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See detailJustitie hervormen: leren uit de intrede van HR-adviseurs
Delvaux, David ULg; Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg

in Orde van de dag (2014), 66

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See detailIn situ FTIR micro-spectroscopy to investigate polymeric fibers under supercritical carbon dioxide: CO2 sorption and swelling measurements
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Journal of Supercritical Fluids (2014), 90

An original experimental set-up combining a FTIR (Fourier Transformed InfraRed) microscope with a high pressure cell has been built in order to analyze in situ and simultaneously the CO2 sorption and the ... [more ▼]

An original experimental set-up combining a FTIR (Fourier Transformed InfraRed) microscope with a high pressure cell has been built in order to analyze in situ and simultaneously the CO2 sorption and the polymer swelling of microscopic polymer samples, such as fibers, subjected to supercritical carbon dioxide. Thanks to this experimental set-up, we have determined as a function of the CO2 pressure (from 2 to 15 MPa) the CO2 sorption and the polymer swelling at T = 40 °C of four polymer samples, namely PEO (polyethylene oxide), PLLA (poly-l-lactide acid), PET (polyethylene terephtalate) and PP (polypropylene). The quantity of CO2 sorbed in all the studied polymers increases with pressure. PEO and PLLA display a significant level of CO2 sorption (20 and 25% respectively, at P = 15 MPa). However, we observe that a lower quantity of CO2 can be sorbed into PP and PET (7 and 8% respectively, at P = 15 MPa). Comparing their thermodynamic behaviors and their intrinsic properties, we emphasize that a high CO2 sorption can be reach if on one hand, the polymer is able to form specific interaction with CO2 in order to thermodynamically favor the presence of CO2 molecules inside the polymer and on the other, displays high chains mobility in the amorphous region. PLLA and PEO fulfilled these two requirements whereas only one property is fulfilled by PET (specific interaction with CO2) and PP (high chains mobility). Finally, we have found that for a given CO2 sorption, the resulting swelling of the polymer depends mainly on its crystallinity. [less ▲]

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See detailReading Cadaveric Decomposition Chemistry with a New Pair of Glasses
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Perrault, Katelynn; Stadler, Sonja et al

in CHEMPLUSCHEM (2014)

Smell it out! Thermal desorption has been coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time of-flight mass spectrometry for the characterization of a cadaveric volatile organic compound ... [more ▼]

Smell it out! Thermal desorption has been coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time of-flight mass spectrometry for the characterization of a cadaveric volatile organic compound mixture producedduring the active decay stage (see figure). The combined use of the Fisher ratio and principal component analysis provided further characterization of the chemical profile of decomposition. [less ▲]

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See detailEugène Catalan
Bair, Jacques ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

in Tangente (2014), 158

Eugène Catalan est né il y a exactement 200 ans ! Ses travaux mathématiques sont remarquables, tant par leur quantité (on dénombre environ 380 articles et 70 livres ou mémoires) que du point de vue de ... [more ▼]

Eugène Catalan est né il y a exactement 200 ans ! Ses travaux mathématiques sont remarquables, tant par leur quantité (on dénombre environ 380 articles et 70 livres ou mémoires) que du point de vue de leur qualité et de leur variété. En effet, son nom est encore aujourd'hui associé à de nombreux domaines des mathématiques. Citons notamment diverses conjectures fameuses sur les nombres ou équations, l'étude de nombres éponymes en combinatoire, l'introduction des polyèdres semi-réguliers ou des surfaces minimales en géométrie, le calcul d'intégrales multiples ou encore de séries en analyse. A l'occasion de cet anniversaire, nous mettons en évidence quelques éléments de sa biographie. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of the cardiac cycle on time-intensity curves using multislice dynamic magnetic resonance perfusion
NCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ULg; MANCINI, Isabelle; BROUSSAUD, Thomas K. Y.

in International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging (The) (2014), 30

Flow and pressure variations cause potential changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity across the cardiac cycle. Nevertheless, cardiac dynamic contrast-enhanced (perfusion) MRI is ... [more ▼]

Flow and pressure variations cause potential changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensity across the cardiac cycle. Nevertheless, cardiac dynamic contrast-enhanced (perfusion) MRI is performed and analyzed regardless of the cardiac phase. We investigate whether the cardiac phase impacts myocardial and left ventricle (LV) cavity time intensity curves (TICs) at rest and during vasodilatation. Fifteen healthy volunteers (seven females, eight males; mean age: 32.5 ± 9.3 years; age range: 19–49 years) were included in this prospective study. They underwent four separate short-axis multislice (apical, mid and basal) LV perfusion MRI, with different electrocardiogram-triggering during normal vasotone and adenosine-stress. TIC parameters were extracted from the myocardium and the LV cavity. General linear mixed model analyses were used to evaluate their variability according to vasotone, cardiac phase and slice-position. Maximal enhancement and normalized Steepest slopes were higher at stress than at rest (p values <0.001). A similar trend towards higher inflow was shown on systole versus diastole in the LV cavity and diastole versus systole in the myocardium (p < 0.05).These TIC parameters were slice-position dependent, as the inflow decreased from the base to the apex in the LV, and peaked on the mid-slice for the myocardium. There are significant variability of both the LV and the myocardial TICs, with respect to the cardiac cycle phase and the slice position where imaging actually takes place. These appeal to measurement standardization for a better intra- and inter-study reproducibility. [less ▲]

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See detailLe principe de liberté tarifaire existe-t-il pour les compagnies d'assurances ? Oui, mais...
Wildemeersch, Jonathan ULg

in Revue luxembourgeoise de bancassurifinance (2014), (2), 59

L’arrêt rendu par la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne le 7 mars 2013 dans l’affaire C-577/11, DKV Belgium, s’inscrit dans le contexte particulier de l’encadrement par le législateur belge, dans la ... [more ▼]

L’arrêt rendu par la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne le 7 mars 2013 dans l’affaire C-577/11, DKV Belgium, s’inscrit dans le contexte particulier de l’encadrement par le législateur belge, dans la loi sur les contrats d’assurance terrestre (LCAT), des contrats d’assurance maladie . Il concerne plus spécifiquement l’article 138bis-4 de la loi belge, lequel règlemente les hausses tarifaires des contrats d’assurance maladie non liés à l’activité professionnelle. Dans un souci de protection du consommateur, le législateur a, en effet, choisi d’encadrer strictement les possibilités de hausses tarifaires de ce type de contrat. Interrogée à titre préjudiciel, la Cour est appelée à se prononcer sur la compatibilité de ce mécanisme avec le droit de l'Union. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-scale aquifer characterization and groundwater flow model parameterization using direct push technologies
Rogiers, Bart; Vienken, Thomas; Gedeon, Matej et al

in Environmental Earth Sciences (2014)

Direct push (DP) technologies are typically used for cost-effective geotechnical characterization of unconsolidated soils and sediments. In more recent developments, DP technologies have been used for ... [more ▼]

Direct push (DP) technologies are typically used for cost-effective geotechnical characterization of unconsolidated soils and sediments. In more recent developments, DP technologies have been used for efficient hydraulic conductivity (K) characterization along vertical profiles with sampling resolutions of up to a few centimetres. Until date, however, only a limited number of studies document high-resolution in situ DP data for three-dimensional conceptual hydrogeological model development and groundwater flow model parameterization. This study demonstrates how DP technologies improve building of a conceptual hydrogeological model. We further evaluate the degree to which the DP-derived hydrogeological parameter K, measured across different spatial scales, improves performance of a regional groundwater flow model. The study area covers an area of ~60 km² with two overlying, mainly unconsolidated sand, aquifers separated by a 5-7 m thick highly heterogeneous clay layer (in north-eastern Belgium). The hydrostratigraphy was obtained from an analysis of cored boreholes and about 265 cone penetration tests (CPTs). The hydrogeological parameter K was derived from a combined analysis of core and CPT data and also from hydraulic direct push tests. A total of 50 three-dimensional realizations of K were generated using a non-stationary multivariate geostatistical approach. To preserve the measured K values in the stochastic realizations, the groundwater model Krealizations were conditioned on the borehole and direct push data. Optimization was performed to select the best performing model parameterization out of the 50 realizations. This model outperformed a previously developed reference model with homogeneous K fields for all hydrogeological layers. Comparison of particle tracking simulations, based either on the optimal heterogeneous or reference homogeneous groundwater model flow fields, demonstrate the impact DP-derived subsurface heterogeneity in K can have on groundwater flow and solute transport. We demonstrated that DP technologies, especially when calibrated with site-specific data, provide high-resolution 3D subsurface data for building more reliable conceptual models and increasing groundwater flow model performance. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthèse bibliographique : l'écologie larvaire des culicoïdes (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae)
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(2), 301-312

Cet article présente une synthèse de l’écologie larvaire des culicoïdes (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) en vue de rassembler les connaissances, souvent très parsemées, des sites d’oviposition et des habitats ... [more ▼]

Cet article présente une synthèse de l’écologie larvaire des culicoïdes (Diptera : Ceratopogonidae) en vue de rassembler les connaissances, souvent très parsemées, des sites d’oviposition et des habitats larvaires actuellement identifiés à travers le monde pour les principales espèces de culicoïdes. Ces moucherons piqueurs hématophages sont impliqués dans la transmission de divers parasites (protozoaires et filaires) et virus aux animaux. Le développement larvaire des culicoïdes est généralement optimal dans les substrats humides et riches en débris organiques divers. Cependant, chaque espèce présente ses propres exigences écologiques et se trouve par conséquent dans des micro-habitats spécifiques. Dans cette synthèse, les gites larvaires sont répartis en substrats aquatiques et semi-aquatiques d’eau douce et d’eau salée ou saumâtre, substrats terrestres et substrats anthropiques liés à l’élevage. Les gites larvaires de nombreuses espèces appartenant au genre Culicoides Latreille demeurent cependant encore méconnus. La connaissance de ces derniers et leur caractérisation sont pourtant essentielles pour permettre la mise au point de stratégies de lutte efficaces contre ces insectes vecteurs, permettant ainsi de renforcer la vaccination du bétail et les autres moyens de lutte mis en oeuvre. Les habitats larvaires actuellement identifiés pourraient permettre d’orienter les investigations des recherches écologiques futures et les propositions de contrôle de ces moucherons vecteurs. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact de la double stigmatisation en oncogériatrie : Etat des lieux
Schroyen, Sarah ULg; Adam, Stéphane ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg et al

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2014), 12(2), 131-8

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See detailCrise ou catharsis ?
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg

in Exercer (2014), 113(Editorial), 99

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See detailLaTeX, un peu, beaucoup (4. Les "équations" et leurs styles)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2014)

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See detailComplex dynamics of a nonlinear aerospace structure: experimental identification and modal interactions
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Journal of Sound & Vibration (2014), 333

Nonlinear system identification is a challenging task in view of the complexity and wide variety of nonlinear phenomena. The present paper addresses the identification of a real-life aerospace structure ... [more ▼]

Nonlinear system identification is a challenging task in view of the complexity and wide variety of nonlinear phenomena. The present paper addresses the identification of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. The complete identification procedure, from nonlinearity detection and characterization to parameter estimation, is carried out based upon experimental data. The combined use of various analysis techniques, such as the wavelet transform and the restoring force surface method, brings different perspectives to the dynamics. Specifically, the structure is shown to exhibit particularly interesting nonlinear behaviors, including jumps, modal interactions, force relaxation and chattering during impacts on the mechanical stops. [less ▲]

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See detailExploitation du concept de 'physical literacy' dans le cadre d'une séance d'ergonomie et de manutention
Laurent, Charlotte; Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Cloes, Marc ULg

in Revue de l'Education Physique (2014), 54(2), 43-53

Cet article présente une leçon d'éducation physique proposée à une classe de filles engagées dans une formation professionnelle en puériculture. Après une description du contexte d'enseignement, les ... [more ▼]

