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See detailDynamics of upstream movements of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in an inland area of the River Meuse over the last 20 years
Nzau Matondo, Billy ULg; Ovidio, Michaël ULg

in Environmental Biology of Fishes (2016), 99

The dynamics of upstream movements of the yellow eel Anguilla anguilla were investigated at Lixhe on the Belgian River Meuse in an inland fish pass regularly monitored from 1992 to 2014. Based on a ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of upstream movements of the yellow eel Anguilla anguilla were investigated at Lixhe on the Belgian River Meuse in an inland fish pass regularly monitored from 1992 to 2014. Based on a constant year-to-year sampling effort, we examined the abundance of ascending yellow eels and their body size, seasonal movement, and the associated water temperature and flow. Over the last 23 years, the number of ascending yellow eels has declined at an average 4.2% per year since 1992. The abundance of eels in 2014 is estimated at 4.5% of the ascending stock in 1992. We observed that some annual variations in eel abundance at Lixhe might be related to opening fish passes downstream of the study site. The results clearly demonstrated that long-term declining abundance of eels has resulted in increased sizes (mean increase, 4.1 mm per year since 1992) and temperatures triggering the upstream movement process (1.03°C per decade), with earlier dates for the last eel passages reducing the difference between temperature extremes of eel passages through the fish pass during the migration season. Eel movements occurred in spring and summer at low river discharge and were mainly triggered by high-temperature events. Eels have become larger with time because of improved feeding opportunities and more growth habitats available resulting from the long-term reduction in recruitment. This study highlights the importance of investigating long time spans for a better comprehension of the changes observed in yellow eels and for the optimization of management measures and future research. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite-Element Homogenization of Laminated Iron Cores With Inclusion of Net Circulating Currents Due to Imperfect Insulation
Gyselinck, Johan; Dular, Patrick ULg; Krähenbühl, Laurent et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016), 52(3),

This paper deals with the time-domain homogenization of laminated cores in 2-D or 3-D finite-element (FE) models of electromagnetic devices, allowing for net circulating current in the laminations (e.g ... [more ▼]

This paper deals with the time-domain homogenization of laminated cores in 2-D or 3-D finite-element (FE) models of electromagnetic devices, allowing for net circulating current in the laminations (e.g., due to imperfect or damaged insulation). The homogenization is based on the expansion of the induction throughout the lamination thickness using a set of orthogonal polynomial basis functions (BFs), in conjunction with the magnetic vector potential formulation. These BFs allow for net flux, net current, and skin effect in the laminations; by choosing the number of BFs, one can compromise between accuracy and computational cost. The approach is validated through a linear 2-D test case with in-plane imposed and induced current density. A brute-force model, in which all laminations are finely meshed, produces the reference solution. The extension to nonlinear 3-D problems is expected to be straightforward. [less ▲]

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See detailFaraday rotation, band splitting, and one-way propagation of plasmon waves on a nanoparticle chain
Pike, Nicholas ULg; Stroud, David

in Journal of Applied Physics (2016), 119

We calculate the dispersion relations of plasmonic waves propagating along a chain of semiconducting or metallic nanoparticles in the presence of both a static magnetic field B and a liquid crystalline ... [more ▼]

We calculate the dispersion relations of plasmonic waves propagating along a chain of semiconducting or metallic nanoparticles in the presence of both a static magnetic field B and a liquid crystalline host. The dispersion relations are obtained using the quasistatic approximation and a dipole-dipole approximation to treat the interaction between surface plasmons on different nanoparticles. For plasmons propagating along a particle chain in a nematic liquid crystalline host with both B and the director parallel to the chain, we find a small, but finite, Faraday rotation angle. For B perpendicular to the chain, but director still parallel to the chain, the field couples the longitudinal and one of the two transverse plasmonic branches. This coupling is shown to split the two branches at the zero field crossing by an amount proportional to |B||B|. In a cholesteric liquid crystal host and an applied magnetic field parallel to the chain, the dispersion relations for left- and right-moving waves are found to be different. For some frequencies, the plasmonic wave propagates only in one of the two directions. [less ▲]

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See detailToxicity of organometal halide perovskite solar cells
Babayigit, Aslihan; Ethirajan, Anitha; Muller, Marc ULg et al

in Nature Materials (2016), 15

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See detailAdolescence, et "double identité". Quand l’engagement radical violent devient une réponse à un questionnement identitaire
Garcet, Serge ULg

in L'Observatoire (2016), 86

L’engagement radical violent est caractérisé par la jeunesse de ses participants. Il apparaît comme une réponse individuelle à un questionnement identitaire dans lequel des processus cognitifs ... [more ▼]

L’engagement radical violent est caractérisé par la jeunesse de ses participants. Il apparaît comme une réponse individuelle à un questionnement identitaire dans lequel des processus cognitifs caractéristiques de l’adolescence sont associés aux représentations qu’engendre la problématique de la « double identité » chez les jeunes issus de l’immigration. L’article tente de décrire ce processus du point de vue psychologique tout en relevant le rôle déterminant tenu par les cognitions et les émotions sur l’adoption d’une posture victimaire derrière l’engagement radical. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced Order Model for Accounting for High Frequency Effects in Power Electronic Components
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Hasan, Md. Rokibul et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016)

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See detailOrigin of emission from square-shaped organic microlasers
Dubertrand, Rémy ULg

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2016), 113

The emission from open cavities with non-integrable features remains a challenging problem of practical as well as fundamental relevance. Square-shaped dielectric microcavities provide a favorable case ... [more ▼]

The emission from open cavities with non-integrable features remains a challenging problem of practical as well as fundamental relevance. Square-shaped dielectric microcavities provide a favorable case study with generic implications for other polygonal resonators. We report on a joint experimental and theoretical study of square-shaped organic microlasers exhibiting a far-field emission that is strongly concentrated in the directions parallel to the side walls of the cavity. A semiclassical model for the far-field distributions is developed that is in agreement with even fine features of the experimental findings. Comparison of the model calculations with the experimental data allows the precise identification of the lasing modes and their emission mechanisms, providing strong support for a physically intuitive ray-dynamical interpretation. Special attention is paid to the role of diffraction and the finite side length. [less ▲]

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See detailLatex, un peu, beaucoup (11. Multitraitement)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2016), 32

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See detailLire un dossier de documents à visée informative et y circuler : un "objet enseignable" au début du secondaire?
De Croix, Séverine ULg; Penneman, Jessica

in Recherches en Education (2016), 25

Séverine De Croix et Jessica Penneman présentent un programme de recherche quasi-expérimental et longitudinal qui porte sur l’enseignement de la lecture et de l’écriture de textes informatifs chez des ... [more ▼]

Séverine De Croix et Jessica Penneman présentent un programme de recherche quasi-expérimental et longitudinal qui porte sur l’enseignement de la lecture et de l’écriture de textes informatifs chez des élèves du 1er degré de l’enseignement secondaire en Belgique francophone. Dans cette contribution, elles montrent combien les textes documentaires sont composites et comportent des obstacles liés aux schémas rhétoriques et aux finalités qui les caractérisent. La recherche vise, entre autres, à aider les élèves à construire un texte homogène à partir de données multiples et hétérogènes. Les premiers résultats indiquent que suite au dispositif mis en place, les élèves progressent légèrement dans la manipulation de nombreux documents, relevant de genres variés, et que les enseignants transforment l’outil didactique initial, notamment en sélectionnant les tâches qui sont les plus fermées. [less ▲]

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See detailActive Management of Low-Voltage Networks for Mitigating Overvoltages due to Photovoltaic Units
Olivier, Frédéric ULg; Aristidou, Petros ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid (2016), 2(7), 926-936

