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See detailPaleomagnetic and geochemical record from cores from the Sea of Marmara, Turkey: Age constraints and implications of sapropelic deposition on early diagenesis
Drab, Laureen; Carlut, Julie; Hubert, Aurelia ULg et al

in Marine Geology (2015), 360

We present results of a multi-proxy analysis of two sediment cores from the Marmara Sea. The cores were ana- lyzed using paleomagnetic and geochemical measurements. Two sapropels are documented in the ... [more ▼]

We present results of a multi-proxy analysis of two sediment cores from the Marmara Sea. The cores were ana- lyzed using paleomagnetic and geochemical measurements. Two sapropels are documented in the last 11 kyr and are recorded in several locations across the Marmara Sea. These two sapropels have contrasting magnetic prop- erties. The magnetic record is affected by intense early diagenesis; the most recent upper sapropelic layer has low remanence and susceptibility values. A record of paleomagnetic inclinations could still be isolated above the dia- genesis front and is compared with secular variation models. The lower sapropel is identified in the deep part of the oldest studied core (Klg07) and has distinct magnetic properties characterized by high remanence and sus- ceptibility values. Using the magnetic properties it is possible to constrain bottom water ventilation and recon- nection episodes between the Marmara Sea and the Black Sea following the sea level rise during the last glacial to inter-glacial transition. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalogue of the types and illustrated specimens recovered from the ‘black marble’ of Denée, a marine conservation-Lagerstätte from the Mississippian of southern Belgium
Mottequin, Bernard ULg; Poty, Edouard; Prestianni, Cyrille

in Geologica Belgica (2015)

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes ... [more ▼]

The Viséan ‘black marble’ of Denée is one of the best preserved Mississippian fossil assemblages. This Lagerstätte is famous for the exceptional preservation of several groups of macro-organisms (fishes, echinoids, graptolites). However, only a part of the fauna has received attention from specialists and most of the phyla may benefit from a modern revision based on new investigative techniques such as 3D imagery and CT-scanning. Almost all the specimens illustrated in the literature have been traced and we present here a comprehensive catalogue of this material. Representatives of several minor groups are photographically illustrated for the first time as well as five emblematic specimens of the styracopterid genus Benedenius (Pisces). For purposes of nomenclatural formality, the lectotypes of Benedenius deneensis Traquair (in de Koninck, 1878), B. soreili Fraipont, 1890, Oligoporus soreili Fraipont, 1904, Taeniaster? fournieri Fraipont, 1904, and Scaphiocrinus longicaudatus Fraipont, 1904 are here selected. [less ▲]

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See detailSolar Energy Prediction: An International Contest to Initiate Interdisciplinary Research on Compelling Meteorological Problems
McGovern, Amy; Gagne II, David John; Eustaquio, Lucas et al

in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society [= BAMS] (2015)

As meteorological observing systems and models grow in complexity and number, the size of the data becomes overwhelming for humans to analyze using traditional techniques. Computer scientists, and ... [more ▼]

As meteorological observing systems and models grow in complexity and number, the size of the data becomes overwhelming for humans to analyze using traditional techniques. Computer scientists, and specifically machine learning and data mining researchers, are developing frameworks for analyzing big data. The AMS Committee on Artificial Intelligence and its Applications to Environmental Science aims to bring AI researchers and environmental scientists together to increase the synergy between the two. The AI committee has sponsored 4 previous contests on a variety of meteorological problems including wind energy, storm classification, winter hydrometeor classification, and air pollution, with the goal of bringing together the two fields of research. Although these were successful, the audience was limited to existing environmental science researchers (usually 10-20 teams of people primarily within the AMS community). For the 2013/14 contest, we expanded to a global audience by focusing on the compelling problem of solar energy prediction and by having the established forum Kaggle host our contest. Using this forum, we had over 160 teams from all around the world participate. Improved solar energy forecasting is a necessary component of making solar energy a viable alternative power source. This paper summarizes our experiences in the 2013/14 contest, discusses the data in detail, and presents the winning prediction methods. The contest data come from the NOAA/ESRL Global Ensemble Forecasting System Reforecast Version 2 and the Oklahoma Mesonet with sponsorship from EarthRisk Technologies. All winning methods utilized gradient boosted regression trees but differed in parameter choices and interpolation methods. [less ▲]

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See detailAcoustic monitoring of O2 production of a seagrass meadow
Felisberto, Paulo; Jesus, Sérgio M.; Zabel, Friedrich et al

in Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology (2015), 464(0), 75-87

Acoustic data were acquired in October 2011 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Bay of la Revellata, Calvi, Corsica. The purpose was to develop an acoustic system for monitoring the oxygen (O2 ... [more ▼]

Acoustic data were acquired in October 2011 over a Posidonia oceanica meadow in the Bay of la Revellata, Calvi, Corsica. The purpose was to develop an acoustic system for monitoring the oxygen (O2) production of an entire seagrass meadow. In a shallow water area (b38 m), densely covered by P. oceanica, a sound source transmitted signals in 3 different bands (400–800 Hz, 1.5–3.5 kHz and 6.5–8.5 kHz) toward three self-recording hydrophones at a distance of 100 m, over the period of oneweek. The data showa high correlation between the diel cycle of the acoustic signals' energy received by the hydrophones and the temporal changes in water column O2 concentration as measured by optodes. The results thus show that a simple acoustic acquisition system can be used to monitor the O2-based productivity of a seagrass meadow at the ecosystem level with high temporal resolution. The finding of a significant production of O2 as bubbles in seagrass ecosystems suggests that net primary production is underestimated by methods that rely on the mass balance of dissolved O2 measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailAdventitious organogenesis induced in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L.) var. "half-blood" maltese: morphogenetic and histological study
Benmahmoud, Kaouther; Jedidi, Zmna; Najar, Asma et al

in International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research (2015), 6(2), 1-7

Tunisian citrus crops are faced to several abiotic and biotic constraints among which virus and virus-like diseases are incurable. The production of virus-free plants systematically needs the use of in ... [more ▼]

Tunisian citrus crops are faced to several abiotic and biotic constraints among which virus and virus-like diseases are incurable. The production of virus-free plants systematically needs the use of in vitro techniques. In this context, somatic embryogenesis and further plantlet regeneration of the Tunisian “half-blood” Maltese orange were obtained using explants consisting in style/stigma collected from unopened flowers. Somatic embryos were induced on Murashige and Skoog medium containing 13.3 µM 6-benzylaminopurine and 500 mg.l-1 malt extract, but their germination was obtained on hormone free-medium. Somatic embryogenesis was induced indirectly from intermediate friable callus initiated at the basal part of the style. Somatic embryos exhibited central procambial cells and were surrounded by a protoderm isolating them from the callus. These embryos had bipolar structure confirmed by the presence of shoot and root apices at cotyledonary stage. The use of cotyledon excised from those embryos failed to regenerate somatic embryos, but gave rise to direct organogenesis in two forms, true buds and protuberances both evolved in shoots after transfer in hormone-free medium. According to histological observations, protuberances are induced from epidermal and subepidermal cells of the cotyledon explant and remain closely attached to their mother tissue even at the shoot stage. [less ▲]

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See detailInternational assessment of future low flow regimes and their impact on three water related sectors in the Meuse basin – a collaborative approach
Bauwens, Alexandra; Degré, Aurore ULg; Deraedt, Deborah ULg et al

in International Journal of River Basin Management (2015), 13(1), 123-135

There is a wide recognition of the watershed scale as the right scale for global water management, notably in the context of the WFD. Hence, it often refers to international management and therefore to ... [more ▼]

There is a wide recognition of the watershed scale as the right scale for global water management, notably in the context of the WFD. Hence, it often refers to international management and therefore to various pre-existing regional management tools, models or even objectives. In this study we aim at describing the collaborative assessment of climate change’s effect on low flow regime and the consequences on three water related sectors: drinking water production, agriculture and electricity production. The paper highlights the choices that were made during the study that involved scientific teams, managers and stakeholders from the four main countries of the Meuse Basin. It shows that the methodological choices were operational and aimed at preserving existing methods and knowledge within each country. They led to hydrological scenarios comparable to the main available ensemble approaches and to methodologies well accepted within the concerned countries. The results of the project highlight and quantify the water scarcity that the three sectors will have to face by the end of the century mainly regarding the electricity production. They also show that common allocation rules are necessary to manage water demand during future low flow periods. [less ▲]

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See detailIncentive salience attribution under reward uncertainty: A Pavlovian model
Anselme, Patrick ULg

in Behavioural Processes (2015), 111(1), 6-18

There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically ... [more ▼]

There is a vast literature on the behavioural effects of partial reinforcement in Pavlovian conditioning. Compared with animals receiving continuous reinforcement, partially rewarded animals typically show (a) a slower development of the conditioned response (CR) early in training and (b) a higher asymptotic level of the CR later in training. This phenomenon is known as the partial reinforcement acquisition effect (PRAE). Learning models of Pavlovian conditioning fail to account for it. In accordance with the incentive salience hypothesis, it is here argued that incentive motivation (or ‘wanting’) plays a more direct role in controlling behaviour than does learning, and reward uncertainty is shown to have an excitatory effect on incentive motivation. The psychological origin of that effect is discussed and a computational model integrating this new interpretation is developed. Many features of CRs under partial reinforcement emerge from this model. [less ▲]

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See detailThe ciliogenic transcription factor Rfx3 is required for the formation of the thalamocortical tract by regulating patterning of prethalamus and ventral telencephalon.
Magnani, D; Morlé, L; Hasenpusch-Theil, K et al

in Human Molecular Genetics (2015)

Primary cilia are complex subcellular structures that play key roles during embryogenesis by controlling the cellular response to several signaling pathways. Defects in the function and/or structure of ... [more ▼]

Primary cilia are complex subcellular structures that play key roles during embryogenesis by controlling the cellular response to several signaling pathways. Defects in the function and/or structure of primary cilia underlie a large number of human syndromes collectively referred to as ciliopathies. Often, ciliopathies are associated with mental retardation (MR) and malformation of the corpus callosum. However, the possibility of defects in other forebrain axon tracts, which could contribute to the cognitive disorders of these patients, has not been explored. Here, we investigate the formation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical tracts in mice mutant for Rfx3, which regulates the expression of many genes involved in ciliogenesis and cilia function. Using DiI axon tracing and immunohistochemistry experiments, we show that some Rfx3-/- corticothalamic axons abnormally migrate toward the pial surface of the ventral telencephalon (VT). Some thalamocortical axons (TCAs) also fail to leave the diencephalon or abnormally project toward the amygdala. Moreover, the Rfx3-/- VT displays heterotopias containing attractive guidance cues and expressing the guidance molecules Slit1 and Netrin1. Finally, the abnormal projection of TCAs toward the amygdala is also present in mice carrying a mutation in the Inpp5e gene, which is mutated in Joubert Syndrome and which controls cilia signaling and stability. The presence of identical thalamocortical malformations in two independent ciliary mutants indicates a novel role for primary cilia in the formation of the corticothalamic/thalamocortical tracts by establishing the correct cellular environment necessary for its development. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a New Edition of the 'Répertoire métrique de la poésie des troubadours'
Valenti, Gianluca ULg

in Neophilologus (2015), 99(1), 15-27

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See detailEstimation of degree-days for different climatic zones of North-East India
Borah, Pallavi; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Mahapatra, Sadhan

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2015), 14

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See detailRegional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.
Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C. et al

in Psychoneuroendocrinology (2015), 55C

The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine ... [more ▼]

The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was observed in the left superior medial frontal cortex, while boys had more volume in the bilateral superior posterior hemispheres of the cerebellum and the hypothalamus. Regarding the GD groups, at whole-brain level they differed only from individuals sharing their gender identity but not from their natal sex. Accordingly, using multivariate pattern recognition analyses, the GD groups could more accurately be automatically discriminated from individuals sharing their gender identity than those sharing their natal sex based on spatially distributed GM patterns. However, region of interest analyses indicated less GM volume in the right cerebellum and more volume in the medial frontal cortex in female-to-males in comparison to girls without GD, while male-to-females had less volume in the bilateral cerebellum and hypothalamus than natal boys. Deviations from the natal sex within sexually dimorphic structures were also observed in the untreated subsamples. Our findings thus indicate that GM distribution and regional volumes in GD adolescents are largely in accordance with their respective natal sex. However, there are subtle deviations from the natal sex in sexually dimorphic structures, which can represent signs of a partial sex-atypical differentiation of the brain. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic shielding performances of YBa2Cu3O7−δ -coated silver tubes obtained by electrophoretic deposition
Devendra Kumar, N; Closset, Raphaël ULg; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

We report a complete procedure to achieve multilayer YBCO thick films by electrophoretic deposition on silver tubes using a suspension of YBCO powder in butanol. With the aim to optimize the magnetic ... [more ▼]