Cet article présente une leçon d'éducation physique proposée à une classe de filles engagées dans une formation professionnelle en puériculture. Après une description du contexte d'enseignement, les auteurs décrivent les contenus proposés aux élèves et illustrent les principes didactiques qui ont été appliqués dans cette séance au cours de laquelle la participation a été optimale en raison du sens donné aux activités. [less ▲]

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See detailMaitriser le temps? L'accélération du traitement judiciaire du divorce en France et en Belgique
Bastard, Benoit; Delvaux, David ULg; Mouhanna, Christian et al

in Temporalités : Productions, Usages, Figures : Revue de Sciences Sociales et Humaines (2014), 19

Cet article aborde la question du temps dans l’institution judiciaire en prenant pour objet le contentieux familial. En considérant la dimension temporelle du règlement des conflits qui émergent lors des ... [more ▼]

Cet article aborde la question du temps dans l’institution judiciaire en prenant pour objet le contentieux familial. En considérant la dimension temporelle du règlement des conflits qui émergent lors des ruptures d’union, il met en évidence le changement radical de la vision du temps qui a touché le monde de la justice civile dans les dernières décennies. Le mouvement d’accélération qui touche l’ensemble de l’institution judiciaire se trouve redoublé dans ce champ par l’urgence qu’impose la réaction face à un contentieux de masse : il s’agit de répondre sans délais aux conflits familiaux, selon des modalités adaptées aux besoins des intéressés. L’étude s’appuie sur une enquête réalisée dans cinq juridictions, en France et en Belgique. Dans ces deux pays, les dernières réformes intervenues ont eu pour projet de hâter les procédures de divorce. Dans la pratique, différentes modalités de l’accélération du traitement judiciaire sont observées. En France, le juge aux affaires familiales est un acteur central qui traite l’ensemble des ruptures de couple soumises à la justice. Les JAF font tout pour accélérer les décisions, en s’appuyant autant que faire se peut sur l’accord des parties et en cherchant à contrôler les avocats. En Belgique, l’accélération est particulièrement apparente s’agissant du procès en divorce, mais les décisions sur les effets accessoires de la séparation sont renvoyées à différentes instances ayant leur propre temporalité. Par-delà ces différences, la comparaison suggère que l’accélération du traitement du contentieux de la famille résulte de la coprésence des deux tendances majeures observées, la managérialisation de la justice et le renvoi des décisions relatives à la famille vers les intéressés eux-mêmes. L’accélération du traitement judiciaire du divorce n’est cependant pas sans conséquence : en particulier, elle rend plus apparente la disjonction du temps du procès et de celui que vivent les conjoints en rupture. [less ▲]

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See detailLongitudinal quality of life data: a comparison of continuous and ordinal approaches
Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Mauer, Murielle; Coens, C et al

in Quality of Life Research (2014)

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See detailIdentifying endophenotypes of autism: a multivariate approach
Segovia-Román, Fermín ULg; Holt, Rosemary; Spencer, Michael et al

in Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience (2014), 8

The existence of an endophenotype of autism spectrum condition (ASC) has been recently suggested by several commentators. It can be estimated by finding differences between controls and people with ASC ... [more ▼]

The existence of an endophenotype of autism spectrum condition (ASC) has been recently suggested by several commentators. It can be estimated by finding differences between controls and people with ASC that are also present when comparing controls and the unaffected siblings of ASC individuals. In this work, we used a multivariate methodology applied on magnetic resonance images to look for such differences. The proposed procedure consists of combining a searchlight approach and a support vector machine classifier to identify the differences between three groups of participants in pairwise comparisons: controls, people with ASC and their unaffected siblings. Then we compared those differences selecting spatially collocated as candidate endophenotypes of ASC. [less ▲]

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See detailL- and V-curves for Optimal Smoothing
Frasso, Gianluca ULg; Eilers, Paul H. C.

in Statistical Modelling : An International Journal (2014)

The L-curve is a tool for the selection of the regularization parameter in ill-posed inverse problems. It is a parametric plot of the size of the residuals vs that of the penalty. The corner of the L ... [more ▼]

The L-curve is a tool for the selection of the regularization parameter in ill-posed inverse problems. It is a parametric plot of the size of the residuals vs that of the penalty. The corner of the L indicates the right amount of regularization. In the context of smoothing the L-curve is easy to compute and works surprisingly well, even for data with correlated noise. We present the theoretical background and applications to real data together with an alternative criterion for finding the corner automatically. We introduce as simplification, the V-curve, which replaces finding the corner of the L-curve by locating a minimum. [less ▲]

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See detailGember: hoogwaardige anti-emeticum in de officinale praktijk
Angenot, Luc ULg

in Farma Sfeer (2014), 18(195), 30-31

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See detailPrediction of SOx and NOx Emissions from a Medium Size Biomass Boiler Biomass and Bioenergy
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Restivo, Yannick ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg et al

in Biomass and Bioenergy (2014), 65

While small and medium size biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants (i.e., up to 5 MW of electrical rated power) represent an attractive option to exploit locally available biomass resources at low ... [more ▼]

While small and medium size biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants (i.e., up to 5 MW of electrical rated power) represent an attractive option to exploit locally available biomass resources at low cost, the corresponding investment per unit of rated power significantly rises when the installed power decreases. In these cases, secondary pollutant emissions control measures are most of the time not economically viable and primary emissions control must be used alone to avoid the formation of undesired compounds such as $NO_x$ and $SO_x$. Primary control measures require the careful optimization of fuel quality and combustion process. For plant operators, being able to accommodate biomass quality changes in order to minimize the fuel cost can be of great importance in order to guarantee the profitability of the plant. This contribution is dedicated to the development of a zero-dimensional (input-output) combustion simulation model able to predict the pollutants emissions resulting from complete and incomplete combustion with respect to varying combustion operation (ambient temperature, humidity, fumes recirculation,..). This tool is intended to be integrated in a global simulation model of the CHP plant and the attached district heating network installed on the University campus in Liège. Doing so, the plant operation can be optimized with respect to economic as well as environmental and energetic aspects (3E approach) thus ensuring the sustainability of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailCorporéité et émotions dans les phénoménologies asubjectives de Sartre et de Patocka
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

in Etudes Sartriennes (2014), 17

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See detailDoes the achievement of an intermediate glycemic target reduce organ failure and mortality? A post-hoc analysis of the Glucontrol Trial
Penning, Sophie ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Preiser, Jean-Charles et al

in Journal of Critical Care (2014)

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See detailCAMKKβ/AMPK-α1 pathway regulates phosphorylation of cytoskeletal targets in thrombin-stimulated human platelets
Onselaer, Marie-Blanche; Oury, Cécile ULg; Hunter, Roger W et al

in Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis [=JTH] (2014), 12(6), 973-986

Background. Platelet activation requires sweeping morphological changes, supported by contraction and remodelling of platelet actin cytoskeleton. In various other cell types, AMP-activated protein kinase ... [more ▼]

Background. Platelet activation requires sweeping morphological changes, supported by contraction and remodelling of platelet actin cytoskeleton. In various other cell types, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) controls the phosphorylation state of cytoskeletal targets. Objective. We hypothesized that AMPK is activated during platelet aggregation and contributes to the control of cytoskeletal targets. Results. We found that AMPK-α1 was mainly activated by thrombin and not by other platelet agonists in purified human platelets. Thrombin activated AMPK-α1 ex vivo via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase β (CAMKKβ)-dependent pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of CAMKKβ blocked thrombin-induced platelet aggregation and counteracted thrombin-induced phosphorylation of several cytoskeletal proteins, namely, regulatory myosin light chains (MLC), cofilin and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP), three key elements involved in actin cytoskeleton contraction and polymerization. Platelets isolated from mice lacking AMPK-α1 exhibited reduced aggregation in response to thrombin, associated with a defect in MLC, cofilin and VASP phosphorylation and actin polymerization. More importantly, we show for the first time that AMPK pathway was activated in platelets of patients undergoing major cardiac surgery, in a heparin-sensitive manner. Conclusion. AMPK-α1 is activated by thrombin in human platelets. It controls phosphorylation of key cytoskeletal targets and actin cytoskeleton remodelling during platelet aggregation. [less ▲]

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See detailBeAMS: a Beacon based Angle Measurement Sensor for mobile robot positioning
Pierlot, Vincent ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Robotics (2014), 30(30), 533-549

Positioning is a fundamental issue in mobile robot applications, and it can be achieved in multiple ways. Among these methods, triangulation based on angle measurements is widely used, robust, accurate ... [more ▼]

Positioning is a fundamental issue in mobile robot applications, and it can be achieved in multiple ways. Among these methods, triangulation based on angle measurements is widely used, robust, accurate, and flexible. This paper presents BeAMS, a new active beacon-based angle measurement system used for mobile robot positioning. BeAMS introduces several major innovations. One innovation is the use of a unique unsynchronized channel with On-Off Keying modulated infrared signals to measure angles and to identify the beacons. We also introduce a new mechanism to measure angles: our system detects a beacon when it enters and leaves an angular window. We show that the estimator resulting from the center of this angular window provides an unbiased estimate of the beacon angle. A theoretical framework for a thorough performance analysis of BeAMS is provided. We establish the upper bound of the variance and validate this bound through experiments and simulations; the overall error measure of BeAMS is lower than 0.24 deg for an acquisition rate of 10 Hz. In conclusion, BeAMS is a low power, flexible, and robust solution for angle measurement, and a reliable component for robot positioning. [less ▲]

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See detailEcologie, diversité spécifique et abondance des petits mammifères de la ville de Cotonou au Bénin (Afrique de l’Ouest)
Houèmènou, Gualbert; Kassa, B.; Libois, Roland ULg

in International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences (2014), 8(3), 1202-1213

L’étude de la diversité des petits mammifères de la ville de Cotonou (Bénin) selon les types de milieux (habités ou non) a été réalisée du 25 août 2004 au 25 mai 2005 avec interruptions. Les campagnes de ... [more ▼]

L’étude de la diversité des petits mammifères de la ville de Cotonou (Bénin) selon les types de milieux (habités ou non) a été réalisée du 25 août 2004 au 25 mai 2005 avec interruptions. Les campagnes de captures ont été effectuées. Au total, 348 petits mammifères ont été capturés pour un effort de piégeage de 2652 nuits-pièges et 11 espèces comprenant 3 espèces (Rattus rattus, Rattus norvegicus et Mus domesticus) cosmopolites représentant 25% du total et les espèces africaines (Crocidura olivieri, Crocidura sp., Arvicanthis niloticus,Cricetomys gambianus, Dasymys rufulus, Mastomys sp., Gerbilliscus kempi, Taterillus gracilis) représentant 75% du total, ont été inventoriées. La prépondérance de Rattus rattus dans les captures avec 59,8% de Mastomys sp. (13,5%) et de C. olivieri (8,6%) a été notée. Mus domesticus (0,29%), Arvicanthis niloticus (0,86%) et Crocidura sp. (0,86%) sont faiblement représentées. L’indice de diversité de Shannon est de 2,08 dans la ville de Cotonou, de 2,70 dans les milieux non habités et de 1,45 dans les milieux habités où l’on ne trouve quasiment que les rats et souris. Le domaine de l’aéroport (aéroport international de Cotonou) et quelques zones marécageuses, inaccessibles à la population, constituent des zones refuges où l’indice de diversité des petits mammifères est relativement élevé. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Contact Between Conspecifics Involved in the Cohesion of Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Aggregations?
Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg et al

in Journal of Insect Behavior (2014), 27(1), 1-13

The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), exhibits a gregarious behavior during unfavorable winter conditions. Although this behavior is currently described as a phenomenon occurring ... [more ▼]