In this paper, the overvoltage problems that might arise from the integration of photovoltaic panels into low-voltage distribution networks is addressed. A distributed scheme is proposed that adjusts the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the overvoltage problems that might arise from the integration of photovoltaic panels into low-voltage distribution networks is addressed. A distributed scheme is proposed that adjusts the reactive and active power output of inverters to prevent or alleviate such problems. The proposed scheme is model-free and makes use of limited communication between the controllers, in the form of a distress signal, only during emergency conditions. It prioritizes the use of reactive power, while active power curtailment is performed only as a last resort. The behavior of the scheme is studied using dynamic simulations on a single low-voltage feeder and on a larger network composed of 14 low-voltage feeders. Its performance is compared to a centralized scheme based on the solution of an Optimal Power Flow problem, whose objective function is to minimize the active power curtailment. The proposed scheme successfully mitigates overvoltage situations due to high photovoltaic penetration and performs almost as well as the Optimal Power Flow based solution with significantly less information and communication requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailCobalt-mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate and acrylonitrile in supercritical carbon dioxide
Kermagoret; Chau, Ngoc Do Quyen; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2016), 39(6), 539-544

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of vinyl acetate (VAc) is successfully achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ). CMRP of VAc is conducted using an alkyl-cobalt(III) adduct that is ... [more ▼]

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of vinyl acetate (VAc) is successfully achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ). CMRP of VAc is conducted using an alkyl-cobalt(III) adduct that is soluble in scCO2 . Kinetics studies coupled to visual observations of the polymerization medium highlight that the melt viscosity and PVAc molar mass ( Mn ) are key parameters that affect the CMRP in scCO2. It is noticed that CMRP is controlled for M n up to 10 000 g mol−1 , but loss of control is progressively observed for higher molar masses when PVAc precipitates in the polymerization medium. Low molar mass PVAc macroinitiator, prepared by CMRP in scCO2 , is then successfully used to initiate the acrylonitrile polymerization. PVAc-b-PAN block copolymer is collected as a free flowing powder at the end of the process although the dispersity of the copolymer increases with the reaction time. Although optimization is required to decrease the dispersity of the polymer formed, this CMRP process opens new perspectives for macromolecular engineering in scCO2 without the utilization of fluorinated comonomers or organic solvents. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variability of surface and column carbon monoxide over megacity Paris, high altitude Jungfraujoch and Southern Hemispheric Wollongong stations
Té, Y; Jeseck, P; Franco, Bruno ULg et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2016)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an atmospheric key species due to its toxicity and its impact on the atmospheric oxidizing capacity, both factors affecting air quality. The paper studies the altitude dependent ... [more ▼]

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an atmospheric key species due to its toxicity and its impact on the atmospheric oxidizing capacity, both factors affecting air quality. The paper studies the altitude dependent seasonal variability of CO at the three different sites Paris, Jungfraujoch and Wollongong, with an emphasis on establishing a link between the CO vertical distribution and the nature of CO emission sources. The CO seasonal variability obtained from the total columns and from the free tropospheric partial columns shows a maximum around March-April and a minimum around September-October in the Northern Hemisphere (Paris and Jungfraujoch). In the Southern Hemisphere (Wollongong) this seasonal variability is shifted by about 6 months. Satellite observations by IASI-MetOp and MOPITT instruments confirm this seasonality. Ground-based FTIR is demonstrated to provide useful complementary information due to good sensitivity in the boundary layer. In situ surface measurements of CO volume mixing ratios in Paris and at Jungfraujoch reveal a time-lag of the near surface seasonal variability of about 2 months with respect to the total column variability at the same sites. The chemical transport model GEOS-Chem is employed to interpret our observations. GEOS-Chem sensitivity runs allow identifying the emission sources influencing the seasonal cycle of CO. In Paris and on top of Jungfraujoch, the surface seasonality is mainly driven by anthropogenic emissions, while the total column seasonality is also controlled by air masses transported from distant sources. In the case of Wollongong, where the CO seasonality is mainly affected by biomass burning, no time shift is observed between surface and above the boundary layer. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse qualitative interdisciplinaire du discours de travailleurs à l’aide d’un logiciel collaboratif : le cas de la flexicurité
Beuker, Laura ULg; DE CIA, Julie ULg; Dervaux, Amélie ULg et al

in Recherches Qualitatives (2016), 35(1), 29-55

L’ambition de cet article est double : explorer les vertus de l’utilisation d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative dans le cadre d’un travail interdisciplinaire sur la flexicurité, et réaliser une revue de ... [more ▼]

L’ambition de cet article est double : explorer les vertus de l’utilisation d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative dans le cadre d’un travail interdisciplinaire sur la flexicurité, et réaliser une revue de littérature transversale à partir des problématiques concrètes que ce concept cristallise dans le vécu des travailleurs. La flexicurité constitue un oxymore qui prône la recherche d’un équilibre entre besoins de flexibilité et de sécurité sur le marché du travail. Cet équilibre est avant tout un objectif politique, mais il reste fragile aux yeux des acteurs concernés. En cherchant à croiser le regard analytique de trois disciplines – psychologie, gestion et sociologie –, nous avons recouru au logiciel Cassandre (Lejeune, 2008) pour dégager des tensions discursives autour des notions de flexibilité et de sécurité dans un corpus de vingt entretiens qualitatifs. L’article permet ainsi de concrétiser l’intérêt et les limites de l’utilisation d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative dans le cadre d’un travail interdisciplinaire. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Artisanal to CAD-CAM Blocks: State of the Art of Indirect Composites
MAINJOT, Amélie ULg; DUPONT, Nathalie ULg; OUDKERK, Julie ULg et al

in Journal of Dental Research (2016), 95(5), 487-495

Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer- aided design–computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have ... [more ▼]

Indirect composites have been undergoing an impressive evolution over the last few years. Specifically, recent developments in computer- aided design–computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) blocks have been associated with new polymerization modes, innovative microstructures, and different compositions. All these recent breakthroughs have introduced important gaps among the properties of the different materials. This critical state-of-the-art review analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of the different varieties of CAD- CAM composite materials, especially as compared with direct and artisanal indirect composites. Indeed, new polymerization modes used for CAD-CAM blocks—especially high temperature (HT) and, most of all, high temperature–high pressure (HT-HP)—are shown to significantly increase the degree of conversion in comparison with light-cured composites. Industrial processes also allow for the augmentation of the filler content and for the realization of more homogeneous structures with fewer flaws. In addition, due to their increased degree of conversion and their different monomer composition, some CAD-CAM blocks are more advantageous in terms of toxicity and monomer release. Finally, materials with a polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) microstructure exhibit higher flexural strength and a more favorable elasticity modulus than materials with a dispersed filler microstructure. Consequently, some high- performance composite CAD-CAM blocks—particularly experimental PICNs—can now rival glass-ceramics, such as lithium-disilicate glass-ceramics, for use as bonded partial restorations and crowns on natural teeth and implants. Being able to be manufactured in very low thicknesses, they offer the possibility of developing innovative minimally invasive treatment strategies, such as “no prep” treatment of worn dentition. Current issues are related to the study of bonding and wear properties of the different varieties of CAD-CAM composites. There is also a crucial need to conduct clinical studies. Last, manufacturers should provide more complete information regarding their product polymerization process, microstructure, and composition, which significantly influence CAD-CAM material properties. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear Interpolation on Manifold of Reduced Order Models in Magnetodynamic Problems
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016), 52(3), 1-4

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See detailLarge elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3
Sando, D.; Yang, Yurong; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7

The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous ... [more ▼]

The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in ferroelectric oxide thin film technology—a field which is now a strong driving force in areas such as electronics, spintronics and photovoltaics. Here, we apply epitaxial strain engineering to tune the optical response of BiFeO3 thin films, and find a very large variation of the optical index with strain, corresponding to an effective elasto-optic coefficient larger than that of quartz. We observe a concomitant strain-driven variation in light absorption—reminiscent of piezochromism—which we show can be manipulated by an electric field. This constitutes an electrochromic effect that is reversible, remanent and not driven by defects. These findings broaden the potential of multiferroics towards photonics and thin film acousto-optic devices, and suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the coupling of ferroic, piezoelectric and optical responses. [less ▲]

