References of "Article"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 501 to 600 of 49623     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11     Agriculture et environnement : genèse des relationsHabran, Maxime in Revue de l'Union européenne (2015), (593), 604-617Les négociations portant sur la réforme de la politique agricole commune (PAC) auraient dû mettre la politique de protection de l’environnement sur le devant de la scène. Au lieu de cela, la PAC s’est vu ... [more ▼]Les négociations portant sur la réforme de la politique agricole commune (PAC) auraient dû mettre la politique de protection de l’environnement sur le devant de la scène. Au lieu de cela, la PAC s’est vu doter d’un nouveau mécanisme appelé verdissement ou paiement vert destiné à verdir le pilier des soutiens de marché. Ce mécanisme rend opaque la prise en compte de l’environnement et affaiblit la conditionnalité. D’un greening, les négociateurs se sont mis d’accord sur un greenwashing. L’objectif de cette contribution est de montrer la manière dont est intégrée la politique de protection de l’environnement au sein de la politique agricole commune. La notion de conditionnalité environnementale permet de comprendre l’articulation et l’interaction entre ces deux politiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (3 ULg) Dominant amphipods of Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows display considerable trophic diversityMichel, Loïc ; Dauby, Patrick ; Gobert, Sylvie et alin Marine Ecology (2015), 36(4), 969-981Gut content examination and trophic markers (fatty acids, stables isotopes of C and N) were combined to delineate the diet of the dominant species of amphipods from Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica ... [more ▼]Gut content examination and trophic markers (fatty acids, stables isotopes of C and N) were combined to delineate the diet of the dominant species of amphipods from Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows and to highlight trophic diversity among this community. Our results indicate that, although all dominant species heavily relied on macroalgal epiphytes, considerable interspecific dietary differences existed. Carbon stable isotope ratios notably showed that some of the amphipod species favored grazing on epiphytes from leaves or litter fragments (Apherusa chiereghinii, Aora spinicornis, Gammarus aequicauda), while others like Dexamine spiniventris preferred epiphytes from rhizomes. The remaining amphipods (Caprella acanthifera, Ampithoe helleri and Gammarella fucicola) readily consumed both groups. In addition, SIAR modeling suggested that most species had a mixed diet, and relied on several food items. Fatty acid analysis and gut contents revealed that contribution of microepiphytic diatoms and of benthic and suspended particulate organic matter to the diet of amphipods were anecdotal. None of the examined species seemed to graze on their seagrass host (low 18:2(n-6) and 18:3(n-3) fatty acids contents), but G. aequicauda partly relied on seagrass leaf detritus, as demonstrated by the lesser 13C-depletion of their tissues. Overall, our findings suggest that amphipods, because of their importance in transfers of organic matter from primary producers and detritus to higher rank consumers, are key-items in P. oceanica associated food webs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 162 (59 ULg) Entre soins aux patients psychiatriques délinquants et protection sociale à l’égard des délinquants psychiatriques : enjeux et perspectives criminologiques du plan pour patients psychiatriques médico-légauxGarcet, Serge in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2015)En Belgique, la réforme de la santé mentale a récemment été élargie aux populations internées dans le cadre de la loi dite « de défense sociale ». Construite sur un modèle communautaire du soin, elle ... [more ▼]En Belgique, la réforme de la santé mentale a récemment été élargie aux populations internées dans le cadre de la loi dite « de défense sociale ». Construite sur un modèle communautaire du soin, elle propose une approche globale et intégrée de tous les acteurs, services et secteurs pertinents. Tout en développant les principaux axes de la réforme, l’article questionne la mise en œuvre de ce modèle dans le contexte hybride de l’internement entre mesure de protection et nécessité de soins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (10 ULg) Methodology manual for European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines.Sousa-Uva, Miguel; Head, Stuart J.; Thielmann, Matthias et alin European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (2015), 48(6), 809-16The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and ... [more ▼]The goal of all clinical guidelines is to assist patients and practitioners in making healthcare decisions. However, clinical guidelines have been questioned about their quality, transparency and independence. Based on the revision of manuals by other scientific cardiothoracic organizations, this document provides instructions for the development of European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) clinical guidelines and other types of evidence-based documents. Four key areas have been addressed: (i) selection of taskforce members and transparency of relations with the industry, (ii) methods for critical appraisal of medical evidence, (iii) rules for writing recommendations and (iv) review process. It is hoped that, by adopting this methodology, clinical guidelines produced by the EACTS will be well balanced, objective and, importantly, trusted by physicians and patients who benefit from their implementation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) " D'ombre et de lumière " : Récit d'une régénération réussie en chênaie ardennaiseLayon, José; Dubois, Héloïse in FORÊT.NATURE (2015), (137), 38-47Nombreux sont les sylviculteurs qui souhaitent régénérer naturellement la chênaie mais le processus demande une gestion pointue, permettant de contourner les obstacles. Une régénération naturelle du chêne ... [more ▼]Nombreux sont les sylviculteurs qui souhaitent régénérer naturellement la chênaie mais le processus demande une gestion pointue, permettant de contourner les obstacles. Une régénération naturelle du chêne sessile a été mise en place dès 1989 dans un compartiment de 16 ha situé sur le cantonnement DNF de La Roche-en-Ardenne (Belgique). Le peuplement initial était un médiocre taillis sous futaie de chêne et de hêtre à sous-étage de charme. Par ses observations et ses actions précises, le gestionnaire a réussi à installer les semis de chêne, à en soustraire suffisamment de la dent du gibier, bien présent, pour constituer un peuplement de qualité. Les enseignements de l'expérience sont multiples. Quelques points essentiels sont exposés : dosage fin de la lumière pour favoriser le développement des semis de chêne en maîtrisant le hêtre et la végétation adventice, observation de la réaction des semis comme indicateur du moment de l'intervention, exploitation adaptée, dégagement et/ou dépressage dans le semis, pression du gibier, etc. Actuellement, le chêne est régénéré sur plus de 12 ha. Le coût total est estimé entre 800 et 1000 €/ha. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 101 (10 ULg) Regards croisés entre le Portugal et la WallonieBelche, Jean-Luc ; Sousa, Alexandrain Santé Conjuguée (2015), 73Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg) Tribulations d’une vieille dame : De la « loi relative aux anormaux et délinquants d’habitude » à la « loi relative à l’internement des personnes atteintes d'un trouble mental »Garcet, Serge in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70e annéeLe système belge de prise en charge des délinquants atteints de troubles mentaux est organisé selon un principe de défense sociale. Il se caractérise par une double attention pour, d’une part, la ... [more ▼]Le système belge de prise en charge des délinquants atteints de troubles mentaux est organisé selon un principe de défense sociale. Il se caractérise par une double attention pour, d’une part, la protection de la société par une neutralisation du risque et, d’autre part, la nécessité de soins à prodiguer à la personne internée. L’évolution du cadre juridique de la loi de 1930 relative aux anormaux et délinquants d’habitude à la loi relative à l’internement des personnes atteintes d'un trouble mental de 2014 rend compte des vicissitudes nées du tiraillement entre ces deux piliers sécuritaire et thérapeutique. Dans ce difficile rapport de forces, bien que publiée mais pas encore d’application, la version de 2014 de la loi constitue à bien des égards une évolution positive dans la prise en compte des personnes internées et de leurs besoins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Le raisonnement analogique en pathologie du langageKrzemien, Magali in Cahiers de l'ASELF (2015), 12(4), 4-11Le raisonnement analogique est une habileté humaine qui permet de dresser une correspondance entre deux situations à partir d’une structure relationnelle commune. Il est étroitement lié au langage puisque ... [more ▼]Le raisonnement analogique est une habileté humaine qui permet de dresser une correspondance entre deux situations à partir d’une structure relationnelle commune. Il est étroitement lié au langage puisque ces deux habiletés s’influencent mutuellement. Ce lien a poussé plusieurs auteurs à s’intéresser aux capacités de raisonnement analogique d’enfants présentant des troubles du langage. Bien que ces enfants aient un niveau intellectuel dans la norme, différentes études montrent qu’ils auraient des difficultés par rapport à leurs pairs de même âge à réaliser des tâches analogiques variées, qu’elles soient verbales ou non. Ces difficultés semblent néanmoins s’estomper lorsque certaines compétences, comme le langage, sont contrôlées. De plus, les enfants dysphasiques semblent davantage dépendants à la similarité perceptuelle présente entre les stimuli, ce qui représente d’importantes implications pour l’acquisition du langage. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (4 ULg) Comparison of serum fractionation methods by data independent label-free proteomicsBaiwir, Dominique ; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ; Smargiasso, Nicolas et alin EuPA Open Proteomics (2015), 9Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial ... [more ▼]Off-line sample prefractionations applied prior to biomarker discovery proteomics are options to enable more protein identifications and detect low-abundance proteins. This work compared five commercial methods efficiency to raw serum analysis using label-free proteomics. The variability of the protein quantities determined for each process was similar to the unprefractionated serum. A 49% increase in protein identifications and 12.2% of reliable quantification were obtained. A 61 times lower limit of protein quantitation was reached compared to protein concentrations observed in raw serum. The concentrations of detected proteins were confronted to estimated reference values. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (6 ULg) Qu’attendent les orthophonistes des applications numériques à destination des personnes avec trouble du spectre autistique ?Maillart, Christelle ; dor, Orianne ; Grevesse, Pascale et alin Rééducation Orthophonique (2015), 264Numerous technogical applications dedicated to patients affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have recently emerged. Research has begun to prove the efficiency of technologies as support tools ... [more ▼]Numerous technogical applications dedicated to patients affected by the Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have recently emerged. Research has begun to prove the efficiency of technologies as support tools for therapy for ASD sufferers. However, as far as we know, none study was focused on Speech-Language Therapist’s (SLT) needs. In order to fill this gap, three nominal groups were realized with 19 SLT working with patients with TSA. Identified needs have been ranked in importance. Results stress the importance of open-systems with fully customizable applications allowing the elaboration of individual progress based on specific therapeutic outcomes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg) Les dysfonctionnements précoces et les trajectoires développementales d’enfants avec Troubles du Spectre de l’Autisme : une revue des recherches et approches diagnostiques et évaluatives.Boulard, Aurore ; Morange-Majoux, françoise; Devouche, Emmanuel et alin Devenir (2015), 27(4), 231-242Detailed reference viewed: 73 (8 ULg) Transformed mineral phases during clay ceramic firingEl Ouahabi, Meriam ; Daoudi, Lachen; Hatert, Frédéric et alin Clays and Clay Minerals (2015), 62(6), 470478Ceramic clays are one of the most complicated ceramic systems because of the very complex relationship between the behavior of minerals during the ceramic processing and the transformations during heating ... [more ▼]Ceramic clays are one of the most complicated ceramic systems because of the very complex relationship between the behavior of minerals during the ceramic processing and the transformations during heating. A major challenge is to predict the phase transformations in clay ceramics. The aims are to establish reference data of ceramics products that can be formed based on the mineralogical composition of the local raw materials. These data, in turn, can be compared with the archaeological ceramics in order to study their origins. The mineralogical compositions and transformations during the firing (550 to 1100ºC under oxidizing conditions) of seven clayey materials sampled from the main clay deposits of Northern Morocco were evaluated by X-ray powder diffraction. Two groups of clays were evidenced according to the type of neoformed high-temperature minerals: non-calcareous clays and calcareous clays. For the non-calcareous raw materials, spinel is produced at 950°C. Cristobalite and mullite were formed above 1000ºC from clays that contain illite, kaolinite and chlorite. In clays containing vermiculite and high amount of chlorite, hematite was formed from 950°C. Firing of calcareous clays at temperatures > 950ºC yielded Ca-silicates (diopside, gehlenite and wollastonite), spinel, cristobalite, hematite and feldspars. Mullite may also form in the calcareous clay products, when the carbonates content exceeds 10%. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 161 (47 ULg) Gender differences in responses in Gammarus pulex exposed to BDE-47: a gel-free proteomic approachGismondi, Eric ; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel ; De Pauw, Edwin et alin Ecotoxicology & Environmental Safety (2015), 122Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and ... [more ▼]Very few ecotoxicological studies have considered differences in toxic effects on male and female organisms. Here, we investigated protein expression differences in caeca of Gammarus pulex males and females under control conditions (unexposed) and after 96 h exposure to BDE-47. Using gel-free proteomic analysis, we have identified 45 proteins, of which 25 were significantly differently expressed according to sex and/or BDE-47 exposure. These proteins were involved in several biological processes such as energy metabolism, chaperone proteins, or transcription/translation. In unexposed amphipods, 11 proteins were significantly over-expressed in females, and 6 proteins were over-expressed in males. Under BDE-47 stress, 7 proteins were differently impacted according to sex. For example, catalase was over-expressed in exposed females and under-expressed in exposed males, as compared to respective controls. Conversely, proteins involved in energy metabolism were up-regulated in males and down-regulated in females. Our proteomic study showed differences in responses of males and females to BDE-47 exposure, emphasizing that sex is a confounding factor in ecotoxicological assessment. However, due to the limited information existing in databases on Gammarids, it was difficult to define a BDE-47 mechanism of action. The gel-free proteomic seems to be a promising method to develop in future ecotoxicological studies and thus, to improve our understanding of the mechanism of action of xenobiotics. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg) Exploring the bacterial diversity of Belgian steak tartare using metagenetics and qPCR analysisDelhalle, Laurent ; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ; Taminiau, Bernard et alin Journal of Food Protection (2015), 79(2), 200-229Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium. It is prepared with raw ground minced beef and eaten with sauce, vegetables, and spiced. Since it contains raw meat, steak tartare is highly prone to ... [more ▼]Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium. It is prepared with raw ground minced beef and eaten with sauce, vegetables, and spiced. Since it contains raw meat, steak tartare is highly prone to bacterial spoilage. The objective of this study was to explore the bacterial flora diversity in steak tartare in Belgium according to the source and to determine which bacteria are able to grow during the shelf life. A total of 58 samples from butchers’ shops, restaurants, sandwich shops and supermarkets were collected. These samples were analyzed using 16S rDNA metagenetics, a classical microbiological technique, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the Lactobacillus genus. Samples were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of their shelf life, except for those from restaurants and sandwich shops analyzed only at the purchase date. Metagenetic analysis identified up to 180 bacterial species and 90 genera in some samples. But only seven bacterial species were predominant in the samples, depending on the source: Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactococcus piscium, Leuconostoc gelidum, Photobacterium kishitani, Pseudomonas spp. and Xanthomonas oryzae. With this work, an alternative method is proposed to evaluate the total flora in food samples based on the number of reads from metagenetic analysis and the results of qPCR. The degree of underestimation of aerobic plate counts (APCs) at 30°C estimated with the classical microbiology method was demonstrated in comparison with the proposed culture independent method. Compared to culture-based methods, metagenetic analysis combined with qPCR targeting Lactobacillus provides valuable information for characterizing the bacterial flora of raw meat. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 127 (18 ULg) Tissues from equine cadaver ligaments up to 72 hours of post-mortem: a promising reservoir of stem cellsShikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ; Gabriel, Annick ; Piret, Joëlle et alin Stem Cell Research and Therapy (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 64 (28 ULg) Emerging and Novel Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) in food: Current status of the European legislationEppe, Gauthier ; Scholl, Georges ; De Pauw, Edwin et alin Labinfo (2015), 14Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Recent decline of roach Rutilus rutilus stock in a large river ecosystem in relation with its population dynamicsOtjacques, William; Latli, Adrien; Bernard, Benoît et alin Fundamental and Applied Limnology (2015), 187(2), 151-163Studies dealing with quantitative decline of freshwater fish species with long-time series data are rather scarce and primarily limited to migratory species. We present an original work integrating over ... [more ▼]Studies dealing with quantitative decline of freshwater fish species with long-time series data are rather scarce and primarily limited to migratory species. We present an original work integrating over two decades investigations on roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) stock, one of the dominant cyprinid fish species in the River Meuse (Belgium). This study aimed to quantify changes in the stock of roach after recent indicators (captures from sport fishermen) suggested a sharp decline. Three methods were used: capture-mark-recapture (CMR) estimation, catch per unit of effort by gillnetting (CPUE) and long-term monitoring of fish-passes. Population dynamics of roach was also investigated. CMR method demonstrated a decrease of 91% of the roach stock compared to earlier data (1993–2003), with current densities close to 300 roach ha–1. This was also confirmed by a decrease of 95 % in CPUEs and a decrease between 93 and 98 % in two fish-passes during the same period. On the other hand, growth and mortality did not indicate radical changes before and after the decline was found. As roach stock decline is generalizable to the whole Belgian’s Meuse following estimations in two other sites, further investigations are needed to explain the reasons underlying this decline in order to take conservation measures. First, the uptake of primary production (i.e. phytoplankton) by invasive clams is supposed. And secondly, an increase in predation pressure by the Great Cormorant is effective as this avian predator was found in high densities from 2000 until 2006. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (4 ULg) Revue épidémiologique des tendinopathies les plus fréquentesSancerne, Audrey; Kaux, Jean-François in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2015), 32(4), 223-228Tendinopathies are overused pathologies essentially present among sportsmen as well as workers. They represent 19 % of musculo-skeletaldisorders, more than 30 % the consultations of general and sports ... [more ▼]Tendinopathies are overused pathologies essentially present among sportsmen as well as workers. They represent 19 % of musculo-skeletaldisorders, more than 30 % the consultations of general and sports medicine on musculoskeletal system. At present, general epidemiology studiesare few. Data will therefore be included for each tendinopathy: rotator cuff tendinopathies, epicondylitis, trochanteric pain syndrome, patellar andcalcaneal tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis. The articles have been searched on the databases PubMed and Pedro. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (9 ULg) NIK promotes tissue destruction independently of the alternative NF-kappaB pathway through TNFR1/RIP1-induced apoptosis.Boutaffala, L.; Bertrand, M. J. M.; Remouchamps, Caroline et alin Cell death and differentiation (2015)NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) is well-known for its role in promoting p100/NF-kappaB2 processing into p52, a process defined as the alternative, or non-canonical, NF-kappaB pathway. Here we reveal an ... [more ▼]NF-kappaB-inducing kinase (NIK) is well-known for its role in promoting p100/NF-kappaB2 processing into p52, a process defined as the alternative, or non-canonical, NF-kappaB pathway. Here we reveal an unexpected new role of NIK in TNFR1-mediated RIP1-dependent apoptosis, a consequence of TNFR1 activation observed in c-IAP1/2-depleted conditions. We show that NIK stabilization, obtained by activation of the non-death TNFRs Fn14 or LTbetaR, is required for TNFalpha-mediated apoptosis. These apoptotic stimuli trigger the depletion of c-IAP1/2, the phosphorylation of RIP1 and the RIP1 kinase-dependent assembly of the RIP1/FADD/caspase-8 complex. In the absence of NIK, the phosphorylation of RIP1 and the formation of RIP1/FADD/caspase-8 complex are compromised while c-IAP1/2 depletion is unaffected. In vitro kinase assays revealed that recombinant RIP1 is a bona fide substrate of NIK. In vivo, we demonstrated the requirement of NIK pro-death function, but not the processing of its substrate p100 into p52, in a mouse model of TNFR1/LTbetaR-induced thymus involution. In addition, we also highlight a role for NIK in hepatocyte apoptosis in a mouse model of virus-induced TNFR1/RIP1-dependent liver damage. We conclude that NIK not only contributes to lymphoid organogenesis, inflammation and cell survival but also to TNFR1/RIP1-dependent cell death independently of the alternative NF-kappaB pathway.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 5 June 2015; doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.69. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Comment je traite ... A propos du positionnement des inhibiteurs de la DPP-4 (gliptines) dans le traitement du diabète de type 2SCHEEN, André in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70Summary : Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are more and more prominent medications in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), with five molecules commercialized and as many fixed-dose ... [more ▼]Summary : Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) are more and more prominent medications in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), with five molecules commercialized and as many fixed-dose combinations with metformin. After failure of metformin monotherapy, gliptins compete with old medications such as sulphonylureas, on the one hand, or with new oral antidiabetic agents such as inhibitors of renal sodium-glucose cotransporters type 2 (SGLT2) (gliflozines), on the other hand. Another alternative is the use of an incretin mimetic (agonist of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors, to be injected subcutaneously) rather than an incretin enhancer such as a gliptin, before considering insulin therapy. This article analyses the arguments in favour of DPP-4 inhibitors. We will mainly consider the use of gliptins in patients with recently diagnosed T2D, in elderly and frail patients and in those with chronic kidney disease. To illustrate the discussion, we will analyze the results of both interventional and observational studies with vildagliptin. Obviously, these various groups of patients represent a large proportion of T2D population. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Diriger un service d'EAJE : une question centrale pour le développement de sa qualitéPirard, Florence in Le Furet - La revue des professionnels de la PETITE ENFANCE (2015), 79Le rôle central des responsables des services d’éducation et d’accueil des jeunes enfants (EAJE) pour le développement d’une qualité de services est souligné dans de nombreux rapports internationaux ... [more ▼]Le rôle central des responsables des services d’éducation et d’accueil des jeunes enfants (EAJE) pour le développement d’une qualité de services est souligné dans de nombreux rapports internationaux. Citons notamment les travaux de l’OCDE . Pourtant, selon les contextes, les contours de ce rôle ne sont pas toujours clairement établis ; ils peuvent être source de confusion et d’ambiguïté. La difficulté de gérer les services en conciliant des fonctions sociales, éducatives et économiques est clairement posée. La difficulté également de gérer une équipe dont les membres ont des statuts parfois précaires, des niveaux de formation disparates dans un cadre budgétaire restreint. Dans ce contexte comment relever le défi d’élaborer et de développer une dynamique de projet éducatif concerté dans tous les services qu’ils soient en collectivité ou à domicile, en milieu urbain ou rural ? Ce problème est clairement posé en Belgique francophone où aucune formation spécifique à l’enfance de niveau supérieur n’est organisée, où aucune expérience utile aux fonctions de direction n’est exigée à ce jour. Une recherche en voie de finalisation (juin 2015) visant à mieux définir les compétences nécessaires aux fonctions d’accueil et d’encadrement des services à l’enfance a permis d’associer une série d’acteurs de l’enfance, de l’enseignement, de la formation et de responsables politico-administratifs. Dans une démarche de recherche-action, il s’est agi de se décentrer des réalités de la Belgique francophone pour comprendre comment les questions se posent aussi dans d’autres contextes européens (France, Flandre, Angleterre, Suède) et ensuite, de prendre des décisions relatives à la redéfinition des référentiels métiers et de formation, à la révision des textes réglementaires pour les services. Tout en évitant de donner des directives universelles qui nieraient les spécificités de contexte, l'étude propose de relever une série de questions clés relatives aux fonctions de direction, de points de vigilances à relever ainsi que des idées retenues comme essentielles pour l’avenir. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (1 ULg) “Public-based-Learning”: The Place of Publics in Exploring Environmental Controversies for Pedagogical PurposesMelard, François ; Denayer, Dorothée ; Semal, Nathalie in International journal of environmental and Science Education (2015), 10(6), 905-920This article examines a 15 year-old master level seminar dedicated to the exploration of local and complex environmental issues marked by scientific or technological uncertainties. Following a pragmatic ... [more ▼]This article examines a 15 year-old master level seminar dedicated to the exploration of local and complex environmental issues marked by scientific or technological uncertainties. Following a pragmatic learning approach, we focus our discussion on a triadic relationship between supervisors, students and various concerned publics. A local flood management controversy in Belgium will help to illustrate our approach and point to some learning outcomes. On the basis of this pedagogical experience, we propose to shift from Problem-based-learning towards Public-based-learning that rests on the comparison of the various ways a problem is defined by publics. This comparative approach allows us to deduce a plurality of modes of involvement mobilized in the management of the environmental problems. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Development and validation of a short Italian UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior ScaleD'Orta, Isabella; Burnay, Jonathan ; Aiello, Daniela et alin Addictive Behaviors Reports (2015), 2Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that plays a prominent role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of addictive disorders. The UPPS-P model of impulsivity, which distinguishes between ... [more ▼]Impulsivity is a multidimensional construct that plays a prominent role in the development, maintenance, and relapse of addictive disorders. The UPPS-P model of impulsivity, which distinguishes between five impulsivity components (positive urgency, negative urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, sensation seeking), has been increasingly investigated during the last decade in relation to addictive and risky behaviors. Unfortunately, it currently lacks a validated scale that allows Italian researchers and clinicians to measure impulsivity based on the UPPS-P model. The current study fills this gap by testing the psychometric properties of a short 20-item Italian scale used to assess the five dimensions of the UPPS-P model in 188 volunteer participants from the community. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a model of five distinct, but interrelated, impulsivity components. The results indicated good internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranges from .73 to .84). Construct validity was evidenced by specific relations with measures of addictive behaviors and depressive symptoms. On the whole, this study demonstrated that the Italian short UPPS-P has good psychometric properties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg) Insulinosensibilisateurs (metformine/glitazones) : niveau de preuve et controverseSCHEEN, André in Médecine des Maladies Métaboliques (2015), 9Summary Because of the deleterious role attributed to insulin resistance, insulin sensitizing agents should theoretically reduce the incidence of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. In the ... [more ▼]Summary Because of the deleterious role attributed to insulin resistance, insulin sensitizing agents should theoretically reduce the incidence of cardiovascular complications in type 2 diabetes. In the UKPDS, metformin reduced the risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular mortality in a rather small group of recently diagnosed patients at a low cardiovascular risk. These results deserve confirmation in a larger study with patients a high cardiovascular risk. Glitazones, as more specific insulin sensitizers, raised much hope. However, rosiglitazone fell from its pedestal after the suspicion of an increased risk of myocardial infarction. In PROactive among patients at high cardiovascular risk, pioglitazone gave positive but questionable results: statistical significance was not reached regarding the large composite primary endpoint, but well regarding the prespecified more focused principal secondary endpoint or in various post-hoc analyses. Thus, even if data with insulin sensitizers appear globally rather promising, evidence is rather weak, therefore leading to recurrent controversy. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg) An overview of the plastic‑hinge analysis of 3D steel framesHoang, Van Long ; Nguyen, Dang-Hung; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre et alin Asia Pacific Journal on Computational Engineering (2015), 2:4Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg) Broadening, Deepening, and Governing Innovation: Flemish Technology Assessment in Historical and Socio-Political PerspectiveVan Oudheusden, Michiel ; Charlier, Nathan ; Rosskamp, Benedikt et alin Research Policy (2015), 44(10), 1877-1886This article examines how science, technology, and innovation (STI) policies in Flanders (Belgium) are affected by, and potentially transformed through, technology assessments (TAs). Broadly defined, TAs ... [more ▼]This article examines how science, technology, and innovation (STI) policies in Flanders (Belgium) are affected by, and potentially transformed through, technology assessments (TAs). Broadly defined, TAs encompass activities and programs that expand and deepen the knowledge base of contemporary knowledge-based economies (KBEs), typically by including new actors (e.g. trade unions), ideas (e.g. science in society), and rationales (e.g. participatory techniques) in STI processes. Starting from the regionalization of STI policy in Belgium and the convergence of Flemish STI around global KBE principles, the article exemplifies how since the 1980s successive Flemish TA waves (early- warning, bottom-up, and interactive TA) have co-evolved with successive generations of Flemish innovation policy. Building on these findings, it argues that Flemish TA has assumed the role of mediator between science and society, both by counteracting and accommodating dominant STI paradigms. By providing a historical and socio-political perspective on TA and innovation policy, the article draws critical attention to the institutional settings and societal contexts in which TA is embedded, and questions TA's strategic utility within contemporary KBEs. This perspective sheds light on the Flemish government's recent decision to close its parliamentary TA institute and the institutional expansion of TA elsewhere in Europe. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (11 ULg) Hunting with trapezes at Bazel-Sluis: the results of a functional analysisTomasso, Sonja; Rots, Veerle ; Perdaen, Yves et alin Notae Praehistoricae (2015), 35Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) Accompagner l'implantation de l'approche par compétences en histoire : avec quels moyens d'enseignement ?Jadoulle, Jean-Louis in Didactica historica. Revue suisse pour l'enseignement de l'histoire (2015), 1Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg) An overview of potamodromous fish upstream movements in medium-sized rivers, by means of fish passes monitoringBenitez, Jean-Philippe ; Nzau Matondo, Billy ; Dierckx, Arnaud et alin Aquatic Ecology (2015), 49(4), 481-497This study aims to investigate the upstream movement patterns of potamodromous fish species using multi-annual monitoring of modern multi-species fish passes in two medium-sized Belgian rivers: the ... [more ▼]This study aims to investigate the upstream movement patterns of potamodromous fish species using multi-annual monitoring of modern multi-species fish passes in two medium-sized Belgian rivers: the Berwinne and the Ambleve. During a 6-year monitoring period including a frequency of 1–5 times per week, the captured individuals were identified, measured and weighed to determine species abundance, and the periodicity of their seasonal movement patterns was investigated in relation to environmental factors. In the Ambleve, 22 different fish species were monitored (n = 1513 individuals; biomass of 154 kg) and 14 species in the Berwinne (n = 3720; 408 kg). In both fish passes, inter-annual differences were observed, but the first year of monitoring was the best in terms of biomass, indicating the existence of an opening effect just after the fish passes opening, which allowed new migration routes. Salmonids and rheophilic cyprinids were predominant in terms of biomass, while minnow and spirlin were predominant in terms of number of fishes. The diversity in sizeranged from 46 to 760 mm demonstrating the importance of movements in various life stages. The capture periodicity showed different mobility patterns between the adult and juvenile stages in most species. Movements occurred frequently during the circus reproduction period for some species, but many species moved also apart from spawning period. This study highlights the omnipresence of patrimonial holobiotic potamodromous fish at different life stages that reflect their biological needs to move throughout the annual cycle. They must be considered as target species in river continuity restoration programmes and fish-pass design. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (15 ULg) Assessment of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical practice: An international surveyBruyère, Olivier ; Beaudart, Charlotte ; Reginster, Jean-Yves et alin European Geriatric Medicine (2015)Introduction: Several tools are available for the assessment of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical research. However, few data are available on the usage of these tools in ... [more ▼]Introduction: Several tools are available for the assessment of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical research. However, few data are available on the usage of these tools in clinical practice. Methods: This study aimed to assess their usage by means of a large online international survey. Since sarcopenia is a specific condition where the assessment of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance is important, the survey also assessed the tools used for the diagnosis of this geriatric syndrome. Results: The survey was completed by 255 clinicians from 55 countries across 5 continents. Among these clinicians with geriatrics, rheumatology and endocrinology as major fields of interest, 53.3% assess muscle mass in daily practice, 54.5% muscle strength and 71.4% physical performance. However, the tools used are very different and no single tool is used by all clinicians. The tools and the cut-off values used by clinicians to diagnose sarcopenia are also heterogeneous. Conclusion: Because some tools used for the assessment of muscle mass, muscle strength or physical performance in daily practice are less validated than others, a greater awareness from the clinicians of the importance of using appropriate tools is needed [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) Foreign Language Teachers’ Assessment Practices in French-Speaking Belgium’s Upper Secondary Schools: A Case StudyNoiroux, Kevin in The International Journal of Pedagogy and Curriculum (2015), 23(2), Foreign language classroom assessment practices are a mystery, at least in Belgium. The present case study aims at shedding light on Belgian foreign languages teachers’ assessment practices in secondary ... [more ▼]Foreign language classroom assessment practices are a mystery, at least in Belgium. The present case study aims at shedding light on Belgian foreign languages teachers’ assessment practices in secondary education. I interviewed seven teachers to know what they assessed and how often they assessed it. I also analyzed the legal provisions that teachers have to respect when they assess. The results show that teachers assess four communicative skills—listening, reading, writing, and speaking—as legally required, but also reveal that they frequently assess vocabulary and grammar, sometimes in ways that are not permitted. Furthermore, they spend a considerable amount of time assessing those skills without even being aware of it. Since these assessments only aim at verifying that the students master the skills, it may be worth investigating whether some assessments are not redundant so as to devote that time to a more productive task. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Van botscan tot bodysuit. Naar een maatschappelijk debat over sportinnovatieVan Oudheusden, Michiel ; Van Hoyweghen, Inein Karakter. Tijdschrift van wetenschap (2015), 52Many scientists, athletes, sports bodies, and governments applaud the increasing integration of science and technology into sports. However, the scientization of sports raises ethical, legal, and social ... [more ▼]Many scientists, athletes, sports bodies, and governments applaud the increasing integration of science and technology into sports. However, the scientization of sports raises ethical, legal, and social issues (ELSI), e.g. about the changing relationship between medical support and human enhancement, and the implications of scientific talent screening in sports for sports participation. A public debate is needed that identifies the ELSI in sports innovation and urges technology innovators, regulators, and decision makers to take into account such issues before sports innovations are irrevocably locked into sports and society. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) A metagenomic approach from aphid’s hemolymph sheds light on the potential roles of co-existing endosymbiontsDe Clerck, Caroline ; Fujiwara, Akiko; Joncour, Pauline et alin Microbiome (2015), 3(63), Background: Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with specific bacteria, called endosymbionts which can be classified as obligate or accessory. Buchnera aphidicola is generally the only obligatory ... [more ▼]Background: Aphids are known to live in symbiosis with specific bacteria, called endosymbionts which can be classified as obligate or accessory. Buchnera aphidicola is generally the only obligatory symbiont present in aphids, supplying essential nutrients that are missing in the plants phloem to its host. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the main vector of the banana bunchy top virus, one of the most damageable viruses in banana. This aphid is carrying two symbionts: B. aphidicola (BPn) and Wolbachia sp. (wPn). The high occurrence of Wolbachia in the banana aphid raises questions about the role it plays in this insect. The goal of this study was to go further in the understanding of the role played by the two symbionts in P. nigronervosa. To do so, microinjection tests were made to see the effect of wPn elimination on the host, and then, high-throughput sequencing of the haemolymph was used to analyze the gene content of the symbionts. Results: We observed that the elimination of wPn systematically led to the death of aphids, suggesting that the bacterium could play a mutualistic role. In addition, we identify and annotate 587 and 250 genes for wPn and BPn, respectively, through high-throughput sequencing. Analysis of these genes suggests that the two bacteria are working together for the production of several essential nutrients. The most striking cases are for lysin and riboflavin which are usually provided by B. aphidicola alone to the host. In the banana aphid, the genes involved in the production pathways of these metabolites are shared between the two bacteria making them both essential for the survival of the aphid host. Conclusions: Our results suggest that a co-obligatory symbiosis between B. aphidicola and Wolbachia occurs in the banana aphid, the two bacteria acting together to supply essential nutrients to the host. This is, to our knowledge, the first time Wolbachia is reported to play an essential role in aphids. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) The cultivable surface microbiota of the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum is enriched in macroalgal-polysaccharide-degrading bacteriaMartin, Marjolaine ; Barbeyron, Tristan; Martin, Renée et alin Frontiers in Microbiology (2015), 6(december), Bacteriadegradingalgalpolysaccharidesarekeyplayersintheglobalcarboncycleandinalgalbiomassrecycling.Yetthewatercolumn,whichhasbeenstudiedlargelybymetagenomicapproaches,ispoorinsuchbacteriaandtheiralgal ... [more ▼]Bacteriadegradingalgalpolysaccharidesarekeyplayersintheglobalcarboncycleandinalgalbiomassrecycling.Yetthewatercolumn,whichhasbeenstudiedlargelybymetagenomicapproaches,ispoorinsuchbacteriaandtheiralgal-polysaccharide-degradingenzymes.Evenmoresurprisingly,thefewpublishedstudiesonseaweed-associatedmicrobiomeshaverevealedlowabundancesofsuchbacteriaandtheirspecificenzymes.However,asmacroalgalcell-wallpolysaccharidesdonotaccumulateinnature,thesebacteriaandtheiruniquepolysaccharidasesmustnotbethatuncommon.We,therefore,lookedatthepolysaccharide-degradingactivityofthecultivablebacterialsubpopulationassociatedwithAscophyllumnodosum.FromA.nodosumtriplicates,324bacteriawereisolatedandtaxonomicallyidentified.Outoftheseisolates,78(∼25%)werefoundtoactonatleastonetestedalgalpolysaccharide(agar,i-ork-carrageenan,oralginate).Theisolates“active”onalgal-polysaccharidesbelongto11genera:Cellulophaga,Maribacter,Algibacter,andZobelliaintheclassFlavobacteriia(41)andPseudoalteromonas,Vibrio,Cobetia,Shewanella,Colwellia,Marinomonas,andParaglaceciolaintheclassGammaproteobacteria(37).Amajorpartrepresentslikelynovelspecies.Differentproportionsofbacterialphylaandclasseswereobservedbetweentheisolatedcultivablesubpopulationandthetotalmicrobialcommunitypreviouslyidentifiedonotherbrownalgae.Here,BacteroidetesandGammaproteobacteriawerefoundtobethemostabundantandsomephyla(asPlanctomycetesandCyanobacteria)frequentlyencounteredonbrownalgaeweren’tidentified.Atalowertaxonomiclevel,twelvegenera,well-knowntobeassociatedwithalgae(withtheexceptionforColwellia),wereconsistentlyfoundonallthreeA.nosodumsamples.Evenmoreinteresting,9ofthe11abovementionedgeneracontainingpolysaccharolyticisolateswerepredominantinthiscommoncore.ThecultivablefractionofthebacterialcommunityassociatedwithA.nodosumis,thus,significantlyenrichedinmacroalgal-polysaccharide-degradingbacteriaandthesebacteriaseemimportantfortheseaweedholobionteventhoughtheyareunder-representedinalga-associatedmicrobiomestudies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) Mesures de la voix en contexte écologique et techniques de biofeedbackRemacle, Angélique ; Morsomme, Dominique in Rééducation Orthophonique (2015), 264Observer, analyser et améliorer la voix des patients dysphoniques dans leur quotidien relève-t-il encore de l’utopie? La dosimétrie ou accumulation vocale est une technique visant à quantifier la voix en ... [more ▼]Observer, analyser et améliorer la voix des patients dysphoniques dans leur quotidien relève-t-il encore de l’utopie? La dosimétrie ou accumulation vocale est une technique visant à quantifier la voix en contexte écologique. Elle a d’abord fait l’apanage des laboratoires de recherche. Ensuite, publication après publication, les chercheurs ont mis en avant ses atouts et ses limites. Les dispositifs se sont modernisés, leur commercialisation a vu le jour il y a une dizaine d’années et leur utilisation est de plus en plus conviviale. Le biofeedback a été intégré à certains dosimètres. Cette option permet d’aller au-delà de la simple récolte d’informations sur l’usage vocal des patients. Elle peut, par exemple, avertir le sujet d’un comportement vocal inadéquat en temps réel, le but étant qu’il acquiert le bon geste vocal et l’intègre de manière automatique dans son quotidien. Ces outils participent donc aux quatre étapes de la thérapie, à savoir la conscientisation du dysfonctionnement, l’automatisation du geste vocal adéquat, son transfert, et son maintien dans le temps. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 136 (14 ULg) Contraception et risque carcinologiqueBELIARD, Aude in Réalités en Gynécologie-Obstétrique (2015), 179Hormonal contraception is used by millions of women worldwide for many years. Is there any impact on cancer risks (breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, liver, and colon cancer)? On the other hand, as a ... [more ▼]Hormonal contraception is used by millions of women worldwide for many years. Is there any impact on cancer risks (breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, liver, and colon cancer)? On the other hand, as a result of advances in cancer therapy, women within the reproductive-aged group are more likely to survive cancer and be interested to procreate or to delay pregnancy. Which method of contraception can be proposed to this special population of cancer patients? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) La vie littéraire au kaléidoscope des PhysiologiesStienon, Valérie in Site de la Société des Études romantiques et dix-neuviémistes (SERD) (2015)En mots et en vignettes, la Physiologie littéraire de la monarchie de Juillet élabore ses propres modalités de mise en fiction de la société. Selon un point de vue à la fois avisé et distancié, induit par ... [more ▼]En mots et en vignettes, la Physiologie littéraire de la monarchie de Juillet élabore ses propres modalités de mise en fiction de la société. Selon un point de vue à la fois avisé et distancié, induit par l’association d’une centralité culturelle parisienne et d’une faible légitimité à l’ombre de la grande littérature, ces petites monographies réorganisent le système des valeurs à travers lesquelles est perçu le fait littéraire à leur époque. C’est l’occasion d’investiguer sur les à-côtés de la littérature, en interrogeant les manières de circonscrire le territoire des lettres et de le faire interagir avec d’autres domaines d’activités. Deux questions font plus particulièrement l’objet de cet article. D'une part, ces textes livrent-ils un traitement englobant et univoque du profil de l’homme de lettres ou s’attachent-ils au contraire à en souligner les nuances et les singularités en multipliant ses variétés, autour de la dichotomie bien connue des figures archétypales du poète et du journaliste ? D'autre part, dans quelle mesure ces textes reconduisent-ils le mythe du génie créateur et les valeurs romantiques du talent et de l’inspiration, compte tenu du fait que celles-ci sont difficilement compatibles avec les stratégies du parvenu et les expédients du jeune auteur pressé d’arriver, ruses que les Physiologies s’appliquent à débusquer, dans la foulée d’une abondante thématisation du macairisme et des fourberies du floueur ? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) A probabilistic model for predicting the uncertainties of the humid stiction phenomenon on hard materialsHoang Truong, Vinh ; Wu, Ling ; Paquay, Stéphane et alin Journal of Computational & Applied Mathematics (2015), 289Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the ... [more ▼]Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the surfaces roughness and the adhesive force range, the real contact areas are usually smaller than the apparent one, resulting in a scatter in the adhesive forces. Consequently, the stiction is an uncertain phenomenon. In this work, we develop a probabilistic model to predict the uncertainties of stiction due to the capillary forces acting on stiff materials. This model contains two levels: at the deterministic level, the model can predict the pull-out adhesive contact forces for a given surface topology; at the probabilistic level, the model generates independent identically distributed surfaces on which the deterministic solution can be applied to evaluate the uncertainties related to the stiction phenomenon. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 194 (78 ULg) Présent et imparfait en moyen-perse et parthe: histoire, évolution et convergenceFerrer-Losilla, Joan Josep in Estudios Iranios y Turanios (2015), 2This paper deals with the problem of the origin of the verbal endings in Middle Persian and Parthian and seeks to show a feasible history of their evolution from proto-Iranian onwards. Starting from the ... [more ▼]This paper deals with the problem of the origin of the verbal endings in Middle Persian and Parthian and seeks to show a feasible history of their evolution from proto-Iranian onwards. Starting from the assumption that the present indicative of Western Middle Iranian emerged from two old tenses, viz. present and imperfect, my aim is showing how both tenses converged in a single paradigm and how traces of both appear here and there. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Multivariate coefficients of variation: Comparison and influence functionsAerts, Stéphanie ; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ; Ruwet, Christel in Journal of Multivariate Analysis (2015), 142In the univariate setting, coeﬃcients of variation are well-known and used to compare the variability of populations characterized by variables expressed in diﬀerent units or having really diﬀerent means ... [more ▼]In the univariate setting, coeﬃcients of variation are well-known and used to compare the variability of populations characterized by variables expressed in diﬀerent units or having really diﬀerent means. When dealing with more than one variable, the use of such a relative dispersion measure is much less common even though several generalizations of the coeﬃcient of variation to the multivariate setting have been introduced in the literature. In this paper, the lack of robustness of the sample versions of the multivariate coeﬃcients of variation (MCV) is illustrated by means of inﬂuence functions and some robust counterparts based either on the Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) estimator or on the S estimator are advocated. Then, focusing on two of the considered MCV’s, a diagnostic tool is derived and its eﬃciency in detecting observations having an unduly large eﬀect on variability is illustrated on a real-life data set. The inﬂuence functions are also used to compute asymptotic variances under elliptical distributions, yielding approximate conﬁdence intervals. Finally, simulations are conducted in order to compare, in a ﬁnite sample setting, the performance of the classical and robust MCV’s in terms of variability and in terms of coverage probability of the corresponding asymptotic conﬁdence intervals. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 88 (26 ULg) Dosage de la lumière pour maintenir la coexistence d’espèces d’ombre et de demi-ombre dans la régénération de la futaie irrégulièreLigot, Gauthier ; Balandier, Philippe; Courbaud, Benoît et alin Revue Forestière Française (2015), 3Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULg) Structure-Activity Relationships of Novel Tryptamine-Based Inhibitors of Bacterial Transglycosylase.Sosic, Izidor; Anderluh, Marko; Sova, Matej et alin Journal of medicinal chemistry (2015)Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin ... [more ▼]Penicillin-binding proteins represent well-established, validated, and still very promising targets for the design and development of new antibacterial agents. The transglycosylase domain of penicillin-binding proteins is especially important, as it catalyzes polymerization of glycan chains, using the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II as a substrate. On the basis of the previous discovery of a noncovalent small-molecule inhibitor of transglycosylase activity, we systematically explored the structure-activity relationships of these tryptamine-based inhibitors. The main aim was to reduce the nonspecific cytotoxic properties of the initial hit compound and concurrently to retain the mode of its inhibition. A focused library of tryptamine-based compounds was synthesized, characterized, and evaluated biochemically. The results presented here show the successful reduction of the nonspecific cytotoxicity, and the retention of the inhibition of transglycosylase enzymatic activity, as well as the ability of these compounds to bind to lipid II and to have antibacterial actions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg) Is the O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission controlled by solar activity ?Soret, Lauriane ; Gérard, Jean-Claude in Icarus (2015), 262Several past studies showed that the O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission at 1.27 μm is highly variable on a timescale of hours. We examine whether the intensity of this emission shows a more global trend ... [more ▼]Several past studies showed that the O2(a1Δg) Venus nightglow emission at 1.27 μm is highly variable on a timescale of hours. We examine whether the intensity of this emission shows a more global trend linked to solar activity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (5 ULg) Sarcopenia as a public health problemBruyère, Olivier ; Beaudart, Charlotte ; Locquet, Médéa et alin European Geriatric Medicine (2015)The importance of a health problem is based on its current and expected prevalence, its clinical and economic consequences, the social status of people affected by the problem and the availability of an ... [more ▼]The importance of a health problem is based on its current and expected prevalence, its clinical and economic consequences, the social status of people affected by the problem and the availability of an effective treatment. In this paper, we review the main current literature on sarcopenia in order to assess whether this geriatric syndrome could be considered as a major public health problem. Our review highlights that based on its prevalence, its clinical consequences, the limitations of the current available treatments as well as on the fact that many frail patients are affected by this geriatric syndrome, sarcopenia should be considered as a health priority by all interested parties in order to reduce its burden. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) Quantum manifestations of classical nonlinear resonancesWisniacki, Diego A.; Schlagheck, Peter in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2015), 92When an integrable classical system is perturbed, nonlinear resonances are born, grow, and eventually disappear due to chaos. In this paper the quantum manifestations of such a transition are studied in ... [more ▼]When an integrable classical system is perturbed, nonlinear resonances are born, grow, and eventually disappear due to chaos. In this paper the quantum manifestations of such a transition are studied in the standard map. We show that nonlinear resonances act as a perturbation that break eigenphase degeneracies for unperturbed states with quantum numbers that differ in a multiple of the order of the resonance. We show that the eigenphase splittings are well described by a semiclassical expression based on an integrable approximation of the Hamiltonian in the vicinity of the resonance. The morphology in phase space of these states is also studied. We show that the nonlinear resonance imprints a systematic influence in their localization properties [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Saying the unsayable: Imagining reconciliation in Gail Jones's SorryBelleflamme, Valérie-Anne in English Text Construction (2015), 8(2), 297In her novel Sorry (2007), Australian novelist and essayist Gail Jones engages in a reflection on the ethics of reconciliation. Written in response to her wish to acknowledge the debt to the Stolen ... [more ▼]In her novel Sorry (2007), Australian novelist and essayist Gail Jones engages in a reflection on the ethics of reconciliation. Written in response to her wish to acknowledge the debt to the Stolen Generations, Sorry offers new possibilities of ethical mourning, allowing the dead to return and the voiceless to speak. This article explores the ways in which Jones not only fashions a narrative that bypasses the unsayable dimension of Australia’s history and the representational difficulties inherent in trauma but also fosters the empathetic imagination through a metadiscursive discussion of the act of reading. Self-referentiality and self-reflexivity are also examined, as they allow Jones to draw attention to her novel’s writerly elaborations and offer an alternative to standard reconciliation practices. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg) Updated checklist of the mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of BelgiumBoukraa, Slimane ; Dekoninck, Wouter; Versteirt, Veerle et alin Journal of Vector Ecology : Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology (2015), 40(2), 398-407Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and ... [more ▼]Most information about the systematics and bioecology of Belgian mosquitoes dates back from before 1950, and only scattered information was produced during the last decades. In this paper we review and update the list of mosquito species recorded in Belgium, from first report (1908) to 2015. Six genera and 31 species were recorded so far, including 28 autochthonous species and three invasive alien species recently recorded in Belgium: Aedes albopictus (Skuse 1894), Ae. japonicus japonicus (Theobald 1901), and Ae. koreicus (Edwards 1917). The six genera are Anopheles (five species), Aedes (sixteen species), Coquillettidia (one species), Culex (four species), Culiseta (four species), and Orthopodomyia (one species). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) Qualité de vie du patient sarcopénique : apport de l’étude liégeoise SarcoPhAgeBeaudart, Charlotte ; Reginster, Jean-Yves ; PETERMANS, Jean et alin Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015), 13(4), 391-5The consequences of sarcopenia on quality are difficult to evaluate and consequently are quite poorly studied. The few studies assessing the quality of life in sarcopenic subjects currently use generic ... [more ▼]The consequences of sarcopenia on quality are difficult to evaluate and consequently are quite poorly studied. The few studies assessing the quality of life in sarcopenic subjects currently use generic quality of life questionnaires such as SF36 and EQ5D. The SarcoPhAge study, conducted on a cohort developed in Liège including 534 subjects of 65 years or older, suggested that sarcopenic subjects present a significant worse quality of life in the domains of physical function compared to nonsarcopenic subjects. Generic tools do not cover exhaustively all the areas of potential dysfunction concerned in this geriatric syndrome. Yet, there is no specific and validated quality of life questionnaire for sarcopenia. It would be useful to have at our disposal a sarcopenia specific quality of life questionnaire to assess not only the prospective quality of life of sarcopenic subjects but also to assess the efficacy and the rele [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (8 ULg) Principes pratiques de l'animatique des groupes. Stratégies d'animation en vue d'un apprentissage expérientielFaulx, Daniel ; Danse, Cédric in Cahiers Internationaux de Psychologie Sociale (2015), 4he paradigm of the face-to-face group dynamics encloses the postulates, intentions and principles underlying group’s process. It formates the methodology of their conduct. Fourteen components of this ... [more ▼]he paradigm of the face-to-face group dynamics encloses the postulates, intentions and principles underlying group’s process. It formates the methodology of their conduct. Fourteen components of this paradigm are here listed, to help the trainers, from the angle to apply it in their practical experience in leading groups. They make a consistent whole and guide the trainer in its using of the methodology of structured experiences. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Environmental impacts of phosphoric acid production using di-hemihydrate process: a Belgian case studyBelboom, Sandra ; Szöcs, Carl; Léonard, Angélique in Journal of Cleaner Production (2015), 108This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of phosphoric acid production, using industrial data from Prayon SA in Belgium. Phosphoric acid is produced using the wet di-hemihydrate process also ... [more ▼]This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of phosphoric acid production, using industrial data from Prayon SA in Belgium. Phosphoric acid is produced using the wet di-hemihydrate process also called Central Prayon process. Both grades of phosphoric acid are evaluated: fertilizer and purified grades. Specificities of this plant are highlighted and improvements of the process in terms of energy and facilities integration through years are quantified as environmental benefits. The implementation on site of two sulphuric acid production facilities and their energetic integration allow a reduction of climate change impact of 80%. Results also show the importance of phosphogypsum valorisation which is sold for the main part in this case study. Concerning the purified grade, this specific process has been compared to the thermal process, using Best Available Techniques (BAT) values for the modelling. It shows a reduced environmental impact for the wet process in the majority of categories studies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (2 ULg) Experimental and computational micro–mechanical investigations of compressive properties of polypropylene/multi–walled carbon nanotubes nanocomposite foamsWan, Fangyi; Tran, Minh Phuong; Leblanc, Christophe et alin Mechanics of Materials (2015), 91(Part 1), 95-118The compressive behavior of nanocomposite foams is studied by both experimental and computational micro-mechanics approaches with the aim of providing an efficient computational model for this kind of ... [more ▼]The compressive behavior of nanocomposite foams is studied by both experimental and computational micro-mechanics approaches with the aim of providing an efficient computational model for this kind of material. The nanocomposites based on polypropylene (PP) and different contents of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are prepared by melt mixing method. The nanocomposite samples are foamed using super-critical carbon dioxide (ScCO2) as blowing agent at different soaking temperatures. The influence of this foaming parameter on the morphological characteristics of the foam micro-structure is discussed. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements are used to quantify the crystallinity degree of both nanocomposites and foams showing that the crystallinity degree is reduced after the foaming process. This modification leads to mechanical properties of the foam cell walls that are different from the raw nanocomposite PP/CNTs material. Three--point bending tests are performed on the latter to measure the flexural modulus in terms of the crystallinity degree. Uniaxial compression tests are then performed on the foamed samples under quasi-static conditions in order to extract the macro-scale compressive response. Next, a two-level multi-scale approach is developed to model the behavior of the foamed nanocomposite material. On the one hand, the micro-mechanical properties of nanocomposite PP/CNTs cell walls are evaluated from a theoretical homogenization model accounting for the micro-structure of the semi-crystalline PP, for the degree of crystallinity, and for the CNT volume fraction. The applicability of this theoretical model is demonstrated via the comparison with experimental data from the described experimental measurements and from literature. On the other hand, the macroscopic behavior of the foamed material is evaluated using a computational micro-mechanics model using tetrakaidecahedron unit cells and periodic boundary conditions to estimate the homogenized properties. The unit cell is combined with several geometrical imperfections in order to capture the elastic collapse of the foamed material. The numerical results are compared to the experimental measurements and it is shown that the proposed unit cell computational micro-mechanics model can be used to estimate the homogenized behavior, including the linear and plateau regimes, of nanocomposite foams. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 126 (51 ULg) The importance of phenotypic diversity in conservation: Resilience of palmate newt morphotypes after fish removal in Larzac ponds (France)Denoël, Mathieu ; Winandy, Laurane in Biological Conservation (2015), 192Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders ... [more ▼]Resilience of organisms after threat removal is an essential feature to justify conservation efforts. Amphibians are particularly threatened with a worldwide decline, showing a low resistance to invaders such as fish. Previous research has shown that they could recover after fish extirpation due to metamorphosed colonizers. However, not all amphibian phenotypes are able to persist to fish introduction and disperse. In many species of newts and salamanders, paedomorphs retain gills in the adult stage, which makes them fully aquatic. A proposed way to conserve this phenotype would be to remove introduced fish from their habitats. However, because paedomorphosis is usually not expressed in the presence of fish, it is unknown whether fish removal could allow the resilience of paedomorphs. This would be possible only if progenies of metamorphosed individuals could become paedomorphic in restored habitats. Through a quantitative survey in three types of ponds, including control ponds without fish, ponds in which fish were extirpated, and fish ponds, we determined abundances of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). The results show that paedomorphosis resilience is possible and even highly frequent, as paedomorphs were found in 80% of ponds where fish disappeared. Abundances were similar between these ponds and control ponds whereas fish ponds had almost no newts, indicating a very low resistance to invaders. This shows that conserving common phenotypes can help to preserve endangered phenotypes, as paedomorphs were produced through the reproduction of metamorphs. There is thus hope of maintaining intraspecific biodiversity though conservation action involving threat removal. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (19 ULg) The protective effects of free wheel-running against cocaine psychomotor sensitization persist after exercise cessation in C57BL/6J miceLespine, Louis-Ferdinand ; Tirelli, Ezio in Neuroscience (2015), 310Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug ... [more ▼]Previous literature suggests that free access to a running wheel can attenuate the behavioral responsiveness to addictive drugs in rodents. In a few studies, wheel-running cessation accentuated drug responsiveness. Here, we tested whether free wheel-running cessation is followed by (1) an accentuation or (2) an attenuation of cocaine psychomotor sensitization, knowing that no cessation of (continuous) wheel-running is associated with an attenuation of cocaine responsiveness. Male C57BL/6J mice, aged 35 days, were housed singly either with (exercising mice) or without (non-exercising mice) a running wheel. At the end of a period of 36 days, half of the exercising mice were deprived of their wheel whereas the other half of exercising mice kept their wheel until the end of experimentation (which lasted 85 days). The non-exercising mice were housed without wheel throughout experimentation. Testing took place 3 days after exercise cessation. After 2 once-daily drug-free test sessions, mice were tested for initiation of psychomotor sensitization over 13 once-daily injections of 8 mg/kg cocaine. Post-sensitization conditioned activation (saline challenge) and long-term expression of sensitization were assessed 2 or 30 days after the last sensitizing injection (same treatments as for initiation of sensitization), respectively. Exercising mice and mice undergoing wheel-running cessation exhibited comparable degrees of attenuation of all cocaine effects in comparison with the continuously non-exercising mice, which showed the greatest effects. Thus, the efficaciousness of wheel-running at attenuating cocaine sensitization not only resisted to exercise cessation but also was unambiguously persistent (an important effect rarely reported in previous literature). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg) Mesure des flux de CO2 et séquestration de carbone dans les écosystèmes terrestres ouest-africains (Synthèse Bibliographique)Ago, Expédit Evariste ; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi; Ozer, Pierre et alin Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (5 ULg) Ferroelectric instability in nanotubes and spherical nanoshellsQiu, Ruihao ; Bousquet, Eric ; Cano, Andresin Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2015), 112The emergence of ferroelectricity in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells is studied theoretically. We determine semi-analytically the size and thickness dependence of the ferroelectric instability, as well ... [more ▼]The emergence of ferroelectricity in nanotubes and spherical nanoshells is studied theoretically. We determine semi-analytically the size and thickness dependence of the ferroelectric instability, as well as its dependence on the properties of the surrounding media and the corresponding interfaces. By properly tuning these factors, we demonstrate possible routes for enhancing the ferroelectric transition temperature and promoting the competition between irrotational and vortex-like states in the ultra-thin limit due to the specific topology of these nanoparticles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Response to antiviral therapy in haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation according to the donor CMV serological statusSERVAIS, Sophie ; Dumontier, N.; Biard, L. et alin Clinical Microbiology and Infection (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Post-coronagraphic tip-tilt sensing for vortex phase masks: the QACITS techniqueHuby, Elsa ; Baudoz, Pierre; Mawet, Dimitri et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 584Small inner working angle coronagraphs, like the vortex phase mask, are essential to exploit the full potential of ground-based telescopes in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization ... [more ▼]Small inner working angle coronagraphs, like the vortex phase mask, are essential to exploit the full potential of ground-based telescopes in the context of exoplanet detection and characterization. However, the drawback of this attractive feature is a high sensitivity to pointing errors, which degrades the performance of the coronagraph. We propose a tip-tilt retrieval technique based on the analysis of the final coronagraphic image, hereafter called Quadrant Analysis of Coronagraphic Images for Tip-tilt Sensing (QACITS). Under the assumption of small phase aberrations, we show that the behaviour of the vortex phase mask can be simply described from the entrance pupil to the Lyot stop plane by Zernike polynomials. This convenient formalism is used to establish the theoretical basis of the QACITS technique. Simulations have been performed to demonstrate the validity and limits of the technique, including the case of a centrally obstructed pupil. The QACITS technique principle is further validated by experimental results in the case of an unobstructed circular aperture. The typical configuration of the Keck telescope (24% central obstruction) has been simulated with additional high order aberrations. In these conditions, our simulations show that the QACITS technique is still adapted to centrally obstructed pupils and performs tip-tilt retrieval with a precision of $5 \times 10^{-2}$ {\lambda}/D when wavefront errors amount to {\lambda}/14 rms and $10^{-2}$ {\lambda}/D for {\lambda}/70 rms errors (with {\lambda} the wavelength and D the pupil diameter). The implementation of the QACITS technique is based on the analysis of the scientific image and does not require any modification of the original setup. Current facilities equipped with a vortex phase mask can thus directly benefit from this technique to improve the contrast performance close to the axis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg) Recent advances in BLV researchBarez, Pierre-Yves ; De Brogniez, Alix ; Carpentier, Alexandre et alin Viruses (2015), 7(11), 6080-6088Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques ... [more ▼]Different animal models have been proposed to investigate the mechanisms of HTLV-induced pathogenesis: rats, transgenic and NOD-SCID/γcnull (NOG) mice, rabbits, squirrel monkeys, baboons and macaques. These systems indeed provide useful information but have intrinsic limitations such as lack of disease relevance, species specificity or inadequate immune response. Another strategy based on a comparative virology approach is to characterize a related pathogen and to speculate on possible shared mechanisms. In this perspective, bovine leukemia virus (BLV), another member of the deltaretrovirus genus, is evolutionary related to HTLV-1. BLV induces lymphoproliferative disorders in ruminants providing useful information on the mechanisms of viral persistence, genetic determinants of pathogenesis and potential novel therapies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (8 ULg) Discrimination of deciduous tree species from time series of unmanned aerial system imageryLisein, Jonathan ; Michez, Adrien ; Claessens, Hugues et alin PLoS ONE (2015), 10(11), Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial ... [more ▼]Technology advances can revolutionize Precision Forestry by providing accurate and fine forest information at tree level. This paper addresses the question of how and particularly when Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) should be used in order to efficiently discriminate deciduous tree species. A time series of high resolution UAS imagery was collected to cover the growing season from leaf flush to leaf fall. Full benefit was taken of the temporal resolution of UAS acquisition, one of the most promising features of small drones. The disparity in forest tree phenology is at the maximum during early spring and late autumn. But the phenology state that optimized the classification result is the one that minimizes the spectral variation within tree species groups and, at the same time, maximizes the phenologic differences between species. Sunlit tree crowns (5 deciduous species groups) were classified using a Random Forest approach for monotemporal, two-date and three-date combinations. The end of leaf flushing was the most efficient single-date time window. Multitemporal datasets definitely improve the overall classification accuracy. But single-date high resolution orthophotomosaics, acquired on optimal time-windows, result in a very good classification accuracy (overall out of bag error of 16%). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 101 (45 ULg) Primary osteosarcoma of the breast : a case reportCrevecoeur, Julie; Jossa, Véronique; GENNIGENS, Christine et alin Clinical Case Reports (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg) gammaMAXT: a fast multiple-testing correction algorithmVan Lishout, François ; Gadaleta, Francesco; Moore, Jason H. et alin BioData Mining (2015), 8(36), Background: The purpose of the maxT algorithm is to provide a significance test algorithm that controls the family-wise error rate (FWER) during simultaneous hypothesis testing. However, the requirements ... [more ▼]Background: The purpose of the maxT algorithm is to provide a significance test algorithm that controls the family-wise error rate (FWER) during simultaneous hypothesis testing. However, the requirements in terms of computing time and memory of this procedure are proportional to the number of investigated hypotheses. The memory issue has been solved in 2013 by Van Lishout’s implementation of MaxT, which makes the memory usage independent from the size of the dataset. This algorithm is implemented in MBMDR-3.0.3, a software that is able to identify genetic interactions, for a variety of SNP-SNP based epistasis models effectively. On the other hand, that implementation turned out to be less suitable for genome-wide interaction analysis studies, due to the prohibitive computational burden. Results: In this work we introduce gammaMAXT, a novel implementation of the maxT algorithm for multiple testing correction. The algorithm was implemented in software MBMDR-4.2.2, as part of the MB-MDR framework to screen for SNP-SNP, SNP-environment or SNP-SNP-environment interactions at a genome-wide level. We show that, in the absence of interaction effects, test-statistics produced by the MB-MDR methodology follow a mixture distribution with a point mass at zero and a shifted gamma distribution for the top 10 % of the strictly positive values. We show that the gammaMAXT algorithm has a power comparable to MaxT and maintains FWER, but requires less computational resources and time. We analyze a dataset composed of 106 SNPs and 1000 individuals within one day on a 256-core computer cluster. The same analysis would take about 104 times longer with MBMDR-3.0.3. Conclusions: These results are promising for future GWAIs.However, the proposed gammaMAXT algorithm offers a general significance assessment and multiple testing approach, applicable to any context that requires performing hundreds of thousands of tests. It offers new perspectives for fast and efficient permutation-based significance assessment in large-scale (integrated) omics studies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) “Shakespeare was wrong”: counter-discursive intertextuality in Gail Jones’s SorryBelleflamme, Valérie-Anne in Journal of Postcolonial Writing (2015), 51(6), 661671In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and ... [more ▼]In what is presented as a moment of truth in Gail Jones’s novel Sorry, the narrator’s brief statement that “Shakespeare was wrong” appears to call into question the English dramatist’s literary and epistemological supremacy. Starting from this unsettling premise, this article seeks to define Jones’s counter-discursive use of Shakespearean intertextuality. While it has, for decades, proved a risky task for both historians and novelists to write about the delicate issue of silence in Australia without risking the appropriation of an Aboriginal voice, the article examines how Jones exploits defamiliarizing techniques in order to undermine the dominant European discourse (as encoded in the Shakespearean text) without assuming an Aboriginal perspective. Her aim is to facilitate the emergence of an incipient, tentatively-defined counter-discourse sufficiently attuned to the specific realities of Australia. The article argues that by adopting an Australian cultural perspective designed to decentre Shakespeare Jones hopes to reconcile history and writing, but also the divided aspects of White Australia’s twofold identity at a time of profound national changes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (12 ULg) A KNOWLEDGE-BASED APPROACH FOR MAPPING LAND DEGRADATION IN THE ARID RANGELANDS OF NORTH AFRICAMahyou, Hamid; Tychon, Bernard ; Balaghi, Riad et alin Land Degradation & Development (2015)Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the ... [more ▼]Rangelands cover about 82% of the arid area of Morocco. It is generally acknowledged that these areas are threatened by desertification. Monitoring desertification requires accurate knowledge about the current status of rangeland degradation. Remote sensing is widely used to assess changes in land cover, but its use in arid rangelands has limitations because of spectral confusion among various types of land cover. The objective of this study was to assess the severity and spatial extent of rangeland degradation in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco, using a knowledge-based approach combining remote sensing and ancillary data. This approach relies on analyzing datasets derived from Landsat TM satellite imagery, lithology, bioclimatic data and field measurements. The level of rangeland degradation was assessed using indicators such as vegetation parameters, grazing levels and cultivation intensity, which provided a high level of accuracy for mapping and monitoring the degradation of the arid rangelands. The results showed that the total area of degraded rangeland in the high plateaus of eastern Morocco is about 17,417 km², accounting for 48% in the studied area. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg) Retrieval of ammonia from ground-based FTIR solar spectraDammers, Enrico; Vigouroux, C; Palm, M et alin Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E ... [more ▼]We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E), Reunion (20.9° S, 55.50° E) and Jungfraujoch (46.55° N, 7.98° E) were used to illustrate the capabilities of the method. NH3 mean total columns ranging three orders of magnitude were obtained with higher values at Bremen (mean of 13.47 × 1015 molecules cm-2) to the lower values at Jungfraujoch (mean of 0.18 × 1015 molecules cm-2). In conditions with high surface concentrations of ammonia, as in Bremen, it is possible to retrieve information on the vertical gradient as two layers can be discriminated. The retrieval there is most sensitive to ammonia in the planetary boundary layer, where the trace gas concentration is highest. For conditions with low concentrations only the total column can be retrieved. Combining the systematic and random errors we have a mean total error of 26 % for all spectra measured at Bremen (Number of spectra (N) = 554), 30 % for all spectra from Lauder (N =2412), 25 % for spectra from Reunion (N =1262) and 34 % for spectra measured at Jungfraujoch (N =2702). The error is dominated by the systematic uncertainties in the spectroscopy parameters. Station specific seasonal cycles were found to be consistent with known seasonal cycles of the dominant ammonia sources in the station surroundings. The developed retrieval methodology from FTIR-instruments provides a new way to obtain highly time-resolved measurements of ammonia burdens. FTIR-NH3 observations will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation. It will also provide additional information to constrain the global ammonia budget. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (12 ULg) Field data on the little known and endangered Lepilemur mittermeieriWilmet, Leslie ; Schwitzer, Christoph; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C. et alin Journal of Primatology (2015), 4(2), Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three ... [more ▼]Lepilemur mittermeieri is a very little known sportive lemur of the Ampasindava peninsula of Madagascar, presently regarded as endangered. On the basis of genetic material only, obtained from three individuals collected at the same locality. No observation confidently allocated to the species has been reported since. The objectives of our research were to verify that the sportive lemurs found in forests of the Ampasindava peninsula beyond the type-locality of Lepilemur mittermeieri belonged to the same species as the type, to provide morphological and behavioural data for populations confidently attributed to L. mittermeieri and to obtain for these populations preliminary evaluations of density variations within the peninsula. Our surveys were undertaken in March and April 2014 in remnant forest patches of the western part of the Ampasindava peninsula. Linear transects by night and punctual observations by day were conducted. A total of 54 animals were seen along nine transects situated in four forest patches, two at low altitude and two at high altitude. All animals examined and photographed appeared similar, and the impression was gained that a single taxon was involved. Genetic material collected from one dead specimen proved identical to the type of L. mittermeieri which confirmed the identity of the populations we observed. It thus appears that L. mittermeieri is indeed the only sportive lemur present on the peninsula and that it occurs in several forest remnants. We endeavoured to get evaluations of the density and abundance of the species in the four forest patches we studied. We used KAIs (Kilometric Abundance Indices) to evaluate and compare relative densities, and Buckland’s distance sampling method to evaluate absolute densities. The latter suggested a density of 1.9 animals/ha, a result that must, however, be taken with caution. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Elp3 drives Wnt-dependent tumor initiation and regeneration in the intestineLADANG, Aurélie ; Rapino, Francesca ; Heukamp, Lukas et alin Journal of Experimental Medicine (2015), 212(12), 2057-75Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer ... [more ▼]Tumor initiation in the intestine can rapidly occur from Lgr5(+) crypt columnar stem cells. Dclk1 is a marker of differentiated Tuft cells and, when coexpressed with Lgr5, also marks intestinal cancer stem cells. Here, we show that Elp3, the catalytic subunit of the Elongator complex, is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumor initiation and radiation-induced regeneration by maintaining a subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Elp3 deficiency dramatically delayed tumor appearance in Apc-mutated intestinal epithelia and greatly prolonged mice survival without affecting the normal epithelium. Specific ablation of Elp3 in Lgr5(+) cells resulted in marked reduction of polyp formation upon Apc inactivation, in part due to a decreased number of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+)/Sox9(+) cells. Mechanistically, Elp3 is induced by Wnt signaling and promotes Sox9 translation, which is needed to maintain the subpool of Lgr5(+)/Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells. Consequently, Elp3 or Sox9 depletion led to similar defects in Dclk1(+) cancer stem cells in ex vivo organoids. Finally, Elp3 deficiency strongly impaired radiation-induced intestinal regeneration, in part because of decreased Sox9 protein levels. Together, our data demonstrate the crucial role of Elp3 in maintaining a subpopulation of Lgr5-derived and Sox9-expressing cells needed to trigger Wnt-driven tumor initiation in the intestine. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (11 ULg) Les musées à forme d’établissement public administratif peuvent-ils recourir à l’arbitrage ?Desseilles, François in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), (3), 497-520This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of ... [more ▼]This article aims to study the possibility of using alternative dispute resolution (ADR), specifically arbitration, in the museum sphere. If the answer given will naturally vary according to the nature of institutions, the study focused on public administrative institutions in French law. We focus first on the place of ADR in the museum context and the expansion of market logic faced by public museums. The role of arbitration in these is discussed and some definitions and concepts are correlatively recalled. Next, the article examines the arbitrability of disputes concerning contracts of a public administrative establishment. It is first of all a matter of the analysis of the principle of prohibition to public entities to resort to arbitration. Second, the article examines the principles and conditions of the validity of the arbitration clause in international contracts, considering mainly the French jurisprudence, which decides that arbitrability of disputes in international trade is feasible in principle. Finally a description of various mechanisms and several stakeholders in the arbitration is made. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Thermoelectric properties of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3 from first principles and Seebeck local probesLemal, Sébastien ; Ngoc, Nguyen; de Boor, Johanens et alin Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2015), 92Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid ... [more ▼]Using a combination of first-principles calculations and experimental transport measurements, we study the electronic and magnetic structure of the unfilled skutterudite FeSb3. We employ the hybrid functional approach for exchange-correlation. The ground state is determined to be anti-ferromagnetic with an atomic magnetic moment of 1.6 μB/Fe. The Néel temperature Tn is estimated at 6 K, in agreement with experiments which found a paramagnetic state down to 10 K. The ground state is semiconducting, with a small electronic gap of 33 meV, also consistent with previous experiments on films. Charge carrier concentrations are estimated from Hall resistance measurements. The Seebeck coefficient is measured and mapped using a scanning probe at room temperature that yields an average value of 38.6 μV/K, slightly lower than the theoretical result. The theoretical conductivity is analyzed as a function of temperature and concentration of charge carriers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (13 ULg) Synthesis of polyphosphodiesters by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphates bearing allyl phosphoester protecting groupsClément, Benoit; Molin, Daniel G.; Jérôme, Christine et alin Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2015), 53(22), 2642-2648The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl ... [more ▼]The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl phosphoester group, its easy purification by fractional distillation, its organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization by 1,8-diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-cyclohexyl-thiourea (TU). Finally, the deprotection of the allyl phosphoester group is carried out by reaction with sodium benzenethiolate in the absence of any detectable degradation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 70 (20 ULg) Laser cladding as repair technology for Ti6Al4V alloy: Influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardnessPaydas, Hakan ; Mertens, Anne ; Carrus, Raoul et alin Materials & Design (2015), 85Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to ... [more ▼]Laser cladding is a metal deposition technique used to fabricate or repair components made from high value metallic alloys. In the present work Ti-6Al-4V deposits with variable thickness are made to assess the use of laser cladding as a repair technology. Both the effect of the building strategy (BS) and the incident energy (IE) on the metallurgical characteristics of the deposits in relation to their complex thermal history have been studying. It is shown that for the configuration consisting in a decreasing track length (DTL) under high IE, a gradient of cooling rate exists that leads to the presence of different phases within the microstructure. Conversely homogeneous microstructures are present either for the configuration with a constant track length (CTL) under high IE, and for the strategy obtained from a DTL under low IE. Depending on the possible heat accumulation the nature of the phases are determined together with hardness maps within the deposits. Some qualification criteria are set prior to tensile tests to selected the adequate candidate-deposit that does not weaken the cladded material when it is stressed. A thermo-metallurgical scheme is proposed that helps understanding the effect of both the BS and the IE on the microstructure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (15 ULg) A linear Hf isotope-age array despite different granitoid sources and complex Archean geodynamics: Example from the Pietersburg block (South Africa)Laurent, Oscar ; Zeh, Arminin Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2015), 430Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) First New Solar Models With Opas Opacity TablesLe Pennec, Maëlle; Turck-Chièze, Sylvaine; Salmon, Sébastien et alin Astrophysical Journal Letters (2015), 813(2), 42Stellar seismology appears more and more as a powerful tool for a better determination of the fundamental properties of solar-type stars. However, the particular case of the Sun is still challenging. For ... [more ▼]Stellar seismology appears more and more as a powerful tool for a better determination of the fundamental properties of solar-type stars. However, the particular case of the Sun is still challenging. For about a decade now, the helioseismic sound-speed determination has continued to disagree with the standard solar model (SSM) prediction, questioning the reliability of this model. One of the sources of uncertainty could be in the treatment of the transport of radiation from the solar core to the surface. In this Letter, we use the new OPAS opacity tables, recently available for solar modeling, to address this issue. We discuss first the peculiarities of these tables, then we quantify their impact on the solar sound-speed and density profiles using the reduced OPAS tables taken on the grids of the OPAL ones. We use the two evolution codes, Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics and Code Liégeois d'Evolution Stellaire, that led to similar conclusions in the solar radiative zone. In comparison to commonly used OPAL opacity tables, the new solar models are computed for the most recent photospheric composition with OPAS tables and present improvements to the location of the base of the convective zone and to the description of the solar radiative zone in comparison to the helioseismic observations, even if the differences in the Rosseland mean opacity do not exceed 6%. We finally carry out a comparison to a solar model computed with the OP opacity tables. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (4 ULg) Wood Specific Gravity Variations and Biomass of Central African Tree Species: The Simple Choice of the Outer WoodBastin, Jean-François ; Fayolle, Adeline ; Tarelkin, Yegor et alin PLoS ONE (2015)Context: Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood ... [more ▼]Context: Wood specific gravity is a key element in tropical forest ecology. It integrates many aspects of tree mechanical properties and functioning and is an important predictor of tree biomass. Wood specific gravity varies widely among and within species and also within individual trees. Notably, contrasted patterns of radial variation of wood specific gravity have been demonstrated and related to regeneration guilds (light demanding vs. shade-bearing). However, although being repeatedly invoked as a potential source of error when estimating the biomass of trees, both intraspecific and radial variations remain little studied. In this study we characterized detailed pith-to-bark wood specific gravity profiles among contrasted species prominently contributing to the biomass of the forest, i.e., the dominant species, and we quantified the consequences of such variations on the biomass. Methods: Radial profiles of wood density at 8% moisture content were compiled for 14 dominant species in the Democratic Republic of Congo, adapting a unique 3D X-ray scanning technique at very high spatial resolution on core samples. Mean wood density estimates were validated by water displacement measurements. Wood density profiles were converted to wood specific gravity and linear mixed models were used to decompose the radial variance. Potential errors in biomass estimation were assessed by comparing the biomass estimated from the wood specific gravity measured from pith-to-bark profiles, from global repositories, and from partial information (outer wood or inner wood). Results: Wood specific gravity profiles from pith-to-bark presented positive, neutral and negative trends. Positive trends mainly characterized light-demanding species, increasing up to 1.8 g.cm-3 per meter for Piptadeniastrum africanum, and negative trends characterized shade-bearing species, decreasing up to 1 g.cm-3 per meter for Strombosia pustulata. The linear mixed model showed the greater part of wood specific gravity variance was explained by species only (45%) followed by a redundant part between species and regeneration guilds (36%). Despite substantial variation in wood specific gravity profiles among species and regeneration guilds, we found that values from the outer wood were strongly correlated to values from the whole profile, without any significant bias. In addition, we found that wood specific gravity from the DRYAD global repository may strongly differ depending on the species (up to 40% for Dialium pachyphyllum). Main conclusion: Therefore, when estimating forest biomass in specific sites, we recommend the systematic collection of outer wood samples on dominant species. This should prevent the main errors in biomass estimations resulting from wood specific gravity and allow for the collection of new information to explore the intraspecific variation of mechanical properties of trees. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg) Optimal electron, phonon, and magnetic characteristics for low energy thermally induced magnetization switchingAtxitia, U.; Ostler, Thomas ; Chantrell, R. W. et alin Applied Physics Letters (2015), 107(19), 192402Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in ... [more ▼]Using large-scale computer simulations, we thoroughly study the minimum energy required to ther- mally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) after the application of a femtosecond heat pulse in transition metal-rare earth ferrimagnetic alloys. We find that for an energy efficient TIMS, a low ferrimagnetic net magnetization with a strong temperature dependence is the relevant factor for the magnetic system. For the lattice and electron systems, the key physics for efficient TIMS is a large electron-phonon relaxation time. Importantly, we show that as the cooling time of the heated elec- trons is increased, the minimum power required to produce TIMS can be reduced by an order of magnitude. Our results show the way to low power TIMS by appropriate engineering of magnetic heterostructures. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg) Diurnal cycle and multi-decadal trend of formaldehyde in the remote atmosphere near 46° NFranco, Bruno ; Marais, Eloise A.; Bovy, Benoît et alin Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15Only very few long-term trends of formaldehyde (HCHO) exist. Furthermore, many uncertainties remain as to its diurnal cycle, representing a large short-term variability superimposed on seasonal and inter ... [more ▼]Only very few long-term trends of formaldehyde (HCHO) exist. Furthermore, many uncertainties remain as to its diurnal cycle, representing a large short-term variability superimposed on seasonal and inter-annual variations that should be accounted for when comparing ground-based observations to e.g., model results. In this study, we derive a multi-decadal time series (January 1988 – June 2015) of HCHO total columns from ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580 m a.s.l.), allowing for the characterization of the mid-latitudinal atmosphere for background conditions. First we investigate the HCHO diurnal variation, peaking around noontime and mainly driven by the intra-day insolation modulation and methane (CH4) oxidation. We also characterize quantitatively the diurnal cycles by adjusting a parametric model to the observations, which links the daytime to the HCHO columns according to the monthly intra-day regimes. It is then employed to scale all the individual FTIR measurements on a given daytime in order to remove the effect of the intra-day modulation for improving the trend determination and the comparison with HCHO columns simulated by the state-of-the-art chemical transport model GEOS-Chem v9-02. Such a parametric model will be useful to scale the Jungfraujoch HCHO columns on satellite overpass times in the framework of future calibration/validation efforts of space borne sensors. GEOS-Chem sensitivity tests suggest then that the seasonal and inter-annual HCHO column variations above Jungfraujoch are predominantly led by the atmospheric CH4 oxidation, with a maximum contribution of 25 % from the anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compound precursors during wintertime. Finally, trend analysis of the so-scaled 27-year FTIR time series reveals a long-term evolution of the HCHO columns in the remote troposphere to be related with the atmospheric CH4 fluctuations and the short-term OH variability: +2.9 %/yr between 1988 and 1995, -3.7 %/yr over 1996-2002 and +0.8/% yr from 2003 onwards. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (13 ULg) Composite dark matter and direct-search experimentsWallemacq, Quentin in International Journal of Modern Physics D : Gravitation, Astrophysics & Cosmology (2015), 24The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms” ... [more ▼]The results of the direct searches for dark matter are reinterpreted in the framework of composite dark matter, i.e. dark matter particles that form neutral bound states, generically called “dark atoms”. Two different scenarios are presented: milli-interacting dark matter and dark anti-atoms. In both of them, dark matter interacts sufficiently strongly with terrestrial matter to be stopped in it before reaching underground detec- tors, which are typically located at a depth of 1 km. As they drift towards the center of the earth because of gravity, these thermal dark atoms are radiatively captured by the atoms of the active medium of underground detectors, which causes the emission of photons that produce the signals through their interac- tions with the electrons of the medium. This provides a way of reinterpreting the results in terms of electron recoils instead of nuclear recoils. The two models involve milli-charges and are able to reconcile the most contradictory experiments. We determine, for each model, the regions in the parameter space that reproduce the experiments with positive results in con- sistency with the constraints of the experiments with negative results. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (2 ULg) Remote control of self-assembled microswimmersGrosjean, Galien ; Lagubeau, Guillaume ; Darras, Alexis et alin Scientific Reports (2015)Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number ... [more ▼]Floating magnetic particles can self-assemble into structures. These structures are periodically deformed in a non reciprocal way using magnetic fields, which leads to controllable low Reynolds number locomotion. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg) How do cumulative live birth rates and cumulative multiple live birth rates over complete courses of assisted reproductive technology treatment per woman compare among registries?De Neubourg, Diane; Bogaerts, Kris; Blockeel, Christophe et alin Human Reproduction (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg) Observations of radio-quiet quasars at 10-mas resolution by use of gravitational lensingJackson, Neal; Tagore, Amitpal S.; Roberts, Carl et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 454We present Very Large Array detections of radio emission in 4 four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS 0810+2554, RX J0911+0511, HE 0435-1223 and SDSS J0924+0219, and extended Multi ... [more ▼]We present Very Large Array detections of radio emission in 4 four-image gravitational lens systems with quasar sources: HS 0810+2554, RX J0911+0511, HE 0435-1223 and SDSS J0924+0219, and extended Multi-Element Remote Linked Interferometer (e-MERLIN) observations of two of the systems. The first three are detected at a high level of significance, and SDSS J0924+0219 is detected. HS 0810+2554 is resolved, allowing us for the first time to achieve 10-mas resolution of the source frame in the structure of a radio-quiet quasar. The others are unresolved or marginally resolved. All four objects are among the faintest radio sources yet detected, with intrinsic flux densities in the range 1-5 μJy; such radio objects, if unlensed, will only be observable routinely with the Square Kilometre Array. The observations of HS 0810+2554, which is also detected with e-MERLIN, strongly suggest the presence of a mini active galactic nucleus, with a radio core and milliarcsecond scale jet. The flux densities of the lensed images in all but HE 0435-1223 are consistent with smooth galaxy lens models without the requirement for smaller scale substructure in the model, although some interesting anomalies are seen between optical and radio flux densities. These are probably due to microlensing effects in the optical. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Do single, double or triple fungicide sprays differentially affect the grain quality in winter wheat?El Jarroudi, Moussa ; kOUADIO, Louis; Junk et alin Field Crops Research (2015), 183(257-266), Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple ... [more ▼]Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple treatments] on four different grain quality parameters [thousand grain weight (TGW), test weight (TW), grain protein content (GPC), and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV)] during the 2006–2009 period at two sites in Luxembourg. The fungicides used were generally a mix of chlorothalonil and triazoles. At Burmerange, (cultivar Cubus), the values of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV ranged from 38 to 62 g, 67 to 83 kg hl−1, 12.0% to 14.7% dry matter (DM), and 27 to 54 ml, respectively. Whereas, at Everlange (cultivar Achat), the ranges of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV were 42 to 65 g, 65 to 81 kg hl−1, 11.0% to 15.0% DM, and 21 to 66 ml, respectively. In more than 75% cases, the results indicate that fungicides did not significantly affect TW or ZSV at either sites (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant and positive fungicide effect on GPC in 2006 and 2009 at Burmerange, and only in 2006 at Everlange (P < 0.05). On the contrary, TGW was significantly affected at Burmerange in all years, except 2008 when a positive increase was observed compared to control plots; and in 2006 and 2007 at Everlange. Interestingly, when there was an effect of fungicides on a quality parameter, there was no difference among different fungicide treatments. Thus under conditions prevailing in Luxembourg, a single fungicide treatment applied with judicious timing generally resulted in statistically similar grain quality parameters when compared with a double or triple fungicide treatment. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 ULg) X-Ray Emission from Massive Stars in Cyg OB2Rauw, Gregor ; Nazé, Yaël ; Wright, N. J. et alin Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2015), 221We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources ... [more ▼]We report on the analysis of the Chandra-ACIS data of O, B, and WR stars in the young association Cyg OB2. X-ray spectra of 49 O-stars, 54 B-stars, and 3 WR-stars are analyzed and for the brighter sources, the epoch dependence of the X-ray fluxes is investigated. The O-stars in Cyg OB2 follow a well-defined scaling relation between their X-ray and bolometric luminosities: log(Lx/Lbol)=-7.2+/- 0.2. This relation is in excellent agreement with the one previously derived for the Carina OB1 association. Except for the brightest O-star binaries, there is no general X-ray overluminosity due to colliding winds in O-star binaries. Roughly half of the known B-stars in the surveyed field are detected, but they fail to display a clear relationship between Lx and Lbol. Out of the three WR stars in Cyg OB2, probably only WR 144 is itself responsible for the observed level of X-ray emission, at a very low log(Lx/Lbol)=-8.8+/- 0.2. The X-ray emission of the other two WR-stars (WR 145 and 146) is most probably due to their O-type companion along with a moderate contribution from a wind–wind interaction zone. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) Postures et figures « néo-réactionnaires ». Autour d'un personnage collectifDurand, Pascal ; Sindaco, Sarah in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2015)Rendre compte du courant dit des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en dressant le portrait du personnage collectif qui lui sert de support tient ici d’une mesure de prudence autant que d’un choix de méthode, à ... [more ▼]Rendre compte du courant dit des « nouveaux réactionnaires » en dressant le portrait du personnage collectif qui lui sert de support tient ici d’une mesure de prudence autant que d’un choix de méthode, à la faveur d’une double distance créée avec l’objet : distance historique pour commencer, même si celle-ci tendra à se resserrer progressivement autour dudit objet ; distance assurée d’un autre côté par un effort d’abstraction des régularités en fait de rhétorique et de posture caractéristiques du phénomène examiné dans son ensemble. Un phénomène à la fois social et discursif dont les conditions de possibilité et d’efficacité intéresse davantage le propos du présent article que les contenus polémiques dont il se nourrit et les fortes individualités dont il se soutient [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 30 (6 ULg) X-ray emission from the giant magnetosphere of the magnetic O-type star NGC 1624-2Petit, V.; Cohen, D. H.; Wade, G. A. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 453We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray ... [more ▼]We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our two observations were obtained at the minimum and maximum of the periodic Hα emission cycle, corresponding to the rotational phases where the magnetic field is the closest to equator-on and pole-on, respectively. With these observations, we aim to characterize the star's magnetosphere via the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks. Our main findings are as follows. (i) The observed spectrum of NGC 1624-2 is hard, similar to the magnetic O-type star θ[SUP]1[/SUP] Ori C, with only a few photons detected below 0.8 keV. The emergent X-ray flux is 30 per cent lower at the Hα minimum phase. (ii) Our modelling indicated that this seemingly hard spectrum is in fact a consequence of relatively soft intrinsic emission, similar to other magnetic Of?p stars, combined with a large amount of local absorption (˜1-3× 10[SUP]22[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]). This combination is necessary to reproduce both the prominent Mg and Si spectral features, and the lack of flux at low energies. NGC 1624-2 is intrinsically luminous in X-rays (log L^{em}_X˜ 33.4) but 70-95 per cent of the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks is absorbed before it escapes the magnetosphere (log L^{ISMcor}_X˜ 32.5). (iii) The high X-ray luminosity, its variation with stellar rotation, and its large attenuation are all consistent with a large dynamical magnetosphere with magnetically confined wind shocks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (5 ULg) A rocky planet transiting a nearby low-mass starBerta-Thompson, Zachory K.; Irwin, Jonathan; Charbonneau, David et alin Nature (2015), 527M-dwarf stars—hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun—are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent ... [more ▼]M-dwarf stars—hydrogen-burning stars that are smaller than 60 per cent of the size of the Sun—are the most common class of star in our Galaxy and outnumber Sun-like stars by a ratio of 12:1. Recent results have shown that M dwarfs host Earth-sized planets in great numbers: the average number of M-dwarf planets that are between 0.5 to 1.5 times the size of Earth is at least 1.4 per star. The nearest such planets known to transit their star are 39 parsecs away, too distant for detailed follow-up observations to measure the planetary masses or to study their atmospheres. Here we report observations of GJ 1132b, a planet with a size of 1.2 Earth radii that is transiting a small star 12 parsecs away. Our Doppler mass measurement of GJ 1132b yields a density consistent with an Earth-like bulk composition, similar to the compositions of the six known exoplanets with masses less than six times that of the Earth and precisely measured densities. Receiving 19 times more stellar radiation than the Earth, the planet is too hot to be habitable but is cool enough to support a substantial atmosphere, one that has probably been considerably depleted of hydrogen. Because the host star is nearby and only 21 per cent the radius of the Sun, existing and upcoming telescopes will be able to observe the composition and dynamics of the planetary atmosphere. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) Active content determination of pharmaceutical tablets using near infrared spectroscopy as Process Analytical Technology toolChavez, Pierre-François ; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ; De Bleye, Charlotte et alin Talanta (2015), 144Detailed reference viewed: 66 (24 ULg) Posttraumatisches Puppen-Syndrom. Gedanken zu Jean Michel d'Hoops Inszenierung "Borgia. Comédie contemporaine"Wunsch-Viehöver, Vera in Das Andere Theater (2015), 88compte-rendu sur "Borgia. Comédie contemporaine" de Thomas Gunzig, mise en scène par Jean-Michel d'Hoop, cie. Point ZéroDetailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Adult bone marrow mesenchymal and neural crest stem cells are chemoattractive and accelerate motor recovery in a mouse model of spinal cord injuryNeirinckx, Virginie ; Agirman, Gulistan ; Coste, Cécile et alin Stem Cell Research and Therapy (2015), 6(211), Introduction: Stem cells from adult tissues were considered for a long time as promising tools for regenerative therapy of neurological diseases, including spinal cord injuries (SCI). Indeed, mesenchymal ... [more ▼]Introduction: Stem cells from adult tissues were considered for a long time as promising tools for regenerative therapy of neurological diseases, including spinal cord injuries (SCI). Indeed, mesenchymal (MSCs) and neural crest stem cells (NCSCs) together constitute the bone marrow stromal stem cells (BMSCs) that were used as therapeutic options in various models of experimental SCI. However, as clinical approaches remained disappointing, we thought that reducing BMSC heterogeneity should be a potential way to improve treatment efficiency and reproducibility. Methods: We investigated the impact of pure populations of MSCs and NCSCs isolated from adult bone marrow in a mouse model of spinal cord injury. We then analyzed the secretome of both MSCs and NCSCs, and its effect on macrophage migration in vitro. Results: We first observed that both cell types induced motor recovery in mice, and modified the inflammatory reaction in the lesion site. We also demonstrated that NCSCs but especially MSCs were able to secrete chemokines and attract macrophages in vitro. Finally, it appears that MSC injection in the spinal cord enhance early inflammatory events in the blood and spinal cord of SCI mice. Conclusions: Altogether, our results suggest that both cell types have beneficial effects in experimental SCI, and that further investigation should be dedicated to the regulation of the inflammatory reaction following SCI, in the context of stem cell-based therapy but also in the early-phase clinical management of SCI patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (11 ULg) Impacts of underwater noise on marine vertebrates: Project introduction and first resultsLiebschner, Alexander; Seibel, Henrike; Teilmann, Jonas et alin Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (2015), 875Detailed reference viewed: 29 (3 ULg) COMMENT EXPLORER LES SYMPTOMES NEGATIFS DE LA PSYCHOSE CHEZ L'ENFANT: UNE SEMIOLOGIE DIMENSIONNELLESCHOLL, Jean-Marc in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (2015), 117Despite its high frequency, psychotic syndrome in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future ... [more ▼]Despite its high frequency, psychotic syndrome in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future is at stake. Negative symptoms are systematically present at the prodromal phase and are the most stable thereafter. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers to recognize it. This paper presents a dimensional semiology of the negative symptoms for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. Is also gives a guide to the interviewing process. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (4 ULg) The aggressive personality of an introduced fish affects foraging behavior in a polymorphic newtWinandy, Laurane ; Denoël, Mathieu in Behavioral Ecology (2015), 26(6), 1528-1536The study of personality has aroused much interest and has provided insight into the understanding of animal behavior. Nevertheless, the study of the ecological consequences of personality is a newer ... [more ▼]The study of personality has aroused much interest and has provided insight into the understanding of animal behavior. Nevertheless, the study of the ecological consequences of personality is a newer field that could shed light on cases of alien species introductions. The goldfish (Carassius auratus) is frequently introduced worldwide and affects the abundance of newts, having an especially negative impact on an alternative phenotype, the paedomorph, which maintains larval traits at the adult stage, unlike the other phenotype, the metamorph, which has undergone metamorphosis. We experimentally assessed the impact of goldfish on the foraging behavior of both phenotypes of palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus). More particularly, we assessed fish personality by analyzing the foraging activity and the aggressiveness toward newts, and newt personality by analyzing individual difference in boldness. In the presence of fish, fewer newts foraged than in their absence, and paedomorphs were more affected than metamorphs. We found strong personality differences in fish and fewer newts foraged in the presence of a more aggressive fish. Newts differed in boldness, but fish aggressiveness remains a key factor to explain newt behavior. Studying behavioral interactions between native and alien species helps to understand the mechanisms of coexistence and exclusion and why different phenotypes might be affected differently by the same threat. To a great extent, not only the presence of fish alters the foraging opportunities of newts but also the personality of the invader; integrating personality patterns of invaders is therefore a key to understanding the ecological consequences of alien species introduction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 161 (80 ULg) La collection "Poétique" : terre d'accueilLorent, Fanny in A l'épreuve (2015), 2Detailed reference viewed: 19 (4 ULg) Tentative insight into the multiplicity of the persistent dust maker WR 106 from X-ray observationsDe Becker, Michaël in New Astronomy (2015), 41This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust ... [more ▼]This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust makers (WCd stars). The issue of the multiplicity of these dust makers is pivotal to understand the dust formation process, and in this context X-ray observations may allow to reveal an X-ray emission attributable to colliding-winds in a binary system. The main result of this analysis is the lack of detection of X-rays coming from WR 106. Upper limits on the X-ray flux are estimated, but the derived numbers are not sufficient to provide compelling constraints on the existence or not of a colliding-wind region. Detailed inspection of archive data bases reveals that persistent dust makers have been poorly investigated by the most sensitive X-ray observatories. Certainly, the combination of several approaches to indirectly constrain their multiplicity should be applied to lift a part of the veil on the nature of these persistent dust makers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 ULg) Amphibians forgo aquatic life in response to alien fish introductionWinandy, Laurane ; Darnet, Elodie; Denoël, Mathieu in Animal Behaviour (2015), 109Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by ... [more ▼]Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by fish introduction; however, mechanisms of the exclusion observed in the field are still not well known. In particular, whether newts skip breeding and leave water for land in response to fish introduction and how aquatic shelter may influence their choice remain open questions. To investigate these questions, we experimentally studied the use of aquatic and terrestrial habitats during the breeding season of palmate newts, Lissotriton helveticus, in the presence and absence of goldfish, Carassius auratus. We determined the consequences of habitat choice on newt fitness by assessing sexual activity and number of eggs. There was a strong, significant avoidance of the aquatic environment in the presence of fish, particularly when no aquatic shelter was available. This escape from the water had an impact on reproduction: newts decreased their sexual activity and laid fewer eggs. The availability of shelters favoured coexistence but did not prevent a large proportion of the newts from leaving water and skipping reproduction. This study shows how the presence of fish and the absence of aquatic shelters can lead to newts forgoing aquatic life, thus improving our understanding of the mechanisms behind the coexistence and exclusion patterns found in the wild. More broadly, these data contribute to explaining aquatic versus terrestrial life in favourable and unfavourable environments. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 198 (41 ULg) Légitimité des recommandations sur la viscosupplémentationHenrotin, Yves in Rhumatos (2015), 12(111), 280Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Histoires sur Able ArcherKluge, Alexander; Leyh, Valérie in Cahiers d'Etudes Germaniques (2015), 69Detailed reference viewed: 19 (2 ULg) La médecine de demain: science-fiction ou science-réalité ?COUCKE, Philippe in Onco : Revue Multidisciplinaire d'Oncologie (2015), 9(6), 3-4Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Radiative origin of neutrino massesAristizabal Sierra, Diego in Acta Physica Polonica B (2015), 46Mechanisms for Majorana neutrino mass generation can be classified according to the level at which the Weinberg operator is generated. The different possibilities can be sorted in “canonical” tree-level ... [more ▼]Mechanisms for Majorana neutrino mass generation can be classified according to the level at which the Weinberg operator is generated. The different possibilities can be sorted in “canonical” tree-level and loop-induced realizations, the latter being motivated by their potential experimental testability. Here, we discuss the one- and two-loop cases, paying special attention to systematic classification schemes, whose aim is that of constructing a full picture for neutrino mass generation [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (3 ULg) Global optimization of the production and the distribution system for typical European HVAC systemsRandaxhe, François ; Lemort, Vincent ; Lebrun, Jean in Energy Procedia (2015), 78European countries have agreed on a new 2030 Framework with a 30% improvement in energy efficiency compared to projection and a 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels. With an ... [more ▼]European countries have agreed on a new 2030 Framework with a 30% improvement in energy efficiency compared to projection and a 40% cut in greenhouse gas emissions compared to 1990 levels. With an estimated 11% of all the electrical energy used in Europe consumed by HVAC systems, the improvement of their efficiency is a key element to reach these targets. When looking at the energy flow in typical European HVAC systems, one can observe important degradation in efficiency associated to heating and cooling energy transportation systems together with a non-optimal use of the production plant. These inefficiencies are direct consequences of the system design with, quite often, a lack of consideration of the system part load or its off-design operation. This research attempts to identify the sensitivity of both cooling and heating HVAC systems to these conditions and to propose an approach to optimize the design and the operation of HVAC systems integrated in buildings considering trade-off between primary systems efficiency, distribution losses and auxiliaries consumption. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Hypervulnerability to Sound Exposure through Impaired Adaptive Proliferation of Peroxisomes.Delmaghani, Sedigheh; Defourny, Jean; Aghaie, Asadollah et alin Cell (2015), 163(4), 894-906A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes ... [more ▼]A deficiency in pejvakin, a protein of unknown function, causes a strikingly heterogeneous form of human deafness. Pejvakin-deficient (Pjvk(-/-)) mice also exhibit variable auditory phenotypes. Correlation between their hearing thresholds and the number of pups per cage suggest a possible harmful effect of pup vocalizations. Direct sound or electrical stimulation show that the cochlear sensory hair cells and auditory pathway neurons of Pjvk(-/-) mice and patients are exceptionally vulnerable to sound. Subcellular analysis revealed that pejvakin is associated with peroxisomes and required for their oxidative-stress-induced proliferation. Pjvk(-/-) cochleas display features of marked oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defenses, and peroxisomes in Pjvk(-/-) hair cells show structural abnormalities after the onset of hearing. Noise exposure rapidly upregulates Pjvk cochlear transcription in wild-type mice and triggers peroxisome proliferation in hair cells and primary auditory neurons. Our results reveal that the antioxidant activity of peroxisomes protects the auditory system against noise-induced damage. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Lire entre les actes. Le théâtre mis en pièces par le récit d’anticipationStienon, Valérie in Tropics (2015), 2Si les histoires de la littérature française font généralement peu de cas du roman d’anticipation, rendu invisible aux sélections de la postérité par la variété de ses désignations génériques, l’hybridité ... [more ▼]Si les histoires de la littérature française font généralement peu de cas du roman d’anticipation, rendu invisible aux sélections de la postérité par la variété de ses désignations génériques, l’hybridité de ses formes et les discontinuités de son, ce dernier, en revanche, semble avoir des choses à dire au sujet de la littérature. Encore faut-il préciser de quel théâtre il est question dans ces anticipations, et dans quelle mesure il est possible de lire l’inscription d’un genre à travers la poétique d’un autre. Les thématisations du théâtre sont passibles d’une caractérisation multiforme impliquant des données d’ordre poétique, contextuel et historique. Plus qu’une définition de cette référence, la lecture transversale et diachronique de 1860 à 1930 qui suit entend formuler une interrogation sur les modalités de son traitement. Le théâtre participe-t-il, comme la poésie et le roman, et au même titre qu’eux, de la décadence anticipée des Lettres, signe d’un déclin général dont il prendrait acte à sa mesure ? Un genre ou un registre (drame, comédie, tragédie, boulevard, music-hall, vaudeville, opérette, etc.) est-il mis en évidence, ou ceux-ci sont-ils plutôt indifférenciés, voire présentés comme équivalents ? Ces considérations révèlent-elles une hybridation ou une remise en question des classements micro- et macro-génériques ? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg)