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See detailMesenchymal stromal cell therapy for inflmmatory bowel diseases
GREGOIRE, Céline ULg; LECHANTEUR, Chantal ULg; BRIQUET, Alexandra ULg et al

in Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics (2017), 45

Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing diseases in which pro-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines induce intestinal tissue damage and disability. Mesenchymal stromal cells ... [more ▼]

Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic relapsing diseases in which pro-inflammatory immune cells and cytokines induce intestinal tissue damage and disability. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) exert powerful immunomodulatory effects and stimulate tissue repair. Aim To review the current data on mesenchymal stromal cell therapy in IBD. Method We searched PubMed and ‘ClinicalTrials.gov’ databases using the terms ‘mesenchymal stromal cells’, ‘mesenchymal stem cell transplantation’, ‘inflammatory bowel diseases’, ‘Crohn disease’ and ‘colitis, ulcerative’. Additional publications were identified from individual article reference lists. Results MSCs include inhibition of Th1/Th17 lymphocytes and recruitment of regulatory T lymphocytes, induction of antigen-presenting cells into a regulatorylike profile, and stimulation of epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation. More than 200 patients with refractory fistulas have been treated with local injections of MSCs, resulting in complete response in more than half, and in overall response in approximately two thirds of patients. In refractory luminal Crohn’s disease, 49 cases of systemic MSC infusions have been reported, while trials with autologous MSCs resulted in mitigated responses, studies using allogeneic MSCs were promising, with around 60% of patients experiencing a response and around 40% achieving clinical remission. Conclusions Mesenchymal stromal cells might represent a promising therapy for IBD, especially for Crohn’s disease. There remain many unsolved questions concerning the optimal origin and source of mesenchymal stromal cells, dosage and modalities of administration. Moreover, mesenchymal stromal cells still need to prove their effectiveness compared with conventional treatments in randomised controlled trials. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrostructural and functional correlates of glutamate concentration in the posterior cingulate cortex.
Arrubla Martinez, Jorge Andres ULg; Farrher, Ezequiel; Strippelmann, Johanna et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (2017)

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers ... [more ▼]

Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the human brain and has a central role in both intrinsic and stimulus-induced activity. We conducted a study in a cohort of healthy, male volunteers in which glutamate levels were measured in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) using 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T. The advantages of simultaneous electroencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-MRI) were exploited and the subjects were measured in the same session and under the same physiological conditions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), functional MRI (fMRI) and EEG were measured in order to investigate the functional and microstructural correlates of glutamate. The concentration of glutamate (institute units) was calculated and those values were tested for correlation with the metrics of resting state fMRI, DTI, and EEG electrical sources. Our results showed that the concentration of glutamate in the PCC had a significant negative correlation with the tissue mean diffusivity in the same area. The analysis of resting state networks did not show any relationship between the concentration of glutamate and the intrinsic activity of the resting state networks. The concentration of glutamate showed a positive correlation with the electrical generators of alpha-1 frequency and a negative correlation with the generators of alpha-2 and beta-1 electrical generators. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating production scheduling and vehicle routing decisions at the operational decision level: A review and discussion
Moons, Stef; Ramaekers, Katrien; Caris, An et al

in Computers & Industrial Engineering (2017), 104

Production scheduling and vehicle routing are two well-studied problems in literature. Although these supply chain functions are interrelated, they are often solved sequentially. This uncoordinated ... [more ▼]

Production scheduling and vehicle routing are two well-studied problems in literature. Although these supply chain functions are interrelated, they are often solved sequentially. This uncoordinated approach can lead to suboptimal solutions. In the current competitive business environment, companies are searching for methods to save costs and improve their service level. Integrating production and distribution scheduling operations can be an approach to improve the overall performance. This paper focuses on integrated production-distribution operational level scheduling problems, which explicitly take into account vehicle routing decisions of the delivery process. Existing literature on integrated production scheduling and vehicle routing problems is reviewed and classified. Both the problem characteristics of mathematical models and the accompanying solution approaches are discussed to identify directions for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of metabolic profiles and bioactivities of the leaves of three edible Congolese Hibiscus species
Kapepula, Paulin Mutwale; Kabamba Ngombe, Nadege; Tshisekedi Tshibangu, Pascal et al

in Natural Product Research (2017), 6419(March), 1--8

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See detailThe global burden of chronic kidney disease: estimates, variability and pitfalls.
Glassock, RJ; Warnock, DG; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg

in Nature Reviews Nephrology (2017), 13(2), 104-114

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See detailFactors associated with self-perceived burden to the primary caregiver in older patients with hematologic malignancies: an exploratory study
Libert, Y; Borghgraef, C; BEGUIN, Yves ULg et al

in Psycho-oncology (2017), 10

Objective: Although cancer patients frequently experience self-perceived burden to others, this perception has not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of ... [more ▼]

Objective: Although cancer patients frequently experience self-perceived burden to others, this perception has not been enough studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of selfperceived burden to the primary caregiver (SPB-PC) and associated factors in an older patient population with hematologic malignancies at the time of chemotherapy initiation. Methods: In total, 166 consecutive patients with hematologic malignancies aged ≥65 years were recruited at the time of chemotherapy initiation. Patients’ SPB-PC was assessed using a 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS). Characteristics potentially associated with SPB-PC, including sociodemographic and medical characteristics, physical functioning status (Karnofsky performance score, activities of daily living (ADL)/instrumental ADL), symptoms (fatigue, pain, nausea, quality of life), psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), perceived cognitive function (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Cognitive (FACT-Cog) Scale), and patients’/primary caregivers’ personal relationship characteristics (family tie, support), were assessed. Results: Thirty-five percent of patients reported moderate to severe SPB-PC (VAS ≥ 50 mm). Patients’ SPB-PC was associated with lower Karnofsky performance (β = 0.135, p = 0.058) and ADL (β = 0.148, p = 0.037) scores, and higher HADS (β = 0.283, p<0.001) and FACT-Cog perceived cognitive impairments subscale (β = 0.211, p = 0.004) scores. The proportion of explained variance was 23.5%. Conclusions: Health care professionals should be aware that about one third of older cancer patients experience moderate to severe SPB-PC at the time of chemotherapy initiation. They should adapt their support of patients who report such a feeling. [less ▲]

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See detailDulaglutide for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy (2017), 17(4), 485-496

INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are injectable agents used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The interest for this pharmacological class is rising ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are injectable agents used for the treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The interest for this pharmacological class is rising with the development of once weekly compounds and the demonstration of a potential reduction in cardiorenal outcomes. Areas covered: The paper describes the main pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic characteristics of dulaglutide, a new once-weekly GLP-1 RA. Dulaglutide was extensively investigated in the phase-3 AWARD program, which demonstrated its safety and efficacy when compared to placebo or active glucose-lowering agents in patients treated with diet alone, metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy, oral dual therapies and basal insulin. In both Caucasian and Japanese patients, comparative trials showed better glucose control with dulaglutide, with a minimal risk of hypoglycemia and weight loss, but at the expense of an increased dropout rate due to side effects, mostly transient gastrointestinal disturbances. Dulaglutide proved its non-inferiority versus liraglutide and the safety and tolerance profile is similar to that of other GLP-1 RAs. Expert opinion: The once-weekly formulation and the combined positive effects on both glucose control and weight improves patient satisfaction despite nausea. Dulaglutide must prove its capacity to reduce cardiovascular and diabetic complications in the ongoing prospective REWIND trial. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel strategies for improving hematopoietic reconstruction after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or intensive chemotherapy.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Nagler, Arnon

in Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy (2017)

INTRODUCTION: High-dose conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as well as intensive poly-chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induce prolonged periods ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: High-dose conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as well as intensive poly-chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induce prolonged periods of neutropenia. The duration of the neutropenia is particularly long following umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT). Areas covered: After briefly reviewing the impact of hematopoietic growth factors administration to hasten hematologic reconstitution after allo-HCT or intensive AML chemotherapy, this article summarizes recent approaches that have been investigated to prompt hematologic reconstruction after UCBT or intensive AML chemotherapy. Expert opinion: In the allo-HCT setting, administration of G-CSF or GM-CSF shortened the duration of the neutropenia but failed to decrease infection-related mortality or to improve survival. Novel approaches to hasten hematological reconstruction after UCBT such as double UCBT with expansion of one of the 2 UCB units with Notch ligand, mesenchymal stromal cells, nicotinamide, or StemRegenin 1, co-transplanting a single UCB unit with HLA-haploidentical CD34+ cells, or increasing UCB HSC homing to marrow niches via direct intra bone UCB administration, pulse treatment with dmPGE2 or enforced fucosylation are promising and deserve further investigations in prospective phase III studies. In the AML setting, G-CSF or GM-CSF administration after intensive chemotherapy decreased the duration of the neutropenia without improving survival. [less ▲]

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See detailMetamemory Following Childhood Brain Injury: A Consequence of Executive Impairment
Geurten, Marie ULg; Chevignard, Mathilde; Kerrouche, Bernadette et al

in Child Neuropsychology : A Journal on Normal & Abnormal Development in Childhood & Adolescence (2017), 23(1), 67-82

In this study, we investigated the influence of children’s level of executive functioning on two types of metamemory knowledge following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). For this purpose, 22 children (aged ... [more ▼]

In this study, we investigated the influence of children’s level of executive functioning on two types of metamemory knowledge following a traumatic brain injury (TBI). For this purpose, 22 children (aged 7 to 14 years) who had sustained a moderate to severe TBI and 44 typically developing children were recruited. Children with TBI were divided into two groups according to the severity of their executive impairment. Injury severity was determined by the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on admission or by the duration of unconsciousness. All children were then tested on both their knowledge of general memory functioning and their level of memory self-awareness, respectively assessed using total number of correct responses on an adapted version of Kreutzer et al.’s metamemory interview and a self-other discrepancy score on a questionnaire evaluating everyday memory abilities. Data analyses revealed that participants with TBI who suffered impaired executive functions demonstrated less general metamemory knowledge, and underestimated the frequency of their memory problems, compared with children with TBI who had preserved executive functions and with control participants. Considering the well-established effect of metamemory knowledge on people’s spontaneous implementation of strategies, the interest and the importance of these findings on both theoretical and clinical grounds are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular-Based Recursive Partitioning Analysis Model for Glioblastoma in the Temozolomide Era: A Correlative Analysis Based on NRG Oncology RTOG 0525.
Bell, Erica Hlavin; Pugh, Stephanie L.; McElroy, Joseph P. et al

in JAMA Oncology (2017)

Importance: There is a need for a more refined, molecularly based classification model for glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide era. Objective: To refine the existing clinically based recursive ... [more ▼]

Importance: There is a need for a more refined, molecularly based classification model for glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide era. Objective: To refine the existing clinically based recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) model by incorporating molecular variables. Design, Setting, and Participants: NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 specimens (n = 452) were analyzed for protein biomarkers representing key pathways in GBM by a quantitative molecular microscopy-based approach with semiquantitative immunohistochemical validation. Prognostic significance of each protein was examined by single-marker and multimarker Cox regression analyses. To reclassify the prognostic risk groups, significant protein biomarkers on single-marker analysis were incorporated into an RPA model consisting of the same clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurologic function) as the existing RTOG RPA. The new RPA model (NRG-GBM-RPA) was confirmed using traditional immunohistochemistry in an independent data set (n = 176). Main Outcomes and Measures: Overall survival (OS). Results: In 452 specimens, MGMT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% CI, 1.37-2.39; P < .001), survivin (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76; P = .02), c-Met (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23; P = .02), pmTOR (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97; P = .03), and Ki-67 (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.78; P = .007) protein levels were found to be significant on single-marker multivariate analysis of OS. To refine the existing RPA, significant protein biomarkers together with clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurological function) were incorporated into a new model. Of 166 patients used for the new NRG-GBM-RPA model, 97 (58.4%) were male (mean [SD] age, 55.7 [12.0] years). Higher MGMT protein level was significantly associated with decreased MGMT promoter methylation and vice versa (1425.1 for methylated vs 1828.0 for unmethylated; P < .001). Furthermore, MGMT protein expression (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.38-2.43; P < .001) had greater prognostic value for OS compared with MGMT promoter methylation (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.28-2.44; P < .001). The refined NRG-GBM-RPA consisting of MGMT protein, c-Met protein, and age revealed greater separation of OS prognostic classes compared with the existing clinically based RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525. The prognostic significance of the NRG-GBM-RPA was subsequently confirmed in an independent data set (n = 176). Conclusions and Relevance: This new NRG-GBM-RPA model improves outcome stratification over both the current RTOG RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively, for patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and was biologically validated in an independent data set. The revised RPA has the potential to contribute to improving the accurate assessment of prognostic groups in patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and to influence clinical decision making. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00304031. [less ▲]

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See detailThe need for careful data collection for pattern recognition in digital pathology
Marée, Raphaël ULg

in Journal of Pathology Informatics (2017)

Effective pattern recognition requires carefully designed ground-truth datasets. In this technical note, we first summarize potential data collection issues in digital pathology and then propose ... [more ▼]

Effective pattern recognition requires carefully designed ground-truth datasets. In this technical note, we first summarize potential data collection issues in digital pathology and then propose guidelines to build more realistic ground-truth datasets and to control their quality. We hope our comments will foster the effective application of pattern recognition approaches in digital pathology. [less ▲]

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See detailANTICANCER, ANTIPLASMODIAL AND ANTITRYPANOSOMAL ACTIVITIES OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF PLATANUS ORIENTALIS
Ebralidze, L.; Mskhiladze, Lasha; Ledoux, Allison ULg et al

in World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2017), 6(3), 170-175

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See detailCooking Has Variable Effects on the Fermentability in the Large Intestine of the Fraction of Meats, Grain Legumes, and Insects That Is Resistant to Digestion in the Small Intestine in an in Vitro Model of the Pig’s Gastrointestinal Tract
POELAERT, Christine ULg; Despret, Xavier; Sindic, Marianne ULg et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2017), 65