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See detailMediation analysis to estimate direct and indirect milk losses associated with bacterial load in bovine subclinical mammary infections
Detilleux, Johann ULg; Theron, Léonard ULg; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg et al

in Animal (2016)

Milk losses associated with mastitis can be attributed to either effects of pathogens per se (i.e. direct losses) or to effects of the immune response triggered by the presence of mammary pathogens (i.e ... [more ▼]

Milk losses associated with mastitis can be attributed to either effects of pathogens per se (i.e. direct losses) or to effects of the immune response triggered by the presence of mammary pathogens (i.e. indirect losses). Test-day milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and number of bacterial colony forming units (CFU) found in milk samples are putative measures of the level of immune response and of the bacterial load, respectively. Mediation models, in which one independent variable affects a second variable which, in turn, affects a third one, are conceivable models to estimate direct and indirect losses. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of a mediation model in which test-day SCC and milk were regressed toward bacterial CFU measured at three selected sampling dates, 1 week apart. We applied this method on cows free of clinical signs and with records on up to 3 test-days before and after the date of the first bacteriological samples. Most bacteriological cultures were negative (52.38%), others contained either staphylococci (23.08%), streptococci (9.16%), mixed bacteria (8.79%) or were contaminated (6.59%). Only losses mediated by an increase in SCC were significantly different from null. In cows with three consecutive bacteriological positive results, we estimated a decreased milk yield of 0.28 kg per day for each unit increase in log2-transformed CFU that elicited one unit increase in log2-transformed SCC. In cows with one or two bacteriological positive results, indirect milk loss was not significantly different from null although test-day milk decreased by 0.74 kg per day for each unit increase of log2-transformed SCC. These results highlight the importance of milk losses that are mediated by an increase in SCC during mammary infection and the feasibility of decomposing total milk loss into its direct and indirect components. © The Animal Consortium 2016 [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Valeriana officinalis to cancer therapy: the success of a bio-sourced compound
Hamaïdia, Malik ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20

Over the centuries, bio-sourced compounds isolated from plants, insects and microorganisms have been a potent source of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. In this review, we recapitulate the story ... [more ▼]

Over the centuries, bio-sourced compounds isolated from plants, insects and microorganisms have been a potent source of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. In this review, we recapitulate the story of one of these compounds, 2-propylpentanoic acid, derived from the Valeriana officinalis flowering plant and its path to validation as a cancer treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-collinear magnetism in multiferroic perovskites
Bousquet, Eric ULg; Cano, Andres

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2016), 28

We present an overview of the current interest in non-collinear magnetism in multiferroic perovskite crystals. We first describe the different microscopic mechanisms giving rise to the non-collinearity of ... [more ▼]

We present an overview of the current interest in non-collinear magnetism in multiferroic perovskite crystals. We first describe the different microscopic mechanisms giving rise to the non-collinearity of spins in this class of materials. We discuss, in particular, the interplay between non-collinear magnetism and ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive distortions of the perovskite structure, and how this can promote magnetoelectric responses. We then provide a literature survey on non-collinear multiferroic perovskites. We discuss numerous examples of spin cantings driving weak ferromagnetism in transition metal perovskites, and of spin- induced ferroelectricity as observed in the rare-earth based perovskites. These examples are chosen to best illustrate the fundamental role of non-collinear magnetism in the design of multiferroicity. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2
Wang, Y.; Deutscher, N. M.; Palm, M. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2016), 16

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric inversions based on CO2 concentration measurements alone can only determine net biosphere fluxes, but not differentiate between photosynthesis (uptake) and respiration (production). Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) could provide an important additional constraint: it is also taken up by plants during photosynthesis but not emitted during respiration, and therefore is a potential means to differentiate between these processes. Solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry allows for the retrievals of the atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and OCS from measured solar absorption spectra. Here, we investigate co-located and quasi-simultaneous FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 performed at five selected sites located in the Northern Hemisphere. These measurements are compared to simulations of OCS and CO2 using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The coupled biospheric fluxes of OCS and CO2 from the simple biosphere model (SiB) are used in the study. The CO2 simulation with SiB fluxes agrees with the measurements well, while the OCS simulation reproduced a weaker drawdown than FTIR measurements at selected sites, and a smaller latitudinal gradient in the Northern Hemisphere during growing season when comparing with HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) data spanning both hemispheres. An offset in the timing of the seasonal cycle minimum between SiB simulation and measurements is also seen. Using OCS as a photosynthesis proxy can help to understand how the biospheric processes are reproduced in models and to further understand the carbon cycle in the real world. [less ▲]

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See detailDoping TiO2 films with carbon nanotubes to simultaneously optimise antistatic, photocatalytic and superhydrophilic properties
Léonard, Géraldine ULg; Remy, Simon; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg

in Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (2016)

Pure and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)- doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) films, synthesised from two sol–gel routes (alcoholic and aqueous) and deposited by dipcoating on glass, have been developed as ... [more ▼]

Pure and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)- doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) films, synthesised from two sol–gel routes (alcoholic and aqueous) and deposited by dipcoating on glass, have been developed as conductive, photocatalytic and superhydrophilic materials. While already crystallised in anatase structure at low temperature when synthesised in water, samples prepared in alcohol are amorphous. Their crystallisation in air has been studied at increasing temperatures. Effective incorporation of functionalised MWCNTs is confirmed in both aqueous and alcoholic samples with a closer interaction with TiO2 particles in the case of aqueous synthesis. In alcoholic samples, 400 C seems to be an optimised calcination temperature since 300 C does not allow crystallisation into anatase and 500 C removes MWCNTs through burning. The purpose of MWCNT doping is to obtain coatings that exhibit easy-toclean or self-cleaning properties. This can be achieved through an optimised combination of electrical conductivity (for antistatic property), photoactivity and superhydrophilicity. These three properties require the crystallisation of TiO2 into anatase. MWCNT doping dramatically increases both conductivity and photocatalytic activity, especially in alcoholic samples for the former and in aqueous samples for the latter. On the other hand, MWCNT introduction does not significantly affect the (super)hydrophilicity of films, which depends solely on the crystallinity of TiO2. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic flux penetration in Nb superconducting films with lithographically defined micro-indentations
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Adami, Obaïd-Allah ULg; Avila Osses, Jonathan ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 93(5), 054521

We present a thorough investigation by magneto-optical imaging of the magnetic flux penetration in Nb thin films with lithographically defined border indentations. We demonstrate that discontinuity lines ... [more ▼]

We present a thorough investigation by magneto-optical imaging of the magnetic flux penetration in Nb thin films with lithographically defined border indentations. We demonstrate that discontinuity lines (d-lines), caused by the abrupt bending of current streamlines around the indentations, depart from the expected parabolic trend close to the defect and depend on the shape and size of the indentation as well as on the temperature. These findings are backed up and compared with theoretical results obtained by numerical simulations and analytical calculations highlighting the key role played by demagnetization effects and the creep exponent n. In addition, we show that the presence of nearby indentations and submicrometer random roughness of the sample border can severely modify the flux front topology and dynamics. Strikingly, in contrast to what has been repeatedly predicted in the literature, we do not observe that indentations act as nucleation spots for flux avalanches, but they instead help to release the flux pressure and avoid thermomagnetic instabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli in diarrhoeic calves and comparative genomics of O5 bovine and human STEC
Fakih, Ibrahim; Thiry, Damien ULg; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2016)

Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins (Stx) and the attaching-effacing (AE) lesion (AE-STEC) are responsible for (bloody) diarrhoea in humans and calves while the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC ... [more ▼]

Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins (Stx) and the attaching-effacing (AE) lesion (AE-STEC) are responsible for (bloody) diarrhoea in humans and calves while the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) producing the AE lesion only cause non-bloody diarrhoea in all mammals. The purpose of this study was (i) to identify the pathotypes of enterohaemolysin-producing E. coli isolated between 2009 and 2013 on EHLY agar from less than 2 month-old diarrhoeic calves with a triplex PCR targeting the stx1, stx2, eae virulence genes; (ii) to serotype the positive isolates with PCR targeting the genes coding for ten most frequent and pathogenic human and calf STEC O serogroups; and (iii) to compare the MLSTypes and virulotypes of calf and human O5 AE-STEC after Whole Genome Sequencing using two server databases (www.genomicepidemiology.org). Of 233 isolates, 206 were triplex PCR-positive: 119 AE-STEC (58%), 78 EPEC (38%) and 9 STEC (4%); and the stx1+eae+ AE-STEC (49.5%) were the most frequent. Of them, 120 isolates (84% of AE-STEC, 23% of EPEC, 22% of STEC) tested positive with one O serogroup PCR: 57 for O26 (47.5%), 36 for O111 (30%), 10 for O103 (8%) and 8 for O5 (7%) serogroups. The analysis of the draft sequences of 15 O5 AE-STEC could not identify any difference correlated to the host. As a conclusion, (i) the AE-STEC associated with diarrhoea in young calves still belong to the same serogroups as previously (O5, O26, O111) but the O103 serogroup may be emerging, (ii) the O5 AE-STEC from calves and humans are genetically similar [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrin αvβ3 and RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals
WITHOFS, Nadia ULg; HUSTINX, Roland ULg

in Médecine Nucléaire : Imagerie Fonctionnelle et Métabolique (2016), 40 (2016)

Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) using RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals allows quantification of tumour expression of integrin αvβ3 in vivo. Integrins and, in ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) using RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals allows quantification of tumour expression of integrin αvβ3 in vivo. Integrins and, in particular, integrin αvβ3 are involved in numerous physiologic and pathologic processes, including angiogenesis. RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals targeting integrin αvβ3, expressed by activated endothelial cells, have been developed in order to quantify angiogenesis. However, integrin αvβ3 is also frequently expressed by tumour cells and/or tumour microenvironment cells, e.g., bone marrow derived cells and osteoclasts in bone. Upregulation of integrin αvβ3 by tumour cells promotes cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and resistance to treatment. Therefore, the PET signal related to RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals may not reflect angiogenesis only. Moreover, tumours may develop mechanisms other than angiogenesis to ensure blood supply such as vascular mimicry, vessel co-option and intussusceptive angiogenesis that might not be assessed with RGD PET/CT. In the setting of treatment assessment, a drop of the RGD PET signal certainly means tumour response (endothelial and/or tumour cell apoptosis and/or vessel normalisation). On the other hand, a stable or increased RGD PET signal may be related to absence of response or upregulation of integrin αvβ3 in adaptative response to therapy, promoting resistance. This review illustrates the complexity of the role of integrin αvβ3 in oncology and its role in non-oncologic diseases such as osteoarthtitis and cardiovascular diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailGlycosyltransferases and Transpeptidases/Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Valuable Targets for New Antibacterials.
Sauvage, Eric ULg; Terrak, Mohammed ULg

in Antibiotics (2016), 5(1),

Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential macromolecular sacculus surrounding most bacteria. It is assembled by the glycosyltransferase (GT) and transpeptidase (TP) activities of multimodular penicillin-binding ... [more ▼]

Peptidoglycan (PG) is an essential macromolecular sacculus surrounding most bacteria. It is assembled by the glycosyltransferase (GT) and transpeptidase (TP) activities of multimodular penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) within multiprotein complex machineries. Both activities are essential for the synthesis of a functional stress-bearing PG shell. Although good progress has been made in terms of the functional and structural understanding of GT, finding a clinically useful antibiotic against them has been challenging until now. In contrast, the TP/PBP module has been successfully targeted by beta-lactam derivatives, but the extensive use of these antibiotics has selected resistant bacterial strains that employ a wide variety of mechanisms to escape the lethal action of these antibiotics. In addition to traditional beta-lactams, other classes of molecules (non-beta-lactams) that inhibit PBPs are now emerging, opening new perspectives for tackling the resistance problem while taking advantage of these valuable targets, for which a wealth of structural and functional knowledge has been accumulated. The overall evidence shows that PBPs are part of multiprotein machineries whose activities are modulated by cofactors. Perturbation of these systems could lead to lethal effects. Developing screening strategies to take advantage of these mechanisms could lead to new inhibitors of PG assembly. In this paper, we present a general background on the GTs and TPs/PBPs, a survey of recent issues of bacterial resistance and a review of recent works describing new inhibitors of these enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypic characterization of the indigenous chickens (Gallus gallus) in the northwest of Algeria
Dalhoum, L.; Moula, Nassim ULg; Halbouche, M. et al

in Archiv für Tierzucht = Archives Animal Breeding (2016), 59

This study was conducted to characterize local chickens in the northwest of Algeria based on some phenotypic traits and to look at prediction of body weight from morphometric measurements (linear body ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to characterize local chickens in the northwest of Algeria based on some phenotypic traits and to look at prediction of body weight from morphometric measurements (linear body). The results indicated that the predominant comb colour was dark red (77.8%), followed by light red (22.2%). Tarsus colour was either white (40.9%), grey (31%), yellow (15.39%), dark (8.05%), or green (4.51%). Most chickens (81.7%) had orange eyes, while 10.37 and 7.92% had yellow and dark-brown eyes, respectively. The dominant earlobe colour was white (73.96%), followed by red (16.81%). The remaining proportion included yellow and red-mottled yellow and black earlobes. Proportions of the adaptive genes were low. Incidences of Na, F, Pti, Cr, R, and P genes were 8.82, 0.45, 1.22, 5.54, 3.35, and 4.7%, respectively. The calculated gene frequencies ranged from 0.002 to 0.045. Variations were also found in quantitative morphological traits. Sex-associated differences (P<0.001) were observed in almost all the parameters evaluated with higher values recorded for males. Phenotypic correlations of body weight and biometric traits ranged from −0.13 to 0.88 and −0.15 to 0.97 for males and females, respectively. From the factor analysis with varimax rotation of the intercorrelated traits, three principal components which accounted for 71.6 and 73.2% of the total variance were extracted in males and females, respectively. Orthogonal body shape characters derived from the factor analysis accounted for 84.3 and 94.2% of the variation in body weight of males and females, respectively. Information obtained from this study could be useful in an appropriate management, breeding programmes for selection and utilization of Algerian chicken genetic resources. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal and quantum depletion of superconductivity in narrow junctions created by controlled electromigration
Baumans, Xavier ULg; Cerbu, Dorin; Adami, Obaïd-Allah ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7

Superconducting nanowires currently attract great interest due to their application in single-photon detectors and quantum-computing circuits. In this context, it is of fundamental importance to ... [more ▼]

Superconducting nanowires currently attract great interest due to their application in single-photon detectors and quantum-computing circuits. In this context, it is of fundamental importance to understand the detrimental fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter as the wire width shrinks. In this paper, we use controlled electromigration to narrow down aluminium nanoconstrictions. We demonstrate that a transition from thermally assisted phase slips to quantum phase slips takes place when the cross section becomes less than 150 nm2 . In the regime dominated by quantum phase slips the nanowire loses its capacity to carry current without dissipation, even at the lowest possible temperature. We also show that the constrictions exhibit a negative magnetoresistance at low-magnetic fields, which can be attributed to the suppression of superconductivity in the contact leads. These findings reveal perspectives of the proposed fabrication method for exploring various fascinating superconducting phenomena in atomic-size contacts. [less ▲]

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See detailNanocarriers for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: Current state-of-the-art
Karim, Reatul ULg; Palazzo, Claudio ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2016)

Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of ... [more ▼]

Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of the most fatal cancers. With present treatments, using state-of-theart technologies, the median survival is about 14 months and 2 year survival rate is merely 3–5%. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently necessary. However, most drug molecules are not able to cross the blood–brain barrier, which is one of the major difficulties in glioblastoma treatment. This review describes the features of blood–brain barrier, and its anatomical changes with different stages of tumor growth. Moreover, various strategies to improve brain drug delivery i.e. tight junction opening, chemical modification of the drug, efflux transporter inhibition, convection-enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery and drug delivery nanosystems are discussed. Nanocarriers are one of the highly potential drug transport systems that have gained huge research focus over the last few decades for site specific drug delivery, including drug delivery to the brain. Properly designed nanocolloids are capable to cross the blood–brain barrier and specifically deliver the drug in the brain tumor tissue. They can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, protect them from degradation, release the drug for sustained period, significantly improve the plasma circulation half-life and reduce toxic effects. Among various nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanocapsules are the most widely studied, and are discussed in this review. For each type of nanocarrier, a general discussion describing their composition, characteristics, types and various uses is followed by their specific application to glioblastoma treatment. Moreover, some of the main challenges regarding toxicity and standardized evaluation techniques are narrated in brief. [less ▲]

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See detailInvasive occipital nerve stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache: what evolution at long-term? Strengths and weaknesses of the method.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; Gerard, Pascale; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Journal of Headache & Pain (2016)

BACKGROUND: Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term effectiveness and safety of iONS in this indication are scarce, though they could be useful to neurologists and patients in daily practice. The purpose of this short report is to discuss the very long-term outcome of a drCCH cohort, including adverse events. FINDINGS: Previously, favourable results were obtained with iONS in 15 drCCH patients: 80 % were significantly improved and 60 % were pain free. We report here the very long-term follow-up (up to nine years) of 10 patients belonging to this cohort. Meanwhile 5 patients had to be definitively explanted because of device infection (3) or paresthesia intolerance (2). Four patients (40 %) evolved to an episodic form of CH. Six remained chronic but their attack frequency was decreased by 70 % on average. Intake of preventive drugs is still necessary in 80 % of patients. All patients needed at least one battery replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Up to nine years after implantation, iONS is still effective in most patients with drCCH. Concomitant preventive drugs remain often necessary. Forty percent of patients reverse to episodic CH, possibly by natural history. iONS is not a benign procedure but device-related complications appear similar to those reported with other invasive neurostimulators. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host ... [more ▼]

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host plant remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we aimed at identifying chemical cues released by barley roots that attract Agriotes sordidus. In a first behavioral experiment, we assessed the ability of wireworms to orient towards live barley roots, using dual-choice olfactometers suitable for belowground insects. Then, we collected the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by barley roots using a dynamic head-space sampling approach. VOC were quantified and identified using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The odorant blend is composed of four aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal, and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. In a second set of dual-choice bioassays, wireworms were attracted towards a synthetic blend of these four major compounds. However, the synthetic blend was not as attractive as live roots, which is partially explained by the absence of CO2, commonly known as a strong attractant for soil-dwelling insects. While CO2 indicates the presence of living material in the vicinity, we hypothesize that additional VOC inform about the plant suitability. A better understanding of these belowground signals would contribute to the development of new integrated control strategies against wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailThermally induced magnetization switching in Gd/Fe multilayers
Xu, Chudong; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, Roy

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy ... [more ▼]

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy required for thermally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) is present;with a larger number of interfaces, lower energy is required. The results of the layer resolved dynamics show that the reversal process of the multilayered structures, similar to that of a GdFeCo alloy, is driven by the antiferromagnetic interaction between the transition-metal and rare-earth components. Finally, while the presence of the interface drives the reversal process, we show here that the switching process does not initiate at the surface but from the layers furthest from it, a departure from the alloy behavior which expands the classes of material types exhibiting TIMS. [less ▲]

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See detailWitnessing Fukushima Secondhand: Collage, Archive and Travelling Memory in Jacques Ristorcelli’s Les Écrans
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

in The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship (2016), 6

Cultural memory in comics studies mostly seems to revolve around nonfictional graphic novels tackling major historical events. Drawing on recent trends in cultural memory studies, this paper focuses on ... [more ▼]

Cultural memory in comics studies mostly seems to revolve around nonfictional graphic novels tackling major historical events. Drawing on recent trends in cultural memory studies, this paper focuses on Jacques Ristorcelli‘s Les Écrans (2014) as an experimental counterpoint where memory is animated by the author’s use of collage. Delving into an ‘archive’ of heterogeneous elements, Les Écrans borrows from old war comics in a way that reflexively constructs a discourse on the past of the medium and its memory. Through the analysis of Ristorcelli’s book, this paper highlights how collage can function in comics as a work of memory that reaches back to appropriative practices common to both readers and fine artists. [less ▲]

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See detailBenevolent Ideology and Women’s Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men’s Wallet
Silvestre, Aude ULg; Sarlet, Marie; Huart, Johanne ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(2),

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide ... [more ▼]

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women’s economic decision- making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2’s Generalized Linear Mixed Model’s results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women’s endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape malefemale relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men. [less ▲]

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See detailThermally induced magnetization switching in Gd/Fe multilayers
Xu, Chudong; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, Roy

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy ... [more ▼]

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy required for thermally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) is present;with a larger number of interfaces, lower energy is required. The results of the layer resolved dynamics show that the reversal process of the multilayered structures, similar to that of a GdFeCo alloy, is driven by the antiferromagnetic interaction between the transition-metal and rare-earth components. Finally, while the presence of the interface drives the reversal process, we show here that the switching process does not initiate at the surface but from the layers furthest from it, a departure from the alloy behavior which expands the classes of material types exhibiting TIMS. [less ▲]

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See detailSolubility and speciation of ketoprofen and aspirin in supercritical CO2 by infrared spectroscopy
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data (2016), 61(2), 968-978

The solubility of ketoprofen and aspirin in subcritical and supercritical CO2 was measured using FTIR absorption spectroscopy in the large range of temperature of 298.2−353.2 K and pressure of 5−35 MPa ... [more ▼]

The solubility of ketoprofen and aspirin in subcritical and supercritical CO2 was measured using FTIR absorption spectroscopy in the large range of temperature of 298.2−353.2 K and pressure of 5−35 MPa. The evolution of the solubility of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was fitted using the Chrastil’s equation. In addition, the speciation of both APIs in monomeric and dimeric forms was explored by analyzing the characteristic carbonyl stretching vibrations of the carboxylic acid functions assigned to the dimers and monomers, respectively. Moreover, the evolution of the dimerization constant K of the two drugs as a function of the temperature and the pressure of scCO2 has been reported. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrodynamics of long-duration urban floods: experiments and numerical modelling
Arrault; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences (2016)

Flood risk in urbanized areas raises increasing concerns as a result of demographic and climate changes. Hydraulic modelling is a key component of urban flood risk analysis. Yet, detailed validation data ... [more ▼]

Flood risk in urbanized areas raises increasing concerns as a result of demographic and climate changes. Hydraulic modelling is a key component of urban flood risk analysis. Yet, detailed validation data are still lacking for comprehensively validating hydraulic modelling of inundation flow in urbanized floodplains. ln this study, we present an experimental model of inundation flow in a typical European urban district and we compare the experimental observations with predictions by a shallow-water numerical model. The setup is 5 ll\X Sm and involves seven streets along each direction, leading to 49 intersections. Different inflow discharges and flow partitions were tested. The performance ofthe numerical model is assessed and the upscaling ofthe experimental observations to the field is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps
Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Baklouti, Samia; Mokni, Abir et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), 203

This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n = 0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n〰1) from 10 to 50 s‾1 respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50 s 1). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive study of the thermo-reversibility of Diels-Alder based PCL polymer networks
Defize, Thomas ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Polymer (2016), 84

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL ... [more ▼]

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) materials. Nevertheless, the processing of networks is often tricky due to infusibility and insolubility of cross-linked chains. Therefore, the synthesis of PCL networks including thermo-reversible crosslinks based on (retro)-Diels-Alder (DA) reaction were developed to allowpreserving the melt-processing while keeping the required mechanical properties below the melting point. This paper aims at studying in depth, such thermo-dependent network formation and stability. Besides conventional swelling experi- ments, Raman spectroscopy was revealed as a powerful tool to follow the formation of the DA adduct during the crosslinking. In combination with rheological measurements, we were able to determine the most appropriate temperatures to form the network (DA crosslinking) and to process it (retro-DA re- action) without degradation of the material. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonality in human cognitive brain responses
Meyer, Christelle ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg; Jaspar, Mathieu ULg et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2016)