The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), exhibits a gregarious behavior during unfavorable winter conditions. Although this behavior is currently described as a phenomenon occurring only during winter, aggregations can also be observed outside overwintering conditions. However, the substrate markings previously highlighted as being involved in the wintry aggregation of this exotic species do not seem to be used by non-overwintering individuals to aggregate. This fact suggests then that other cues are responsible for the induction of this behavior. In this work, we have tested the hypothesis that direct contact between non-overwintering individuals stimulates the establishment of clusters. Binary choice experiments highlighted the involvement of elytral cuticular compounds in this phenomenon. Chromatographic analyses showed that the active extracts contained mainly hydrocarbons, including saturated, mono-unsaturated, and di-unsaturated homologues. Physical contact also seems to be involved in the non-overwintering aggregative behavior of H. axyridis, but to a lesser extent than these natural compounds. These findings could eventually be used to develop new control methods of these pest populations and so, reduce the adverse impacts it causes on biodiversity. [less ▲]

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See detailLe portrait photographique d'écrivain vu de face et de profil
Bertrand, Jean-Pierre ULg; Durand, Pascal ULg; Lavaud, Martine

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2014), 14

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See detailPhysical controls on the storage of methane in landfast sea ice
Zhou, Jiayun ULg; Tison, J.-L.; Carnat, G. et al

in The Cryosphere (2014), 8(3), 1019-1029

We report on methane (CH4) dynamics in landfast sea ice, brine and under-ice seawater at Barrow in 2009. The CH4 concentrations in under-ice water ranged between 25.9 and 116.4 nmol L-1sw, indicating a ... [more ▼]

We report on methane (CH4) dynamics in landfast sea ice, brine and under-ice seawater at Barrow in 2009. The CH4 concentrations in under-ice water ranged between 25.9 and 116.4 nmol L-1sw, indicating a supersaturation of 700 to 3100 % relative to the atmosphere. In comparison, the CH4 concentrations in sea ice, ranged between 3.4 and 17.2 nmol L-1ice, and the deduced CH4 concentrations in brine, between 13.2 and 677.7 nmol L-1brine. We investigated on the processes explaining the difference in CH4 concentrations between sea ice, brine and the under-ice water, and suggest that biological controls on the storage of CH4 in ice was minor in comparison to the physical controls. Two physical processes regulated the storage of CH4 in our landfast ice samples: bubble formation within the ice and sea ice permeability. Gas bubble formation from solubility changes had favoured the accumulation of CH4 in the ice at the beginning of ice growth. CH4 retention in sea ice was then twice as efficient as that of salt; this also explains the overall higher CH4 concentrations in brine than in the under-ice water. As sea ice thickened, gas bubble formation became less efficient, CH4 was then mainly trapped in the dissolved state. The increase of sea ice permeability during ice melt marked the end of CH4 storage. [less ▲]

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See detailVolitional electromyographic responses in disorders of consciousness
Habbal, Dina; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Noirhomme, Quentin ULg et al

in Brain Injury (2014)

The aim of the study was to validate the use of electromyography (EMG) for detecting responses to command in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) or in minimally ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to validate the use of electromyography (EMG) for detecting responses to command in patients in vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) or in minimally conscious state (MCS). Methods: Thirty-eight patients were included in the study (23 traumatic, 25 patients >1 year post-onset), 10 diagnosed as being in VS/UWS, eight in MCS- (no response to command) and 20 in MCS+ (response to command). Eighteen age-matched controls participated in the experiment. The paradigm consisted of three commands (i.e. 'Move your hands', 'Move your legs' and 'Clench your teeth') and one control sentence (i.e. 'It is a sunny day') presented in random order. Each auditory stimulus was repeated 4-times within one block with a stimulus-onset asynchrony of 30 seconds. Results: Post-hoc analyses with Bonferroni correction revealed that EMG activity was higher solely for the target command in one patient in permanent VS/UWS and in three patients in MCS+. Conclusion: The use of EMG could help clinicians to detect conscious patients who do not show any volitional response during standard behavioural assessments. However, further investigations should determine the sensitivity of EMG as compared to neuroimaging and electrophysiological assessments. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Nadar à Dornac. Hexis corporelle et figuration photographique de l'écrivain
Durand, Pascal ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2014), 14

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See detailPrise en charge de l'hypertension artérielle du patient âgé
XHIGNESSE, Patricia ULg; Saint-Remy, Annie ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(5-6), 294-300

High blood pressure is very frequent in the elderly; it represents a real threat for the patient’s health and a source of huge costs for the economic system. Systolic hypertension is the most frequent ... [more ▼]

High blood pressure is very frequent in the elderly; it represents a real threat for the patient’s health and a source of huge costs for the economic system. Systolic hypertension is the most frequent form observed in the old, due to large arteries stiffness. Antihypertensive therapy has proven effective to decrease significantly the cardiovascular morbi-mortality and total mortality in this population. A non pharmacological approach is also very useful, but should not be too restrictive. Blood pressure target in patients older than 65 (and, particularly, in octogenarians) is 150/80 mmHg. Blood pressure should be checked in the upright position before changing the drug dosage. The first line therapy in the old should generally be a calcium channel antagonist or a low dose diuretic. [less ▲]

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See detailDe Europese Unie en Brazilië: eindelijk een (strategisch?) partnershap
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Internationale Spectator (2014), 68(6), 40-44

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See detailFire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) in Larzac plateau: low occurrence, pond-breeding and cohabitation of larvae with paedomorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus)
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Winandy, Laurane ULg

in Acta herpetologica (2014), 9(1), 43-49

Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds ... [more ▼]

Alternative reproductive strategies are widespread in caudate amphibians. Among them, fire salamanders (Salamandra salamandra) usually rely on streams to give birth to aquatic larvae but also use ponds, whereas palmate newt larvae (Lissotriton helveticus) typically metamorphose into terrestrial juveniles, but can also reproduce in retaining their gills, a process known as paedomorphosis. Here we report repeated observations of an unusual case of coexistence of these two alternative traits in the same pond (Larzac, France). The prevalence of fire salamanders in Southern Larzac was very low (pond occupancy: 0.36%). The observed abundance of fire salamander larvae and paedomorphic newts was also low in the studied pond. On one hand, the rarity of this coexistence pattern may suggest that habitat characteristics may not be optimal or that competition or predation processes might be operating. However, these hypotheses remain to be tested. On the other hand, as this is the only known case of breeding in Southern Larzac, it could be considered to be at a high risk of extirpation. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency of haplotype-based methods to fine-map QTLs and embryonic lethal variants affecting fertility: Illustration with a deletion segregating in Nordic Red cattle
Kadri, Naveen Kumar ULg; Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt et al

in Livestock Science (2014), 166

Despite its importance, fertility has been declining in many cattle populations. In dairy cattle, this decline is often attributed to the negative correlation between fertility and productions traits ... [more ▼]

Despite its importance, fertility has been declining in many cattle populations. In dairy cattle, this decline is often attributed to the negative correlation between fertility and productions traits. Recent studies showed that embryonic lethal variants might also account for a non-negligible fraction of the fertility decline. Therefore identification of such embryonic lethal variants is essential to improve fertility. We herein illustrate, with an example of a large recessive lethal deletion recently identified in Nordic Red cattle, that haplotype-based method are particularly efficient to identify such embryonic lethal variants. We first show that haplotypes can be used in traditional QTL mapping approaches and that they present very high linkage disequilibrium with underlying variants. Haplotypes can also be used in scan for lack of homozygosity. Indeed,if a haplotype is associated to a recessive lethal variant, significantly fewer living individuals will be homozygote for that haplotype than expected. For both approaches, haplotype- based methods were particularly efficient. The lack of homozygosity approach achieved higher significance than the QTL approach. Only frequent variants can be detected with both approaches unless huge genotyped cohorts are available. An alternative approach would rely on identifying potential harmful variants in next-generation sequencing data followed by the genotyping of a larger population for these variants. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of centralized, distributed and hierarchical model predictive control schemes for electromechanical oscillations damping in large-scale power systems
Wang, Da ULg; Glavic, Mevludin ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2014), 58

The paper investigates the feasibility of applying Model Predictive Control (MPC) as a viable strategy to damp wide-area electromechanical oscillations in large-scale power systems. First a fully ... [more ▼]

The paper investigates the feasibility of applying Model Predictive Control (MPC) as a viable strategy to damp wide-area electromechanical oscillations in large-scale power systems. First a fully centralized MPC scheme is considered, and its performances are evaluated first in ideal conditions and then by considering state estimation errors and communication delays. This scheme is further extended into a distributed scheme with the aim of making it more viable for very large-scale or multi-area systems. Finally, a robust hierarchical multi-area MPC scheme is proposed, introducing a second layer of MPC based controllers at the level of individual power plants and transmission lines. Simulations are carried out using a 70-bus test system. The results reveal all three MPC schemes as viable solutions to supplement existing controllers in order to improve the system performance in terms of damping. The hierarchical scheme is the one combining the best performances in nominal conditions and the best robustness with respect to partial component failures and various modeling and measurement errors. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo Scenarios for Quantum Multifractality Breakdown
Dubertrand, Rémy; Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Georgeot, Bertrand et al

in Physical Review Letters (2014), 112

We expose two scenarios for the breakdown of quantum multifractality under the effect of perturbations. In the first scenario, multifractality survives below a certain scale of the quantum fluctuations ... [more ▼]

We expose two scenarios for the breakdown of quantum multifractality under the effect of perturbations. In the first scenario, multifractality survives below a certain scale of the quantum fluctuations. In the other one, the fluctuations of the wave functions are changed at every scale and each multifractal dimension smoothly goes to the ergodic value. We use as generic examples a one-dimensional dynamical system and the three-dimensional Anderson model at the metal-insulator transition. Based on our results, we conjecture that the sensitivity of quantum multifractality to perturbation is universal in the sense that it follows one of these two scenarios depending on the perturbation. We also discuss the experimental implications. [less ▲]

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See detailRensch’s rule and sexual dimorphism in salamanders: patterns and potential processes
Colleoni, E.; Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Padoa-Schioppa, E. et al

in Journal of Zoology (2014), 293(3), 143-151

Body size is influenced by the interaction of multiple forces, whose effects can determine the occurrence of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Rensch's rule is the increase of SSD with body size in taxa where ... [more ▼]

Body size is influenced by the interaction of multiple forces, whose effects can determine the occurrence of sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Rensch's rule is the increase of SSD with body size in taxa where males are the largest sex, and the opposite pattern in female-biased SSD taxa. This pattern was detected in many animal groups, but contrasting results were also highlighted. This study evaluated the existence of Rensch's patterns for body size and for the number of caudal vertebrae in salamandrid caudate amphibians. Furthermore, we tested the support of alternative hypotheses on processes that may determine allometric patterns: sexual selection, fecundity selection and constraining selection by performing separate analyses on species with male- and female-biased SSD. We used the literature and original data to gather information on body size and number of caudal vertebrae in 52 species of salamandrids over four continents. We then tested the support of the three hypotheses using a phylogenetic approach. Rensch's rule was valid for body size in salamanders only for species with male-biased dimorphism. No allometric relationships were detected by analyses on all the species, or by analyses on female-biased SSD species. Analyses performed on the number of caudal vertebrae showed no significant patterns. Our study supports the role of sexual selection in promoting positive allometry for body size in male-biased SSD species, whereas the alternative hypotheses were not supported by our data. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing male- and female-biased species as different evolutionary pressures and constraints may be at the basis of evolution of SSD in these groups. [less ▲]

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See detailSocial Security and Economic Integration
Artige, Lionel ULg; Dedry, Antoine ULg; Pestieau, Pierre ULg

in Economics Letters (2014), 123(June), 318-322

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See detailAltération de la fonction rénale chez le patient âgé, comment gérer?
KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69(5-6), 287-293

From age 30 onwards, kidney function physiologically decreases although this deterioration cannot yet be called chronic kidney disease. The latter appears in those exposed to cardiovascular risk factors ... [more ▼]