We report a complete procedure to achieve multilayer YBCO thick films by electrophoretic deposition on silver tubes using a suspension of YBCO powder in butanol. With the aim to optimize the magnetic shielding performances of the coatings, we have carried out an extensive investigation of the influence of the deposition parameters, the multilayer deposition sequence and the intermediate/final heat treatments on the coating microstructure. Using the optimized conditions, a 24-layer YBCO coating has been successfully prepared on an 80 mm long Ag tube: the melt growth processed multilayered YBCO thick film thus obtained can shield an applied magnetic field of 1.9 mT at 77 K, the highest value per thickness unit reported so far in the literature for these materials. [less ▲]

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See detailMerging multi-camera data to reduce motion analysis instrumental errors using Kalman filters
Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Denoël, Vincent ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering (2015), 18(9), 952-960

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the ... [more ▼]

In motion capture systems, markers are often seen by multiple cameras. All cameras do not measure the position of the markers with the same reliability because of environmental factors such as the position of the marker in the field of view or the light intensity received by the cameras. Kalman filters offer a general framework to take the reliability of the various cameras into account and consequently improve the estimation of the marker position. The proposed process can be applied to both passive and active systems. Several reliability models of the cameras are compared for the Codamotion active system, which is considered as a specific illustration. The proposed method significantly reduces the noise in the signal, especially at long range distances. Therefore, it improves the confidence of the positions at the limits of the field of view. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural basis of temporal order processing in past and future thought
D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg; Jeunehomme, Olivier ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2015), 27

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See detailDer Standesunterschied als Prüfstein. Zur Frauenfreundschaft zwischen Elisa von der Recke und Sophie Becker
Leyh, Valérie ULg

in Recherches Germaniques (2015), 45

L’amitié joue un rôle central dans la vie et l’oeuvre d’Elisa von der Recke (1754-1833), écrivaine issue de la noblesse courlandaise. A côté de ses nombreux contacts avec des personnalités masculines ... [more ▼]

L’amitié joue un rôle central dans la vie et l’oeuvre d’Elisa von der Recke (1754-1833), écrivaine issue de la noblesse courlandaise. A côté de ses nombreux contacts avec des personnalités masculines, elle entretenait en effet des amitiés profondes avec des femmes de son temps, en particulier avec Sophie Becker, aux origines bourgeoises. Sur la base des écrits littéraires de ces deux femmes, l’article étudie cette amitié exceptionnelle en la confrontant au culte de l’amitié caractéristique du XVIIIe siècle et en montrant dans quelle mesure la différence de rang social défie l’idéal égalitaire des Lumières. Dans l’amitié avec Sophie, cette différence sociale apparaît très clairement, mais en se positionnant comme intellectuelle des Lumières et en s’appropriant le discours de l’amitié, Elisa von der Recke l’ignore et la considère comme insignifiante. Sophie, au contraire, ne peut s’empêcher de s’en apercevoir et questionne les fondements économiques de l’égalité au sein de l’amitié. Sa pensée pragmatique l’incite en effet à confronter les modèles littéraires avec la réalité et, dès lors, à constater que l’inégalité sociale est loin d’avoir disparu. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation following fludarabine plus 2 Gy TBI or ATG plus 8 Gy TLI: a phase II randomized study from the Belgian Hematological Society
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Zachée, Pierre; Maertens, Johan et al

in Journal of Hematology & Oncology (2015), 8(4), 10118613045-014-0098-9

Background: Few studies thus far have compared head-to-head different non-myelooablative conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Methods: Here, we report the ... [more ▼]

Background: Few studies thus far have compared head-to-head different non-myelooablative conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Methods: Here, we report the results of a phase II multicenter randomized study comparing non-myeloablative allo-HCT from HLA-identical siblings (n = 54) or from 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated donors (n = 40) with either fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation (Flu-TBI arm; n = 49) or 8 Gy TLI + anti-thymocyte globulin (TLI-ATG arm; n = 45) conditioning. Results: The 180-day cumulative incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD (primary endpoint) were 12.2% versus 8.9% in Flu-TBI and TLI-ATG patients, respectively (P = 0.5). Two-year cumulative incidences of moderate/severe chronic GVHD were 40.8% versus 17.8% in Flu-TBI and TLI-ATG patients, respectively (P = 0.017). Five Flu-TBI patients and 10 TLI-ATG patients received pre-emptive DLI for low donor chimerism levels, while 1 Flu-TBI patient and 5 TLI-ATG patients (including 2 patients given prior pre-emptive DLIs) received a second HCT for poor graft function, graft rejection, or disease progression. Four-year cumulative incidences of relapse/progression were 22% and 50% in Flu-TBI and TLI-ATG patients, respectively (P = 0.017). Four-year cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality were 24% and 13% in Flu-TBI and TLI-ATG patients, respectively (P = 0.5). Finally, 4-year overall (OS) and progression-free survivals (PFS) were 53% and 54%, respectively, in the Flu-TBI arm, versus 54% (P = 0.9) and 37% (P = 0.12), respectively, in the TLI-ATG arm. Conclusions: In comparison to patients included in the Flu-TBI arm, patients included in the TLI-ATG arm had lower incidence of chronic GVHD, higher incidence of relapse and similar OS. [less ▲]

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See detailSartre in Venedig: der Mann, der in die Kälte ging
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Viehöver, Vera ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2015), 11

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See detailAphid species and associated natural enemies in field crops: what about the invasive ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)?
Vandereycken, Axel ULg; Durieux, Delphine ULg; Joie, Emilie ULg et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2015), 68

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species ... [more ▼]

Following the introduction in the 80's of the invasive coccinellid species Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) in Europe, several studies have begun to focus on the interactions with other aphid predator species. In this study, aphids and associated predators were sampled to determine their relative abundance in four agricultural crops (broad bean, corn, potato, and wheat) in Belgium during 2010 and 2011. The Moericke trap was used to quantify the mean number of aphids and aphid predators from May to September in both years. A total of 28 aphid species and 21 aphidophagous species were observed. In both years, H. axyridis was among the most abundant aphidophagous predators in all four crops, and was the second most abundant coccinellid species after Coccinella septempunctata L. The community of aphidophagous species was similar across all four inventoried crops. However, the highest population densities of this alien species were recorded in broad bean and potato crops, which also hosted the highest aphid population densities. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that the communities of aphid predators are highly diversified in the agroecosystems, despite the high occurrence of H. axyridis, an introduced predator that has become well established in this environment. [less ▲]

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See detailClimate Change and Tritrophic Interactions: Will Modifications to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Increase the Vulnerability of Herbivorous Insects to Natural Enemies?
Boullis, Antoine ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Environmental Entomology (2015)

Insects are highly dependent on odor cues released into the environment to locate conspecifics or food sources. This mechanism is particularly important for insect predators that rely on kairomones ... [more ▼]

Insects are highly dependent on odor cues released into the environment to locate conspecifics or food sources. This mechanism is particularly important for insect predators that rely on kairomones released by their prey to detect them. In the context of climate change and, more specifically, modifications in the gas composition of the atmosphere, chemical communication-mediating interactions between phytophagous insect pests, their host plants, and their natural enemies is likely to be impacted. Several reports have indicated that modifications to plants caused by elevated carbon dioxide and ozone concentrations might indirectly affect insect herbivores, with community-level modifications to this group potentially having an indirect influence on higher trophic levels. The vulnerability of agricultural insect pests toward their natural enemies under elevated greenhouse gases concentrations has been frequently reported, but conflicting results have been obtained. This literature review shows that the higher levels of carbon dioxide, as predicted for the coming century, do not enhance the abundance or efficiency of natural enemies to locate hosts or prey in most published studies. Increased ozone levels lead to modifications in herbivore-induced volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by damaged plants, which may impact the attractiveness of these herbivores to the third trophic level. Furthermore, other oxidative gases (such as SO2 and NO2) tend to reduce the abundance of natural enemies. The impact of changes in atmospheric gas emissions on plant–insect and insect–insect chemical communication has been under-documented, despite the significance of these mechanisms in tritrophic interactions. We conclude by suggesting some further prospects on this topic of research yet to be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe influence of various reef sounds on coral-fish larvae behaviour
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Berten, Laetitia; Rigo, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2015)

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See detailPituitary MRI characteristics in 297 acromegaly patients based on T2-weighted sequences.
Potorac, Iulia ULg; PETROSSIANS, Patrick ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in Endocrine-related cancer (2015)

Context: Responses of GH-secreting adenomas to multimodal management of acromegaly varies widely between patients. Understanding the behavioral patterns of GH-secreting adenomas by identifying predictive ... [more ▼]

Context: Responses of GH-secreting adenomas to multimodal management of acromegaly varies widely between patients. Understanding the behavioral patterns of GH-secreting adenomas by identifying predictive factors of their evolution is a research priority. Objective: To clarify the relationship between adenoma T2-weighted signal on diagnostic MRI in acromegaly and clinical and biological features at diagnosis. Design: International, multicenter, retrospective analysis. Setting: 10 endocrine tertiary referral centers. Patients: 297 acromegalic recently diagnosed patients with available diagnostic MRI evaluations were included in the study. Main outcome measure: Clinical, biochemical characteristics and MRI signal findings. Results: T2-hypointense adenomas represented 52.9% of the series, were smaller than their T2-hyper- and isointense counterparts (p<0.0001), were associated with higher IGF1 levels (p=0.0001), invaded the cavernous sinus less frequently (p=0.0002) and rarely caused optic chiasm compression (p<0.0001). Acromegalic men tended to be younger at diagnosis than women (p=0.067) and presented higher IGF1 values (p=0.01). Although in total, adenomas had a predominantly inferior extension in 45.8% of cases, in men this was more frequent (p<0.0001), whereas in women optic chiasm compression of macroadenomas occurred more often (p=0.0067). Most adenomas (45.1%) measured between 11-20mm in maximal diameter and bigger adenomas were diagnosed at younger ages (p=0.0001). Conclusions: T2-weighted signal differentiates GH-secreting adenomas into subgroups with particular behaviors. This raises the question of whether T2-weighted signal could represent a factor in the classification of acromegalic patients in future studies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe range of validity of sorption kinetic models
Douven, Sigrid ULg; Pàez Martinez, Carlos ULg; Gommes, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2015), 448

Several hundred papers are published yearly reporting liquid-phase adsorption kinetics data. In general the data is analyzed using a variety of standard models such as the pseudo first- and second-order ... [more ▼]

Several hundred papers are published yearly reporting liquid-phase adsorption kinetics data. In general the data is analyzed using a variety of standard models such as the pseudo first- and second-order models and the Intraparticle-Diffusion model. The validity of these models is often assessed empirically via their ability to fit the data, independently of their physicochemical soundness. The aim of the present paper is to rationalize the analysis of liquid-phase adsorption kinetics data, and to investigate experimental factors that influence the adsorption kinetics, in addition to the characteristics of the adsorbent material itself. For that purpose we use a simple Langmuir adsorption–diffusion model, which enables us to identify three dimensionless numbers that characterize the working regime of any batch adsorption experiment: an adsorption Thiele modulus, a saturation modulus, and a loading modulus. The standard models are found to be particular cases of the general adsorption–diffusion model for specific values of the dimensionless numbers. This provides sound physicochemical criteria for the validity of the models. Based on our modeling, we also propose a general yet simple data analysis procedure to practically estimate the diffusion coefficient in adsorbent pellets starting from adsorption halftimes. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of thermal comfort models for various climatic zones of North-East India
Singh, Manoj Kumar; Mahapatra, Sadhan; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Sustainable Cities and Society (2015), 14

Thermal comfort study provides crucial information about thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings. Humphreys and Auliciems comfort model uses indoor and outdoor temperatures to predict ... [more ▼]

Thermal comfort study provides crucial information about thermal performance of naturally ventilated buildings. Humphreys and Auliciems comfort model uses indoor and outdoor temperatures to predict comfort temperatures. It is found that the comfort temperatures obtained by using these methods do not take into account the occupant behavioral adaptability to a particular climatic zone. This demands development of new set of comfort models based on local environmental parameters, socio-cultural setup and behavioral action. Analysis shows that four major variables like indoor and outdoor temperature, relative humidity and clothing pattern plays an important role in defining comfort and greatly influence the occupant’s perception and acceptance on thermal comfort. In this study, comfort models are developed based on these variables. The computed neutral temperatures based on the models are compared with the comfort temperatures obtained through comfort survey. The models are developed using the measured data of January and July months and validated with the measured data of April and October months. This study also concludes that it is not possible to obtain a generalized thermal comfort model for all climatic zone because adaptation process, expectation and perception of people are region specific and governed by local socio-cultural requirement. [less ▲]