This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig’s gastrointestinal ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation in the large intestine of indigestible dietary protein sources from animal, insect, and plant origin using an in vitro model of the pig’s gastrointestinal tract. Protein sources were used raw and after a cooking treatment. Results showed that the category of the ingredient (meats, insects, or grain legumes) exerts a stronger impact on enzymatic digestibility, fermentation patterns, and bacterial metabolites such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) than the cooking treatment. The digestibility and the fermentation characteristics of insects were more affected by the cooking procedure than the other categories. Per gram of consumed food, ingredients from animal origin, namely, meats and insects, were associated with fewer fermentation end-products (gas, H2S, SCFA) than ingredients from plant origin, which is related to their higher small intestinal digestibility. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization and validation of a fast Supercritical Fluid Chromatography method for the quantitative determination of vitamin D3 and its related impurities.
Andri, Bertyl ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Dispas, Amandine ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2017)

In the uprising context of green analytical chemistry, Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) is often suggested as an alternative to Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography. Indeed, SFC provides fast ... [more ▼]

In the uprising context of green analytical chemistry, Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) is often suggested as an alternative to Normal Phase Liquid Chromatography. Indeed, SFC provides fast, efficient and green separations. In this report, the quantitative performances of SFC were challenged on a real-life case study: the Quality Control (QC) of vitamin D3. A rapid and green SFC method was optimized thanks to the Design of Experiments–Design Space (DoE–DS) methodology. It provided robust and high quality separation of the compounds within a 2 min timeframe, using a gradient of ethanol as co-solvent of the carbon dioxide. The analytical method was fully validated according to the total error approach, demon- strating the compliance of the method to the specifications of U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP: 97.0–103.0%) and European Pharmacopeia (EP: 97.0–102.0%) for an interval of [50–150%] of the target concentration. In order to allow quantification of impurities using vitamin D3 as an external standard in SFC-UV, correction factors were determined and verified during method validation. Thus, accurate quantification of impu- rities was demonstrated at the specified levels (0.1 and 1.0% of the main compound) for a 70.0–130.0% dosing range. This work demonstrates the validity of an SFC method for the QC of vitamin D3 raw material and its application to real samples. Therefore, it supports the switch to a greener and faster separative technique as an alternative to NPLC in the pharmaceutical industry. [less ▲]

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See detailIterated local search for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints
Pollaris, Hanne; Braekers, Kris; Caris, An et al

in Network (2017)

In this article an Iterated Local Search algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints is presented. Axle weight limits impose a ... [more ▼]

In this article an Iterated Local Search algorithm for the capacitated vehicle routing problem with sequence-based pallet loading and axle weight constraints is presented. Axle weight limits impose a great challenge for transportation companies. Yet, the literature on the incorporation of axle weight constraints in vehicle routing models is very scarce. The effect of introducing axle weight constraints in a CVRP on total routing cost is analyzed. Results show that integrating axle weight constraints does not lead to a large cost increase. However, not including axle weight constraints in the planning process may induce major axle weight violations. [less ▲]

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See detailThiamine and benfotiamine improve cognition and ameliorate GSK-3β-associated stressinduced behaviours in mice
Markova, Nataliia; Bazhenova, Nataliya; Anthony, Daniel C et al

in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (2017), 75

Thiamine deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling ... [more ▼]

Thiamine deficiency in the brain has been implicated in the development of dementia and symptoms of depression. Indirect evidence suggests that thiamine may contribute to these pathologies by controlling the activities of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β. While decreased GSK- 3β activity appears to impair memory, increased GSK-3β activity is associated with the distressed/depressed state. However, direct evidence for the effects of thiamine on GSK-3β function were not have not been reported. Here, we administered thiamine or, the more bioavailable precursor, benfotiamine at 200 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks to C57BL/6J mice, to determine whether treatment might affect behaviours that are known to be sensitive to GSK-3β activity and whether such administration impacts on GSK-3β expression within the brain. The mice were tested in models of contextual conditioning and extinction, a 5-day rat exposure stress test, and a modified swim test with repeated testing. Imipramine (7.5 mg/kg/day) was administered as a positive control for thiamine or benfotiamine. As for imipramine, both compounds inhibited the upregulation of GSK-3β induced by predator stress or repeated swimming, and reduced floating scores and the predator stress-induced behavioural changes in anxiety and exploration. Coincident, thiamine and benfotiamine improved learning and extinction of contextual fear, and the acquisition of the step-down avoidance task. Together, our data indicate that thiamine and benfotiamine have antidepressant/anti-stress effects in naïve animals that are associated with reduced GSK-3β expression. Importantly, the treatment also had pro-cognitive actions despite the impact on GSK-3β activity. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential uses of pumped urban groundwater. A case study in Sant Adrià del Besòs (Spain)
Jurado Elices, Anna ULg; vázquez-Suñé, Enric; Pujades, Estanislao ULg

in Hydrogeology Journal (2017)

Urban groundwater has been over-exploited during the past, mainly for industrial uses, and it now tends to be reduced or abandoned due to pollution and/or changes in land use. The use and the subsequent ... [more ▼]

Urban groundwater has been over-exploited during the past, mainly for industrial uses, and it now tends to be reduced or abandoned due to pollution and/or changes in land use. The use and the subsequent disuse of groundwater resulted in rising water tables that damage underground structures (e.g., building basements and underground car parks and tunnels), leading to additional pumping in urban areas. This is the case of the underground parking lot of Sant Adrià del Besòs (NE Spain), where large amounts of urban groundwater are pumped to avoid seepage problems. The question that arises here is if this pumped groundwater can be used for other purposes (e.g., drinking water and urban irrigation) instead of wasting this valuable resource. To answer this question, it is necessary to quantify the groundwater recharge and to assess the evolution of ground-water quality in order to properly identify its potential uses. The limiting factor to define the uses of this resource is the groundwater quality because ammonium and some metals (iron and manganese) are present at high concentrations. Hence, further treatment would be needed to meet drinking water requirements. The pumped groundwater could also be used for supplying the ecological river flow and/or for mitigating seawater intrusion problems. Currently, only a small amount of this urban groundwater is used for cleaning public areas and watering public gardens. This situation highlighted the urgent need to manage this resource in a responsible and more efficient manner, especially in moments of high water demand such as drought periods. [less ▲]

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See detailL’IMAGE DU MOIS.Une tumeur cardiaque indéterminée
RADERMECKER, Régis ULg; RENSON, Virginie ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(1), 4-5

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See detailExploring sex differences in the adult zebra finch brain: in vivo diffusion tensor imaging and ex vivo super-resolution track density imaging
Hamaide, J.; De Groof, G.; Van Steenkiste, G. et al

in NeuroImage (2017)

Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural ... [more ▼]

Zebra finches are an excellent model to study the process of vocal learning, a complex socially-learned tool of communication that forms the basis of spoken human language. So far, structural investigation of the zebra finch brain has been performed ex vivo using invasive methods such as histology. These methods are highly specific, however, they strongly interfere with performing whole-brain analyses and exclude longitudinal studies aimed at establishing causal correlations between neuroplastic events and specific behavioral performances. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to implement an in vivo Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) protocol sensitive enough to detect structural sex differences in the adult zebra finch brain. Voxel-wise comparison of male and female DTI parameter maps shows clear differences in several components of the song control system (i.e. Area X surroundings, the high vocal center (HVC) and the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN)), which corroborate previous findings and are in line with the clear behavioral difference as only males sing. Furthermore, to obtain additional insights into the 3-dimensional organization of the zebra finch brain and clarify findings obtained by the in vivo study, ex vivo DTI data of the male and female brain were acquired as well, using a recently established super-resolution reconstruction (SRR) imaging strategy. Interestingly, the SRR-DTI approach led to a marked reduction in acquisition time without interfering with the (spatial and angular) resolution and SNR which enabled to acquire a data set characterized by a 78μm isotropic resolution including 90 diffusion gradient directions within 44h of scanning time. Based on the reconstructed SRR-DTI maps, whole brain probabilistic Track Density Imaging (TDI) was performed for the purpose of super resolved track density imaging, further pushing the resolution up to 40μm isotropic. The DTI and TDI maps realized atlas-quality anatomical maps that enable a clear delineation of most components of the song control and auditory systems. In conclusion, this study paves the way for longitudinal in vivo and high-resolution ex vivo experiments aimed at disentangling [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired familiarity in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease: Commentary on Schoemaker et al. (2016)
Bastin, Christine ULg; Besson, Gabriel ULg

in Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring (2017), 6

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See detailResponse to the discussion on “Reconstruction of the envelope of non-Gaussian structural responses with principal static wind loads by N. Blaise, T. Canor and V. Denoël”
Blaise, Nicolas; Canor, Thomas; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics (2017)

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See detailThe Tourist on the farm: a 'muddled' image
Dubois, Charline ULg; Cawley, Mary; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Tourism Management (2017), 59

Agritourism is promoted as a method of offsetting decline in farm incomes, and is defined in different ways which creates difficulties in attracting tourists. The present research contributes to a better ... [more ▼]

Agritourism is promoted as a method of offsetting decline in farm incomes, and is defined in different ways which creates difficulties in attracting tourists. The present research contributes to a better understanding of agritourism, based on evidence in Wallonia (Belgium) and Luxembourg. It does so by studying the image held by four groups of actors: (i) farmers who provide ‘agritourist’ experiences; (ii) promotional organisations; and tourists who both (iii) have and (iv) have not engaged in agritourism. Agritourism is a muddled concept between realities and stakeholder expectations but opportunities exist for targeting particular niche interests. [less ▲]

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See detailSystématiser les associations. Le concept hjelmslévien de paradigme et son héritage greimassien
Badir, Sémir ULg; Cigana, Lorenzo ULg

in Signata. Annales des Sémiotiques = Annals of Semiotics (2017), 8

This paper aims to explore the notion of “paradigm” by following its development in the epistemology of linguistics and semiotics of the twentieth century through three landmarks: its first use within ... [more ▼]

This paper aims to explore the notion of “paradigm” by following its development in the epistemology of linguistics and semiotics of the twentieth century through three landmarks: its first use within linguistics, by Ferdinand de Saussure, its redefinition by Louis Hjelmslev, and its reinterpretation in textual semiotics by Algirdas J. Greimas. The concept of “paradigm” represents, more than others, the very target of structuralist theorisation. Marking the transition between openness and closeness of linguistic categories, it crystallises the structuralist ambition to bring the dynamic variability and richness of semiotic phenomena back to a closed, or at least stable, inventory of functional ground elements. [less ▲]

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See detailEcotoxicoproteomic assessment of the functional alterations caused by chronic metallic exposures in gammarids
Gismondi, Eric ULg; Thomé, Jean-Pierre ULg; Urien, Nastassia et al

in Environmental Pollution (2017)

Very few ecotoxicological studies have been performed on long-term exposure under controlled conditions, hence limiting the assessment of the impact of chronic and diffuse chemical pressures on the health ... [more ▼]

Very few ecotoxicological studies have been performed on long-term exposure under controlled conditions, hence limiting the assessment of the impact of chronic and diffuse chemical pressures on the health of aquatic organisms. In this study, an ecotoxicoproteomic approach was used to assess the integrated response and possible acclimation mechanisms in Gammarus fossarum following chronic exposures to Cd, Cu or Pb, at environmentally realistic concentrations (i.e. 0.25, 1.5 and 5 µg/L respectively). After 10-week exposure, changes in protein expression were investigated in caeca of control and exposed males. Gel-free proteomic analyses allowed for the identification of 35 proteins involved in various biological functions, for which 23 were significantly deregulated by metal exposures. The protein deregulation profiles were specific to each metal, providing evidence for metal-specific action sites and responses of gammarids. Among the tested metals, Cu was the most toxic in terms of mortality, probably linked with persistent oxidative stress. Moulting and osmoregulation were the major biological functions affected by Cu in the long-term. In Pb-exposed gammarids, significant deregulations of proteins involved in immune response and cytoskeleton were observed. Reproduction appears to be strongly affected in gammarids chronically exposed to Cd or Pb. Besides, modified expressions of several proteins involved in energy transfer and metabolism highlighted important energetic reshuffling to cope with chronic metal exposures. These results support the fact that metallic pressures induce a functional and energetic cost for individuals of G. fossarum with potential repercussions on population dynamics. Furthermore, this ecotoxicoproteomic study offers promising lines of enquiry in the development of new biomarkers that could make evidence of long-term impacts of metals on the health of organisms. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel SMAD3 mutation caused multiple aneurysms in a patient without osteoarthritis symptoms
Courtois, Audrey ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; BOURS, Vincent ULg et al

in European Journal of Medical Genetics (2017)

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See detailOxidative wear behaviour of laser clad high speed steel thick deposits: influence of sliding speed, carbide type and morphology
Hashemi, Seyedeh Neda ULg; Mertens, Anne ULg; Montrieux, Henri-Michel ULg et al

in Surface & Coatings Technology (2017), 315

The oxidative wear behaviour of four different High Speed Steel (HSS) thick coatings (one cast material and three laser clad deposits with varying Mo, V and W contents) was investigated using a pin-on ... [more ▼]

The oxidative wear behaviour of four different High Speed Steel (HSS) thick coatings (one cast material and three laser clad deposits with varying Mo, V and W contents) was investigated using a pin-on-disc tribometer at two different sliding speeds of 10cm/s and 50cm/s. Microstructural characterisation (before and after the wear tests) was carried out by SEM and wear debris was analysed by XRD. For all four materials, the oxide layer was formed of hard and brittle haematite-type α-Fe2O3, prone to break and release debris that acted as a third body, thus increasing sample wear. The laser clad HSS materials exhibited a higher wear resistance than their conventional cast counterpart, thanks to their finer microstructures. In particular, the coarser MC and M2C carbides present in the cast material were sensitive to cracking during the wear tests, releasing debris that contributed to increased third body abrasion together with oxide fragments. A detailed comparison of the wear behaviour of the three laser clad deposits, in correlation with their different microstructures, further demonstrated that harder V-rich MC carbides offered better wear resistance compared to the softer W-rich M2C carbides. The morphology of the carbides also played a role in determining the wear resistance at the higher sliding speed of 50 cm/s. Clover-shaped primary MC carbides resisted wear better than angular ones due to their better geometric anchoring. Similarly, the geometric anchoring of eutectic M2C carbides, forming a quasi-continuous network at the grain boundaries of the matrix, proved beneficial at higher sliding speed. [less ▲]

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See detailA Large and Consistent Phylogenomic Dataset Supports Sponges as the Sister Group to All Other Animals.
Simion, Paul; Philippe, Herve; Baurain, Denis ULg et al

in Current Biology (2017)

Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera ... [more ▼]

Resolving the early diversification of animal lineages has proven difficult, even using genome-scale datasets. Several phylogenomic studies have supported the classical scenario in which sponges (Porifera) are the sister group to all other animals ("Porifera-sister" hypothesis), consistent with a single origin of the gut, nerve cells, and muscle cells in the stem lineage of eumetazoans (bilaterians + ctenophores + cnidarians). In contrast, several other studies have recovered an alternative topology in which ctenophores are the sister group to all other animals (including sponges). The "Ctenophora-sister" hypothesis implies that eumetazoan-specific traits, such as neurons and muscle cells, either evolved once along the metazoan stem lineage and were then lost in sponges and placozoans or evolved at least twice independently in Ctenophora and in Cnidaria + Bilateria. Here, we report on our reconstruction of deep metazoan relationships using a 1,719-gene dataset with dense taxonomic sampling of non-bilaterian animals that was assembled using a semi-automated procedure, designed to reduce known error sources. Our dataset outperforms previous metazoan gene superalignments in terms of data quality and quantity. Analyses with a best-fitting site-heterogeneous evolutionary model provide strong statistical support for placing sponges as the sister-group to all other metazoans, with ctenophores emerging as the second-earliest branching animal lineage. Only those methodological settings that exacerbated long-branch attraction artifacts yielded Ctenophora-sister. These results show that methodological issues must be carefully addressed to tackle difficult phylogenetic questions and pave the road to a better understanding of how fundamental features of animal body plans have emerged. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiopulmonary exercise testing is a better outcome predictor than exercise echocardiography in asymptomatic aortic stenosis.
Domanski, Olivia; Richardson, Marjorie; Coisne, Augustin et al

in International Journal of Cardiology (2017), 227

BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of maximal aerobic capacity using peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) can be helpful in the management of patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The relationship ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of maximal aerobic capacity using peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) can be helpful in the management of patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The relationship between peak VO2 and AS severity criteria derived from rest and supine exercise echocardiography (SEE) has never been explored. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether low peak VO2 (<85% of predicted value) is associated with severity parameters in SEE, and poor clinical outcome. METHODS: Fifty one asymptomatic patients (mean age of 54+/-21years) with moderate to severe aortic stenosis (Vmax>3m/s) and left ventricle ejection fraction>50% prospectively underwent resting and SEE and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). RESULTS: Peak VO2 was lower than expected (21.9+/-7.4mL/kg/min), i.e. <85% of predicted value in 57% patients, secondary to cardiac limitation in most of them (69%). In multiple regression analysis, age, BMI and female gender were the only independent determinants of peak VO2. Interestingly no parameter derived from SEE was associated with peak VO2. After 21+/-7month follow-up, no patient died, 20 underwent cardiac surgery. Peak VO2<85% of predicted value was associated with lower event free survival compared to normal peak VO2 (57%+/-11% vs 93+/-6%, p=0.036) whereas no exercise echocardiographic parameter could predict such events. Peak VO2>/=85% had a negative predictive value of 97%. CONCLUSION: CPX detects a high proportion of false asymptomatic AS patients with poorer outcome that cannot be predicted by SEE markers of AS severity. Assessment of aerobic capacity should be part of current approach within a "watchful waiting" strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailGenomic Studies of Multiple Myeloma Reveal an Association between X Chromosome Alterations and Genomic Profile Complexity.
Sticca, Tiberio ULg; CABERG, Jean-Hubert ULg; Wenric, Stéphane ULg et al

in Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer (2017), 56

The genomic profile of multiple myeloma (MM) has prognostic value by dividing patients into a good prognosis hyperdiploid group and a bad prognosis non-hyperdiploid group with a higher incidence of IgH ... [more ▼]

The genomic profile of multiple myeloma (MM) has prognostic value by dividing patients into a good prognosis hyperdiploid group and a bad prognosis non-hyperdiploid group with a higher incidence of IgH translocations. This classification, however, is inadequate and many other parameters like mutations, epigenetic modifications and genomic heterogeneity may influence the prognosis. We performed a genomic study by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on a cohort of 162 patients to evaluate the frequency of genomic gains and losses. We identified a high frequency of X chromosome alterations leading to partial Xq duplication, often associated with Xi deletion in female patients. This partial X duplication could be a cytogenetic marker of aneuploidy as it is correlated with a high number of chromosomal breakages. Patient with high level of chromosomal breakage had reduced survival regardless the region implicated. A higher transcriptional level was shown for genes with potential implication in cancer and located in this altered region. Among these genes, IKBKG and IRAK1 are members of the NFKB pathway which plays an important role in MM and is a target for specific treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailCan DEM time series produced by UAV be used to quantify diffuse erosion in an agricultural watershed?
Pineux, Nathalie ULg; Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Swerts, Gilles ULg et al

in Geomorphology (2017), 280

Erosion and deposition modelling should rely on field data. Currently these data are seldom available at large spatial scales and/or at high spatial resolution. In addition, conventional erosion ... [more ▼]

Erosion and deposition modelling should rely on field data. Currently these data are seldom available at large spatial scales and/or at high spatial resolution. In addition, conventional erosion monitoring approaches are labour intensive and costly. This calls for the development of new approaches for field erosion data acquisition. As a result of rapid technological developments and low cost, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have recently become an attractive means of generating high resolution digital elevation models (DEMs). The use of UAV to observe and quantify gully erosion is now widely established. However, in some agro-pedological contexts, soil erosion results from multiple processes, including sheet and rill erosion, tillage erosion and erosion due to harvest of root crops. These diffuse erosion processes often represent a particular challenge because of the limited elevation changes they induce. In this study,we propose to assess the reliability and development perspectives of UAV to locate and quantify erosion and deposition in a context of an agricultural watershed with silt loam soils and a smooth relief. Erosion and deposition rates derived from high resolution DEM time series are compared to field measurements. The UAV technique demonstrates a high level of flexibility and can be used, for instance, after a major erosive event. It delivers a very high resolution DEM(pixel size: 6 cm) which allows us to compute high resolution runoff pathways. This could enable us to precisely locate runoff management practices such as fascines. Furthermore, the DEMs can be used diachronically to extract elevation differences before and after a strongly erosive rainfall and be validated by field measurements. While the analysis for this study was carried out over 2 years, we observed a tendency along the slope from erosion to deposition. Erosion and deposition patterns detected at the watershed scale are also promising. Nevertheless, further development in the processing workflow of UAV data is required in order to make this technique accurate and robust enough for detecting sediment movements in an agricultural watershed affected by diffuse erosion. This area of investigation holdsmuch potential as the images processing is relatively new and expanding. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of oxytocin to improve feeding and social skills in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome
Tauber, Maïthé; Boulanouar, Kader; Gwenaelle, Diene et al

in Pediatrics (2017), 139(2),

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults. Animal data demonstrated that early treatment with OXT restores sucking after birth. Our aim is to reproduce these data in infants with PWS. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2 escalating dose study of a short course (7 days) of intranasal OXT administration. We enrolled 18 infants with PWS under 6 months old (6 infants in each step) who received 4 IU of OXT either every other day, daily, or twice daily. We investigated the tolerance and the effects on feeding and social skills and changes in circulating ghrelin and brain connectivity by functional MRI. RESULTS: No adverse events were reported. No dose effect was observed. Sucking assessed by the Neonatal Oral-Motor Scale was abnormal in all infants at baseline and normalized in 88% after treatment. The scores of Neonatal Oral-Motor Scale and videofluoroscopy of swallowing significantly decreased from 16 to 9 (P < .001) and from 18 to 12.5 (P < .001), respectively. Significant improvements in Clinical Global Impression scale scores, social withdrawal behavior, and mother–infant interactions were observed. We documented a significant increase in acylated ghrelin and connectivity of the right superior orbitofrontal network that correlated with changes in sucking and behavior. CONCLUSIONS: OXT is well tolerated in infants with PWS and improves feeding and social skills. These results open perspectives for early treatment in neurodevelopment diseases with feeding problems. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbedded solids of any dimension in the X-FEM. Part II - Imposing Dirichlet boundary conditions
Duboeuf, Frédéric ULg; Béchet, Eric ULg

in Finite Elements in Analysis and Design (2017)

This paper focuses on the design of a stable Lagrange multiplier space dedicated to enforce Dirichlet boundary conditions on embedded boundaries of any dimension. It follows a previous paper in a series ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the design of a stable Lagrange multiplier space dedicated to enforce Dirichlet boundary conditions on embedded boundaries of any dimension. It follows a previous paper in a series of two, on the topic of embedded solids of any dimension within the context of the extended finite element method. While the first paper is devoted to the design of a dedicated P1 function space to solve elliptic equations defined on manifolds of codimension one or two (curves in 2D and surfaces in 3D, or curves in 3D), the general treatment of Dirichlet boundary conditions, in such a setting, remains to be addressed. This is the aim of this second paper. A new algorithm is introduced to build a stable Lagrange multiplier space from the traces of the shape functions defined on the background mesh. It is general enough to cover: (i) boundary value problems investigated in the first paper (with, for instance, Dirichlet boundary conditions defined along a line in a 3D mismatching mesh); but also (ii) those posed on manifolds of codimension zero (a domain embedded in a mesh of the same dimension) and already considered in Béchet et al. 2009. In both cases, the compatibility between the Lagrange multiplier space and that of the bulk approximation (the dedicated P1 function space used in (i), or classical shape functions used in (ii)) — resulting in the inf–sup condition — is investigate through the numerical Chapelle-Bath test. Numerical validations are performed against analytical and finite element solutions on problems involving 1D or 2D boundaries embedded in a 2D or 3D background mesh. Comparisons with Nitsche’s method and the stable Lagrange multiplier space proposed in Hautefeuille et al. 2012, when they are feasible, highlight good performance of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailEmployee perspectives on safety citizenship behaviors and safety violations
Chmiel, Nik; Laurent, Julie ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

in Safety Science (2017), 93

Two studies investigate whether employees viewing discretionary safety activities as part of their job role (termed safety citizenship role definitions, SCRDs) plays an important part in predicting two ... [more ▼]

Two studies investigate whether employees viewing discretionary safety activities as part of their job role (termed safety citizenship role definitions, SCRDs) plays an important part in predicting two types of safety violation: routine violations conceptualized as related to an individual’s available cognitive energy or ‘effort’; and situational violations, which are those provoked by the organization (Reason, 1990). Study 1 showed SCRDs predicted situational violations only, and partially mediated the relationships between Perceived Management Commitment to Safety (PMCS) and work engagement with situational violations. These findings add to those by Hansez and Chmiel (2010), showing that routine and situational violations have predictors that differ. Study 1 findings also extend research reported by Turner et al. (2005), by showing that the effect of Job Control on SCRDs was mediated by both PMCS and work engagement. In study 2, participation in discretionary safety activities (safety participation) mediated the relationship between SCRDs and situational violations. Similar to study 1 The link between SCRDs and routine violations was non-significant and, strikingly, so was the link between safety participation and routine violations. These results support the view that processes involving SCRDs and safety participation are not cognitive-energetical in nature. In addition, study 2 findings extend previous work by Neal and Griffin (2006) by showing that SCRDs and safety knowledge partially mediated relationships between safety motivation and safety participation, whereas the direct effect of safety motivation on safety participation was non-significant. The results from both studies support the view that SCRDs are important in predicting situational violations. In study 2 SCRDs were shown to partially mediate the relationship between safety motivation and selfreported participation in discretionary safety activities (Safety Participation) which, in turn, related to situational violations. Interestingly there was no significant direct link between SCRDs and situational violations. These findings support the view that the effect of SCRDs on situational violations is fully mediated by participation in discretionary safety activities. [less ▲]

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See detailRigid catheters reduced duration of less invasive surfactant therapy procedures in manikins.
RIGO, Vincent ULg; Debauche, Christian; Maton, Pierre et al

in Acta Paediatrica (2017)

Aim: Different catheters can be used for less invasive surfactant therapy (LIST): feeding tubes inserted with or without Magill forceps, different angiocatheters and centre specific devices, such as ... [more ▼]

Aim: Different catheters can be used for less invasive surfactant therapy (LIST): feeding tubes inserted with or without Magill forceps, different angiocatheters and centre specific devices, such as umbilical catheters affixed to a stylet. This study compared the effectiveness of LIST devices and endotracheal tubes (ETT). Methods: Video recordings of 20 neonatologists simulating different LIST techniques on two manikin heads were analysed. Procedural effectiveness was evaluated by the duration of procedures and failure rates. Ease of use was scored. Results: The median procedure time for the Neonatal Intubation Trainer was significantly longer with feeding tubes without Maggil forceps. For the more difficult ALS Baby Trainer, successful procedures lasted a median of 24 (17-32) seconds with ETT, 24 (15-36) seconds with stylet-guided catheters and 34 (27-46) seconds and 37 (29-42) seconds with 13cm and 30cm angiocatheters, respectively. Both methods using feeding tubes were statistically slower than ETT intubation, lasting 32 (25-44) seconds and 39 (27-95) seconds with or without Maggil forceps. Failure rates (7-20%) were no different between the LIST methods. Techniques using feeding tubes were rated as more difficult. Conclusion: Only rigid or stylet-guided catheters required tracheal catheterisation times similar to those of endotracheal intubation and neonatologists found them easier.  KEY NOTES • This manikin study used video recordings of 20 neonatologists to compare the effectiveness of devices for less invasive surfactant therapy (LIST) and endotracheal tubes. • The durations of tracheal catheterisation for LIST using rigid or stylet-guided catheters were no different from those obtained with endotracheal tubes, but feeding tubes with or without Maggil forceps required longer procedures. • Neonatologists found rigid or stylet-guided catheters easier to use. [less ▲]

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See detailAlcohol-cue exposure decreases response inhibition towards alcohol-related stimuli in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients
Kreusch, Fanny; Billieux, Joël; Quertemont, Etienne ULg

in Psychiatry Research (2017), 249

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol ... [more ▼]