From age 30 onwards, kidney function physiologically decreases although this deterioration cannot yet be called chronic kidney disease. The latter appears in those exposed to cardiovascular risk factors associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. A diffuse atherosclerosis then develops Patients with a decreased glomerular filtration rate, especially below the threshold of 45 ml/min, are characterised by a poor physical heath and by cognitive disorders, leading to frailty. In these conditions, a management strategy to reduce the increased risk of acute kidney injury should be outlined and the need for renal replacement therapy be considered. One must try to maintain the best possible quality of life, promoting in some situations a conservative approach. [less ▲]

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See detailA window on exoplanet dynamical histories: Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b
Brothwell, R.D.; Watson, C.A.; Hébrard, G. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 440(4), 3392-3401

We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b and determine the sky-projected angle between the normal of the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation axis (lambda). WASP-13b and ... [more ▼]

We present Rossiter-McLaughlin observations of WASP-13b and WASP-32b and determine the sky-projected angle between the normal of the planetary orbit and the stellar rotation axis (lambda). WASP-13b and WASP-32b both have prograde orbits and are consistent with alignment with measured sky-projected angles of lambda =8°^{+13}_{-12} and lambda =-2°^{+17}_{-19}, respectively. Both WASP-13 and WASP-32 have Teff < 6250 K, and therefore, these systems support the general trend that aligned planetary systems are preferentially found orbiting cool host stars. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram analysis was carried out on archival SuperWASP data for both systems. A statistically significant stellar rotation period detection (above 99.9 per cent confidence) was identified for the WASP-32 system with Prot = 11.6 ± 1.0 days. This rotation period is in agreement with the predicted stellar rotation period calculated from the stellar radius, R*, and vsin i if a stellar inclination of i* = 90° is assumed. With the determined rotation period, the true 3D angle between the stellar rotation axis and the planetary orbit, psi, was found to be psi = 11° ± 14°. We conclude with a discussion on the alignment of systems around cool host stars with Teff < 6150 K by calculating the tidal dissipation time-scale. We find that systems with short tidal dissipation time-scales are preferentially aligned and systems with long tidal dissipation time-scales have a broad range of obliquities. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Three Object Triangulation Algorithm for Mobile Robot Positioning
Pierlot, Vincent ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Robotics (2014), 30(3), 566-577

Positioning is a fundamental issue in mobile robot applications. It can be achieved in many ways. Among them, triangulation based on angles measured with the help of beacons is a proven technique. Most of ... [more ▼]

Positioning is a fundamental issue in mobile robot applications. It can be achieved in many ways. Among them, triangulation based on angles measured with the help of beacons is a proven technique. Most of the many triangulation algorithms proposed so far have major limitations. For example, some of them need a particular beacon ordering, have blind spots, or only work within the triangle defined by the three beacons. More reliable methods exist; however, they have an increasing complexity or they require to handle certain spatial arrangements separately. In this paper, we present a simple and new three object triangulation algorithm, named ToTal, that natively works in the whole plane, and for any beacon ordering. We also provide a comprehensive comparison between many algorithms, and show that our algorithm is faster and simpler than comparable algorithms. In addition to its inherent efficiency, our algorithm provides a very useful and unique reliability measure, assessable anywhere in the plane, which can be used to identify pathological cases, or as a validation gate in Kalman filters. [less ▲]

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See detailCompost Pile Monitoring Using Different Approaches:GC-MS, E-nose and dynamic olfactometry
Gutierrez, M. C.; Chica, A. F.; Martin, M. A. et al

in Waste and Biomass Valorization (2014), 5(3), 469-479

The evaluation of odour emissions associated to the composting process is complex because these emissions depend on several factors such as the raw material to be composted, the different stages of the ... [more ▼]

The evaluation of odour emissions associated to the composting process is complex because these emissions depend on several factors such as the raw material to be composted, the different stages of the composting process, meteorological conditions, and others. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to compare complementary approaches to monitor odours. The odour source selected for this study is green waste compost at different maturity stages. The study site is a composting facility located in the south of Belgium. The compared approaches were: a portable e-nose developed by the Environmental Monitoring Research team (Arlon, Belgium) to monitor odorous emissions from the composting piles; chemical analyses performed in the laboratory using a GC–MS (manufactured by Thermo) to analyse volatile organic compounds which were collected by active sampling on Tenax TA sorbent simultaneously to the in situ e-nose measurements and olfactometric measurements to determine the odour concentration (ouE/m3) using the Odile olfactometer (Odotech). The portable e-nose was also used in the laboratory with compost odour samples collected in bags. The large numbers of data sets obtained were explored by statistical methods such as principal components analysis. The results obtained highlight the advantages of monitoring the composting process with these three approaches. Each approach gives different information about the composting process and the emissions generated. While the e-nose is capable of identifying some chemical family emissions and some activities such as turning steps, the GC–MS identifies each chemical compound emitted and dynamic olfactometry quantifies the odour concentration (ouE/m3) in relationship with these emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailQuality assessment of marketed eggs in Eastern Algeria
Kara Ali, Monira; Ait Kaki, Asma ULg; Milet, Asma et al

in Nature & Technologie (2014), 11(2), 52-58

The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from three marketing channels as following: shops (1184), public markets (2757) and supermarkets (807). The percentage of stained eggs was significantly different (P<0.001) between industrial (15.25%) and local eggs (27.61%). A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed between industrial and local egg weight (61.01 vs 53.28g), egg shell weight (7.10 vs 6.30g), albumen weight (37.44 vs 29.69g), albumen percentage (61.34 vs 55.71%), shell thickness (0.381 vs 0.325mm). However, yolk weight (6.10 vs 6.30g), yolk percentage (27.06 vs 32.44%), shell percentage (11.60 vs 11.89%), yolk/albumen ratio (0.44 vs 0.58), albumen height (5.27 vs 5.93mm), Haugh unit (69.12 vs 77.80), yolk color (9.52 vs 10.94) and egg price (7.67 vs 12.84DA) of local chicken were significantly (P<0.01) higher than in the case of industrial hen. Marketing channels affected significantly (P<0.01) egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, albumen height and price of a total studied eggs. Egg weight (59.03g) and egg price (10.87DA) from supermarkets were the highest. Eggs of local hens presented according to the national preference, interesting quality criteria such as freshness, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk color. [less ▲]

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See detailIs conspecific substrate marking a long-term external memory of previously colonized overwintering sites in Harmonia axyridis?
Durieux, Delphine ULg; Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse et al

in Journal of Applied Entomology (2014), 138(5), 338-345

The multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), aggregates inside dwellings during winters to survive the cold. This beetle uses chemical cues coming from congeners to select an ... [more ▼]

The multicoloured Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), aggregates inside dwellings during winters to survive the cold. This beetle uses chemical cues coming from congeners to select an overwintering site. Recent research has shown that they preferentially gather at places where conspecifics previously laid a substrate marking made up of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Some authors have reported that H. axyridis colonizes the same overwintering sites from 1 year to another. Herein, the hypothesis that this substrate marking is used by H. axyridis to settle in the same aggregation sites from one winter to another was tested. To this aim, the temporal modification in the chemical profile of the hydrocarbon marking was studied by performing chromatographic analyses. After 1 year, the overall profile was modified qualitatively and quantitatively: the unsaturated hydrocarbons were no longer detected while some saturated hydrocarbons were still present in large quantities. In a behavioural assay conducted in the laboratory, the 12-month-old marking did not induce the aggregation of H. axyridis. This result indicates that the chemical markings left by conspecifics during a previous aggregation period in an overwintering site are not sufficient to induce the gathering of the newly arriving individuals. [less ▲]

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See detailFalsos positivos de C5-carnitina elevada en cribado neonatal: A que son debidos?
Yahyaoui, Raquel; Rueda; Dayaldasani, Anita et al

in Medicina Clinica (2014)

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See detailEffect of concentration in Ge-Te liquids: A combined density functional and neutron scattering study
Micoulaut, Matthieu; Coulet, M.V.; Piarristeguy, A. et al

in Physical Review. B : Solid State (2014), 89(17), 174205

The structural properties of three compositions of Ge-Te liquids (Ge10Te90, Ge15Te85, Ge20Te80) are studied from a combination of density functional based molecular dynamics simulations and neutron ... [more ▼]

The structural properties of three compositions of Ge-Te liquids (Ge10Te90, Ge15Te85, Ge20Te80) are studied from a combination of density functional based molecular dynamics simulations and neutron scattering experiments. We investigate structural properties including structure factors, pair distribution functions, angular distributions, coordination numbers, neighbor distributions and compare our results with experimental findings. Most noticeable is the good agreement found in the reproduction of the structure in real and reciprocal space, resulting from the incorporation of dispersion forces in the simulation. This leads to Ge and Te coordination numbers which are lower than in previous studies and which can now be followed with temperature, while also strongly depending on the chosen cutoff distance. Results show a gradual conversion of higher coordinated species (TeIV, GeV) into lower coordinated ones at lower temperature, while leaving anticipated coordinations from the octet rule (TeII and GeIV) nearly unchanged. Structural correlations are characterized as a function of temperature and composition. The vibrational density of states is also measured from inelastic neutron scattering for different compositions and temperatures, and compared to the simulated counterpart which exhibits a reasonable agreement at low frequency. [less ▲]

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See detailGenome-Wide Association Interaction Analysis for Alzheimer’s Disease
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Bellenguez, Céline et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (2014)

We propose a minimal protocol for exhaustive genome-wide association interaction analysis that involves screening for epistasis over large-scale genomic data combining strengths of different methods and ... [more ▼]

We propose a minimal protocol for exhaustive genome-wide association interaction analysis that involves screening for epistasis over large-scale genomic data combining strengths of different methods and statistical tools. The different steps of this protocol are illustrated on a real-life data application for Alzheimer's disease (AD) (2259 patients and 6017 controls from France). Particularly, in the exhaustive genome-wide epistasis screening we identified AD-associated interacting SNPs-pair from chromosome 6q11.1 (rs6455128, the KHDRBS2 gene) and 13q12.11 (rs7989332, the CRYL1 gene) (p = 0.006, corrected for multiple testing). A replication analysis in the independent AD cohort from Germany (555 patients and 824 controls) confirmed the discovered epistasis signal (p = 0.036). This signal was also supported by a meta-analysis approach in 5 independent AD cohorts that was applied in the context of epistasis for the first time. Transcriptome analysis revealed negative correlation between expression levels of KHDRBS2 and CRYL1 in both the temporal cortex (β = -0.19, p = 0.0006) and cerebellum (β = -0.23, p < 0.0001) brain regions. This is the first time a replicable epistasis associated with AD was identified using a hypothesis free screening approach. [less ▲]

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See detailProbabilistic Assessment of the Lifetime of Low-Earth-Orbit Spacecraft: Uncertainty Characterization
Dell'Elce, Lamberto ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Journal of Guidance Control & Dynamics (2014)

Orbital lifetime estimation is a problem of great timeliness and importance in astrodynamics. In view of the stochastic nature of the thermosphere and of the complexity of drag modeling, any deterministic ... [more ▼]

Orbital lifetime estimation is a problem of great timeliness and importance in astrodynamics. In view of the stochastic nature of the thermosphere and of the complexity of drag modeling, any deterministic assessment of orbital lifetime is likely to be bound to failure. This is why the present paper performs uncertainty quantification of satellite orbital lifetime estimation. Specifically, this paper focuses on the probabilistic characterization of the dominant sources of uncertainty inherent to low-altitude satellites. Uncertainties in the initial state of the satellite and in the atmospheric drag force, as well as uncertainties introduced by modeling limitations associated with atmospheric density models, are considered. Mathematical statistics methods, in conjunction with mechanical modeling considerations, are used to infer the probabilistic characterization of these uncertainties from experimental data and atmospheric density models. This characterization step facilitates the application of uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis methods, which in turn allows gaining insight into the impact that these uncertainties have on the orbital lifetime. The proposed developments are illustrated using one CubeSat of the QB50 constellation. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature regimes and aphid density interactions differentially influence VOC emissions in Arabidopsis
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2014)

The effects of volatile emissions from plants exposed to individual abiotic and biotic stresses are well documented. However, the influence of multiple stresses on plant photosynthesis and defense ... [more ▼]

The effects of volatile emissions from plants exposed to individual abiotic and biotic stresses are well documented. However, the influence of multiple stresses on plant photosynthesis and defense responses, resulting in a variety of volatile profiles has received little attention. In this study, we investigated how temperature regimes in the presence and absence of the sucking insect Myzus persicae affected volatile organic compound emissions in Arabidopsis over three time periods (0-24 h, 24-48 h, and 48-72 h). Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to evaluate Arabidopsis volatile organic compounds. The results showed that under laboratory conditions, eight volatile classes [alcohols (mainly 2-ethyl-hexan-1-ol), ketone (6-methyl hept-5-en-2-one), esters (mainly (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate), aldehydes (mainly phenylacetaldehyde), isothiocyanates (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate), terpenes (mainly (E,E)-α-farnesene), nitrile (5-(methylthio) pentanenitrile), and sulfide (dimethyl trisulfide)] were observed on plants exposed to stress combinations, whereas emissions of six volatile classes were observed during temperature stress treatments alone (with the exception of nitriles and sulfides). Aphid density at high temperature combinations resulted in significantly higher isothiocyanate, ester, nitrile and sulfide proportions. The results of the present study provide an insight into the effects of temperature - aphid interactions on plant volatile emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive comment on “Improved routines to model the ocean carbonate system: mocsy 1.0” by J. C. Orr and J.-M Epitalon
Munhoven, Guy ULg

in Geoscientific Model Development Discussions [=GMDD] (2014), 7

The manuscript "Improved routines to model the ocean carbonate system: mocsy 1.0" by J. C. Orr and J.-M Epitalon is reviewed and related issues and ideas are discussed.

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See detailAn independent SSVEP-based brain-computer interface in locked-in-syndrome
Lesenfants, Damien ULg; Habbal, Dina; Lugo et al

in Journal of Neural Engineering (2014)

OBJECTIVE: Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow healthy subjects to communicate. However, their dependence on gaze control prevents their use with ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Steady-state visually evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) allow healthy subjects to communicate. However, their dependence on gaze control prevents their use with severely disabled patients. Gaze-independent SSVEP-BCIs have been designed but have shown a drop in accuracy and have not been tested in brain-injured patients. In the present paper, we propose a novel independent SSVEP-BCI based on covert attention with an improved classification rate. We study the influence of feature extraction algorithms and the number of harmonics. Finally, we test online communication on healthy volunteers and patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS). APPROACH: Twenty-four healthy subjects and six LIS patients participated in this study. An independent covert two-class SSVEP paradigm was used with a newly developed portable light emitting diode-based 'interlaced squares' stimulation pattern. MAIN RESULTS: Mean offline and online accuracies on healthy subjects were respectively 85 ± 2% and 74 ± 13%, with eight out of twelve subjects succeeding to communicate efficiently with 80 ± 9% accuracy. Two out of six LIS patients reached an offline accuracy above the chance level, illustrating a response to a command. One out of four LIS patients could communicate online. SIGNIFICANCE: We have demonstrated the feasibility of online communication with a covert SSVEP paradigm that is truly independent of all neuromuscular functions. The potential clinical use of the presented BCI system as a diagnostic (i.e., detecting command-following) and communication tool for severely brain-injured patients will need to be further explored. [less ▲]

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See detailMeandering jets in shallow rectangular reservoirs: POD analysis and identification of coherent structures
Peltier, Yann ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Experiments in Fluids (2014), 55

The effect of the shallowness on meandering jets in a shallow rectangular reservoir is investigated. Four meandering flows were investigated in an experimental shallow rectangular reservoir. Their ... [more ▼]

The effect of the shallowness on meandering jets in a shallow rectangular reservoir is investigated. Four meandering flows were investigated in an experimental shallow rectangular reservoir. Their boundary conditions were chosen to cover a large range of friction numbers (defined with the sudden expansion width). Due to the unsteady characteristics of the flows, a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of the fluctu-ating part of the surface velocity fields measured using LSPIV was used for discriminating the flow struc-tures responsible for the meandering of the jet. Less than 1 % of the calculated POD modes significantly contribute to the meandering of the jet and two types of instability are in competition in such a flow con-figuration. The sinuous mode is the dominant mode in the flow and it induces the meandering of the flow, while the varicose mode is a source of local mixing and weakly participates to the flow. The fluctuating velocity fields were then reconstructed using the POD modes corresponding to 80% of the total mean fluctuating kinetic energy and the coherent structures were identified using the residual vorticity, their centres being localised using a topology algorithm. The trajectories of the structures centres emphasize that at high friction number the coherent structures are small and laterally paired in the near, middle and far fields of the jet, while with decreasing friction number the structures merge into large horizontal vortices in the far-field of the jet, their trajectories showing more variability in space and time. The analysis of the stability regime finally reveals that the sinuous mode is convectively unstable and may become absolutely unstable at the end of the reservoir when the friction number is small. [less ▲]

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See detailPeripheral Synergism Between Tramadol and Ibuprofen in the Formalin Test
Chavarria Bolanos, Daniel ULg; Perez-Urizar, Jose; Grandfils, Christian ULg et al

in Drug Development Research (2014), 75(4), 224-230

Analgesics with different mechanisms of action can be combined in order to obtain Pharmacological synergism, employing lower doses of each agent, thus diminishing side effects. For instance, an atypical ... [more ▼]

Analgesics with different mechanisms of action can be combined in order to obtain Pharmacological synergism, employing lower doses of each agent, thus diminishing side effects. For instance, an atypical dual analgesic such as tramadol (TMD) and a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen (IBU) are good candidates to be evaluated when combined and applied peripherally. The present study was conducted to evaluate possible local synergism between TMD and IBU when combined peripherally using the formalin test in rats. The effects of the individual analgesics and their combinations were evaluated simultaneously using a 5% formalin dilution. Dose–effect curves were determined for TMD (50–400 μg/paw) and IBU (1–100 μg/paw). Experimental effective doses were evaluated and isobolographic analyses were constructed to evaluate TMD-IBU combination synergism. Both drugs produced a dose-dependent analgesic effect when applied separately. Isobolographic analysis showed synergism during phase 1 (0–10 min) and phase 2 (15–60 min) when compared with theoretical doses (P < 0.05), with interaction indexes of 0.06 and 0.09, respectively. The present information supports the peripheral analgesic effect of TMD and IBU, especially when combined at appropriate doses. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention quaternaire : agir est-il toujours justifié en médecine de famille ?
Widmer, Daniel; Herzig, Lilly; Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2014), 10(430), 1052-6

La prévention quaternaire vise à protéger le patient ou la po- pulation de la surmédicalisation. Elle imprègne toute l’activité du médecin de famille par une interrogation tant sur l’utilité de la ... [more ▼]

La prévention quaternaire vise à protéger le patient ou la po- pulation de la surmédicalisation. Elle imprègne toute l’activité du médecin de famille par une interrogation tant sur l’utilité de la prévention primaire que du diagnostic précoce, ou sur les risques de la création de nouvelles entités pathologiques et d’une médecine maximaliste. Le médecin de famille favorise la prévention quaternaire en se centrant sur les priorités du patient et sur les ressources locales d’un système de soins efficace. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom propaganda to commemoration: reworking the national narrative.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULg

in Rethinking History (2014), 18(3), 423-437

In Belgium, memories of the World War I have contributed to the production and the perpetuation of a fractured national narrative. While the official narration emphasizes the unity of the Belgian state ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, memories of the World War I have contributed to the production and the perpetuation of a fractured national narrative. While the official narration emphasizes the unity of the Belgian state and glorifies the heroism of Belgian soldiers acting as a unified force against the German invader, a counter-narrative presents the Flemish soldiers as victims who were used as cannon fodder by the French-speaking commanding elite. In the immediate postwar period, newsreels largely reinforced the image of a national unity during the Great War. Ten years later, however, cinema took an active part in the production of a counter-memory. Met onze jogens aan den IJzer/With Our Troops on the Yser (Clemens De Landtsheer, 1928), a Flemish film, is a key work in this regard. This article first examines the narratives and formal strategies the film resorts to in order to forcefully deconstruct the patriotic narrative and to forge a ‘Flamingant,’ Flemish activist collective memory. It subsequently analyzes more recent Frenchspeaking documentary film projects aiming to commemorate the memory of the Great War. Lacking any overt problematization of their relationship to the Flemish separatist narrative, the documentaries are still shaped by it. Indeed, they either attempt to overcome it by reinforcing Belgium’s sense of national identity or to counterbalance it by putting forward a regional narrative that specifically revives the French-speaking Belgians’ memory of the War. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear amphiphilic diblock copolymers of lactide and 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate using bifunctional-initiator and one-pot approaches
Kryuchkov, Maksym A.; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Bazuin, Géraldine

in Polymer (2014), 55(10), 2316-2324

Linear amphiphilic diblock copolymers of polylactide (PLA) and poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of DMAEMA followed by ring ... [more ▼]

Linear amphiphilic diblock copolymers of polylactide (PLA) and poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of DMAEMA followed by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of LLA using the bifunctional initiator, 2′-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate. NMR showed that the resulting PLA block was racemic and a quaternization/precipitation technique showed that there were significant amounts of racemic PLA homopolymer. In addition, simultaneous ATRP of DMAEMA and ROP of l-lactide by tin octoate were conducted at varied temperatures, indicating 90 °C as a suitable compromise temperature; this one-pot process also led to racemization and P(L)LA homopolymer. The racemization was attributed to reversible deprotonation of LLA by the N(CH3)2 moiety of (P)DMAEMA and the PLA homopolymer impurity was related to in situ formation of lactoyl lactate (LA–LA) due to nucleophilic ring opening of lactide by the amino moieties of (P)DMAEMA. The methods presented can be useful for the preparation of PDMAEMA–b–PLA/PLA composites in a two-step process or in a single step, one-pot process. [less ▲]

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See detailSupercritical CO2 and polycarbonate based nanocomposites: A critical issue for foaming
Monnereau, Laure; Urbanczyk, Laetitia; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Polymer (2014), 55(10), 2422-2431

Supercritical carbon dioxide readily induced foaming of various polymers. In that context, supercritical CO2 was applied to carbon nanotubes based polycarbonate nanocomposites to ensure their foaming ... [more ▼]

Supercritical carbon dioxide readily induced foaming of various polymers. In that context, supercritical CO2 was applied to carbon nanotubes based polycarbonate nanocomposites to ensure their foaming. Surprisingly, efficient foaming only occurs when low pressure is applied while at high pressure, no expansion of the samples was observed. This is related to the ability of supercritical carbon dioxide to induce crystallization of amorphous polycarbonate. Moreover, this behaviour is amplified by the presence of carbon nanotubes that act as nucleating agents for crystals birth. The thermal behaviour of the composites was analysed by DSC and DMA and was related to the foaming observations. The uniformity of the cellular structure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By saturating the polycarbonate nanocomposites reinforced with 1 wt% of MWNTs at 100 bar and 100 °C during 16 h, microcellular foams were generated, with a density of 0.62, a cell size ranging from 0.6 to 4 μm, and a cellular density of 4.1 × 1011 cells cm−3. The high ability of these polymeric foams to absorb electromagnetic radiation was demonstrated at low MWNT content as the result of the high affinity of the polycarbonate matrix for MWNTs, and therefore to the good MWNTs dispersion. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Anthropic, Ecological, and Social Factors in Sleeping Site Choice by Long‐Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis)
Brotcorne, Fany ULg; Maslarov, Cindy; Wandia, I. Nengah et al

in American Journal of Primatology (2014)

When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade‐offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human‐modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