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See detailA generic anisotropic continuum damage model integration scheme adaptable to both ductile damage and biological damage-like situations
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Plasticity (2015), 66

This paper aims at presenting a general versatile time integration scheme applicable to anisotropic damage coupled to elastoplasticity, considering any damage rate and isotropic hardening formulations ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at presenting a general versatile time integration scheme applicable to anisotropic damage coupled to elastoplasticity, considering any damage rate and isotropic hardening formulations. For this purpose a staggered time integration scheme in a finite strain framework is presented, together with an analytical consistent tangent operator. The only restrictive hypothesis is to work with an undamaged isotropic material, assumed here to follow a J2 plasticity model. The only anisotropy considered is thus a damage-induced anisotropy. The possibility to couple any damage rate law with the present algorithm is illustrated with a classical ductile damage model for aluminium, and a biological damage-like application. The later proposes an original bone remodelling law coupled to trabecular bone plasticity for the simulation of orthodontic tooth movements. All the developments have been considered in the framework of the implicit non-linear finite element code Metafor (developed at the LTAS/MN2L, University of Liège, Belgium - www.metafor.ltas.ulg.ac.be). [less ▲]

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See detailExtracellular peptidase hunting for improvement of protein production in plant cells and roots
Lallemand, Jérôme ULg; Bouché, Frédéric ULg; Desiron, Carole et al

in Frontiers in Plant Science (2015), 6(37),

Plant-based recombinant protein production systems have gained an extensive interest over the past few years, because of their reduced cost and relative safety. Although the first products are now ... [more ▼]

Plant-based recombinant protein production systems have gained an extensive interest over the past few years, because of their reduced cost and relative safety. Although the first products are now reaching the market, progress are still needed to improve plant hosts and strategies for biopharming. Targeting recombinant proteins toward the extracellular space offers several advantages in terms of protein folding and purification, but degradation events are observed, due to endogenous peptidases. This paper focuses on the analysis of extracellular proteolytic activities in two production systems: cell cultures and root-secretion (rhizosecretion), in Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. Proteolytic activities of extracellular proteomes (secretomes) were evaluated in vitro against two substrate proteins: bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum immunoglobulins G (hIgGs). Both targets were found to be degraded by the secretomes, BSA being more prone to proteolysis than hIgGs. The analysis of the proteolysis pH-dependence showed that target degradation was mainly dependent upon the production system: rhizosecretomes contained more peptidase activity than extracellular medium of cell suspensions, whereas variations due to plant species were smaller. Using class-specific peptidase inhibitors, serine and metallopeptidases were found to be responsible for degradation of both substrates. An in-depth in silico analysis of genomic and transcriptomic data from Arabidopsis was then performed and led to the identification of a limited number of serine and metallo-peptidases that are consistently expressed in both production systems. These peptidases should be prime candidates for further improvement of plant hosts by targeted silencing. [less ▲]

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See detailA new species of Groenlandaspis Heintz, 1932 (Placodermi, Arthrodira) from the Famennian (Late Devonian) of Belgium
Olive, Sébastien ULg; Prestianni, Cyrille; Dupret, Vincent

in Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology (2015), 35(5),

A new species of the phlyctaeniid arthrodire genus Groenlandaspis from the upper Famennian of Belgium is described. The remains of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. consist of dissociated thoracic armor ... [more ▼]

A new species of the phlyctaeniid arthrodire genus Groenlandaspis from the upper Famennian of Belgium is described. The remains of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. consist of dissociated thoracic armor elements, but the specimen designed to be the holotype displays the median dorsal, anterior and posterior dorsolateral plates in connection. Though incomplete, the new species is characterized by an equilateral triangle-shaped median dorsal plate, a protruding posterodorsal apron of the posterior dorsolateral plate behind the overlap area for the median dorsal plate, and an overall lack of ornamentation. Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. constitutes the second occurrence of a Groenlandaspis species in continental Europe after the description of Groenlandaspis thorezi from upper Famennian quarries of Belgium. Another probable new species of Groenlandaspis is also described, though of unknown locality and horizon; it can however be deduced from the upper Famennian of Belgium without more precision. Together with some unpublished material of groenlandaspidids from the Famennian tetrapod-bearing locality of Strud, this material highlights the richness of the Groenlandaspididae diversity in Belgium. The discovery of Groenlandaspis potyi sp. nov. in Belgium reinforces the Famennian global distribution of this widespread genus during this period. Also, since those organisms have possibly been considered as non-marine indicators, this material is another argument pleading for close relationships between Euramerica and Gondwana around the Frasnian-Famennian boundary. [less ▲]

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See detailThe emergence of metabolomics as a key discipline in the drug discovery process
Fillet, Marianne ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg

in Drug Discovery Today: Technologies (2015)

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See detailChemical characterisation and in vitro assessment of the nutritive value of co-products yield from the corn wet-milling process
Malumba Kamba, Paul ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Roiseux, Olivier et al

in Food Chemistry (2015), 166

The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability ... [more ▼]

The chemical characteristics of co-products recovered during a laboratory-scale wet milling procedure as well as that of whole corn flour were characterised and their digestibility and fermentability value determined using a 2 steps in vitro digestibility and fermentation model of the pig digestive tract. Five co-products differing in their chemical composition were collected and analysed. These co-products differed in their in vitro dry matter Digestibility and in their kinetic of fermentation. High coefficients of digestibility were observed for starchy samples, while low coefficients of digestibility were observed for samples rich in lignocellulosic components. Fermentation patterns of samples analysed were different as well as the profile of volatile fatty acids produced during the fermentation. The production of straight-chain fatty acids produced was significantly correlated with the proportion of starch in the sample, while branched-chain fatty acids were correlated to proteins concentration of samples. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical Note: Large overestimation of pCO2 calculated from pH and alkalinity in acidic, organic-rich freshwaters
Abril, G; Bouillon, S; Darchambeau, François ULg et al

in Biogeosciences (2015), 12(1), 67-78

Inland waters have been recognized as a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere at the global scale. Fluxes of CO2 between aquatic systems and the atmosphere are calculated from the ... [more ▼]

Inland waters have been recognized as a significant source of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere at the global scale. Fluxes of CO2 between aquatic systems and the atmosphere are calculated from the gas transfer velocity and the water–air gradient of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). Currently, direct measurements of water pCO2 remain scarce in freshwaters, and most published pCO2 data are calculated from temperature, pH and total alkalinity (TA). Here, we compare calculated (pH and TA) and measured (equilibrator and headspace) water pCO2 in a large array of temperate and tropical freshwaters. The 761 data points cover a wide range of values for TA (0 to 14 200 μmol L􀀀1), pH (3.94 to 9.17), measured pCO2 (36 to 23 000 ppmv), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (29 to 3970 μmol L􀀀1). Calculated pCO2 were >10% higher than measured pCO2 in 60% of the samples (with a median overestimation of calculated pCO2 compared to measured pCO2 of 2560 ppmv) and were >100% higher in the 25% most organic-rich and acidic samples (with a median overestimation of 9080 ppmv). We suggest these large overestimations of calculated pCO2 with respect to measured pCO2 are due to the combination of two cumulative effects: (1) a more significant contribution of organic acids anions to TA in waters with low carbonate alkalinity and high DOC concentrations; (2) a lower buffering capacity of the carbonate system at low pH, which increases the sensitivity of calculated pCO2 to TA in acidic and organicrich waters. No empirical relationship could be derived from our data set in order to correct calculated pCO2 for this bias. Owing to the widespread distribution of acidic, organic-rich freshwaters, we conclude that regional and global estimates of CO2 outgassing from freshwaters based on pH and TA data only are most likely overestimated, although the magnitude of the overestimation needs further quantitative analysis. Direct measurements of pCO2 are recommended in inland waters in general, and in particular in acidic, poorly buffered freshwaters [less ▲]

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See detailRethinking Vulnerability Analysis and Governance with Emphasis on a Participatory Approach
Rossignol, Nicolas ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Turcanu, Catrinel

in Risk Analysis : An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis (2015), 35(1), 129-141

This paper draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability of nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An ... [more ▼]

This paper draws on vulnerability analysis as it emerged as a complement to classical risk analysis, and it aims at exploring its ability of nurturing risk and vulnerability governance actions. An analysis of the literature on vulnerability analysis allows us to formulate a threefold critique: first, vulnerability analysis has been treated separately in the natural and the technological hazards fields. This separation prevents vulnerability to unleash the full range of its potential, as it constraints appraisals into artificial categories and thus already closes down the outcomes of the analysis. Second, vulnerability analysis focused on assessment tools that are mainly quantitative, whereas qualitative appraisal is a key to assessing vulnerability in a comprehensive way and to informing policy-making. Third, a systematic literature review of case studies reporting on participatory approaches to vulnerability analysis allows us to argue that participation has been important to address the above, but it remains too closed down in its approach and would benefit from embracing a more open, encompassing perspective. Therefore, we suggest rethinking vulnerability analysis as one part of a dynamic process between opening-up and closing-down strategies, in order to support a vulnerability governance framework. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of isoflurane and sevoflurane on the neutrophilmyeloperoxidase system of horses
MINGUET, Grégory ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg; JORIS, Jean ULg et al

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2015)

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See detailOsteoporosis in patients taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: a focus on fracture outcome
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Endocrine (2015), 48(1), 65-68

Depression is one of the most important mental health problems and a leading cause of disability. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of ... [more ▼]

Depression is one of the most important mental health problems and a leading cause of disability. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are considered as first-line therapy for the treatment of depressive symptoms among older adults because of their presumed favorable adverse effect profile. However, they could have deleterious effects on the bone. Evidence from longitudinal, crosssectional, and prospective cohort studies suggests that the use of antidepressants at therapeutic doses is associated with decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk. The association between SSRIs use and fracture risk could potentially differ depending on dose, exposure duration, time of exposure, age, or sex. However, the risk of fracture declined rapidly after discontinuation of use of SSRIs. The evidence now seems sufficient to consider adding SSRIs to the list of medications that contribute to osteoporosis. In practice, assessment of risk factor for osteoporosis or fractures could be made taking into account age, gender, duration, and severity of depression, length of SSRI treatments, and other concurrent risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailThe course of anaemia in children and adolescents with Crohn's disease included in a prospective registry.
Van Biervliet, Stephanie; Smets, Francoise; Hofmann, Ilse et al

in International journal of colorectal disease (2015), 30(1), 51-6

AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and evolution of anaemia in prospectively followed children and adolescents diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: The BELCRO registry ... [more ▼]

AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and evolution of anaemia in prospectively followed children and adolescents diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: The BELCRO registry (inclusion May 2008-April 2010), describing current clinical treatment practice of children diagnosed with CD, provided data on age, height, body mass index (BMI), paediatric Crohn's disease activity index (PCDAI), therapy and haemoglobin (Hb) at diagnosis 12 and 24 months follow-up. Anaemia was defined as Hb < -2 sd, while severe anaemia was defined as Hb < -4 sd. Patients were classified as child </=13 and adolescent >13 years of age. RESULT: Ninety-six were included, 13 dropped out due to insufficient Hb data (37 females/46 males; median age 13.3 years, range 2.2-17.8 years). At diagnosis, the median Hb sd was -2.66 (-8.4; 1.07) and was correlated with the PCDAI (p = 0.013). At diagnosis, 51/83 (61 %) were anaemic and all had active disease. Hb z-score significantly improved (p < 0.0001) but 26/68 (38 %) remained anaemic at 12 months and 29/76 (38 %) at 24 months of follow-up. The correlation to the PCDAI disappeared. At 24 months, children were more likely to be anaemic. There was no difference in iron dose nor duration of iron supplements between children and adolescents. Iron treatment was more readily given to patients presenting with anaemia. Hb did not differ between patients with (n = 28) or without iron supplements. Half of the patients with persisting anaemia were given iron supplements, of which, only three were given intravenously. CONCLUSION: Anaemia remains an important extra-intestinal manifestation of CD in children. Physicians, lacking optimal treatment strategies, undertreat their patients. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire et expérience fondatrice dans Sein und Zeit
Zincq, Aurélien ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2015)

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See detailNylon flocked swab severely reduces Hexagon Obti sensibility
Frippiat, Christophe; De Roy, Gilbert; Fontaine, Louis-Marie et al

in Forensic Science International (2015), 247(0), 126-129

Abstract Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ... [more ▼]

Abstract Hexagon Obti immunological blood test and flocked swab are widely used in forensic laboratories. Nevertheless, up to now, no compatibility tests have been published between sampling with the ethylene oxide treated flocked swab and the Hexagon Obti blood detection strip. In this study, we investigated this compatibility. Our work shows that sampling with ethylene oxide treated flocked swab reduces by a factor of at least 100 the detection threshold of blood using the Hexagon Obti immunological test. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the necessity and biological significance of threshold-free regulon prediction outputs
Rigali, Sébastien ULg; Nivelle, Renaud; Tocquin, Pierre ULg

in Molecular Biosystems (2015), 11

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between ... [more ▼]

