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See detailLes états spatio-temporels d'existence et de présence
Hallot, Pierre ULg; Stewart, Kathleen; Billen, Roland ULg

in Revue Internationale de Géomatique = International Journal of Geomatics and Spatial Analysis (2015), 25(2), 173-196

This paper addresses a new approach to formalize the spatiotemporal relationships between geographical objects that do not exist or that are not present at the time of the analysis. We propose first an ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses a new approach to formalize the spatiotemporal relationships between geographical objects that do not exist or that are not present at the time of the analysis. We propose first an analysis of the spatiotemporal states of existence and presence for a geographical object. Then, we combine the spatiotemporal states to define a comprehensive set of life and motion configuration. The proposed model serves as formal basis to perform spatiotemporal queries by retrieving selected patterns in the life and motion configurations. The research is applied to the organization of a scientific conference, in doing so we are able to define the relationships that exist between an event located in space and time and mobiles objects evolving within the space, i.e. the conference participants. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring new dimensions in cadaveric decomposition odour analysis
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Perrault, Katelynn; Lloyd, Rebecca et al

in Analytical Methods (2015)

This study demonstrates the first documented use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-HRTOFMS) for volatile organic compound ... [more ▼]

This study demonstrates the first documented use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography – high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-HRTOFMS) for volatile organic compound analysis in the forensic sciences. High-resolution mass spectral data provided higher confidence in analyte identification. GC×GC-HRTOFMS will be valuable for future studies of decomposition odour and other complex volatile matrices. [less ▲]

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See detailWasabi, de Alan Pauls. Una lectura alegórica en clave autoficcional.
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Pasavento. Revista de Estudios Hispánicos. (2015)

Se lee Wasabi (Alan Pauls, 1994, 2005) como una novela neofantástica emparentada con La metamorfosis de Kafka y ciertos cuentos de Cortázar. Asimismo, se procede a una lectura de la novela en clave ... [more ▼]

Se lee Wasabi (Alan Pauls, 1994, 2005) como una novela neofantástica emparentada con La metamorfosis de Kafka y ciertos cuentos de Cortázar. Asimismo, se procede a una lectura de la novela en clave alegórica, atendiendo a una serie de metáforas (quiste, narcolepsias, wasabi) que aluden a las relaciones entre literatura y vida. En este sentido, se aborda el texto como una alegoría primero de la autoficción y luego de la creación literaria en general. A esta lectura alegórica la apoyan la recurrencia de la cifra siete en la novela así como la relación intertitular que esta tiene con Fils, novela autoficcional que Serge Doubrovsky escribiera en 1977. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of roughness and circularity-defect on bridge cables stability
Benidir, Adel; Flamand, Olivier; Gaillet, Laurent et al

in Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics (2015), 137

The stay cables on cable-stayed bridges have been the subject of considerable research in order to understand the origins of the dry galloping phenomenon. Surface irregularity is one of the last ... [more ▼]

The stay cables on cable-stayed bridges have been the subject of considerable research in order to understand the origins of the dry galloping phenomenon. Surface irregularity is one of the last parameters that have not been thoroughly examined. This paper focuses on static wind tunnel tests on original High Density Polyethylene cable covers in a range of Reynolds numbers from the sub-critical regime to the critical, corresponding to values ranging from Re = 9.6x104 to Re = 3.3x105. The experiment consists in testing cable covers of various diameters in order to investigate the effect of surface irregularity (roughness and circularity defect) on the mechanism of dry galloping excitation. Previous studies reported that dry galloping is caused by the appearance of a negative pressure bubble on one side of the circular cylinder at the critical Reynolds number range, leading to a rapid drop in the drag coefficient and the appearance of a non-negligible lift force. The results of the present investigation demonstrate that there is a clear correlation between the single bubble pressure pattern and the circularity defect along the tube. They further show that surface roughness has little effect on the location of the bubble. The paper also treats the spatial and temporal correlation of the instantaneous pressure pattern along the tube with respect to the circularity defect. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dosage de la vitamine D: considérations pré-analytiques et analytiques
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Delvin, Edgard et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2015), 73(1), 79-92

The constantly increasing requests for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over the last years has led reagent manufacturers to market different automated and semi-automated methods, that being ... [more ▼]

The constantly increasing requests for the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D over the last years has led reagent manufacturers to market different automated and semi-automated methods, that being unfortunately not fully harmonized, yield different results. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has more recently been introduced. This approach allows the distinction between the two forms of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and to measure other metabolites. This approach also requires harmonization to curtail the differences between the different analytical methods. To meet this requirement, the American national institutes of health (NIH), the CDC (Center for disease control and prevention) in Atlanta, the NIST (National institute of standards and technology) and the vitamin D Reference laboratory of Ghent University have pooled their expertise to develop a standardization program. This article reviews the main elements and the difficulties of the automated and semi-automated methods for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, from sample preparation to the analytical phase, as well as those related to mass spectrometry. It also addresses the issues related to the clinical decision thresholds and the possibility of measurements in different biological liquids. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic modelling of reservoir sedimentation in a semi-arid watershed
Adam, Nicolas; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Water Resources Management (2015), 29(3), 785-800

Sedimentation in large reservoirs is a major concern in semi-arid regions characterized by severe seasonal water scarcity. As a contribution to improved sediment management, this study analyses the real ... [more ▼]

Sedimentation in large reservoirs is a major concern in semi-arid regions characterized by severe seasonal water scarcity. As a contribution to improved sediment management, this study analyses the real case of the reservoir of Sidi Yacoub in the north of Algeria. First, a dynamic model of the reservoir was set up and used to estimate past water and sediment inflows (period 1990-2010) based on data recorded by the dam operator and measurements at a gauging station located downstream of the reservoir. Second, in a stochastic framework using the statistical characteristics of inflow and outflow discharges, a projection of future sedimentation was performed until 2030, assuming stationarity of the statistical distributions. Third, the model was used to investigate the influence of possible climate change and to quantify the positive effects of soil conservation measures upstream. [less ▲]

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See detailDe- and Re-Institutionalizing Technology Assessment in Contemporary Knowledge-Based Economies
Delvenne, Pierre ULg; Charlier, Nathan ULg; Rosskamp, Benedikt ULg et al

in Technikfolgenabschätzung - Theorie und Praxis (2015), 24(1), 130

This article illuminates the potential role of technology assessment (TA) in knowl- edge-driven science, technology and inno- vation (STI) regimes by providing a compar- ative review of Flemish and ... [more ▼]

This article illuminates the potential role of technology assessment (TA) in knowl- edge-driven science, technology and inno- vation (STI) regimes by providing a compar- ative review of Flemish and Walloon TA. It draws critical attention to the ways in which TA actors and institutes in Flanders and Wal- lonia position themselves, or are positioned, in relation to dominant innovation policies and large-scale political transformations, notably the convergence of STI around the knowledge-based economy (KBE) and the regionalization of STI policy in Belgium. The article’s findings shed light on the Flemish government’s recent decision to close its parliamentary TA institute and the institution- al expansion of TA in Wallonia and elsewhere in Europe. It argues that TA has politics, as TA in Flanders and Wallonia aligns with the advent of strategic science and is also affil- iated to specific political parties. As these considerations run counter to the dominant representation of TA as a neutral governance tool that serves the needs of all STI decision makers, they draw into question the viability and utility of TA within contemporary KBEs. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cardiomyopathie du cirrhotique : un bref aperçu
MARCHETTA, Stella ULg; DELWAIDE, Jean ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 2

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See detailReprésentations et expérience des pères « primipares » de l’allaitement maternel : lien avec la durée de l’allaitement
Noirhomme-Renard, Florence ULg; Michèle, Close; Gosset, Christiane ULg

in Journal de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture (2015), 28(1), 7-15

ntroduction. — This study aim to investigate fathers experiences and representations in regard to breastfeeding. Methods. — Two groups of fathers were recruited in the year following the birth of their ... [more ▼]

ntroduction. — This study aim to investigate fathers experiences and representations in regard to breastfeeding. Methods. — Two groups of fathers were recruited in the year following the birth of their child: a group whose child was breastfed less than three months (n = 16), and the other whose child was breastfed more than 6months (n=17). They were interviewed by semi-structured interviews and completed a questionnaire of attitudes toward child feeding (IIFAS). Results. — Although the representation that had fathers of breastfeeding during pregnancy dif- fered somewhat between the two groups, medical and social factors are primarily associated with a short AM: medical complications in the mother or the child, social vulnerabilities, early breastfeeding difficulties. The involvement of health professionals has been mentioned by many fathers when breastfeeding difficulties, but it has, in most cases, led to the failure of AM in time. Increased fathers take place in the triad, sometimes modulated by their partner, and their emo- tional involvement and practice in breastfeeding are associated with long AM. Fathers whose baby was breastfed for more than 6 months have a score more in favor of breastfeeding on the scale IIFAS. Conclusion. — The inclusion of fathers in the comprehensive model of the determinants of breastfeeding provides further insight to the factors already identified. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of low dose endosulfan exposure on brain neurotransmitter levels in the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis
Preud'Homme, Valérie; Milla, Sylvain; Gillardin, Virginie et al

in Chemosphere (2015), 120(2), 357-364

Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of ... [more ▼]

Understanding the impact of pesticides in amphibians is of growing concern to assess the causes of their decline. Among pesticides, endosulfan belongs to one of the potential sources of danger because of its wide use and known effects, particularly neurotoxic, on a variety of organisms. However, the effect of endosulfan was not yet evaluated on amphibians at levels encompassing simultaneously brain neurotransmitters and behavioural endpoints. In this context, tadpoles of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis were submitted to four treatments during 27 d: one control, one ethanol control, and two low environmental concentrations of endosulfan (0.1 and 1 μg L−1). Endosulfan induced a significant increase of brain serotonin level at both concentrations and a significant increase of brain dopamine and GABA levels at the lower exposure but acetylcholinesterase activity was not modified by the treatment. The gene coding for the GABA transporter 1 was up-regulated in endosulfan contaminated tadpoles while the expression of other genes coding for the neurotransmitter receptors or for the enzymes involved in their metabolic pathways was not significantly modified by endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan also affected foraging, and locomotion in links with the results of the physiological assays, but no effects were seen on growth. These results show that low environmental concentrations of endosulfan can induce adverse responses in X. laevis tadpoles. At a broader perspective, this suggests that more research using and linking multiple markers should be used to understand the complex mode of action of pollutants. [less ▲]

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See detailConsommation de pornographie à l’adolescence : quelles représentations de la sexualité et de la pornographie, pour quelle sexualité ?
Puglia, Rosa ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence (2015)

Cette recherche, réalisée sur une population de 319 adolescents (150 filles et 169 garçons) âgés de 15 à 19 ans, présente deux grands objectifs. Premièrement, elle vise à évaluer l’impact de ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche, réalisée sur une population de 319 adolescents (150 filles et 169 garçons) âgés de 15 à 19 ans, présente deux grands objectifs. Premièrement, elle vise à évaluer l’impact de l’accessibilité et de la visualisation de la pornographie au niveau des représentations de ce média et de la sexualité. Deuxièmement, elle vise à évaluer l’influence de la consommation pornographique au niveau du développement psycho-sexuel des adolescents. Un protocole comprenant plusieurs dimensions telles que les relations sentimentales, la sexualité, la pornographie, et les représentations a été administré aux participants de manière groupale et anonyme. Il en ressort que les adolescents consommateurs de pornographie soulignent davantage les effets positifs associés à la pornographie, qu’ils reconnaissent une influence de ce média sur leur vie sexuelle et qu’ils adoptent des pratiques sexuelles plus diversifiées que celles de leurs pairs non-consommateurs. En revanche, consommateurs et non-consommateurs soulignent de manière identique les effets négatifs associés à ce média. Cette conscientisation des effets négatifs aurait un effet modérateur sur l’influence de la pornographie. Actuellement, la consommation de pornographie est un comportement expérimenté par une majorité d’adolescents ; elle pourrait s’inscrire dans un processus développemental adolescentaire et se comprendre comme une conduite exploratoire répondant à diverses fonctions dont la recherche de repères au niveau de la sexualité. [less ▲]

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See detailStandardisation of milk mid-infrared spectra from a European dairy network
Grelet, Clément ULg; Fernandez Pierna, Juan Antonio; Dardenne, Pierre et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2015), 98

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See detailA one-step short-time synthesis of Ag@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles
Lismont, Marjorie ULg; Pàez Martinez, Carlos ULg; Dreesen, Laurent ULg

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2015)

A performance of shell-thickness precise control in silver-silica coating core-shell nanoparticles is presented. 60 nm sized citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles are directly silica coated using a ... [more ▼]

A performance of shell-thickness precise control in silver-silica coating core-shell nanoparticles is presented. 60 nm sized citrate-stabilized silver nanoparticles are directly silica coated using a modified Stöber process. Tetraethyl orthosilicate is used as a silica precursor and ammonium hydroxide as catalyst in an alcoholic solvent to promote the seeded silica growth. By simply varying the synthesis reaction time from 4 to 60 minutes, the silica shell thickness is increased from 5.1 nm to 76.4 nm. This well-controlled synthesis is then transposed to 40, 80 and 100 nm sized silver cores in order to show the independence of the silica shell growth on the nanoparticle core size. Optical properties, i.e. localized surface plasmon resonance, of the produced silver-silica core-shell are also investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis versus synthesis for trending gas-path measurement time series
Borguet, Sébastien ULg; Léonard, Olivier ULg; Dewallef, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power (2015), 137

Gas-path measurements used to assess the health condition of an engine are corrupted by noise. Generally, a data cleaning step occurs before proceeding with fault detection and isolation. Classical linear ... [more ▼]

Gas-path measurements used to assess the health condition of an engine are corrupted by noise. Generally, a data cleaning step occurs before proceeding with fault detection and isolation. Classical linear filters such as the EWMA filter are traditionally used for noise removal. Unfortunately, these low-pass filters distort trend shifts indicative of faults, which increases the detection delay. The present paper investigates two new approaches to nonlinear filtering of time series. On the one hand, the synthesis approach reconstructs the signal as a combination of elementary signals chosen from a predefined library. On the other hand, the analysis approach imposes a constraint on the shape of the signal (e.g., piecewise constant). Both approaches incorporate prior information about the signal in a different way, but they lead to trend filters that are very capable at noise removal while preserving at the same time sharp edges in the signal. This is highlighted through the comparison with a classical linear filter on a batch of synthetic data representative of typical engine fault profiles. [less ▲]

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See detailPlace de la vitamine D native en dialyse
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg; KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2015), 11(1), 5-15

Chronic kidney disease is frequent and usually responsible of mineral and bone disorder. These abnormalities lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To become active, native vitamin D needs a first ... [more ▼]

Chronic kidney disease is frequent and usually responsible of mineral and bone disorder. These abnormalities lead to increased morbidity and mortality. To become active, native vitamin D needs a first hydroxylation in the liver, and a second one in the kidney. Next to its action on bone metabolism, vitamin D also possesses pleiotropic actions on cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems as well as antineoplastic activities. End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is also associated with a decrease in vitamin D activity by mechanisms including the increase of plasma phosphate concentration, secretion of FGF- 23 and decrease in 1a-hydroxylase activity. The prevalence of 25 hydroxy-vitamin D deficiency depends on the chosen cut-off value to define this lack. Currently it is well established that a patient has to be substituted when 25 hydroxy-vitamin D level is under 30 ng/mL. The use and monitoring of 1.25 hydroxy-vitamin D is still not recommended in routine practice. The goals of vitamin D treatment in case of ESRD are to substitute the deficiency and to prevent or treat hyperparathyroidism. Interest of native vitamin D in first intention is now well demonstrated. This review article describes the vitamin D metabolism and physiology and also the treatment for vitamin D deficiency in ESRD population. [less ▲]

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See detailOn modular decompositions of system signatures
Marichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Multivariate Analysis (2015), 134

Considering a semicoherent system made up of $n$ components having i.i.d. continuous lifetimes, Samaniego defined its structural signature as the $n$-tuple whose $k$-th coordinate is the probability that ... [more ▼]

Considering a semicoherent system made up of $n$ components having i.i.d. continuous lifetimes, Samaniego defined its structural signature as the $n$-tuple whose $k$-th coordinate is the probability that the $k$-th component failure causes the system to fail. This $n$-tuple, which depends only on the structure of the system and not on the distribution of the component lifetimes, is a very useful tool in the theoretical analysis of coherent systems. It was shown in two independent recent papers how the structural signature of a system partitioned into two disjoint modules can be computed from the signatures of these modules. In this work we consider the general case of a system partitioned into an arbitrary number of disjoint modules organized in an arbitrary way and we provide a general formula for the signature of the system in terms of the signatures of the modules. The concept of signature was recently extended to the general case of semicoherent systems whose components may have dependent lifetimes. The same definition for the $n$-tuple gives rise to the probability signature, which may depend on both the structure of the system and the probability distribution of the component lifetimes. In this general setting, we show how under a natural condition on the distribution of the lifetimes, the probability signature of the system can be expressed in terms of the probability signatures of the modules. We finally discuss a few situations where this condition holds in the non-i.i.d. and nonexchangeable cases and provide some applications of the main results. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear generalization of Den Hartog׳s equal-peak method
Habib, Giuseppe ULg; Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Viguié, Régis et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2015), 52-53

This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the ... [more ▼]

This study addresses the mitigation of a nonlinear resonance of a mechanical system. In view of the narrow bandwidth of the classical linear tuned vibration absorber, a nonlinear absorber, termed the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA), is introduced in this paper. An unconventional aspect of the NLTVA is that the mathematical form of its restoring force is tailored according to the nonlinear restoring force of the primary system. The NLTVA parameters are then determined using a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog׳s equal-peak method. The mitigation of the resonant vibrations of a Duffing oscillator is considered to illustrate the proposed developments. [less ▲]

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See detailTotal Error-Based Validation Including the Experimental Design-Based Robustness Evaluation of a Stability-Indicating Method for the Simultaneous Quantification of Hydrochlorothiazide and Valsartan in Tablet Formulations
ELKARBANE, M; AMOOD AL-KAMARANY, M; BOUCHAFRA, H et al

in Acta Chromatographica (2015), 27(2), 1-20

A gradient reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection to analyze hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and valsartan (VS) simultaneously in a tablet ... [more ▼]

A gradient reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RPHPLC) method with ultraviolet (UV) detection to analyze hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) and valsartan (VS) simultaneously in a tablet formulation during forced degradation studies was developed. This method was validated using a novel approach, namely, the accuracy profile or total errors approach. The robustness of the method was evaluated using a Plackett–Burman design for eight factors. The algorithm of Dong was applied to determine the significant factor effects. The validation results showed that the method is precise (RSD: 1.14% for HCT and 0.43% for VS) and accurate (mean recovery: 99.90% for HCT and 99.98% for VS). On the other hand, the results of the robustness study showed that the type of column was the important factor which affects a number of responses, namely, the asymmetry factor (AF), retention time (RT), and resolution (RS). However, the assay results were not affected; therefore, the method can be considered robust. Finally, the method was applied to study the stability of HCT and VS under forced conditions. Significant results were obtained with basic hydrolysis, oxidation, and thermal stress, while the accelerated and acidic conditions did not affect the stability of HCT or VS. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rythme vidéoludique comme mouvement : "Second Sight" et la ritournelle
Dupont, Bruno ULg

in Interval(le)s (2015), 7

Dans cet article, Bruno Dupont part de la constatation que la notion de rythme est omnipré- sente dans les descriptions et analyses de jeux vidéo, sans pour autant qu'il ait été tenté jusqu'ici de ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, Bruno Dupont part de la constatation que la notion de rythme est omnipré- sente dans les descriptions et analyses de jeux vidéo, sans pour autant qu'il ait été tenté jusqu'ici de développer un concept de rythme qui soit adapté à la recherche. Partant de l'article bien connu de Benveniste sur l'étymologie du rythmos, de même que de la conception nonbinaire du rythme chez Deleuze et Guattari, exposée dans le chapitre de Mille plateaux consacré à la ritournelle, l'auteur souhaite fournir les prolégomènes d'un tel concept. En guise de support à sa démonstration, il utilise le jeu Second Sight sur Playstation 2 (2004). Cette contribution souligne qu'une théorie du rythme suppose l'analyse des séquences de mouvements produites par l'interaction entre jeu et joueur, ainsi que de la gestion du temps qui en découle. Dans le cas de Second Sight, en raison de la double appartenance générique du jeu (action et aventure), deux séquences motrices hétérogènes se trouvent coordonnées au sein d'un seul et même jeu, de sorte que naît une zone de friction, – que Dupont décrit à la suite de Deleuze/Guattari comme „entre-deux“ – dans laquelle le rythme spécifique au jeu, mais également au genre, se réalise par l'échange permanent entre deux modes spatio-temporels. En conclusion, l'auteur propose une définition du rythme vidéoludique qui place la machine et le joueur dans un contexte d'interaction et de négociation dynamique. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural, functional, and ACE inhibitory properties of water-solublepolysaccharides from chickpea flours
Mokni Ghribi, abir; Sila, Assaâd; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2015), 75

tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico ... [more ▼]

tThe present study aimed to characterize and investigate the functional and angiotensin-I convertingenzyme (ACE) inhibition activities of chickpea water-soluble polysaccharides (CPWSP). Physico-chemicalcharacteristics were determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis, and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Functional properties (waterholding capacity: WHC, water solubility index: WSI, swelling capacity: SC, oil holding capacity: OHC,foaming, and emulsion properties) and ACE activities were also investigated using well-established pro-cedures. The FT-IR spectra obtained for the CPWSP revealed two significant peaks, at about 3500 and500 cm−1, which corresponded to the carbohydrate region and were characteristic of polysaccharides.All spectra showed the presence of a broad absorption between 1500 and 670 cm−1, which could beattributed to C−H, C−O, and O−H bands in the polysaccharides. CPWSP had an XRD pattern that wastypical for a semi-crystalline polymer with a major crystalline reflection at 19.6◦C. They also displayedimportant techno-functional properties (SWC, WSI, WHC, and OHC) that can be modulated accordingto temperature. The CPWSP were also noted to display good anti-hypertensive activities. Overall, theresults indicate that CPWSP have attractive chemical, biological, and functional properties that makethem potential promising candidates for application as alternative additives in various food, cosmetic,and pharmaceutical preparations. [less ▲]

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See detailActivation of the calcium-sensing receptor before renal ischemia/reperfusion exacerbates kidney injury
WEEKERS, Laurent ULg; De Tullio, Pascal ULg; BOVY, Christophe ULg et al

in American Journal of Translational Research (2015), 7(1), 128-138

Activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) favours apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes and neurons. Its role in renal I/R is unknown. We investigated the impact ... [more ▼]

Activation of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) favours apoptosis in cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes and neurons. Its role in renal I/R is unknown. We investigated the impact of pharmacological preactivation of the CaSR on kidney structure and function in a murine model of bilateral renal 30-min ischemia and 48-hour reperfusion, and in a 6-year cohort of kidney transplant recipients (KTR). C57BL/6J mice were administered daily with CaSR agonist, R-568, or with vehicle for 48 hours. Evaluation of serum urea and creatinine levels, renal histology and urine metabolome by nuclear magnetic resonance showed that R-568 was not nephrotoxic per se. Following I/R, serum urea and creatinine levels increased higher in R-568-treated animals than in controls. Jablonski’s score was significantly greater in R-568-treated kidneys, which showed a higher rate of cell proliferation and apoptosis in comparison to controls. Next, we retrospectively identified 36 patients (10.7% of our cohort) who were treated by CaSR agonist, cinacalcet, at the time of kidney transplantation (KTx). After matching these to 61 KTR upon type of donor, cold ischemic time, residual diuresis, and donor age, we observed that delayed graft function, i.e. need for dialysis in the first week after KTx, occurred in 42 and 23% of cinacalcet-treated and control groups, respectively (p≤0.05). These data suggest that pharmacological preactivation of the CaSR before renal I/R exacerbates kidney injury. [less ▲]

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See detailValidating the use of an ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify equol in cow's milk
Daems, Frédéric ULg; Jasselette, Christophe; Romnee, Jean-Michel et al

in Dairy Science & Technology (2015)

Cow’s milk can be used as a potential source of equol in the human diet. In order to study human intake, however, it is necessary to develop a reliable and sensitive analytical method. This paper reports ... [more ▼]

Cow’s milk can be used as a potential source of equol in the human diet. In order to study human intake, however, it is necessary to develop a reliable and sensitive analytical method. This paper reports on the validation of an analytical method using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a tandem mass spectrometry detector to quantify the equol in commercial milks (raw, whole, semi-skimmed, and skimmed milk). The equol was initially released using enzymatic hydrolysis, and it was then extracted using a double liquid/liquid extraction. The analytical method produced a linear calibration curve with a high correlation coefficient (R 2 ≥ 0.996) between 5 and 1,000 ng.mL−1. Good intra- and inter-day precision (≤5.3% and ≤ 5.2%, respectively) and accuracy (≤8.6%) were achieved. The recovery rate differed slightly among the different types of milk, ranging between 60.6 ± 1.09% and 82.3 ± 5.21%. Good method repeatability was observed (<15%). There was neither matrix effect nor carry-over effect, and the sample extracts were stable for at least 7 days of storage at −21 °C and 5 °C. The method proved to be specific, sensitive, precise, and accurate and was used for the first time to quantify the equol content in Belgian commercial cow’s milk. In all the samples analyzed, equol was present at a concentration ≥10 ng.mL−1 and had a significantly higher content in organic than in conventional milk. The study also found that the mean concentrations of equol were similar for each type of commercial conventional cow’s milk. [less ▲]

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See detailTransfer of communication skills to the workplace: Impact of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed for radiotherapy teams
Merckaert, Isabelle; Delevallez, France; Gibon, Anne-Sophie et al

in Journal of Clinical Oncology (2015)

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See detailTargeting osteopontin suppresses glioblastoma stem-like cell character and tumorigenicity in vivo
Lamour, Virginie; Henry, Aurélie ULg; Kroonen, Jerome et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2015)

Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted protein involved in most aspects of tumor progression and metastasis development. Elevated OPN expression has been reported in multiple types of cancer including ... [more ▼]

Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted protein involved in most aspects of tumor progression and metastasis development. Elevated OPN expression has been reported in multiple types of cancer including glioblastoma (GBM), the highest grade and most aggressive brain tumor. GBMs contain a subpopulation of glioma-initiating cells (GICs) implicated in progression, therapeutic resistance and recurrence. We have previously demonstrated that OPN silencing inhibited GBM cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, activation of CD44 signaling upon OPN ligation has been recently implicated in the acquisition of a stem cell phenotype by GBM cells. The present study is aimed to explore OPN autocrine function using shRNA silencing strategy in GICs enriched from GBM cell lines and a human primary GBM grown in EGF and bFGF defined medium. The removal of these growth factors and addition of serum induced a significant loss of OPN expression in GICs. We showed that OPN-silenced GICs were unable to grow as spheres and this capacity was restored by exogenous OPN. Importantly, the expression of Sox2, Oct3/4 and Nanog, key stemness transcription factors, was significantly decreased in GICs upon OPN targeting. We identified Akt/mTOR/p70S6K as the main signaling pathway triggered following OPN-mediated EGFR activation in GICs. Finally, in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model, the tumorigenic potential of U87-MG sphere cells was completely abrogated upon OPN silencing. Our demonstration of endogenous OPN major regulatory effects on GICs stemness phenotype and tumorigenicity implies a greater role than anticipated for OPN in GBM pathogenesis from initiation and progression to probable recurrence. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel sub-phylum method discriminates better the impact of crop management on soil microbial community
Degrune, Florine ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg et al

in Agronomy for Sustainable Development (2015)