The induction of alcohol craving and the cognitive processing of alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients have been reported to compete with inhibitory control and contribute to alcohol relapse. The aim of the present study is to investigate whether the induction of a craving state, using an alcohol cue exposure paradigm, influences response inhibition towards both neutral stimuli and alcohol-related stimuli in alcohol-dependent patients. Thirty-one detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were exposed to either their preferred alcoholic beverage or to a glass of water. They then performed a modified stop signal task, which used alcohol-related words, neutral words and non-words, and a lexical decision as the Go response. The alcohol-cue exposure group reported significantly higher alcohol craving and showed higher percentages of commission errors towards alcohol-related words than the control group. All participants, but especially those of the alcohol-cue exposure group, showed also shorter reaction times when alcohol words were used as targets in go trials. The induction of alcohol craving in detoxified alcohol-dependent patients increases the motivational salience value of alcohol stimuli, leading them to automatically approach alcohol-related cues and therefore impairing response inhibition towards those stimuli. [less ▲]

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See detailA robust statistical approach to select adequate error distributions for financial returns
Hambuckers, julien ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Applied Statistics (2017), 44(1), 137-161

In this article, we propose a robust statistical approach to select an appropriate error distribution, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the traditional ... [more ▼]

In this article, we propose a robust statistical approach to select an appropriate error distribution, in a classical multiplicative heteroscedastic model. In a first step, unlike to the traditional approach, we don't use any GARCH-type estimation of the conditional variance. Instead, we propose to use a recently developed nonparametric procedure (Mercurio and Spokoiny, 2004): the Local Adaptive Volatility Estimation (LAVE). The motivation for using this method is to avoid a possible model misspecification for the conditional variance. In a second step, we suggest a set of estimation and model selection procedures (Berk-Jones tests, kernel density-based selection, censored likelihood score, coverage probability) based on the so-obtained residuals. These methods enable to assess the global fit of a set of distributions as well as to focus on their behavior in the tails, giving us the capacity to map the strengths and weaknesses of the candidate distributions. A bootstrap procedure is provided to compute the rejection regions in this semiparametric context. Finally, we illustrate our methodology throughout a small simulation study and an application on three time series of daily returns (UBS stock returns, BOVESPA returns and EUR/USD exchange rates) [less ▲]

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See detailMethane in the South China Sea and the Western Philippine Sea
Tseng, Hsiao-Chun; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Borges, Alberto ULg et al

in Continental Shelf Research (2017), 135

Approximately 700 water samples from the South China Sea (SCS) and 300 water samples from the western Philippine Sea (wPS) were collected during eight cruises from August 2003 to July 2007 to determine ... [more ▼]

Approximately 700 water samples from the South China Sea (SCS) and 300 water samples from the western Philippine Sea (wPS) were collected during eight cruises from August 2003 to July 2007 to determine methane (CH4) distributions from the surface to a depth of 4250 m. The surface CH4 concentrations exceeded atmospheric equilibrium, both in the SCS and the wPS, and the concentrations were 4.5±3.6 and 3.0±1.2 nmol L−1, respectively. The sea-to-air fluxes were calculated, and the SCS and the wPS were found to emit CH4 to the atmosphere at 8.6±6.4 µmol m−2 d−1 and 4.9±4.9 µmol m−2 d−1, respectively. In the SCS, CH4 emissions were higher over the continental shelf (11.0±7.4 µmol m−2 d−1) than over the deep ocean (6.1±6.0 µmol m−2 d−1), owing to greater biological productivity and closer coupling with the sediments on the continental shelf. The SCS emitted 30.1×106 mol d−1 CH4 to the atmosphere and exported 1.82×106 mol d−1 CH4 to the wPS. The concentrations of both CH4 and chlorophyll a were high in the 150 m surface layer of the wPS, but were not significantly correlated with each other. CH4 concentrations generally declined with increasing depth below the euphotic zone but remained constant below 1,000 m, both in the SCS and the wPS. Some high CH4 concentrations were observed at mid-depths and bottom waters in the SCS, and were most likely caused by the release of CH4 from gas hydrates or gas seepage. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Sustainable Aquaculture
Tran Thi Nang, Thu; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in Oceanography & Fisheries (2017), 1(3), 001-002

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See detailNanomedicine as a potent strategy in melanoma tumor microenvironment
Pautu, Vincent ULg; Leonetti, Daniela; Lepeltier, Elise et al

in Pharmacological Research (2017)

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See detailInterleukin 13-mediated colitis in the absence of IL-4Rα signalling
Hoving, Jennifer C; Cutler, Antony J; Leeto, Mosiuoa et al

in Gut (2017)

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See detailWidespread activity of multiple lineages of Usutu virus, western Europe, 2016.
Cadar, Daniel; Luhken, Renke; van der Jeugd, Henk et al

in Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin (2017), 22(4),

In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four ... [more ▼]

In the summer of 2016, Belgium, France, Germany and the Netherlands reported widespread Usutu virus (USUV) activity based on live and dead bird surveillance. The causative USUV strains represented four lineages, of which two putative novel lineages were most likely recently introduced into Germany and spread to other western European countries. The spatial extent of the outbreak area corresponded with R0 values > 1. The occurrence of the outbreak, the largest USUV epizootic registered so far in Europe, allowed us to gain insight in how a recently introduced arbovirus with potential public health implications can spread and become a resident pathogen in a naive environment. Understanding the ecological and epidemiological factors that drive the emergence or re-emergence of USUV is critical to develop and implement timely surveillance strategies for adequate preventive and control measures. Public health authorities, blood transfusion services and clinicians in countries where USUV was detected should be aware of the risk of possible USUV infection in humans, including in patients with unexplained encephalitis or other neurological impairments, especially during late summer when mosquito densities peak. [less ▲]

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See detailEmbedded solids of any dimension in the X-FEM. Part I - Building a dedicated P1 function space
Duboeuf, Frédéric ULg; Béchet, Eric ULg

in Finite Elements in Analysis and Design (2017)

This paper focuses on the design of a dedicated P1 function space to model elliptic boundary value problem on a manifold embedded in a space of higher dimension. Using the traces of the linear P1 shape ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the design of a dedicated P1 function space to model elliptic boundary value problem on a manifold embedded in a space of higher dimension. Using the traces of the linear P1 shape functions, it introduces an algorithm to reduce the function space into an equivalent space having the same properties than a P1 Lagrange approximation. Convergence studies involving problems of codimension one or two embedded in 2D or 3D show good accuracy with regard to classical finite element and analytical solutions. The effects of the relative position of the domain with respect to the mesh are studied in a sensitivity analysis; it illustrates how the proposed solution allows to keep the condition number bounded. A comparative study is performed with the method introduced by Olshanskii et al. 2009 on a closed surface to validate our approach. The robustness of the proposed approach is investigated with regard to their method and that of Burman et al. 2016. This paper is the first in a series of two, on the topic of embedded solids of any dimension within the context of the extended finite element method. It investigates problems involving borderless domains or domains with boundary subject to Dirichlet constraint defined only on the boundaries of the bulk mesh, while the forthcoming paper overcomes this limitation by introducing a new stable Lagrange multiplier space for Dirichlet boundary condition (and more generally stiff condition), that is valid for every combination of the background mesh and manifold dimensions. The combination of both algorithms allows to handle any embedding i.e. 1D, 2D and 3D problems embedded in 2D or 3D background meshes. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of the biogenic emission model MEGAN(v2.1) into the ECHAM6-HAMMOZ chemistry climate model
Henrot, Alexandra-Jane ULg; Stanelle, T.; Schröder, S. et al

in Geoscientific Model Development [=GMD] (2017)

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See detailFacies discrimination with electrical resistivity tomography using a probabilistic methodology: Effect of sensitivity and regularization
Hermans, Thomas ULg; Irving, James

in Near Surface Geophysics (2017), 15

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has become a standard geophysical method in the field of hydrogeology, as it has the potential to provide important information regarding the spatial distribution ... [more ▼]

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has become a standard geophysical method in the field of hydrogeology, as it has the potential to provide important information regarding the spatial distribution of facies. However, inverted ERT images tend to be grossly smoothed versions of reality because of the regularization of the inverse problem. In this study, we use a probabilistic methodology based upon co-located measurements to assess the utility of ERT to identify hydrofacies in alluvial aquifers. With this methodology, ERT images are interpreted in terms of the probability of belonging to pre-defined hydrofacies. We first analyze through a synthetic study the ability of ERT to discriminate between different facies. As ERT data suffer from a loss of sensitivity with depth, we find that low sensitivity regions are more affected by misclassification. To counteract this effect, we adapt the probabilistic framework to include the spatially varying data sensitivity. We then apply our learning to a field case. For the latter, we consider two different regularization procedures. In contrast to the data sensitivity which affects the facies probability to a limited amount, the regularization can affect the probability maps more considerably because it has a strong influence on the spatial distribution of inverted resistivity. We find that a regularization strategy based on the most realistic prior information tends to offer the most reliable discrimination of facies. Our results confirm the ability of ERT surveys, when properly designed, to detect facies variations in alluvial aquifers. The method can be easily extended to other contexts. [less ▲]

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See detailLa géographie linguistique au nord du domaine d'oïl
Baiwir, Esther ULg

in Bien Dire et Bien Aprandre : Bulletin du Centre d'Etudes Médiévales et Dialectales de l'Université de Lille III (2017), 32

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See detailAnti-thymocyte globulin as graft-versus-host disease prevention in the setting of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a review from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Baron, Frédéric ULg; Mohty, Mohamad; Blaise, Didier et al

in Haematologica (2017)

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is increasingly used as treatment for patients with life threatening blood diseases. Their curative potential is largely based on immune-mediated graft ... [more ▼]

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is increasingly used as treatment for patients with life threatening blood diseases. Their curative potential is largely based on immune-mediated graft-versus-leukemia effects caused by donor T cells contained in the graft. Unfortunately, donor T cells are also the cause of graft-versus-host disease. The vast majority of HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations are nowadays carried out with peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) as stem cell source. In comparison with bone marrows, PBSC contain more hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells but also one log more T cells. Consequently, the use of PBSC instead of bone marrow has been associated with faster hematological recovery and a lower risk of relapse in patients with advanced disease, but also with a higher incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. These observations have been the basis for several studies aimed at assessing the impact of immunoregulation with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) on transplantation outcomes in patients given HLA-matched PBSC from related or unrelated donors. After a brief introduction on ATG, this article reviews recent studies assessing the impact ATG on transplantation outcomes in patients given PBSC from HLA-matched related or unrelated donors as well as in recipients of grafts from HLA-haploidentical donors. [less ▲]

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See detailEffective components of interventions in juvenile justice facilities: How to take care of delinquent youths?
Mathys, Cécile ULg

in Children and Youth Services Review (2017), 73

Therapeutic interventions support change in delinquent youths rather than rely on surveillance and deterrence. This article describes successful and concrete components for therapeutic interventions in ... [more ▼]

Therapeutic interventions support change in delinquent youths rather than rely on surveillance and deterrence. This article describes successful and concrete components for therapeutic interventions in juvenile justice facilities. The effectiveness of remedial measures to best address the sources of youths' delinquent behaviors and the performance of juvenile justice system are discussed first, and then two theoretical frameworks of rehabilitative models are described that are commonly used with delinquent youths. Finally, specific recommendations for enhancing treatment in juvenile justice facilities with regard to the content of interventions, social climate, and youth motivation to engage in treatment are described and explained in a way intended to help caregivers and practitioners, supervisors of juvenile justice facilities, and policy makers improve the daily life of youths placed in this kind of environment. [less ▲]

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See detailMono- and bimetallic manganese-carbonyl complexes and clusters bearing imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate ligands
Beltran Alvarez, Tomás Francisco ULg; Zaragoza, Guillermo; Delaude, Lionel ULg

in Dalton Transactions (2017), 46

Five complexes with the generic formula fac-[MnBr(CO)3(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were obtained by reacting [MnBr(CO)5] with a set of representative imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions. These ... [more ▼]

Five complexes with the generic formula fac-[MnBr(CO)3(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] were obtained by reacting [MnBr(CO)5] with a set of representative imidazol(in)ium-2-dithiocarboxylate zwitterions. These ligands are the adducts of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and carbon disulfide. The mononuclear Mn(i) derivatives were coupled with Na[Mn(CO)5] to afford bimetallic [Mn2(CO)6(S2C[middle dot]NHC)] clusters. Yet, the most convenient strategy to access these dinuclear Mn(0) products implied a direct carbonyl substitution from the [Mn2(CO)10] dimer. The molecular structures of three monometallic and four bimetallic compounds were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In the monometallic complexes, the NHC[middle dot]CS2 ligands exhibited a bidentate [small kappa]2-S,S[prime or minute] coordination mode with an S-C-S bite angle of about 116[degree]. In the dinuclear clusters, the CS2- unit acted as a chelate toward one manganese center and as a pseudoallylic ligand toward the other one. The S-C-S bite angle was reduced to ca. 104[degree]. Thus, the zwitterions displayed a remarkable flexibility, which also permitted a staggered arrangement of the carbonyl groups in the bimetallic systems. Examination of the [small nu, Greek, macron]CO absorption bands on IR spectroscopy helped identify the presence of fac-Mn(CO)3 or Mn2(CO)6 motifs, while the 13C NMR chemical shift of the CS2- moiety was a reliable indicator for monitoring its hapticity. Whereas the dinuclear clusters were air- and moisture-stable crystalline solids, mononuclear halido derivatives displayed only a limited stability under aerobic conditions. Both types of compounds underwent rather unselective, extensive fragmentations in the gas phase, in sharp contrast with the analogous rhenium derivatives that led to clean sequential decarbonylation processes upon collision-induced dissociation. [less ▲]

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See detailFalse memory susceptibility in coma survivors with and without a near-death experience
Martial, Charlotte ULg; Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Dehon, Hedwige ULg et al

in Psychological Research (2017)

It has been postulated that memories of neardeath experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers’ (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the ... [more ▼]

It has been postulated that memories of neardeath experiences (NDEs) could be (at least in part) reconstructions based on experiencers’ (NDErs) previous knowledge and could be built as a result of the individual’s attempt to interpret the confusing experience. From the point of view of the experiencer, NDE memories are perceived as being unrivalled memories due to its associated rich phenomenology. However, the scientific literature devoted to the cognitive functioning of NDErs in general, and their memory performance in particular, is rather limited. This study examined NDErs’ susceptibility to false memories using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. We included 20 NDErs who reported having had their experience in the context of a life-threatening event (Greyson NDE scale total score ≥7/32) and 20 volunteers (matched for age, gender, education level, and time since brain insult) who reported a life-threatening event but without a NDE. Both groups were presented with DRM lists for a recall task during which they were asked to assign “Remember/Know/Guess” judgements to any recalled response. In addition, they were later asked to complete a post-recall test designed to obtain estimates of activation and monitoring of critical lures. Results demonstrated that NDErs and volunteers were equally likely to produce false memories, but that NDErs recalled them more frequently associated with compelling illusory recollection. Of particular interest, analyses of activation and monitoring estimates suggest that NDErs and volunteers groups were equally likely to think of critical lures, but source monitoring was less successful in NDErs compared to volunteers. [less ▲]

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See detailQue peut la doctrine en droit des sociétés (et ailleurs)?
Thirion, Nicolas ULg

in Revue Pratique des Sociétés - Tijdschrift voor Rechtspersoon en Vennootschap (2017), 1

A quelle condition la doctrine peut-elle relever d'une démarche proprement scientifique? Telle est la question qu'abord cet éditorial.

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See detailDepth-speci c Fluctuations of gene expression and protein abundance modulate the photophysiology in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica
Procaccini, Gabriele; Ruocco, Miriam; Marin-Guirao, Lazaro et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7(42890), 1-14

We present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/ adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily uctuations in the light ... [more ▼]

We present the results of a multiple organizational level analysis conceived to identify acclimative/ adaptive strategies exhibited by the seagrass Posidonia oceanica to the daily uctuations in the light environment, at contrasting depths. We assessed changes in photophysiological parameters, leaf respiration, pigments, and protein and mRNA expression levels. The results show that the diel oscillations of P. oceanica photophysiological and respiratory responses were related to transcripts and proteins expression of the genes involved in those processes and that there was a response asynchrony between shallow and deep plants probably caused by the strong di erences in the light environment. The photochemical pathway of energy use was more e ective in shallow plants due to higher light availability, but these plants needed more investment in photoprotection and photorepair, requiring higher translation and protein synthesis than deep plants. The genetic di erentiation between deep and shallow stands suggests the existence of locally adapted genotypes to contrasting light environments. The depth-speci c diel rhythms of photosynthetic and respiratory processes, from molecular to physiological levels, must be considered in the management and conservation of these key coastal ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailExtreme intra-clutch egg size dimorphism is not coupled with corresponding differences in antioxidant capacity and stable isotopes between eggs
Poisbleau, Maud; Beaulieu, Michaël; Dehnhard, Nina et al

in Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A : Molecular & Integrative Physiology (2017), 205

Oviparous females need to allocate resources optimally to their eggs in order to maximize their fitness. Among these resources, dietary antioxidants, acquired by females and transferred to the eggs during ... [more ▼]

Oviparous females need to allocate resources optimally to their eggs in order to maximize their fitness. Among these resources, dietary antioxidants, acquired by females and transferred to the eggs during egg formation, can greatly affect the development and survival of the embryo and chick. In crested penguins, incubation starts after the second and last egg is laid and, as opposed to many other bird species, this egg hatches first, thereby enhancing the survival of the chick. Here, we assessed whether antioxidant and isotopic composition could underlie these differences between eggs within clutches of southern rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome chrysocome). The second-laid egg had higher total antioxidant capacity than the first-laid egg, although this was not due to higher antioxidant concentration but to its higher mass. This suggests that resources are allocated by females at a constant rate in both eggs within clutches. Accordingly, we found a strong correlation for isotopic compositions between eggs suggesting that resources were allocated similarly to each egg within the clutch. Overall, we found little evidence for a significant role of antioxidant and isotopic compositions to explain differences in terms of embryo/chick development between eggs in crested penguins. However, since our results suggest a constant rate of antioxidant transfer from females to eggs, limiting the mass of the first-laid egg might represent a strategy for females to spare antioxidant defences and preserve self-maintenance. [less ▲]

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See detailMethylglyoxal-Mediated Stress Correlates with High Metabolic Activity and Promotes Tumor Growth in Colorectal Cancer.
Chiavarina, Barbara ULg; Nokin, Marie-Julie ULg; Bellier, Justine ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2017), 18(1),

Cancer cells generally rely on aerobic glycolysis as a major source of energy. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound that is produced as a side product during glycolysis, is highly reactive and ... [more ▼]

Cancer cells generally rely on aerobic glycolysis as a major source of energy. Methylglyoxal (MG), a dicarbonyl compound that is produced as a side product during glycolysis, is highly reactive and induces the formation of advanced glycation end-products that are implicated in several pathologies including cancer. All mammalian cells have an enzymatic defense against MG composed by glyoxalases GLO1 and GLO2 that converts MG to d-lactate. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequently occurring cancers with high morbidity and mortality. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to examine the level of MG protein adducts, in a series of 102 CRC human tumors divided into four clinical stages. We consistently detected a high level of MG adducts and low GLO1 activity in high stage tumors compared to low stage ones suggesting a pro-tumor role for dicarbonyl stress. Accordingly, GLO1 depletion in CRC cells promoted tumor growth in vivo that was efficiently reversed using carnosine, a potent MG scavenger. Our study represents the first demonstration that MG adducts accumulation is a consistent feature of high stage CRC tumors. Our data point to MG production and detoxification levels as an important molecular link between exacerbated glycolytic activity and CRC progression. [less ▲]

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See detailRelations on words
Rigo, Michel ULg

in Indagationes Mathematicae (2017), 28

In the first part of this survey, we present classical notions arising in combinatorics on words: growth function of a language, complexity function of an infinite word, pattern avoidance, periodicity and ... [more ▼]

In the first part of this survey, we present classical notions arising in combinatorics on words: growth function of a language, complexity function of an infinite word, pattern avoidance, periodicity and uniform recurrence. Our presentation tries to set up a unified framework with respect to a given binary relation. In the second part, we mainly focus on abelian equivalence, $k$-abelian equivalence, combinatorial coefficients and associated relations, Parikh matrices and $M$-equivalence. In particular, some new refinements of abelian equivalence are introduced. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderstanding and overcoming metformin gastrointestinal intolerance.
Bonnet, Fabrice; Scheen, André ULg

in Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism (2017), 19(473-481),

Metformin is the most widely prescribed drug for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the first-line pharmacologic option as supported by multiple international guidelines, yet a rather large ... [more ▼]

Metformin is the most widely prescribed drug for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and the first-line pharmacologic option as supported by multiple international guidelines, yet a rather large proportion of patients cannot tolerate metformin in adequate amounts because of its associated gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs). GI AEs typically encountered with metformin therapy include diarrhoea, nausea, flatulence, indigestion, vomiting, and abdominal discomfort, with diarrhoea and nausea being the most common. Although starting at a low dose and titrating slowly may help prevent some of metformin's GI AEs, some patients are unable to tolerate metformin at all and it may also be difficult to convince patients to start metformin again after a bout of GI AEs. Despite this clinical importance the underlying mechanisms of metformin's GI intolerance are poorly known. This review discusses the epidemiology of metformin GI intolerance; its underlying mechanisms; genotype variability and associated factors affecting metformin GI intolerance, such as comorbidities, co-medications, and bariatric surgery; clinical consequences, and therapeutic strategies to overcome metformin GI intolerance. These strategies include appropriate titration of immediate-release metformin, use of extended-release metformin, the promise of delayed-release metformin and gut microbiome modulators, and alternative pharmacological therapies when metformin cannot be tolerated at all. Given the available data, all efforts should be made to maintain metformin before considering a shift to another drug therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the photocatalytic activity of Fe3+, Cr3+, La3+ and Eu3+ single-doped and co-doped TiO2 catalysts produced by aqueous sol-gel processing
Malengreaux, Charline; Pirard, Sophie ULg; Léonard, Géraldine ULg et al

in Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2017), 691

An aqueous sol-gel process, previously developed for producing undoped and Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ or Pb2+ doped TiO2 photocatalysts with remarkably high photocatalytic activity without requiring any calcination ... [more ▼]

An aqueous sol-gel process, previously developed for producing undoped and Cu2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ or Pb2+ doped TiO2 photocatalysts with remarkably high photocatalytic activity without requiring any calcination step, has been adapted to produce Fe3+, Cr3+, La3+ or Eu3+ single-doped TiO2 photocatalysts as well as La3+-Fe3+ and Eu3+-Fe3+ co-doped TiO2 catalysts. The physicochemical properties of the obtained catalysts have been characterized using a suite of complementary techniques, including ICP-AES, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption and Fe-57 Mössbauer. The active crystalline phase is obtained without requiring any calcination step and all the different catalysts are composed of nanocrystallites of anatase with a size of 6-7 nm and a high specific surface area varying from 181 to 298 m² g-1. In this study, the effect of the NO3:Ti(IV) mole ratio used to induce the peptisation reaction during the synthesis has been studied and the results revealed that this ratio can influence significantly the textural properties of the resulting catalyst. A screening of the photocatalytic activity of the undoped and Fe3+, Cr3+, La3+ or Eu3+ single-doped and co-doped photocatalysts has been performed by evaluating the degradation of 4-nitrophenol under UV-Visible light (330 nm < λ < 800 nm). This study suggests that the photocatalytic activity is significantly influenced by the dopant nature and content with an optimal dopant content being observed in the case of Fe3+ or La3+ single-doped as well as in the case of La3+-Fe3+ and Eu3+-Fe3+ co-doped catalysts. In the case of Cr3+ single-doped catalysts, a detrimental effect of the dopant on the photocatalytic degradation of 4-nitrophenol has been observed while no significant influence of the dopant has been detected in the case of Eu3+ single-doped catalysts. The role of the different dopants in modulating the photocatalytic activity is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature Preference and Sex Differentiation in African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus
Santi, Saïdou; Rougeot, Carole ULg; Toguyeni, Aboubacar et al

in Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology (2017)

The African catfish Clarias gariepinus has a genetic sex determination system in which high temperature induces masculinization. The thermosensitive period for sex differentiation is short and occurs very ... [more ▼]

The African catfish Clarias gariepinus has a genetic sex determination system in which high temperature induces masculinization. The thermosensitive period for sex differentiation is short and occurs very early (from 6 to 8 days posthatching [dph]). As young juveniles can encounter high masculinizing temperature (36.5°C) in African water points, we aimed to determine the thermal preference of sexually undifferentiated juveniles and investigate if they spontaneously move toward high masculinizing temperature. Experiments were carried out in an environmental continuum (28–28–28°C and 28–32–36.5°C) made up of three 50-L aquariums connected together. Four hundred larvae from 10 different full-sib progenies were reared successively from 2 to 14 dph in these facilities. Before and after thermal treatments, fish were reared at 28°C until sex ratio determination at 70 dph. In the control continuum, fish were nearly equally distributed in the three compartments. Conversely, in the thermal continuum, compartment occupation significantly differed with progeny and period. During the highly thermosensitive period, two of five progenies significantly preferred (54.7% and 39.8% occupation) the 36.5°C compartment. All tested progenies reared in thermal continuum and separated 36.5°C aquarium showed a skewed sex ratio toward the male phenotype (78–100%). Nevertheless, no correlation was found between 36.5°C compartment occupation and sex ratio in thermal continuum groups. As masculinization temperature could be encountered in African water points during the spawning season, we discussed the adaptive advantage for the African catfish to display a sex differentiation process controlled by a temperature effect. [less ▲]

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See detailWalnut husk fly, Rhagoletis completa (Diptera: Tephritidae), invades Europe: invasion potential and control strategies
Verheggen, François ULg; Verhaeghe, Agnès; Giordanengo, Philippe et al

in Applied Entomology and Zoology (2017), 52(1), 1-7

Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae) is native to North America and invaded Western Europe in the late 1980s, causing important damage to its principal host, walnut (Juglans spp.). In this ... [more ▼]

Rhagoletis completa Cresson (Diptera: Tephritidae) is native to North America and invaded Western Europe in the late 1980s, causing important damage to its principal host, walnut (Juglans spp.). In this review, we summarize the important elements of R. completa’s biology, phytosanitary status and methods used in Europe for its control, and then present the main conclusions associated with a completed risk analysis performed in 2014 to evaluate the dispersion and establishment potential of R. completa in Europe. The walnut husk fly was initially identified in Switzerland (1988) and Italy (1991), from where it spread to at least seven additional countries: France, Spain, Germany, Austria, Croatia, Slovenia and Hungary. R. completa has not reached the limits of its potential distribution. The main dissemination pathways within Europe include: (1) natural adult dissemination; (2) adult hitchhiker behaviour; and, to a lesser extent, (3) transportation of larvae in fresh fruits. R. completa host plants are widely distributed in Europe, either as isolated wild trees or in orchards, favouring the probability of fly establishment in currently fly-free areas. In addition, the European territories where Juglans species are present share biogeographic similarities. In orchards where R. completa is present and uncontrolled, 100% of walnut trees can be infested, causing losses in walnut yields of up to 80%. The negative effect is low (<10% yield loss) under phytosanitary control, although additional costs must also be considered to support specific monitoring for R. completa. The information presented here underlines a strong need for better walnut husk fly monitoring across European countries, as well as for increasing efforts to develop biological methods to control this emerging pest. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular dynamics study of micelle proeprties according to their size
Lebecque, Simon ULg; Crowet, Jean-Marc ULg; Nasir, Mehmet Nail ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling (2017)

Surfactants are molecules able to spontaneously self-assemble to form aggregates with well-defined properties, such as spherical micelles, planar bilayers, cylindrical micelles or vesicles. Micelles have ... [more ▼]

Surfactants are molecules able to spontaneously self-assemble to form aggregates with well-defined properties, such as spherical micelles, planar bilayers, cylindrical micelles or vesicles. Micelles have notably several applications in many domains, such as drug delivery or membrane protein solubilization. In this context, the study of micelle formation in relation with the structural and physico-chemical properties of surfactants is of great interest to better control their use in the different application fields. In this work, we use the MD approach developed by Yoshii et al. and extend it to surfactants with different structures. We aim to systematically investigate different micellar properties as a function of the aggregates size by a molecular dynamics approach, to get an insight into the micellar organization and to collect some relevant descriptors about micelle formation. For this, we perform short MD simulations of preformed micelles of various sizes and analyze three parameters for each micelle size, namely the eccentricity of the micelles, the hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface ratio and the hydrophobic tails hydration. If these parameters are known descriptors of micelles, they were not yet studied in this way by MD. We show that eccentricity, used as “validator” parameter, exhibits minimal values when the aggregate size is close to the experimental aggregation number for surfactants that are known to form spherical micelles. This hence indicates that our methodology gives consistent results. The evolution of the two descriptors follows another scheme, with a sharp increase and decrease, respectively, followed by a leveling-off. The aggregate sizes at which this stabilization starts to occur are close to the respective aggregation number of each surfactant. In our approach, we validate the use of these descriptors to follow micelle formation by MD, from “simple” surfactants to more complex structures, like lipopeptides. Our calculations also suggest that some peculiar behavior, like that of TPC, can be highlighted by our approach. In the context of peptidic surfactants, our methodology could further help to improve computer simulations combined to molecular thermodynamic models to predict micellar properties of those more complex amphiphilic molecules. [less ▲]