The in silico prediction of cis-acting elements in a genome is an efficient way to quickly obtain an overview of the biological processes controlled by a trans-acting factor, and connections between regulatory networks. Several regulon prediction web tools are available, designed to identify DNA motifs predicted to be bound by transcription factors using position weight matrix-based algorithms. In this paper we expose and discuss the conflicting objectives of software creators (bioinformaticians) and software users (biologists), who aim for reliable and exhaustive prediction outputs, respectively. Software makers, concerned with providing tools that minimise the number of false positive hits, often impose a stringent threshold score for a sequence to be included in the list of the putative cis-acting sites. This rigidity eventually results in the identification of strongly reliable but largely straightforward sites, i.e. those associated with genes already anticipated to be targeted by the studied transcription factor. Importantly, this biased identification of strongly bound sequences contrasts with the biological reality where, in many circumstances, a weak DNA-protein interaction is required for the appropriate gene's expression. We show here a series of transcriptionally controlled systems involving weakly bound cis-acting elements that could never have been discovered because of the policy of preventing software users from modifying the screening parameters. Proposing only trustworthy prediction outputs thus prevents biologists from fully utilising their knowledge background and deciding to analyse statistically irrelevant hits that could nonetheless be potentially involved in subtle, unexpected, though essential cis-trans relationships. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of oregano (Origanum heracleoticum) essential oil and carvacrol on virulence gene transcription by Escherichia coli O157:H7
Mith, Hasika; Clinquart, Antoine ULg; Zhiri, Abdesselam et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2015), 362

The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and ... [more ▼]

The aim of the current study was to determine, via reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, the effect of oregano essential oil (Origanum heracleoticum) and carvacrol, its major component, on the expression of virulence-associated genes in enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 ATCC strain 35150. Both oregano oil and carvacrol demonstrated their efficacy firstly, by inhibiting the transcription of the ler gene involved in up regulation of the LEE2, LEE3 and LEE4 promoters and of attaching and effacing lesions and secondly by decreasing both Shiga toxin and fliC genes expression. In addition, a decrease in luxS gene transcription involved in quorum sensing was observed. These results were dose dependent and showed a specific effect of O. heracleoticum and carvacrol in downregulating the expression of virulence genes in EHEC O157:H7. These findings suggest that oregano oil and carvacrol have the potential to mitigate the adverse health effects caused by virulence gene expression in EHEC O157: [less ▲]

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See detailUncertainties in Models of Stellar Structure and Evolution
Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULg; Bragaglia, Angela

in Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings (2015), 39

Numerous physical aspects of stellar physics have been presented in Session 2 and the underlying uncertainties have been tentatively assessed. We try here to highlight some specific points raised after ... [more ▼]

Numerous physical aspects of stellar physics have been presented in Session 2 and the underlying uncertainties have been tentatively assessed. We try here to highlight some specific points raised after the talks and during the general discussion at the end of the session and eventually at the end of the workshop. A table of model uncertainties is then drawn with the help of the participants in order to give the state of the art in stellar modeling uncertainties as of July 2013. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoiding 2-binomial squares and cubes
Rao, Michaël; Rigo, Michel ULg; Salimov, Pavel

in Theoretical Computer Science (2015), 572

Two finite words $u,v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent if, for all words $x$ of length at most $2$, the number of occurrences of $x$ as a (scattered) subword of $u$ is equal to the number of occurrences of ... [more ▼]

Two finite words $u,v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent if, for all words $x$ of length at most $2$, the number of occurrences of $x$ as a (scattered) subword of $u$ is equal to the number of occurrences of $x$ in $v$. This notion is a refinement of the usual abelian equivalence. A $2$-binomial square is a word $uv$ where $u$ and $v$ are $2$-binomially equivalent. In this paper, considering pure morphic words, we prove that $2$-binomial squares (resp. cubes) are avoidable over a $3$-letter (resp. $2$-letter) alphabet. The sizes of the alphabets are optimal. [less ▲]

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See detailRetour au sport après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur : critères utilisés dans les cubs professionnels de football
Delvaux, François ULg; Rochcongar, P; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Science et Sports (2015), 30

Résumé Objectifs Analyser la démarche suivie par les médecins de clubs professionnels de football lorsqu’ils décident, en pratique quotidienne, d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament ... [more ▼]

Résumé Objectifs Analyser la démarche suivie par les médecins de clubs professionnels de football lorsqu’ils décident, en pratique quotidienne, d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur chez un footballeur. Matériels et méthodes Trente-sept médecins responsables de clubs professionnels de football français et belges (Ligue 1, n = 15 ; Ligue 2, n = 14 ; Division 1 belge, n = 8) ont rempli un questionnaire à choix multiple concernant : (1) les critères utilisés afin de déterminer si un joueur est apte à reprendre la compétition après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur ; (2) l’importance relative de chacun de ces critères ; (3) le rôle éventuel d’intervenants spécifiques (kinésithérapeute…) dans cette décision. Résultats Plus de 80 % des médecins interrogés ont déclaré utiliser au moins huit critères (sur 17 proposés) afin d’évaluer la capacité d’un footballeur à reprendre la compétition après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur. Les trois critères considérés comme les plus déterminants étaient, par ordre d’importance : la stabilité dynamique du genou lors d’un exercice spécifique au football, la force musculaire et la récupération complète ou quasi complète d’amplitudes articulaires de flexion et d’extension de genou. Pour certains de ces critères (notamment la force musculaire), nous constatons cependant un manque de consensus sur les modalités pratiques d’évaluation, sur les paramètres ainsi que sur les valeurs-limites tolérées afin de garantir un retour sur terrain sécurisé. La prise en compte de l’avis du kinésithérapeute et du préparateur physique par une très nette majorité de médecins souligne l’importance d’un travail pluridisciplinaire. Conclusion L’utilisation de différents critères objectifs afin d’autoriser le retour compétitif après plastie du ligament croisé antérieur semble être une réalité dans le football professionnel. Des études supplémentaires devraient cependant contribuer à préciser les modalités des épreuves ainsi que des valeurs-seuils. ________________________________________ Summary Purpose To analyze how sport physicians decide, in their daily practice, when a professional soccer player with a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament is able to get back to competitive activities. Materials and methods Thirty-seven physicians for professional French and Belgian soccer teams filled in a specific questionnaire dedicated to: (1) return-to-play criteria after anterior cruciate reconstruction; (2) the importance they assigned to each of these criteria in the return-to-play decision; (3) the potential role of professionals, such as physiotherapists or physical coaches in this decision. Results More than 80% of the respondents declared to use at least eight criteria in order to assess the player's ability to return to competitive soccer after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The most important ones were (in order of importance): dynamic knee stability during a specific soccer exercise, muscle strength performance and normalization of knee flexion and extension ranges of motion. For most of these criteria (notably muscle strength), there was a lack of consensus about the choice of assessment parameters and the limit values allowing physicians to authorize or forbid the return-to-competition. A large majority of participants stated to take into consideration advices from physiotherapists or physical coaches for the return-to-play decision. Conclusion Sport physicians of professional soccer teams use relevant criteria to assess players’ ability to return to full sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Further studies are required to determine the choice of assessment parameters and the limit values to assist physicians in return-to-play decisions. [less ▲]

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See detailBeyond the Experience: Detection of Metamemorial Regularities
Geurten, Marie ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 33

We examined the mechanisms involved in the development of the easily learned, easily remembered (ELER) heuristic in three groups of young children (4–5 years, 6–7 years, and 8–9 years). A trial-to ... [more ▼]

We examined the mechanisms involved in the development of the easily learned, easily remembered (ELER) heuristic in three groups of young children (4–5 years, 6–7 years, and 8–9 years). A trial-to-acquisition procedure was used to evaluate how much these children’s judgment of learning depended on the ELER heuristic. Moreover, a new experimental paradigm, composed of six phases—a pretest, four training phases, and a posttest—was employed to implicitly influence the validity of the ELER association that underlies this metacognitive rule. Results revealed that the ELER heuristic develops early (4–5 years), but its use is reduced after implicit training. Furthermore, executive monitoring was found to account for the smaller changes observed in older children (8–9 years) after training. From a developmental perspective, these findings present a coherent picture of children’s learning of metacognitive heuristics, wherein early automatic and implicit learning is later followed by effortful control. [less ▲]

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See detailVehicle routing problems with loading constraints: State-of-the-art and future directions
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in OR Spectrum (2015), 37(Issue 2), 297-330

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring ... [more ▼]

Distributors are faced with loading constraints in their route planning, e.g.,multi-dimensional packing constraints, unloading sequence constraints, stability constraints and axle weight limits. Ignoring these constraints impairs planning and induces last-minute changes resulting in additional costs. Developing vehicle routing models incorporating loading constraints is critical to more efficient route planning. The last couple of years has seen a huge increase of contributions to this field of research with almost 60 % of these being published after 2009. Our contribution is twofold. First, we overview the recent developments in the literature on all vehicle types in which loading constraints play a key role (trucks, airplanes, ships, and automated guided vehicles), using a state-of-the-art classification scheme to identify the loading constraints considered in each article. Second, we identify research gaps and opportunities for future research. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative temperature monitoring of a heat tracing experiment using cross-borehole ERT
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Jamin, Pierre ULg et al

in Geothermics (2015), 53

The growing demand for renewable energy leads to an increase in the development of geothermal energy projects and heat has become a common tracer in hydrology and hydrogeology. Designing geothermal ... [more ▼]

The growing demand for renewable energy leads to an increase in the development of geothermal energy projects and heat has become a common tracer in hydrology and hydrogeology. Designing geothermal systems requires a multidisciplinary approach including geological and hydrogeological aspects. In this context, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can bring relevant, qualitative and quantitative information on the temperature distribution in operating shallow geothermal systems or during heat tracing experiments. We followed a heat tracing experiment in an alluvial aquifer using cross-borehole time-lapse ERT. Heated water was injected in a well while water of the aquifer was extracted at another well. An ERT section was set up across the main flow direction. The results of ERT were transformed into temperature using calibrated petrophysical relationships. These ERT-derived temperatures were then compared to direct temperature measurements in control piezometers collected with distributed temperature sensing (DTS) and groundwater temperature loggers. Spatially, it enabled to map the horizontal and vertical extent of the heated water plume, as well as the zones where maximum temperatures occurred. Quantitatively, the temperatures and breakthrough curves estimated from ERT were in good agreement with the ones observed directly during the rise and maximum of the curve. An overestimation, likely related to 3D effects, was observed for the tail of the heat breakthrough curve. The error made on temperature can be estimated to be between 10 to 20 %, which is a fair value for indirect measurements. From our data, we estimated a quantification threshold for temperature variation of 1.2°C. These results suggest that ERT should be considered when designing heat tracing experiments or geothermal systems. It could help also to assess the geometrical complexity of the concerned reservoirs. It also appears that ERT could be a useful tool to monitor and control geothermal systems once they are in operation. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of structural damping in the dynamic analysis of compliant deployable structures
Dewalque, Florence ULg; Rochus, Pierre ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Acta Astronautica (2015), 111

Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their ... [more ▼]

Compliant mechanisms such as tape springs are often used on satellites to deploy appendices, e.g. solar panels, antennas, telescopes and solar sails. Their main advantage comes from the fact that their motion results from the elastic deformation of structural components, unlike usual hinges or prismatic joints, the motion of which is dictated by contact surfaces. No actuators or external energy sources are required and the deployment is purely passive, which appears as a decisive feature for the design of low-cost missions with small satellites or cubesats. The mechanical behaviour of a tape spring is intrinsically complex and nonlinear involving buckling, hysteresis and self-locking phenomena. High-fidelity mechanical models are then needed to get a detailed understanding of the deployment process, improve the design and predict the actual behaviour in the space 0-g environment. In the majority of the previous works, dynamic simulations were performed without any physical representation of the structural damping. These simulations could be successfully achieved because of the presence of numerical damping in the transient solver. However, in this case, the dynamic response turns out to be quite sensitive to the amount of numerical dissipation, so that the predictive capabilities of the model are questionable. In this work based on numerical case studies, we show that the dynamic simulation of a tape spring can be made less sensitive to numerical parameters when the structural dissipation is taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailBiogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin
Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R. et al

in Biogeosciences (2015), 12(5), 1561--1583

Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification ... [more ▼]

Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity in any hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water-column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light–dark incubations, in addition to sediment–water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting data set was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air–sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment–water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid–base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid–base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process. [less ▲]