Soil microorganisms such as mycorrhizae and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria have beneficial effects on crop productivity. Agricultural practices are known to impact soil microbial communities, but ... [more ▼]

Soil microorganisms such as mycorrhizae and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria have beneficial effects on crop productivity. Agricultural practices are known to impact soil microbial communities, but past studies examining this impact have focused mostly on one or two taxonomic levels, such as phylum and class, thus missing potentially relevant information from lower levels. Therefore we propose here an original, sub-phylum method for studying how agricultural practices modify microbial communities. This method involves exploiting the available sequence information at the lowest taxonomic level attainable for each operational taxonomic unit. In order to validate this novel method we assessed microbial community composition using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S and 28S rRNA genes, then we compared the results with results of a phylum-level analysis. Agricultural practices included conventional tillage, reduced tillage, residue removal and residue retention. Results show that, at the lowest taxonomic level attainable, tillage is the main factor influencing both bacterial community composition, accounting for 13% of the variation, and fungal community composition, accounting for 18% of the variation. Whereas phylum-level analysis failed to reveal any effect of soil practice on bacterial community composition, and missed the fact that different members of the same phylum responded differently to tillage practice. For instance, the fungal phylum Chytridiomycota showed no impact of soil treatment, while sub-phylum-level analysis revealed an impact of tillage practice on the Chytridiomycota sub-groups Gibberella, which includes a notorious wheat pathogen, and Trichocomaceae. This clearly demonstrates the necessity of exploiting the information obtainable at sub-phylum level when assessing the effects of agricultural practice on microbial communities. [less ▲]

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See detailMucoadhesive cellulosic derivative sponges as drug delivery system for vaginal application
Furst, Tania ULg; Piel, Géraldine ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics (2015)

Vaginal delivery of active drugs has been largely studied for local and systemic applications. It is well known that vagina is a complex route, due to physiological and non-physiological changes ... [more ▼]

Vaginal delivery of active drugs has been largely studied for local and systemic applications. It is well known that vagina is a complex route, due to physiological and non-physiological changes. Therefore, in order to achieve a prolonged local effect, these variations have to be considered. The aim of this study was to formulate and to characterize a solid system, called sponges, obtained by lyophilization of cellulosic derivative (HEC 250M) hydrogels. These sponges have to meet particular criteria to be adapted for vaginal application: they have to adhere to the vaginal cavity and to be rehydrated by the small amount of vaginal fluids. Moreover, they have to be easily manipulated and to be stable. Three freezing temperatures have been tested to prepare sponges ( 15 C, 25 C, 35 C). By SE analyzes, it was observed that the pores into the sponges were smaller and numerous as the freezing temperature decreases. However, this temperature did not have any influence on the rehydration speed that was rather influenced by the HEC concentration. Viscosity and mucoadhesive strength of hydrogels and corresponding sponges were also measured. It appeared that these parameters are mainly dépendent on the HEC concentration. These mucoadhesive sponges can be considered as potential drug delivery systems intended for vaginal application. [less ▲]

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See detailThe potential impact of animal protein intake on global and central obesity: evidence from the ORISCAV-LUX study
Alkerwi, A.; Sauvageot, Nicolas ULg; Buckley, J.D. et al

in Public Health Nutrition (2015)

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See detailThe VLTI/PIONIER near-infrared interferometric survey of southern T Tauri stars. I. First results
Anthonioz, F.; Menard, F.; Pinte, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 574

Context. The properties of the inner disks of bright Herbig AeBe stars have been studied with near-infrared (NIR) interferometry and high resolution spectroscopy. The continuum (dust) and a few molecular ... [more ▼]

Context. The properties of the inner disks of bright Herbig AeBe stars have been studied with near-infrared (NIR) interferometry and high resolution spectroscopy. The continuum (dust) and a few molecular gas species have been studied close to the central star; however, sensitivity problems limit direct information about the inner disks of the fainter T Tauri stars. <BR /> Aims: Our aim is to measure some of the properties (inner radius, brightness profile, shape) of the inner regions of circumstellar disk surrounding southern T Tauri stars. <BR /> Methods: We performed a survey with the VLTI/PIONIER recombiner instrument at H-band of 21 T Tauri stars. The baselines used ranged from 11 m to 129 m, corresponding to a maximum resolution of ~3 mas (~0.45 au at 150 pc). <BR /> Results: Thirteen disks are resolved well and the visibility curves are fully sampled as a function of baseline in the range 45-130 m for these 13 objects. A simple qualitative examination of visibility profiles allows us to identify a rapid drop-off in the visibilities at short baselines(<10 Mlambda) in 8 resolved disks. This is indicative of a significant contribution from an extended (R> 3 au, at 150 pc) contribution of light from the disk. We demonstrate that this component is compatible with scattered light, providing strong support to an earlier prediction. The amplitude of the drop-off and the amount of dust thermal emission changes from source to source suggesting that each disk is different. A by-product of the survey is the identification of a new milli-arcsec separation binary: WW Cha. Spectroscopic and interferometric data of AK Sco have also been fitted with a binary + disk model. <BR /> Conclusions: The visibility data are reproduced well when thermal emission and scattering from dust are fully considered. The inner radii measured are consistent with the expected dust sublimation radii. The modelling of AK Sco suggests a likely coplanarity between the disk and the binary's orbital plane. [less ▲]

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See detailMicromechanics-Based Damage Analysis of Fracture in Ti5553 Alloy with Application to Bolted Sectors
Ben Bettaïeb, Mohamed; Van Hoof, Thibault; Minnebo, Hans et al

in Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance (2015), 24

A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in ... [more ▼]

A physics-based, uncoupled damage model is calibrated using cylindrical notched round tensile specimens made of Ti5553 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. The fracture strain of Ti5553 is lower than for Ti-6Al-4V in the full range of stress triaxiality. This lower ductility originates from a higher volume fraction of damage sites. By proper heat treatment, the fracture strain of Ti5553 increases by almost a factor of two, as a result of a larger damage nucleation stress. This result proves the potential for further optimization of the damage resistance of the Ti5553 alloy. The damage model is combined with an elastoviscoplastic law in order to predict failure in a wide range of loading conditions. In particular, a specific application involving bolted sectors is addressed in order to determine the potential of replacing the Ti-6Al-4V by the Ti5553 alloy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe reliability of isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling and maximal strength assessment in youth.
Meylan, César; Cronin, John; Oliver, Jon et al

in Sports Biomechanics (2015)

The purpose of this study was to quantify the inter-session reliability of force-velocity-power profiling and estimated maximal strength in youth. Thirty-six males (11-15 years old) performed a ballistic ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to quantify the inter-session reliability of force-velocity-power profiling and estimated maximal strength in youth. Thirty-six males (11-15 years old) performed a ballistic supine leg press test at five randomized loads (80%, 100%, 120%, 140%, and 160% body mass) on three separate occasions. Peak and mean force, power, velocity, and peak displacement were collected with a linear position transducer attached to the weight stack. Mean values at each load were used to calculate different regression lines and estimate maximal strength, force, velocity, and power. All variables were found reliable (change in the mean [CIM] = - 1 to 14%; coefficient of variation [CV] = 3-18%; intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.74-0.99), but were likely to benefit from a familiarization, apart from the unreliable maximal force/velocity ratio (CIM = 0-3%; CV = 23-25%; ICC = 0.35-0.54) and load at maximal power (CIM = - 1 to 2%; CV = 10-13%; ICC = 0.26-0.61). Isoinertial force-velocity-power profiling and maximal strength in youth can be assessed after a familiarization session. Such profiling may provide valuable insight into neuromuscular capabilities during growth and maturation and may be used to monitor specific training adaptations. [less ▲]

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See detailFighting Poor Quality Medicines: Develop-ment, Transfer and Validation of Generic HPLC Methods for Analyzing two WHO Recommended Antimalarial Tablets
Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie; Yemoa, Achille; Lebrun, Pierre ULg et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2015), 6

As serious but neglected public health problems, poor quality medicines, i.e. for antimalarial medicines, urged to be fought. One of the approaches is to consider the analytical chemistry and separative ... [more ▼]

As serious but neglected public health problems, poor quality medicines, i.e. for antimalarial medicines, urged to be fought. One of the approaches is to consider the analytical chemistry and separative techniques. In this study, a generic liquid chromatographic method was firstly devel-oped for the purpose of screening 8 antimalarial active ingredients, namely amodiaquine (AQ), piperaquine (PPQ), sulfalene (SL), pyrimethamine (PM), lumefantrine (LF), artesunate (AS), artemether (AM) and dihydroartemisinine (DHA) by applying DoE/DS optimization strategy. Since the method was not totally satisfying in terms of peak separation, further experiments were undergone applying the same development strategy while splitting the 8 ingredients into five groups. Excellent prediction was observed prior to correlation between retention times of predicted and observed separation conditions. Then, a successful geometric transfer was realized to reduce the analysis time focusing on the simultaneous quantification of two WHO's recommended ACTs in anti-malarial fixed-dose combination (AM-LF and AS-AQ) in tablets. The optimal separation was achieved using an isocratic elution of methanol-ammonium formate buffer (pH 2.8; 10mM) (82.5: 17.5, v/v) at 0.6ml/min through a C18 column (100mm×3.5mm, 3.5 μm) thermostated at 25°C. After a successful validation stage based on the total error approach, the method was applied to determine the content of AM/LF or AS/AQ in seven brands of antimalarial tablets currently marketed in West, Central and East Africa. Satisfying results were obtained compared to the claimed contents. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Total Error Strategy in Validation of Affordable and Accessible UV-Visible Spectrophotometric Methods for Quality Control of Poor Medicines
Mbinze, Kingenge; Nsangu Mpasi, Jean; Maghe, Elza et al

in American Journal of Analytical Chemistry (2015), 6

In the framework of fighting against the poor quality medicines sold in developing countries using classical analytical methods easily accessible in those countries, four UV-Visible spectrophotometric ... [more ▼]

In the framework of fighting against the poor quality medicines sold in developing countries using classical analytical methods easily accessible in those countries, four UV-Visible spectrophotometric methods for one antimalarial (quinine) and two antibiotics (amoxicillin and metronidazole) have been developed and validated according to the total error strategy using the accuracy profiles as a decision tool. The dosing range was 2-10µg/mL (for quinine sulfate in tablet), 4-12µg/mL (for quinine bichlorhydrate in oral drop - metronidazole benzaote in oral suspension) and 15-35µg/mL (for amoxicillin trihydrate in capsule). The validated methods were then applied in determining the content of some analogous medicines sold in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Thus, the proposed UV-Visible spectrophotometric methods are simple and suitable to quantify quinine, amoxicillin and metronidazole in different pharmaceutical forms. [less ▲]

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See detailPurinergic control of inflammation and thrombosis: Role of P2X1 receptors
Oury, Cécile ULg; LECUT, Christelle ULg; Hego, Alexandre ULg et al

in Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal (2015), 13

Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms in favor of thrombosis. Upon tissue damage or infection, a sudden increase of extracellular ATP occurs, that might contribute to the crosstalk between ... [more ▼]

Inflammation shifts the hemostatic mechanisms in favor of thrombosis. Upon tissue damage or infection, a sudden increase of extracellular ATP occurs, that might contribute to the crosstalk between inflammation and thrombosis. On platelets, P2X1 receptors act to amplify platelet activation and aggregation induced by other platelet agonists. These receptors critically contribute to thrombus stability in small arteries. Besides platelets, studies by our group indicate that these receptors are expressed by neutrophils. They promote neutrophil chemotaxis, both in vitro and in vivo. In a laser-induced injury mouse model of thrombosis, it appears that neutrophils are required to initiate thrombus formation and coagulation activation on inflamed arteriolar endothelia. In thismodel, by using P2X1−/−mice,we recently showed that P2X1 receptors, expressed on platelets and neutrophils, play a key role in thrombus growth and fibrin generation. Intriguingly, in a model of endotoxemia, P2X1−/−mice exhibited aggravated oxidative tissue damage, along with exacerbated thrombocytopenia and increased activation of coagulation, which translated into higher susceptibility to septic shock. Thus, besides its ability to recruit neutrophils and platelets on inflamed endothelia, the P2X1 receptor also contributes to limit the activation of circulating neutrophils under systemic inflammatory conditions. Taken together, these data suggest that P2X1 receptors are involved in the interplay between platelets, neutrophils and thrombosis. We propose that activation of these receptors by ATP on neutrophils and platelets represents a new mechanism that regulates thrombo-inflammation. [less ▲]

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See detailHYDRODYNAMICS IN A DISPOSABLE RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED STIRRED BIOREACTOR WITH ELLIPTIC PENDULUM MOTION PADDLE
Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg; Droissart, Laurent; Delafosse, Angélique ULg et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2015), 93

Stainless steel bioreactors increasingly fall behind to their disposable counterparts in pharma research as they do not require cleaning or sterilization. This led company ATMI LifeSciences to develop the ... [more ▼]

