ... [more ▼]

Mounting evidence indicates that, besides their well-known hormonal mode of action at the genetic level, estrogens such as 17 beta-estradiol also influence brain function by direct effects on neuronal membranes. Experimentally induced rapid changes in estradiol bioavailability in the brain have been shown to alter the expression of male sexual behavior significantly within minutes - probably too quickly to be accounted for by conventional genetic mechanisms. In parallel, recent studies indicate that aromatase, the enzyme that converts testosterone to estradiol in the brain, is expressed in presynaptic terminals and modulated within minutes by Ca2+-dependent phosphorylation. In this article, we develop the hypothesis that brain estrogens display many, if not all, functional characteristics of neuromodulators or even neurotransmitters. [less ▲]

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See detail2006, International Year of Deserts, Desertification and Dust
Ozer, Pierre ULg; Courel, Marie-Françoise; Goudie, Andrew S

in Africa Health (2006), 28(4), 3

Desertification ranks among the major environmental challenges of the 21st century and is defined by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification as ‘land degradation in arid, semiarid, and dry ... [more ▼]

Desertification ranks among the major environmental challenges of the 21st century and is defined by the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification as ‘land degradation in arid, semiarid, and dry subhumid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities’. Currently, desertification affects a total area between 6 million and 12 million square kilometres and generates large loss of income, estimated at US$42 billion each year. Areas threatened by desertification occupy 34% of the Earth’s land area and are home to about 2 billion people. [...] [less ▲]

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