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See detailAssessing and modeling economic and environmental impact of wheat nitrogen management in Belgium
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in Environmental Modelling & Software (2016), 79

Future progress in wheat yield will rely on identifying genotypes and management practices better adapted to the fluctuating environment. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is probably the most important practice ... [more ▼]

Future progress in wheat yield will rely on identifying genotypes and management practices better adapted to the fluctuating environment. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is probably the most important practice impacting crop growth. However, the adverse environmental impacts of inappropriate N management (e.g., lixiviation) must be considered in the decision-making process. A formal decisional algorithm was developed to tactically optimize the economic and environmental N fertilization in wheat. Climatic uncertainty analysis was performed using stochastic weather time-series (LARS-WG). Crop growth was simulated using STICS model. Experiments were conducted to support the algorithm recommendations: winter wheat was sown between 2008 and 2014 in a classic loamy soil of the Hesbaye Region, Belgium (temperate climate). Results indicated that, most of the time, the third N fertilization applied at flag-leaf stage by farmers could be reduced. Environmental decision criterion is most of the time the limiting factor in comparison to the revenues expected by farmers. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of explant responses treated with leachate and leonardite sources of humic substances during in vitro rooting of woody plants.
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2016), 81(1), 158-165

As heterogeneous mixtures of compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues, humic substances (HS) are mostly recognized for their biostimulation ... [more ▼]

As heterogeneous mixtures of compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues, humic substances (HS) are mostly recognized for their biostimulation of plant growth that firstly involve the root development and architecture before further putative improvement of nutrients uptakes. To avoid the interferences currently reported from external origins, the successive steps of rooting have been carried out using shoots and isolated leaves of birch and alder vitro-plants. Extracts issued from landfill leachate (LHS) has been compared to a stable formulation from leonardite ("Humifirst" 12% humic acid 3% and fulvic acid) commercialized by TRADECORP company's (HHS). Chemical analysis showed that LHS source typically contain much higher N (mainly as ammonium (93%) and chloride concentration than HHS. Used at low concentration (10 ppm) during root induction/initiation phase, both HS sources may be slightly unfavorable to the root formation (21% of reduction in primary root number) of alder but not of birch. While, in root elongation phase, there is an increase in the primary root length and lateral root number. The direct effects of HS on in vitro root development vary from one species to another depending on the root treatment stage. Results showed that both explants type response are equivalent in the development of a complete rooting system. [less ▲]

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See detailLE PASSÉ, LE PRÉSENT ET L’AVENIR DE LA TRADUCTION AU CAMEROUN
Oumarou Mal Mazou, Rachid ULg

in Atelier de Traduction (2016), n°24

The inactement of institutional bilingualism by the Constitution exposes Cameroon to translation every day, as all official texts/speeches produced in one of the two official languages (French and English ... [more ▼]

The inactement of institutional bilingualism by the Constitution exposes Cameroon to translation every day, as all official texts/speeches produced in one of the two official languages (French and English) must be translated into the other. This translation demand requires translators and training of translators/interpreters becomes compulsory. First Cameroonian translators were initially trained in universities and colleges abroad and later on, after independence, at home when the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters (ASTI) was created in the mid 1980s. The main objective of the school was to train translators/interpreters for public service. This goal will lapse when the Government decided not to enroll systematically ASTI graduates in 1999. Meanwhile, other private institutes as ISTI of Yaoundé, or programs like those of the University of Yaounde I opened their doors with curricula almost modeled on that of ASTI. Moreover, there is no regulation body for the profession, the only professional associtation that has been existing since the 90s is yet to find its way. This communication aims at looking into the development of translation in Cameroon from independence. Some suggestions are also made towards the future of the profession in one of the few countries where bilingualism is institutional and whereby about 300 local languages interact in a daily basis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe MiMeS survey of magnetism in massive stars: introduction and overview
Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 456

The MiMeS (Magnetism in Massive Stars) project is a large-scale, high-resolution, sensitive spectropolarimetric investigation of the magnetic properties of O- and early B-type stars. Initiated in 2008 and ... [more ▼]

The MiMeS (Magnetism in Massive Stars) project is a large-scale, high-resolution, sensitive spectropolarimetric investigation of the magnetic properties of O- and early B-type stars. Initiated in 2008 and completed in 2013, the project was supported by three Large Program allocations, as well as various programmes initiated by independent principal investigators, and archival resources. Ultimately, over 4800 circularly polarized spectra of 560 O and B stars were collected with the instruments ESPaDOnS (Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Narval at the Télescope Bernard Lyot and HARPSpol at the European Southern Observatory La Silla 3.6 m telescope, making MiMeS by far the largest systematic investigation of massive star magnetism ever undertaken. In this paper, the first in a series reporting the general results of the survey, we introduce the scientific motivation and goals, describe the sample of targets, review the instrumentation and observational techniques used, explain the exposure time calculation designed to provide sensitivity to surface dipole fields above approximately 100 G, discuss the polarimetric performance, stability and uncertainty of the instrumentation, and summarize the previous and forthcoming publications. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Inner Debris Structure in the Fomalhaut Planetary System
Su, Kate Y. L.; Rieke, George H.; Defrere, Denis ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2016), 818

Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris, like the water ice ... [more ▼]

Fomalhaut plays an important role in the study of debris disks and small bodies in other planetary systems. The proximity and luminosity of the star make key features of its debris, like the water ice line, accessible. Here we present ALMA cycle 1, 870 μm (345 GHz) observations targeted at the inner part of the Fomalhaut system with a synthesized beam of 0.″45 × 0.″37 (˜3 AU linear resolution at the distance of Fomalhaut) and an rms of 26 μJy beam[SUP]-1[/SUP]. The high angular resolution and sensitivity of the ALMA data enable us to place strong constraints on the nature of the warm excess revealed by Spitzer and Herschel observations. We detect a point source at the star position with a total flux consistent with thermal emission from the stellar photosphere. No structures that are brighter than 3σ are detected in the central 15 AU × 15 AU region. Modeling the spectral energy distribution using parameters expected for a dust-producing planetesimal belt indicates a radial location in the range of ˜8-15 AU. This is consistent with the location where ice sublimates in Fomalhaut, i.e., an asteroid-belt analog. The 3σ upper limit for such a belt is <1.3 mJy at 870 μm. We also interpret the 2 and 8-13 μm interferometric measurements to reveal the structure in the inner 10 AU region as dust naturally connected to this proposed asteroid belt by Poynting-Robertson drag, dust sublimation, and magnetically trapped nanograins. Fomalhaut is a triple system; here we refer to the Fomalhaut planetary system as the one around the primary star Fomalhaut A. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo Small Temperate Planets Transiting Nearby M Dwarfs in K2 Campaigns 0 and 1
Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Petigura, Erik A. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2016), 818

The prime Kepler mission revealed that small planets (<4 {R}[SUB]\oplus [/SUB]) are common, especially around low-mass M dwarfs. K2, the repurposed Kepler mission, continues this exploration of small ... [more ▼]