Stainless steel bioreactors increasingly fall behind to their disposable counterparts in pharma research as they do not require cleaning or sterilization. This led company ATMI LifeSciences to develop the “Nucleo™”. Original in design, this disposable bioreactor comprises a rectangular parallelepiped plastic bag stirred by a paddle revolving in elliptic pendulum motion. Studies covering this bioreactor showed good homogeneity of culture medium as well as good productivity for animal cell cultures. To further explain these good performances, the flow inside the “Nucleo™” had to be resolved. This paper focuses on the mean flow description, computed from stereo-PIV measurements performed in 20 verticals covering the whole volume of a 50 dm3 Nucleo™ bioreactor. As the flow is already turbulent in the chosen agitation conditions, its dimensionless mean velocity field does not vary with the paddle rotational speed. Mean flow pattern exhibits an axial symmetry – same flow is observed in opposite quarters of the tank – and can be described as a three-dimensional helix coiled on itself to form a distorted horizontal torus which covers the whole tank volume. Mean velocity value is on average doubled in the cone swept by the paddle, and its two horizontal components are twice higher than its vertical ones. However, mean velocity remains significant everywhere and, in particular, no stagnant area is observed in tank corners. Our results thus confirm previous studies observations. [less ▲]

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See detailLow molecular weight poly (2-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) polymers with controlled positioned fluorescent labeling: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro interaction with human endothelial cells.
Flebus, Luca ULg; Lombart, François ULg; Sevrin, Chantal et al

in International journal of pharmaceutics (2015), 478(1), 278-287

Poly (2-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) is an attractive non-degradable polymer studied as nonviral vector for gene delivery but it can be also adopted for delivery of other biopharmaceutical ... [more ▼]

Poly (2-dimethylamino ethylmethacrylate) (PDMAEMA) is an attractive non-degradable polymer studied as nonviral vector for gene delivery but it can be also adopted for delivery of other biopharmaceutical drugs. As a parenteral carrier, the PDMAEMA free form (FF) might interact with tissues and cells. Few data are available on its selective internalization and efflux from cells, while the majority of studies published have followed the distribution of DNA complexed with PDMAEMA. In order to address polycation safety, the first aim was to synthesize by atom transfer radical polymerisation (ATRP) fluorescent labeled PDMAEMA of low molecular weight (Mw) (below 15kDa), controlling the position and density of fluorescein. The second goal was to analyze the possible difference in uptake and subcellular distribution of this labeled FF polycation between human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and hCMEC/D3 cells. These two cell lines have been chosen in order to detect selectivity towards the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In both cases, polycation was detected along the plasma membrane followed by progressive migration to the peri-nuclear region, where it overlapped with lysosomal structures. The analysis by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of the PDMAEMA uptake by hCMEC/D3 cells showed a significant (p<0.05) inhibition (40%) in presence of 2-dexoxy-d-glucose inhibitor, a result supporting an energy-dependence mechanism(s). Cytotoxicity study showed that low Mw PDMAEMA (10kDa) lead to a minor cytotoxicity compared to the higher ones. As main conclusion this study highlights the similitude in cell trafficking of FF PDMAEMA and data previously reported for PDMAEMA/DNA complexes. [less ▲]

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See detail(Tissue PET) Vascular metabolic imaging and peripheral plasma biomakers in the evolution of chronic arotic dissections
SAKALIHASAN, Natzi ULg; NIENABER, Christoph; HUSTINX, Roland ULg et al

in European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging (2015)

Enhanced FDG uptake may be considered as a complementary imaging marker associated with secondary complications in type B dissections. During follow-up, aneurysmal progression is related to PET/CT and ... [more ▼]

Enhanced FDG uptake may be considered as a complementary imaging marker associated with secondary complications in type B dissections. During follow-up, aneurysmal progression is related to PET/CT and biomarkers of thrombus renewal and lysis. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-light LBT Nulling Interferometric Observations: Warm Exozodiacal Dust Resolved within a Few AU of eta Crv
Defrere, D.; Hinz, P. M.; Skemer, A. J. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2015), 799

We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81-12.41 μm) emission around the nearby main-sequence star η ... [more ▼]

We report on the first nulling interferometric observations with the Large Binocular Telescope Interferometer (LBTI), resolving the N' band (9.81-12.41 μm) emission around the nearby main-sequence star η Crv (F2V, 1-2 Gyr). The measured source null depth amounts to 4.40% ± 0.35% over a field-of-view of 140 mas in radius (~2.6 AU for the distance of η Crv) and shows no significant variation over 35° of sky rotation. This relatively low null is unexpected given the total disk to star flux ratio measured by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS; ~23% across the N' band), suggesting that a significant fraction of the dust lies within the central nulled response of the LBTI (79 mas or 1.4 AU). Modeling of the warm disk shows that it cannot resemble a scaled version of the solar zodiacal cloud unless it is almost perpendicular to the outer disk imaged by Herschel. It is more likely that the inner and outer disks are coplanar and the warm dust is located at a distance of 0.5-1.0 AU, significantly closer than previously predicted by models of the IRS spectrum (~3 AU). The predicted disk sizes can be reconciled if the warm disk is not centrosymmetric, or if the dust particles are dominated by very small grains. Both possibilities hint that a recent collision has produced much of the dust. Finally, we discuss the implications for the presence of dust for the distance where the insolation is the same as Earth's (2.3 AU). [less ▲]

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See detailNuclear Magnetic Resonance, Thermogravimetric and Differential Scanning Calorimetry for Monitoring Changes of Sponge Cakes During Storage at 20 °C and 65 % Relative Humidity
Botosoa, Eliot Patrick; Chèné, Christine; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food and Bioprocess Technology (2015), 8

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a study on sponge cakes produced at the pilot scale and monitored during ageing (i.e. 1, 3, 6, 9, 16 and 20 day(s)) by different analytical techniques: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results from NMR showed that the spin–lattice relaxation time (T1), measured on the crumb part, decreased from day 1 to day 16 while the spin–spin relaxation time (T2) increased throughout the whole storage time (i.e. 1 to 20 day(s)). Based on the analysis of the state of water, TGA allowed to establishing a kinetic profile of retrogradation degree of starch contained in sponge cakes. This approach evidenced that the evolution of the sponge cakes freshness and staling closely depends on the dynamic of the water in the crumb during ageing. These results were supported by DSC thermograms exhibiting a variation of three main endotherms detected in sponge cakes at −15, +5 and +45 °C throughout ageing. The enthalpy changes of these endotherms reflected the evolution of chemical and physical reactions occurring in the sponge cakes during storage. The analysis of the endotherm enthalpy change at 45 °C allowed to determine the time τ (i.e. τ≈9 days) corresponding to the apparition of amylopectin crystallites that could be considered as a reference time to separate fresh sponge cakes from the aged ones. [less ▲]

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See detailCOPPER LEACHING FROM WASTE ELECTRIC CABLES BY BIOHYDROMETALLURGY
Lambert, Fanny ULg; Bastin, David ULg; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg et al

in Minerals Engineering (2015)

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption ... [more ▼]

This study examines the leaching of copper from waste electric cables by chemical leaching and leaching catalysed by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in terms of leaching kinetics and reagents consumption. Operational parameters such as the nature of the oxidant (Fe3+, O2), the initial ferric iron concentration (0-10 g/L) and the temperature (21-50°C) were identified to have an important influence on the degree of copper solubilisation. At optimal process conditions, copper extraction above 90% was achieved in both leaching systems, with a leaching duration of 1 day. The bacterial leaching system slightly outperformed the chemical one but the positive effect of regeneration of Fe3+ was limited. It appears that the Fe2+ bio-oxidation is not sufficiently optimised. Best results in terms of copper solubilisation kinetics were obtained for the abiotic test at 50°C and for the biotic test at 35°C. Moreover, the study showed that in same operating conditions, a lower acid consumption was recorded for the biotic test than for the abiotic test. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of a two-slope pyramid made by SPIF using an adaptive remeshing method with solid-shell finite element
Velosa De Sena, José ULg; Guzmán Inostroza, Carlos Felipe ULg; Duchene, Laurent ULg et al

in International Journal of Material Forming (2015)

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging application in sheet metal prototyping and small batch production, which enables dieless production of sheet metal parts. This research area has ... [more ▼]

Single point incremental forming (SPIF) is an emerging application in sheet metal prototyping and small batch production, which enables dieless production of sheet metal parts. This research area has grown in the last years, both experimentally and numerically. However, numerical investigations into SPIF process need further improvement to predict the formed shape correctly and faster than current approaches. The current work aims the use of an adaptive remeshing technique, originally developed for shell and later extended to 3D “brick” elements, leading to a Reduced Enhanced Solid-Shell formulation. The CPU time reduction is a demanded request to perform the numerical simulations. A two-slope pyramid shape is used to carry out the numerical simulation and modelling. Its geometric difficulty on the numerical shape prediction and the through thickness stress behaviour are the main analysis targets in the present work. This work confirmed a significant CPU time reduction and an acceptable shape prediction accuracy using an adaptive remeshing method combined with the selected solid-shell element. The stress distribution in thickness direction revealed the occurrence of bending/unbending plus stretching and plastic deformation in regions far from the local deformation in the tool vicinity. [less ▲]

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See detailSymmetry breaking patterns in 3HDM
Ivanov, Igor ULg; Nishi, Celso

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2015), 15

An attractive feature of New Physics models with multiple Higgs fields is that they are equipped with discrete symmetry groups in the Higgs and flavour sectors. These symmetry groups are often broken at ... [more ▼]

An attractive feature of New Physics models with multiple Higgs fields is that they are equipped with discrete symmetry groups in the Higgs and flavour sectors. These symmetry groups are often broken at the global minimum of the Higgs potential, either completely or to a proper subgroup, with certain phenomenological consequences. Here, we systematically explore these symmetry breaking patterns in the scalar sector of the three-Higgs-doublet model (3HDM). We use the full list of discrete symmetry groups allowed in 3HDM, and for each group we find all possible ways it can break by the Higgs vacuum expectation value alignment. We also discuss the interplay between these symmetry groups and various forms of CP-violation in the scalar sector of 3HDM. Not only do our results solve the problem for 3HDM, but they also hint at several general features in multi-scalar sectors. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent summer Arctic atmospheric circulation anomalies in a historical perspective
Belleflamme, Alexandre ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg

in Cryosphere (The) (2015), 9

A significant increase in the summertime occurrence of a high pressure area over the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Greenland has been observed since the beginning of the 2000s, and ... [more ▼]

A significant increase in the summertime occurrence of a high pressure area over the Beaufort Sea, the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, and Greenland has been observed since the beginning of the 2000s, and particularly between 2007 and 2012. These circulation anomalies are likely partly responsible for the enhanced Greenland ice sheet melt as well as the Arctic sea ice loss observed since 2007. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse whether similar conditions might have happened since the late 19th century over the Arctic region. We have used an atmospheric circulation type classification based on daily mean sea level pressure and 500 hPa geopotential height data from five reanalysis data sets (ERA-Interim, ERA-40, NCEP/NCAR, ERA-20C, and 20CRv2) to put the recent circulation anomalies in perspective with the atmospheric circulation variability since 1871. We found that circulation conditions similar to 2007–2012 have occurred in the past, despite a higher uncertainty of the reconstructed circulation before 1940. For example, only ERA-20C shows circulation anomalies that could explain the 1920–1930 summertime Greenland warming, in contrast to 20CRv2. While the recent anomalies exceed by a factor of 2 the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation of the Arctic region, their origin (natural variability or global warming) remains debatable. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsence of Varicella Zoster Virus Reactivation after Infliximab Administration for Plaque Psoriasis
EL HAYDERI, Lara ULg; BONTEMS, Sébastien ULg; MEEX, Cécile ULg et al

in Dermatology (2015)

Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists may be more severe and the incidence seems increased. The influence of TNF antagonists on varicella zoster ... [more ▼]

Background: Herpes zoster (HZ) in patients receiving tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists may be more severe and the incidence seems increased. The influence of TNF antagonists on varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation is unknown. Objective: To prospectively search in a pilot study for VZV DNA in sequential blood samples before and after infliximab administration. Setting: University medical center. Subjects and Methods: Blood samples of six patients with longstanding and severe plaque psoriasis were taken on day 1 (before infliximab administration) and on days 2, 7, 21 and 42 for the determination of VZV viremia by ORF21 real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with varicella, HZ and normal subjects were included as controls. Results: None of the six patients presented VZV viremia at any of the time points. Highload viremia was present during varicella, low-load viremia in some HZ patients and no viremia in the control patients. Limitations: Small number of patients. Conclusions: In this pilot study, infliximab did not reactivate VZV and did not induce subclinical VZV viremia. [less ▲]

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See detailDirect detection of Aspergillus and azole resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus on broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. Validation of a new Aspergillus real-time PCR
Chong, Ga-Lai; Van de Sande, Wendy; Dingemans, Gijs et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2015)

Introduction Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. We describe the validation of AsperGenius® , a new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay consisting of ... [more ▼]