When choosing their sleeping sites, primates make adaptive trade‐offs between various biotic and abiotic constraints. In human‐modified environments, anthropic factors may play a role. We assessed the influence of ecological (predation), social (intergroup competition), and anthropic (proximity to human settlements) factors in sleeping site choice by long‐tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) occupying a habitat at the interface of natural forests and human‐modified zones in Bali Barat National Park, Indonesia. Over the course of 56 nights, we collected data relating to physical features of sleeping trees, patterns of the use of sleeping sites within the home range, pre‐sleep behavior, diurnal ranging patterns and availability of natural and human food. Overall, the macaques used 17 sleeping sites with 37 sleeping trees. When the monkeys slept in forest zones, they selected sleeping trees that had larger trunks but were not significantly taller than surrounding trees. Though the macaques rarely re‐used sleeping sites on consecutive nights, they frequently re‐used four sites over the study period. The group favored sleeping within the core area of its home range, despite the occurrence of frequent agonistic intergroup encounters there. Macaques preferentially selected sleeping trees located within or near human‐modified zones, especially when human food was abundant and natural food was scarce. These results partially support the hypothesis that long‐tailed macaques choose their sleeping sites to avoid predation; proximity to human settlements appears to be the primary factor influencing sleeping site choice in this primate species. Our results reflect the strong influence that anthropic factors have on primates, which subsist in increasingly human‐dominated landscapes. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term evolution and seasonal modulation above Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8.0°E): Optimisation of the retrieval strategy, comparison with model and independant observations
Bader, Whitney ULg; Stavrakou, T; Muller, J-F et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Papers in Open Discussion (2014), 7

Methanol (CH3OH) is the second most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere after methane. In this work, we present the first long-term time series of methanol total, lower tropospheric and ... [more ▼]

Methanol (CH3OH) is the second most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere after methane. In this work, we present the first long-term time series of methanol total, lower tropospheric and upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric partial columns derived from the analysis of high resolution Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station (46.5° N, 3580 m a.s.l.). The retrieval of methanol is very challenging due to strong absorptions of ozone in the region of the selected υ8 band of CH3OH. Two wide spectral intervals have been defined and adjusted in order to maximize the information content. Methanol does not exhibit a significant trend over the 1995–2012 time period, but a strong seasonal modulation characterized by maximum values and variability in June–July, minimum columns in winter and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 130%. In situ measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch and ACE-FTS occultations give similar results for the methanol seasonal variation. The total and lower tropospheric columns are also compared with IMAGESv2 model simulations. There is no systematic bias between the observations and IMAGESv2 but the model underestimates the peak-to-peak amplitude of the seasonal modulations. [less ▲]

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See detailPassive temperature tomography experiments to characterize transmissivity and connectivity of preferential flow paths in fractured media
Klepikova, Maria ULg

in Journal of Hydrology (2014)

The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are major challenges in fractured rock hydrology. In this study, we propose to use temperature as a passive ... [more ▼]

The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are major challenges in fractured rock hydrology. In this study, we propose to use temperature as a passive tracer to characterize fracture connectivity and hydraulic properties. In particular, we propose a new temperature tomography field method in which borehole temperature profiles are measured under different pumping conditions by changing successively the pumping and observation boreholes. To interpret these temperature-depth profiles, we propose a three step inversion-based framework. We consider first an inverse model that allows for automatic permeable fracture detection from borehole temperature profiles under pumping conditions. Then we apply a borehole-scale flow and temperature model to produce flowmeter profiles by inversion of temperature profiles. This second step uses inversion to characterize the relationship between temperature variations with depth and borehole flow velocities (Klepikova et al., 2011). The third inverse step, which exploits cross-borehole flowmeter tests, is aimed at inferring inter-borehole fracture connectivity and transmissivities. This multi-step inverse framework provides a means of including temperature profiles to image fracture hydraulic properties and connectivity. We test the proposed approach with field data obtained from the Ploemeur (N.W. France) fractured rock aquifer, where the full temperature tomography experiment was carried out between three 100 m depth boreholes 10 m apart. We identified several transmissive fractures and their connectivity which correspond to known fractures and corroborate well with independent information, including available borehole flowmeter tests and geophysical data. Hence, although indirect, temperature tomography appears to be a promising approach for characterizing connectivity patterns and transmissivities of the main flow paths in fractured rock. [less ▲]

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See detailPassive temperature tomography experiments to characterize transmissivity and connectivity of preferential flow paths in fractured media
Klepikova, Maria ULg

in Journal of Hydrology (2014)

The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are major challenges in fractured rock hydrology. In this study, we propose to use temperature as a passive ... [more ▼]

The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are major challenges in fractured rock hydrology. In this study, we propose to use temperature as a passive tracer to characterize fracture connectivity and hydraulic properties. In particular, we propose a new temperature tomography field method in which borehole temperature profiles are measured under different pumping conditions by changing successively the pumping and observation boreholes. To interpret these temperature-depth profiles, we propose a three step inversion-based framework. We consider first an inverse model that allows for automatic permeable fracture detection from borehole temperature profiles under pumping conditions. Then we apply a borehole-scale flow and temperature model to produce flowmeter profiles by inversion of temperature profiles. This second step uses inversion to characterize the relationship between temperature variations with depth and borehole flow velocities (Klepikova et al., 2011). The third inverse step, which exploits cross-borehole flowmeter tests, is aimed at inferring inter-borehole fracture connectivity and transmissivities. This multi-step inverse framework provides a means of including temperature profiles to image fracture hydraulic properties and connectivity. We test the proposed approach with field data obtained from the Ploemeur (N.W. France) fractured rock aquifer, where the full temperature tomography experiment was carried out between three 100 m depth boreholes 10 m apart. We identified several transmissive fractures and their connectivity which correspond to known fractures and corroborate well with independent information, including available borehole flowmeter tests and geophysical data. Hence, although indirect, temperature tomography appears to be a promising approach for characterizing connectivity patterns and transmissivities of the main flow paths in fractured rock. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method
Borlaf, Mario; Caes, Sébastien ULg; Dewalque, Jennifer ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2014), 558

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The ... [more ▼]

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er3 + and Eu3 + was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu3 + and Er3 + f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the Multiple SEA Method to Synthesize Pt/Carbon Xerogel Electrocatalysts for PEMFC Applications
Zubiaur, Anthony ULg; Chatenet, Marian; Maillard, Frédéric et al

in Fuel Cells - From Fundamentals to Systems (2014), 14(3), 343-349

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See detailEnzymatic process for the fractionation of baker’s yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 163

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See detailDynamic auroral storms on Saturn as observed by the Hubble Space Telescope
Nichols, J. D.; Badman, S. V.; Baines, K. H. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2014), 41

We present observations of significant dynamics within two UV auroral storms observed on Saturn using the Hubble Space Telescope in April/May 2013. Specifically, we discuss bursts of auroral emission ... [more ▼]

We present observations of significant dynamics within two UV auroral storms observed on Saturn using the Hubble Space Telescope in April/May 2013. Specifically, we discuss bursts of auroral emission observed at the poleward boundary of a solar wind-induced auroral storm, propagating at ˜330% rigid corotation from near ˜01 h LT toward ˜08 h LT. We suggest that these are indicative of ongoing, bursty reconnection of lobe flux in the magnetotail, providing strong evidence that Saturn's auroral storms are caused by large-scale flux closure. We also discuss the later evolution of a similar storm and show that the emission maps to the trailing region of an energetic neutral atom enhancement. We thus identify the auroral form with the upward field-aligned continuity currents flowing into the associated partial ring current. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrolensing of the broad-line region in the quadruply imaged quasar HE0435-1223
Braibant, Lorraine ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Sluse, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 565

Using infrared spectra of the z = 1.693 quadruply lensed quasar HE0435-1223 acquired in 2009 with the spectrograph SINFONI at the ESO Very Large Telescope, we have detected a clear microlensing effect in ... [more ▼]

Using infrared spectra of the z = 1.693 quadruply lensed quasar HE0435-1223 acquired in 2009 with the spectrograph SINFONI at the ESO Very Large Telescope, we have detected a clear microlensing effect in images A and D. While microlensing affects the blue and red wings of the Hα line profile in image D very differently, it de-magnifies the line core in image A. The combination of these different effects sets constraints on the line-emitting region; these constraints suggest that a rotating ring is at the origin of the Hα line. Visible spectra obtained in 2004 and 2012 indicate that the MgII line profile is microlensed in the same way as the Hα line. Our results therefore favour flattened geometries for the low-ionization line-emitting region, for example, a Keplerian disk. Biconical models cannot be ruled out but require more fine-tuning. Flux ratios between the different images are also derived and confirm flux anomalies with respect to estimates from lens models with smooth mass distributions. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposal 084.B-0013 (PI: Rix).Tables 2, 3 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201423633/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe Transcription Factor EGR1 Localizes to the Nucleolus and Is Linked to Suppression of Ribosomal Precursor Synthesis
Ponti, Donatella; Bellenchi, Gian Carlo; Puca, Rosa et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(5),

EGR1 is an immediate early gene with a wide range of activities as transcription factor, spanning from regulation of cell growth to differentiation. Numerous studies show that EGR1 either promotes the ... [more ▼]

EGR1 is an immediate early gene with a wide range of activities as transcription factor, spanning from regulation of cell growth to differentiation. Numerous studies show that EGR1 either promotes the proliferation of stimulated cells or suppresses the tumorigenic growth of transformed cells. Upon interaction with ARF, EGR1 is sumoylated and acquires the ability to bind to specific targets such as PTEN and in turn to regulate cell growth. ARF is mainly localized to the periphery of nucleolus where is able to negatively regulate ribosome biogenesis. Since EGR1 colocalizes with ARF under IGF-1 stimulation we asked the question of whether EGR1 also relocate to the nucleolus to interact with ARF. Here we show that EGR1 colocalizes with nucleolar markers such as fibrillarin and B23 in the presence of ARF. Western analysis of nucleolar extracts from HeLa cells was used to confirm the presence of EGR1 in the nucleolus mainly as the 100 kDa sumoylated form. We also show that the level of the ribosomal RNA precursor 47S is inversely correlated to the level of EGR1 transcripts. The EGR1 iseffective to regulate the synthesis of the 47S rRNA precursor. Then we demonstrated that EGR1 binds to the Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) leading us to hypothesize that the regulating activity of EGR1 is mediated by its interaction within the transcriptional complex of RNA polymerase I. These results confirm the presence of EGR1 in the nucleolus and point to a role for EGR1 in the control of nucleolar metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailForest radiative transfer models: which approach for which application?
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Balandier, Philippe; Courbaud, Benoît et al

in Canadian Journal of Forest Research = Journal Canadien de la Recherche Forestière (2014), 44(5), 385-397

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See detailCassini nightside observations of the oscillatory motion of Saturn's northern auroral oval
Bunce, E. J.; Grodent, Denis ULg; Jinks, S. L. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2014), 119

recent years we have benefitted greatly from the first in-orbit multi-wavelength images of Saturn's polar atmosphere from the Cassini spacecraft. Specifically, images obtained from the Cassini UltraViolet ... [more ▼]

recent years we have benefitted greatly from the first in-orbit multi-wavelength images of Saturn's polar atmosphere from the Cassini spacecraft. Specifically, images obtained from the Cassini UltraViolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) provide an excellent view of the planet's auroral emissions, which in turn give an account of the large-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and dynamics within the system. However, obtaining near-simultaneous views of the auroral regions with in situ measurements of magnetic field and plasma populations at high latitudes is more difficult to routinely achieve. Here we present an unusual case, during Revolution 99 in January 2009, where UVIS observes the entire northern UV auroral oval during a 2 h interval while Cassini traverses the magnetic flux tubes connecting to the auroral regions near 21 LT, sampling the related magnetic field, particle, and radio and plasma wave signatures. The motion of the auroral oval evident from the UVIS images requires a careful interpretation of the associated latitudinally "oscillating" magnetic field and auroral field-aligned current signatures, whereas previous interpretations have assumed a static current system. Concurrent observations of the auroral hiss (typically generated in regions of downward directed field-aligned current) support this revised interpretation of an oscillating current system. The nature of the motion of the auroral oval evident in the UVIS image sequence, and the simultaneous measured motion of the field-aligned currents (and related plasma boundary) in this interval, is shown to be related to the northern hemisphere magnetosphere oscillation phase. This is in agreement with previous observations of the auroral oval oscillatory motion. [less ▲]