The prime Kepler mission revealed that small planets (<4 {R}[SUB]\oplus [/SUB]) are common, especially around low-mass M dwarfs. K2, the repurposed Kepler mission, continues this exploration of small planets around small stars. Here we combine K2 photometry with spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and archival survey images to analyze two small planets orbiting the nearby field-age M dwarfs, K2-26 (EPIC 202083828) and K2-9. K2-26 is an {{M}}1.0+/- 0.5 dwarf at 93 ± 7 pc from K2 Campaign 0. We validate its planet with a day period of 14.5665 and estimate a radius of {2.67}[SUB]-0.42[/SUB][SUP]+0.46[/SUP] {R}[SUB]\oplus [/SUB]. K2-9 is an {{M}}2.5+/- 0.5 dwarf at 110 ± 12 pc from K2 Campaign 1. K2-9b was first identified by Montet et al.; here we present spectra and adaptive optics imaging of the host star and independently validate and characterize the planet. Our analyses indicate K2-9b is a {2.25}[SUB]-0.96[/SUB][SUP]+0.53[/SUP] {R}[SUB]\oplus [/SUB] planet with a 18.4498 day period. K2-26b exhibits a transit duration that is too long to be consistent with a circular orbit given its measured stellar radius. Thus, the long transits are likely due to the photoeccentric effect and our transit fits hint at an eccentric orbit. Both planets receive low incident flux from their host stars and have estimated equilibrium temperatures <500 K. K2-9b may receive approximately Earth-like insolation. However, its host star exhibits strong GALEX UV emission which could affect any atmosphere it harbors. K2-26b and K2-9b are representatives of a poorly studied class of small planets with cool temperatures that have radii intermediate to Earth and Neptune. Future study of these systems can provide key insight into trends in bulk composition and atmospheric properties at the transition from silicate dominated to volatile rich bodies. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, La Silla Observatory, Chile during program ID 194.C-0443. [less ▲]

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See detailThe LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Orbit and Component Masses of the Intermediate-age, Late-type Binary NO UMa
Schlieder, Joshua E.; Skemer, Andrew J.; Maire, Anne-Lise et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2016), 818

We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt ... [more ▼]

We present high-resolution Large Binocular Telescope LBTI/LMIRcam images of the spectroscopic and astrometric binary NO UMa obtained as part of the LBT Interferometer Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt exoplanet imaging survey. Our H-, K[SUB]s[/SUB]-, and L‧-band observations resolve the system at angular separations <0.″09. The components exhibit significant orbital motion over a span of ∼7 months. We combine our imaging data with archival images, published speckle interferometry measurements, and existing spectroscopic velocity data to solve the full orbital solution and estimate component masses. The masses of the K2.0 ± 0.5 primary and K6.5 ± 0.5 secondary are 0.83 ± 0.02 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] and 0.64 ± 0.02 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB], respectively. We also derive a system distance of d = 25.87 ± 0.02 pc and revise the Galactic kinematics of NO UMa. Our revised Galactic kinematics confirm NO UMa as a nuclear member of the ∼500 Myr old Ursa Major moving group, and it is thus a mass and age benchmark. We compare the masses of the NO UMa binary components to those predicted by five sets of stellar evolution models at the age of the Ursa Major group. We find excellent agreement between our measured masses and model predictions with little systematic scatter between the models. NO UMa joins the short list of nearby, bright, late-type binaries having known ages and fully characterized orbits. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP and IAC. [less ▲]

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See detailHot Jupiters with relatives: discovery of additional planets in orbit around WASP-41 and WASP-47
Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 $\pm$ 0.20 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and eccentricity 0.29 $\pm$ 0.02, and it orbits ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 $\pm$ 0.20 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and eccentricity 0.29 $\pm$ 0.02, and it orbits in 421 $\pm$ 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 $\pm$ 0.22 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and eccentricity 0.13 $\pm$ 0.10, and it orbits in 572 $\pm$ 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems that include a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long-period planet located at only $\sim$1 au from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect induced by the second planet, we used the emission in the H$\alpha$ line and find this indicator well suited to detecting the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host two additional transiting super Earths. With such an unprecedented architecture, the WASP-47 system will be very important for understanding planetary migration. [less ▲]

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See detailFe XXV line profiles in colliding wind binaries
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Mossoux, Enmanuelle; Nazé, Yaël ULg

in New Astronomy (2016), 43

Strong wind-wind collisions in massive binaries generate a very hot plasma that frequently produces a moderately strong iron line. The morphology of this line depends upon the properties of the wind ... [more ▼]

Strong wind-wind collisions in massive binaries generate a very hot plasma that frequently produces a moderately strong iron line. The morphology of this line depends upon the properties of the wind interaction zone and its orientation with respect to the line of sight. As the binary components revolve around their common centre of mass, the line profiles are thus expected to vary. With the advent of the next generation of X-ray observatories (Astro-H, Athena) that will offer high-resolution spectroscopy above 6 keV, it will become possible to exploit these changes as the most sensitive probe of the inner parts of the colliding wind interaction. Using a simple prescription of the wind-wind interaction in an early-type binary, we have generated synthetic line profiles for a number of configurations and orbital phases. These profiles can help constrain the properties of the stellar winds in such binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe LEECH Exoplanet Imaging Survey: Characterization of the Coldest Directly Imaged Exoplanet, GJ 504 b, and Evidence for Superstellar Metallicity
Skemer, Andrew J.; Morley, Caroline V.; Zimmerman, Neil T. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2016), 817

As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and ... [more ▼]

As gas giant planets and brown dwarfs radiate away the residual heat from their formation, they cool through a spectral type transition from L to T, which encompasses the dissipation of cloud opacity and the appearance of strong methane absorption. While there are hundreds of known T-type brown dwarfs, the first generation of directly imaged exoplanets were all L type. Recently, Kuzuhara et al. announced the discovery of GJ 504 b, the first T dwarf exoplanet. GJ 504 b provides a unique opportunity to study the atmosphere of a new type of exoplanet with a ˜500 K temperature that bridges the gap between the first directly imaged planets (˜1000 K) and our own solar system's Jupiter (˜130 K). We observed GJ 504 b in three narrow L-band filters (3.71, 3.88, and 4.00 μm), spanning the red end of the broad methane fundamental absorption feature (3.3 μm) as part of the LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt (LEECH) exoplanet imaging survey. By comparing our new photometry and literature photometry with a grid of custom model atmospheres, we were able to fit GJ 504 b's unusual spectral energy distribution for the first time. We find that GJ 504 b is well fit by models with the following parameters: T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 544 ± 10 K, g < 600 m s[SUP]-2[/SUP], [M/H] = 0.60 ± 0.12, cloud opacity parameter of f[SUB]sed[/SUB] = 2-5, R = 0.96 ± 0.07 R[SUB]Jup[/SUB], and log(L) = -6.13 ± 0.03 L[SUB]⊙[/SUB], implying a hot start mass of 3-30 M[SUB]jup[/SUB] for a conservative age range of 0.1-6.5 Gyr. Of particular interest, our model fits suggest that GJ 504 b has a superstellar metallicity. Since planet formation can create objects with nonstellar metallicities, while binary star formation cannot, this result suggests that GJ 504 b formed like a planet, not like a binary companion. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrophisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia. [less ▲]

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See detailVolatile organic compounds discriminate between eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in vitro.
SCHLEICH, FLorence ULg; Dallinga, Jan W.; HENKET, Monique ULg et al

in Journal of breath research (2016), 10(1), 016006

Inflammation associated oxidative stress leads to peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids thereby generating volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The integrative analysis of the total amount of VOCs ... [more ▼]

Inflammation associated oxidative stress leads to peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids thereby generating volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The integrative analysis of the total amount of VOCs released by eosinophils and neutrophils in vitro enables the search for those compounds that discriminates between various inflammatory conditions. The approach comprises isolating eosinophils and neutrophils from 30 ml of blood of healthy non-smoking volunteers by gradient centrifugation, using lymphoprep. Eosinophils are separated from neutrophils by immunomagnetic cell separation using anti-CD16. Cells are activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and VOCs from the headspace are collected at time 0', 30', 60' and 90' by introduction of ultra-pure nitrogen in the closed flasks at a flow rate of 200 ml min(-1) during 10 min. The gases are trapped onto a sorption tube and analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to identify VOCs released in the headspace by activated neutrophils and eosinophils. Eosinophils and neutrophils were isolated from 26 healthy non-smoking volunteers. The average absolute number of eosinophils and neutrophils upon isolation was 3.5 x 10(6) and 19.4 x 10(6), respectively. The volatome in headspace consisted of 2116 compounds and those compounds present in at least 8% of the samples (1123 compounds) were used for further discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis showed that two VOCs were able to distinguish between eosinophilic and neutrophilic cultures in the unactivated state with 100% correct classification of the entire data set and upon cross validation while five VOCs were able to discriminate between activated eosinophils and neutrophils with 96% correct classification in the original set and upon cross-validation. Analysis of VOCs seems to be a very promising approach in identifying eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation but it needs further development and in vivo confirmation. [less ▲]