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See detailThe origin and control of mega-gullies in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo)
Makanzu Imwangana, Fils; Vandecasteele, Ine; Trefois, Philippe et al

in Catena (2015), 125

This study aims to investigate the relation between mega-gully (> 5 m width) distribution and urbanization in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo), to establish what governs mega-gully location and plan form and to ... [more ▼]

This study aims to investigate the relation between mega-gully (> 5 m width) distribution and urbanization in Kinshasa (D.R. Congo), to establish what governs mega-gully location and plan form and to illustrate the concepts behind mega-gully treatment. For this purpose, the diachronic distribution of mega-gullies has been mapped in Kinshasa. All mega-gullies have been reported in ArcGis 9.3 on the orthorectified SPOT 2007 image. A newly elaborated DEM enables the mega-gullies to be placed in their natural topographical context. The GIS inventory on the SPOT 2006/2007 anaglyph indicates the mega-gully situation in the high town of Kinshasa 5 years ago: 308 mega-gullies with a cumulated length of 94.7 km, a mean drainage density of 0.4 km km− 2 and an average width and depth of 17 m and 6 m respectively. On the WorldView 1 (WV1) coverage, the number of mega-gullies has more than doubled between 2007 and 2010 from 160 to 334. The study shows that mega-gullies only develop within the urbanized perimeter of the high town of Kinshasa and only 5 to 10 years after incipient urbanization. The study also indicates that neither the location, the plan form or the downslope course of mega-gullies in Kinshasa are controlled by the natural topography. Forty-three point eight percent of the mega-gullies in Kinshasa are ‘axial’, occupying urban structures which function as artificial runoff drainage lines: roads, tarred or not, with or without side-road trenches, gutters in all forms and materials from concrete to sand, also foot paths and further all artificial runoff drainage lines. The study reveals that every mega-gully is directly or indirectly induced by human activities, but that every gully also finally ends to grow after an initial phase of sudden development. Mega-gully treatment follows two principles, often combined. The first is to stop the alimentation of the mega-gully head with water. The second includes a complete stabilization of the channel and walls inside the mega-gully. This study emphasizes that gully prevention can basically be achieved by control of the runoff discharges in the artificial stream network, as well as beside the roads. [less ▲]

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See detailWhich psychological factors influence Internet addiction? Evidence through an integrative model
Burnay, Jonathan ULg; Billieux, Joël; Blairy, Sylvie ULg et al

in Computers in Human Behavior (2015), 43

Since the appearance of Internet, several preoccupations have appeared as a result, with Internet addiction being one of the most common. The goals of the present study were two-fold. First, to examine ... [more ▼]

Since the appearance of Internet, several preoccupations have appeared as a result, with Internet addiction being one of the most common. The goals of the present study were two-fold. First, to examine which psychological factors are relevant to explain Internet addiction, including impulsivity, passion and social provision. Second, to incorporate all these factors into an integrative model. Based on multiple regressions and path analysis, results revealed a positive relation between Internet addiction and specific impulsivity components (lack of perseverance, urgency) and obsessive passion. Moreover, positive relations were observed between obsessive passion and reassurance of worth, opportunity for nurturance, sensation seeking and harmonious passion. In other words, Internet addiction is related to obsessive passion, but is explained by different psychological factors. Accordingly, both Internet addiction and obsessive passion can be viewed as two important and complementary facets of problematic Internet use. [less ▲]

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See detailRestoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive: II. Clinical effects.
Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Contraception (2015), 91(2), 134-42

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP)-containing COC restored total T levels to baseline and free T levels by 47%. Here we describe the effects on sexual function, mood and quality of life of such an intervention. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 99 healthy COC starters. A COC containing 30mcg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3mg DRSP was used for three cycles, followed by six cycles of the same COC combined with 50mg/day DHEA or placebo. Subjects completed the Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), the McCoy Female Sexuality Questionnaire and the short form of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q). Safety and tolerability, including effects on skin, were evaluated. RESULTS: The addition of DHEA induced small but significant improvements compared to placebo in the MDQ score for autonomic reactions during the menstrual (-2.0 vs. 0.71; p=0.05) and the premenstrual phase (-3.1 vs. 2.9; p=0.01) and for behavior during the intermenstrual phase (-1.4 vs. 3.6; p=0.02). A significant difference was found in the MDQ score for arousal during the premenstrual phase in favor of placebo (-5.0 vs. 1.0; p=0.01). There were no statistically significant differences between groups for the MSFQ and Q-LES-Q scores. DHEA 'co-administration' resulted in an acceptable safety profile. DHEA negated the beneficial effect of the COC on acne according to the subjects' self-assessment. CONCLUSIONS: 'Co-administration' with DHEA did not result in consistent improvements in sexual function, mood and quality of life indicators in women taking EE/DRSP. Retrospectively, the 50 mg dose of DHEA may be too low for this COC. IMPLICATIONS: A well-balanced judgment of the clinical consequences of normalizing androgens during COC use may require complete normalization of free T. [less ▲]

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See detailAre Children Conservative, Liberal or Metacognitive? Preliminary Evidence for the Involvement of the Distinctiveness Heuristic in Decision Making
Geurten, Marie ULg; Willems, Sylvie ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (2015), 132

The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognition rate after distinctive encoding by implementing a strategic metacognitive rule. Seventy-two children ... [more ▼]

The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognition rate after distinctive encoding by implementing a strategic metacognitive rule. Seventy-two children, aged 4, 6, and 9 years, studied two lists of unrelated items. One of these lists was visually displayed (picture condition) while the other was presented auditorily (word condition). After each study phase, participants completed recognition tests. Finally, they answered questions about their explicit knowledge of the distinctive-encoding effect. The results revealed that even the youngest children in our sample showed a smaller proportion of intrusions in the picture condition than in the word condition. Furthermore, the results of the signal detection analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that the lower rate of false recognitions after picture encoding results from the implementation of a conservative response criterion based on metacognitive expectations (distinctiveness heuristic). Moreover, the absence of correlation between children’s explicit knowledge of the distinctiveness rule and their effective use of this metacognitive heuristic seems to indicate that its involvement in memory decisions could be mediated by implicit mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailSpore assemblages from Upper Ordovician and Lowermost Silurian sediments recovered from the Qusaiba-1 shallow core hole, Qasim region, central Saudi Arabia
Wellman, Charles H.; Steemans, Philippe ULg; Miller, M.A.

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2015), 212

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See detailRestoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive: I. Endocrine effects.
Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Contraception (2015), 91(2), 127-33

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). STUDY DESIGN: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 99 new COC starters (18-35 years old with body mass index range 18-34kg/m(2)), a COC containing 30mcg ethinylestradiol (EE) and 3mg drospirenone (DRSP) was used for 3cycles, followed by 6cycles of the same COC combined with either 50mg/day DHEA or placebo. Total T, albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S), Delta4-androstenedione (AD), 3alpha-androstanediol glucuronide (ADG) and estradiol (E2) were measured, whereas free T and the free T index (FTI) were calculated. Assessments took place at baseline (no COC use), after the run-in period (COC use alone) and during the treatment period (DHEA or placebo). RESULTS: During COC use alone, androgen levels decreased, especially total T by 62% and free T by 86%, and SHBG increased by 243%. Total T increased with DHEA compared to placebo (change from end of run-in period to end of treatment period - 1.3+/-1.2nmol/L vs. 0.0+/-0.4nmol/L; p<.0001) - and was restored to baseline levels. Free T and the FTI increased significantly (p<.0001), but the free T level was still 53% below baseline levels. DHEA-S, AD and ADG increased significantly to levels above baseline (p<.0001 for each). DHEA had no effect on SHBG, albumin and E2. CONCLUSIONS: An EE/DRSP containing COC strongly suppressed endogenous androgen concentrations in all users. The addition of 50mg DHEA to a COC regimen containing EE/DRSP restored total T to baseline levels, but free T levels were restored by only 47% as most of the T remains bound to SHBG. IMPLICATIONS: When using a COC that increases SHBG considerably, a daily dose of 50mg DHEA is insufficient to normalize free T levels completely. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Chemical compositions and the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Essential Oil of Rosemary Leaves from Eastern Morocco
Tahri, Mustapha; Imelouane, Bouchra; Amhamdi, Hassan et al

in Journal of Materials and Environmental Science (2015), 6(3), 666-672

The essential oils compositions of Rosmarinus. tournefortii wild plant, Rosmarinus. tournefortii domesticated plant, and Rosmarinus officinalis.L wild plant growing in different bio climates from eastern ... [more ▼]

The essential oils compositions of Rosmarinus. tournefortii wild plant, Rosmarinus. tournefortii domesticated plant, and Rosmarinus officinalis.L wild plant growing in different bio climates from eastern Morocco, was determined by GC-FID and GC–MS. Oils were assessed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. A variation of chemical compositions attributed to varieties rather than to bio climates was revealed. α-Pinene (0.637% ; 44.22% ; 5.74%), Camphene (11.62% ; 6.52% ; 2.21%), ß-Pinene (14.72% ; 1.14% ; 3.71%), 1,8-Cineole (10.1% ; not identifying ; 56.51%) and Camphor (39.27% ; 7.64% ; 13.56%) were identified as the main constituents of R. tournefortii wild plant, R. tournefortii domesticated plant, and R. officinalis. L wild plant respectively. This study is based on the determination of the diameter of inhibition to moderate antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of oils revealed to be against eight bacteria tested. This was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were found in oils from Rosmarinus. tournefortii domesticated plant. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of novel SOlid Materials for high power Li polymer BATteries (SOMABAT). Recyclability of components.
Zubizarreta, Leire; Gil-Agusti, Mayte; Garcia. et al

in Lecture notes on Mobility (2015)

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See detailEducation et formation en médecine gériatrique en Europe : challenge du futur?
ROLLER, REGINA ELISABETH; PETERMANS, Jean ULg

in Gériatrie et Psychologie Neuropsychiatrie du Vieillissement (2015)

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See detailMicrowave-assisted thermochemical and primary hydrolytic conversions of lignocellulosic resources: a review
Richel, Aurore ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg

in Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery (2015), 5(1), 115-124

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as promising renewable alternatives. Particularly, the conversion of lignocellulosic materials has ... [more ▼]

Faced with the inevitable depletion of fossil resources, agricultural productions have rapidly emerged as promising renewable alternatives. Particularly, the conversion of lignocellulosic materials has nowadays opened new vistas for the production of energy, biofuels and chemicals. In this literature review, microwave technology is described as an original heating source either for the thermochemical conversions (at temperatures up to 400°C) of lignocellulose into biofuels or the pretreatment (below 400°C) and further hydrolysis of lignocellulose into bioethanol and other valuable chemicals. Advantages of microwave approaches include a commonly observed acceleration in reaction rate and improved selectivities and yields. [less ▲]

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See detailLa copie d’expression écrite en langue étrangère : un support équitable ?
Noiroux, Kevin ULg; Simons, Germain ULg

in Spirale (2015), 55

Summative writing assessment is an evaluative practice that aims, at least theoretically, to inform each student about his performance in that skill at a given time, and to help him to understand his ... [more ▼]

Summative writing assessment is an evaluative practice that aims, at least theoretically, to inform each student about his performance in that skill at a given time, and to help him to understand his errors so that he can make progress in his learning. In this article, we analyse summative writing assessment through various prisms. At the macro level, we discuss the reforms of the education system pertaining to assessment ; at the meso level, we target the assessment tools offered by the same education system, as well as the attention that may or may not be paid to remediation ; at the micro level, we deal with the issue of corrective feedback which students receive on their written production. By crossing these different sources (legal provisions, interviews, surveys, analysis of students’ annotated written production, etc.), we conclude that this practice may present major risks of inequality. [less ▲]

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See detailDéveloppements récents de l'assurance construction en droit européen
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Revue trimestrielle de droit immobilier (2015), 1

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See detailCan meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoir be modelled with the 2D shallow water equations?
Peltier, Yann ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Hydraulic Engineering (2015)

In this article, the ability of the 2D shallow water equations to model meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoirs is discussed. Four meandering flows, of various shallowness, were modelled using ... [more ▼]