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See detailSartre in Venedig: der Mann, der in die Kälte ging
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Viehöver, Vera ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2017), 11

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See detailPEGylated and Functionalized Aliphatic Polycarbonate Polyplex Nanoparticles for Intravenous Administration of HDAC5 siRNA in Cancer Therapy
Frère, Antoine ULg; Baroni, Alexandra; Hendrick, Elodie ULg et al

in ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces (2017), 25(9(3)), 2181-2195

Guanidine and morpholine functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate polymers are able to efficiently deliver histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) siRNA into the cytoplasm of cancer cells in vitro leading to a ... [more ▼]

Guanidine and morpholine functionalized aliphatic polycarbonate polymers are able to efficiently deliver histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) siRNA into the cytoplasm of cancer cells in vitro leading to a decrease of cell proliferation were previously developed. To allow these biodegradable and biocompatible polyplex nanoparticles to overcome the extracellular barriers and be effective in vivo after an intravenous injection, polyethylene glycol chains (PEG750 or PEG2000) were grafted on the polymer structure. These nanoparticles, showed an average size of about 150 nm and a slightly positive zeta potential with complete siRNA complexation. Behavior of PEGylated and non-PEGylated polyplexes were investigated in the presence of serum, in terms of siRNA complexation (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy), size (Dynamic Light Scattering and Single-Particle Tracking), interaction with proteins (Isothermal Titration Calorimetry) and cellular uptake. Surprisingly, both PEGylated and non-PEGylated formulations presented relatively good behavior in the presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS). Hemocompatibility tests showed no effect of these polyplexes on hemolysis and coagulation. In vivo biodistribution in mice was performed and showed a better siRNA accumulation at the tumor site for PEGylated polyplexes. However, cellular uptake in protein-rich conditions showed that PEGylated polyplex lost their ability to interact with biological membranes and enter into cells, showing the importance to perform in vitro investigations in physiological conditions closed to in vivo situation. In vitro, the efficiency of PEGylated nanoparticles decreases compared to non-PEGylated particles, leading to the loss of the antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSimilarity of the Jovian satellite footprints: spots multiplicity and dynamics
Bonfond, Bertrand ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Badman, S. V. et al

in Icarus (2017)

In the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the intense interaction of the satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus with their surrounding plasma environment leaves a signature in the aurora of the ... [more ▼]

In the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn, the intense interaction of the satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus with their surrounding plasma environment leaves a signature in the aurora of the planet. Called satellite footprints, these auroral features appear either as a single spot (Europa and Enceladus) or as multiple spots (Io and Ganymede). Moreover, they can be followed by extended trailing tails in the case of Io and Europa, while no tail has been reported for Ganymede and Enceladus, yet. Here we show that all Jovian footprints can be made of several spots. Furthermore, the footprints all experience brightness variations on timescale of 2-3 minutes. We also demonstrate that the satellite location relative to the plasma sheet is not the only driver for the footprint brightness, but that the plasma environment and the magnetic field strength also play a role. These new findings demonstrate that the Europa and Ganymede footprints are very similar to the Io footprint. As a consequence, the processes expected to take place at Io, such as the bi-directional electron acceleration by Alfvén waves or the partial reflection of these waves on plasma density gradients, can most likely be extended to the other footprints, suggesting that they are indeed universal processes. [less ▲]

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See detailA dynamic, sex-specific expression pattern of genes regulating thyroid hormone action in the developing zebra finch song control system
Raymaekers, S.R.; Verbeure, W.; Ter Haar, S.M. et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2017), 240

The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song control system consists of several series of interconnected brain nuclei that undergo marked changes during ontogeny and sexual development, making it an excel ... [more ▼]

The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) song control system consists of several series of interconnected brain nuclei that undergo marked changes during ontogeny and sexual development, making it an excel- lent model to study developmental neuroplasticity. Despite the demonstrated influence of hormones such as sex steroids on this phenomenon, thyroid hormones (THs) – an important factor in neural devel- opment and maturation – have not been studied in this regard. We used in situ hybridization to compare the expression of TH transporters, deiodinases and receptors between both sexes during all phases of song development in male zebra finch. Comparisons were made in four song control nuclei: Area X, the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (LMAN), HVC (used as proper name) and the robust nucleus of the arcopallium (RA). Most genes regulating TH action are expressed in these four nuclei at early stages of development. However, while general expression levels decrease with age, the activating enzyme deiodinase type 2 remains highly expressed in Area X, HVC and RA in males, but not in females, until 90days post-hatch (dph), which marks the end of sensorimotor learning. Furthermore, the L-type amino acid transporter 1 and TH receptor beta show elevated expression in male HVC and RA respectively compared to surrounding tissue until adulthood. Differences compared to sur- rounding tissue and between sexes for the other TH regulators were minor. These developmental changes are accompanied by a strong local increase in vascularization in the male RA between 20 and 30 dph but not in Area X or HVC. Our results suggest that local regulation of TH signaling is an important factor in the development of the song control nuclei during the song learning phase and that TH activation by DIO2 is a key player in this process. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation on attack frequency over time and expanded response rates in patients with chronic cluster headache: a post hoc analysis of the randomised, controlled PREVA study
Gaul, Charly; MAGIS, Delphine ULg; Liebler, Eric et al

in Journal of Headache and Pain (2017), 18

Background: In the PREVention and Acute treatment of chronic cluster headache (PREVA) study, attack frequency reductions from baseline were significantly more pronounced with non-invasive vagus nerve ... [more ▼]

Background: In the PREVention and Acute treatment of chronic cluster headache (PREVA) study, attack frequency reductions from baseline were significantly more pronounced with non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation plus standard of care (nVNS + SoC) than with SoC alone. Given the intensely painful and frequent nature of chronic cluster headache attacks, additional patient-centric outcomes, including the time to and level of therapeutic response, were evaluated in a post hoc analysis of the PREVA study. Findings: After a 2-week baseline phase, 97 patients with chronic cluster headache entered a 4-week randomised phase to receive nVNS + SoC (n = 48) or SoC alone (n = 49). All 92 patients who continued into a 4-week extension phase received nVNS + SoC. Compared with SoC alone, nVNS + SoC led to a significantly lower mean weekly attack frequency by week 2 of the randomised phase; the attack frequency remained significantly lower in the nVNS + SoC group through week 3 of the extension phase (P < 0.02). Attack frequencies in the nVNS + SoC group were significantly lower at all study time points than they were at baseline (P < 0.05). Response rates were significantly greater with nVNS + SoC than with SoC alone when response was defined as attack frequency reductions of ≥25%, ≥50%, and ≥75% from baseline (≥25% and ≥50%, P < 0.001; ≥75%, P = 0.009). The 100% response rate was 8% with nVNS + SoC and 0% with SoC alone. Conclusions: Prophylactic nVNS led to rapid, significant, and sustained reductions in chronic cluster headache attack frequency within 2 weeks after its addition to SoC and was associated with significantly higher ≥25%, ≥50%, and ≥75% response rates than SoC alone. The rapid decrease in weekly attack frequency justifies a 4-week trial period to identify responders to nVNS, with a high degree of confidence, among patients with chronic cluster headache. [less ▲]

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See detailSampling only ten microliters of whole blood for the quantification of poorly soluble drugs: Itraconazole as case study
Thiry, Justine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Nys, Gwenaël ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2017), 1479

Nowadays in animal studies, it is important to comply with the so-called Three Rs rule by replacing or reducing the number of tested animals. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) can be used to ... [more ▼]

Nowadays in animal studies, it is important to comply with the so-called Three Rs rule by replacing or reducing the number of tested animals. Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) can be used to collect small quantities (10 or 20 µL) of whole blood, thereby limiting the amount of animals needed. In this study, a quantitative method was developed and subsequently validated for the poorly soluble drug itraconazole (ITZ) using VAMS and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS). A proof of concept study showed that the optimized method is applicable to test the bioavailability of drug formulations containing ITZ. Using VAMS, smaller blood volumes can be taken per sampling point (10-20 µL instead of the conventional 0.2-0.5 mL) avoiding the sacrifice of animals. Moreover, the same rats can be used to compare different drug formulations which strengthens the validity of the results. In long-term bioavailability studies, it is necessary to guarantee the stability of the tested drugs supported on VAMS devices. In this study, we show that ITZ was only stable for 24 hours after collection with VAMS, but for at least two weeks by the storage of extracted samples at -80°C. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the equality between two diametral dimensions
Bastin, Françoise ULg; Demeulenaere, Loïc ULg

in Functiones et Approximatio Commentarii Mathematici (2017), 56(1), 95-107

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See detailPeur de l'intimité dans la relation amoureuse adolescente : L'implication de l'attachement parental et de l'attachement romantique
Courtain, Audrey ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Annales Médico-Psychologiques (2017)

Teen dating is a developmental stage questioning dramatically the relationships to be expected with others, especially when feelings of tenderness and love are involved. It mobilizes parental attachment ... [more ▼]

Teen dating is a developmental stage questioning dramatically the relationships to be expected with others, especially when feelings of tenderness and love are involved. It mobilizes parental attachment and the internal working models related to it, while being colored by the emerging romantic attachment and its brand new internal working models. Attachments are deeply shaped by a dynamic interaction whereby the self tries to figure out how to reach security and autonomy still taking the other into account. This considered, intimacy also implies a dynamic feature: on the one hand, closeness and sharing of feelings and/or experiences, and on the other hand, individuality and maintaining of one’s ego. However, just like attachments may be insecure, a fear of intimacy cannot be underestimated during dating. Eventually, bearing in mind the societal and cultural components of attachment and intimacy, gendered explanations cannot be ignored, especially during adolescence. Objectives: Three hypotheses are being tested. First, the continuity from parental to romantic attachment is postulated, meaning that a secure, preoccupied or dismissing attachment to parents might lead to a subsequent secure, preoccupied or dismissing attachment to romantic partners. Second, the influence of parental attachment on the fear of intimacy during teen dating is questioned. The difficult dynamic of closeness/individuality might be explained by the parental attachment’s patterns. Third, the impact of romantic attachment on the fear of intimacy during teen dating is assessed. Also, dating characteristics such as number of love relationships, age of the first dating experience and the longest lasting relationship are studied and put in perspective with the romantic attachment. Materials and methods: The initial sample is made of 283 Belgian students (61% girls) from different teaching systems, aged of 16-22 years old (mean age : 17.43), and 232 of them had already had a dating experience by this time. They were questioned about dating characteristics such as number of love relationships, age of the first dating experience and the longest lasting relationship. Two questionnaires were also self-administered: the Behavioral Systems Questionnaire (assessing attachment) and the Fear of Intimacy Scale. Statistical analyses such as Pearson Chi², Anova and Post-Hoc LSD were carried out. Results: First, we cannot see any continuity between parental and romantic attachment. Second, dismissing attachment to parents fosters the fear on intimacy, compared to secure profiles; this is especially true for dismissing girls. Third, dismissing and preoccupied attachments to romantic partners foster the fear of intimacy, compared to secure profiles; this is especially true for dismissing and even more for preoccupied boys. Also, preoccupied attachment to romantic partners fosters the multiplication of datings, compared to secure; this is especially true for preoccupied and even more for dismissing girls. Finally, there is no effect of romantic attachment on the age of the first dating experience or on the longest lasting relationship. Conclusion: Parental and romantic attachments are involved in the fear of intimacy experienced by adolescents during dating. Still, attachment styles’ influence seems different for girls and boys, and highlights the need to distinguish girls’ from boys’ teen dating experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailFoam fractionation as a tool to study the air-water interfacestructure-function relationship of wheat gluten hydrolysates
Wouters, Arno G.B.; Rombouts, Ine; Schoebrechts, Nele et al

in Colloids and Surfaces B : Biointerfaces (2017), 151

Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten protein improves its solubility and produces hydrolysates withfoaming properties which may find applications in food products. First, we here investigated whetherfoam ... [more ▼]

Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat gluten protein improves its solubility and produces hydrolysates withfoaming properties which may find applications in food products. First, we here investigated whetherfoam-liquid fractionation can concentrate wheat gluten peptides with foaming properties. Foam andliquid fractions had high and very low foam stability (FS), respectively. In addition, foam fractions wereable to decrease surface tension more pronouncedly than un-fractionated samples and liquid fractions,suggesting they are able to arrange themselves more efficiently at an interface. As a second objective,foam fractionation served as a tool to study the structural properties of the peptides, causing thesedifferences in air-water interfacial behavior. Zeta potential and surface hydrophobicity measurements didnot fully explain these differences but suggested that hydrophobic interactions at the air-water interfaceare more important than electrostatic interactions. RP-HPLC showed a large overlap between foam andliquid fractions. However, a small fraction of very hydrophobic peptides with relatively high averagemolecular mass was clearly enriched in the foam fraction. These peptides were also more concentratedin un-fractionated DH 2 hydrolysates, which had high FS, than in DH 6 hydrolysates, which had low FS.These peptides most likely play a key role in stabilizing the air-water interface. [less ▲]

