References of "Article"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 501 to 600 of 43439     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11     Apport du traitement d'images dans le suivi de l'influence des teneurs en nutriments sur la croissance des lentilles d'eau (Lemna minor)Tangou Tabou, Thierry ; Baya, Dehenould Trésor; Liady, Mouhamadou Nourou Dine et alin Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 37-48The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) is an important component in the process in wasterwater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ... [more ▼]The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) is an important component in the process in wasterwater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ponds. Modeling these duckweed ponds through mass balances based on Petersen's matrix may be helpful in facilitating the optimal management of such facilities. This study sought at assessing the efficiency of digital image processing in the growth monitoring of Lemna minor under different concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. The experiments were carried out in a growth chamber (phytotron) using an experimental pilot involving initial fresh Lemna minor biomass (1 g), nitrogen and phosphorus concentration varying between 5 and 64 mg N-NH4+.L-1, and 1 and 24 mg P-PO43-.L-1, respectively. The digital image processing was achieved in addition to gravimetric methods (fresh weight and/or dry weight). Our results showed that image processing method allowed a continuous and non destructive monitoring of duckweeds biomass. The growth of Lemna minor progressively decreases when nitrogen and phosphorus were greater than 16 mg N-NH4+.L-1 and 6 mg P-PO43-.L-1. The maximum growth rate μmax are of the order of 0.07 d-1, the kinetic constants Ks and Ki are respectively 3.83 mg.L-1 and 204 mg L-1 for nitrogen, 1.26 mg.L-1 and 13.3 mg.L-1 for phosphorus. Such results are interesting as they could serve in the optimal management of Lemna minor and the modeling of biological reactors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg) CFD-based Compartment model for description of mixing in bioreactorsDelafosse, Angélique ; Calvo, Sébastien ; Collignon, Marie-Laure et alin Chemical Engineering Science (2014), 106In most bioprocesses, it is fundamental to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. Computational Fluid Dynamics can ... [more ▼]In most bioprocesses, it is fundamental to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. Computational Fluid Dynamics can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of “Compartment” or “Network-of-zones” model which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow complexity. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. The aim of this study is to propose a compartment model where the flow rates between two adjacent compartments are easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The mixing evolution predicted by the CFD-based compartment model have been then compared with mixing experiment results. Unlike a CFD mixing simulation and a classical compartment model, the CFD-based compartment model proposed in this work reproduces with a good accuracy the spatial distribution of concentrations during the mixing process and this, without any adjustable parameters. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 47 (9 ULg) Systematic optimization of subcritical and transcritical organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) constrained by technical parameters in multiple applicationsMaraver, Daniel; Royo, Javier; Lemort, Vincent et alin Applied Energy (2014), 117The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil ... [more ▼]The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil for cogeneration and geothermal). The general goal is to provide optimization guidelines for a wide range of operating conditions, for subcritical and transcritical, regenerative and non-regenerative cycles. A parameter assessment of the main equipment in the cycle (expander, heat exchangers and feed pump) was also carried out. An optimization model of the ORC (available as an electronic annex) is proposed to predict the best cycle performance (subcritical or transcritical), in terms of its exergy efficiency, with different working fluids. The working fluids considered are those most commonly used in commercial ORC units (R134a, R245fa, Solkatherm, n-Pentane, Octamethyltrisiloxane and Toluene). The optimal working fluid and operating conditions from a purely thermodynamic approach are limited by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the feed pump. Hence, a complementary assessment of both approaches is more adequate to obtain some preliminary design guidelines for ORC units. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 85 (4 ULg) Determination of the magnetic penetration depth in a superconducting Pb filmBrisbois, Jérémy ; Raes, Bart; Van de Vondel, Joris et alin Journal of Applied Physics (2014), 115(10), 103906By means of scanning Hall probe microscopy technique we accurately map the magnetic field pattern produced by Meissner screening currents in a thin superconducting Pb stripe. The obtained field profile ... [more ▼]By means of scanning Hall probe microscopy technique we accurately map the magnetic field pattern produced by Meissner screening currents in a thin superconducting Pb stripe. The obtained field profile allows us to quantitatively estimate the Pearl length Λ without the need of pre-calibrating the Hall sensor. This fact contrasts with the information acquired through the spatial field dependence of an individual flux quantum where the scanning height and the magnetic penetration depth combine in a single inseparable parameter. The derived London penetration depth λL coincides with the values previously reported for bulk Pb once the kinetic suppression of the order parameter is properly taken into account. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (24 ULg) Development of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging: First step for the determination of an impurity in a pharmaceutical modelDe Bleye, Charlotte ; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ; Dumont, Elodie et alin Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 90This publication reports, for the first time, the development of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging (SER-CI). A pharmaceutical model presented as tablets based on ... [more ▼]This publication reports, for the first time, the development of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging (SER-CI). A pharmaceutical model presented as tablets based on paracetamol, which is the most sold drug around the world, was used to develop this approach. 4-Aminophenol is the main impurity of paracetamol and is actively researched in pharmaceutical formulations because of its toxicity. As its concentration is generally very low (<0.1%, w/w), conventional Raman chemical imaging cannot be used. In this context, a SER-CI method was developed to quantify 4-aminophenol assessing a limit of quantification below its limit of specification of 1000 ppm. Citrate-reduced silver nanoparticles were used as SERS substrate and these nanoparticles were functionalized using 1-butanethiol. Different ways to cover the tablets surface by butanethiol-functionalized silver nanoparticles were tested and a homogeneity study of the silver nanoparticles covering was realized. This homogeneity study was performed in order to choose the best way to cover the surface of tablets by silver colloid. Afterwards, the optimization of the SER-CI approach was necessary and different spectral intensity normalizations were tested. Finally, a quantitative approach using SER-CI was developed enabling to quantify 4-aminophenol from 0.025% to 0.2% in paracetamol tablets. This quantitative approach was tested on two different series of tablets using different batches of silver nanoparticles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (22 ULg) Small impact of surrounding oceanic conditions on 2007–2012 Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balanceNoel, Brice; Fettweis, Xavier ; van de Berg, W.J. et alin Cryosphere Discussions (The) (2014), 8During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North ... [more ▼]During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favouring warmer than normal conditions over the GrIS. In addition, it has been suggested that significant anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) may partially explain recent anomalous GrIS surface melt. To assess the impact of 2007–2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR. These simulations suggest that changes in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not significantly impact GrIS SMB, due to the katabatic winds blocking effect. These winds are strong enough to prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST variability, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds are weaker. However, anomalies in SIC and SST could have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, favouring more frequent warm air advection to the GrIS. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (1 ULg) The yellow hypergiant HR 5171 A: Resolving a massive interacting binary in the common envelope phaseChesneau, O.; Meilland, A.; Chapellier, E. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 563Context. Only a few stars are caught in the very brief and often crucial stages when they quickly traverse the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and none has yet been spatially resolved in the mass transfer ... [more ▼]Context. Only a few stars are caught in the very brief and often crucial stages when they quickly traverse the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and none has yet been spatially resolved in the mass transfer phase. Aims: We initiated long-term optical interferometry monitoring of the diameters of massive and unstable yellow hypergiants (YHG) with the goal of detecting both the long-term evolution of their radius and shorter term formation of a possible pseudo-photosphere related to proposed large mass-loss events. Methods: We observed HR 5171 A with AMBER/VLTI. We also examined archival photometric data in the visual and near-IR spanning more than 60 years, as well as sparse spectroscopic data. Results: HR 5171 Aexhibits a complex appearance. Our AMBER data reveal a surprisingly large star for a YHG R∗ = 1315 ± 260R⊙ (or ~6.1 AU) at the distance of 3.6 ± 0.5 kpc. The source is surrounded by an extended nebulosity, and these data also show a large level of asymmetry in the brightness distribution of the system, which we attribute to a newly discovered companion star located in front of the primary star. The companion's signature is also detected in the visual photometry, which indicates an orbital period of Porb = 1304 ± 6 d. Modeling the light curve with the NIGHTFALL program provides clear evidence that the system is a contact or possibly over-contact eclipsing binary. A total current system mass of 39^+40_-22 M⊙ and a high mass ratio q ≥ 10 is inferred for the system. Conclusions: The low-mass companion of HR 5171 is very close to the primary star that is embedded within its dense wind. Tight constraints on the inclination and vsini of the primary are lacking, which prevents us from determining its influence precisely on the mass-loss phenomenon, but the system is probably experiencing a wind Roche-Lobe overflow. Depending on the amount of angular momentum that can be transferred to the stellar envelope, HR 5171 A may become a fast-rotating B[e]/luminous blue variable/Wolf-Rayet star. In any case, HR 5171 A highlights the possible importance of binaries for interpreting the unstable YHGs and for massive star evolution in general. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Impacts of earthworms on soil components and dynamics. A reviewLemtiri, Aboulkacem ; Colinet, Gilles ; Alabi, Taofic et alin Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18Earthworm populations are important decomposers contributing to aggregate formation and nutrient cycling processes involving nitrogen cycles, phosphorus and carbon. They are known to influence soil ... [more ▼]Earthworm populations are important decomposers contributing to aggregate formation and nutrient cycling processes involving nitrogen cycles, phosphorus and carbon. They are known to influence soil fertility by participating to important processes in soil such as soil structure regulation and organic matter dynamics. Earthworms also modify the microbial communities through digestion, stimulation and dispersion in casts. Consequently, changes in the activities of earthworm communities, as a result of soil management practices, can also be used as indicators of soil fertility and quality. It is therefore important to understand how earthworm communities affect soil dynamics. This review adresses the current state of knowledge on earthworm’s impacts on soil structure and soil organic matter (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) dynamics, with special emphasis on the effects of land management practices on earthworm communities. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (3 ULg) Precision design of ethylene- and polar-monomer-based copolymers by organometallic-mediated radical polymerizationKermagoret, Anthony ; Debuigne, Antoine ; Jérôme, Christine et alin Nature Chemistry (2014), 6(3), 179-187The copolymerization of ethylene with polar monomers is a major challenge when it comes to the manufacture of materials with potential for a wide range of commercial applications. In the chemical industry ... [more ▼]The copolymerization of ethylene with polar monomers is a major challenge when it comes to the manufacture of materials with potential for a wide range of commercial applications. In the chemical industry, free-radical polymerization is used to make a large proportion of such copolymers, but the forcing conditions result in a lack of fine control over the architecture of the products. Herein we introduce a synthetic tool, effective under mild experimental conditions, for the precision design of unprecedented ethylene- and polar-monomer-based copolymers. We demonstrate how an organocobalt species can control the growth of the copolymer chains, their composition and the monomer distribution throughout the chain. By fine tuning the ethylene pressure during polymerization and by exploiting a unique reactive mode of the end of the organometallic chain, novel block-like copolymer structures can be prepared. This highly versatile synthetic platform provides access to a diverse range of polymer materials. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 70 (18 ULg) Mode identification based on time-series spectrophotometry for the bright rapid sdB pulsator EC 01541-1409Randall, Suzanna K; Fontaine, Gilles; Geier, Stephan et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 563We present an analysis of time-resolved spectrophotometry gathered with FORS/VLT for the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf EC 01541-1409 with the aim of identifying the degree index ℓ of the larger ... [more ▼]We present an analysis of time-resolved spectrophotometry gathered with FORS/VLT for the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf EC 01541-1409 with the aim of identifying the degree index ℓ of the larger amplitude modes. This mode identification can be extremely useful in detailed searches for viable asteroseismic models in parameter space, and can be crucial for testing the validity of a solution a posteriori. To achieve it, we exploit the ℓ-dependence of the monochromatic amplitude, phase, and velocity-to-amplitude ratio of a mode as a function of wavelength. We use the ℓ-sensitive phase lag between the flux perturbation and the radial velocity as an additional diagnostic tool. On this basis, we are able to unambiguously identify the dominant 140.5 s pulsation of our target as a radial mode, and the second-highest amplitude periodicity at 145.8 s as an ℓ = 2 mode. We further exploit the exceptionally high-sensitivity data that we gathered for the dominant mode to infer modal properties that are usually quite difficult to estimate in sdB pulsators, namely the physical values of the dimensionless radius, temperature, and surface gravity perturbations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg) Interview: Rosalind Hackett reflects on religious media in AfricaMelice, Anne ; Hackett, Rosalind; Van Wolputte, Steven et alin Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULg) An astronomical survey conducted in BelgiumNazé, Yaël ; Fontaine, Sébastien in Physics Education (2014), 49This article presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest and knowledge in astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students ... [more ▼]This article presents the results of the first survey conducted in Belgium about the interest and knowledge in astronomy. Two samples were studied, the public at large (667 questionnaires) and students (2589 questionnaires), but the results are generally similar in both samples. We evaluated people’s interest, main information source, and attitudes towards astronomy, as well as their supposed and actual knowledge of the subject. The main conclusion is that, despite a poor self-confidence, people do know the basic astronomical concepts. However, that knowledge is not deeply rooted, as reasoning questions show well-spread misconceptions and/or misunderstandings. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (9 ULg) Climatological study of ionospheric irregularities over the European mid-latitude sector with GPSWautelet, Gilles ; Warnant, René in Journal of Geodesy (2014), 88(3), 223-240High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements ... [more ▼]High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements. Indeed, during periods of enhanced ionospheric variability, GNSS users in the field – who cannot verify the integrity of their measurements – will experience positioning errors that can reach several decimeters, while the nominal accuracy of the technique is cm-level. In the frame of this paper, a climatological analysis of irregularities over the European mid-latitude region is presented. Based on a ten year GPS dataset over Belgium, the work analyzes the occurrence rate (as a function of the solar cycle, season and local time) as well as the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed at a single GPS station. The study covers irregularities either due to space weather events (solar origin) or of terrestrial origin. If space weather irregularities are responsible for the largest effects in terms of ionospheric error, their occurrence rate highly depends on solar activity. Indeed, the occurrence rate of ionospheric irregularities is about 9% during solar maximum, whereas it drops to about 0% during medium or low solar activity periods. Medium-Scale Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) occurring during daytime in autumn/winter are the most recurrent pattern of the time series, with yearly proportions slightly varying with the solar cycle and an amplitude of about 10% of the TEC background. Another recurrent irregularity type, though less frequent than MSTIDs, is the noise-like variability in TEC observed during summer nighttime, under quiet geomagnetic conditions. These summer nighttime irregularities exhibit amplitudes ranging between 8 and 15% of the TEC background. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (12 ULg) Pourquoi tant de richesse? Dossier Reliques & reliquairesGeorge, Philippe in Arts Sacrés (2014), 28Detailed reference viewed: 17 (5 ULg) A differential Lyapunov framework for contraction analysisForni, Fulvio ; Sepulchre, Rodolphe in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2014), 59(3), 614-628Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to ... [more ▼]Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to the tangent bundle. The Lyapunov function endows the state-space with a Finsler structure. Incremental stability is inferred from infinitesimal contraction of the Finsler metrics through integration along solutions curves. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (5 ULg) Optimized look-ahead tree policies: a bridge between look-ahead tree policies and direct policy searchJung, Tobias ; Wehenkel, Louis ; Ernst, Damien et alin International Journal of Adaptive Control and Signal Processing (2014), 28(3-5), 255-289Direct policy search (DPS) and look-ahead tree (LT) policies are two popular techniques for solving difficult sequential decision-making problems. They both are simple to implement, widely applicable ... [more ▼]Direct policy search (DPS) and look-ahead tree (LT) policies are two popular techniques for solving difficult sequential decision-making problems. They both are simple to implement, widely applicable without making strong assumptions on the structure of the problem, and capable of producing high performance control policies. However, computationally both of them are, each in their own way, very expensive. DPS can require huge offline resources (effort required to obtain the policy) to first select an appropriate space of parameterized policies that works well for the targeted problem, and then to determine the best values of the parameters via global optimization. LT policies do not require any offline resources; however, they typically require huge online resources (effort required to calculate the best decision at each step) in order to grow trees of sufficient depth. In this paper, we propose optimized look-ahead trees (OLT), a model-based policy learning scheme that lies at the intersection of DPS and LT. In OLT, the control policy is represented indirectly through an algorithm that at each decision step develops, as in LT using a model of the dynamics, a small look-ahead tree until a prespecified online budget is exhausted. Unlike LT, the development of the tree is not driven by a generic heuristic; rather, the heuristic is optimized for the target problem and implemented as a parameterized node scoring function learned offline via DPS. We experimentally compare OLT with pure DPS and pure LT variants on optimal control benchmark domains. The results show that the LT-based representation is a versatile way of compactly representing policies in a DPS scheme (which results in OLT being easier to tune and having lower offline complexity than pure DPS); while at the same time, DPS helps to significantly reduce the size of the look-ahead trees that are required to take high-quality decisions (which results in OLT having lower online complexity than pure LT). Moreover, OLT produces overall better performing policies than pure DPS and pure LT and also results in policies that are robust with respect to perturbations of the initial conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 81 (32 ULg) Introduction : Visions du Paradis/Visions of paradiseMelice, Anne ; Van Wolputte, Steven; Pype, Katrienin Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Extensive study of HD 25558, a long-period double-lined binary with two SPB componentsSódor, Á.; De Cat, P.; Wright, D. J. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 438(4), 3535-3556We carried out an extensive observational study of the Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) star, HD 25558. The ~2000 spectra obtained at different observatories, the ground-based and MOST satellite light curves ... [more ▼]We carried out an extensive observational study of the Slowly Pulsating B (SPB) star, HD 25558. The ~2000 spectra obtained at different observatories, the ground-based and MOST satellite light curves revealed that this object is a double-lined spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of about 9 years. The observations do not allow the inference of an orbital solution. We determined the physical parameters of the components, and found that both lie within the SPB instability strip. Accordingly, both show line-profile variations due to stellar pulsations. Eleven independent frequencies were identified in the data. All the frequencies were attributed to one of the two components based on Pixel-by-pixel variability analysis of the line profiles. Spectroscopic and photometric mode identification was also performed for the frequencies of both stars. These results suggest that the inclination and rotation of the two components are rather different. The primary is a slow rotator with ~6 d period, seen at ~60 deg inclination, while the secondary rotates fast with ~1.2 d period, and is seen at ~20 inclination. Spectropolarimetric measurements revealed that the secondary component has a magnetic field with at least a few hundred Gauss strength, while no magnetic field can be detected in the primary. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg) Facultative paedomorphosis and the pattern of intra- and interspecific variation in cranial skeleton: lessons from European newts (Ichthyosaura alpestris and Lissotriton vulgaris)Ivanović, Ana; Cvijanović, Milena; Denoël, Mathieu et alin Zoomorphology (2014), 133(1), 99-109Paedomorphosis, the presence of ancestral larval and juvenile traits that occur at the descendent adult stage, is an evolutionary phenomenon that shaped morphological evolution in many vertebrate lineages ... [more ▼]Paedomorphosis, the presence of ancestral larval and juvenile traits that occur at the descendent adult stage, is an evolutionary phenomenon that shaped morphological evolution in many vertebrate lineages, including tailed amphibians. Among salamandrid species, paedomorphic and metamorphic phenotypes can be observed within single populations (facultative paedomorphosis). Despite wide interest in facultative paedomorphosis and polymorphism produced by heterochronic changes (heterochronic polymorphism), the studies that investigate intraspecific morphological variation in facultative paedomorphic species are largely missing. By quantifying the cranium size and development (bone development and remodeling), we investigated the variation at multiple levels (i.e., between sexes, populations and species) of two facultatively paedomorphic European newt species: the alpine and the smooth newt. The pattern of variation between paedomorphs (individuals keeping larval traits at the adult stage) and metamorphs (metamorphosed adult individuals) varied between species and among populations within a single species. The patterns of variation in size and skull formation appear to be more uniform in the alpine than in the smooth newt, indicating that developmental constraints differed between species (more pronounced in alpine than in smooth newt). Our study shows that the cranial skeleton provides detailed insight in the pattern of variation and divergence in heterochronic polymorphism within and between species and open new questions related to heterochronic polymorphism and evolution of cranial skeleton. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 120 (56 ULg) Simultaneous determination of seven azole antifungal drugs in serum by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and diode array detectionMISTRETTA, Virginie ; DUBOIS, Nathalie ; DENOOZ, Raphael et alin Acta Clinica Belgica (2014), 69(1), 53-61Azole antifungals are a group of fungistatic agents that can be administered orally or parenterally. The determination of the concentrations of these antifungals (miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole ... [more ▼]Azole antifungals are a group of fungistatic agents that can be administered orally or parenterally. The determination of the concentrations of these antifungals (miconazole, fluconazole, ketoconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, and its major active metabolite, hydroxy-itraconazole) in serum can be useful to adapt the doses to pharmacological ranges because of large variability in the absorption and metabolism of the drugs, multiple drug interactions, but also potential resistance or toxicity. A method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of these drugs in serum utilizing ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography and diode array detection (UHPLC-DAD). After a simple and rapid liquid– liquid extraction, the pre-treated sample was analysed on an UHPLC-DAD system (Waters CorporationH). The chromatographic separation was carried out on an Acquity BEH C18 column (Waters Corporation) with a gradient mode of mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and aqueous ammonium bicarbonate 10.0 M pH10. The flow rate was 0.4 ml/min and the injection volume was 5 ml. The identification wavelength varied according to the drug from 210 to 260 nm. The method was validated by the total error method approach by using an analytical validation software (eNnoval V3.0 ArlendaH). The seven azole antifungals were identified by retention time and specific UV spectra, over a 13-minute run time. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r2.0.99) in ranges considered clinically adequate. The assay was linear from 0.05 to 10 mg/l for voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, hydroxy-itraconazole, and ketoconazole, from 0.3 to 10 mg/l for fluconazole, and from 0.1 to 10 mg/l for miconazole. The bias and imprecision values for intraand inter-assays were lower than 10% and than 15%, respectively. In conclusion, a simple, sensitive, and selective UHPLC-DAD method was developed and validated to determine seven azole antifungal drugs in human serum. This method is applicable to patient samples, and can be applied successfully to clinical applications and therapeutic drug monitoring. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (15 ULg) Transiting planets from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b, three hot Jupiters transiting evolved solar-type starsDelrez, Laetitia ; Van Grootel, Valérie ; Anderson, D. R. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. WASP-68 b has a mass of 0.95+-0.03 M_Jup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 R_Jup, and orbits a V ... [more ▼]We report the discovery by the WASP transit survey of three new hot Jupiters, WASP-68 b, WASP-73 b and WASP-88 b. WASP-68 b has a mass of 0.95+-0.03 M_Jup, a radius of 1.24-0.06+0.10 R_Jup, and orbits a V=10.7 G0-type star (1.24+-0.03 M_sun, 1.69-0.06+0.11 R_sun, T_eff=5911+-60 K) with a period of 5.084298+-0.000015 days. Its size is typical of hot Jupiters with similar masses. WASP-73 b is significantly more massive (1.88-0.06+0.07 M_Jup) and slightly larger (1.16-0.08+0.12 R_Jup) than Jupiter. It orbits a V=10.5 F9-type star (1.34-0.04+0.05 M_sun, 2.07-0.08+0.19 R_sun, T_eff=6036+-120 K) every 4.08722+-0.00022 days. Despite its high irradiation (2.3 10^9 erg s^-1 cm^-2), WASP-73 b has a high mean density (1.20-0.30+0.26 \rho_Jup) that suggests an enrichment of the planet in heavy elements. WASP-88 b is a 0.56+-0.08 M_Jup planet orbiting a V=11.4 F6-type star (1.45+-0.05 M_sun, 2.08-0.06+0.12 R_sun, T_eff=6431+-130 K) with a period of 4.954000+-0.000019 days. With a radius of 1.70-0.07+0.13 R_Jup, it joins the handful of planets with super-inflated radii. The ranges of ages we determine through stellar evolution modeling are 4.5-7.0 Gyr for WASP-68, 2.8-5.7 Gyr for WASP-73 and 1.8-4.3 Gyr for WASP-88. WASP-73 appears to be a significantly evolved star, close to or already in the subgiant phase. WASP-68 and WASP-88 are less evolved, although in an advanced stage of core H-burning. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (4 ULg) L'ÉCHO-DOPPLER TRANSCRÂNIEN DANS LA PRISE EN CHARE DES STÉNOSES ARTÉRIELLES CERVICALES ET INTRACRÂNIENNESSCHOYSMAN, Laurent ; TSHIBANDA, Luaba ; OTTO, Bernard et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69Le progrès technique en imagerie a permis le développement de l’écho-Doppler transcrânien en mode duplex ou triplex. A côté des autres techniques de neuro-imagerie, son intérêt dans la pathologie ... [more ▼]Le progrès technique en imagerie a permis le développement de l’écho-Doppler transcrânien en mode duplex ou triplex. A côté des autres techniques de neuro-imagerie, son intérêt dans la pathologie vasculaire cérébrale va grandissant. Le présent article a pour but de présenter cette technique en détaillant ses indications actuelles chez les patients présentant des sténoses artérielles cervicales et intra-crâniennes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) Revue épidémiologique des blessures lors de la pratique du rugby à XVKaux, Jean-François ; Julia, Marc; Chupin, Marie et alin Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2014), 31(1), 49-53Rugby is an increasingly popular sport. Full contact being a major characteristic of rugby, injuries are not uncommon. The incidence of injury in Rugby Union reaches 30–91 per 1,000 hours of game time ... [more ▼]Rugby is an increasingly popular sport. Full contact being a major characteristic of rugby, injuries are not uncommon. The incidence of injury in Rugby Union reaches 30–91 per 1,000 hours of game time. This epidemiological review of injuries in rugby players reports their localization, nature, causes, moment of occurrence in matches and seasonal trends as well as the influence of the player’s position, field conditions, and duration of off time after injury. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (7 ULg) A learning procedure for sampling semantically different valid expressionsSt-Pierre, David Lupien; Maes, Francis; Ernst, Damien et alin International Journal of Artificial Intelligence (2014), 12(1), 18-35A large number of problems can be formalized as finding the best symbolic expression to maximize a given numerical objective. Most approaches to approximately solve such problems rely on random ... [more ▼]A large number of problems can be formalized as finding the best symbolic expression to maximize a given numerical objective. Most approaches to approximately solve such problems rely on random exploration of the search space. This paper focuses on how this random exploration should be performed to take into account expressions redundancy and invalid expressions. We propose a learning algorithm that, given the set of available constants, variables and operators and given the target finite number of trials, computes a probability distribution to maximize the expected number of semantically different, valid, generated expressions. We illustrate the use of our approach on both medium-scale and large-scale expression spaces, and empirically show that such optimized distributions significantly outperform the uniform distribution in terms of the diversity of generated expressions. We further test the method in combination with the recently proposed nested Monte-Carlo algorithm on a set of benchmark symbolic regression problems and demonstrate its interest in terms of reduction of the number of required calls to the objective function. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (4 ULg) Mineralogical and geotechnical characterization of clays from Northern Morocco for their potential use in ceramic industryEl Ouahabi, Meriam ; Daoudi, Lahcen; Fagel, Nathalie in Clay Minerals (2014), 49This study focuses on the mineralogical and geotechnical characterization of Northern Morocco clays (i.e., from Tangier and Tetouan areas) and further comparison with main clay ores used in national ... [more ▼]This study focuses on the mineralogical and geotechnical characterization of Northern Morocco clays (i.e., from Tangier and Tetouan areas) and further comparison with main clay ores used in national ceramic (i.e., from Meknes, Fes, Salé and Safi regions). Sampled clays were analyzed by X-ray diffraction on bulk and clay (< 2 µm) fractions to identify the mineralogical assemblages of the clay outcrops. Further analyses were conducted to determine the particle size distribution (laser diffraction particle analyser), the total organic matter content (from LossOnIgnition measurements) and the Atterberg limits of the raw clays. The aims of this study were first to investigate the spatial variability of the clay samples and second to evaluate their potential application as raw materials in ceramic industry. Tetouan and Tangier clays are characterized by diversified mineralogical assemblages (in particular a variable proportion of clay, quartz and calcite) in regard with Meknes, Fes, Salé and Safi clays (high clay content, quartz and calcite). The clay fraction of Tetouan and Tangier samples is dominated by illite and kaolinite with variable contribution of chlorite, smectite and/or vermiculite. Illite is the dominant phase in Meknes, Fes, Safi and Salé clays, but is associated with kaolinite. There is no direct relationship between the mineral assemblage composition and the lithology of the series. The studied clays materials consist generally in fine particles with medium to high plasticity and low organic matter content. Taking into account mineralogy, grain-size distribution and plasticity those clays seem to be suitable as raw material for the growing Morocco ceramic industry. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 97 (27 ULg) Léopold Ier et la religion catholique (1831-1865). L’opium d’un Roi ?Genin, Vincent in Trésor de Liège : Bulletin trimestriel (2014), 38Detailed reference viewed: 16 (8 ULg) Climate and Security: Evidence, Emerging Risks and a New AgendaGemenne, François ; Barnett, Jon; Adger, W. Neil et alin Climatic Change (2014), 123(1), 1-9Detailed reference viewed: 28 (0 ULg) OARSI guidelines for the non-surgical management of knee osteoarthritisMcAlindon; Henrotin, Yves in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (2014), 22(3), 363-388This paper presents concise, up-to-date, patient-focused, evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis, intended to inform patients, physicians and allied ... [more ▼]This paper presents concise, up-to-date, patient-focused, evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines for the management of knee osteoarthritis, intended to inform patients, physicians and allied healthcare professionnal worlwide. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Introduction : Visions du Paradis/Visions of paradiseMelice, Anne ; Van Wolputte, Steven; Pype, Katrienin Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) The Ultraviolet Spectrograph on NASA’s Juno MissionGladstone, G Randal; Persyn, Steven C.; Eterno, John S. et alin Space Science Reviews (2014)The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument on the Juno mission (Juno-UVS) is a long-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe and characterize Jupiter’s far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions. These ... [more ▼]The ultraviolet spectrograph instrument on the Juno mission (Juno-UVS) is a long-slit imaging spectrograph designed to observe and characterize Jupiter’s far-ultraviolet (FUV) auroral emissions. These observations will be coordinated and correlated with those from Juno’s other remote sensing instruments and used to place in situ measurements made by Juno’s particles and fields instruments into a global context, relating the local data with events occurring in more distant regions of Jupiter’s magnetosphere. Juno-UVS is based on a series of imaging FUV spectrographs currently in flight—the two Alice instruments on the Rosetta and New Horizons missions, and the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission. However, Juno-UVS has several important modifications, including (1) a scan mirror (for targeting specific auroral features), (2) extensive shielding (for mitigation of electronics and data quality degradation by energetic particles), and (3) a cross delay line microchannel plate detector (for both faster photon counting and improved spatial resolution). This paper describes the science objectives, design, and initial performance of the Juno-UVS. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (6 ULg) AIR VERSUS GROUND TRANSPORT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: EXPERIENCE IN A RURAL-BASED HELICOPTER MEDICAL SERVICEMOENS, Didier ; Stipulante, Samuel ; Donneau, Anne-Françoise et alin AIRMED (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Epidemiological tools for effective surveillance of porcine cysticercosis in AfricaGoussanou, J.S.E; Kpodekon, M.T.; Youssao, A.K.I. et alin Veterinary World (2014), 7(3), 125-134Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) Nouvelles courbes de productivité harmonisées pour le douglas, l'épicéa et les mélèzes en walloniePerin, Jérôme ; De Thier, Olivier ; Claessens, Hugues et alin Forêt Wallonne (2014), 129(mars/avril), Les courbes de productivité sont des outils de diagnostic précieux en gestion forestière. Elles permettent d'estimer le potentiel de production d'un peuplement de structure équienne d’âge connu à partir d ... [more ▼]Les courbes de productivité sont des outils de diagnostic précieux en gestion forestière. Elles permettent d'estimer le potentiel de production d'un peuplement de structure équienne d’âge connu à partir d'une mesure ponctuelle de la hauteur dominante. Une nouvelle génération de modèles de productivité plus fiables ont été développés pour l'épicéa, le douglas et les mélèzes en Wallonie et ont été intégrés au sein d'un outil informatique de diagnostic simple et rapide d'utilisation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (9 ULg) (Re-)Assessing Career Patterns in Multi-Level Systems: Insights from Wallonia in BelgiumDodeigne, Jérémy in Regional & Federal Studies (2014), 24(2), 151-171This article proposes a new analytical framework for the study of political careers in multi-level systems. It is argued that the study of vertical movements between political arenas, which constitutes ... [more ▼]This article proposes a new analytical framework for the study of political careers in multi-level systems. It is argued that the study of vertical movements between political arenas, which constitutes the prevalent methodological approach in the literature on political careers, should be complemented by the study of horizontal movements within political arenas. Based on a longitudinal analysis of individual political careers, the micro-approach developed in this article allows the comprehension of all territorial dynamics of political careers in multi-level systems. Based on an in-depth case study of all 419 Walloon careers in Belgium, four career patterns are identified: national careers, regional careers, multi-level careers and discrete careers. Although Belgium presents an integrated structure of opportunity, it is demonstrated that key evidences underline the prevalence of a regional and a national political class along a highly integrated political elites. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 ULg) Older adults, physical activity and the internet: Exploring their behaviours, beliefs and opinionsMouton, Alexandre ; Cloes, Marc in International Journal of Physical Education (2014), 51(1), 18-29Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity (PA) levels are low and decline with age. As the population grows older, with some major implications in terms of public health cost ... [more ▼]Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity (PA) levels are low and decline with age. As the population grows older, with some major implications in terms of public health cost, innovative interventions to promote PA in older adults are of major interest. The Internet holds potential for delivering effective PA interventions and older adults are the largest-growing group of Internet users. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to explore the older adults’ behaviours, beliefs and opinions about PA and Internet. At baseline, 75 older adults participated in the two stages of the study: (1) an assessment of their behaviours and beliefs about PA and web-based PA promotion; and (2) the experimentation of a single session of home-exercising followed by an interview regarding their opinion on this session. Results exposed that a minority of the participants were regularly active according to the stage of change for PA. Depending on their knowledge of PA, participants mainly perceived social and health aspects as barriers or motivators for their practice of PA. Senior adults considered home-exercising delivered via the Internet sufficiently relevant, acceptable, original, appreciated and reproducible only if it goes along with a reinforced social support and a community-centred PA promotion. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (7 ULg) Updated distribution and biogeography of amphibians and reptiles of EuropeSilero, Neftali; Campos, João; Bonardi, Anna et alin Amphibia-Reptilia (2014), 35(1), 1-31A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of taxa is essential for decision-making processes in land management and biodiversity conservation, both for present and under future global change ... [more ▼]A precise knowledge of the spatial distribution of taxa is essential for decision-making processes in land management and biodiversity conservation, both for present and under future global change scenarios. This is a key base for several scientific disciplines (e.g. macro-ecology, biogeography, evolutionary biology, spatial planning, or environmental impact assessment) that rely on species distribution maps. An atlas summarizing the distribution of European amphibians and reptiles with 50×50 km resolution maps based on ca. 85,000 grid records was published by the Societas Europaea Herpetologica (SEH) in 1997. Since then, more detailed species distribution maps covering large parts of Europe became available, while taxonomic progress has led to a plethora of taxonomic changes including new species descriptions. To account for these progresses, we compiled information from different data sources: published in books and websites, ongoing national atlases, personal data kindly provided to the SEH, the 1997 European Atlas, and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Databases were homogenised, deleting all information except species names and coordinates, projected to the same coordinate system (WGS84) and transformed into a 50×50 km grid. The newly compiled database comprises more than 384,000 grid and locality records distributed across 40 countries. We calculated species richness maps as well as maps of Corrected Weighted Endemism and species distribution types (i.e. groups of species with similar distribution patterns) by hierarchical cluster analysis using Jaccard’s index as association measure. Our analysis serves as a preliminary step towards an interactive, dynamic and online distributed database system (NA2RE system) of the current spatial distribution of European amphibians and reptiles (see http://na2re.ismai.pt). The NA2RE system will serve as well to monitor potential temporal changes in their distributions. Grid maps of all species are made available along with this paper as a tool for decision-making and conservation-related studies and actions. We also identify taxonomic and geographic gaps of knowledge that need to be filled, and we highlight the need to add temporal and altitudinal data for all records, to allow tracking potential species distribution changes as well as detailed modelling of the impacts of land use and climate change on European amphibians and reptiles. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 194 (31 ULg) Intentionnalité in obliquoDewalque, Arnaud in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2014)Je suggère ici qu'une théorie adéquate de l'intentionnalité ne peut pas faire l'économie de la notion d'intentionnalité latérale ou "in modo obliquo". Je compare, sur ce point, les contributions de ... [more ▼]Je suggère ici qu'une théorie adéquate de l'intentionnalité ne peut pas faire l'économie de la notion d'intentionnalité latérale ou "in modo obliquo". Je compare, sur ce point, les contributions de Chisholm et de Brentano. Après une brève introduction (§ 1), je reconstruis la théorie de la référence indirecte de Chisholm (§§ 2-3) et la théorie des représentations in obliquo de Brentano (§§ 4-6). À mon sens, ces théories présupposent toutes deux l’idée que certains items ne peuvent pas être visés de façon directe ou in recto – ce qui implique la question suivante: en vertu de quoi certains items ne peuvent-ils pas être représentés in recto? (§ 7). Je fais alors l’hypothèse que la notion de contenu abstrait ou dépendant, développée par Stumpf et Husserl, offre une solution à ce problème (§ 8). Enfin, je suggère que ce critère permet de construire une interprétation plausible de la théorie brentanienne et, simultanément, de jeter un regard critique sur la théorie de la référence indirecte de Chisholm (§ 9). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) Gas injection test in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone: data analysis and numerical modellingDe la Vaissière, Rémi; Gerard, Pierre; Radu, Jean-Pol et alin Geological Society, London, Special Publications Online First (2014)This paper describes a field-scale experiment on gas transport mechanisms performed at Andra’s Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in a clay rock. The experimental layout consists of two parallel ... [more ▼]This paper describes a field-scale experiment on gas transport mechanisms performed at Andra’s Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in a clay rock. The experimental layout consists of two parallel boreholes that are equipped with multiple packer completions isolating three intervals each, which have been continuously monitoring the pore pressure evolution of the clay rock. Nitrogen gas was injected in the middle test interval of one of the boreholes at increasing rates. The entire gas test comprised six periods of controlled gas injections, each fol-lowed by a shut-in pressure recovery phase. The experimental data are presented along with their interpretation by means of numerical modelling of two-phase flow of gas and water using different numerical codes and different geometrical approaches that include axisymmetric, half-space and full 3D models. An iterative modelling process was used to show step-by-step how an accu-rate description of each component of the experiment system produced a satisfactory reproduc-tion of the experimental data and an improved understanding of the relevant phenomena. For instance, the initial volume of remaining water in the test interval, and the presence of a damaged zone around the boreholes, was important for the models to obtain good agreement with the field data. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) LaTeX, un peu, beaucoup (3. Le béhaba)Dupont, Pascal in Losanges (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Interview: Rosalind Hackett reflects on religious media in AfricaMelice, Anne ; Hackett, Rosalind; Van Wolputte, Steven et alin Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULg) Mais ce "p", que veut-il dire finalement ?Bruyère, Olivier ; Dardenne, Nadia in Medi-Sphere (2014), 437Detailed reference viewed: 20 (8 ULg) The Third/Second Generation PTH Assay Ratio as a Marker for Parathyroid Carcinoma: Evaluation Using an Automated PlatformCAVALIER, Etienne ; BETEA, Daniela ; SCHLECK, Marie-Louise et alin Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2014), 99(3), 453-7Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is rare and often difficult to differentiate initially from benign disease. Because PCa oversecretes amino PTH that is detected by third-generation but not by ... [more ▼]Background: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is rare and often difficult to differentiate initially from benign disease. Because PCa oversecretes amino PTH that is detected by third-generation but not by second-generation PTH assays, the normal generation PTH ( 1) is inverted in PCa (ie, 1). Objective: The objective of the investigation was to study the utility and advantages of automated generation PTH ratio measurements using the Liaison XL platform over existing manual techniques. Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary-referral academic center. Design: This was a retrospective laboratory study. Subjects: Eleven patients with advanced PCa (mean age 56.0 y). The controls were patients with 1°-hyperparathyroidism (n 144;meanage 53.8 y), renal transplantation (n 41;meanage 50.6 y), hemodialysis (n 80; mean age 65.2 y), and healthy elderly subjects (n 40; mean age 72.6 y). Results: The median (interquartile range) generation PTH ratio was 1.16 (1.10 –1.38) in the PCa group, which was significantly higher than the control groups: 0.74 (hemodialysis, 0.71–0.75), 0.77 (renal transplant, 0.73–0.79), 0.80 (healthy elderly, 0.74–0.83), and 0.76 (1°-hyperparathyroidism, 0.74–0.78). An inverted -generation PTH ratio ( 1) was seen in 9 of 11 PCa patients (81.8%) and in 7 of 305 controls (2.3%), 3 of 80 hemodialysis (3.8%), and 4 of 144 1°-hyperparathyroidism patients (2.8%). Of four PCa patients who had a normal PTH ratio with the manual method, two had an inverted -generation PTH ratio with the automated method. Conclusions: Study of the -generation PTH ratio in large patient populations should be feasible using a mainstream automated platform like the Liaison XL. The current study confirms the utility of the inverted -generation PTH ratio as a marker of PCa (sensitivity: 81.8%; specificity: 97.3%). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 55 (12 ULg) Global Isochrons and Phase Sensitivity of Bursting NeuronsMauroy, Alexandre ; Rhoads, Blane; Moehlis, Jeff et alin SIAM Journal on Applied Dynamical Systems (2014), 13(1), 306-338Phase sensitivity analysis is a powerful method for studying (asymptotically periodic) bursting neuron models. One popular way of capturing phase sensitivity is through the computation of isochrons ... [more ▼]Phase sensitivity analysis is a powerful method for studying (asymptotically periodic) bursting neuron models. One popular way of capturing phase sensitivity is through the computation of isochrons---subsets of the state space that each converge to the same trajectory on the limit cycle. However, the computation of isochrons is notoriously difficult, especially for bursting neuron models. In [W. E. Sherwood and J. Guckenheimer, SIAM J. Appl. Dyn. Syst., 9 (2010), pp. 659--703], the phase sensitivity of the bursting Hindmarsh--Rose model is studied through the use of singular perturbation theory: cross sections of the isochrons of the full system are approximated by those of fast subsystems. In this paper, we complement the previous study, providing a detailed phase sensitivity analysis of the full (three-dimensional) system, including computations of the full (two-dimensional) isochrons. To our knowledge, this is the first such computation for a bursting neuron model. This was made possible thanks to the numerical method recently proposed in [A. Mauroy and I. Mezić, Chaos, 22 (2012), 033112]---relying on the spectral properties of the so-called Koopman operator---which is complemented with the use of adaptive quadtree and octree grids. The main result of the paper is to highlight the existence of a region of high phase sensitivity called the almost phaseless set and to completely characterize its geometry. In particular, our study reveals the existence of a subset of the almost phaseless set that is not predicted by singular perturbation theory (i.e., by the isochrons of fast subsystems). We also discuss how the almost phaseless set is related to empirically observed phenomena such as addition/deletion of spikes and to extrema of the phase response of the system. Finally, through the same numerical method, we show that an elliptic bursting model is characterized by a very high phase sensitivity and other remarkable properties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Exuberant inflammatory reaction as a side effect of platelet-rich plasma injection in treating one case of tendinopathyKaux, Jean-François ; Croisier, Jean-Louis ; LEONARD, Philippe et alin Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine (2014), 24(2), 150-152Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a large quantity of growth factors, which may enhance tendon healing processes. Local infiltration of PRP represents a relatively new treatment for tendinopathies. To ... [more ▼]Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains a large quantity of growth factors, which may enhance tendon healing processes. Local infiltration of PRP represents a relatively new treatment for tendinopathies. To date, no side effects have been reported after infiltration of PRP to treat tendinopathy. We reported a case of exuberant inflammatory reaction after one infiltration of PRP to treat jumper’s knee in a type 1 diabetic patient who was 35 years old. Injections of PRP must be proposed after careful consideration for patients with morbidity risks linked to insulin-dependent diabetes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 84 (20 ULg) Identification of Metabolic Pathways Expressed by Pichia anomala KH6 in the Presence of the Pathogen Botrytis cinerea on Apple: New Possible Targets for Biocontrol ImprovementKwasiborski, Anthony; Bajji, Mohammed; Renaut, J. et alin PLoS ONE (2014), 9(3), Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) L'imaginaire politique de la théorie de l'énonciationProvenzano, François in Langage et Société (2014), 147Detailed reference viewed: 21 (5 ULg) L'ENMG…C'est le piedWANG, François-Charles in Neurologies (2014), 17(166), 108-113Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Vers une synthèse de la conception et une définition des zones dans le gradient urbain-ruralAndre, Marie ; Mahy, Grégory ; Lejeune, Philippe et alin Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 61-74The increasing footprint of urbanization on landscapes justifies the study of cities and the zones surrounding them. Paradoxically, the concepts relating to these zones remain unclear. Scientists from ... [more ▼]The increasing footprint of urbanization on landscapes justifies the study of cities and the zones surrounding them. Paradoxically, the concepts relating to these zones remain unclear. Scientists from different disciplines diverge when defining these zones or their limits; they even often mention the zones without any definition. This practice excludes comparison between studies. By means of bibliographic research, the variety of terms used to describe the different zones composing the urban-rural gradient has been evidenced, as well as the characteristics of the zones themselves. They have been evaluated according to their relative importance and according to a series of criteria. Finally, new definitions for the different zones have been proposed in order to enable their identification in the field. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 89 (22 ULg) Long-term outcome and use of 6-Minute Walk test in West Highland white Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosisLilja-Maula, LIO; Laurila, HP; Syrjä, P et alin Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2014), 28(2), 379-385Detailed reference viewed: 3 (0 ULg) A method to evaluate the adaptability of photovoltaic energy on urban facadesEsclapés Jover, F.J.; Ferreiro Prieto, I.; Piera Llodrá, J. et alin Solar Energy (2014), 105Solar simulation and evaluation tools are essential for the design of novel energy and environmental strategies. To date, a number published studies in this area focused on the analysis of flat roofs and ... [more ▼]Solar simulation and evaluation tools are essential for the design of novel energy and environmental strategies. To date, a number published studies in this area focused on the analysis of flat roofs and small urban areas. This paper presents a method, based on Geographic Information Systems (GIS), for defining the potential of photovoltaic solar energy over urban faßcades. The method enables the generation of 3D solar maps from two standard data sources, namely cadastral cartography and data on solar irradiance registered by the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, for its initials in Spanish). A series of charts have been generated relating the urban and solar geometries as a result of the numerical model. The charts permit the study of the optimal parameters for the photovoltaic integration over faßcades. In addition, a study conducted over a representative urban area of Madrid is discussed as an example of the applicability of the discussed methodology. Finally, the adequacy of the Spanish Technical Edification Code (CTE, for its initials in Spanish), defining thresholds regarding the usability of photovoltaic energy, has been tested both theoretically and through the case study. Our study concludes that this regulation hinders the architectural integration of photovoltaic devices given the strict usability thresholds adopted. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg) The feedback of massive stars on interstellar astrochemical processesDe Becker, Michaël in Astrophysics & Space Science (2014), 350(1), 237-243Astrochemistry is a discipline that studies physico-chemical processes in astrophysical environments. Such environments are characterized by conditions that are substantially different from those existing ... [more ▼]Astrochemistry is a discipline that studies physico-chemical processes in astrophysical environments. Such environments are characterized by conditions that are substantially different from those existing in usual chemical laboratories. Models which aim to explain the formation of molecular species in interstellar environments must take into account various factors, including many that are directly, or indirectly related to the populations of massive stars in galaxies. The aim of this paper is to review the influence of massive stars, whatever their evolution stage, on the physico-chemical processes at work in interstellar environments. These influences include the ultraviolet radiation field, the production of high energy particles, the synthesis of radionuclides and the formation of shocks that permeate the interstellar medium. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (10 ULg) Clinically meaningful effect of strontium ranelate on symptoms in knee osteoarthritis: a responder analysisBruyère, Olivier ; Reginster, Jean-Yves ; Bellamy, Nicholas et alin Rheumatology (2014)Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of strontium ranelate in improving symptoms in knee OA. Methods. Symptoms were assessed over 3 years in patients with primary knee OA receiving ... [more ▼]Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of strontium ranelate in improving symptoms in knee OA. Methods. Symptoms were assessed over 3 years in patients with primary knee OA receiving strontium ranelate 2 g/day (n = 454), 1 g/day (n = 445) or placebo (n = 472) in the Strontium Ranelate Efficacy in Knee Osteoarthritis Trial. Clinical response was evaluated using WOMAC subscores, minimal perceptible clinical improvement (MPCI), minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) and a modified OMERACT Osteoarthritis Research Society International (OARSI) responder definition. Patients who withdrew prematurely from the study were considered non-responders. Results. There was no significant effect on symptoms for strontium ranelate 1 g/day. At the dosage of 2 g/day, strontium ranelate was associated with greater response than placebo in terms of 520% improvement in WOMAC pain from baseline to the last visit (58% vs 47%, P = 0.002) and 550% improvement in WOMAC pain (42% vs 36%, P = 0.083). Significant differences were found in MPCI response for WOMAC pain (52% vs 40%, P<0.001), stiffness (47% vs 39%, P = 0.009) and physical function (46% vs 37%, P = 0.009) and in MCII response for WOMAC physical function (46% vs 37%, P = 0.013). There were also more OMERACT-OARSI-like responders with strontium ranelate (44% vs 35%, P = 0.004). The treatment placebo difference in MPCI response for WOMAC pain was significant after 6 months (P = 0.024), while that in MPCI and MCII response for WOMAC physical function reached significance after 12 months (P = 0.027 and P = 0.019, respectively). Conclusion. Treatment with strontium ranelate 2 g/day over 3 years is associated with a clinically meaningful improvement in pain from 6 months as well as physical function and stiffness as assessed by the number of responders above thresholds of clinical relevance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (10 ULg) Chitosan nanoparticles for siRNA delivery: Optimizing formulation to increase stability and efficiencyRagelle, Héloïse; Riva, Raphaël ; Vandermeulen, G. et alin Journal of Controlled Release (2014), 176This study aims at developing chitosan-based nanoparticles suitable for an intravenous administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) able to achieve (i) high gene silencing without cytotoxicity and (ii ... [more ▼]This study aims at developing chitosan-based nanoparticles suitable for an intravenous administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) able to achieve (i) high gene silencing without cytotoxicity and (ii) stability in biological media including blood. Therefore, the influence of chitosan/tripolyphosphate ratio, chitosan physicochemical properties, PEGylation of chitosan as well as the addition of an endosomal disrupting agent and a negatively charged polymer was assessed. The gene silencing activity and cytotoxicity were evaluated on B16 melanoma cells expressing luciferase. We monitored the integrity and the size behavior of siRNA nanoparticles in human plasma using fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy and single particle tracking respectively. The presence of PEGylated chitosan and poly(ethylene imine) was essential for high levels of gene silencing in vitro. Chitosan nanoparticles immediately released siRNA in plasma while the inclusion of hyaluronic acid and high amount of poly(ethylene glycol) in the formulation improved the stability of the particles. The developed formulations of PEGylated chitosan-based nanoparticles that achieve high gene silencing in vitro, low cytotoxicity and high stability in plasma could be promising for intravenous delivery of siRNA. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (5 ULg) Les éléments de preuve recueillis à l'étranger : essai de synthèseMichiels, Olivier ; Falque, Géraldine in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), 2014/9L’origine des preuves provenant de l’étranger sont aussi diverses que variées. Pensons, par exemple, aux éléments probatoires obtenus à la suite d’une demande d’entraide judiciaire, aux preuves issues ... [more ▼]L’origine des preuves provenant de l’étranger sont aussi diverses que variées. Pensons, par exemple, aux éléments probatoires obtenus à la suite d’une demande d’entraide judiciaire, aux preuves issues d’une enquête pénale menée dans un pays tiers ou encore aux preuves recueillies à l’étranger par les autorités nationales dans le cadre de leurs interventions transfrontalières . L’examen concret de la régularité de ces éléments probatoires soumis au juge national méritait que l’on s’y attarde. En effet, les traités d’entraide ne prévoient généralement pas la manière dont ces preuves étrangères doivent être contrôlées et, le cas échéant, sanctionnées. Aussi, ce sont la jurisprudence et le législateur nationaux qui se sont efforcés, au fil du temps, de poser des critères clairs en la matière . L’arrêt commenté se situe dans la droite ligne de cette problématique et a donné l’occasion aux auteurs de rappeler les quelques règles qui s’imposent en la matière. Après un bref résumé des faits de la cause, et avant d’envisager la question de la preuve recueillie à l’étranger à proprement parler, les auteurs ont égalemnet entrepris de faire un rapide détour par les principes qui régissent la preuve récoltée en Belgique. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (4 ULg) Glucose-, pH- and thermo-responsive nanogels crosslinked by functional superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles as innovative drug delivery systemsLiu, Ji ; Detrembleur, Christophe ; Debuigne, Antoine et alin Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2014), 2(8), 1009-1023Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery ... [more ▼]Reversibly crosslinked (RCL) nanogels made of thermo-responsive poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(Nvinylcaprolactam) copolymers were combined with maghemite nanoparticles and developed as new drug delivery systems (DDS). The crosslinking was formed via boronate/diol bonding from the surfacefunctionalized superparamagnetic maghemite nanoparticles, endowing the DDS with thermo-, pH- and glucose-responsiveness. The capability to load a hydrophobic drug model Nile red (NR) within the RCL nanogels was evaluated, and stimuli-triggered drug release behaviours under different conditions were tested. Zero premature release behaviour was detected at physiological pH in the absence of glucose, whereas triggered release was observed upon exposure to acidic pH (5.0) and/or in the presence of glucose. In light of the superparamagnetic properties of the maghemite nanoparticles and RCL nanogels, magnetically-induced heating, MR imaging performance, as well as remotely magnetically-triggered drug release under alternating magnetic field (AMF), were investigated. Cytotoxicity against fibroblast-like L929 and human melanoma MEL-5 cell lines was assessed via the MTS assay. In vitro stimuli-triggered release of tamoxifen, a chemotherapeutic drug, was also studied within MEL-5 cell cultures under different conditions. These innovative RCL nanogels, integrating different stimuli-responsive components, hydrophobic chemotherapeutic moieties and also diagnostic agents together via reversible crosslinking, are promising new theranostic platforms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (14 ULg) Cosmological constraints on mirror matter parametersCiarcelluti, Paolo; Wallemacq, Quentin in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014Up-to-date estimates of the cosmological parameters are presented as a result of numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure, considering a flat Universe in which the ... [more ▼]Up-to-date estimates of the cosmological parameters are presented as a result of numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure, considering a flat Universe in which the dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter, and the primordial perturbations are scalar adiabatic and in linear regime. A statistical analysis using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method allows to obtain constraints of the cosmological parameters. As a result, we show that a Universe with pure mirror dark matter is statistically equivalent to the case of an admixture with cold dark matter. The upper limits for the ratio of the temperatures of ordinary and mirror sectors are around 0.3 for both the cosmological models, that show the presence of a dominant fraction of mirror matter, 0.06 < Ω_{mirror} h^2 < 0.12. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (6 ULg) Dark atoms and the positron-annihilation-line excess in the galactic bulgeCudell, Jean-René ; Khlopov, Maxim; Wallemacq, Quentin in Advances in High Energy Physics (2014), 2014It was recently proposed that stable particles of charge -2, O^{--}, can exist and constitute dark matter after they bind with primordial helium in O-helium (OHe) atoms. We study here in details the ... [more ▼]It was recently proposed that stable particles of charge -2, O^{--}, can exist and constitute dark matter after they bind with primordial helium in O-helium (OHe) atoms. We study here in details the possibility that this model provides an explanation for the excess of gamma radiation in the positron-annihilation line from the galactic bulge observed by INTEGRAL. This explanation assumes that OHe, excited to a 2s state through collisions in the central part of the Galaxy, de-excites to its ground state via an E0 transition, emitting an electron-positron pair. The cross section for OHe collisions with excitation to 2s level is calculated and it is shown that the rate of such excitations in the galactic bulge strongly depends not only on the mass of O-helium, which is determined by the mass of O^{--}, but also on the density and velocity distribution of dark matter. Given the astrophysical uncertainties on these distributions, this mechanism constrains the O^{--} mass to lie in two possible regions. One of these is reachable in the experimental searches for stable multicharged particles at the LHC. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (4 ULg) Speciation slowing down in widespread and long-living tree taxa : insights from the tropical timber tree genus Milicia (Moraceae)Daïnou, Kasso ; Mahy, Grégory ; Duminil, Jérôme et alin Heredity (2014)The long generation time and large effective size of widespread forest tree species can result in slow evolutionary rate and incomplete lineage sorting, complicating species delimitation. We addressed ... [more ▼]The long generation time and large effective size of widespread forest tree species can result in slow evolutionary rate and incomplete lineage sorting, complicating species delimitation. We addressed this issue with the African timber tree genus Milicia that comprises two morphologically similar and often confounded species: M. excelsa, widespread from West to East Africa, and M. regia, endemic to West Africa. We combined information from nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs), nuclear and plastid DNA sequences, and morphological systematics to identify significant evolutionary units and infer their evolutionary and biogeographical history. We detected five geographically coherent genetic clusters using nSSRs and three levels of genetic differentiation. First, one West African cluster matched perfectly with the morphospecies M. regia that formed a monophyletic clade at both DNA sequences. Second, a West African M. excelsa cluster formed a monophyletic group at plastid DNA and was more related to M. regia than to Central African M. excelsa, but shared many haplotypes with the latter at nuclear DNA. Third, three Central African clusters appeared little differentiated and shared most of their haplotypes. Although gene tree paraphyly could suggest a single species in Milicia following the phylogenetic species concept, the existence of mutual haplotypic exclusivity and nonadmixed genetic clusters in the contact area of the two taxa indicate strong reproductive isolation and, thus, two species following the biological species concept. Molecular dating of the first divergence events showed that speciation in Milicia is ancient (Tertiary), indicating that long-living tree taxa exhibiting genetic speciation may remain similar morphologically. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (12 ULg) Improving halva quality with dietary fibres of sesame seed coats and date pulp, enriched with emulsifierElleuch, Mohamed; Bedigian, Dorothea; Maazoun, Bouthaina et alin Food Chemistry (2014), 145Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These ... [more ▼]Supplementation of halva with waste products of manufacturing, for example defatted sesame seed coats (testae) and date fibre concentrate, can improve its nutritional and organoleptic qualities. These constituents provide high fibre content and technological potential for retaining water and fat. Standard halva supplemented with date fibre concentrate, defatted sesame testae and emulsifier was evaluated for oil separation, texture and colour changes, sensory qualities and acceptability to a aste panel. Addition of both fibres with an emulsifier, improved emulsion stability and increased the hardness of halva significantly. The functional properties of sesame testae and date fibres promote nutrition and health, supplying polyphenol antioxidants and laxative benefits. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg) Scale-down effect on the extracellular proteome of Escherichia coli: correlation with membrane permeability and modulation according substrate heterogeneitiesBrognaux, Alison ; Francis, Frédéric ; Twizere, Jean-Claude et alin Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2014)Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane ... [more ▼]Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane permeability and the synthesis of several outer-membrane components allowing to cope with substrate limitation commonly found in high-cell density culture. A comparative analysis of protein leakage has thus been performed in well-mixed bioreactors and in scale-down devices. The extracellular proteome of E.coli has been investigated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis. On 110 picked spots, 67 proteins have been identified and the sub-localisation and the molecular function of these proteins have been determined. A majority of the extracellular proteome was composed of outer-membrane and periplasmic proteins (64%) confirming the fact that leakage is involved in high-cell density cultures. About 50% of this extracellular proteome was composed of transport and binding proteins. Furthermore, the more abundant spots on the gel corresponded to porin proteins and periplasmic transporters. In particular, the OmpC porin was found to be very abundant. Moreover, the scale-down effect on this extracellular proteome has been investigated by 2D-DIGE analysis (2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis) and significant differences have been observed by comparison with culture carried out in well-mixed systems. Indeed, since substrate limitation signal is alleviated in this kind of apparatus, cell permeability was lowered as shown by flow cytometry. In scale-down conditions, protein leakage was thus less abundant. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (10 ULg) Scale-down effect on the extracellular proteome of Escherichia coli: correlation with membrane permeability and modulation according substrate heterogeneitiesBrognaux, Alison ; Francis, Frédéric ; Twizere, Jean-Claude et alin Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering (2014)Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane ... [more ▼]Protein leakage is induced in well-mixed fed-batch bioreactor by comparison with cultures carried out in scale-down conditions. This effect is attributed to a progressive increase of cell membrane permeability and the synthesis of several outer-membrane components allowing to cope with substrate limitation commonly found in high-cell density culture. A comparative analysis of protein leakage has thus been performed in well-mixed bioreactors and in scale-down devices. The extracellular proteome of E.coli has been investigated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and identified by subsequent MALDI-TOF analysis. On 110 picked spots, 67 proteins have been identified and the sub-localisation and the molecular function of these proteins have been determined. A majority of the extracellular proteome was composed of outer-membrane and periplasmic proteins (64%) confirming the fact that leakage is involved in high-cell density cultures. About 50% of this extracellular proteome was composed of transport and binding proteins. Furthermore, the more abundant spots on the gel corresponded to porin proteins and periplasmic transporters. In particular, the OmpC porin was found to be very abundant. Moreover, the scale-down effect on this extracellular proteome has been investigated by 2D-DIGE analysis (2-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis) and significant differences have been observed by comparison with culture carried out in well-mixed systems. Indeed, since substrate limitation signal is alleviated in this kind of apparatus, cell permeability was lowered as shown by flow cytometry. In scale-down conditions, protein leakage was thus less abundant. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (10 ULg) Control of electronic dynamics visualized by angularly resolved photoelectron spectra: A dynamical simulation with an IR pump and XUV attosecond-pulse-train probeMignolet, Benoît ; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, Françoise in Physical Review. A (2014), 89Detailed reference viewed: 20 (7 ULg) Combining PET images and neuropsychological test data for automatic diagnosis of Alzheimer’s diseaseSegovia-Román, Fermín ; Bastin, Christine ; Salmon, Eric et alin PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2), In recent years, several approaches to develop computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for dementia have been proposed. Some of these systems analyze neurological brain images by means of machine learning ... [more ▼]In recent years, several approaches to develop computer aided diagnosis (CAD) systems for dementia have been proposed. Some of these systems analyze neurological brain images by means of machine learning algorithms in order to find the patterns that characterize the disorder, and a few combine several imaging modalities to improve the diagnostic accuracy. However, they usually do not use neuropsychological testing data in that analysis. The purpose of this work is to measure the advantages of using not only neuroimages as data source in CAD systems for dementia but also neuropsychological scores. To this aim, we compared the accuracy rates achieved by systems that use neuropsychological scores beside the imaging data in the classification step and systems that use only one of these data sources. In order to address the small sample size problem and facilitate the data combination, a dimensionality reduction step (implemented using three different algorithms) was also applied on the imaging data. After each image is summarized in a reduced set of image features, the data sources were combined and classified using three different data combination approaches and a Support Vector Machine classifier. That way, by testing different dimensionality reduction methods and several data combination approaches, we aim not only highlighting the advantages of using neuropsychological scores in the classification, but also implementing the most accurate computer system for early dementia detention. The accuracy of the CAD systems were estimated using a database with records from 46 subjects, diagnosed with MCI or AD. A peak accuracy rate of 89% was obtained. In all cases the accuracy achieved using both, neuropsychological scores and imaging data, was substantially higher than the one obtained using only the imaging data. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 93 (8 ULg) Gold nanorods coated with a thermo-responsive poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) corona as drug delivery systems for remotely near infrared-triggered releaseLiu, Ji ; Detrembleur, Christophe ; De Pauw, Marie-Claire et alin Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(3), 799-813Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PEG-b-PNVCL) copolymers are prepared from a PEG macro-chain transfer agent in DMF at 65 °C via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT ... [more ▼]Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(N-vinylcaprolactam) (PEG-b-PNVCL) copolymers are prepared from a PEG macro-chain transfer agent in DMF at 65 °C via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. The well-defined PEG114-b-PNVCL237 copolymer with a cloud point temperature of 39 °C is used for the formation of a thermo-responsive polymer corona on the surface of gold nanorods (GNRs) via a “grafting-to” approach. Thermo-responsiveness and thermo-dependent optical properties of the as-obtained GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles are studied with dynamic light scattering and UV/vis spectroscopy techniques. Near infrared (NIR)-induced heating of GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL is also explored in aqueous suspension under NIR laser irradiation (802 nm, up to 250 mW). The potential of these GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles to be used as smart drug delivery systems (DDS) is then studied. A hydrophilic drug model, Rhodamine ® B, is used to assess the guest loading capacity, and triggered release behaviours are then evaluated under conventional external heating or internal heating induced by remote NIR irradiation. Cytotoxicity evaluation of the GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL against the fibroblast-like L929 cell line is carried out via the MTS assay in order to confirm the improved biocompatibility of the GNRs after polymer coating. These thermo-responsive GNR@PEG-b-PNVCL nanoparticles are promising DDS that combine the chemotherapeutic and phototherapeutic functions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (12 ULg) Customizing mesoscale self-assembly with three-dimensional printingPoty, Martin ; Lumay, Geoffroy ; Vandewalle, Nicolas in New Journal of Physics (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Impact of extraction procedures on the chemical, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from Ulva lactuca of Tunisia coastYaich, Hela; Garna, Haikel; Besbes, Souhail et alin Food Hydrocolloids (2014), (40), 53-63The impact of the extraction conditions has been studied on the yield, chemical composition, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. High ulvan yield was obtained ... [more ▼]The impact of the extraction conditions has been studied on the yield, chemical composition, rheological and textural properties of ulvan from the green seaweed Ulva lactuca. High ulvan yield was obtained after combining enzymatic and chemical extraction but the lowest yield results at the drastic conditions (pH 1.5 and 90 C). Besides, solvent acidity was an important parameter controlling the ulvan extraction efficiency. The different extraction processes affected chemical composition of ulvan extracts and in particular, sulphate, ash and sugar contents. Low proportions of galactose, glucose and protein were also found in sulphated polysaccharides. The extract, which is resulted from combined enzymatic and chemical extraction, was mainly composed of high peak molecular weight polysaccharides. Ulvan hy-drocolloids demonstrated a pseudoplastic behavior. Viscoelastic behavior was carried out at a concen-tration of 1.6% (w/v) in the presence of 7 mM sodium tetraborate and at pH 7.5. However, polysaccharides formed a gel. It was not the case for the extract at pH 1.5 and 90 C under the same conditions. The results showed that a significant effect of the conditions of extraction on the textural characteristic (firmness, springiness and adhesiveness) of ulvan gels. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 ULg) Experimental investigation of meandering jets in shallow reservoirsPeltier, Yann ; Erpicum, Sébastien ; Archambeau, Pierre et alin Environmental Fluid Mechanics (2014)Meandering flows in rectangular shallow reservoirs were experimentally investi- gated. The characteristic frequency, the longitudinal wave length and the mean lateral exten- sion of the meandering jet ... [more ▼]Meandering flows in rectangular shallow reservoirs were experimentally investi- gated. The characteristic frequency, the longitudinal wave length and the mean lateral exten- sion of the meandering jet were extracted from the first paired modes, obtained by a proper orthogonal decomposition of the surface velocity field measured by large scale PIV. The depth-normalised characteristic lengths and the Strouhal number were then compared to the main dimensionless numbers characterizing the experiments: Froude number, friction num- ber and reservoir shape factor. The normalised wave length and mean lateral extension of the meandering jet are neither correlated with the Froude number nor with the reservoir shape factor; but a clear relationship is found with the friction number. Similarly, the Strouhal num- ber is found proportional to a negative power of the friction number. In contrast, the Froude number and the reservoir shape factor enable to predict the occurrence of a meandering flow pattern: meandering jets occur for Froude number greater than 0.21 and for a shape factor smaller than 6.2. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (10 ULg) Is dark matter made of mirror matter? Evidence from cosmological dataCiarcelluti, Paolo; Wallemacq, Quentin in Physics Letters B (2014), 729We present new fast numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure in the case in which the cosmological dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter. We ... [more ▼]We present new fast numerical simulations of cosmic microwave background and large scale structure in the case in which the cosmological dark matter is made entirely or partly of mirror matter. We consider scalar adiabatic primordial perturbations at linear scales in a flat Universe. The speed of the simulations allows us for the first time to use Markov Chain Monte Carlo analyses to constrain the mirror parameters. A Universe with pure mirror matter can fit very well the observations, equivalently to the case of an admixture with cold dark matter. In both cases, the analyses show a clear indication of the presence of a consistent amount of mirror dark matter, 0.05 < Ω_{mirror} h^2 < 0.12. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (10 ULg) Transnational modelling of the Meuse District with PegOpera simulation softwareGrard, Aline ; Everbecq, Etienne ; MAGERMANS, POL et alin International Journal of River Basin Management (2014)The environmental software PEGOPERA is a new tool resulting from the coupling of the PEGASE model (Planification Et Gestion de l’ASsainissement des Eaux, French acronym for planning and management of ... [more ▼]The environmental software PEGOPERA is a new tool resulting from the coupling of the PEGASE model (Planification Et Gestion de l’ASsainissement des Eaux, French acronym for planning and management of water purification) with a friendly Graphical User Interface. PEGASE is an integrated and physically based river/basin model and is devoted to the characterisation of the physico-chemical state of surface water, at the scale of a whole watershed or basin, including International River Basin District (IRBD). The aim of the model is to simulate non stationary scenarios at various scales (from a few km² to hundreds of thousands km²) while handling the entire river tree (hundreds to thousands of water bodies). The purpose of PEGOPERA is to provide the stakeholders - as regards to surface water management - with a tool dedicated to the deterministic calculation of water quality of the rivers taking into account pollutant loads and discharges. In the context of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, the international coordination between neighbouring states and regions is required. The PEGOPERA software is adapted to simulate the IRBD Meuse. Indeed: i. An integrated transnational database relevant to the entire district is available; ii. The software is operational: the Meuse application has been calibrated and validated independently on most of regional sub-basins of the district; iii. The software could be used to simulate historical and future scenarios to assess water quality improvement that may be expected after applying basic and supplementary measures. The results demonstrate the relevance of the use of this software in this kind of transnational modelling. Some regions of the International District of the Meuse are validated on historical situations. Other parts still need to be improved in terms of consolidating the input databases. Prospective scenarios implementing measures from the WFD are carried out at this District scale. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (20 ULg) Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level riseHinkel, J.; Lincke, D.; Vafeidis, A. T. et alin Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2014), onlineCoastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data ... [more ▼]Coastal flood damage and adaptation costs under 21st century sea-level rise are assessed on a global scale taking into account a wide range of uncertainties in continental topography data, population data, protection strategies, socioeconomic development and sea-level rise. Uncertainty in global mean and regional sea level was derived from four different climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5, each combined with three land-ice scenarios based on the published range of contributions from ice sheets and glaciers. Without adaptation, 0.2–4.6% of global population is expected to be flooded annually in 2100 under 25–123 cm of global mean sea-level rise, with expected annual losses of 0.3–9.3% of global gross domestic product. Damages of this magnitude are very unlikely to be tolerated by society and adaptation will be widespread. The global costs of protecting the coast with dikes are significant with annual investment and maintenance costs of US12–71 billion in 2100, but much smaller than the global cost of avoided damages even without accounting for indirect costs of damage to regional production supply. Flood damages by the end of this century are much more sensitive to the applied protection strategy than to variations in climate and socioeconomic scenarios as well as in physical data sources (topography and climate model). Our results emphasize the central role of long-term coastal adaptation strategies. These should also take into account that protecting large parts of the developed coast increases the risk of catastrophic consequences in the case of defense failure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (10 ULg) Haematological and molecular responses in refractory anaemia with ring sideroblasts and thrombocytosis treated with lenalidomidCAERS, Jo ; HAFRAOUI, Kaoutar ; KEUTGENS, Aurore et alin European Journal of Haematology (2014), 92(2), 179-180Detailed reference viewed: 27 (13 ULg) Alignment in star-debris disc systems seen by HerschelGreaves, J. S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Thureau, N. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society : Letters (2014), 438Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral ... [more ▼]Many nearby main-sequence stars have been searched for debris using the far-infrared Herschel satellite, within the DEBRIS, DUNES and Guaranteed-Time Key Projects. We discuss here 11 stars of spectral types A-M where the stellar inclination is known and can be compared to that of the spatially resolved dust belts. The discs are found to be well aligned with the stellar equators, as in the case of the Sun's Kuiper belt, and unlike many close-in planets seen in transit surveys. The ensemble of stars here can be fitted with a star-disc tilt of ≲ 10°. These results suggest that proposed mechanisms for tilting the star or disc in fact operate rarely. A few systems also host imaged planets, whose orbits at tens of au are aligned with the debris discs, contrary to what might be expected in models where external perturbers induce tilts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) High-frequency A-type pulsators discovered using SuperWASPHoldsworth, Daniel L.; Smalley, B.; Gillon, Michaël et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high-frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes ... [more ▼]We present the results of a survey using the WASP archive to search for high-frequency pulsations in F-, A- and B-type stars. Over 1.5 million targets have been searched for pulsations with amplitudes greater than 0.5 millimagnitude. We identify over 350 stars which pulsate with periods less than 30 min. Spectroscopic follow-up of selected targets has enabled us to confirm 10 new rapidly oscillating Ap stars, 13 pulsating Am stars and the fastest known δ Scuti star. We also observe stars which show pulsations in both the high-frequency domain and the low-frequency δ Scuti range. This work shows the power of the WASP photometric survey to find variable stars with amplitudes well below the nominal photometric precision per observation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) A multi-method approach to radial-velocity measurement for single-object spectraDavid, M.; Blomme, R.; Frémat, Y. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 562Context. The derivation of radial velocities from large numbers of spectra that typically result from survey work, requires automation. However, except for the classical cases of slowly rotating late-type ... [more ▼]Context. The derivation of radial velocities from large numbers of spectra that typically result from survey work, requires automation. However, except for the classical cases of slowly rotating late-type spectra, existing methods of measuring Doppler shifts require fine-tuning to avoid a loss of accuracy due to the idiosyncrasies of individual spectra. The radial velocity spectrometer (RVS) on the Gaia mission, which will start operating very soon, prompted a new attempt at creating a measurement pipeline to handle a wide variety of spectral types. Aims: The present paper describes the theoretical background on which this software is based. However, apart from the assumption that only synthetic templates are used, we do not rely on any of the characteristics of this instrument, so our results should be relevant for most telescope-detector combinations. Methods: We propose an approach based on the simultaneous use of several alternative measurement methods, each having its own merits and drawbacks, and conveying the spectral information in a different way, leading to different values for the measurement. A comparison or a combination of the various results either leads to a "best estimate" or indicates to the user that the observed spectrum is problematic and should be analysed manually. Results: We selected three methods and analysed the relationships and differences between them from a unified point of view; with each method an appropriate estimator for the individual random error is chosen. We also develop a procedure for tackling the problem of template mismatch in a systematic way. Furthermore, we propose several tests for studying and comparing the performance of the various methods as a function of the atmospheric parameters of the observed objects. Finally, we describe a procedure for obtaining a knowledge-based combination of the various Doppler-shift measurements. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Precision synthesis of poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymers by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and preliminary study of their self-assembling propertiesCoupillaud, Paul; Fèvre, Maréva; Wirotius, Anne-Laure et alin Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2014), 35(4), 422-430A poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymer (PIL BCP), namely, poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide), PVAc-b-PVBuImBr, is synthesized by sequential cobalt-mediated radical ... [more ▼]A poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymer (PIL BCP), namely, poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(N-vinyl-3-butylimidazolium bromide), PVAc-b-PVBuImBr, is synthesized by sequential cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP). A PVAc precursor is first prepared at 30 °C in bulk by CMRP of VAc, using bis(acetylacetonato)cobalt(II), Co(acac)2, and a radical source (V-70). Growth of PVBuImBr from PVAc-Co(acac)2 is accomplished by CMRP in DMF/MeOH (2:1, v/v). This PIL BCP self-assembles in the sub-micron size range into aggregated core–shell micelles in THF, whereas polymeric vesicles are observed in water, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thin-solid sample cut from raw materials analyzed by TEM shows an ordered lamellar organization by temperature-dependent synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). Anion exchange can be accomplished to achieve the corresponding PIL BCP with bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (Tf2N−) anions, which also gives rise to an ordered lamellar phase in bulk samples. A complete suppression of SAXS second-order reflection suggests that this compound has a symmetric volume fraction (f ≈ 0.5). SAXS characterization of both di- and triblock PIL BCP analogues previously reported also shows a lamellar phase of very similar behavior, with only an increase of the period by about 8% at 60 °C. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) White Matter Changes in Comatose Survivors of Anoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy and Traumatic Brain Injury: Comparative Diffusion-Tensor Imaging StudyVan Der Eerden, Anke; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Perlbarg, Vincent et alin Radiology (2014), 270Purpose:To analyze white matter pathologic abnormalities by using diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging in a multicenter prospective cohort of comatose patients following cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury ... [more ▼]Purpose:To analyze white matter pathologic abnormalities by using diffusion-tensor (DT) imaging in a multicenter prospective cohort of comatose patients following cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval and informed consent from proxies and control subjects were obtained. DT imaging was performed 5–57 days after insult in 49 cardiac arrest and 40 TBI patients. To control for DT imaging–processing variability, patients’ values were normalized to those of 111 control subjects. Automated segmentation software calculated normalized axial diffusivity (λ1) and radial diffusivity (λ) in 19 predefined white matter regions of interest (ROIs). DT imaging variables were compared by using general linear modeling, and side-to-side Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated. P values were corrected for multiple testing (Bonferroni). Results:In central white matter, λ1 differed from that in control subjects in six of seven TBI ROIs and five of seven cardiac arrest ROIs (all P < .01). The λ differed from that in control subjects in all ROIs in both patient groups (P < .01). In hemispheres, λ1 was decreased compared with that in control subjects in three of 12 TBI ROIs (P < .05) and nine of 12 cardiac arrest ROIs (P < .01). The λ was increased in all TBI ROIs (P < .01) and in seven of 12 cardiac arrest ROIs (P < .05). Cerebral hemisphere λ1 was lower in cardiac arrest than in TBI in six of 12 ROIs (P < .01), while λ was higher in TBI than in cardiac arrest in eight of 12 ROIs (P < .01). Diffusivity values were symmetrically distributed in cardiac arrest (P < .001 for side-to-side correlation) but not in TBI patients. Conclusion:DT imaging findings are consistent with the known predominance of cerebral hemisphere axonal injury in cardiac arrest and chiefly central myelin injury in TBI. This consistency supports the validity of DT imaging for differentiating axon and myelin damage in vivo in humans. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 ULg) Reliability and validity of a new French-language triage algorithm : the ELISA scaleJOBE, Jérôme ; Ghuysen, Alexandre ; GERARD, P et alin Emergency Medicine Journal (2014), 31(2), 115-20Detailed reference viewed: 20 (10 ULg) Parameter identiﬁcation of the STICS crop model, using an accelerated formal MCMC approachDumont, Benjamin ; Leemans, Vincent ; Mansouri, Majdi et alin Environmental Modelling & Software (2014), 52This study presents a Bayesian approach for the parameters’ identiﬁcation of the STICS crop model based on the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. The ... [more ▼]This study presents a Bayesian approach for the parameters’ identiﬁcation of the STICS crop model based on the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm. The posterior distributions of nine speciﬁc crop parameters of the STICS model were sampled with the aim to improve the growth simulations of a winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) culture. The results obtained with the DREAM algorithm were initially compared to those obtained with a Nelder-Mead Simplex algorithm embedded within the OptimiSTICS package. Then, three types of likelihood functions implemented within the DREAM algorithm were compared, namely the standard least square, the weighted least square, and a transformed likelihood function that makes explicit use of the coefﬁcient of variation (CV). The results showed that the proposed CV likelihood function allowed taking into account both noise on measurements and heteroscedasticity which are regularly encountered in crop modelling [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (17 ULg) Do Photobiont Switch and Cephalodia Emancipation Act as Evolutionary Drivers in the Lichen Symbiosis? A Case Study in the Pannariaceae (Peltigerales)Magain, Nicolas ; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(2), 89876Lichen symbioses in the Pannariaceae associate an ascomycete and either cyanobacteria alone (usually Nostoc; bipartite thalli) or green algae and cyanobacteria (cyanobacteria being located in dedicated ... [more ▼]Lichen symbioses in the Pannariaceae associate an ascomycete and either cyanobacteria alone (usually Nostoc; bipartite thalli) or green algae and cyanobacteria (cyanobacteria being located in dedicated structures called cephalodia; tripartite thalli) as photosynthetic partners (photobionts). In bipartite thalli, cyanobacteria can either be restricted to a well-delimited layer within the thallus (‘pannarioid’ thalli) or spread over the thallus that becomes gelatinous when wet (‘collematoid’ thalli). We studied the collematoid genera Kroswia and Physma and an undescribed tripartite species along with representatives of the pannarioid genera Fuscopannaria, Pannaria and Parmeliella. Molecular inferences from 4 loci for the fungus and 1 locus for the photobiont and statistical analyses within a phylogenetic framework support the following: (a) several switches from pannarioid to collematoid thalli occured and are correlated with photobiont switches; the collematoid genus Kroswia is nested within the pannarioid genus Fuscopannaria and the collematoid genus Physma is sister to the pannarioid Parmeliella mariana group; (b) Nostoc associated with collematoid thalli in the Pannariaceae are related to that of the Collemataceae (which contains only collematoid thalli), and never associated with pannarioid thalli; Nostoc associated with pannarioid thalli also associate in other families with similar morphology; (c) ancestors of several lineages in the Pannariaceae developed tripartite thalli, bipartite thalli probably resulting from cephalodia emancipation from tripartite thalli which eventually evolved and diverged, as suggested by the same Nostoc present in the collematoid genus Physma and in the cephalodia of a closely related tripartite species; Photobiont switches and cephalodia emancipation followed by divergence are thus suspected to act as evolutionary drivers in the family Pannariaceae. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg) Adrenomedullin refines mortality prediction by the BODE index in COPD - The "BODE-A" index.Stolz, Daiana; Kostikas, Kostantinos; Blasi, Francesco et alin European Respiratory Journal (2014)The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. Concentrations of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, independently predicted 2-year mortality among ... [more ▼]The BODE index is well-validated for mortality prediction in COPD. Concentrations of plasma proadrenomedullin, a surrogate for mature adrenomedullin, independently predicted 2-year mortality among inpatients with COPD exacerbation.We compared accuracy of initial proadrenomedullin level, BODE, and BODE components, alone or combined, in predicting 1-year or 2-year all-cause mortality in a multicenter, multinational observational cohort with stable, moderate to very severe COPD.Proadrenomedullin was significantly associated (P<0.001) with 1-year mortality (4.7%) and 2-year mortality (7.8%), and comparably predictive to BODE regarding both (C statistics: 0.691 vs. 0.745, 0.635 vs. 0.679). Relative to using BODE alone, adding proadrenomedullin significantly improved 1-year and 2-year mortality prognostication (C statistics: 0.750, 0.818; both P<0.001). Proadrenomedullin plus BOD was more predictive than was the original BODE including 6-minute-walk distance. In multivariable analysis, proadrenomedullin (LR X2 13.0, P<0.001), body mass index (8.5, P=0.004), and 6-minute-walk distance (7.5, P=0.006), but not modified MMRC dyspnoea score (2.2, P=0.14) or FEV1 % predicted (0.3, P=0.60), independently foretold 2-year survival.Proadrenomedullin plus BODE better predicts mortality in COPD patients than does BODE alone; proadrenomedullin may substitute for 6-minute-walk distance in BODE when 6-minute-walk testing is unavailable. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) Dieu ne comprend pas le lingala ? Migrations religieuses et frontières racialesDemart, Sarah in SociologieS (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) La délivrance ou ratification par le législateur de permis d'urbanisme ou d'environnement au regard du droit européen et de la Convention d'AarhusDelnoy, Michel in Journal de Droit Européen [=JDE] (2014), 206Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg) La fixation du prix par un tiers désigné sur la base de l’article 1592 du Code civilCaprasse, Olivier in Journal des Tribunaux (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Approximate and Efficient Methods to Assess Error Fields in Spatial Gridding with Data Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA)Beckers, Jean-Marie ; Barth, Alexander ; Troupin, Charles et alin Journal of Atmospheric & Oceanic Technology (2014), 31(2), 515-530We present new approximate methods to provide error fields for the spatial analysis tool Diva. It is first shown how to replace the costly analysis of a large number of covariance functions by a single ... [more ▼]We present new approximate methods to provide error fields for the spatial analysis tool Diva. It is first shown how to replace the costly analysis of a large number of covariance functions by a single analysis for quick error computations. Then another method is presented where the error is only calculated in a small number of locations and from there the spatial error field itself interpolated by the analysis tool. The efficiency of the methods is illustrated on simple schematic test cases and a real application in the Mediterranean Sea. These examples show that with these methods one has the possibility for quick masking of regions void of sufficient data and the production of "exact" error fields at reasonable cost. The error-calculation methods can also be generalized for use with other analysis methods such as 3D-Var and are therefore potentially interesting for other implementations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (12 ULg) Implementation of the ALERT algorithm, a new dispatcher-assisted telephone cardiopulmonary resuscitation protocol, in non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System (AMPDS) Emergency Medical Services centres.STIPULANTE, Samuel ; Tubes, Rebecca; Fassi, Mehdi El et alin Resuscitation (2014), 85(2), 177-181Objectives: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key factor in improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The ALERT (Algorithme Liegeois d'Encadrement a la ... [more ▼]Objectives: Early bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a key factor in improving survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The ALERT (Algorithme Liegeois d'Encadrement a la Reanimation par Telephone) algorithm has the potential to help bystanders initiate CPR. This study evaluates the effectiveness of the implementation of this protocol in a non-Advanced Medical Priority Dispatch System area. Methods: We designed a before and after study based on a 3-month retrospective assessment of victims of OHCA in 2009, before the implementation of the ALERT protocol in Liege emergency medical communication centre (EMCC), and the prospective evaluation of the same 3 months in 2011, immediately after the implementation. Results: At the moment of the call, dispatchers were able to identify 233 OHCA in the first period and 235 in the second. Victims were predominantly male (59%, both periods), with mean ages of 64.1 and 63.9 years, respectively. In 2009, only 9.9% victims benefited from bystander CPR, this increased to 22.5% in 2011 (p<0.0002). The main reasons for protocol under-utilisation were: assistance not offered by the dispatcher (42,3%), caller physically remote from the victim (20.6%). Median time from call to first compression, defined here as no flow time, was 253sec in 2009 and 168sec in 2011 (NS). Ten victims were admitted to hospital after ROSC in 2009 and 13 in 2011 (p=0.09). Conclusion: From the beginning and despite its under-utilisation, the ALERT protocol significantly improved the number of patients in whom bystander CPR was attempted. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (15 ULg) An algorithm for the separation of two-row cutsLouveaux, Quentin ; Poirrier, Laurent in Mathematical Programming (2014), 143(1-2), 111-146We consider the question of finding deep cuts from a model with two rows of the type PI = {(x,s) ∈ Z2 ×Rn+ : x = f +Rs}. To do that, we show how to reduce the complexity of setting up the polar of conv(PI ... [more ▼]We consider the question of finding deep cuts from a model with two rows of the type PI = {(x,s) ∈ Z2 ×Rn+ : x = f +Rs}. To do that, we show how to reduce the complexity of setting up the polar of conv(PI ) from a quadratic number of integer hull computations to a linear number of integer hull computations. Furthermore, we present an algorithm that avoids computing all integer hulls. A polynomial running time is not guaranteed but computational results show that the algorithm runs quickly in practice. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 107 (16 ULg) Quasicontinuum study of the shear behavior of defective tilt grain boundaries in CuPéron-Lührs, Vincent ; Sansoz, Frédéric; Noels, Ludovic in Acta Materialia (2014), 64Atomistic simulations using the quasicontinuum method are used to study the role of vacancy defects and angström-scale voids on the mechanical behavior of five tilt bicrystals containing grain boundaries ... [more ▼]Atomistic simulations using the quasicontinuum method are used to study the role of vacancy defects and angström-scale voids on the mechanical behavior of five tilt bicrystals containing grain boundaries (GBs) that have been predicted to exhibit characteristic deformation processes of nanocrystalline and nanotwinned metals: GB-mediated dislocation emission, interface sliding, and shear-coupled GB migration. We demonstrate that such nanoscale defects have a profound impact on interfacial shear strength and underlying deformation mechanisms in copper GBs due to void-induced local stresses. In asymmetric high and low angle GBs, we find that voids become preferential sites for dislocation nucleation when the void size exceeds 4 Å. In symmetric 9(221) GBs prone to sliding, voids are shown to shield the local shear stress, which considerably reduces the extent of atom shuffling at the interface. In symmetric Sigma5(210) and Sigma27(115) GBs, we find that the effect of voids on shear-coupled GB migration depends on the GB tilt direction considered, as well as on the size and number of voids. Remarkably, large voids can completely abate the GB migration process in Sigma 27(115) GBs. For all GB types, the interfacial shear strength is shown to decrease linearly as the volume fraction of voids at the interface increases; however, this study also suggests that this decrease is much more pronounced in GBs deforming by sliding than by dislocation nucleation or migration, owing to larger void-induced stresses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 84 (26 ULg) Epigenetic modulators mitigate angiogenesis through a complex transcriptomic networkShiva Shankar, T.V.; Willems, Luc in Vascular Pharmacology (2014), 60In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the role of epigenetics in the regulation of angiogenesis. In particular, we show that lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation are important ... [more ▼]In this review, we summarize the knowledge pertaining to the role of epigenetics in the regulation of angiogenesis. In particular, we show that lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation are important transcriptional regulators of angiogenic genes in endothelial cells. Lysine acetylation and cytosine methylation inhibitors idiosyncratically tune the transcriptome and affect expression of key modulators of angiogenesis such as VEGF and eNOS. Transcriptomic profiling also reveals a series of novel genes that are concomitantly affected by epigenetic modulators. The reversibility and overall tolerability of currently available epigenetic inhibitors open up the prospect of therapeutic intervention in pathologies where angiogenesis is exacerbated. This type of multitargeted strategy has the major advantage of overcoming the compensatory feedback mechanisms that characterize single anti-angiogenic factors. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Prevalence of persistent lipid abnormalities in statin-treated patients: Belgian results of the Dyslipidaemia International Study (DYSIS).Devroey, D; RADERMECKER, Régis in International Journal of Clinical Practice (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) 3-D Modeling of Thin Sheets in the Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Transient Scattering AnalysisBoubekeur, Mohamed; Kameni, Abelin; Bernard, Laurent et alin IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2014), 50(2), 493-496This paper presents a modeling of thin sheets. An interface condition based on analytical solution is used to avoid a fine mesh. This condition is integrated in a time domain Discontinuous Galerkin method ... [more ▼]This paper presents a modeling of thin sheets. An interface condition based on analytical solution is used to avoid a fine mesh. This condition is integrated in a time domain Discontinuous Galerkin method in order to evaluate the shielding effectiveness. This approach is validated by a comparison with analytical solution. 2D and 3D cavities are simulated to illustrate the efficiency of the condition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (7 ULg) Microorganisms living on macroalgae: diversity, interactions, and biotechnological applicationsMartin, Marjolaine ; Portetelle, Daniel ; Michel, Gurvan et alin Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology (2014)Marine microorganisms play key roles in every marine ecological process, hence the growing interest in studying their populations and functions. Microbial communities on algae remain underexplored ... [more ▼]Marine microorganisms play key roles in every marine ecological process, hence the growing interest in studying their populations and functions. Microbial communities on algae remain underexplored, however, despite their huge biodiversity and the fact that they differ markedly from those living freely in seawater. The study of this microbiota and of its relationships with algal hosts should provide crucial information for ecological investigations on algae and aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, because these microorganisms interact with algae in multiple, complex ways, they constitute an interesting source of novel bioactive compounds with biotechnological potential, such as dehalogenases, antimicrobials, and alga-specific polysaccharidases (e.g., agarases, carrageenases, and alginate lyases). Here, to demonstrate the huge potential of alga-associated organisms and their metabolites in developing future biotechnological applications, we first describe the immense diversity and density of these microbial biofilms. We further describe their complex interactions with algae, leading to the production of specific bioactive compounds and hydrolytic enzymes of biotechnological interest. We end with a glance at their potential use in medical and industrial applications. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (13 ULg) A Super-Jupiter orbiting a late-type star: A refined analysis of microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0406Tsapras, Y.; Choi, J.-Y.; Street, R. A. et alin Astrophysical Journal (2014), 782We present a detailed analysis of survey and follow-up observations of microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0406 based on data obtained from 10 different observatories. Intensive coverage of the lightcurve ... [more ▼]We present a detailed analysis of survey and follow-up observations of microlensing event OGLE-2012-BLG-0406 based on data obtained from 10 different observatories. Intensive coverage of the lightcurve, especially the perturbation part, allowed us to accurately measure the parallax effect and lens orbital motion. Combining our measurement of the lens parallax with the angular Einstein radius determined from finite-source effects, we estimate the physical parameters of the lens system. We find that the event was caused by a2.73\pm 0.43\ M_{\rm J}$planet orbiting a$0.44\pm 0.07\ M_{\odot}$early M-type star. The distance to the lens is$4.97\pm 0.29$\ kpc and the projected separation between the host star and its planet at the time of the event is$3.45\pm 0.26\$ AU. We find that the additional coverage provided by follow-up observations, especially during the planetary perturbation, leads to a more accurate determination of the physical parameters of the lens. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (3 ULg) Development of the ultrastructure of sonic muscles: a kind of neoteny?Millot, Sandie; Parmentier, Eric in BMC Evolutionary Biology (2014), 14Detailed reference viewed: 28 (4 ULg) Modalités prescriptives des nouveaux dispositifs de gestion et logiques identitaires des managers publicsPichault, François ; Schoenaers, Frédéric in RH Publica : (2014), 4-2013(oct-nov-dec), 16-21Les pouvoirs locaux sont soumis, comme tous les autres niveaux de pouvoir, à de profonds mouvements de « managérialisation », dont la récente transformation des titres de secrétaire communal et de ... [more ▼]Les pouvoirs locaux sont soumis, comme tous les autres niveaux de pouvoir, à de profonds mouvements de « managérialisation », dont la récente transformation des titres de secrétaire communal et de receveur communal en directeur général et directeur financier sont des illustrations emblématiques. Les pouvoirs communaux sont désormais invités à rédiger des « programmes stratégiques transversaux » (PST) et à se doter de divers outils de gestion en vue d’améliorer le service aux citoyens dans un cadre budgétaire restreint. Le présent article propose une réflexion sur la capacité de ces nouveaux outils à façonner l’action publique au niveau du management intermédiaire… [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (11 ULg) INFLUENCE OF JUMPING STRATEGY ON KINETIC PARAMETERSJidovtseff, Boris ; Quievre, Jacques; Harris Nigel et alin Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness (2014), 54Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence ... [more ▼]Aim: Different jumping strategies can be used during plyometric training. Understanding how manipulating variables such as the counter-movement, flexion amplitude, the drop and the load could influence neuromuscular adaptation would be beneficial for coaches and athletes. The purpose of this study was to analyze how these variations in the vertical jump influenced kinematic and kinetic parameters as measured by a force platform. Methods: Ten male subjects performed, eight kinds of vertical jumps on a force platform : (1) squat jump (SJ); (2) shallow counter-movement jump (S-CMJ); (3) natural counter-movement jump (N-CMJ); (4) deep counter-movement jump (D-CMJ); (5) loaded (20kg) counter-movement jump (20-CMJ); (6) shallow drop jump (S-DJ); (7) deep drop jump (D-DJ); (8) six consecutive jump test (6CJ). Customised Labview software was used to calculate time, displacement, velocity, acceleration, force, power, impulse and stiffness. After statistical analysis, jumping variables were grouped to achieve spécific training objectives. Results: The mechanical parameters were largely influenced by the jump strategy, all the deep jumps produced superior jump heights and concentric velocities as compared to the shallow jumps. The exercises associated with greater power outputs were the S-DJ (5386±1095w) and 6CJ (5795±1365w) that involved short impulse durations and very high accelerations. The greatest values of muscle stiffness were not recorded during the highest vertical jumps, meaning that stiffness is not critical for jumping high. Conclusion: This study gives an overview of what is changing when we manipulate jumping variables and instructions given to the athletes. Plyometric exercises should be carefully selected according to the sport and specific individual needs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (3 ULg) The organization of prospective thinking: Evidence of event clusters in freely generated future thoughtsDemblon, Julie ; D'Argembeau, Arnaud in Consciousness & Cognition (2014), 24Detailed reference viewed: 26 (8 ULg) The role of protein modifications in senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis during storageShafiei, Rasoul ; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh ; Bentaib, Azeddine et alin Microbial Cell Factories (2014)Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are ... [more ▼]Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are few studies about cellular protein deterioration causing cell defectiveness during storage. In the present study, we investigated the influence of storage temperature (−21, 4, 35°C) on the cellular protein modifications which may contribute to the senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis. Results Heterogeneous populations composed of culturable cells, viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) and dead cells were generated when freeze-dried cells were kept at −21 and 4°C for 12 months whereas higher storage temperature (35°C) mainly caused death of the cells. The analysis of stored cell proteome by 2D-DiGE demonstrated a modified pattern of protein profile for cell kept at 4 and 35°C due to the formation of protein spot trains and shift of Isoelectric point (pI). Quantification of carbonylated protein by ELISA showed that the cells stored at 4 and 35°C had higher carbonylated protein contents than fresh cells. 2D-DiGE followed by Western blotting also confirmed the carbonylation of cellular proteins involved in translation process and energy generation. The auto-fluorescent feature of cells kept at 35°C increased significantly which may be an indication of protein glycation during storage. In addition, the percentage of cellular unsaturated fatty acid and the solubility of cellular proteins decreased upon storage of cells at higher temperature suggesting that peroxidation of fatty acids and possibly protein lipidation and oxidation occurred. Conclusions High storage temperature induces some deteriorative reactions such as protein oxidation, lipidation and glycation which may cause further protein modifications like pI-shift, and protein insolubility. These modifications can partly account for the changes in cell viability. It can also be deduced that even moderate carbonylation of some critical cellular proteins (like ribosomal proteins) may lead to VBNC formation or death of freeze-dried bacteria. Moreover, it seems that other mechanisms of biomolecule deterioration preceding protein carbonylation lead to VBNC formation under very low storage temperature. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (12 ULg) Magnetospheric Science Objectives of the Juno MissionBagenal, Fran; Adriani, A.; Allegrini, F. et alin Space Science Reviews (2014)In July 2016, NASA’s Juno mission becomes the first spacecraft to enter polar orbit of Jupiter and enture deep into unexplored polar territories of the magnetosphere. Focusing on these polar regions, we ... [more ▼]In July 2016, NASA’s Juno mission becomes the first spacecraft to enter polar orbit of Jupiter and enture deep into unexplored polar territories of the magnetosphere. Focusing on these polar regions, we review current understanding of the structure and dynamics of the magnetosphere and summarize the outstanding issues. The Juno mission profile involves (a) a several-week approach from the dawn side of Jupiter’s magnetosphere, with an orbit-insertion maneuver on July 6, 2016; (b) a 107-day capture orbit, also on the dawn flank; and (c) a series of thirty 11-day science orbits with the spacecraft flying over Jupiter’s poles and ducking under the radiation belts. We show how Juno’s view of the magnetosphere evolves over the year of science orbits. The Juno spacecraft carries a range of instruments that take particles and fields measurements, remote sensing observations of auroral emissions at UV, visible, IR and radio wavelengths, and detect microwave emission from Jupiter’s radiation belts. We summarize how these Juno measurements address issues of auroral processes, microphysical plasma physics, ionosphere-magnetosphere and satellite-magnetosphere coupling, sources and sinks of plasma, the radiation belts, and the dynamics of the outer magnetosphere. To reach Jupiter, the Juno spacecraft passed close to the Earth on October 9, 2013, gaining the necessary energy to get to Jupiter. The Earth flyby provided an opportunity to test Juno’s instrumentation as well as take scientific data in the terrestrial magnetosphere, in conjunction with ground-based and Earth-orbiting assets. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (3 ULg) Veroordeelde RV op dividenden: zijn de aanpassingen te beperkt ?Peeters, Bart in Fiscologue International (2014), 361Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) La validité des procédures conventionnelles de récusation d’arbitresCaprasse, Olivier ; Henry, Frédéric in Journal des Tribunaux (2014)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)