In this article, the ability of the 2D shallow water equations to model meandering flows in shallow rectangular reservoirs is discussed. Four meandering flows, of various shallowness, were modelled using the academic flow model WOLF 2D, which includes a depth-averaged k- model accounting for the horizontal and vertical turbulent length-scales. The bottom friction was modelled with the Colebrook-White formula and different roughness heights were considered. A Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) was applied to the simulation results to extract the behaviour of the main structures responsible for the meandering flow. The same POD analysis was also performed for the reference experimental flow fields, obtained by Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry. The first two POD modes obtained from the numerical simulations assuming a smooth bottom are in good agreement with the experimental modes in terms of energy, as well as temporal and spatial variations, whatever the shallowness. In contrast, the remaining simulated modes are not well rendered. The effect of an increased roughness height in the simulations is finally discussed. It leads to an improved reproduction of the first two modes and of the following modes, except when significant viscous effects govern in the flow. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating hydrological features and 1 genetically validated occurrence data in occupancy 2 modeling of an endemic and endangered semi‐aquatic mammal species, Galemys pyrenaicus. 3 4
Charbonnel, Anaïs; Buisson, Laetitia; Biffi, Marjorie et al

in Biological Conservation (2015), Sous Presse

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See detailA New Approach to the 2-Regularity of the ℓ-Abelian Complexity of 2-Automatic Sequences
Parreau, Aline; Rigo, Michel ULg; Rowland, Eric ULg et al

in The Electronic Journal of Combinatorics (2015), 22(1), 127

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem ... [more ▼]

We prove that a sequence satisfying a certain symmetry property is 2-regular in the sense of Allouche and Shallit, i.e., the Z-module generated by its 2-kernel is finitely generated. We apply this theorem to develop a general approach for studying the l-abelian complexity of 2-automatic sequences. In particular, we prove that the period-doubling word and the Thue--Morse word have 2-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. Along the way, we also prove that the 2-block codings of these two words have 1-abelian complexity sequences that are 2-regular. [less ▲]

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See detailSome considerations concerning the artificially colored aquarium fish trade
Eşanu, Valentin O.; Gavriloaie, Claudiu; Oroian, Ioan G. et al

in Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation (2015), 8(1), 116-121

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish ... [more ▼]

Humans kept ornamental fish in their homes from ancient times. During time, the ornamental fish industry became a profitable enterprise. Color, size and shape are important traits when we describe a fish as a phenotypically uniform line, strain or breed; a standardized color, shape and size describe better a fish population and thus it is promoted better on the market. Several varieties of fish are being artificially colored to improve marketability. Painted, dyed or tattooed fish are terms for a new variety of pet fish whose scales have been transformed from monochrome silver into vivid pigmentations using artificial colors or lasers. These practices produce many health problems for fish. We should not to put money above the life and welfare of any living thing. Education of the customers is a very important thing, because artificially colored fish continue to exist because of demand. [less ▲]

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See detailAnti-inflammatory agents to treat or prevent type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.
Esser, Nathalie ULg; Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on investigational drugs (2015), 24(3), 283-307

Introduction: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease ... [more ▼]

Introduction: There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that chronic silent inflammation is a key feature in abdominal obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). These observations suggest that pharmacological strategies, which reduce inflammation, may be therapeutically useful in treating obesity, type 2 diabetes and associated CVD. Area covered: The article covers novel strategies, using either small molecules or monoclonal antibodies. These strategies include: approaches targeting IKK-b-NF-kB (salicylates, salsalate), TNF-alpha (etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab), IL-1beta (anakinra, canakinumab) and IL-6 (tocilizumab), AMP-activated protein kinase activators, sirtuin-1 activators, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors and C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 antagonists. Expert opinion: The available data supports the concept that targeting inflammation improves insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function; it also ameliorates glucose control in insulin-resistant patients with inflammatory rheumatoid diseases as well in patients with metabolic syndrome or T2DM. Although promising, the observed metabolic effects remain rather modest in most clinical trials. The potential use of combined anti-inflammatory agents targeting both insulin resistance and insulin secretion appears appealing but remains unexplored. Large-scale prospective clinical trials are underway to investigate the safety and efficacy of different anti-inflammatory drugs. Further evidence is needed to support the concept that targeting inflammation pathways may represent a valuable option to tackle the cardiometabolic complications of obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall Angle X-ray Scattering Insights into the Architecture-Dependent Emulsifying Properties of Amphiphilic Copolymers in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
Alaimo, David ULg; Hermida Merino, Daniel; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry B (2015), 119

The supramolecular assembly of a series of copolymers combining a PEO-rich hydrophilic and fluorinated CO2-philic sequences is analysed by synchrotron small-angle xray scattering (SAXS) in supercritical ... [more ▼]

The supramolecular assembly of a series of copolymers combining a PEO-rich hydrophilic and fluorinated CO2-philic sequences is analysed by synchrotron small-angle xray scattering (SAXS) in supercritical CO2, as well as in water/CO2 emulsions. These copolymers were designed to have the same molecular weight and composition, and to differ only by their macromolecular architecture. The investigated copolymers have random, block, and palm-tree architectures. Besides, thermo-responsive copolymer is also analysed, having a hydrophilic sequence becoming water-insoluble around 41 °C, i.e. just above the critical point of CO2. At the length scale investigated by SAXS, only the random copolymer appears to self-assemble in pure CO2, in the form of a disordered microgel-like network. The random, block and thermo-responsive copolymers are all able to stabilize water/CO2 emulsions but not the copolymer with the palm-tree architecture, pointing at the importance of macromolecular architecture for the emulsifying properties. A modelling of the SAXS data shows that the block and the thermo-responsive copolymers form spherical micelle-like structures containing about 70 % water and 30 % polymer. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel magneto-electric multiferroics from first-principles calculations
Varignon, Julien ULg; Bristowe, Nicholas ULg; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus Physique (2015), 16

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed ... [more ▼]

Interest in first-principles calculations within the multiferroic community has been rapidly on the rise over the last decade. Initially considered as a powerful support to explain experimentally observed behaviours, the trend has evolved and, nowadays, density functional theory calculations have become also an essential predicting tool for identifying original rules to achieve multiferroism and design new magneto-electric compounds. This chapter aims at highlighting the key advances in the field of multiferroics, to which first-principles methods have contributed significantly. The essential theoretical developments that made this research possible are also briefly presented. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of wheat bran arabinoxylans in chitosan-based films: Effect on physicochemical properties
Costa, Maria J.; Cerqueira, Miguel A.; Ruiz, Héctor A. et al

in Industrial Crops and Products (2015), 66

tThe aim of this work was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan-based films with differentfractions of arabinoxylans (AXs). Five fractions composed by AXs or mixtures of AXs and arabino-xylo ... [more ▼]

tThe aim of this work was to evaluate physicochemical properties of chitosan-based films with differentfractions of arabinoxylans (AXs). Five fractions composed by AXs or mixtures of AXs and arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides (AXOS) obtained through three different processes were added to chitosan-based films.These films were obtained by solvent casting and characterized in terms of water vapor permeability(WVP), opacity, thickness, moisture content and mechanical properties (i.e., tensile strength – TS andelongation at break – EB), being the chemical interactions evaluated by FTIR.Moisture content values ranged between 20 and 30% for all five studied films being the lowest valueobserved for chitosan films with the fraction F1 of AX/AXOS (21.1%). The films with incorporation of F3a,F3b and F4 AXs fraction were more opaque (>10%) than the other studied films. Regarding mechanicalproperties CH films presented EB and TS values of 31.26% and 8.25 MPa, respectively, both these valuesremain statistically equal with the incorporation of AX/AXOS except for films containing the fractionF1 and F2. For films with the F2 fraction were obtained higher values of EB (41.31%) while for CH filmscontaining the F1 fraction the TS values (13.07 MPa) increased.In conclusion, wheat bran AXs can be successfully incorporated into chitosan-based edible films pro-viding, together with chitosan, an extra functional value to films, due their health benefits. [less ▲]

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See detailTooling Materials and Solutions for Thixoforming: A key to the process industrialization
Rassili, Ahmed ULg; Lecomte-Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in Solid State Phenomena (2015), 217-218

Investigations on steel thixoforming started in the early 90's and many developments were carried out, mainly driven by the industrialization of the process. After a series of basic investigations on ... [more ▼]

Investigations on steel thixoforming started in the early 90's and many developments were carried out, mainly driven by the industrialization of the process. After a series of basic investigations on adapted steels and materials as well as near-net shaping investigations, the issue of mass production raised and thus induced some other challenges mainly on die life and process automation and cycling. High working temperatures and components complexity were then the main locks to mass productions. In most of reported literature, none of the involved research group reached or real production and industrialization criteria. The euro group holds most of these research investigations [1]. We have reported many of these results in previous communications and this paper presents a continuity of what have already been presented. Some advanced tooling materials and solutions are presented and applied to a real complex industrial component. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytical Procedure Validation and the Quality by Design Paradigm
Rozet, Eric ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Michiels, Jean-François et al

in Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (2015), 25

Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for ... [more ▼]

Since the adoption of the ICH Q8 document concerning the development of pharmaceutical processes following a quality by design (QbD) approach, there have been many discussions on the opportunity for analytical procedure developments to follow a similar approach. While development and optimization of analytical procedure following QbD principles have been largely discussed and described, the place of analytical procedure validation in this framework has not been clarified. This article aims at showing that analytical procedure validation is fully integrated into the QbD paradigm and is an essential step in developing analytical procedures that are effectively fit for purpose. Adequate statistical methodologies have also their role to play: such as design of experiments, statistical modelling, and probabilistic statements. The outcome of analytical procedure validation is also an analytical procedure design space, and from it, control strategy can be set. [less ▲]

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See detailL'infraction d'urbanisme qui affecte l'immeuble vendu donne-t-elle lieu à la garantie d'éviction ou à la garantie des vices cachés?
Onclin, François ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2015), (1), 24-34

Cette étude commente un arrêt de la Cour d'appel de Liège prononcé le 10 mai 2012. Quelles sont les voies d'action qui s'ouvrent à l'acheteur insatisfait qui découvre, après la vente, que le bien immeuble ... [more ▼]

Cette étude commente un arrêt de la Cour d'appel de Liège prononcé le 10 mai 2012. Quelles sont les voies d'action qui s'ouvrent à l'acheteur insatisfait qui découvre, après la vente, que le bien immeuble qu'il vient d'acquérir est en situation infractionnelle sur le plan du droit de l'urbanisme ? La question se pose de savoir si l'infraction d'urbanisme constitue une cause d'éviction ou un vice caché au sens du Code civil. [less ▲]

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See detailWhen Children’s Knowledge of Memory Improves Children’s Performance in Memory
Geurten, Marie ULg; Catale, Corinne ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg

in Applied Cognitive Psychology (2015), 29

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise ... [more ▼]

One of the strongest hypotheses in the field of metacognition research involves the positive effect of metamemory on memory performance. However, due to the lack of appropriate instruments to appraise knowledge of memory, few studies have examined this effect among children. This study was conducted to create and validate an instrument to assess children’s metamemory knowledge and link this knowledge with their memory performance and strategy use. A sample of 166 children was given a new three-factor metamemory interview, and its psychometric properties were investigated. Regression analyses were carried out to investigate the link between metamemory and memory performance in a subgroup of 128 children from the validation study. Results confirmed the scale’s good psychometric properties and revealed its ability to predict children’s memory performance. However, none of the scale’s factors could predict children’s use of memory strategies. Implications for the study of children’s metamemory development are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa magie et la sorcellerie des visages comme socle anthropologique de la philosophie sartrienne
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Etudes Sartriennes (2015), 17

L’« émotion » est la possibilité d’une « anthropologie de la relation ». Énoncer une telle proposition nécessite de définir les deux blocs qu’elle relie. Nous réaliserons cette entreprise en recourant à ... [more ▼]

L’« émotion » est la possibilité d’une « anthropologie de la relation ». Énoncer une telle proposition nécessite de définir les deux blocs qu’elle relie. Nous réaliserons cette entreprise en recourant à un troisième axe, intermédiaire : celui du visage ou, plutôt, des visages. La thèse de ce court essai tient à considérer que la phénoménologie sartrienne a déjà réalisé ce travail de fond qui requiert, pour le rendre explicite, articulation simple et ordonnancement. [less ▲]

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See detailA plastic-damage model for concrete in fire: Applications in structural fire engineering
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (2015), 71

The research aims at developing a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation. In addition to validity at the material level, a crucial feature of a constitutive model is the ... [more ▼]

The research aims at developing a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation. In addition to validity at the material level, a crucial feature of a constitutive model is the applicability at the structural level; yet for concrete in fire there remains a serious lack of models combining reliability and robustness. The theoretical aspects and validation of the new model, which rely on a plastic-damage formulation, have been the subject of a former publication; they are briefly summarized here. This paper explores the capabilities of the concrete model for being used in a performance-based structural fire engineering framework. Several examples of numerical simulations by non-linear finite element method are discussed, with emphasis on practical applications that are demanding for the material model. In particular, it is shown that the simulations using the new concrete model succeed in capturing, at ambient temperature, the crack pattern in a plain concrete specimen and the influence of the loading path on reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. At high temperature, the presented applications include a RC slab subjected to furnace fire and a large-scale composite steel–concrete structure subjected to natural fire. In the numerical analyses, no parameter calibration was required on the particular concrete type, except for the uniaxial strengths and tensile crack energy which are to be defined case-by-case. The results illustrate the reliability and numerical robustness of the model. Also, they suggest that satisfactory prediction of structural behavior in fire can be obtained when no additional data is available on the specific properties of the particular concrete mix that is used in the project, as is often the case in practice, by using standard values of parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Innate Immune Response of Equine Bronchial Epithelial Cells is Altered by Training
Frellstedt, Linda ULg; Gosset, Philippe; Kervoaze, Gwenola et al

in Veterinary Research (2015), 46(3), 1-12

Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier ... [more ▼]

