References of "Article"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 501 to 600 of 43772     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11     Coupling X-ray microtomography and macroscopic soil measurements: a method to enhance near saturation functions?Beckers, Eléonore ; Plougonven, Erwan; Gigot, Nicolas et alin Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2014), 18Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water ... [more ▼]Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves using both classical soil techniques and X-ray microtomography in the context of tillage simplification. We show a good match for retention and conductivity functions between macroscopic measurements and microtomographic information. Microtomography highlights the presence of a secondary pore system. Analysis of structural parameters for these pores appears to be significant and offers additional clues for objects differentiation. We show that relatively fast scans supply not only good results, but also enhance near saturation characterization, making microtomography a highly competitive instrument for routine soil characterization. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (24 ULg) Shewhart Control Charts for Monitoring Reliability with Weibull LifetimesFaraz, Alireza ; Saniga, Erwin; Heuchenne, Cédric in Quality and Reliability Engineering International (2014)In this paper, we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method ... [more ▼]In this paper, we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method is its ease of use and flexibility for the case where the process distribution is Weibull, although the method can be applied to any distribution. We illustrate the performance of our method through simulation and the application through the use of an actual data set. Our results indicate that Z ̅ and S2 control charts perform well in detecting shifts in the scale and shape parameters. We also provide a guide that would enable a user to interpret out-of-control signals. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg) Projected inhibition of platelet aggregation with ticagrelor twice daily vs. clopidogrel once daily based on patient adherence data (the TWICE project)Vrijens, Bernard ; Claeys, M.J.; LEGRAND, Victor et alin British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2014), 77(5), 746-755Abstract Aim Twice daily dosing is often perceived as inferior to once daily dosing due to a higher likelihood of missing a dose. However, more important is the extent to which drug action is maintained ... [more ▼]Abstract Aim Twice daily dosing is often perceived as inferior to once daily dosing due to a higher likelihood of missing a dose. However, more important is the extent to which drug action is maintained when doses are delayed or missed. We compared the estimated inhibition of platelet aggregation (eIPA) for ticagrelor twice daily and clopidogrel once daily, based on their pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic relationships and patient dosing history data. Methods Drug dosing histories of 5014 patients prescribed cardiovascular medications (primarily antihypertensive medicines) were extracted from an electronically compiled dosing history database. eIPA levels were simulated for 677 twice daily and 677 once daily dosing histories over a 30 day period, based on published onset/offset models for ticagrelor and clopidogrel IPA characteristics. Results While many patients treated twice daily missed at least one dose in 30 days, only 25.7% missed two consecutive doses. By comparison, 46.8% of patients treated once daily missed at least one dose. Simulations based on patient adherence over time showed that the average mean eIPA for ticagrelor twice daily remained significantly higher than for clopidogrel once daily (81.1% vs. 55.0%, P < 0.001). Ticagrelor twice daily patients had an eIPA below 10% for 0.20% of the 30 day period compared with 2.05% for clopidogrel once daily (P = 0.0001). Conclusions The projected level of platelet inhibition remained higher for ticagrelor twice daily than clopidogrel once daily, mainly due to the higher eIPA level achieved with ticagrelor and the relatively low likelihood of missing two consecutive twice daily doses. This modelling and simulation study suggests a therapeutic benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel when taking into account the most common dosing omissions. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) The Robust Economic Statistical Design of the Hotelling’s T^2 ChartFaraz, Alireza ; Chalaki, Kamyar; Saniga, Erwin et alin Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation (2014)Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the ... [more ▼]Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the process may be affected by more than one scenario which may lead to severe cost penalties for upsetting the true scenario. This paper presents the robust economic statistical design (RESD) of the T^2 chart to reduce the monetary losses when there are multiple distinct scenarios. The genetic algorithm optimization method is employed here to minimize the total expected monitoring cost across all distinct scenarios. Through two numerical examples the proposed method is illustrated. Simulation studies indicate that the robust economic statistical designs should be encouraged in practice. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) Le Musée de la Vie wallonne, indissociablement lié aux dialectologues liégeoisFrankinet, Baptiste in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)Au-delà d’un travail pointu de description et d’explication, les dialectologues liégeois ont toujours veillé à préserver les traces d’un patrimoine immatériel menacé de disparition. Selon eux, ce ... [more ▼]Au-delà d’un travail pointu de description et d’explication, les dialectologues liégeois ont toujours veillé à préserver les traces d’un patrimoine immatériel menacé de disparition. Selon eux, ce patrimoine dépassait le cadre strictement linguistique ou lexical pour épouser les formes d’un ensemble bien plus vaste : la vie wallonne tout entière. Impossible pour eux d’étudier un dialecte sans veiller à garder les usages ou les objets qu’il nomme, ni le souvenir des gens qui le parlent. Ainsi, en plus d’être des observateurs attentifs à leurs propres parlers, ils devinrent les premiers conservateurs de leur région. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Lutter contre le fléau des médicaments contrefaitsRudaz, Serge; Hubert, Philippe in Spectra Analyse (2014), 298EditorialDetailed reference viewed: 9 (3 ULg) Determinant of fat mass percentage and absolute fat-free mass in preterm infants at the time of hospital dischargeSimon, Laure; Frondas-Chauty, Anne; SENTERRE, Thibault et alin American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2014), 100(1), 98-104Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Angles corniculaires et de demi-cercle chez EuclideBair, Jacques ; Henry, Valérie in Hors Série Tangente (2014), 53Les angles datent de l’Antiquité : ils sont présents dans le célèbre ouvrage "Les Éléments" d’Euclide. En partant des "Commentaires" de Proclus, nous présentons la façon dont Euclide introduisait le ... [more ▼]Les angles datent de l’Antiquité : ils sont présents dans le célèbre ouvrage "Les Éléments" d’Euclide. En partant des "Commentaires" de Proclus, nous présentons la façon dont Euclide introduisait le concept d'angle et sa distinction entre les angles rectilignes et mixtilignes. Les cas des angles corniculaires et de demi-cercle sont spécialement traités. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Dialectique de l'esthétique: Hans-Jürgen Krahl et le "marxisme occidental" entre art et politique.Cavazzini, Andrea ; Hamers, Jérémy in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5L’article étudie – à partir des fragments de H.-J. Krahl – les débats sur l’esthétique et ses rapports avec la politique et la philosophie de l’histoire depuis la philosophie classique allemande jusqu’aux ... [more ▼]L’article étudie – à partir des fragments de H.-J. Krahl – les débats sur l’esthétique et ses rapports avec la politique et la philosophie de l’histoire depuis la philosophie classique allemande jusqu’aux analyses post-adorniennes de l’industrie culturelle. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Structured reflection breaks embedded in an online course – Effects on learning experience, time on task and performanceVerpoorten, Dominique ; Westera, Wimin Interactive Learning Environments (2014)The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the effects of practicing short, frequent and structured reflection breaks interspersed with the learning material in a computer-based course. To that end ... [more ▼]The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the effects of practicing short, frequent and structured reflection breaks interspersed with the learning material in a computer-based course. To that end, the study sets up a standardised control trial with 2 groups of secondary-school pupils. The study shows that, while performance is not affected by these embedded “reflection rituals”, they significantly impact time on task and perceived learning. The study also suggests that the exposure to such built-in opportunities for reflection modifies the engagement with the content and fosters the claimed readiness for application of a similar reflective approach to learning in other occasions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Factors associated with clinical inertia: an integrative reviewAujoulat, I; Jacquemin, p; Rietzschel, E et alin Advances in Medical Education and Practice (2014), 5Failure to initiate or intensify therapy according to evidence-based guidelines is increasingly being acknowledged as a phenomenon that contributes to inadequate management of chronic conditions, and is ... [more ▼]Failure to initiate or intensify therapy according to evidence-based guidelines is increasingly being acknowledged as a phenomenon that contributes to inadequate management of chronic conditions, and is referred to as clinical inertia. However, the number and complexity of factors associated with the clinical reasoning that underlies the decision-making processes in medicine calls for a critical examination of the consistency of the concept. Indeed, in the absence of information on and justification of treatment decisions that were made, clinical inertia may be only apparent, and actually reflect good clinical practice. This integrative review seeks to address the factors generally associated with clinical inaction, in order to better delineate the concept of true clinical inertia. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) High resolution saturated hydraulic conductivity logging of friable to poorly indurated borehole cores using air permeability measurementsRogiers, Bart; Winters, P.; Huysmans, Marijke et alin Hydrogeology Journal (2014)Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater ﬂow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. This paper investigates ... [more ▼]Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater ﬂow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. This paper investigates the hand-held air permeameter technique for high resolution hydraulic conductivity determination on borehole cores using a spatial resolution of ~0.05 m. We test the suitability of such air permeameter measurements on friable to poorly indurated sediments to improve the spatial prediction of classical laboratory based Ks measurements obtained at a much lower spatial resolution (~2 m). About 368 Ks measurements were made on ~350 m of borehole cores originating from the Campine basin, Northern Belgium, while ~5230 air permeability measurements were performed on the same cores. The heterogeneity in sediments, ranging from sand to clayey sand with distinct clay lenses, resulted in a Ks range of seven orders of magnitude. Cross-validation demonstrated that using air permeameter data as secondary variable and laboratory based Ks measurements as primary variable increased performance from R2 = 0.35 for ordinary kriging (laboratory Ks only) to R2 = 0.61 for co-kriging. Due to the large degree of small-scale variability detected by the air permeameter, the spatial granularity in the predicted laboratory Ks also increases drastically. The separate treatment of Kh and Kv revealed considerable anisotropy in certain lithostratigraphical units, while others where clearly isotropic at the sample scale. Air permeameter measurements on borehole cores provide a cost-effective way to improve spatial predictions of traditional laboratory based Ks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) Vitamin D status of schoolchildren in Northern Algeria, seasonal variations and determinants of vitamin D deficiencyDjennane, M; Lebbah, S; Roux, C et alin Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(5), 1493-502Summary There are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa. In 435 healthy Algerian children 5–15 years old, we found that vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25 ... [more ▼]Summary There are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa. In 435 healthy Algerian children 5–15 years old, we found that vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <50 nmol/L) was frequent, especially in winter. Low vitamin D status was associated with increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) and leg deformation Introduction As there are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa, we evaluated the 25OHD concentration of healthy Algerian children at the end of summer and at the end of winter. As secondary objectives, we studied the various determinants of vitamin D status and the PTH-25OHD relationship in these subjects. Methods Four hundred thirty-five children 5–15 years old were examined and had a blood sample in September 2010. Of them, 408 were sampled again in March 2011. Results Median 25OHD concentration in the whole group was 71.4 nmol/L in September and 52.9 nmol/L in March. In September, 58.4, 29.9, and 8.1 % had a 25OHD concentration below 75, 50, and 30 nmol/L respectively. In March, these percentages increased to 65.2, 41.4, and 17.4 % for the 75, 50, and 30 nmol/L threshold, respectively. In multivariate analysis, older age, darker skin phototype, low daily vitamin D and calcium intake, poor socioeconomic status, and short daily sun exposure remained significantly associated with a 25OHD <50 nmol/L at both visits. In 72 (16.6 %) children, genu varum/valgum was present. Compared to the 363 children without leg deformation, they presented more frequently with the risk factors of vitamin D insufficiency. They also had lower 25OHD concentrations and higher PTH and tALP. Serum PTH and 25OHD concentrations were negatively and significantly correlated (r=−0.43; p<0.001) without a 25OHD threshold above which PTH does not decrease anymore. Conclusion Despite a sunny environment, vitamin D insufficiency is frequent in healthy Algerian children. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Can we use circulating biomarkers to monitor bone turnover in CKD haemodialysis patients? Hypotheses and factsDELANAYE, Pierre ; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène et alin Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2014), 29(5), 997-1004Assessing bone turnover is a key diagnostic tool in the global management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Since bone biopsy is invasive and cannot be repeated in clinical ... [more ▼]Assessing bone turnover is a key diagnostic tool in the global management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Since bone biopsy is invasive and cannot be repeated in clinical practice and because bone histomorphometry is less available due to the lack of specialized laboratories, we will focus on potential biomarkers used to assess and monitor bone turnover. After briefly reviewing the pathophysiology of bone turnover in CKD and haemodialysis patients, we will focus on the strengths and limitations of the now recommended biomarkers, i.e. parathormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. We will consider the clinical and also the biological aspects of the topic and also insist on the use of these biomarkers for the monitoring, and the follow-up of the turnover in haemodialysis subjects. Finally, we will discuss some of the most promising, but still not recommended, emerging biomarkers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 63 (12 ULg) Méthodes chromatographiques génériques de criblage pour lutter contre les médicaments de qualité inférieureHabyalimana, Védaste; Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème; Dispas, Amandine et alin Spectra Analyse (2014), 43Poor quality medicines are a danger and a threat to public health. In this context, several generic analytical methods have been developed to screen molecules of interest grouped by pharmacological class ... [more ▼]Poor quality medicines are a danger and a threat to public health. In this context, several generic analytical methods have been developed to screen molecules of interest grouped by pharmacological class using an innovative strategy based on design of experiments followed in some cases by independent component analysis and calculation of design space. Once validated via the classical total error measurement approach, these methods were applied to quantify antimalarial, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antibiotic medicines. Alarming results regarding the dosage of these drugs widely used by people confirm the need to fight against this scourge. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Can we use circulating biomarkers to monitor bone turnover in CKD haemodialysis patients? Hypotheses and factsDELANAYE, Pierre ; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène et alin Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2014), 29(5), 997-1004Assessing bone turnover is a key diagnostic tool in the global management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Since bone biopsy is invasive and cannot be repeated in clinical ... [more ▼]Assessing bone turnover is a key diagnostic tool in the global management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Since bone biopsy is invasive and cannot be repeated in clinical practice and because bone histomorphometry is less available due to the lack of specialized laboratories, we will focus on potential biomarkers used to assess and monitor bone turnover. After briefly reviewing the pathophysiology of bone turnover in CKD and haemodialysis patients, we will focus on the strengths and limitations of the now recommended biomarkers, i.e. parathormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. We will consider the clinical and also the biological aspects of the topic and also insist on the use of these biomarkers for the monitoring, and the follow-up of the turnover in haemodialysis subjects. Finally, we will discuss some of the most promising, but still not recommended, emerging biomarkers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 63 (12 ULg) La spectroscopie proche infrarouge, une technique non destructive dans la lutte contre la contrefaçon des médicamentsMbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ; Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème; Chavez, Pierre-François et alin Spectra Analyse (2014), 43Near infrared spectroscopy is a very promising and expanding analytical technique. It has to be noted that this technique is becoming more used in the pharmaceutical field for the quality control of ... [more ▼]Near infrared spectroscopy is a very promising and expanding analytical technique. It has to be noted that this technique is becoming more used in the pharmaceutical field for the quality control of products. Indeed near infrared spectroscopy allows to perform fast, non-destructive, versatile analysis of the sample and minimization of the sample preparation. Based on those advantages, this spectroscopic method is one of the first reliable analytical techniques for fighting against counterfeit medicines. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (13 ULg) Des performances de production laitière et de reproduction élevées sont compatibles. Le management en est la clé.Chapaux, Philippe; Glorieux, Géry; Hanzen, Christian in Veterinaria (Bruxelles) : Bulletin d’Information de l’Union Syndicale Vétérinaire Belge (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 112 (3 ULg) Is isokinetic eccentric exercise dangerous for the heart?LE GOFF, Caroline ; Kaux, Jean-François ; LAURENT, Terry et alin Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2014), 22(2), 131-136BACKGROUND: Very strenuous exercises can be performed on an isokinetic dynamometer in order to evaluate the resistance to fatigue of different muscular groups. Good cardiac function is necessary in order ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Very strenuous exercises can be performed on an isokinetic dynamometer in order to evaluate the resistance to fatigue of different muscular groups. Good cardiac function is necessary in order to perform these very intensive exercises; otherwise an acute myocardial dysfunction could theoretically appear in predisposed patients. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to observe the cardiovascular impact of a maximal intense isokinetic eccentric exercise performed by a population of sedentary young men. METHODS: Resting and post-exercise (just after, 3 hours and 24 hours after the exercise) blood samples were taken from 12 young male sedentary healthy subjects. These subjects performed an intense maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise of the quadriceps muscle.We evaluated markers of cardiovascular risk (troponin I, highly sensitive troponin T, NT-proBNP,myoglobin), of inflammation (hsCRP) and of oxidative stress (myeloperoxydase, lipidic peroxides, reduced and oxidized glutathione). RESULTS: The following observations were made: no significant increase in cardiac (NT-proBNP, troponins) or inflammation (hsCRP) biomarkers; a significant increase in myoglobin, myeloperoxidase, lipidic peroxides, oxidised glutathione just after the exercise. CONCLUSIONS: No modification in cardiac biomarkers were observed after the maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise. We were thus able to prove that the exercise could be performed without any risk to cardiac function in young sedentary subjects. However, a significant level of oxidative stress was induced by this exercise. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg) Analysis of transient scattering problems using a discontinuous Galerkin method: application to the shielding effectiveness of enclosures with heterogeneous wallsBoubekeur, Mohamed; Kameni, Abelin; Pichon, Lionel et alin International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields (2014), 27(3), 626-635In this paper, different formulations of Maxwell equations are combined for computing the shielding effectiveness of enclosures made from heterogeneous periodic materials. The validity of the homogenized ... [more ▼]In this paper, different formulations of Maxwell equations are combined for computing the shielding effectiveness of enclosures made from heterogeneous periodic materials. The validity of the homogenized parameters given by Maxwell-Garnett rules in the frequency domain are tested in the time domain using a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method, which uses an interface condition based on analytical solution in the frequency domain to replace a conductive sheet. This interface condition allows to avoid meshing the thin sheet, thus reducing the computational cost. Results of scattering by composite enclosures are presented in the frequency domain thanks to a Fast Fourier Transform. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (8 ULg) Stratégies analytiques pour la détection de contrefaçons de médicaments pour la dysfonction érectileSacre, Pierre-Yves ; Deconinck, Eric; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland et alin Spectra Analyse (2014), 43Erectile dysfunction drugs are among the most counterfeit drug classes in industrialized countries. To fight against this plague, several analytical approaches are available for control laboratories. The ... [more ▼]Erectile dysfunction drugs are among the most counterfeit drug classes in industrialized countries. To fight against this plague, several analytical approaches are available for control laboratories. The present article reviews the main used techniques and concludes presenting a general strategy for the detection and handling of drug counterfeits. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (5 ULg) X-ray microtomography: A porosity-based thresholding method to improve soil pore network characterization?Beckers, Eléonore ; Plougonven, Erwan ; Roisin, Christian et alin Geoderma (2014), 219-220X-ray microtomography, through quantification of soil structure at the microscale, could greatly facilitate the current understanding of soil hydrodynamic behaviour. However, binarisation method and ... [more ▼]X-ray microtomography, through quantification of soil structure at the microscale, could greatly facilitate the current understanding of soil hydrodynamic behaviour. However, binarisation method and processing choices are subjective and can have a strong impact on results and conclusions. In this study, we test a new method based on the porosity detectable by X-ray microtomography, while validation is achieved through comparison of soil microtomogram information with soil physical measurements. These measurements consist of water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using two different soil populations with only structural differences. To assess the porosity-based method performances, we compare it to four other methods, namely the global method of Otsu and three recent soil-dedicated local methods. The robustness of the porosity-based method is also tested in regard to different pre-processing procedures. In this paper we demonstrate that soil segmentation through a porosity-based method is an interesting issue. Indeed, it is less demanding in terms of time and computational requirements than its alternatives, and combines robustness and performances broadly comparable with the recent local methods. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (12 ULg) Resilience to Flooding - Draft Building CodeClarkson, John; Sullican, David; Braun, Kenton et alin PIANC Yearbook 2013 (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) La Fête du 14 juillet à Liège vue par le consul de France Léon Labbé (1919-1930). Une célébration sous surveillanceGenin, Vincent in Bulletin de la Société Royale Le Vieux-Liège (2014), 344Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg) Genetic regulation of immunoglobulin E level in different pathological states: integration of mouse and human geneticsGusareva, Elena ; Kurey, Irina; Grekov, Igor et alin Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (2014), 89(2), 375-405Immunoglobulin E (IgE) first evolved in mammals. It plays an important role in defence against helminths and parasitic infection and in pathological states including allergic reactions, anti-tumour ... [more ▼]Immunoglobulin E (IgE) first evolved in mammals. It plays an important role in defence against helminths and parasitic infection and in pathological states including allergic reactions, anti-tumour defence and autoimmune diseases. Elucidation of genetic control of IgE level could help us to understand regulation of the humoral immune response in health and disease, the etiology and pathogenesis of many human diseases, and to facilitate discovery of more effective methods for their prevention and cure. Herein we summarise progress in the genetics of regulation of IgE level in human diseases and show that integration of different approaches and use of animal models have synergistic effects in gaining new knowledge about both protective and pathological roles of this important antibody. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 ULg) La radicalité ouvrière en mots et en actes. Polysémie des termes et disqualification politiqueGeuens, Geoffrey ; Hamers, Jérémy in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2014), 84 ("La radicalité ouvrière en Europe. Acteurs, pratiques, discours")(printemps 2014), Detailed reference viewed: 44 (17 ULg) Coupling building energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics: Application to a two-storey house in a temperate climateBarbason, Mathieu ; Reiter, Sigrid in Building & Environment (2014), 75This article reports the coupling of a building energy simulation (BES) made with TRNSYS with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation made with ANSYS FLUENT and its application to a typical ... [more ▼]This article reports the coupling of a building energy simulation (BES) made with TRNSYS with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation made with ANSYS FLUENT and its application to a typical Belgian two-storey house. The coupling scheme developed in this study aims to improve the overheating prediction for buildings. This phenomenon is becoming increasingly frequent in Northern Europe due to increased insulation and a lack of sun protection and natural cooling strategies. Complementary contributions of the two numerical approaches are underlined and used to obtain accurate results in an acceptable computing time, even in a thermally stratified room. The space and time coupling is discussed to obtain an optimised tool in which BES is in charge of the primary portion of the effort, while CFD intervenes punctually on one room of interest. The numerical results are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively to the experimental results, and the improved accuracy of the coupled tool compared with a standalone BES is underlined. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (5 ULg) Analyses croisées du monde du travailSmette, Bernard in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg) EditorialCavazzini, Andrea in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Rénover ou réformer la fiscalité du logement en WallonieXhignesse, Guillaume in Revue Générale de Fiscalité [= RFG] (2014)Cette contribution a pour objectif de stimuler la discussion relative à la réforme de la fiscalité du logement en Belgique, et plus particulièrement en Wallonie. Nous y évoquons quelques enjeux d'une ... [more ▼]Cette contribution a pour objectif de stimuler la discussion relative à la réforme de la fiscalité du logement en Belgique, et plus particulièrement en Wallonie. Nous y évoquons quelques enjeux d'une telle réforme et nous proposons diverses pistes de réflexions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 256 (146 ULg) Le Pacifisme d'Auguste Beernaert. De l'homme d'Etat à l'homme des EtatsGenin, Vincent in Espace de Libertés : Magazine du Centre d'Action Laïque (2014), 429Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg) Hybrid MicroPET Imaging for Dosimetric Applications in Mice: Improvement of Activity Quantification in Dynamic MicroPET Imaging for Accelerated Dosimetry Applied to 6-[ 18 F] Fluoro- L -DOPA and 2-[ 18 F]Fluoro- L -TyrosineBretin, Florian ; Mauxion, T; Warnock, G et alin Molecular Imaging and Biology (2014), 16(3), 383-394Purpose: Dynamic microPET imaging has advantages over traditional organ harvesting, but is pronetoquantificationerrorsinsmallvolumes.Hybridimaging,wheremicroPETactivitiesarecross- calibrated using post ... [more ▼]Purpose: Dynamic microPET imaging has advantages over traditional organ harvesting, but is pronetoquantificationerrorsinsmallvolumes.Hybridimaging,wheremicroPETactivitiesarecross- calibrated using post scan harvested organs, can improve quantification. Organ harvesting, dynamic imaging and hybrid imaging were applied to determine the human and mouse radiation dosimetry of 6-[18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA and 2-[18 F]fluoro-L-tyrosine and compared. Procedures: Two-hour dynamic microPET imaging was performed with both tracers in four separate mice for 18 F-FDOPA and three mice for 18 F-FTYR. Organ harvesting was performed at 2, 5, 10, 30, 60 and 120 min post tracer injection with n=5 at each time point for 18 F-FDOPA and n=3 at each time point for 18 F-FTYR. Human radiation dosimetry projected from animal data was calculated for the three different approaches for each tracer using OLINDA/EXM. S- factors for the MOBY phantom were used to calculate the animal dosimetry. Results: Correlations between dose estimates based on organ harvesting and imaging was improved from r=0.997 to r=0.999 for 18 F-FDOPA and from r=0.985 to r=0.996 (p<0.0001 for all) for 18 F-FTYR by using hybrid imaging. Conclusion: Hybrid imaging yields comparable results to traditional organ harvesting while partially overcoming the limitations of pure imaging. It is an advantageous technique in terms of number of animals needed and labour involved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (7 ULg) Sur quelques thèmes chez Heiner MullerCavazzini, Andrea in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) Transit confirmation and improved stellar and planet parameters for the super-Earth HD 97658 b and its host starVan Grootel, Valérie ; Gillon, Michaël ; Valencia, D. et alin Astrophysical Journal (2014), 786Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition ... [more ▼]Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition. We present here the confirmation, based on Spitzer transit observations, that the super-Earth HD 97658 b transits its host star. HD 97658 is a low-mass ($M_*=0.77\pm0.05\,M_{\odot}$) K1 dwarf, as determined from the Hipparcos parallax and stellar evolution modeling. To constrain the planet parameters, we carry out Bayesian global analyses of Keck-HIRES radial velocities, and MOST and Spitzer photometry. HD 97658 b is a massive ($M_P=7.55^{+0.83}_{-0.79} M_{\oplus}$) and large ($R_{P} = 2.247^{+0.098}_{-0.095} R_{\oplus}$ at 4.5 $\mu$m) super-Earth. We investigate the possible internal compositions for HD 97658 b. Our results indicate a large rocky component, by at least 60% by mass, and very little H-He components, at most 2% by mass. We also discuss how future asteroseismic observations can improve the knowledge of the HD 97658 system, in particular by constraining its age. Orbiting a bright host star, HD 97658 b will be a key target for coming space missions TESS, CHEOPS, PLATO, and also JWST, to characterize thoroughly its structure and atmosphere. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (10 ULg) Communiste, social révolutionnaire, antisémite? D'un usage détourné de la radicalité ouvrière par les mouvements terroristes d'extrême gauche allemands.Jander, Martin; Hamers, Jérémy in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (2 ULg) Spatiotemporal monitoring of the antibiome secreted by Bacillus biofilms on plant roots using MALDI mass spectrometry imagingDebois, Delphine ; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Smargiasso, Nicolas et alin Analytical Chemistry (2014), 86(9), 4431-4438Some soil Bacilli living in association with plant roots can protect their host from infection by pathogenic microbes and are therefore being developed as biological agents to control plant diseases. The ... [more ▼]Some soil Bacilli living in association with plant roots can protect their host from infection by pathogenic microbes and are therefore being developed as biological agents to control plant diseases. The plant protective activity of these bacteria has been correlated with the potential to secrete a wide array of antibiotic compounds upon growth as planktonic cells in isolated cultures under laboratory conditions. However, in situ expression of these antibiotics in the rhizosphere where bacterial cells naturally colonize root tissues is still poorly understood. In this work, we used Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) to examine spatio-temporal changes in the secreted antibiome of B. amyloliquefaciens developing as biofilms on roots. Non-ribosomal lipopeptides such as the plant immunity elicitor surfactin or the highly fungitoxic iturins and fengycins were readily produced albeit in different time-frames and quantities in the surrounding medium. Interestingly, MS/MS experiments performed directly from the gelified culture medium, also allowed to identify a new variant of surfactins released at later time points. However, no other bioactive compounds such as polyketides were detected at any time, strongly suggesting that the antibiome expressed in planta by B. amyloliquefaciens does not reflect the vast genetic arsenal devoted to the formation of such compounds. This first dynamic study reveals the power of MALDI MSI as tool to identify and map antibiotics synthesized by root-associated bacteria and more generally, to investigate plant-microbe interactions at the molecular level. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Les tourbières sont-elles des réservoirs pour les vecteurs de maladies émergentes ? Evaluation des populations de Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) dans la réserve naturelle des Hautes Fagnes (Belgique)Zimmer, Jean-Yves ; Fagot, Jean; Smeets, François et alin Documents de la Station scientifique des Hautes-Fagnes (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) The XMM-Newton view of the yellow hypergiant IRC+10420 and its surroundingsDe Becker, Michaël ; Hutsemekers, Damien ; Gosset, Eric in New Astronomy (2014), 29Among evolved massive stars likely in transition to the Wolf-Rayet phase, IRC +10420 is probably one of the most enigmatic. It belongs to the category of yellow hypergiants and it is characterized by ... [more ▼]Among evolved massive stars likely in transition to the Wolf-Rayet phase, IRC +10420 is probably one of the most enigmatic. It belongs to the category of yellow hypergiants and it is characterized by quite high mass loss episodes. Even though IRC+10420 benefited of many observations in several wavelength domains, it has never been a target for an X-ray observatory. We report here on the very first dedicated observation of IRC+10420 in X-rays, using the XMM-Newton satellite. Even though the target is not detected, we derive X-ray flux upper limits of the order of 1–3 ×10−14 erg cm−2 s−1 (between 0.3 and 10.0 keV), and we discuss the case of IRC+10420 in the framework of emission models likely to be adequate for such an object. Using the Optical/UV Monitor on board XMM-Newton, we present the very first upper limits of the flux density of IRC +10420 in the UV domain (between 1800 and 2250 Å and between 2050 and 2450 Å). Finally, we also report on the detection in this field of 10 X-ray and 7 UV point sources, and we briefly discuss their properties and potential counterparts at longer wavelengths. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (10 ULg) Et si la promotion de la santé était un art du paradoxe !Vandoorne, Chantal in Education Santé (2014), (300), 6-7Detailed reference viewed: 30 (17 ULg) A Brief Review of Ultraviolet Auroral Emissions on Giant PlanetsGrodent, Denis in Space Science Reviews (2014)The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although ... [more ▼]The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although this simplified view is very handy for a gross depiction of the giant planets’ aurorae, it fails to scrutinize the diversity and the dynamics of the actual features that are regularly observed with the available ultraviolet imagers and spectrographs. In the present review, the typical morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn’s aurorae are represented with an updated and more accurate set of components. The use of sketches, rather than images, makes it possible to compile all these components in a single view and to put aside ultraviolet imaging technical issues that are blurring the emission sources, thus preventing one from disentangling the different auroral signatures. The ionospheric and magnetospheric processes to which these auroral features allude can then be more easily accounted. In addition, the use of components of the same kind for both planets may help to put forward similarities and differences between Jupiter and Saturn. The case of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune is much less compelling since their weak auroral emissions are very poorly documented and one can only speculate about their origin. This review presents a current perspective that will inevitably evolve in the future, especially with upcoming observing campaigns and forthcoming missions like Juno. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (5 ULg) Capillary-driven bi-dimensional buoyancy in vertical soap filmsAdami, Nicolas ; Caps, Hervéin Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Influence of a commercial monoacylglycerol on the crystallization mechanism of palm oil as compared to its pure constituentsVerstringe, Stefanie; Danthine, Sabine ; Blecker, Christophe et alin Food Research International (2014), 62The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main ... [more ▼]The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main constituents of Myverol, monopalmitin and monostearin. The MAGs were added to PO in concentrations up to 8% and the blends were studied using different techniques (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM)). The DSC crystallization profiles revealed an earlier onset of crystallization along with extra crystallization peaks when MAGs were added to PO. Combined with X-ray results, it could be concluded that the crystallization process of the blends is initiated by the MAGs crystallizing in the α form and then transforming to sub-α. The effect on the non-isothermal crystallization of the PO TAGs is confined to an earlier onset of crystallization, probably through a template effect, and an effect on the crystal structure coarseness. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Influence of a commercial monoacylglycerol on the crystallization mechanism of palm oil as compared to its pure constituentsVerstringe, Stefanie; Danthine, Sabine ; Blecker, Christophe et alin Food Research International (2014), 62The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main ... [more ▼]The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main constituents of Myverol, monopalmitin and monostearin. The MAGs were added to PO in concentrations up to 8% and the blends were studied using different techniques (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM)). The DSC crystallization profiles revealed an earlier onset of crystallization along with extra crystallization peaks when MAGs were added to PO. Combined with X-ray results, it could be concluded that the crystallization process of the blends is initiated by the MAGs crystallizing in the α form and then transforming to sub-α. The effect on the non-isothermal crystallization of the PO TAGs is confined to an earlier onset of crystallization, probably through a template effect, and an effect on the crystal structure coarseness. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with diffuser or point source illuminations for measuring deformations of aspheric mirrorsVandenrijt, Jean-François ; Thizy, Cédric ; Queeckers, Patrick et alin Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2014), 53(11), 112309Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a ... [more ▼]Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a Mach–Zehnder, associated to the digital holography reconstruction of the wavefront in the inline configuration with phase shifting. Two possibilities exist for illuminating the tested reflector: either with a point source (similarly to classical interferometry) or an extended source (with a diffuser). This paper presents the development of a modular setup which allows comparing both in the case of a parabolic mirror [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg) Tendinopathies chroniques et Plasma Riche en PlaquettesKAUX, Jean-François ; Drion, Pierre ; Croisier, Jean-Louis et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2014)Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of ... [more ▼]Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is still discussed or even controversial. Our researches have evaluated the effectiveness of PRP on the healing of animal tendons and human suffering from chronic jumper's knee. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (3 ULg) Altered Desferrioxamine-mediated Iron Utilization is a Common Trait of bald Mutants of Streptomyces coelicolorLambert, Stéphany ; Traxler, Matthew F; Craig, Matthias et alin Metallomics (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 5 (2 ULg) Poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide nanocomposites by a precipitation polymerization process and their dielectric and rheological characterizationThomassin, Jean-Michel ; Trifkovic, Milana; Alkarmo, Walid et alin Macromolecules (2014), 47(6), 2149-2155We report a method for achieving controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via the precipitation polymerization process in a water/ methanol mixture. GO acts as a ... [more ▼]We report a method for achieving controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via the precipitation polymerization process in a water/ methanol mixture. GO acts as a surfactant and adsorbs on the interface between polymerized PMMA particles and solvent mixture. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the precipitate consists of polymer particles (<1 μm) surrounded by the GO sheets. Compression molding of the precipitate yields a polymer nanocomposite with the GO organized into a regularly spaced 3D network which percolates at 0.2 wt % GO. Simple thermal reduction of the GO sheets dispersed in PMMA at relatively low temperature (210 °C) achieved electrical conductivity higher than 10−2 S/m at 0.4 wt % of GO. Parallel dielectric and rheological characterization demonstrated that the thermal reduction is a quite fast process without significant degradation of the polymer. The study should open up new opportunities in the design of GO-based polymer nanocomposites. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (11 ULg) Brown rust disease control in winter wheat: II. Exploring the optimization of fungicide sprays through a decision support systemEl Jarroudi, Moussa ; kOUADIO, Louis; Giraud, Frédéric et alin Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014), 21(4), 4809-4818A decision support system (DSS) involving an approach for predicting wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection and progress based on night weather variables (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall ... [more ▼]A decision support system (DSS) involving an approach for predicting wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection and progress based on night weather variables (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) and a mechanistic model for leaf emergence and development simulation (i.e., PROCULTURE) was tested in order to schedule fungicide time spray for controlling leaf rust progress in wheat fields. Experiments including a single fungicide treatment based upon the DSS along with double and triple treatment were carried out over the 2007–2009 cropping seasons in four representative Luxembourgish wheat field locations. The study showed that the WLR occurrences and severities differed according to the site, cultivar, and year. We also found out that the single fungicide treatment based on the DSS allowed a good protection of the three upper leaves of susceptible cultivars in fields with predominant WLR occurrences. The harvested grain yield was not significantly different from that of the double and triple fungicide-treated plots (P < 0.05). Such results could serve as basis or be coupled to cost-effective and environmentally friendly crop management systems in operational context. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) Stochastic exposure to sub-lethal high temperature enhances exopolysaccharides (EPS) excretion and improves Bifidobacterium bifidum cell survival to freeze-dryingNguyen, Huu Thanh ; Razafindralambo, Hary; Blecker, Christophe et alin Biochemical Engineering Journal (2014), 88Exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal stresses is known to increase cell robustness. In this work, a two-compartment bioreactor in which microbial cells are stochastically exposed to sub-lethal ... [more ▼]Exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal stresses is known to increase cell robustness. In this work, a two-compartment bioreactor in which microbial cells are stochastically exposed to sub-lethal temperature stresses has been used in order to investigate the response of the stress sensitive Bifidobacterium bifidum THT 0101 to downstream processing operations. A stochastic model validated by residence time distribution experiments has shown that in the heat-shock configuration, a two-compartment bioreactor (TCB) allows the exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal temperature of 42°C for a duration comprised between 100 and 300 seconds. This exposure resulted in a significant increase of cell resistance to freeze-drying by comparison with cells cultivated in conventional bioreactors or in the TCB in the cold shock mode (CS-TCB). The mechanism behind this robustness seems to be related with the coating of microbial cells with exopolysaccharide (EPS), as assessed by the change of the zeta potential and the presence of higher EPS concentration after heat shock. Conditioning of Bifidobacteria on the basis of the heat shock technique is interesting from the practical and economical point of view since this strategy can be directly implemented in the bioreactor during stationary phase preceding cell recovery and freeze-drying [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (13 ULg) (Co)Polymerization of vinyl levulinate by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and functionalization by ketoxime click chemistryAllaoua, Imène; Eleuterio, Beatriz; Obadia, Mona M. et alin Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(8), 2973-2979Vinyl levulinate is synthesized from levulinic acid by palladium-catalyzed vinyl exchange and is characterized by NMR and ESI-HRMS techniques. Homopolymerization of vinyl levulinate and random ... [more ▼]Vinyl levulinate is synthesized from levulinic acid by palladium-catalyzed vinyl exchange and is characterized by NMR and ESI-HRMS techniques. Homopolymerization of vinyl levulinate and random copolymerization with vinyl acetate by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization affords well-defined ketone functionalized poly(vinyl ester)s. The impact of temperature, solvent and theoretical degree of polymerization on monomer conversion and control of the polymerization is studied by 1H NMR and size exclusion chromatography techniques. The ketoxime conjugation of O-benzylhydroxylamine with the pendant ketone functionality of poly(vinyl levulinate-co-vinyl acetate) is demonstrated. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Dual Mode of Action of Amylolysin, a Type-B Lantibiotic Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GA1Arguelles Arias, Anthony ; Joris, Bernard ; Fickers, Patrickin Protein & Peptide Letters (2014), 4Detailed reference viewed: 2 (1 ULg) Elaboration of drug nanocarriers based on a glucosamine labeled amphiphilic polymerBoyère, Cédric; Duhem, N; Debuigne, Antoine et alin Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(8), 3030-3037A new functional polymer micelle with high loading efficiency of a poorly soluble drug was made of biocompatible and/or biosourced compounds, i.e. cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol)-glucosamine (Chol-PEG ... [more ▼]A new functional polymer micelle with high loading efficiency of a poorly soluble drug was made of biocompatible and/or biosourced compounds, i.e. cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol)-glucosamine (Chol-PEG-GlcNH2). A synthesis strategy combining enzymatic and metal-free click chemistry was developed in order to meet the increasingly stringent requirements of biomedical applications. After the self-assembly of the Chol-PEG-GlcNH2 amphiphilic polymer in water, the presence of glucosamine at the micelle surface confers an active targeting moiety to the nanocarriers whereas protonation of the peripheral primary amine delay their aggregation. The complete characterization of this novel functional amphiphilic bioconjugate is presented as well as its aqueous solution behaviour and encapsulation efficiency using ketoconazole as a model hydrophobic drug. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 45 (8 ULg) Evaluation of automated immunoassays for 25 (OH)-vitamin D determination in different critical populations before and after standardization of the assaysCAVALIER, Etienne ; LUKAS, Pierre ; CRINE, Yannick et alin Clinica Chimica Acta (2014), 431Detailed reference viewed: 68 (21 ULg) Preparation of polyaniline-modified local clay and study of its sorption capacityBenhebal, Hadj; Chaid, Messaoud; Léonard, Angélique et alin Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry (2014), 4(98), 6Clay minerals are frequently used in adsorption processes with aqueous solution; it was found that the adsorption properties of clays change when the samples are modified. In this context, polyaniline ... [more ▼]Clay minerals are frequently used in adsorption processes with aqueous solution; it was found that the adsorption properties of clays change when the samples are modified. In this context, polyaniline-modified clay nanocomposite (at 10 %) was prepared by in situ polymerization processes. The structural and morphological characteristics of the synthesized material are systematically examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The adsorption property of the modified clay was evaluated for the removal of a reactive dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution at room temperature (25 C) via batch adsorption. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) Application of isotopic tracers as a tool for understanding hydrodynamic behavior of the highly exploited Diass aquifer system (Senegal)Madioune, Diakher Hélène; Faye, Serigne; Orban, Philippe et alin Journal of Hydrology (2014), 511The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited in two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the ... [more ▼]The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited in two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the confined Maastrichtian sandstone aquifer underneath. This system has experienced intensive groundwater abstraction during the last 50 years to supply increasing water demand, agricultural and industrial needs. The high abstraction rate from 1989 to 2009 (about 109,000 m3/d) has caused a continuous groundwater level decline (up to 30 m), a modification of the groundwater flow and salinization in parts of the aquifers. The objective of the study is to improve our understanding of the system functioning with regards to high pumping, identify the geochemical reactions that take place in the system, infer origin and timing of recharge by using mainly stable (δ18O, δ2H, 13C) and radioactive (3H and 14C) isotopes. Water types defined in the Piper diagram vary in order of abundance from Ca–HCO3 (65%), Ca/Na–Cl (20%), Na–HCO3 (3%) and Na–Cl (12%). Values of δ18O and δ2H for the superficial aquifer range between −5.8 and −4.2‰ and between −42 and −31‰, respectively. For the Palaeocene aquifer they range from −5.8 to −5.0‰ and from −38 to −31‰, respectively; values in the Maastrichtian aquifer are between −5.9 and −4.3‰ for δ18O and −38 to −26‰ for δ2H. Plotted against the conventional δ18O vs δ2H diagram, data from the upper aquifer exhibit a dispersed distribution with respect to isotopic fractionation while those of the Palaeocene and Maastrichtian aquifers are aligned parallel and slightly below/or on the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) evidencing ancient waters which had evaporated during infiltration. The low tritium (generally <0.7 TU) and 14C (0.7–57.2 pmc) contents indicate predominance of older water being recharged during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods. However, few boreholes which exhibit high tritium (1.2–4.3 TU) and 14C (65.7–70.8 pmc) values indicate some mixture with recent water likely through faulting and vertical drainage from the upper to deeper aquifers as well as lateral flow along flow paths to the piezometric depressions created by pumping. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (4 ULg) Le TAT de Adolf EichmannPeralta, Alberto; Kramer, Richard; Stassart, Martine in Szondiana (2014), 33(Décembre 2013), 8-45Under consideration of three major personality tests (TAT, Rorschach, Szondi), it appears that Adolf Eichmann chiefdirector for the deportation of jewish people from 1942 to 1945 was no common individual ... [more ▼]Under consideration of three major personality tests (TAT, Rorschach, Szondi), it appears that Adolf Eichmann chiefdirector for the deportation of jewish people from 1942 to 1945 was no common individual but a perverse sadomasochistic one with schizoparanoïd features under an osessionnal mask. These data contradict the famous opinion of Hannah Arendt about the "banality of evil". [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg) A multiple-level study of metal tolerance in Salix fragilis and Salix aurita clonesEvlard, Aricia ; Sergeant, Kjell; Printz, Bruno et alin Journal of Proteomics (2014), 101CThe response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 ... [more ▼]The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 days, different parameters (biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), pigment and sugar concentrations, electrolyte leakage and proteome-level changes) were analyzed. The growth of Sa was not influenced by metals whereas Sf produced significantly less biomass when exposed to the pollutants. Furthermore, although Sa did not show a growth reduction in the presence of metals, the overall view of the physiological results among others the changes in the accumulation of sugars and pigments indicated that metals had a more severe impact on this clone. The response at the proteome level confirmed these observations. The growth reduction and the proteomic changes in Sf indicate that this clone adjusts its metabolism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Sa on the contrary maintains growth but the physiological and proteomics data suggests that this can only be done at the cost of cellular deregulation. Therefore high biomass is not linked with a good tolerance strategy. In a long-term study the survival of Sa might be compromised making it a poorer candidate for phytoremediation efforts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg) The A2 gene of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 is a transcriptional regulator affecting cytotoxicity in virus-infected T cells but is not required for malignant catarrhal fever induction in rabbits.Parameswaran, Nevi; Dewals, Benjamin G ; Giles, Tom C. et alin Virus research (2014)Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The A2 gene of AlHV-1 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family. We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene ... [more ▼]Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The A2 gene of AlHV-1 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family. We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene or not and whether it is involved in pathogenesis by interference with host transcription pathways. An A2 gene knockout (A2DeltaAlHV-1) virus, revertant (A2revAlHV-1) virus, and wild-type virus (wtAlHV-1) were used to infect three groups of rabbits. A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected rabbits succumbed to MCF, albeit with a delayed onset compared to the control groups, so A2 is not a critical virulence factor. Differential gene transcription analysis by RNAseq and qRT-PCR validation of a selection of these was performed in infected large granular lymphocyte (LGL) T cells obtained in culture from the MCF-affected animals. A2 was involved in the transcriptional regulation of immunological, cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. In particular, there was a bias towards gammadelta T cell receptor (TCR) expression and downregulation of alphabeta TCR. TCR signalling, apoptosis, cell cycle, IFN-gamma and NFAT pathways were affected. Of particular interest was partial inhibition of the cytotoxicity-associated pathways involving perforin and the granzymes A and B in the A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected LGLs compared to controls. In functional assays, A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected LGLs were significantly less cytotoxic than wtAlHV-1- and A2revAlHV-1-infected LGLs using rabbit corneal epithelial cells (SIRC) as targets. This implies that A2 is involved in a pathway enhancing the expression of LGL cytotoxicity. This is important as virus-infected T cell cytotoxicity in vivo has been suggested as a potential mechanism of disease induction in MCF. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (3 ULg) Ultrasonographic Percutaneous Anatomy of the Atlanto-Occipital Region and Indirect Ultrasound-Guided Cisternal Puncture in the Dog and the CatEtienne, Anne-Laure ; Audigié, F.; Peeters, Dominique et alin Anatomia, Histologia, Embryologia (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) The PLATO Simulator: modelling of high-precision high-cadence space-based imagingMarcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)Many aspects of the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in ... [more ▼]Many aspects of the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations make such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment and design study of any space-based mission. We present a formalism to model and simulate photometric time series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources. This formalism has been implemented in a versatile end-to-end simulation software tool, called PLATO Simulator, specifically designed for the PLATO space mission to be operated from L2, but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. We provide a detailed description of several noise sources and discuss their properties, in connection with the optical design, the allowable level of jitter, the quantum efficiency of the detectors, etc. The expected overall noise budget of generated light curves is computed as a function of the stellar magnitude, for different sets of input parameters describing the instrument properties. The simulator is offered to the scientific community for future use. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (7 ULg) Rates of CTL Killing in Persistent Viral Infection In VivoElemans, Marjet; Florins, Arnaud; Willems, Luc et alin PLoS Computational Biology (2014), 4The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected ... [more ▼]The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected cells are killed in vivo by the CTL response is poorly understood. To date the rate of CTL killing in vivo has been estimated for three virus infections but the estimates differ considerably, and killing of HIV-1-infected cells was unexpectedly low. This raises questions about the typical anti-viral capability of CTL and whether CTL killing is abnormally low in HIV-1. We estimated the rate of killing of infected cells by CD8+ T cells in two distinct persistent virus infections: sheep infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) and humans infected with Human T Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) which together with existing data allows us to study a total of five viruses in parallel. Although both BLV and HTLV-1 infection are characterised by large expansions of chronically activated CTL with immediate effector function ex vivo and no evidence of overt immune suppression, our estimates are at the lower end of the reported range. This enables us to put current estimates into perspective and shows that CTL killing of HIV-infected cells may not be atypically low. The estimates at the higher end of the range are obtained in more manipulated systems and may thus represent the potential rather than the realised CTL efficiency. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) Nest grouping patterns of bonobos (Pan paniscus) in relation to fruit availability in a forest-savannah mosaicSerckx, Adeline ; Huynen, Marie-Claude ; Bastin, Jean-François et alin PLoS ONE (2014)A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the ... [more ▼]A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits across their habitat range, in order to make accurate inter-species comparisons. In this study we investigated bonobo social cohesiveness at nesting sites depending on fruit availability in the forest-savannah mosaic of western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a bonobo habitat which has received little attention from researchers and is characterized by high food resource variation within years. We collected data on two bonobo communities. Nest counts at nesting sites were used as a proxy for night grouping patterns and were analysed with regard to fruit availability. We also modelled bonobo population density at the site in order to investigate yearly variation. We found that one community density varied across the three years of surveys, suggesting that this bonobo community has significant variability in use of its home range. This finding highlights the importance of forest connectivity, a likely prerequisite for the ability of bonobos to adapt their ranging patterns to fruit availability changes. We found no influence of overall fruit availability on bonobo cohesiveness. Only fruit availability at the nesting sites showed a positive influence, indicating that bonobos favour food ‘hot spots’ as sleeping sites. Our findings have confirmed the results obtained from previous studies carried out in the dense tropical forests of DRC. Nevertheless, in order to clarify the impact of environmental variability on bonobo social cohesiveness, we will need to make direct observations of the apes in the forest-savannah mosaic as well as make comparisons across the entirety of the bonobos’ range using systematic methodology. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (8 ULg) Exploiting SNP Correlations within Random Forest for Genome-Wide Association StudiesBotta, Vincent ; Louppe, Gilles ; Geurts, Pierre et alin PLoS ONE (2014)The primary goal of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to discover variants that could lead, in isolation or in combination, to a particular trait or disease. Standard approaches to GWAS, however ... [more ▼]The primary goal of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to discover variants that could lead, in isolation or in combination, to a particular trait or disease. Standard approaches to GWAS, however, are usually based on univariate hypothesis tests and therefore can account neither for correlations due to linkage disequilibrium nor for combinations of several markers. To discover and leverage such potential multivariate interactions, we propose in this work an extension of the Random Forest algorithm tailored for structured GWAS data. In terms of risk prediction, we show empirically on several GWAS datasets that the proposed T-Trees method significantly outperforms both the original Random Forest algorithm and standard linear models, thereby suggesting the actual existence of multivariate non-linear effects due to the combinations of several SNPs. We also demonstrate that variable importances as derived from our method can help identify relevant loci. Finally, we highlight the strong impact that quality control procedures may have, both in terms of predictive power and loci identification. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (7 ULg) Epoch-dependent absorption line profile variability in lambda CepUuh-Sonda, J. M.; Rauw, Grégor ; Eenens, P. et alin Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica (2014), 50We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6 Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star ... [more ▼]We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6 Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star. Our data reveal a much more complex situation. The frequency content of the power spectrum considerably changes from one epoch to the other. We find no stable frequency that can unambiguously be attributed to pulsations. The epoch-dependence of the frequencies and variability patterns are similar to what is seen in the wind emission lines of this and other Oef stars, suggesting that both phenomena likely have the same, currently still unknown, origin. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Soil organic carbon assessment by field and airborne spectrometry in bare croplands: accounting for soil surface roughnessDenis, Antoine ; Stevens, Antoine; Van Wesemael, Bas et alin Geoderma (2014), 226-227(August 2014), 94102Visible, Near and Short Wave Infrared (VNSWIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (350 nm to 2500 nm) has been proven to be an efficient tool to determine the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) content. SOC ... [more ▼]Visible, Near and Short Wave Infrared (VNSWIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (350 nm to 2500 nm) has been proven to be an efficient tool to determine the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) content. SOC assessment (SOCa) is usually done by using calibration samples and multivariate models. However one of the major constraints of this technique, when used in field conditions is the spatial variation in surface soil properties (soil water content, roughness, vegetation residue) which induces a spectral variability not directly related to SOC and hence reduces the SOCa accuracy. This study focuses on the impact of soil roughness on SOCa by outdoor VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy and is based on the assumption that soil roughness effect can be approximated by its related shadowing effect. A new method for identifying and correcting the effect of soil shadow on reflectance spectra measured with an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer and an Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor (AHS-160) on freshly tilled fields in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was elaborated and tested. This method is based on the shooting of soil vertical photographs in the visible spectrum and the derivation of a shadow correction factor resulting from the comparison of “reflectance” of shadowed and illuminated soil areas. Moreover, the study of laboratory ASD reflectance of shadowed soil samples showed that the influence of shadow on reflectance varies according to wavelength. Consequently a correction factor in the entire [350–2500 nm] spectral range was computed to translate this differential influence. Our results showed that SOCa was improved by 27% for field spectral data and by 25% for airborne spectral data by correcting the effect of soil relative shadow. However, compared to simple mathematical treatment of the spectra (first derivative, etc.) able to remove variation in soil albedo due to roughness, the proposed method, leads only to slightly more accurate SOCa. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (18 ULg) Metabolically healthy overweight and obesityEsser, Nathalie ; SCHEEN, André ; PAQUOT, Nicolas in Annals of Internal Medicine (2014), 160(7), 514Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) tDCS in patients with disorders of consciousness: sham-controlled randomised double blind studyThibaut, Aurore ; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ; LEDOUX, Didier et alin Neurology (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 76 (9 ULg) The BANANA Project. V. Misaligned and Precessing Stellar Rotation Axes in CV VelorumAlbrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Torres, Guillermo et alin Astrophysical Journal (2014), 785As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin ... [more ▼]As part of the Binaries Are Not Always Neatly Aligned project (BANANA), we have found that the eclipsing binary CV Velorum has misaligned rotation axes. Based on our analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we find sky-projected spin-orbit angles of β[SUB]p[/SUB] = -52° ± 6° and β[SUB]s[/SUB] = 3° ± 7° for the primary and secondary stars (B2.5V + B2.5V, P = 6.9 days). We combine this information with several measurements of changing projected stellar rotation speeds (vsin i [SUB]sstarf[/SUB]) over the last 30 yr, leading to a model in which the primary star's obliquity is ≈65°, and its spin axis precesses around the total angular momentum vector with a period of about 140 yr. The geometry of the secondary star is less clear, although a significant obliquity is also implicated by the observed time variations in the vsin i [SUB]sstarf[/SUB]. By integrating the secular tidal evolution equations backward in time, we find that the system could have evolved from a state of even stronger misalignment similar to DI Herculis, a younger but otherwise comparable binary. Based on observations made with ESOs 2.2 m Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 084.C-1008 and under MPIA guaranteed time. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 1 (0 ULg) Conceptual metaphors as a tool for the efficient teaching of Dutch and German posture verbsDe Knop, Sabine; Perrez, Julien in Review of Cognitive Linguistics (2014), 12(1), 1-29The article deals with the typological differences between the Romance lan- guage French and the Germanic languages German and Dutch for the linguistic expressions of posture and location. It describes ... [more ▼]The article deals with the typological differences between the Romance lan- guage French and the Germanic languages German and Dutch for the linguistic expressions of posture and location. It describes how these typological differ- ences can be problematic for French-speaking learners of German and Dutch. The main difference between both types of languages is that posture and loca- tion tend to be encoded by posture verbs in Germanic languages and by very general verbs in Romance languages (Talmy 2000). After a detailed description of the semantic networks of the German and Dutch posture verbs, the paper takes a critical look at how these expressions are dealt with in teaching manuals. It further presents strategies for the efficient teaching of posture verbs to foreign language learners. These strategies are among others awareness-raising exercis- es about the compulsory use of posture verbs in Germanic languages and the description of conceptual metaphors in different languages. These pedagogical avenues for the efficient teaching of the Dutch and German posture verbs con- stitute a first step towards the elaboration of an experimental set-up aiming at verifying them. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (6 ULg) Molecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in BelgiumNahayo, Adrien; Bardiau, Marjorie ; Volpe, Rosario et alin BMC Veterinary Research (2014), 10(80), Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium ... [more ▼]Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium. Currently, the whole range of animal species reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum in natural environment is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum in the wild boar population in southern Belgium. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 ULg) Validation analytique d'une méthode chromatographique destinée à rechercher et à identifier les opiacés naturels ou (semi) synthétiquesDUBOIS, Nathalie ; Counerotte, Stéphane ; Goffin, Eric et alin Annales de Biologie Clinique (2014), 72(2), 197-206L’identification de la substance absorbée par un consommateur d’opiacés peut être problématique dans la mesure où il n’existe pas de biomarqueur spécifique pour toutes les molécules. Nous avons développé ... [more ▼]L’identification de la substance absorbée par un consommateur d’opiacés peut être problématique dans la mesure où il n’existe pas de biomarqueur spécifique pour toutes les molécules. Nous avons développé une technique de chromatographie liquide ultra-haute pression couplée à un spectromètre de masse en tandem qui permet l’identification et le dosage de 25 opiacés dans le plasma. La préparation de l’échantillon consiste en une extraction en phase solide sur colonnes Oasis ® MCX (Waters). La méthode a été validée selon les critères préconisés par la FDA, complètement pour 21 substances et avec quelques réserves pour les 4 produits restants. Cette méthode a été appliquée à 80 patients traités au CHU de Liège pour lesquels la recherche d’opiacés était positive. L’identification du produit consommé a été effective dans 86 % des cas. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg) Animal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?Nicks, Baudouin ; Vandenheede, Marc in Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties (2014), 33(1), 91-96Reflexion about the concepts of "health" and "welfare", applied to domestic animals in comparison with humans.Detailed reference viewed: 83 (50 ULg) Quantifier la ressource forestière grâce au Lidar, quelques applications concrètesBonnet, Stéphanie ; Dedry, Laurent ; Bauwens, Sébastien et alin Forêt Wallonne (2014), (129), 42-43Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg) IFA : un logiciel simple pour la réalisation et le traitement d'inventaires forestiers d'aménagementDe Thier, Olivier ; Lisein, Jonathan ; Lejeune, Philippe in Forêt Wallonne (2014), (129), 44-45Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 ULg) Investigation of the death of calves after epileptiform seizures associated with metabolic disordersChevalier, Marine; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine et alin Cattle Practice (2014), 22(1), 10-16Death of calves after epileptiform seizures can be caused by metabolic disorders including hypomagnesaemia, although a range of other conditions may also be implicated and therefore also warrant ... [more ▼]Death of calves after epileptiform seizures can be caused by metabolic disorders including hypomagnesaemia, although a range of other conditions may also be implicated and therefore also warrant investigation. Hypomagnesaemia is primarily observed in herds where calves are fed exclusively with either milk or milk substitute products. Hyperparathyroidism is associated with congestion and hypertrophy of the parathyroid gland and causes both hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. However, its exact aetiology currently remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explain epileptiform seizures in calves from a cattle herd presenting both deaths and decreased average daily gain (ADG). A Montbeliard herd with calves presenting epileptiform seizures from the age of five weeks was studied. The herd consisted of 39 cows and 46 calves. Tachycardia, nervousness and trampling, violent seizures of tetany lasting approximately 15 minutes were all observed, while opisthotonos was observed in 5 calves. Three of the latter calves died. The remaining calves presented a decreased ADG. Blood and urine biochemical assays were performed on 8 sick calves to determine the aetiology of the clinical signs. The assays revealed normo/hyper-calcaemia, hypophosphataemia and hypomagnesaemia, as well as hypocalciuria, hyperphosphaturia and hypomagnesuria. Deficiencies in iodine, iron and vitamins A, D3 and E were also reported in the herd. These calves could potentially be suffering from hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism results in hypomagnesaemia, hypovitaminosis-A and, on occassion, hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. This condition can lead to seizures, muscular problems, heart attacks and anorexia. The simultaneous occurrence of hypomagnesaemia, hyperparathyroidism and hypovitaminosis-A has been never described in related research literature. This is, therefore, in all likelihood a new metabolic disorder facing young cattle. Blood and urine biochemical assays are important tools for the detection of this pathological entity in calves. A dosage of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) method using a kit suitable for cattle can be used to detect hyperparathyroidism. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Late Night, la danse de la déperditionDelhalle, Nancy in Alternatives Théâtrales (2014), (120), Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) Exigences administratives et condition suspensive dans la vente immobilièreKohl, Benoît ; Onclin, François in Revue Critique de Jurisprudence Belge [= RCJB] (2014), (1), 13-55Cette étude est consacrée à l'utilisation de la condition suspensive en lien avec les exigences administratives, dans la matière spécifique de la vente immobilière. Le foisonnement des exigences de nature ... [more ▼]Cette étude est consacrée à l'utilisation de la condition suspensive en lien avec les exigences administratives, dans la matière spécifique de la vente immobilière. Le foisonnement des exigences de nature urbanistique, environnementale et énergétique, en lien avec les biens immeubles, pousse les intervenants à la vente de biens immeubles - qu'il s'agisse de particuliers ou de professionnels - à recourir à la modalité de la condition suspensive. Se pose dès lors la question de la validité de cette pratique. Cette contribution suit en réalité un arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 24 février 2011 qui porte sur la conclusion de la vente d'une parcelle, issue de la division d'un bien, sous la condition suspensive de la délivrance d'un permis de lotir. L'étude se divise en deux parties. La première offre un rappel, bien nécessaire, du droit commun. Elle analyse donc les différentes composantes de la condition suspensive. La seconde étudie, de manière plus spécifique, la mise sous condition suspensive de différentes exigences administratives en lien avec la vente immobilière. L'arrêt de la Cour de cassation précité y est notamment commenté. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (8 ULg) Diagnostic precision of PET imaging and functional MRI in disorders of consciousness: a clinical validation studyStender, Johan; Gosseries, Olivia ; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie et alin Lancet Neurology (2014)Background: Bedside clinical examinations can have high rates of misdiagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (vegetative state) or minimally conscious state. The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness ... [more ▼]Background: Bedside clinical examinations can have high rates of misdiagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (vegetative state) or minimally conscious state. The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of neuroimaging-based approaches has not been established in a clinical setting. We did a validation study of two neuroimaging-based diagnostic methods: PET imaging and functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: For this clinical validation study, we included patients referred to the University Hospital of Liège, Belgium, between January, 2008, and June, 2012, who were diagnosed by our unit with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, locked-in syndrome, or minimally conscious state with traumatic or non-traumatic causes. We did repeated standardised clinical assessments with the Coma Recovery Scale—Revised (CRS—R), cerebral 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and fMRI during mental activation tasks. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of both imaging methods with CRS—R diagnosis as reference. We assessed outcome after 12 months with the Glasgow Outcome Scale—Extended. Findings: We included 41 patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, four with locked-in syndrome, and 81 in a minimally conscious state (48=traumatic, 78=non-traumatic; 110=chronic, 16=subacute). 18F-FDG PET had high sensitivity for identification of patients in a minimally conscious state (93%, 95% CI 85—98) and high congruence (85%, 77—90) with behavioural CRS—R scores. The active fMRI method was less sensitive at diagnosis of a minimally conscious state (45%, 30—61) and had lower overall congruence with behavioural scores (63%, 51—73) than PET imaging. 18F-FDG PET correctly predicted outcome in 75 of 102 patients (74%, 64—81), and fMRI in 36 of 65 patients (56%, 43—67). 13 of 42 (32%) of the behaviourally unresponsive patients (ie, diagnosed as unresponsive with CRS—R) showed brain activity compatible with (minimal) consciousness (ie, activity associated with consciousness, but diminished compared with fully conscious individuals) on at least one neuroimaging test; 69% of these (9 of 13) patients subsequently recovered consciousness. Interpretation: Cerebral 18F-FDG PET could be used to complement bedside examinations and predict long-term recovery of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. Active fMRI might also be useful for differential diagnosis, but seems to be less accurate. Funding: The Belgian National Funds for Scientific Research (FNRS), Fonds Léon Fredericq, the European Commission, the James McDonnell Foundation, the Mind Science Foundation, the French Speaking Community Concerted Research Action, the University of Copenhagen, and the University of Liège. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) La place et le rôle des médecins généralistes dans le suivi de chirurgie bariatrique en province de LiègeGaspard, Stéphanie; Ketterer, Frédéric ; Belche, Jean-Luc et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69This paper is concerned with the place and role of general practitioners in the follow-up of patients submitted to bariatric surgery in the province of Liège. The results of the analysis were compared ... [more ▼]This paper is concerned with the place and role of general practitioners in the follow-up of patients submitted to bariatric surgery in the province of Liège. The results of the analysis were compared with clinical practice guidelines published by the French Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS). Fifteen interviews were conducted with GPs who follow up operated patients. The results highlight the GPs’ wish to fully participate in the follow-up of those patients. Their medical supervision is centered on the HAS clinical practice guidelines, taking into account the intake deficiencies as well as the patient’s psychological experience. However, some aspects are disregarded, mainly because of a lack of theoretical knowledge (some biological parameters, pregnancy and contraception). The short consultation time along with the poor communication with the hospital multidisciplinary team were mentioned as obstacles to a good quality follow-up. Progress is still needed to reach the clinical practice guidelines. However, there is a wish to better collaborate. Organising coordination meetings between professionals along with an early implication of the GP – even before surgery – represent possible solutions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg) Brown rust disease control in winter wheat: I. Exploring an approach for disease progression based on night weather conditionsEl Jarroudi, Moussa in Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014), 21(4), 4797-4808An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The ... [more ▼]An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The approach was elaborated based on night weather conditions (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and leaf rust occurrences. Data from three consecutive cropping seasons (2000-2002) at four representative sites of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg were used in the set-up phase. The capability to correctly simulate the occurrence expression of P. triticina infections on the upper leaf layers was then assessed over the 2003-2006 period. Our study revealed that the development of leaf rust required a period of at least 12 consecutive hours with air temperatures ranging between 8 and 16 °C, a relative humidity greater than 60 % (optimal values being 12-16 °C and up to 80 % for air temperatures and relative humidity, respectively) and rainfall less than 1 mm. Moreover, leaf rust occurrences and infections were satisfactorily simulated. The false alarm ratio was ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 in all the study sites. The probability of detection and critical success index for WLR infection were also close to 1 (perfect score). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (6 ULg) Latitudinal structure of the Venus O2 infrared airglow: A signature of small-scale dynamical processes in the upper atmosphereGérard, Jean-Claude ; Soret, Lauriane ; Piccioni, Giuseppe et alin Icarus (2014), 236Images of the nightside limb of Venus have been obtained in the northern hemisphere with the VIRTIS multispectral infrared imager on board Venus Express between April 2006 and October 2008. We analyze the ... [more ▼]Images of the nightside limb of Venus have been obtained in the northern hemisphere with the VIRTIS multispectral infrared imager on board Venus Express between April 2006 and October 2008. We analyze the latitudinal distribution of the O2(a1D) airglow limb profiles at 1.27 lm to characterize its distribution and variability. We show that the instantaneous structure of the emission is very different from the statistical global view of an enhanced emission near the equator, decreasing in brightness and slightly increasing in altitude toward the poles. The peak intensity of the limb profiles varies by a factor up to 50 between the brightest spots and the darkest regions. The bright airglow spots correspond to regions of enhanced downward flow of oxygen atoms originating from the dayside. Considerable variations in brightness and morphology are observed in the altitude–latitudinal distribution over a 24-h period. Analysis of the limb profiles indicates that secondary airglow peaks located at altitudes higher than the mean value of 96 km are observed on about 30% of the latitudinal cuts, but they are concentrated in narrow latitude areas extending over a few hundred kilometers. Most of them occur in transition regions between two altitude regimes in the 50 to 60 N region, possibly associated with the drop of the cloud top altitude observed equatorward of the ‘‘cold collar’’. We interpret these results as an indication that the strength of vertical transport in this mesosphere–thermosphere transition region is very variable both in location and time. This variability, also observed in nadir airglow images and wind measurements, is a key characteristic of the mesosphere–thermosphere transition region. It may be caused by fluctuations of the global day-to-night circulation generated by gravity waves. We show with a one dimensional model that local enhancements of eddy transport is a possibility. This variability is currently not accounted for by global circulation models that predict a single stable region of enhanced airglow in the vicinity of the antisolar point. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (7 ULg) Le nouveau fichier écologique des essences. Pourquoi et comment ?Claessens, Hugues ; Bifolchi, Eva; Cordier, Sophie et alin Forêt Wallonne (2014), (129), 60-70Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Selective breeding of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses in Algeria: perceptions, objectives and practices of owners-breedersTennah, Safia ; Farnir, Frédéric ; Kafidi, Nacerredine et alin Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia (2014), 43(4), 188-196This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a ... [more ▼]This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a full-time professional activity for a third of interviewees. The holdings are small-sized with 77% owning one or two mares. The regular practice of mating is here used to categorize breeders according to their degree of professionalization (38.4% professional vs. 61.6% occasional breeders). Experience in the sector was also used to classify breeders, considering as “junior” the breeders under 10 years experience (38.8%) and as “senior” those above 10 years (61.2%). More than professionalization, experience shows a significant impact on practices and objectives. Thus, experience influences breed choice (junior breeders tend to specialize while senior own both Arabian and Thoroughbreds), age at first foaling (sooner among senior breeders), information sources considered for selecting stallions (senior use more diversified sources), the importance granted to the price of mating (greater for junior breeders), the importance granted to the ranking compared to earnings (the ranking being more important to junior breeders), and the priority given to breeding (junior breeders give higher priority to a buy-race-resell activity). Finally, racehorse breeding is poorly professionalized, the only financial goal being cost coverage. Despite inappropriate practices, an interest for selection is noticed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Enjeux autour des forêts congolaisesVermeulen, Cédric in Cahiers africains (2014), 84Detailed reference viewed: 113 (35 ULg) The role of positron emission tomography-computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis and follow-up of multiple myelomaCAERS, Jo ; WITHOFS, Nadia ; Hillengass, Jens et alin Haematologica (2014), 99(4), 629-37Detailed reference viewed: 29 (15 ULg) La régénération naturelle des hêtraies-chênaies en lumière : approche expérimentale en forêt ardennaiseLigot, Gauthier ; Claessens, Hugues ; Baudry, Olivier et alin Forêt Wallonne (2014), (129), 19-21Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg) Time variations of O2(a1Delta) nightglow spots on the Venus nightside and dynamics of the upper mesosphereSoret, Lauriane ; Gérard, Jean-Claude ; Piccioni, Giuseppe et alin Icarus (2014), 237The dynamical regime of the Venus upper atmosphere is mainly decomposed into three regions. The first one, located below 65 km of altitude is governed by the retrograde superrotational zonal (RSZ ... [more ▼]The dynamical regime of the Venus upper atmosphere is mainly decomposed into three regions. The first one, located below 65 km of altitude is governed by the retrograde superrotational zonal (RSZ) circulation. The second region above 130 km is dominated by the subsolar to antisolar (SS–AS) circulation. The dynamics of the transition region in between are still not fully understood. However, the O2(a1D) nightglow emission at 1.27 lm, whose emitting layer is located at 96 km, can be used as a tracer of the dynamics in this transition region and the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express, orbiting Venus since April 2006, acquired a large amount of nadir observations at this wavelength. Several previous studies showed that the O2(a1D) nightglow emission is statistically located near the antisolar point. In this study, individual VIRTIS-M nadir observations have been analyzed to investigate the variability of the phenomenon. Bright patches of 1.27 lm airglow have been extracted from every observation. It appears that the location of the bright patch is highly variable, even though the brightest patches occur near the antisolar point. Nadir observations have also been divided into time series, allowing generating animations to follow the intensity and the displacement of bright patches over time. Apparent wind velocities and characteristic decay/rise times and have been deduced from these time series. The speed of the displacements varies from 0 up to 213 m s 1, with a mean value of 54 m s 1. Owing to the high variability of the direction of the displacements both in the short and the long terms, no clear trend of a global motion at 96 km can be deduced from these observations. The mean decay time is 750 min while the mean rise time is 1550 min. The decay time can be explained as a combination of radiative decay and atomic oxygen transport. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (8 ULg) Comparison of vocal loading parameters in kindergarten and elementary school teachersRemacle, Angélique ; Morsomme, Dominique ; FINCK, Camille in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing research (2014), (406-415), Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others. This study ... [more ▼]Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others. This study compared vocal loading of kindergarten and elementary school teachers; professional and non-professional vocal load was determined for both groups. Method: Twelve kindergarten and twenty elementary school female teachers without voice problems were monitored during one workweek using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor. Vocal loading parameters analyzed were F0, SPL, time dose, distance dose and cycle dose. Results: Comparisons between the groups showed significantly higher cycle dose and distance dose for kindergarten teachers than for elementary school teachers, in both professional and non-professional environments. Professional and non-professional voice use comparisons showed significant differences for all parameters, indicating that vocal load was higher in the professional environment for both groups. Conclusions: The higher vocal doses measured in kindergarten teachers suggest that particular attention should be paid to this specific group of teachers. Although non-professional vocal load is lower than professional vocal load, it is important to take both into account because of their cumulative effects. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 76 (17 ULg) Netamines H-N, Tricyclic Alkaloids from the Marine Sponge Biemna laboutei and Their Antimalarial Activity.Gros, Emmanuelle; Al-Mourabit, Ali; Martin, Marie-Therese et alin Journal of natural products (2014), 77(4), 818-23Chemical examination of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the Madagascar sponge Biemna laboutei resulted in the isolation of seven new tricyclic alkaloids, netamines H-N (1-7), along with the known ... [more ▼]Chemical examination of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the Madagascar sponge Biemna laboutei resulted in the isolation of seven new tricyclic alkaloids, netamines H-N (1-7), along with the known netamine G and mirabilins A, C, and F. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HRESIMS data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB cells and their antiplasmodial activity. Netamine M (6) was found to be cytotoxic, with an IC50 value in the micromolar range, and netamine K (4) exhibited activity against Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of 2.4 muM. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg) La relation structure chimique-propriétés physiques des galactomannanes extraits de la caroubeGillet, Sébastien ; Blecker, Christophe ; Paquot, Michel et alin Comptes Rendus Chimie (2014), 17(4), Carob galactomannan fine chemical structure is closely related to the physical behavior developed in aqueous solution. Three elements of structural characterization are mainly described in the literature ... [more ▼]Carob galactomannan fine chemical structure is closely related to the physical behavior developed in aqueous solution. Three elements of structural characterization are mainly described in the literature: the degree of galactose substitution, chain length, and galactose units distribution. This review article will attempt to highlight the impact of different structural features on physical properties such as solubility, viscosity, formation of hydrogels or gels in combination with other saccharides. The impact of industrial purification process on the structure and physical properties is also developed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (6 ULg) Widespread occurence of expressed fungal secretory peroxydases in forest soilsKellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek, J. et alin PLoS ONE (2014), 9(4), Detailed reference viewed: 10 (6 ULg) A computational model for cell/ECM growth on 3D surfaces using the level set method: a bone tissue engineering case studyGuyot, Yann ; papantoniou, Ioannis; Chai, Yoke Chin et alin Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology (2014)Three dimensional (3D) open porous scaffolds are commonly used in tissue engineering (TE) applications to provide an initial template for cell attachment and subsequent cell growth and construct ... [more ▼]Three dimensional (3D) open porous scaffolds are commonly used in tissue engineering (TE) applications to provide an initial template for cell attachment and subsequent cell growth and construct development. The macroscopic geometry of the scaffold is key in determining the kinetics of cell growth and thus in vitro ‘tissue’ formation. In this study we developed a computational framework based on the level set methodology to predict curvature-dependent growth of the cell/extracellular matrix domain within TE constructs. Scaffolds with various geometries (hexagonal, square, triangular) and pore sizes (500 and 1000 µm) were produced in house by additive manufacturing, seeded with human periosteum-derived cells and cultured under static conditions for 14 days. Using the projected tissue area as an output measure, the comparison between the experimental and the numerical results demonstrated a good qualitative and quantitative behavior of the framework. The model in its current form is able to provide important spatio-temporal information on final shape and speed of pore-filling of tissue engineered constructs by cells and extracellular matrix during static culture. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (6 ULg) Biased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictionsNoirhomme, Quentin ; Lesenfants, Damien ; Gomez, Francisco et alin NeuroImage: Clinical (2014), 4Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a ... [more ▼]Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with crossvalidation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the crossvalidation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain–computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) Aircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking ResultsSimon, Donald; Borguet, Sébastien ; Léonard, Olivier et alin Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power (2014), 136(4), 041201Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem ... [more ▼]Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (Pro- DiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate, and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (2 ULg) La Cour constitutionnelle fait sienne la jurisprudence Zolotoukhine et RuotsalainenKéfer, Fabienne in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), (14), 679-683Si un employeur ou un assuré social a d’abord été poursuivi pénalement, et condamné ou acquitté par un jugement définitif, l’administration devra renoncer à infliger la sanction administrative. Si celle ... [more ▼]Si un employeur ou un assuré social a d’abord été poursuivi pénalement, et condamné ou acquitté par un jugement définitif, l’administration devra renoncer à infliger la sanction administrative. Si celle-ci est appliquée avant que le juge pénal statue, il se peut que la décision administrative ne soit pas définitive ; en ce cas, le juge pénal reste libre de prononcer une condamnation pénale, ce qui tiendra en échec la sanction administrative. En revanche, si celle-ci a déjà fait l’objet d’une contestation tranchée de manière définitive par un tribunal, ou si, le cas échéant, l’employeur n’a pas formé dans le délai légal une opposition à la contrainte décernée par l’administration, la décision judiciaire ou administrative est une décision définitive au sens de l’article 4 du Protocole n° 7 ; dans ce cas, une condamnation pénale violerait le principe non bis in idem. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg) Projet TADAM: Conclusions scientifiques et recommandationsLemaître, André ; ANSSEAU, Marc ; Demaret, Isabelle in Lettre du RESPADD (2014), (18), 2-4Detailed reference viewed: 9 (2 ULg) Enonciation journalistique et espace public. Une hégémonie pleine de voix ?Servais, Christine in Communication (2014), 32(2), L’auteure examine la manière dont l’espace public est non seulement traversé, mais également divisé et structuré par l’énonciation journalistique. En concevant l’acte d’énonciation comme inachevé, au sens ... [more ▼]L’auteure examine la manière dont l’espace public est non seulement traversé, mais également divisé et structuré par l’énonciation journalistique. En concevant l’acte d’énonciation comme inachevé, au sens où il ne peut être rapporté à un sujet singulier, elle dirige l’analyse vers la question de la responsabilité et, à partir de là, vers une étude de la réception. L’analyse de trois formes de division à l’œuvre dans l’énonciation médiatique permet de considérer sa complexité dans son rapport à un « nous », présent ou à venir, et par conséquent à une communauté politique. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (8 ULg) Impact of metallurgical size effects on plasticity of thin mettallic materialsHug, Eric; keller, clement; Habraken, Anne in Materials Science Forum (2014), 783-786Three examples involving size effects are presented witj implications concerning the formability: small Ni-20wt.%Cr resistive bridges, magnetic micro-sensors performed with (Ni,Co,Fe)based alloys and ... [more ▼]Three examples involving size effects are presented witj implications concerning the formability: small Ni-20wt.%Cr resistive bridges, magnetic micro-sensors performed with (Ni,Co,Fe)based alloys and copper clad aluminum thin wires. The mechanical properties are directly linked to the ratio thickness over grain size (t/d ratio) of the parts.These metallurgical considerations must be taken into account when we are concerned by numerical simulation of the process of such components. It is shown that the simulations can correctly reproduce the softening effect linked to a decrease in thickness and in number of grains across the thickness. Finally the effect of a moderate increase in temperature on these results will be briefly reported. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) A simulation study comparing multiple imputation methods for incomplete longitudinal ordinal dataDonneau, Anne-Françoise ; Mauer, Murielle; Molenberghs, Geert et alin Communications in Statistics : Simulation & Computation (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 48 (14 ULg) Increasing meltwater discharge from the Nuuk region of the Greenland ice sheet and implications for mass balance (1960-2012)Van As, D; Andersen, ML; Petersen, D et alin Journal of Glaciology (2014), 60(220), 314-322We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region ... [more ▼]We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godtha ̊bsfjord. RCM data (1960–2012) are resampled to a high spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automatic weather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation and overestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent. However, comparison with lake discharge indicates that modelled regional runoff totals are more accurate. Model results show that melt and runoff in the Nuuk region have doubled over the past two decades. Regional SMB attained negative values in recent high-melt years. Taking into account frontal ablation of the marine-terminating glaciers, the region lost 10–20 km3 w.e. a–1 in 2010–12. If 2010 melting prevails during the remainder of this century, a low-end estimate of sea-level rise of 5 mm is expected by 2100 from this relatively small section (2.6%) of the ice sheet alone. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (0 ULg)