Introduction Azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus is increasingly reported. We describe the validation of AsperGenius® , a new multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay consisting of two multiplex real-time PCRs: one which identifies the clinically relevant Aspergillus species, and one which detects the TR34, L98H, T289A, Y121F mutations in CYP51A and differentiates susceptible from resistant A. fumigatus strains. Methods The diagnostic performance was tested on 37 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from haematology patients and on 40 BAL samples from intensive care unit (ICU) patients using BAL galactomannan ≥1.0 or positive culture as the gold standard for the presence of Aspergillus. Results In the haematology and ICU groups combined, there were 22 BAL samples with IA (2 proven, 9 probable and 11 non-classifiable). Nineteen of the 22 BAL samples were positive according to the gold standard. The optimal cycle threshold value for the presence of Aspergillus was <36. Sixteen of the 19 BAL samples had a positive PCR (2 Aspergillus species and 14 A. fumigatus). This resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of 88.9%, 89.3%, 72.7% and 96.2% for the haematology group and 80.0%, 93.3%, 80.0% and 93.3% in the ICU group, respectively. The CYP51A real-time PCR confirmed 12 wildtype and 2 resistant strains (1 TR34/L98H and 1 TR46/Y121F/T289A mutant). Conclusion The AsperGenius® multiplex real-time PCR allows for a sensitive and fast detection of Aspergillus species directly in BAL samples. More importantly, this assay detects and differentiates wildtype from resistant strains even if BAL cultures remained negative. [less ▲]

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See detailStable climate and surface mass balance in Svalbard over 1979–2013 despite the Arctic warming
Lang, Charlotte ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg

in Cryosphere (The) (2015), 9

With the help of the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis (MARERA) and the MIROC5 (Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate) global model ... [more ▼]

With the help of the regional climate model MAR (Modèle Atmosphérique Régional) forced by the ERA-Interim reanalysis (MARERA) and the MIROC5 (Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate) global model (MARMIROC5) from the CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project) database, we have modelled the climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard at a 10 km resolution over 1979–2013. The integrated total surface mass balance (SMB) over Svalbard modelled by MARERA is negative (−1.6 Gt yr−1) with a large interannual variability (7.1 Gt) but, unlike over Greenland, there has been no acceleration of the surface melt over the past 35 years because of the recent change in atmospheric circulation bringing northwesterly flows in summer over Svalbard, contrasting the recent observed Arctic warming. However, in 2013, the atmospheric circulation changed to a south–southwesterly flow over Svalbard causing record melt, SMB (−20.4 Gt yr−1) and summer temperature. MIROC5 is significantly colder than ERA-Interim over 1980–2005 but MARMIROC5 is able to improve the near-surface MIROC5 results by simulating not significant SMB differences with MARERA over 1980–2005. On the other hand, MIROC5 does not represent the recent atmospheric circulation shift in summer and induces in MARMIROC5 a significant trend of decreasing SMB (−0.6 Gt yr−2) over 1980–2005. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium difficile from food and surface samples in a Belgian nursing home: An unlikely source of contamination
Rodriguez Diaz, Cristina ULg; Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULg; Taminiau, Bernard ULg et al

in Anaerobe (2015), 32

This study investigates the contamination of foods and surfaces with Clostridium difficile in a single nursing home. C. difficile PCR-ribotype 078 was found in one food sample and in none of the tested ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the contamination of foods and surfaces with Clostridium difficile in a single nursing home. C. difficile PCR-ribotype 078 was found in one food sample and in none of the tested surfaces. These results indicate that food and surfaces are an unlikely source of C. difficile infection in this setting. [less ▲]

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See detailHigh-density mapping of the MHC identifies a shared role for HLA-DRB1*01:03 in inflammatory bowel diseases and heterozygous advantage in ulcerative colitis.
Goyette, Philippe; Boucher, Gabrielle; Mallon, Dermot et al

in Nature Genetics (2015), 47(2), 172-9

Genome-wide association studies of the related chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) known as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have shown strong evidence of association to the major ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association studies of the related chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) known as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have shown strong evidence of association to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). This region encodes a large number of immunological candidates, including the antigen-presenting classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules. Studies in IBD have indicated that multiple independent associations exist at HLA and non-HLA genes, but they have lacked the statistical power to define the architecture of association and causal alleles. To address this, we performed high-density SNP typing of the MHC in >32,000 individuals with IBD, implicating multiple HLA alleles, with a primary role for HLA-DRB1*01:03 in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Noteworthy differences were observed between these diseases, including a predominant role for class II HLA variants and heterozygous advantage observed in ulcerative colitis, suggesting an important role of the adaptive immune response in the colonic environment in the pathogenesis of IBD. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Prion Protein Levels and the Distinction Between Alzheimer Disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease
Dorey, Aline; Tholance, Yannick; Vighetto, Alain et al

in JAMA Neurology (2015)

IMPORTANCE Although typical forms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are clinically distinguishable, atypical AD phenotypesmay pose a diagnostic challenge. The major biological ... [more ▼]

IMPORTANCE Although typical forms of Alzheimer disease (AD) and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) are clinically distinguishable, atypical AD phenotypesmay pose a diagnostic challenge. The major biological diagnostic biomarker for identifying CJD, 14-3-3 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), unfortunately lacks specificity when confronting a rapid dementia presentation. OBJECTIVE To assess the relevance of total CSF prion protein (t-PrP) levels in the differential biological diagnosis between atypical AD phenotypes and CJD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A retrospective study in an autopsy-confirmed cohort of 82 patients was performed to evaluate the relevance of CSF t-PrP to distinguish 30 definite cases of AD from 52 definite cases of CJD. Next, CSF t-PrP concentration was measured in a cohort of 104 patients including 55 patients with probable AD, 26 with probable sporadic CJD, and 23 control patients for whom 14-3-3 protein, total tau, phosphorylated tau 181 (P-tau181), and Aβ1-42 were available.We investigated 46 patients diagnosed as having probable AD who presented atypical phenotypes. A diagnosis strategy was proposed to classify atypical AD phenotypes with suspicion of CJD based on a decision tree combining CSF biomarkers. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We determined CSF t-PrP levels for all patients.We calculated the ratio of total tau and P-tau181 and determined the diagnostic accuracy of each biomarker alone or in combination.We calculated the misclassification rate for each biomarker that corresponded to the percentage of patients within the group of atypical AD phenotypes wrongly classified as CJD. RESULTS In patients with CJD, CSF t-PrP concentrations were decreased compared with control participants and patients with AD. When considering the differential diagnosis of CJD compared with atypical AD phenotypes, CSF t-PrP determination reached 82.1%sensitivity and 91.3%specificity. The misclassification rate of atypical AD phenotypes decreased from 43.5%, obtained when using the CSF 14-3-3 protein determination alone, to only 4.3%when calculating the ratio total tau/(P-tau181 × t-PrP). The proposed classification tree permitted correct classification of 98.4%of the patients. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE For unusual phenotypes of AD, especially cases presenting with a biological ambiguity suggesting CJD, determination of CSF t-PrP levels increased diagnostic accuracy. The use of CSF t-PrP levels may be beneficial in clinical practice in [less ▲]

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See detailUpscaling of an electronic nose for continuously stirred tank reactor stability monitoring from pilot-scale to real-scale agricultural co-digestion biogas plant
Adam, Gilles ULg; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier et al

in Bioresource Technology (2015), 178

This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to classical state indicators such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids concentration and to other gas phase compounds. Multivariate statistical process control method, based on principal component analysis and the Hotelling's T² statistics was used to derive an indicator representative of the reactor state. At the pilot-scale level, the e-nose indicator was relevant and could distinguish 3 process states: steady-state, transient and collapsing process. At the full-scale level, the e-nose indicator could provide the warning of the major disturbance whereas two slight disturbances were not detected and it gave one major false alarm. This work showed that gas phase relation with anaerobic process should be deeper investigated, as an e-nose could indicate the reactor state, focusing on the gas phase. [less ▲]

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See detailSupraglacial lakes on the Greenland ice sheet advance inland under warming climate
Leeson, A.; Shepherd, A.; Briggs, K. et al

in Nature Climate Change (2015), 5

Supraglacial lakes (SGLs) form annually on the Greenland ice sheet and, when they drain, their discharge enhances ice-sheet flow by lubricating the base and potentially by warming the ice. Today, SGLs ... [more ▼]

Supraglacial lakes (SGLs) form annually on the Greenland ice sheet and, when they drain, their discharge enhances ice-sheet flow by lubricating the base and potentially by warming the ice. Today, SGLs tend to form within the ablation zone, where enhanced lubrication is offset by efficient subglacial drainage. However, it is not clear what impact a warming climate will have on this arrangement. Here, we use an SGL initiation and growth model to show that lakes form at higher altitudes as temperatures rise, consistent with satellite observations. Our simulations show that in southwest Greenland, SGLs spread 103 and 110 km further inland by the year 2060 under moderate (RCP 4.5) and extreme (RCP 8.5) climate change scenarios, respectively, leading to an estimated 48–53% increase in the area over which they are distributed across the ice sheet as a whole. Up to half of these new lakes may be large enough to drain, potentially delivering water and heat to the ice-sheet base in regions where subglacial drainage is inefficient. In such places, ice flow responds positively to increases in surface water delivered to the bed through enhanced basal lubrication and warming of the ice, and so the inland advance of SGLs should be considered in projections of ice-sheet change. [less ▲]

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See detailDust from Comet 209P/LINEAR during its 2014 Return: Parent Body of a New Meteor Shower, the May Camelopardalids
Ishiguro, Masateru; Kuroda, Daisuke; Hanayama, Hidekazu et al

in The Astrophysical Journal Letters (2015), 798

We report a new observation of the Jupiter family comet 209P/LINEAR during its 2014 return. The comet is recognized as a dust source of a new meteor shower, the May Camelopardalids. 209P/LINEAR was ... [more ▼]

We report a new observation of the Jupiter family comet 209P/LINEAR during its 2014 return. The comet is recognized as a dust source of a new meteor shower, the May Camelopardalids. 209P/LINEAR was apparently inactive at a heliocentric distance r<SUB>h</SUB> = 1.6 AU and showed weak activity at r<SUB>h</SUB> <= 1.4 AU. We found an active region of <0.001% of the entire nuclear surface during the comet's dormant phase. An edge-on image suggests that particles up to 1 cm in size (with an uncertainty of factor 3-5) were ejected following a differential power-law size distribution with index q = –3.25 ± 0.10. We derived a mass-loss rate of 2-10 kg s<SUP>–1</SUP> during the active phase and a total mass of ≈5 × 10<SUP>7</SUP> kg during the 2014 return. The ejection terminal velocity of millimeter- to centimeter-sized particles was 1-4 m s<SUP>–1</SUP>, which is comparable to the escape velocity from the nucleus (1.4 m s<SUP>–1</SUP>). These results imply that such large meteoric particles marginally escaped from the highly dormant comet nucleus via the gas drag force only within a few months of the perihelion passage. [less ▲]

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See detailFeature issue of digital holography and 3D imaging (DH): introduction
Hayasaki, Yoshio; Liu, Jung-Ping; Georges, Marc ULg

in Applied Optics (2015), 54(1), 1-2

The OSA Topical Meeting “Digital Holography and 3D Imaging (DH)” was held in Seattle, Washington, 13–17 July 2014. Feature issues based on the DH meeting series have been released by Applied Optics (AO ... [more ▼]

The OSA Topical Meeting “Digital Holography and 3D Imaging (DH)” was held in Seattle, Washington, 13–17 July 2014. Feature issues based on the DH meeting series have been released by Applied Optics (AO) since 2007. In this year (2014), Optics Express (OE) and AO jointly decided to have one such feature issue in each journal. The feature issue includes 27 papers and covers a large range of topics, reflecting the rapidly expanding techniques and applications of digital holography and 3D imaging. The DH meeting will continue in the future, as expected, and the next meeting is scheduled to be held on24–28 May 2015, at Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Shanghai, China. [less ▲]

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See detailV444 Cygni X-ray and polarimetric variability: Radiative and Coriolis forces shape the wind collision region
Lomax, J. R.; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Hoffman, J. L. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 573

We present results from a study of the eclipsing, colliding-wind binary V444 Cyg that uses a combination of X-ray and optical spectropolarimetric methods to describe the 3D nature of the shock and wind ... [more ▼]

We present results from a study of the eclipsing, colliding-wind binary V444 Cyg that uses a combination of X-ray and optical spectropolarimetric methods to describe the 3D nature of the shock and wind structure within the system. We have created the most complete X-ray light curve of V444 Cyg to date using 40 ks of new data from Swift, and 200 ks of new and archived XMM-Newton observations. In addition, we have characterized the intrinsic, polarimetric phase-dependent behavior of the strongest optical emission lines using data obtained with the University of Wisconsin's Half-Wave Spectropolarimeter. We have detected evidence of the Coriolis distortion of the wind-wind collision in the X-ray regime, which manifests itself through asymmetric behavior around the eclipses in the system's X-ray light curves. The large opening angle of the X-ray emitting region, as well as its location (i.e. the WN wind does not collide with the O star, but rather its wind) are evidence of radiative braking/inhibition occurring within the system. Additionally, the polarimetric results show evidence of the cavity the wind-wind collision region carves out of the Wolf-Rayet star's wind. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence that Pluto's atmosphere does not collapse from occultations including the 2013 May 04 event
Olkin, C. B.; Young, L. A.; Borncamp, D. et al

in Icarus (2015), 246

Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013, and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we find the preferred models are consistent ... [more ▼]

Combining stellar occultation observations probing Pluto's atmosphere from 1988 to 2013, and models of energy balance between Pluto's surface and atmosphere, we find the preferred models are consistent with Pluto retaining a collisional atmosphere throughout its 248-year orbit. The occultation results show an increasing atmospheric pressure with time in the current epoch, a trend present only in models with a high thermal inertia and a permanent N<SUB>2</SUB> ice cap at Pluto's north rotational pole. [less ▲]

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See detailCan the collapse of a fly ash heap develop into an air-fluidized flow? - Reanalysis of the Jupille accident (1961)
Stilmant, Frédéric ULg; Pirotton, Michel ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Geomorphology (2015), 228