Respiratory diseases, including inflammatory airway disease (IAD), viral and bacterial infections, are common problems in exercising horses. The airway epithelium constitutes a major physical barrier against airborne infections and plays an essential role in the lung innate immune response mainly through toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. The aim of this study was to develop a model for the culture of equine bronchial epithelial cells (EBEC) in vitro and to explore EBEC innate immune responses in trained horses. Bronchial epithelial biopsies were taken from 6 adult horses during lower airway endoscopy. EBEC were grown in vitro by an explant method. The innate immune response of EBEC was evaluated in vitro by treatment with TLR ligands. TLR3 is the most strongly expressed TLR at the mRNA level in EBEC and stimulation of EBEC with Poly(I:C), an analog of viral dsRNA, triggers a strong secretion of IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6 and CXCL8. We further evaluated the EBEC innate immune response in horses that underwent a 4-month-training program. While training had no effect on TLR mRNA expression in EBEC as well as in bronchial biopsies, it increased the production of IFN-β after stimulation with a TLR3 ligand and decreased the secretion of TNF-α and IL-6 after stimulation with a TLR2 and TLR3 ligand. These findings may be implicated in the increased risk for viral and bacterial infections observed in sport horses. Altogether, we report a successful model for the culture of EBEC that can be applied to the investigation of pathophysiologic conditions in longitudinal studies. [less ▲]

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See detailFaire la guerre, faire l’État. Les officiers « militaires » sous les trois premiers souverains Valois de Naples
Masson, Christophe ULg

in Mélanges de l'Ecole française de Rome. Moyen-Age (2015), CXXVII(I),

From Louis Ist to René Ist, the Valois dukes of Anjou tried to establish their power on the kingdom of Naples. The former had indeed been adopted by Jeanne Ist, the last queen of the Capetian dynasty. The ... [more ▼]

From Louis Ist to René Ist, the Valois dukes of Anjou tried to establish their power on the kingdom of Naples. The former had indeed been adopted by Jeanne Ist, the last queen of the Capetian dynasty. The Valois dukes led several military expeditions to establish their power in Naples, facing the rivalry of the Anjou-Duras and then of the Aragon dynasty. These armies would later on constitute the framework of the Valois’s local administration in Italy. This paper will examine how the three first dukes of Anjou exerted military power. On the one hand, the smaller military responsibilities—exerted on a limited geographical area—were most of the time entrusted to Neapolitean subjects. On the other hand, the officers in charge of the conduct of armies and of the strongholds close to the prince (castles or province of residence) turned out to be most of the time entrusted to foreigners. In sum, the balance of power between the local feudal lords and the duke of Anjou drew the military structures of the royal power; and each of the parties found there its own interest. [less ▲]

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See detailEstetrol is a weak estrogen antagonizing estradiol-dependent mammary gland proliferation.
Gérard, Céline ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Communal, Laudine et al

in Journal of Endocrinology (2015), 224(1), 86-95

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol (E2), E4 ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced exclusively by the human fetal liver during pregnancy. Its physiological activity remains unknown. In contrast to ethinyl estradiol (EE) and estradiol (E2), E4 has a minimal impact on liver cells activity and could provide a better safety profile in contraception or hormone therapy. The aim of this study was to delineate if E4 exhibits an activity profile distinct from that of E2 on mammary gland. Compared to E2, E4 acted as a low affinity estrogen in both, human in vitro and murine in vivo, models. E4 was 100 times less potent than E2 to stimulate the proliferation of human breast epithelial (HBE) cells and murine mammary gland in vitro and in vivo, respectively. This effect was prevented by fulvestrant and by tamoxifen supporting the notion that ERalpha is the main mediator of the estrogenic effect of E4 on the breast. Interestingly, when E4 was administered along with E2, it significantly antagonized the strong stimulatory effect of E2 on HBE cells proliferation and on the growth of mammary ducts. This study characterizes for the first time the impact of E4 on mammary gland. Our results highlight that E4 is less potent than E2 and exhibits antagonistic properties towards the proliferative effect of E2 on breast epithelial cells. These data support E4 as a potential new estrogen for clinical use with a reduced impact on breast proliferation. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid combined to 6-Benzylaminopurine on callus induction, total phenolic and ascorbic acid production, and antioxidant activities in leaf tissue cultures of Crataegus azarolus L. var. aronia
Chaabani, Ghaya; Tabart, Jessica; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Acta Physiologiae Plantarum (2015), 37

The present research work describes the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/6-Benzylamino-purine (BAP) ratio on callus induction, total phenols and ascorbic acid production and antioxidant ... [more ▼]

The present research work describes the effects of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)/6-Benzylamino-purine (BAP) ratio on callus induction, total phenols and ascorbic acid production and antioxidant activities in leaf-derived calli of Crataegus azarolus (hawthorn). The supplementation of 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP to MS medium was found to be the most efficient for callus induction (as percentage and fresh weigh). The results of biochemical analysis showed that the highest total phenols contents were obtained in callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP (52 ± 0.56 mg GAE/g DM) and were significantly lower than those of intact leaves (76 ± 1.72 mg GAE/g DM). However, the highest ascorbic acid contents were found in callus cultured on MS supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L BAP (0.96 ± 0.13 mg AAE/g DM) and these amounts were statistically similar to those found in leaves tissues (0.74 ± 0.07 mg AAE/g DM). Antioxidant activities of callus extracts were determined using two TEAC assays and results showed that extract of callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/L BAP have the greatest antiradical activities against DPPH (124 ± 2.92 mg TE/g DM) and ABTS (0.19 ± 0.02 mg TE/g DM) compared to the leaves of field-grown plant. Thus, the use of high level of 2,4-D over BAP can be suitable to enhance the quality more than the quantity of bioactive compounds in leaf callus culture of hawthorn. [less ▲]

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See detailGiven to a Deity? Religious and Social Reappraisal of Human Consecrations in the Hellenistic and Roman East
Caneva, Stefano ULg; Delli Pizzi, Aurian ULg

in Classical Quarterly (2015), 65(1), 167-191

Various cases of human beings ‘dedicated’ to deities are attested in Greek epigraphic evidence. Are these kinds of offerings comparable to the dedication of inanimate objects? Besides, does the fact that ... [more ▼]

Various cases of human beings ‘dedicated’ to deities are attested in Greek epigraphic evidence. Are these kinds of offerings comparable to the dedication of inanimate objects? Besides, does the fact that someone is said to be ‘sacred’ to a specific deity necessarily involve that he went through a process of dedication? This article aims at providing a global picture of different situations in which processes of dedications took place. Among the several issues that are tackled, the cornerstone of this article consists of two questions: for what purposes did some people decide to consecrate a human being to a deity and what were the consequences for the consecrated individuals on religious and social levels? Different categories of persons will be contrasted, in terms of processes through which they acquire their new status but also in terms of the freedom/lack of freedom which is conveyed by this new status. It will also be shown that, as far as method is concerned, it is necessary to complete a lexical analysis with a contextual perspective for a deeper understanding of the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailImpairment of age estimation from faces in Alzheimer’s disease
Moyse, Evelyne ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Alzheimer's Disease [=JAD] (2015), 45

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See detailDevelopment and validation of the French version of a tool assessing patient's expectations in lower limb osteoarthritis
NEUPREZ, Audrey ULg; Delcour, JP; Fatemi, F et al

in Journal of Orthopaedics (2015), 12

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See detailVers une généralisation des quartiers durables ? Présentation du référentiel d’aide à la conception et à l’évaluation développé en Wallonie et analyse prospective de douze quartiers.
Marique, Anne-Françoise ULg; Delbar, Caroline; Loiseau, Véronique ULg et al

in Urbia (2015)

Un référentiel a été développé en Wallonie, à la demande du Ministre de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement du Territoire et de la Mobilité, pour opérationnaliser le concept de « quartier durable » en ... [more ▼]

Un référentiel a été développé en Wallonie, à la demande du Ministre de l’Environnement, de l’Aménagement du Territoire et de la Mobilité, pour opérationnaliser le concept de « quartier durable » en objectivant les critères minimum à respecter pour inscrire un quartier dans une vision transversale de développement durable. Ce référentiel constitue un cadre général qui régira les projets de quartiers durables menés en Wallonie (Belgique). Les 5 thématiques et les 25 critères qui constituent ce référentiel sont présentés. La grille de critères est ensuite appliquée à douze quartiers de façon à identifier les invariants communs aux processus de conception de ces quartiers et les freins à l’intégration des principes transversaux du développement durable dans les opérations de ce type. Si les critères relatifs aux performances énergétiques des bâtiments ont percolé dans un grand nombre de cas, la mixité des logements et leur accessibilité, la mixité sociale et la participation restent peu abordés. Le référentiel est disponible depuis début 2014 pour tous les acteurs de l’architecture et de l’urbanisme. [less ▲]

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See detailThe age of river-transported carbon: A global perspective
Marwick, Trent R.; Tamooh, Fredrick; Teodoru, Cristian R. et al

in Global Biogeochemical Cycles (2015), 29(2), 122--137

The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon (C) budgets is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (Δ14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of ... [more ▼]

The role played by river networks in regional and global carbon (C) budgets is receiving increasing attention. Despite the potential of radiocarbon measurements (Δ14C) to elucidate sources and cycling of different riverine C pools, there remain large regions for which no data are available and no comprehensive attempts to synthesize the available information and examine global patterns in the 14C content of different riverine C pools. Here we present new 14C data on particulate and dissolved organic C (POC and DOC) from six river basins in tropical and subtropical Africa and compiled >1400 literature Δ14C data and ancillary parameters from rivers globally. Our analysis reveals a consistent pattern whereby POC is progressively older in systems carrying higher sediment loads, coinciding with a lower organic carbon content. At the global scale, this pattern leads to a proposed global median Δ14C signature of −203‰, corresponding to an age of ~1800 years B.P. For DOC exported to the coastal zone, we predict a modern (decadal) age (Δ14C = +22 to +46‰), and paired data sets confirm that riverine DOC is generally more recent in origin than POC—in contrast to the situation in ocean environments. Weathering regimes complicate the interpretation of 14C ages of dissolved inorganic carbon, but the available data favor the hypothesis that in most cases, more recent organic C is preferentially mineralized. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing local second gradient model and shear strain localisation to model the excavation damaged zone in unsaturated claystone
Pardoen, Benoît ULg; Levasseur, Séverine ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg

in Rock Mechanics & Rock Engineering (2015), 48(2), 691-714

The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this ... [more ▼]

The drilling of galleries induces damage propagation in the surrounding medium and creates, around them, the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). The prediction of the extension and fracture structure of this zone remains a major issue, especially in the context of underground nuclear waste storage. Experimental studies on geomaterials indicate that localised deformation in shear band mode usually appears prior to fractures. Thus, the excavation damaged zone can be modelled by considering the development of shear strain localisation bands. In the classical finite element framework, strain localisation suffers a mesh-dependency problem. Therefore, an enhanced model with a regularisation method is required to correctly model the strain localisation behaviour. Among the existing methods, we choose the coupled local second gradient model. We extend it to unsaturated conditions and we include the solid grain compressibility. Furthermore, air ventilation inside underground galleries engenders a rock– atmosphere interaction that could influence the damaged zone. This interaction has to be investigated in order to predict the damaged zone behaviour. Finally, a hydromechanical modelling of a gallery excavation in claystone is presented and leads to a fairly good representation of the EDZ. The main objectives of this study are to model the fractures by considering shear strain localisation bands, and to investigate if an isotropic model accurately reproduces the in situ measurements. The numerical results provide information about the damaged zone extension, structure and behaviour that are in very good agreement with in situ measurements and observations. For instance, the strain localisation bands that develop in chevron pattern during the excavation and rock desaturation, due to air ventilation, are observed close to the gallery. [less ▲]

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See detailLe genre Guibourtia Benn., un taxon à haute valeur commerciale et sociétale (synthèse bibliographique)
Tosso, Dji-ndé Félicien ULg; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Hardy, J. Olivier et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1),

Known as a genus of great socio-cultural and economical importance, Guibourtia Benn. includes morphologically very similar multipurpose sister species, found in various habitats with different climate and ... [more ▼]