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See detailShewhart Control Charts for Monitoring Reliability with Weibull Lifetimes
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Saniga, Erwin; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in Quality and Reliability Engineering International (2014)

In this paper, we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method is its ease of use and flexibility for the case where the process distribution is Weibull, although the method can be applied to any distribution. We illustrate the performance of our method through simulation and the application through the use of an actual data set. Our results indicate that Z ̅ and S2 control charts perform well in detecting shifts in the scale and shape parameters. We also provide a guide that would enable a user to interpret out-of-control signals. [less ▲]

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See detailIs isokinetic eccentric exercise dangerous for the heart?
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; LAURENT, Terry ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2014), 22(2), 131-136

BACKGROUND: Very strenuous exercises can be performed on an isokinetic dynamometer in order to evaluate the resistance to fatigue of different muscular groups. Good cardiac function is necessary in order ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Very strenuous exercises can be performed on an isokinetic dynamometer in order to evaluate the resistance to fatigue of different muscular groups. Good cardiac function is necessary in order to perform these very intensive exercises; otherwise an acute myocardial dysfunction could theoretically appear in predisposed patients. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to observe the cardiovascular impact of a maximal intense isokinetic eccentric exercise performed by a population of sedentary young men. METHODS: Resting and post-exercise (just after, 3 hours and 24 hours after the exercise) blood samples were taken from 12 young male sedentary healthy subjects. These subjects performed an intense maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise of the quadriceps muscle.We evaluated markers of cardiovascular risk (troponin I, highly sensitive troponin T, NT-proBNP,myoglobin), of inflammation (hsCRP) and of oxidative stress (myeloperoxydase, lipidic peroxides, reduced and oxidized glutathione). RESULTS: The following observations were made: no significant increase in cardiac (NT-proBNP, troponins) or inflammation (hsCRP) biomarkers; a significant increase in myoglobin, myeloperoxidase, lipidic peroxides, oxidised glutathione just after the exercise. CONCLUSIONS: No modification in cardiac biomarkers were observed after the maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise. We were thus able to prove that the exercise could be performed without any risk to cardiac function in young sedentary subjects. However, a significant level of oxidative stress was induced by this exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterochrony in a complex world: disentangling environmental processes of facultative paedomorphosis in an amphibian
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

in Journal of Animal Ecology (2014), 83(3), 606-615

1. Heterochrony, the change in the rate or timing of development between ancestors and their descendants, plays a major role in evolution. When heterochrony produces polymorphisms, it offers the ... [more ▼]

1. Heterochrony, the change in the rate or timing of development between ancestors and their descendants, plays a major role in evolution. When heterochrony produces polymorphisms, it offers the possibility to test hypotheses that could explain its success across environments. Amphibians are particularly suitable to exploring these questions because they express complex life cycles (i.e. metamorphosis) that have been disrupted by heterochronic processes (paedomorphosis: retention of larval traits in adults). The large phenotypic variation across populations suggests that more complex processes than expected are operating, but they remain to be investigated through multivariate analyses over a large range of natural populations across time. 2. In this study we compared the likelihood of multiple potential environmental determinants of heterochrony. We gathered data on the proportion of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) across more than 150 populations during 10 years, and used an information-theoretic approach to compare the support of multiple potential processes. 3. Six environmental processes jointly explained the proportion of paedomorphs in populations: predation, water availability, dispersal limitation, aquatic breathing, terrestrial habitat suitability, and anti-predator refuges. Analyses of variation across space and time supported models based on the advantage of paedomorphosis in favourable aquatic habitats. 4. Paedomorphs were favoured in deep ponds, in conditions favourable to aquatic breathing (high oxygen content), with lack of fish, and surrounded by suitable terrestrial habitat. Metamorphs were favoured by banks allowing easy dispersal. 5. These results indicate that heterochrony relies on complex processes involving multiple ecological variables and exemplifies why heterochronic patterns occur in contrasted environments. On the other hand, the fast selection of alternative morphs shows that metamorphosis and paedomorphosis developmental modes could be easily disrupted in natural populations. [less ▲]

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See detailCapillary-driven bi-dimensional buoyancy in vertical soap films
Adami, Nicolas ULg; Caps, Hervé

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2014)

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See detailLutter contre le fléau des médicaments contrefaits
Rudaz, Serge; Hubert, Philippe ULg

in Spectra Analyse (2014), 298

Editorial

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See detailA generic approach for solving nonlinear-discrete security-constrained power flow problems in large-scale systems
Platbrood, Ludovic; Capitanescu, Florin; Crisciu, Horia et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2014), 29(3), 1194-1203

This paper proves the practicality of an iterative algorithm for solving realistic large-scale SCOPF problems. This algorithm is based on the combination of a contingency filtering scheme, used to ... [more ▼]

This paper proves the practicality of an iterative algorithm for solving realistic large-scale SCOPF problems. This algorithm is based on the combination of a contingency filtering scheme, used to identify the binding contingencies at the optimum, and a network compression method, used to reduce the complexity of the post-contingency models included in the SCOPF formulation. We show that by combining these two complementary ideas, it is possible to solve in a reasonable time SCOPF problems on large power system models with a large number of contingencies. Unlike most results reported for large-scale SCOPF problems, our algorithm uses a non-linear AC network model in both pre-contingency and post-contingency states, optimizes both active/reactive powers flows jointly, and treats the discrete variables. The proposed algorithm is implemented with state-of-the-art solvers and applied to two systems: a national grid with 2563 buses and 1297 contingencies, and a model of the European transmission network with 9241 buses and 12000 contingencies. [less ▲]

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See detailVitamin D status of schoolchildren in Northern Algeria, seasonal variations and determinants of vitamin D deficiency
Djennane, M; Lebbah, S; Roux, C et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(5), 1493-502

Summary There are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa. In 435 healthy Algerian children 5–15 years old, we found that vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25 ... [more ▼]

Summary There are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa. In 435 healthy Algerian children 5–15 years old, we found that vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <50 nmol/L) was frequent, especially in winter. Low vitamin D status was associated with increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) and leg deformation Introduction As there are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa, we evaluated the 25OHD concentration of healthy Algerian children at the end of summer and at the end of winter. As secondary objectives, we studied the various determinants of vitamin D status and the PTH-25OHD relationship in these subjects. Methods Four hundred thirty-five children 5–15 years old were examined and had a blood sample in September 2010. Of them, 408 were sampled again in March 2011. Results Median 25OHD concentration in the whole group was 71.4 nmol/L in September and 52.9 nmol/L in March. In September, 58.4, 29.9, and 8.1 % had a 25OHD concentration below 75, 50, and 30 nmol/L respectively. In March, these percentages increased to 65.2, 41.4, and 17.4 % for the 75, 50, and 30 nmol/L threshold, respectively. In multivariate analysis, older age, darker skin phototype, low daily vitamin D and calcium intake, poor socioeconomic status, and short daily sun exposure remained significantly associated with a 25OHD <50 nmol/L at both visits. In 72 (16.6 %) children, genu varum/valgum was present. Compared to the 363 children without leg deformation, they presented more frequently with the risk factors of vitamin D insufficiency. They also had lower 25OHD concentrations and higher PTH and tALP. Serum PTH and 25OHD concentrations were negatively and significantly correlated (r=−0.43; p<0.001) without a 25OHD threshold above which PTH does not decrease anymore. Conclusion Despite a sunny environment, vitamin D insufficiency is frequent in healthy Algerian children. [less ▲]

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See detailLa spectroscopie proche infrarouge, une technique non destructive dans la lutte contre la contrefaçon des médicaments
Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème; Chavez, Pierre-François ULg et al

in Spectra Analyse (2014), 43

Near infrared spectroscopy is a very promising and expanding analytical technique. It has to be noted that this technique is becoming more used in the pharmaceutical field for the quality control of ... [more ▼]

Near infrared spectroscopy is a very promising and expanding analytical technique. It has to be noted that this technique is becoming more used in the pharmaceutical field for the quality control of products. Indeed near infrared spectroscopy allows to perform fast, non-destructive, versatile analysis of the sample and minimization of the sample preparation. Based on those advantages, this spectroscopic method is one of the first reliable analytical techniques for fighting against counterfeit medicines. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

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See detailThe XMM-Newton view of the yellow hypergiant IRC+10420 and its surroundings
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg

in New Astronomy (2014), 29

Among evolved massive stars likely in transition to the Wolf-Rayet phase, IRC +10420 is probably one of the most enigmatic. It belongs to the category of yellow hypergiants and it is characterized by ... [more ▼]

Among evolved massive stars likely in transition to the Wolf-Rayet phase, IRC +10420 is probably one of the most enigmatic. It belongs to the category of yellow hypergiants and it is characterized by quite high mass loss episodes. Even though IRC+10420 benefited of many observations in several wavelength domains, it has never been a target for an X-ray observatory. We report here on the very first dedicated observation of IRC+10420 in X-rays, using the XMM-Newton satellite. Even though the target is not detected, we derive X-ray flux upper limits of the order of 1–3 ×10−14 erg cm−2 s−1 (between 0.3 and 10.0 keV), and we discuss the case of IRC+10420 in the framework of emission models likely to be adequate for such an object. Using the Optical/UV Monitor on board XMM-Newton, we present the very first upper limits of the flux density of IRC +10420 in the UV domain (between 1800 and 2250 Å and between 2050 and 2450 Å). Finally, we also report on the detection in this field of 10 X-ray and 7 UV point sources, and we briefly discuss their properties and potential counterparts at longer wavelengths. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of a non-orthogonal constitutive model for the finite element simulation of textile composite draping
Pierce, Robert S; Falzon, Brian G; Thompson, Mark C et al

in Applied Mechanics and Materials (2014), 553

In the pursuit of producing high quality composite aircraft structures at a low cost, out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes for textile reinforcements are being simulated with increasing accuracy. This ... [more ▼]

In the pursuit of producing high quality composite aircraft structures at a low cost, out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes for textile reinforcements are being simulated with increasing accuracy. This paper focuses on the continuum-based, finite element modelling of textile composites as they deform during the draping process. A non-orthogonal constitutive model tracks yarn orientations within a material subroutine developed for Abaqus/Explicit, resulting in the realistic determination of fabric shearing and material draw-in. Supplementary material characterisation was experimentally performed in order to define the tensile and non-linear shear behaviour accurately. The validity of the finite element model has been studied through comparison with similar research in the field and the experimental lay-up of carbon fibre textile reinforcement over a tool with double curvature geometry, showing good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatiotemporal monitoring of the antibiome secreted by Bacillus biofilms on plant roots using MALDI mass spectrometry imaging
Debois, Delphine ULg; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg et al

in Analytical Chemistry (2014), 86(9), 4431-4438

Some soil Bacilli living in association with plant roots can protect their host from infection by pathogenic microbes and are therefore being developed as biological agents to control plant diseases. The ... [more ▼]

Some soil Bacilli living in association with plant roots can protect their host from infection by pathogenic microbes and are therefore being developed as biological agents to control plant diseases. The plant protective activity of these bacteria has been correlated with the potential to secrete a wide array of antibiotic compounds upon growth as planktonic cells in isolated cultures under laboratory conditions. However, in situ expression of these antibiotics in the rhizosphere where bacterial cells naturally colonize root tissues is still poorly understood. In this work, we used Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) to examine spatio-temporal changes in the secreted antibiome of B. amyloliquefaciens developing as biofilms on roots. Non-ribosomal lipopeptides such as the plant immunity elicitor surfactin or the highly fungitoxic iturins and fengycins were readily produced albeit in different time-frames and quantities in the surrounding medium. Interestingly, MS/MS experiments performed directly from the gelified culture medium, also allowed to identify a new variant of surfactins released at later time points. However, no other bioactive compounds such as polyketides were detected at any time, strongly suggesting that the antibiome expressed in planta by B. amyloliquefaciens does not reflect the vast genetic arsenal devoted to the formation of such compounds. This first dynamic study reveals the power of MALDI MSI as tool to identify and map antibiotics synthesized by root-associated bacteria and more generally, to investigate plant-microbe interactions at the molecular level. [less ▲]