A fly ash heap collapse occurred in Jupille (Liege, Belgium) in 1961. The subsequent flow of fly ash reached a surprisingly long runout and had catastrophic consequences. Its unprecedented degree of ... [more ▼]

A fly ash heap collapse occurred in Jupille (Liege, Belgium) in 1961. The subsequent flow of fly ash reached a surprisingly long runout and had catastrophic consequences. Its unprecedented degree of fluidization attracted scientific attention. As drillings and direct observations revealed no water-saturated zone at the base of the deposits, scientists assumed an air-fluidization mechanism, which appeared consistent with the properties of the material. In this paper, the air-fluidization assumption is tested based on two-dimensional numerical simulations. The numerical model has been developed so as to focus on the most prominent processes governing the flow, with parameters constrained by their physical interpretation. Results are compared to accurate field observations and are presented for different stages in the model enhancement, so as to provide a base for a discussion of the relative influence of pore pressure dissipation and pore pressure generation. These results show that the apparently high diffusion coefficient that characterizes the dissipation of air pore pressures is in fact sufficiently low for an important degree of fluidization to be maintained during a flow of hundreds of meters. [less ▲]

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See detailMonte Carlo Simulation of Metastable Oxygen Photochemistry in Cometary Atmospheres
Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in The Astrophysical Journal (2015), 798

Cometary atmospheres are produced by the outgassing of material, mainly H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, CO, and CO[SUB]2[/SUB] from the nucleus of the comet under the energy input from the Sun. Subsequent photochemical ... [more ▼]

Cometary atmospheres are produced by the outgassing of material, mainly H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, CO, and CO[SUB]2[/SUB] from the nucleus of the comet under the energy input from the Sun. Subsequent photochemical processes lead to the production of other species generally absent from the nucleus, such as OH. Although all comets are different, they all have a highly rarefied atmosphere, which is an ideal environment for nonthermal photochemical processes to take place and influence the detailed state of the atmosphere. We develop a Monte Carlo model of the coma photochemistry. We compute the energy distribution functions (EDF) of the metastable O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) species and obtain the red (630 nm) and green (557.7 nm) spectral line shapes of the full coma, consistent with the computed EDFs and the expansion velocity. We show that both species have a severely non-Maxwellian EDF, that results in broad spectral lines and the suprathermal broadening dominates due to the expansion motion. We apply our model to the atmosphere of comet C/1996 B2 (Hyakutake) and 103P/Hartley 2. The computed width of the green line, expressed in terms of speed, is lower than that of the red line. This result is comparable to previous theoretical analyses, but in disagreement with observations. We explain that the spectral line shape does not only depend on the exothermicity of the photochemical production mechanisms, but also on thermalization, due to elastic collisions, reducing the width of the emission line coming from the O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) level, which has a longer lifetime. [less ▲]

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See detailBasin-scale partitioning of Greenland ice sheet mass balance components (2007–2011)
Andersen, M.L.; Stenseng, L.; Skourup, H. et al

in Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2015), 409

The current deficit in Greenland ice sheet mass balance is due to both a decrease in surface mass balance (SMB ) input and an increase in ice discharge (D ) output. While SMB processes are beginning to be ... [more ▼]

The current deficit in Greenland ice sheet mass balance is due to both a decrease in surface mass balance (SMB ) input and an increase in ice discharge (D ) output. While SMB processes are beginning to be well captured by observationally-constrained climate modeling, insight into D is relatively limited. We use InSAR-derived velocities, in combination with ice thickness observations, to quantify the mass flux (F ) across a flux perimeter around the ice sheet at ∼1700 m elevation. To quantify D , we correct F for SMB , as well as changes in volume due to ice dynamics, in the area downstream of the gate. Using a 1961–1990 reference climatology SMB field from the MAR regional climate model, we quantify ice sheet mass balance within eighteen basins. We find a 2007–2011 mean D of View the MathML source. We find a 2007–2011 mean total mass balance of View the MathML source, which is equal to a 0.73 mm yr−1 global sea level rise contribution. This mass loss is dominated by SMB, which accounts for 61% of mass loss in the basins where partitioning is possible. [less ▲]

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See detailForbidden oxygen lines at various nucleocentric distances in comets
Decock, Alice ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Rousselot, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 573

Aims: We study the formation of the [OI] lines - that is, 5577.339 Å (the green line), 6300.304 Å and 6363.776 Å (the two red lines) - in the coma of comets and determine the parent species of the oxygen ... [more ▼]

Aims: We study the formation of the [OI] lines - that is, 5577.339 Å (the green line), 6300.304 Å and 6363.776 Å (the two red lines) - in the coma of comets and determine the parent species of the oxygen atoms using the ratio of the green-to-red-doublet emission intensity, I[SUB]5577[/SUB]/(I[SUB]6300[/SUB] + I[SUB]6364[/SUB]), (hereafter the G/R ratio) and the line velocity widths. <BR /> Methods: We acquired high-resolution spectroscopic observations at the ESO Very Large Telescope of comets C/2002 T7 (LINEAR), 73P-C/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3, 8P/Tuttle, and 103P/Hartley 2 when they were close to Earth (<0.6 au). Using the observed spectra, which have a high spatial resolution (<60 km/pixel), we determined the intensities and widths of the three [OI] lines. We spatially extracted the spectra to achieve the best possible resolution of about 1-2'', that is, nucleocentric projected distances of 100 to 400 km depending on the geocentric distance of the comet. We decontaminated the [OI] green line from C[SUB]2[/SUB] lines blends that we identified. <BR /> Results: The observed G/R ratio in all four comets varies as a function of nucleocentric projected distance (between ~0.25 to ~0.05 within 1000 km). This is mainly due to the collisional quenching of O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) by water molecules in the inner coma. The observed green emission line width is about 2.5 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] and decreases as the distance from the nucleus increases, which can be explained by the varying contribution of CO[SUB]2[/SUB] to the O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) production in the innermost coma. The photodissociation of CO[SUB]2[/SUB] molecules seem to produce O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) closer to the nucleus, while the water molecule forms all the O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) atoms beyond 10[SUP]3[/SUP] km. Thus we conclude that the main parent species producing O([SUP]1[/SUP]S) and O([SUP]1[/SUP]D) in the inner coma is not always the same. The observations have been interpreted in the framework of the previously described coupled-chemistry-emission model, and the upper limits of the relative abundances of CO[SUB]2[/SUB] were derived from the observed G/R ratios. Measuring the [OI] lines might provide a new way to determine the CO[SUB]2[/SUB] relative abundance in comets. Based on observations made with ESO Telescope at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programs ID 073.C-0525, 277.C-5016, 080.C-0615 and 086.C-0958.Tables 3 and 4 are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201424403/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations
Mascart, Thibaud ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Deschoemaeker, Silke et al

in Journal of Sea Research (2015), 95

The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated ... [more ▼]

The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 42°35’N, 8°43’E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe binary near-Earth Asteroid (175706) 1996 FG3 - An observational constraint on its orbital evolution
Scheirich, P.; Pravec, P.; Jacobson, S. A. et al

in Icarus (2015), 245

Using our photometric observations taken between April 1996 and January 2013 and other published data, we derived properties of the binary near-Earth Asteroid (175706) 1996 FG<SUB>3</SUB> including new ... [more ▼]

Using our photometric observations taken between April 1996 and January 2013 and other published data, we derived properties of the binary near-Earth Asteroid (175706) 1996 FG<SUB>3</SUB> including new measurements constraining evolution of the mutual orbit with potential consequences for the entire binary asteroid population. We also refined previously determined values of parameters of both components, making 1996 FG<SUB>3</SUB> one of the most well understood binary asteroid systems. With our 17-year long dataset, we determined the orbital vector with a substantially greater accuracy than before and we also placed constraints on a stability of the orbit. Specifically, the ecliptic longitude and latitude of the orbital pole are 266 ° and - 83 ° , respectively, with the mean radius of the uncertainty area of 4 ° , and the orbital period is 16.1508 ± 0.0002 h (all quoted uncertainties correspond to 3σ). We looked for a quadratic drift of the mean anomaly of the satellite and obtained a value of 0.04 ± 0.20 deg /yr<SUP>2</SUP> , i.e., consistent with zero. The drift is substantially lower than predicted by the pure binary YORP (BYORP) theory of McMahon and Scheeres (McMahon, J., Scheeres, D. [2010]. Icarus 209, 494-509) and it is consistent with the tigidity and quality factor of μQ = 1.3 ×10<SUP>7</SUP> Pa using the theory that assumes an elastic response of the asteroid material to the tidal forces. This very low value indicates that the primary of 1996 FG<SUB>3</SUB> is a 'rubble pile', and it also calls for a re-thinking of the tidal energy dissipation in close asteroid binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gaia-ESO Survey: CNO abundances in the open clusters Trumpler 20, NGC 4815, and NGC 6705
Tautvaišienė, G.; Drazdauskas, A.; Mikolaitis, Š. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 573

Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey will observe a large sample of clusters and cluster stars, covering a wide age-distance-metallicity-position-density parameter space. <BR /> Aims: We aim ... [more ▼]

Context. The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey will observe a large sample of clusters and cluster stars, covering a wide age-distance-metallicity-position-density parameter space. <BR /> Aims: We aim to determine C, N, and O abundances in stars of Galactic open clusters of the Gaia-ESO survey and to compare the observed abundances with those predicted by current stellar and Galactic evolution models. In this pilot paper, we investigate the first three intermediate-age open clusters. <BR /> Methods: High-resolution spectra, observed with the FLAMES-UVES spectrograph on the ESO VLT, were analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C[SUB]2[/SUB] band heads at 5135 and 5635.5 Å. The wavelength interval 6470-6490 Å, with CN features, was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances. Oxygen abundances were determined from the [O i] line at 6300 Å. <BR /> Results: The mean values of the elemental abundances in Trumpler 20 as determined from 42 stars are: [ Fe/H ] = 0.10 ± 0.08 (s.d.), [ C/H ] = -0.10 ± 0.07, [ N/H ] = 0.50 ± 0.07, and consequently C/N = 0.98 ± 0.12. We measure from five giants in NGC 4815: [ Fe/H ] = -0.01 ± 0.04, [ C/H ] = -0.17 ± 0.08, [ N/H ] = 0.53 ± 0.07, [ O/H ] = 0.12 ± 0.09, and C/N = 0.79 ± 0.08. We obtain from 27 giants in NGC 6705: [ Fe/H ] = 0.0 ± 0.05, [ C/H ] = -0.08 ± 0.06, [ N/H ] = 0.61 ± 0.07, [ O/H ] = 0.13 ± 0.05, and C/N = 0.83 ± 0.19. The C/N ratios of stars in the investigated open clusters were compared with the ratios predicted by stellar evolutionary models. For the corresponding stellar turn-off masses from 1.9 to 3.3 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB], the observed C/N ratio values are very close to the predictions of standard first dredge-up models as well as to models of thermohaline extra-mixing. They are not decreased as much as predicted by the recent model in which the thermohaline- and rotation-induced extra-mixing act together. The average [O/H] abundance ratios of NGC 4815 and NGC 6705 are compared with the predictions of two Galactic chemical evolution models. The data are consistent with the evolution at the solar radius within the errors. <BR /> Conclusions: The first results of CNO determinations in open clusters show the potential of the Gaia-ESO Survey to judge stellar and Galactic chemical evolution models and the validity of their physical assumptions through a homogeneous and detailed spectral analysis. Based on data products from observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 188.B-3002 (The Gaia-ESO Public Spectroscopic Survey, PIs G. Gilmore and S. Randich). [less ▲]

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See detailRhoGTPases as Key players in mammalian cell adaptation to microgravity.
Louis, Fiona; Deroanne, Christophe ULg; Nusgens-Richelle, Betty ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2015)

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See detailSEM and EDS observations of carrollite bioleaching with a mixed culture of acidophilic bacteria
Nkulu, Guy; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Mwema, Edouard et al

in Minerals Engineering (2015), doi:10.1016/j.mineng.2014.12.005

Bioleaching of high purity carrollite minerals with mesophilic bacteria was carried out and monitored by observations in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental X-ray microanalysis (EDS) to ... [more ▼]

Bioleaching of high purity carrollite minerals with mesophilic bacteria was carried out and monitored by observations in scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental X-ray microanalysis (EDS) to provide evidence of the interaction pattern between carrollite and microorganisms. A bacterial consortium involving three different acidophilic chemolithotrophs was adopted. The evolution of the surface topography, inside alteration effects and elemental composition of the mineral with leaching time was followed. It could be postulated that bacterial adhesion takes place on the mineral surface, resulting in the formation of dissolution pits of various shapes and continues by boring elongated channels deep inside the mineral grains. Enhanced concentration of ferric iron and sulphur could be assumed in vicinity of the zones where mineralized polymer substances are precipitated. It could be inferred that carrollite dissolution is governed by cooperative bioleaching involving oxidation induced by bacteria attached to the surface and ferric iron re-oxidized by planktonic bacteria in suspension. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale modelling framework for the fracture of thin brittle polycrystalline films - Application to polysilicon
Mulay, Shantanu; Becker, Gauthier ULg; Vayrette, Renaud et al

in Computational Mechanics (2015), 55(1), 73-91

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) made of polycrystalline silicon are widely used in several engineering fields. The fracture properties of polycrystalline silicon directly affect their reliability ... [more ▼]

Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) made of polycrystalline silicon are widely used in several engineering fields. The fracture properties of polycrystalline silicon directly affect their reliability. The effect of the orientation of grains on the fracture behaviour of polycrystalline silicon is investigated out of the several factors. This is achieved, firstly, by identifying the statistical variation of the fracture strength and critical strain energy release rate, at the nanoscopic scale, over a thin freestanding polycrystalline silicon film, having mesoscopic scale dimensions. The fracture stress and strain at the mesoscopic level are found to be closely matching with uniaxial tension experimental results. Secondly, the polycrystalline silicon film is considered at the continuum MEMS scale, and its fracture behaviour is studied by incorporating the nanoscopic scale effect of grain orientation. The entire modelling and simulation of the thin film is achieved by combining the discontinuous Galerkin method and extrinsic cohesive law describing the fracture process. [less ▲]

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See detail“Rhizoponics”: a novel hydroponic rhizotron for root system analyses on mature Arabidopsis thaliana plants
Mathieu, Laura ULg; Lobet, Guillaume ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg et al

in Plant Methods (2015), 11

We present here an innovative design of hydroponic rhizotrons (rhizoponics) adapted to Arabidopsis thaliana. The setup allows to simultaneously characterize the RSA and shoot development from seedling to ... [more ▼]

We present here an innovative design of hydroponic rhizotrons (rhizoponics) adapted to Arabidopsis thaliana. The setup allows to simultaneously characterize the RSA and shoot development from seedling to adult stages, i.e. from seed to seed. This system offers the advantages of hydroponics such as control of root environment and easy access to the roots for measurements or sampling. Being completely movable and low cost, it can be used in controlled cabinets. We chose the case of cadmium treatment to illustrate potential applications, from cell to organ levels. [less ▲]

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See detail18F-FDG PET Uptake Characterization Through Texture Analysis: Investigating the Complementary Nature of Heterogeneite and Functional Tumor Volume in a Multi-Cancer Site Patient Cohort
HATT, MAT; MAJDOUB, MOHAMED; VALLIERES, MARTIN et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (2015), 56(1), 38-44

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See detailThree-Parameter Kinematic Theory for Shear Behavior of Continuous Deep Beams
Mihaylov, Boyan ULg; Hunt, Bradley; Bentz, Evan et al

in ACI Structural Journal (2015), 112(1), 47-57

This paper presents a theory for predicting shear strengths, deformations, and crack widths near failure of continuous deep beams. To describe the deformations in continuous deep beams, the theory uses a ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a theory for predicting shear strengths, deformations, and crack widths near failure of continuous deep beams. To describe the deformations in continuous deep beams, the theory uses a three-degree-of-freedom kinematic model (3PKT), which is an extension of an earlier two-degree-of-freedom model (2PKT) for members in single curvature. The extended model is validated with the help of measured local and global deformations taken during loading to failure of a large continuous deep beam. The accuracy of the shear-strength predictions given by the theory is evaluated using a database of 129 published tests of continuous deep beams. The theory enables the load distribution and failure loads of continuous deep beams subject to differential settlement to be evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailA simulation study comparing multiple imputation methods for incomplete longitudinal ordinal data
Donneau, Anne-Françoise ULg; Mauer, Murielle; Molenberghs, Geert et al

in Communications in Statistics : Simulation & Computation (2015), 44(5), 1311-1338

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See detailLa France et le Congo ex-belge (1961-1965). Intérêts et influences en mutation
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (2015), 91(2013/4), 1057-1110

The history of decolonization is inseparable from that of Western interests in the newly independent states. The special case of Franco-Belgian Relations offers a rich and unexplored perspective ... [more ▼]

The history of decolonization is inseparable from that of Western interests in the newly independent states. The special case of Franco-Belgian Relations offers a rich and unexplored perspective. Ostracized by the United Nations in the summer of 1960 in the context of the Congolese crisis, Belgium has, however, been able to count on the support of France, itself immobilized by the Algerian case. Based on unpublished archives, it seems instructive to study the evolution of the Franco-Belgian relations, in terms of Central African Affairs from 1961 to 1965. France, the overseas influence policy is a fundamental factor, she will devote as much energy to develop and defend its interests in Congo former Belgian (on which she claimed in Brussels its preemptive right, dating back to 1884, spring 1960) as former territories of the French Community? What are the forms, the protagonists and channels (formal and informal) of this influence; how is she fits the postcolonial context and she has an impact on Franco-Belgian relations ? [less ▲]

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See detailSoft power, global governance of cultural industries and rising powers: the case of China
Vlassis, Antonios ULg

in International Journal of Cultural Policy (2015)

This article addresses the importance of cultural industries for the strengthening of the soft power of the rising powers and it seeks to understand how the cultural industries allow rising powers to ... [more ▼]

This article addresses the importance of cultural industries for the strengthening of the soft power of the rising powers and it seeks to understand how the cultural industries allow rising powers to shape the structures of their international environment. More specifically, studying the cases of People’s Republic of China and of the movie industry, my article focuses on the current evolution of the relationship between the Chinese authorities and the film industry, as well as on the development of the domestic film market. I further aim to draw up an inventory of China’s role within the global governance of cultural industries. Finally, I aim to highlight the global cultural competition that China faces, emphasizing the practices of the US administration and Hollywood. I argue that even if China is the current centre of gravity within the world economy, it still has a long way to go in order to shape the distribution of resources within the global governance of cultural industries and to play a crucial role in the international battle of cultural symbols. [less ▲]

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See detailEpidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Julia, Marc; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in Sports (2015), 3(1), 21-29

Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This ... [more ▼]

Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Ras/Rap GTPase activating protein RASA3 : from gene structure to in vivo functions
Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Polizzi, Séléna; Scoumanne, Ariane ULg et al

in Advances in Biological Regulation (2015), 57

RASA3 (or GTPase Activating Protein III, R-Ras GTPase-activating protein, GAP1IP4BP) is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 subfamily which targets Ras and Rap1. RASA3 was originally purified from pig ... [more ▼]

RASA3 (or GTPase Activating Protein III, R-Ras GTPase-activating protein, GAP1IP4BP) is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 subfamily which targets Ras and Rap1. RASA3 was originally purified from pig platelet membranes through its intrinsic ability to bind inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate (I(1,3,4,5)P4) with high affinity, hence its first name GAP1IP4BP (for GAP1 subfamily member which binds I(1,3,4,5)P4). RASA3 was thus the first I(1,3,4,5)P4 receptor identified and cloned. The in vitro and in vivo functions of RASA3 remained somewhat elusive for a long time. However, recently, using genetically-modified mice and cells derived from these mice, the function of RASA3 during megakaryopoiesis, megakaryocyte adhesion and migration as well as integrin signaling has been reported. The goal of this review is thus to summarize and comment recent and less recent data in the literature on RASA3, in particular on the in vivo function of this specific GAP1 subfamily member. [less ▲]

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See detailL'évaluation émancipatrice, l'évaluateur et les formes de la communauté
Absil, Gaëtan ULg; Vandoorne, Chantal ULg

in L'Observatoire (2015), 82(Janvier-Février-Mars 2015), 30-35

Cet article explore des enjeux de l’évaluation émancipatrice d’un projet de santé communautaire, d’un programme transfrontalier de promotion de la santé mentale et de projets de promotion de la santé par ... [more ▼]

Cet article explore des enjeux de l’évaluation émancipatrice d’un projet de santé communautaire, d’un programme transfrontalier de promotion de la santé mentale et de projets de promotion de la santé par les services de santé scolaire. Ces enjeux sont questionnés selon les axes politique, opérationnel ou constructiviste de l’évaluation. Le propos porte sur les liens entre l’évaluation émancipatrice et la communauté formée par les stakeholders. Il ouvre une réflexion sur les enjeux micro, méso et macro sociaux de l’évaluation et la posture de l’évaluateur. [less ▲]

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See detailLes conditions de possibilité du dialogue philosophique. Synthèse d'une discussion menée au séminaire de Peyriac-Sur-Mer (juin 2014).
Herla, Anne ULg

in Diotime. Revue internationale de didactique de la philosophie. (2015), 63

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See detailIn situ bidentate to tetradentate ligand exchange reaction in cobalt-mediated radical polymerization
Kermagoret, Anthony ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (2015), 62

Organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) has seen a significant growth in the last years notably due to the development of new metal complexes, especially cobalt derivatives. Despite of this ... [more ▼]

Organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) has seen a significant growth in the last years notably due to the development of new metal complexes, especially cobalt derivatives. Despite of this, none of the reported complexes offers optimal control for monomers with very different reactivity, which somewhat limits the synthesis of copolymers. In order to expand the scope of cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP), we investigated an in situ ligand exchange reaction for modulating the properties of the cobalt complex at the polymer chain-end and adjusting the C-Co bond strength involved in the control process. With the aim of improving the synthesis of poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) copolymers, bidentate acetylacetonate ligands, which impart high level of control to the polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc), were replaced in situ at the PVAc-cobalt chain-end by tetradentate Salen type ligands that are more suited to acrylates. [less ▲]

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See detailInstitutional Investors, adverse selection and stock market liquidity in France
Sougné, Danielle ULg; Aymen, Ajina; Faten, Lakhal

in International Journal of Managerial Finance (2015), 11

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of institutional investor's ownership and type on information asymmetry and stock market liquidity in France.The findings show that the proportion of ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of institutional investor's ownership and type on information asymmetry and stock market liquidity in France.The findings show that the proportion of institutional investors has a positive and significant effect on stock-market liquidity, which confirms the signal theory and trading hypothesis. These investors perform high trading activity which favorably affects market liquidity. The results also show that pension funds improve liquidity. This result suggests that pension funds manage huge assets decreasing transactions costs and improving liquidity. They display a positive signal to the market about more transparency and a low level of information asymmetry. [less ▲]

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See detailDegree of phosphorus saturation in agricultural loamy soils with a near-neutral pH
Renneson, Malorie ULg; Vandenberghe, Christophe ULg; Dufey, Joseph et al

in European Journal of Soil Science (2015), 66

The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) represents the ratio of sorbed phosphorus (P) to the P sorption capacity (PSC) of soils. In some countries, DPS is used to evaluate the risk of P loss and surface ... [more ▼]

The degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) represents the ratio of sorbed phosphorus (P) to the P sorption capacity (PSC) of soils. In some countries, DPS is used to evaluate the risk of P loss and surface water eutrophication. This study investigated DPS measurement and prediction in neutral loamy soils fromWallonia, Belgium. A total of 57 agricultural topsoil samples subject to diverse P management were evaluated. No satisfactory relationship could be found between PSC determined by a one-point short-term isotherm in the laboratory and the sum of aluminium and iron extracted by oxalate (Alox +Feox). The equation PSC=a Alox +b pHw appeared to be more appropriate for estimating PSC in the soils studied. These soils had a near-neutral pH, and P fixation processes linked to the presence of calcium ions or carbonates were important. Comparisons of DPS with soil-test P and water-extracted P suggested that DPS could be a useful agronomic and/or environmental indicator. Our results also showed that DPS values between 20 and 30% corresponded to the agronomic optimum of soil P content. Consequently, DPS may be used as an indicator of P status in neutral soils, provided that the PSC assessment is adapted to the local soil characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Reputation Effect: A Case Study of Credit Contracts in Transition Countries
Artige, Lionel ULg; Nicolini, Rosella

in International Journal of Finance and Banking Studies (2015), 4(1), 1-17

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See detailStimuli-responsive behavior of micelles prepared from a poly(vinyl alcohol)-block-poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) triblock terpolymer
Poggi, Elio; Guerlain, Claire; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (2015), 62

A poly(vinyl alcohol)-block-poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) triblock terpolymer (PVOH-b-PAA-b-P4VP) is prepared by hydrolyzing a poly(vinyl acetate)-block-poly(acrylonitrile)-block-poly(4 ... [more ▼]

A poly(vinyl alcohol)-block-poly(acrylic acid)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) triblock terpolymer (PVOH-b-PAA-b-P4VP) is prepared by hydrolyzing a poly(vinyl acetate)-block-poly(acrylonitrile)-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) precursor (PVAc-b-PAN-b-P4VP) synthesized by a combination of cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) and nitroxide mediated polymerization (NMP). The PVOH-b-PAA-b-P4VP terpolymer is further micellized in water and the accordingly obtained micellar structures are characterized by a combination of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) as a function of pH. Well-defined micelles are observed in the whole pH range except for pH values below 4.5 where non-aggregated chains (unimers) are present. The formation of micelles can be rationalized by the formation of insoluble PAA/P4VP inter-polyelectrolyte complexes in the 4.5–6 pH range while hydrophobic P4VP cores are observed at pH values above 6. Finally, the effect of the addition of different salts on the micellar characteristic features is investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailExiste-t-il des phénomènes mentaux?
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg; Seron, Denis ULg

in Philosophie (2015), 124

This paper offers a critical discussion of the so-called argument from the transparency of experience. We recall of the argument against the historical background of phenomenal anti-dualism (Natorp, Wundt ... [more ▼]

This paper offers a critical discussion of the so-called argument from the transparency of experience. We recall of the argument against the historical background of phenomenal anti-dualism (Natorp, Wundt, Russell) and identify three difficulties of it. Eventually, we propose an alternative view, which we call phenomenological dualism. On the proposed view, there is a sense in which our mental states may be said to appear to us, hence there is a sense to say that there are mental phenomena. [less ▲]