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See detailCXCL12 mediates glioblastoma resistance to radiotherapy in the subventricular zone.
Goffart, Nicolas ULg; Lombard, Arnaud; Lallemand, François ULg et al

in Neuro-Oncology (2017), 19(1), 66-77

BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) have an overall median survival of 15 months despite multimodal therapy. These catastrophic survival rates are to be correlated to systematic relapses that ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) have an overall median survival of 15 months despite multimodal therapy. These catastrophic survival rates are to be correlated to systematic relapses that might arise from remaining glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs) left behind after surgery. In this line, it has recently been demonstrated that GSCs are able to escape the tumor mass and preferentially colonize the adult subventricular zone (SVZ). At a distance from the initial tumor site, these GSCs might therefore represent a high-quality model of clinical resilience to therapy and cancer relapses as they specifically retain tumor-initiating abilities. METHOD: While relying on recent findings that have validated the existence of GSCs in the human SVZ, we questioned the role of the SVZ niche as a potential GSC reservoir involved in therapeutic failure. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that (i) GSCs located in the SVZ are specifically resistant to radiation in vivo, (ii) these cells display enhanced mesenchymal roots that are known to be associated with cancer radioresistance, (iii) these mesenchymal traits are specifically upregulated by CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1) both in vitro and in the SVZ environment, (iv) the amount of SVZ-released CXCL12 mediates GBM resistance to radiation in vitro, and (v) interferes with the CXCL12/CXCR4 signalling system, allowing weakening of the tumor mesenchymal roots and radiosensitizing SVZ-nested GBM cells. CONCLUSION: Together, these data provide evidence on how the adult SVZ environment, through the release of CXCL12, supports GBM therapeutic failure and potential tumor relapse. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal characterization of the nutrients state in Oualidia Lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast)
Damsiri, Zainab; Natij, L.; Khalil, Karima et al

in Journal of Materials and Environmental Science (2017), 8(1), 67-77

The nutrient cycle in Oualidia lagoon, on the Atlantic Moroccan coast, was studied at both spatial and temporal scales, covering spring and summer conditions. Water samples were collected bimonthly at ... [more ▼]

The nutrient cycle in Oualidia lagoon, on the Atlantic Moroccan coast, was studied at both spatial and temporal scales, covering spring and summer conditions. Water samples were collected bimonthly at high tide from March to August during years 2011 and 2012 at six stations distributed throughout the lagoon. The physico- chemistry (temperature, salinity, dissolved O2) and nutrient enrichment of the lagoon surface water were monitored. The average nutrient concentration of surface water were 14.4 μmol.l-1 and 28.1 μmol.l-1 for NH4+, 20.4 μmol.l-1 and 19.9 μmol.l-1 for PO43- and 3.7 μmol.l-1 and 7.6 μmol.l-1 for NO2- in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Strong seasonal differences of nutrient distribution at the different stations were noticed. Temperature, salinity and dissolved O2 were correlated with nutrient concentrations, all parameters showing low spatial (inter-station) variability. Hydrological conditions exert a major control on the nutrient cycling in the lagoon. Results of this study are important to increase the richness on the scientific knowledge of nutrient dynamics along the Moroccan Atlantic coast, particularly in the semi-enclosed lagoons that are important transitional systems. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of reducing blood pressure on renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: Focus on SGLT2 inhibitors and EMPA-REG OUTCOME.
Scheen, André ULg; Delanaye, P.

in Diabètes & Métabolism (2017), (epub ahead of print),

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 ... [more ▼]

Empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, has enabled remarkable reductions in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality as well as in renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and a history of cardiovascular disease in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME. These results have been attributed to haemodynamic rather than metabolic effects, in part due to the osmotic/diuretic action of empagliflozin and the reduction in arterial blood pressure (BP). The present narrative review includes the results of meta-analyses of trials evaluating the effects on renal outcomes of lowering BP in patients with T2D, with a special focus on the influence of baseline and achieved systolic BP, and compares the renal outcome results of the EMPA-REG OUTCOME with those of other major trials with inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system in patients with T2D and the preliminary findings with other SGLT2 inhibitors, and also evaluates post hoc analyses from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME of special interest as regards the BP-lowering hypothesis and renal function. While systemic BP reduction associated to empagliflozin therapy may have contributed to the renal benefits reported in EMPA-REG OUTCOME, other local mechanisms related to kidney homoeostasis most probably also played a role in the overall protection observed in the trial. [less ▲]

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See detailQuadratic reformulations of nonlinear binary optimization problems
Anthony, Martin; Boros, Endre; Crama, Yves ULg et al

in Mathematical Programming (2017), 162

Very large nonlinear unconstrained binary optimization problems arise in a broad array of applications. Several exact or heuristic techniques have proved quite successful for solving many of these ... [more ▼]

Very large nonlinear unconstrained binary optimization problems arise in a broad array of applications. Several exact or heuristic techniques have proved quite successful for solving many of these problems when the objective function is a quadratic polynomial. However, no similarly efficient methods are available for the higher degree case. Since high degree objectives are becoming increasingly important in certain application areas, such as computer vision, various techniques have been recently developed to reduce the general case to the quadratic one, at the cost of increasing the number of variables. In this paper we initiate a systematic study of these quadratization approaches. We provide tight lower and upper bounds on the number of auxiliary variables needed in the worst-case for general objective functions, for bounded-degree functions, and for a restricted class of quadratizations. Our upper bounds are constructive, thus yielding new quadratization procedures. Finally, we completely characterize all ``minimal'' quadratizations of negative monomials. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the long-term effect of biochar on properties of temperate agricultural soil at pre-industrial charcoal kiln sites in Wallonia, Belgium
Hardy, Brieuc; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas ULg; Houben, David et al

in European Journal of Soil Science (2017), 68

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See detailOutcomes of UCB transplantation are comparable in FLT3+ AML: Results of CIBMTR, eurocord and EBMT collaborative analysis.
Ustun, C.; Giannotti, F.; Zhang, M.-J. et al

in Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (2017)

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from siblings or unrelated donors (URD) during complete remission (CR) may improve leukemia-free survival (LFS) in FLT3+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML ... [more ▼]

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from siblings or unrelated donors (URD) during complete remission (CR) may improve leukemia-free survival (LFS) in FLT3+ acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that has poor prognosis due to high relapse rates. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT outcomes are largely unknown in this population. We found that compared with sibling HCT, relapse risks were similar after UCB (n=126), (HR 0.86, P=0.54) and URD (n=91) (HR 0.81, P=0.43). UCB HCT was associated with statistically higher non-relapse mortality compared with sibling HCT (HR 2.32, P=0.02), but not vs URD (HR 1.72, P=0.07). All three cohorts had statistically not significant 3-year LFS: 39% (95% CI 30-47) after UCB, 43% (95% CI 30-54) after sibling, and 50% (95% CI 40-60) after URD. Chronic GVHD rates were significantly lower after UCB compared with either sibling (HR 0.59, P=0.03) or URD (HR 0.49, P=0.001). Adverse factors for LFS included high leukocyte count at diagnosis and HCT during CR2. UCB is a suitable option for adults with FLT3+AML in the absence of an HLA-matched sibling and its immediate availability may be particularly important for FLT3+ AML where early relapse is common thus allowing HCT in CR1 when outcomes are best.Leukemia accepted article preview online, 25 January 2017. doi:10.1038/leu.2017.42. [less ▲]

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See detailA test field for Gaia. Radial velocity catalogue of stars in the South Ecliptic Pole
Frémat, Y.; Altmann, M.; Pancino, E. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 597

Context. Gaia is a space mission that is currently measuring the five astrometric parameters, as well as spectrophotometry of at least 1 billion stars to G = 20.7 mag with unprecedented precision. The ... [more ▼]

Context. Gaia is a space mission that is currently measuring the five astrometric parameters, as well as spectrophotometry of at least 1 billion stars to G = 20.7 mag with unprecedented precision. The sixth parameter in phase space (i.e., radial velocity) is also measured thanks to medium-resolution spectroscopy that is being obtained for the 150 million brightest stars. During the commissioning phase, two fields, one around each ecliptic pole, have been repeatedly observed to assess and to improve the overall satellite performances, as well as the associated reduction and analysis software. A ground-based photometric and spectroscopic survey was therefore initiated in 2007, and is still running to gather as much information as possible about the stars in these fields. This work is of particular interest to the validation of the radial velocity spectrometer outputs. <BR /> Aims: The paper presents the radial velocity measurements performed for the Southern targets in the 12-17 R magnitude range on high- to mid-resolution spectra obtained with the GIRAFFE and UVES spectrographs. <BR /> Methods: Comparison of the South Ecliptic Pole (SEP) GIRAFFE data to spectroscopic templates observed with the HERMES (Mercator in La Palma, Spain) spectrograph enabled a first coarse characterisation of the 747 SEP targets. Radial velocities were then obtained by comparing the results of three different methods. <BR /> Results: In this paper, we present an initial overview of the targets to be found in the 1 sq. deg SEP region that was observed repeatedly by Gaia ever since its commissioning. In our representative sample, we identified one galaxy, six LMC S-stars, nine candidate chromospherically active stars, and confirmed the status of 18 LMC Carbon stars. A careful study of the 3471 epoch radial velocity measurements led us to identify 145 RV constant stars with radial velocities varying by less than 1 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Seventy-eight stars show significant RV scatter, while nine stars show a composite spectrum. As expected, the distribution of the RVs exhibits two main peaks that correspond to Galactic and LMC stars. By combining [Fe/H] and log g estimates, and RV determinations, we identified 203 members of the LMC, while 51 more stars are candidate members. <BR /> Conclusions: This is the first systematic spectroscopic characterisation of faint stars located in the SEP field. During the coming years, we plan to continue our survey and gather additional high- and mid-resolution data to better constrain our knowledge on key reference targets for Gaia. Tables 1-3, 5, 7, and 8 are only available at the CDS via anonym- ous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/597/A10">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/597/A10</A>Based on data taken with the VLT-UT2 of the European Southern Observatory, programmes 084.D-0427(A), 086.D-0295(A), and 088.D-0305(A).Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number 84886.Based on data obtained with the HERMES spectrograph, installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany. [less ▲]

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See detailIntentionalisme et phénoménologie de l'intentionnalité
Seron, Denis ULg

in Etudes Phénoménologiques - Phenomenological Studies (2017), 1

This paper presents an argument in favor of a “phenomenological” approach to intentionality. This approach, as I see it, involves the view that intentional facts are better expressed with the help of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an argument in favor of a “phenomenological” approach to intentionality. This approach, as I see it, involves the view that intentional facts are better expressed with the help of appearance words (“seems”, “appears”, “is similar to”, etc.). By contrast, what I call the “intentionalist approach” assumes that intentional facts are better expressed by intentional verbs. The argument is as follows. First, it is well-known that the use of intentional verbs to express typically intentional facts generates anomalies with respect to existential generalization, substitution of identicals, and the principle of excluded middle. Secondly, I argue that the use of appearance words does not generate the same anomalies, which suggests that appearance words are more appropriate to describe intentional facts. This, I conclude, is an argument for preferring the phenomenological to the intentionalist approach to intentionality. [less ▲]

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See detailMethanol emissions from maize: Ontogenetic dependence to varying light conditions and guttation as an additional factor constraining the flux
Mozaffar, Ahsan ULg; Schoon, N.; Digrado, Anthony ULg et al

in Atmospheric Environment (2017), 152

Because of its high abundance and long lifetime compared to other volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Even though agricultural ... [more ▼]

Because of its high abundance and long lifetime compared to other volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in atmospheric chemistry. Even though agricultural crops are believed to be a large source of methanol, emission inventories from those crop ecosystems are still scarce and little information is available concerning the driving mechanisms for methanol production and emission at different developmental stages of the plants/leaves. This study focuses on methanol emissions from Zea mays L. (maize), which is vastly cultivated throughout the world. Flux measurements have been performed on young plants, almost fully grown leaves and fully grown leaves, enclosed in dynamic flow-through enclosures in a temperature and light-controlled environmental chamber. Strong differences in the response of methanol emissions to variations in PPFD (Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density) were noticed between the young plants, almost fully grown and fully grown leaves. Moreover, young maize plants showed strong emission peaks following light/dark transitions, for which guttation can be put forward as a hypothetical pathway. Young plants’ average daily methanol fluxes exceeded by a factor of 17 those of almost fully grown and fully grown leaves when expressed per leaf area. Absolute flux values were found to be smaller than those reported in the literature, but in fair agreement with recent ecosystem scale flux measurements above a maize field of the same variety as used in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Analysis of the Interaction Effect between Employee Technical and Emotional Competencies in Emotionally Charged Service Encounters
Delcourt, Cécile ULg; Gremler, Dwayne; De Zanet, Fabrice ULg et al

in Journal of Service Management (2017), 28(1), 85-106

Purpose—Customers often experience negative emotions during service experiences. The ways that employees manage customers’ emotions and impressions about whether the service provider is concerned for them ... [more ▼]

Purpose—Customers often experience negative emotions during service experiences. The ways that employees manage customers’ emotions and impressions about whether the service provider is concerned for them in such emotionally charged service encounters (ECSEs) is crucial, considering the criticality of the encounter. Drawing on cognitive appraisal theory, this study proposes that two key competencies—employee emotional competence (EEC) and employee technical competence (ETC)—affect negative customer emotions and customer satisfaction with employee response in ECSEs. Design/methodology—This study relies on a video-based experiment that depicts a customer involved in an ECSE as a service provider delivers bad news to him. The hypothesis tests use a two-way independent analysis of covariance. Results—Both emotional and technical competencies must be displayed to improve the customer experience in an ECSE. When EEC is low, ETC does not decrease negative customer emotions or increase customer satisfaction with employee response. When EEC is high, ETC instead has a significant impact on both customer outcomes. Practical implications—Managers must train employees to develop both technical and emotional competencies. Employees who demonstrate only one type cannot temper customers’ emotions or enhance their perceptions of the employees’ response as well as can those strong in both competencies. Originality/value—Using a video-based experiment, this study examines the moderating role of EEC in the relationship between ETC and two key aspects of the customer experience in an ECSE (negative customer emotions and customer satisfaction with employee responses) following the delivery of bad news. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatiotemporal variation of drought characteristics in the Huang- Huai-Hai Plain, China under the climate change scenario
Li, Xiangxiang; Ju, Hui; Garré, Sarah ULg et al

in Journal of Integrative Agriculture (2017)

Understanding the potential drought characteristics under climate change is essential to reduce vulnerability and establish adaptation strategies, especially in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain), which ... [more ▼]

Understanding the potential drought characteristics under climate change is essential to reduce vulnerability and establish adaptation strategies, especially in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain), which is the grain production base in China. In this paper, we investigated the variations in drought characteristics (drought event frequency, duration, severity, and intensity) for the past 50 years (1961–2010) and under future scenarios (2010–2099), based on the observed meteorological data and the RCP 8.5 scenario, respectively. First, we compared the applicability of three climatic drought indices: the standardized precipitation index (SPI), the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index based on the Penman-Monteith equation (SPEI-PM) and the Thornthwaite equation (SPEI-TH) to trace the recorded agricultural drought areas. Then, we analyzed the drought characteristics using “run theory” for both historical observations and future RCP 8.5 scenario based on proper index. Correlation analyses between drought indices and agricultural drought areas showed that SPEI-PM performed better than SPI and SPEI-TH in the 3H Plain. Based on the results of SPEI-PM, the past 50 years have experienced reduced drought of shorter duration, and of weaker severity and intensity. However, under the future RCP 8.5 scenario, drought is expected to rise in frequency, duration, severity, and intensity from 2010–2099, although drought components during the 2010–2039 are predicted to be milder compared with the historical conditions. This study highlights that the estimations for atmospheric evaporative demand would bring in differences in the prediction of long-term drought trends by different drought indices. The results of this study can help inform researchers and local policy makers to establish drought management strategies [less ▲]

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See detailBehavioral fever in ectothermic vertebrates.
Rakus, Krzysztof; Ronsmans, Maygane; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg

in Developmental & Comparative Immunology (2017), 66

Fever is an evolutionary conserved defense mechanism which is present in both endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. Ectotherms in response to infection can increase their body temperature by moving to ... [more ▼]

Fever is an evolutionary conserved defense mechanism which is present in both endothermic and ectothermic vertebrates. Ectotherms in response to infection can increase their body temperature by moving to warmer places. This process is known as behavioral fever. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the mechanisms of induction of fever in mammals. We further discuss the evolutionary conserved mechanisms existing between fever of mammals and behavioral fever of ectothermic vertebrates. Finally, the experimental evidences supporting an adaptive value of behavioral fever expressed by ectothermic vertebrates are summarized. [less ▲]

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See detailRectal cancer treatment in a teaching hospital
Verdin, Vanessa; Weerts, Joseph; Francart, David et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2017), 117

Background: Rectal adenocarcinomas surgery morbidity and mortality might be impaired by neoadjuvant therapy. We performed this retropsective study to be compared with the PROCARE study running afterwards ... [more ▼]

Background: Rectal adenocarcinomas surgery morbidity and mortality might be impaired by neoadjuvant therapy. We performed this retropsective study to be compared with the PROCARE study running afterwards. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 95 patients operated on for rectal denocarcinoma in a single institution during the period 2007-2009. We used logistic regression to estimate the relationship between possible predictive parameters of AL. Results: The laparoscopic approach is favored in 63.1% of the cases with a conversion rate of 11.6%, mainly in man (6 out of 7). For low rectal cancer though, laparotomy was the first choice (92.3%). From a carcinological point of view, laparoscopy allowed a complete tumor resection according to the PME (n=27) and TME (n=26) standards. Multivariate analysis revealed that women, lower BMI, lower rectum tumor, laparoscopic surgery, neoadjuvant treatment and anal suture were associated with higher risk of AL. The mean hospital stay was 15.4 days (3 – 46 days). In-hospital mortality was 3.1%. Adjuvant chemotherapy was completed in 42.1% of the patients. Despite these treatments, we registered a recurrence rate of 26.6%. Of these, 72% were distally localized and 12% exclusively locally. Among the patients operated on by laparoscopy, there was one local recurrence and one local with distant metastases (3.7%). The one- and three-years survival rates were 91.5% and 80.4% respectively. Conclusions: Our study showed a higher rate of AL than expected (18%). In our series recorded in PROCARE-Home, our leak rate has dropped to 10%. It may be indicating a positive effect of PROCARE. [less ▲]

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See detailMacroevolution of Specificity in Cyanolichens of the Genus Peltigera Section Polydactylon (Lecanoromycetes, Ascomycota)
Magain, Nicolas ULg; Miadlikoswka, Jolanta; Goffinet, Bernard et al

in Systematic Biology (2017), 66(1), 74-99

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See detailPharmacotherapy of 'treatment resistant' type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy (2017), 1

INTRODUCTION: Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) management offers a variety of pharmacological interventions targeting different defects, numerous patients remain with persistent hyperglycaemia responsible ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Despite type 2 diabetes (T2D) management offers a variety of pharmacological interventions targeting different defects, numerous patients remain with persistent hyperglycaemia responsible for severe complications. Unlike resistant hypertension, treatment resistant T2D is not a classical concept although it is a rather common observation in clinical practice. Areas covered: This article proposes a definition for 'treatment resistant diabetes', analyses the causes of poor glucose control despite standard therapy, briefly considers the alternative approaches to glucose-lowering pharmacotherapy and finally describes how to overcome poor glycaemic control, using innovative oral or injectable combination therapies. Expert opinion: Before considering intensifying the pharmacotherapy of a patient with poorly controlled T2D, it is important to verify treatment adherence, target obesity and consider various non pharmacological improvement quality interventions. If treatment resistant diabetes is defined as not achieving glycated haemoglobin target despite oral triple therapy with a third glucose-lowering agent added to metformin-sulfonylurea dual treatment, the combination of a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor and a sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor may offer new opportunities before considering injectable therapies. Insulin basal therapy (+/- metformin) may be optimized by the addition of a SGLT2 inhibitor or a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence of a fine-scale genetic structure for the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees
Gillet, F; Cabria, M.; Blanc, F. et al

in Journal of Mammalogy (2017)

The Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) is a small, semi-aquatic mammal endemic to the Pyrenean Mountains and the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula where it lives in cold and well-oxygenated flowing ... [more ▼]

The Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) is a small, semi-aquatic mammal endemic to the Pyrenean Mountains and the northern half of the Iberian Peninsula where it lives in cold and well-oxygenated flowing mountain streams. This species is currently classified as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List and has been undergoing habitat loss and fragmentation for decades, inevitably impacting its distribution. A recent genetic study, based on mitochondrial and intronic sequences, showed that the genetic variability of the Pyrenean desman is very low in the Pyrenees. In this study, we investigated the potential existence of genetic structure and gene flow at a smaller scale using 24 polymorphic microsatellite loci. As the Pyrenean desman is a very elusive species, we supplemented our tissue sample collection with samples of feces collected in the French range of this species. We successfully identified 70 individuals based on 355 fecal samples. Bayesian analyses revealed 3 genetic and geographic clusters (1 eastern, 1 central, and 1 western, including 3 genetic sub-clusters), with origins tracing back only 200 years. These clusters were characterized by low levels of genetic diversity and high inbreeding coefficients. Although gene flow among clusters appeared to be limited, populations seem to have exchanged alleles recently. Therefore, connectivity between watersheds should be enhanced to maintain genetic diversity and potentially improve the long-term survival of the Pyrenean desman in France [less ▲]

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See detailAntiplasmodial activity of Heinsia crinita (Rubiaceae) and identification of new iridoids.
Tshisekedi Tshibangu, P.; Mutwale Kapepula, P.; Kabongo Kapinga, M. J. et al

in Journal of Ethnopharmacology (2017), 196

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Heinsia crinita is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of febrile illness and erectile dysfunction. Its stem bark powder is found in some peripheral markets in ... [more ▼]

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Heinsia crinita is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of febrile illness and erectile dysfunction. Its stem bark powder is found in some peripheral markets in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) as a remedy against malaria. Investigations were conducted on crude extracts of leaves, fruits and stem barks in view to validate their use and to determine which plant part possesses the best antiplasmodial properties. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different plant parts were extracted with methanol, ethanol and dichloromethane. Based on the preliminary assays, the dichloromethane extract of the stem bark was subjected to fractionation using preparative HPLC system and column chromatography. This step led to the isolation of two new iridoids which had their structures elucidated by NMR, UV, MS and FT-IR spectroscopic techniques. Extracts and pure compounds were tested in vitro against the 3D7 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The inhibition of the parasite growth was evaluated in vitro by colorimetric method (p-LDH assay) and their cytotoxicity evaluated in vitro against the human non-cancer fibroblast cell line (WI38) through WST1 assay. The in vivo antiplasmodial activity was assessed by the inhibition of Plasmodium berghei growth in infected mice treated with the ethanol extract of H. crinita stem bark at the concentrations of 200 and 300mg/Kg/day per os, using a protocol based on the 4-d suppressive test of Peters and compared to a non-treated negative control group of mice (growth =100%). Finally the antioxidant activity of the same extract was evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and cell-based assays. RESULTS: A moderate in vitro antiplasmodial activity was observed for the dichloromethane extract of the stem bark of H. crinita (IC50 =29.2+/-1.39microg/mL) and for the two new iridoids, lamalbide 6, 7, 8- triacetate (IC50 =16.39+/-0.43microg/mL) as well as for its aglycone lamiridosin 6, 7, 8-triacetate (IC50 =0.44.56+/-1.12microg/mL). The ethanolic stem bark extract (200 and 300mg/kg/day, oral route) showed a moderate in vivo antimalarial activity in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice with 27.84+/-2.75% and 48.54+/-3.76% of inhibition of the parasite growth, respectively (p<0.01).). This extract displayed high cellular antioxidant activity using dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFDA) on HL-60 monocytes. These crude extracts and pure compounds tested at the higher concentration of 100microg/mL did not show any cytotoxicity against WI38 cells. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that H. crinita extracts possess antimalarial activity and contain some unusual iridoids with moderate antiplasmodial activity, therefore justifying to some extent its traditional use by the local population in DRC for this purpose. This is the first report of the isolation and antiplasmodial activity of these two new iridoids. [less ▲]

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See detailDeciding game invariance
Duchêne, Eric; Parreau, Aline; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Information & Computation (2017), 253

In a preivous paper, Duchêne and Rigo introduced the notion of invariance for take-away games on heaps. Roughly speaking, these are games whose rulesets do not depend on the position. Given a sequence S ... [more ▼]

In a preivous paper, Duchêne and Rigo introduced the notion of invariance for take-away games on heaps. Roughly speaking, these are games whose rulesets do not depend on the position. Given a sequence S of positive tuples of integers, the question of whether there exists an invariant game having S as set of P -positions is relevant. In particular, it was recently proved by Larsson et al. that if S is a pair of complementary Beatty sequences, then the answer to this question is always positive. In this paper, we show that for a fairly large set of sequences (expressed by infinite words), the answer to this question is decidable. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Indium Tin Oxide and Indium Tungsten Oxide as Transparent Conductive Substrates for WO3-Based Electrochromic Devices
Maho, Anthony ULg; Nicolay, Sylvain; Manceriu, Laura ULg et al

in Journal of the Electrochemical Society (2017), 164(2), 25-31

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See detailObservations of asymmetric turbulent stirring in inner and marginal seas using satellite imagery
Karimova, Svetlana ULg

in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2017), 38(6), 1642-1664

For the open ocean, it was already reported on the cyclonic (anticyclonic) asymmetry of appearance of eddies of a certain spatial scale. In this article, we scrutinize the ratios of mostly mesoscale ... [more ▼]

For the open ocean, it was already reported on the cyclonic (anticyclonic) asymmetry of appearance of eddies of a certain spatial scale. In this article, we scrutinize the ratios of mostly mesoscale cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies in a number of inner and marginal marine basins, namely in the Baltic, Black, North, and Western Mediterranean Seas. As research material, over 9700 eddy manifestations in the thermal infrared, visible-range, and radar satellite imagery were used. The analysis performed showed that in all the seas the typical and average values of the diameter of anticyclonic eddies were greater than those of cyclonic eddies. The main factor that defines the ratio between anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies in the basins under consideration was discovered to be the intensity of their surface currents. Thus, in the presence of a strong jet flow at the scales of about 2–4 baroclinic Rossby radii the cyclonic eddy dominance typical for smaller eddies was replaced by the anticyclonic one. If strong jet streams were missing, as that typical of the Baltic Sea, cyclonic eddies were prevailing over the entire spectrum of eddy diameters. [less ▲]

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See detailA new, challenging benchmark for nonlinear system identification
Tiso, Paolo; Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2017), 84

The progress accomplished during the past decade in nonlinear system identi fication in structural dynamics is considerable. The objective of the present paper is to consolidate this progress by ... [more ▼]

The progress accomplished during the past decade in nonlinear system identi fication in structural dynamics is considerable. The objective of the present paper is to consolidate this progress by challenging the community through a new benchmark structure exhibiting complex nonlinear dynamics. The proposed structure consists of two o ffset cantilevered beams connected by a highly flexible element. For increasing forcing amplitudes, the system sequentially features linear behaviour, localised nonlinearity associated with the buckling of the connecting element, and distributed nonlinearity resulting from large elastic deformations across the structure. A finite element-based code with time integration capabilities is made available at http://sem.org/TDIV-Nonlin.asp. This code permits the numerical simulation of the benchmark dynamics in response to arbitrary excitation signals. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear system identification in structural dynamics: 10 more years of progress
Noël, Jean-Philippe ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2017), 83

Nonlinear system identification is a vast research field, today attracting a great deal of attention in the structural dynamics community. Ten years ago, in an MSSP paper reviewing the progress achieved ... [more ▼]

Nonlinear system identification is a vast research field, today attracting a great deal of attention in the structural dynamics community. Ten years ago, in an MSSP paper reviewing the progress achieved until then, it was concluded that the identification of simple continuous structures with localised nonlinearities was within reach. The past decade witnessed a shift in emphasis, accommodating the growing industrial need for a first generation of tools capable of addressing complex nonlinearities in larger-scale structures. The objective of the present paper is to survey the key developments which arose in the field since 2006, and to illustrate state-of-the-art techniques using a real-world satellite structure. Finally, a broader perspective to nonlinear system identification is provided by discussing the central role played by experimental models in the design cycle of engineering structures. [less ▲]

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See detailEditor's Choice - Management of Descending Thoracic Aorta Diseases: Clinical Practice Guidelines of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS).
Riambau, V.; Bockler, D.; Brunkwall, J. et al

in European journal of vascular and endovascular surgery : the official journal of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (2017), 53(1), 4-52

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See detailSemaglutide: a promising new glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist.
Scheen, André ULg

in Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology (2017)

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See detailDrought, conflict and children’s undernutrition in Ethiopia 2000–2013: a meta-analysis
Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg et al

in Bulletin of the World Health Organization (2017), 95

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