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See detailA new analysis of quasar polarization alignments
Pelgrims, Vincent ULg; Cudell, Jean-René ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 442(1), 1239-1248

We propose a new method to analyse the alignment of optical polarization vectors from quasars. This method leads to a definition of intrinsic preferred axes and to a determination of the probability that ... [more ▼]

We propose a new method to analyse the alignment of optical polarization vectors from quasars. This method leads to a definition of intrinsic preferred axes and to a determination of the probability that the distribution of polarization directions is random. This probability is found to be as low as 0,003 percent for one of the region of redshift. [less ▲]

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See detailStratégies analytiques pour la détection de contrefaçons de médicaments pour la dysfonction érectile
Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Deconinck, Eric; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Spectra Analyse (2014), 43

Erectile dysfunction drugs are among the most counterfeit drug classes in industrialized countries. To fight against this plague, several analytical approaches are available for control laboratories. The ... [more ▼]

Erectile dysfunction drugs are among the most counterfeit drug classes in industrialized countries. To fight against this plague, several analytical approaches are available for control laboratories. The present article reviews the main used techniques and concludes presenting a general strategy for the detection and handling of drug counterfeits. [less ▲]

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See detailDes performances de production laitière et de reproduction élevées sont compatibles. Le management en est la clé.
Chapaux, Philippe; Glorieux, Géry; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Veterinaria (Bruxelles) : Bulletin d’Information de l’Union Syndicale Vétérinaire Belge (2014)

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See detailThe Robust Economic Statistical Design of the Hotelling’s T^2 Chart
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Chalaki, Kamyar; Saniga, Erwin et al

in Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation (2014)

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the ... [more ▼]

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the process may be affected by more than one scenario which may lead to severe cost penalties for upsetting the true scenario. This paper presents the robust economic statistical design (RESD) of the T^2 chart to reduce the monetary losses when there are multiple distinct scenarios. The genetic algorithm optimization method is employed here to minimize the total expected monitoring cost across all distinct scenarios. Through two numerical examples the proposed method is illustrated. Simulation studies indicate that the robust economic statistical designs should be encouraged in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Musée de la Vie wallonne, indissociablement lié aux dialectologues liégeois
Frankinet, Baptiste ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)

Au-delà d’un travail pointu de description et d’explication, les dialectologues liégeois ont toujours veillé à préserver les traces d’un patrimoine immatériel menacé de disparition. Selon eux, ce ... [more ▼]

Au-delà d’un travail pointu de description et d’explication, les dialectologues liégeois ont toujours veillé à préserver les traces d’un patrimoine immatériel menacé de disparition. Selon eux, ce patrimoine dépassait le cadre strictement linguistique ou lexical pour épouser les formes d’un ensemble bien plus vaste : la vie wallonne tout entière. Impossible pour eux d’étudier un dialecte sans veiller à garder les usages ou les objets qu’il nomme, ni le souvenir des gens qui le parlent. Ainsi, en plus d’être des observateurs attentifs à leurs propres parlers, ils devinrent les premiers conservateurs de leur région. [less ▲]

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See detailDialectique de l'esthétique: Hans-Jürgen Krahl et le "marxisme occidental" entre art et politique.
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

L’article étudie – à partir des fragments de H.-J. Krahl – les débats sur l’esthétique et ses rapports avec la politique et la philosophie de l’histoire depuis la philosophie classique allemande jusqu’aux ... [more ▼]

L’article étudie – à partir des fragments de H.-J. Krahl – les débats sur l’esthétique et ses rapports avec la politique et la philosophie de l’histoire depuis la philosophie classique allemande jusqu’aux analyses post-adorniennes de l’industrie culturelle. [less ▲]

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See detailAngles corniculaires et de demi-cercle chez Euclide
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Hors Série Tangente (2014), 53

Les angles datent de l’Antiquité : ils sont présents dans le célèbre ouvrage "Les Éléments" d’Euclide. En partant des "Commentaires" de Proclus, nous présentons la façon dont Euclide introduisait le ... [more ▼]

Les angles datent de l’Antiquité : ils sont présents dans le célèbre ouvrage "Les Éléments" d’Euclide. En partant des "Commentaires" de Proclus, nous présentons la façon dont Euclide introduisait le concept d'angle et sa distinction entre les angles rectilignes et mixtilignes. Les cas des angles corniculaires et de demi-cercle sont spécialement traités. [less ▲]

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See detailSur quelques thèmes chez Heiner Muller
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

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See detailTowards a real time release approach for manufacturing tablets using NIR spectroscopy
Pestieau, Aude ULg; Krier, Fabrice ULg; Thoorens, Grégory et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 98

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See detailCoupling X-ray microtomography and macroscopic soil measurements: a method to enhance near saturation functions?
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Plougonven, Erwan; Gigot, Nicolas et al

in Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2014), 18

Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water ... [more ▼]

Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves using both classical soil techniques and X-ray microtomography in the context of tillage simplification. We show a good match for retention and conductivity functions between macroscopic measurements and microtomographic information. Microtomography highlights the presence of a secondary pore system. Analysis of structural parameters for these pores appears to be significant and offers additional clues for objects differentiation. We show that relatively fast scans supply not only good results, but also enhance near saturation characterization, making microtomography a highly competitive instrument for routine soil characterization. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh resolution saturated hydraulic conductivity logging of friable to poorly indurated borehole cores using air permeability measurements
Rogiers, Bart; Winters, P.; Huysmans, Marijke et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2014)

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. This paper investigates ... [more ▼]

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. This paper investigates the hand-held air permeameter technique for high resolution hydraulic conductivity determination on borehole cores using a spatial resolution of ~0.05 m. We test the suitability of such air permeameter measurements on friable to poorly indurated sediments to improve the spatial prediction of classical laboratory based Ks measurements obtained at a much lower spatial resolution (~2 m). About 368 Ks measurements were made on ~350 m of borehole cores originating from the Campine basin, Northern Belgium, while ~5230 air permeability measurements were performed on the same cores. The heterogeneity in sediments, ranging from sand to clayey sand with distinct clay lenses, resulted in a Ks range of seven orders of magnitude. Cross-validation demonstrated that using air permeameter data as secondary variable and laboratory based Ks measurements as primary variable increased performance from R2 = 0.35 for ordinary kriging (laboratory Ks only) to R2 = 0.61 for co-kriging. Due to the large degree of small-scale variability detected by the air permeameter, the spatial granularity in the predicted laboratory Ks also increases drastically. The separate treatment of Kh and Kv revealed considerable anisotropy in certain lithostratigraphical units, while others where clearly isotropic at the sample scale. Air permeameter measurements on borehole cores provide a cost-effective way to improve spatial predictions of traditional laboratory based Ks. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-medication in persistent rhinitis: overuse of decongestants in half of the patients.
Mehuys, Els; Gevaert, Philippe; Brusselle, Guy et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - In Practice (2014), 2(3), 313-319

BACKGROUND: Patients with rhinitis often self-medicate with over-the-counter drugs, however this self-treating population has remained largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To characterize individuals self ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Patients with rhinitis often self-medicate with over-the-counter drugs, however this self-treating population has remained largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To characterize individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis and to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for intranasal decongestant overuse within this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study of individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis (defined according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines). Participants (n = 895) completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess current symptoms, rhinitis medication, and previous physician diagnosis. Intranasal decongestant overuse was defined as daily use for at least 1 year. RESULTS: The vast majority of subjects (95%) had moderate-to-severe rhinitis. Nasal congestion was the predominant symptom (median visual analog scale, 6.6 cm; interquartile range, 3.4 cm). Sixty-five percent had had their current nasal problems for more than 5 years. Approximately 80% had a physician diagnosis (mainly allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis). The prevalence of intranasal decongestant overuse was high (49%), despite the fact that most of the patients (80%) were educated about the limit on duration of use. Use of intranasal glucocorticosteroids was inversely related to being an overuser (odds ratio 0.24 [95% CI, 0.17-0.35]). The risk of intranasal decongestant overuse also was reduced by use of other medications (oral H1 antihistamines and decongestants), use of nasal saline solution, and more symptoms of itchy and/or runny eyes or colored mucus. Risk was increased by a more severely blocked nose, longer duration of symptoms, the presence of sleep disturbance, higher body mass index, and previous advice to limit the duration of intranasal decongestant use. CONCLUSION: Half of the individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis overused intranasal decongestants, despite the fact that they were educated about the limit on duration of use. [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-95b to WASP-101b
Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)

We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-95b, WASP-96b, WASP-97b, WASP-98b, WASP-99b, WASP-100b and WASP-101b. All are hot Jupiters with orbital periods in the range 2.1-5.7 d, masses of ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-95b, WASP-96b, WASP-97b, WASP-98b, WASP-99b, WASP-100b and WASP-101b. All are hot Jupiters with orbital periods in the range 2.1-5.7 d, masses of 0.5-2.8 MJup and radii of 1.1-1.4 RJup. The orbits of all the planets are compatible with zero eccentricity. WASP-99b produces the shallowest transit yet found by WASP-South, at 0.4 per cent. The host stars are of spectral type F2-G8. Five have metallicities of [Fe/H] from -0.03 to +0.23, while WASP-98 has a metallicity of -0.60, exceptionally low for a star with a transiting exoplanet. Five of the host stars are brighter than V = 10.8, which significantly extends the number of bright transiting systems available for follow-up studies. WASP-95 shows a possible rotational modulation at a period of 20.7 d. We discuss the completeness of WASP survey techniques by comparing to the HATnet project. [less ▲]

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See detailA Brief Review of Ultraviolet Auroral Emissions on Giant Planets
Grodent, Denis ULg

in Space Science Reviews (2014)

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although ... [more ▼]

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although this simplified view is very handy for a gross depiction of the giant planets’ aurorae, it fails to scrutinize the diversity and the dynamics of the actual features that are regularly observed with the available ultraviolet imagers and spectrographs. In the present review, the typical morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn’s aurorae are represented with an updated and more accurate set of components. The use of sketches, rather than images, makes it possible to compile all these components in a single view and to put aside ultraviolet imaging technical issues that are blurring the emission sources, thus preventing one from disentangling the different auroral signatures. The ionospheric and magnetospheric processes to which these auroral features allude can then be more easily accounted. In addition, the use of components of the same kind for both planets may help to put forward similarities and differences between Jupiter and Saturn. The case of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune is much less compelling since their weak auroral emissions are very poorly documented and one can only speculate about their origin. This review presents a current perspective that will inevitably evolve in the future, especially with upcoming observing campaigns and forthcoming missions like Juno. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of transient scattering problems using a discontinuous Galerkin method: application to the shielding effectiveness of enclosures with heterogeneous walls
Boubekeur, Mohamed; Kameni, Abelin; Pichon, Lionel et al

in International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields (2014), 27(3), 626-635

In this paper, different formulations of Maxwell equations are combined for computing the shielding effectiveness of enclosures made from heterogeneous periodic materials. The validity of the homogenized ... [more ▼]

In this paper, different formulations of Maxwell equations are combined for computing the shielding effectiveness of enclosures made from heterogeneous periodic materials. The validity of the homogenized parameters given by Maxwell-Garnett rules in the frequency domain are tested in the time domain using a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method, which uses an interface condition based on analytical solution in the frequency domain to replace a conductive sheet. This interface condition allows to avoid meshing the thin sheet, thus reducing the computational cost. Results of scattering by composite enclosures are presented in the frequency domain thanks to a Fast Fourier Transform. [less ▲]

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