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See detailEinleitung
Viehöver, Vera ULg

in Intervalles (2015), 7(2015), -

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See detailCamorra in Montesacro. Urban and social transformation in a southern Italian community
De Biase, Marco ULg

in ECPR Standing Group on Organised Crime (2015), 12(1), 8-10

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See detailEffect of stress path on the miniaturization size effect for nickel polycrystals
Keller, Clement; Hug, Eric; Habraken, Anne ULg et al

in International Journal of Plasticity (2015), 64

The mechanical behavior of metallic materials deeply depends on the size of samples. For specimen dimensions decreasing from a few millimeters to a few micrometers, the general observed trend is a ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of metallic materials deeply depends on the size of samples. For specimen dimensions decreasing from a few millimeters to a few micrometers, the general observed trend is a softening of the mechanical behavior in tension which affects the stress level and the strain hardening. The objective of this work is to provide new experimental results in order to analyze the miniaturization size effects for various stress paths without strain gradients across the thickness of the samples. To this aim, experimental tensile tests, large tensile tests and shear tests have been performed on Ni sheets with various grain sizes. Results show that the miniaturization softening is affected by triaxiality, the larger is this parameter, the lower is the mechanical softening. These features seem to be linked to surface effects which are larger for low triaxiality stress paths. From an industrial point of view, it is hence possible to improve the forming of microparts using suitable stress paths. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en charge d'un cancer du sein chez une femme porteuse de prothèses mammaires
REMACLE, Sarah; LIFRANGE, Eric ULg; NIZET, Jean-Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70

The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning ... [more ▼]

The incidence of breast cancer, currently one woman on eight, also concerns patients who underwent augmentation surgery. Breast implants have already been the subject of numerous publications concerning the risk of inducing breast cancer or delaying the diagnosis, however, no significant causal relationship has been established. The purpose of this article is to assess the diagnostic and therapeutic consequences when breast cancer is identified in a patient with breast implants. [less ▲]

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See detailN1-Fluoroalkyltryptophan analogues: synthesis and in vitro study as potential substrates for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase
Henrottin, Jean ULg; Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Lemaire, Christian ULg et al

in ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2015)

ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the indole ring of L-tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway, thereby exerting immunosuppressive ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the indole ring of L-tryptophan through the kynurenine pathway, thereby exerting immunosuppressive properties in inflammatory and tumoral tissues. The syntheses of 1-(2-fluoroethyl)-tryptophan (1-FETrp) and 1-((1-(2-fluoroethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methyl)-tryptophan, two N1-fluoroalkylated tryptophan derivatives, are described here. In vitro enzymatic assays with these two new potential substrates of hIDO show that 1-FETrp is a good and specific substrate of hIDO. Therefore, its radioactive isotopomer, 1-[18F]FETrp, should be a molecule of choice to visualize tumoral and inflammatory tissues and/or to validate new potential inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailA plastic-damage model for concrete in fire: Applications in structural fire engineering
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Fire Safety Journal (2015), 71

The research aims at developing a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation. In addition to validity at the material level, a crucial feature of a constitutive model is the ... [more ▼]

The research aims at developing a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation. In addition to validity at the material level, a crucial feature of a constitutive model is the applicability at the structural level; yet for concrete in fire there remains a serious lack of models combining reliability and robustness. The theoretical aspects and validation of the new model, which rely on a plastic-damage formulation, have been the subject of a former publication; they are briefly summarized here. This paper explores the capabilities of the concrete model for being used in a performance-based structural fire engineering framework. Several examples of numerical simulations by non-linear finite element method are discussed, with emphasis on practical applications that are demanding for the material model. In particular, it is shown that the simulations using the new concrete model succeed in capturing, at ambient temperature, the crack pattern in a plain concrete specimen and the influence of the loading path on reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. At high temperature, the presented applications include a RC slab subjected to furnace fire and a large-scale composite steel–concrete structure subjected to natural fire. In the numerical analyses, no parameter calibration was required on the particular concrete type, except for the uniaxial strengths and tensile crack energy which are to be defined case-by-case. The results illustrate the reliability and numerical robustness of the model. Also, they suggest that satisfactory prediction of structural behavior in fire can be obtained when no additional data is available on the specific properties of the particular concrete mix that is used in the project, as is often the case in practice, by using standard values of parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailPossibilities for Co(III) dissolution from an oxidized ore through simultaneous bioleaching of pyrite
Zeka, Leon; Lambert, Fanny ULg; Frenay, Jean ULg et al

in Minerals Engineering (2015)

Solubilisation of Co(III) from a heterogenite met in copper cobaltiferous oxide ore has been realized through reductive leaching using ferrous iron generated via bio-oxidation of pyrite. Biotic and ... [more ▼]

Solubilisation of Co(III) from a heterogenite met in copper cobaltiferous oxide ore has been realized through reductive leaching using ferrous iron generated via bio-oxidation of pyrite. Biotic and abiotic experiments at various pulp densities and redox potentials have been performed and results compared. Cobalt leaching at elevated redox potential is possible, offering cost reduction benefits due to reduced consumption of ferrous iron. At elevated potential of 625 mV, however, the initial rate of cobalt leaching has been found as 115 mg/(g ore)⋅(24 h), lower than the rate of 865 mg/(g ore)⋅(24 h) registered at 505 mV. Less stochiometric amount of ferrous iron was required when cobalt leaching was coupled to pyrite bioleaching, with 75% of cobalt recovered for 12 h at the optimally found conditions. It could be inferred that the Fe3+–Fe2+ cycle exists and is efficiently maintained through bacterial presence in the studied system. [less ▲]

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See detailVascular calcification: from pathophysiology to biomarkers
EVRARD, Séverine ULg; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Kamel, S et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2015), 438

The link between vascular calcification (VC) and increased mortality is now well established. Over time, as clinical importance of this phenomenon has begun to be fully considered, scientists have ... [more ▼]

The link between vascular calcification (VC) and increased mortality is now well established. Over time, as clinical importance of this phenomenon has begun to be fully considered, scientists have highlightedmore and more physiopathological mechanisms and signaling pathways that underlie VC. Several conditions such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and renal diseases are undoubtedly identified as predisposing factors. But even if the process is better understood,many questions still remain unanswered. This reviewbriefly develops the various theories that attempt to explain mineralization genesis. Nonetheless, the main purpose of the article is to provide a profile of the various existing biomarkers of VC. Indeed, in the past years, a lot of inhibitors and promoters, which form a dense and interconnected network, were identified. Given importance to assess and control mineralization process, a focusing on accumulated knowledge of each marker seemed to be necessary. Therefore, we tried to define their respective role in the physiopathology and how they can contribute to calcification risk assessment. Among these, Klotho/fibroblast growth factor-23, fetuin-A, Matrix Gla protein, Bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteoprotegerin, osteopontin, osteonectin, osteocalcin, pyrophosphate and sclerostin are specifically discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and validation of an accelerometer-based method for quantifying gait events
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULg; Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Stamatakis, Julien et al

in Medical Engineering & Physics (2015)

An original signal processing algorithm is presented to automatically extract, on a stride-by-stride basis, four consecutive fundamental events of walking, heel strike (HS), toe strike (TS), heel-off (HO ... [more ▼]

An original signal processing algorithm is presented to automatically extract, on a stride-by-stride basis, four consecutive fundamental events of walking, heel strike (HS), toe strike (TS), heel-off (HO), and toe-off (TO), from wireless accelerometers applied to the right and left foot. First, the signals recorded from heel and toe three-axis accelerometers are segmented providing heel and toe flat phases. Then, the four gait events are defined from these flat phases. The accelerometer-based event identification was validated in seven healthy volunteers and a total of 247 trials against reference data provided by a force plate, a kinematic 3D analysis system, and video camera. HS, TS, HO, and TO were detected with a temporal accuracy ± precision of 1.3 ms ± 7.2 ms, ‒4.2 ms ± 10.9 ms, ‒3.7 ms ± 14.5 ms, and ‒1.8 ms ± 11.8 ms, respectively, with the associated 95% confidence intervals ranging from ‒6.3 ms to 2.2 ms. It is concluded that the developed accelerometer-based method can accurately and precisely detect HS, TS, HO, and TO, and could thus be used for the ambulatory monitoring of gait features computed from these events when measured concurrently in both feet. [less ▲]

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See detailGuaranteed Conditional Performance of the S2 Control Chart with Estimated Parameters
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg; Woodall, William

in International Journal of Production Research (2015)

We evaluate the in-control performance of the S2 control chart with estimated parameters conditional on the Phase I sample. Simulation results indicate no realistic amount of Phase I data is enough to ... [more ▼]

We evaluate the in-control performance of the S2 control chart with estimated parameters conditional on the Phase I sample. Simulation results indicate no realistic amount of Phase I data is enough to have confidence that the in-control average run length (ARL) obtained will be near the desired value. To overcome this problem, we adjust the S2 chart controls limits such that the in-control ARL is guaranteed to be above a specified value with a certain specified probability. The required adjustment does not have too much of an effect on the out-of-control performance of the chart. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of the Structure of Biocompatible Aliphatic Polycarbonates on siRNA Transfection Ability
Frère, Antoine ULg; Kawalec, Michal; Tempelaar, Sarah et al

in Biomacromolecules (2015)

RNAi therapeutics are promising therapeutic tools that have sparked the interest of many researchers. In an effort to provide a safe alternative to PEI, we have designed a series of new guanidinium and/or ... [more ▼]

RNAi therapeutics are promising therapeutic tools that have sparked the interest of many researchers. In an effort to provide a safe alternative to PEI, we have designed a series of new guanidinium and/or morpholino functionalized biocompatible and biodegradable polycarbonate vectors. The impact of different functions (morpholino-, guanidinium-, hydrophobic groups), of the architecture (linear homopolymer to dumbbell-shape) and of the molecular weight of these copolymers on their capacity to form polyplexes and to decrease the expression of two epigenetic regulators of gene expression, HDAC7 and HDAC5 was evaluated. The use of one of these polymers combining morpholine and guanidine functions at the ratio >1 and hydrophobic trimethylene carbonate groups showed a significant decrease of mRNA and protein level in HeLa cells, similar to PEI. These results highlight the potential of polycarbonate vectors for future in vivo application as an anti-cancer therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolic reprogramming in transformed mouse cortical astrocytes: a proteomic study.
Bentaib, Azeddine; De Tullio, Pascal ULg; Chneiweiss, Herve et al

in Journal of proteomics (2015), 113

Metabolic reprogramming is thought to play a key role in sustaining the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. These changes facilitate for example the uptake and release of nutrients required for ... [more ▼]

Metabolic reprogramming is thought to play a key role in sustaining the survival and proliferation of cancer cells. These changes facilitate for example the uptake and release of nutrients required for nucleotide, protein and lipid synthesis necessary for macromolecule assembly and tumor growth. We applied a 2D-DIGE (Two-Dimensional Differential in-Gel Electrophoresis) quantitative proteomic analysis to characterize the proteomes of mouse astrocytes that underwent in vitro cancerous transformation, and of their normal counterparts. Metabolic reprogramming effects on enzymatic and structural protein expression as well as associated metabolites abundance were quantified. Using enzymatic activity measurements and zymography, we documented and confirmed several changes in abundance and activity of various isoenzymes likely to participate in metabolic reprogramming. We found that after transformation, the cells increase their expression of glycolytic enzymes, thus augmenting their ability to use aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). An increased capacity to dispose of reducing equivalents through lactate production was also documented. Major effects on carbohydrates, amino acids and nucleotides metabolic enzymes were also observed. Conversely, the transformed cells reduced their enzymatic capacity for reactions of tricarboxylic acid oxidation, for neurotransmitter (glutamate) metabolism, for oxidative stress defense and their expression of astroglial markers. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The use of a global approach based on a 2D DIGE analysis allows obtaining a comprehensive view of the metabolic reprogramming undergone by astrocytes upon cancerous transformation. Indeed, except for a few enzymes such as pyruvate carboxylase and glutaminase that were not detected in our initial analysis, pertinent information on the abundance of most enzymes belonging to pathways relevant to metabolic reprogramming was directly obtained. In this in vitro model, transformation causes major losses of astrocyte-specific proteins and functions and the acquisition of metabolic adaptations that favor intermediate metabolites production for increased macromolecule biosynthesis. Thus our approach appears to be readily applicable for the investigation of changes in protein abundance that determine various transformed cell phenotypes. It could similarly be applied to the evaluation of the effects of treatments aimed at correcting the consequences of cell transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution de la chalarose du frêne en Wallonie
Gerarts, Fanny ULg; Chandelier, Anne; Claessens, Hugues ULg et al

in Forêt Wallonne (2015), 134

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See detailInfluence of sugar beet pulp on feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass quality and gut health of fattening pigs.
Laitat, Martine ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2015), 19(1), 20-31

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See detailA review of gliptins for 2014.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy (2015), 16(1), 43-62

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) occupy an increasing place in the armamentarium of drugs used for the management of hyperglycaemia and offer new opportunities for a ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors (gliptins) occupy an increasing place in the armamentarium of drugs used for the management of hyperglycaemia and offer new opportunities for a personalized medicine in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Areas covered: An updated review providing an analysis of available recent data with commercialized DPP-4 inhibitors, with a special focus on: differences between the various molecules, novelties regarding their mechanism of action, clinical efficacy in mono- and various combined therapies, comparison with other new therapies, efficacy-safety profile in at risk patients, concern about pancreatic safety, perspectives in cardiovascular prevention and, finally, a selection of remaining unanswered important questions for the clinician. Expert opinion: DPP-4 inhibitors offer various advantages when compared to other glucose-lowering agents. Despite they have been commercialized since a few years only, available data obtained in randomised controlled trials are of better quality compared to those available with ancient classical glucose-lowering agents, especially in more fragile populations such as elderly people, individuals with renal impairment or at high cardiovascular risk and patients at higher risk of hypoglycaemia. However, there remain uncertainties and controversies that should be resolved by further ongoing large prospective controlled trials and increasing clinical experience combined with a careful post-marketing surveillance. [less ▲]

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