Known as a genus of great socio-cultural and economical importance, Guibourtia Benn. includes morphologically very similar multipurpose sister species, found in various habitats with different climate and soil conditions. In many places, Guibourtia is subject to local overexploitation by forest companies and local communities. As the population density of Guibourtia species is generally very low, it may be necessary to conduct scientific investigations that will provide valuable information for the management of the populations concerned. This paper is based on an extensive literature review and summarizes the available information on the genus Guibourtia, in terms of botany, ecology, genetics, forestry and ethnobotany. Our review provided evidence that, to date, ecological and silvicultural knowledge regarding Guibourtia species is lacking and that it is very difficult to morphologically differentiate very similar sister species. In addition, we provide a new determination key for the genus Guibourtia. Based on the available information, it is difficult to assess the conservation status of these taxa. Further investigations are needed to suggest appropriate management strategies for Guibourtia. Moreover, species diversity within this genus and its distribution in various tropical biomes make it an excellent biological model for understanding the historical, biological and environmental mechanisms that explain the diversity of tropical moist forests. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian inference for transportation origin–destination matrices: the Poisson–inverse Gaussian and other Poisson mixtures
Perrakis, Konstantinos; Karlis, Dimitris; Cools, Mario ULg et al

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society. Series A Statistics in Society (2015), 178(1), 271-296

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow ... [more ▼]

Transportation origin–destination analysis is investigated through the use of Poisson mixtures by introducing covariate-based models which incorporate different transport modelling phases and also allow for direct probabilistic inference on link traffic based on Bayesian predictions. Emphasis is placed on the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model as an alternative to the commonly used Poisson–gamma and Poisson–log-normal models. We present a first full Bayesian formulation and demonstrate that the Poisson–inverse Gaussian model is particularly suited for origin–destination analysis because of its desirable marginal and hierarchical properties. In addition, the integrated nested Laplace approximation is considered as an alternative to Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling and the two methodologies are compared under specific modelling assumptions. The case-study is based on 2001 Belgian census data and focuses on a large, sparsely distributed origin–destination matrix containing trip information for 308 Flemish municipalities. [less ▲]

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See detailHypothalamic Expression Of Oestrogen Receptor Alpha And Androgen Receptor Is Sex, Age And Region Dependent In Mice.
Brock, Olivier; Mees, Christelle De; Bakker, Julie ULg

in Journal of neuroendocrinology (2015)

Sex steroid hormones act on developing neural circuits regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are involved in hormone-sensitive behaviours. These hormones act mainly via nuclear receptors ... [more ▼]

Sex steroid hormones act on developing neural circuits regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are involved in hormone-sensitive behaviours. These hormones act mainly via nuclear receptors, i.e. oestrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha) and androgen receptor (AR). By using immunohistochemistry, we analysed the expression level of ERalpha and AR throughout perinatal life [at embryonic (E) day 19 and postnatal (P) days 5-15-25] and in adulthood in several hypothalamic nuclei controlling reproduction in both wild-type (WT) and aromatase knockout (ArKO) (which cannot convert testosterone into oestradiol) mice to determine whether there are sex differences in hypothalamic ERalpha and AR expression and if so, whether these are established by oestradiol action. As early as E19, ERalpha immunoreactivity (-ir) was observed at same expression levels in both sexes in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv), the medial preoptic area (MPOA), the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BnST), the ventrolateral part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHvl) and the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Sex differences (female > male) in ERalpha-ir were only observed during the prepubertal period in the BnST (P5 to P25) and the MPOA (P15), but also in adulthood in these two brain regions. Sex differences in AR-ir (male > female) were observed at P5 in the AVPv and ARC, and at P25 in the MPOA and ARC as well as in adulthood in all hypothalamic regions analysed. In adulthood, gonadectomy and hormonal treatment (oestradiol or dihydrotestosterone) also strongly modulated ERalpha-ir and AR, respectively. Taken together, sex differences in ERalpha-ir and AR-ir were observed in all hypothalamic regions analysed, but most likely do not reflect oestradiol actions since ArKO mice of both sexes showed very similar expression levels as WT mice throughout perinatal development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province (Cambodia)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2015)

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may ... [more ▼]

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Results - Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest ones. Conclusion – Diets based of cassava leaves seems to be the most promising ones. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiment must be realised in which the cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacodynamics, Efficacy and Safety of Sodium-Glucose Co-Transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
Scheen, André ULg

in Drugs (2015), 75(1), 33-59

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries ... [more ▼]

Inhibitors of sodium-glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) are proposed as a novel approach for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several compounds are already available in many countries (dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, empagliflozin and ipragliflozin) and some others are in a late phase of development. The available SGLT2 inhibitors share similar pharmacokinetic characteristics, with a rapid oral absorption, a long elimination half-life allowing once-daily administration, an extensive hepatic metabolism mainly via glucuronidation to inactive metabolites, the absence of clinically relevant drug-drug interactions and a low renal elimination as parent drug. SGLT2 co-transporters are responsible for reabsorption of most (90 %) of the glucose filtered by the kidneys. The pharmacological inhibition of SGLT2 co-transporters reduces hyperglycaemia by decreasing renal glucose threshold and thereby increasing urinary glucose excretion. The amount of glucose excreted in the urine depends on both the level of hyperglycaemia and the glomerular filtration rate. Results of numerous placebo-controlled randomised clinical trials of 12-104 weeks duration have shown significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), resulting in a significant increase in the proportion of patients reaching HbA1c targets, and a significant lowering of fasting plasma glucose when SGLT2 inhibitors were administered as monotherapy or in addition to other glucose-lowering therapies including insulin in patients with T2DM. In head-to-head trials of up to 2 years, SGLT2 inhibitors exerted similar glucose-lowering activity to metformin, sulphonylureas or sitagliptin. The durability of the glucose-lowering effect of SGLT2 inhibitors appears to be better; however, this remains to be more extensively investigated. The risk of hypoglycaemia was much lower with SGLT2 inhibitors than with sulphonylureas and was similarly low as that reported with metformin, pioglitazone or sitagliptin. Increased renal glucose elimination also assists weight loss and could help to reduce blood pressure. Both effects were very consistent across the trials and they represent some advantages for SGLT2 inhibitors when compared with other oral glucose-lowering agents. The pharmacodynamic response to SGLT2 inhibitors declines with increasing severity of renal impairment, and prescribing information for each SGLT2 inhibitor should be consulted regarding dosage adjustments or restrictions in moderate to severe renal dysfunction. Caution is also recommended in the elderly population because of a higher risk of renal impairment, orthostatic hypotension and dehydration, even if the absence of hypoglycaemia represents an obvious advantage in this population. The overall effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on the risk of cardiovascular disease is unknown and will be evaluated in several ongoing prospective placebo-controlled trials with cardiovascular outcomes. The impact of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal function and their potential to influence the course of diabetic nephropathy also deserve more attention. SGLT2 inhibitors are generally well-tolerated. The most frequently reported adverse events are female genital mycotic infections, while urinary tract infections are less commonly observed and generally benign. In conclusion, with their unique mechanism of action that is independent of insulin secretion and action, SGLT2 inhibitors are a useful addition to the therapeutic options available for the management of T2DM at any stage in the natural history of the disease. Although SGLT2 inhibitors have already been extensively investigated, further studies should even better delineate the best place of these new glucose-lowering agents in the already rich armamentarium for the management of T2DM. [less ▲]

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See detailComplex dynamics of a nonlinear aerospace structure: numerical continuation and normal modes
Renson, Ludovic ULg; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Nonlinear Dynamics (2015), 79(2), 1293-1309

This paper investigates the dynamics of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. A full-scale finite element model is built for gaining ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the dynamics of a real-life aerospace structure possessing a strongly nonlinear component with multiple mechanical stops. A full-scale finite element model is built for gaining additional insight into the nonlinear dynamics that was observed experimentally, but also for uncovering additional nonlinear phenomena, such as quasiperiodic regimes of motion. Forced/unforced, damped/undamped numerical simulations are carried out using advanced techniques and theoretical concepts such as numerical continuation and nonlinear normal modes. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial. Un regard pluriel sur l’évaluation offert aux scientifiques francophones et construit par eux
Demeuse, Marc; Fagnant, Annick ULg; Dupriez, Vincent

in Evaluer. Journal international de recherche en éducation et formation (2015), 1(1), 5-10

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See detailWithdrawal of Immunomodulators After Co-treatment Does Not Reduce Trough Level of Infliximab in Patients With Crohn's Disease.
Drobne, David; Bossuyt, Peter; Breynaert, Christine et al

in Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association (2015), 13(3), 514-5214

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The addition of immunomodulators increases the efficacy of maintenance therapy with infliximab for up to 1 year in patients with Crohn's disease who have not been previously treated with immunomodulators. However, there are questions about the effect of withdrawing immunomodulator therapy from these patients. We studied the effects of treatment with infliximab and immunomodulators (co-treatment) and then immunomodulator withdrawal on long-term outcomes of patients, as well as trough levels of infliximab and formation of anti-infliximab antibodies (ATI). METHODS: In a retrospective study with the median follow-up period of 34 months (interquartile range, 19-58 months), we analyzed data from 223 patients treated for Crohn's disease between May 1999 and December 2010 at the University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium (65 received infliximab monotherapy, 158 received infliximab and an immunomodulator). Trough levels of infliximab and levels of ATI were measured in blood samples collected from 117 patients throughout co-treatment, as well as the time of immunomodulator withdrawal and after withdrawal. RESULTS: Patients receiving co-treatment had higher trough levels of infliximab (adjusted mean increase, 1.44-fold) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.92; P = .02). A smaller percentage of patients receiving co-treatment developed ATI (35 of 158, 22%) than those receiving infliximab monotherapy (25 of 65, 38%; P = .01). Among co-treated patients, levels of infliximab remained stable after immunomodulators were withdrawn (before: 3.2 mug/mL; 95% CI, 1.6-5.8 mug/mL and after: 3.7 mug/mL; 95% CI, 1.3-6.3 mug/mL; P = .70). After withdrawal of immunomodulators, 45 of 117 patients (38%) required increasing doses of infliximab, and 21 of 117 (18%) discontinued infliximab. At the time of immunomodulator withdrawal, trough levels of infliximab and C-reactive protein were most strongly associated with response to infliximab thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: In a retrospective analysis, we confirmed that withdrawal of immunomodulators after at least 6 months (median, 13 months) of co-treatment with infliximab does not reduce the trough levels of infliximab in patients with Crohn's disease. Detectable trough levels of infliximab at the time of immunomodulator withdrawal are associated with long-term response. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining mesoporosity and Ti-doping in hematite films for water splitting
Toussaint, Caroline ULg; Tran, Hoang Son ULg; Colson, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry C (2015), 119(4), 1642-1650

(Graph Presented). In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti-doped mesoporous hematite films by soft-templating for application as photoanodes in the photoelectrolysis of water (water splitting ... [more ▼]

(Graph Presented). In this study, we report the synthesis of Ti-doped mesoporous hematite films by soft-templating for application as photoanodes in the photoelectrolysis of water (water splitting). Because the activation of the dopant requires a heat treatment at high temperature (≥800°C), it usually results in the collapse of the mesostructure. We have overcome this obstacle by using a temporary SiO2 scaffold to hinder crystallite growth and thereby maintain the mesoporosity. The beneficial effect of the activated dopant has been confirmed by comparing the photocurrent of doped and undoped films treated at different temperatures. The role of the mesostructure was investigated by comparing dense, collapsed, and mesoporous films heated at different temperatures and characterized under front and back illumination. It turns out that the preservation of the mesotructure enables a better penetration of the electrolyte into the film and therefore reduces the distance that the photogenerated holes have to travel to reach the electrolyte. As a result, we found that mesoporous films with dopant activation at 850°C perform better than comparable dense and collapsed films. [less ▲]

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See detailThe prediction of fund failure through performance diagnostics
Cogneau, Philippe ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg

in Journal of Banking and Finance (2015), 50

Using an international database featuring 1624 mutual funds over 15 years, this paper analyses the joint abilities of performance measures to predict subsequent fund failure. We examine the probability of ... [more ▼]

Using an international database featuring 1624 mutual funds over 15 years, this paper analyses the joint abilities of performance measures to predict subsequent fund failure. We examine the probability of disappearance over a time window, and expected fund survival time, and study the circumstances of a fund’s disappearance, its currency and domicile. By combining relevant measures, fund failure appears to a significant extent predictable, more than with single classical measures. Survivorship predictability has significant economic value. Such evidence suggests that past performance does not only influence investors’ perception of fund quality, but also reflects managers’ ability to sustain performance. [less ▲]

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