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See detailLens galaxies in the Illustris simulation: power-law models and the bias of the Hubble constant from time delays
Xu, Dandan; Sluse, Dominique ULg; Schneider, Peter et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 456

A power-law density model, i.e. ρ (r) ∝ r^{-γ ^' }}, has been commonly employed in strong gravitational lensing studies, including the so-called time-delay technique used to infer the Hubble constant H ... [more ▼]

A power-law density model, i.e. ρ (r) ∝ r^{-γ ^' }}, has been commonly employed in strong gravitational lensing studies, including the so-called time-delay technique used to infer the Hubble constant H[SUB]0[/SUB]. However, since the radial scale at which strong lensing features are formed corresponds to the transition from the dominance of baryonic matter to dark matter, there is no known reason why galaxies should follow a power law in density. The assumption of a power law artificially breaks the mass-sheet degeneracy, a well-known invariance transformation in gravitational lensing which affects the product of Hubble constant and time delay and can therefore cause a bias in the determination of H[SUB]0[/SUB] from the time-delay technique. In this paper, we use the Illustris hydrodynamical simulations to estimate the amplitude of this bias, and to understand how it is related to observational properties of galaxies. Investigating a large sample of Illustris galaxies that have velocity dispersion σ[SUB]SIE[/SUB] ≥ 160 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] at redshifts below z = 1, we find that the bias on H[SUB]0[/SUB] introduced by the power-law assumption can reach 20-50 per cent, with a scatter of 10-30 per cent (rms). However, we find that by selecting galaxies with an inferred power-law model slope close to isothermal, it is possible to reduce the bias on H[SUB]0[/SUB] to ≲ 5 per cent and the scatter to ≲ 10 per cent. This could potentially be used to form less biased statistical samples for H[SUB]0[/SUB] measurements in the upcoming large survey era. [less ▲]

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See detailThe α CrB binary system: A new radial velocity curve, apsidal motion, and the alignment of rotation and orbit axes
Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Schröder, K.-P.; Rauw, Gregor ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

We present a new radial velocity curve for the two components of the eclipsing spectroscopic binary α CrB. This binary consists of two main-sequence stars of types A and G in a 17.3599-day orbit ... [more ▼]

We present a new radial velocity curve for the two components of the eclipsing spectroscopic binary α CrB. This binary consists of two main-sequence stars of types A and G in a 17.3599-day orbit, according to the data from our robotic TIGRE facility that is located in Guanajuato, Mexico. We used a high-resolution solar spectrum to determine the radial velocities of the weak secondary component by cross-correlation and wavelength referencing with telluric lines for the strongly rotationally broadened primary lines (v sin(i) = 138 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]) to obtain radial velocities with an accuracy of a few hundred m/s. We combined our new RV data with older measurements, dating back to 1908 in the case of the primary, to search for evidence of apsidal motion. We find an apsidal motion period between 6600 and 10 600 yr. This value is consistent with the available data for both the primary and secondary and is also consistent with the assumption that the system has aligned orbit and rotation axes. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses
Boukraa, Slimane ULg; de la Grandière, Maria Ana ULg; Bawin, Thomas ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2016), 124

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne ... [more ▼]

Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011–2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring rotation periods of solar-like stars using TIGRE. A study of periodic CaII H+K S-index variability
Hempelmann, A.; Mittag, M.; Gonzalez-Perez, J. N. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. <BR /> Aims: We present the results from ... [more ▼]

Context. The rotation period of a star is a key parameter both for the stellar dynamo that generates magnetic fields as well as for stellar differential rotation. <BR /> Aims: We present the results from the first year of monitoring a sample of solar-like stars by the TIGRE facility in Guanajuato (Mexico), which will study rotation in solar analogs. <BR /> Methods: TIGRE is an automatically operating 1.2 m telescope equipped with an Échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of 20 000, which covers a spectral range of between 3800 and 8800 Å. A main task is the monitoring the stellar activity of cool stars, mainly in the emission cores of the CaII H and K lines. We observed a number of stars with a sampling between 1-3 days over one year. <BR /> Results: A total number of 95 stars were observed between August 1 2013 and July 31 2014, the total number of spectra taken for this program was appoximately 2700. For almost a third of the sample stars the number of observations was rather low (less than 20), mainly because of bad weather. Fifty-four stars show a periodic signal but often with low significance. Only 24 stars exhibit a significant period. We interpret these signals as stellar rotation. For about half of them the rotation periods were already previously known, in which case our period measurements are usually in good agreement with the literature values. Besides the periodic signals, trends are frequently observed in the time series. <BR /> Conclusions: TIGRE is obviously able to detect stellar rotation periods in the CaII H+K emission cores when the time series contains a sufficient number of data points. However, this is frequently not achievable during the wet summer season in Guanajuato. Hence, future estimates of rotation periods will concentrate on stars that are observable during the winter season from October until April. [less ▲]

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See detailModels of the η Corvi Debris Disk from the Keck Interferometer, Spitzer, and Herschel
Lebreton, J.; Beichman, C.; Bryden, G. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2016), 817

Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is ... [more ▼]

Debris disks are signposts of analogs to small-body populations of the solar system, often, however, with much higher masses and dust production rates. The disk associated with the nearby star η Crv is especially striking, as it shows strong mid- and far-infrared excesses despite an age of ∼1.4 Gyr. We undertake constructing a consistent model of the system that can explain a diverse collection of spatial and spectral data. We analyze Keck Interferometer Nuller measurements and revisit Spitzer and additional spectrophotometric data, as well as resolved Herschel images, to determine the dust spatial distribution in the inner exozodi and in the outer belt. We model in detail the two-component disk and the dust properties from the sub-AU scale to the outermost regions by fitting simultaneously all measurements against a large parameter space. The properties of the cold belt are consistent with a collisional cascade in a reservoir of ice-free planetesimals at 133 AU. It shows marginal evidence for asymmetries along the major axis. KIN enables us to establish that the warm dust consists of a ring that peaks between 0.2 and 0.8 AU. To reconcile this location with the ∼400 K dust temperature, very high albedo dust must be invoked, and a distribution of forsterite grains starting from micron sizes satisfies this criterion, while providing an excellent fit to the spectrum. We discuss additional constraints from the LBTI and near-infrared spectra, and we present predictions of what James Webb Space Telescope can unveil about this unusual object and whether it can detect unseen planets. [less ▲]

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See detailDecreased antibiotic consumption in the Belgian community: Is it credible?
FRIPPIAT, Frédéric ULg; VERCHEVAL, Christelle ULg; LAYIOS, Nathalie ULg

in Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2016), 62(3), 403-404

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See detailDoing better in more complex patients: leading the way for QUIP.
Osnabrugge, Ruben L.; Kappetein, A. Pieter; Head, Stuart J. et al

in European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (2016), 49(2), 397-8

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See detailMapping of riparian invasive species with supervised classification of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) imagery
Michez, Adrien ULg; Piégay, Hervé; Lisein, Jonathan ULg et al

in International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (2016), 44

Riparian zones are key landscape features, representing the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although they have been influenced by human activities for centuries, their degradation ... [more ▼]

Riparian zones are key landscape features, representing the interface between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Although they have been influenced by human activities for centuries, their degradation has increased during the 20th century. Concomitant with (or as consequences of) these disturbances, the invasion of exotic species has increased throughout the world’s riparian zones. In our study, we propose a easily reproducible methodological framework to map three riparian invasive taxa using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) imagery: Impatiens glandulifera Royle, Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier and Levier, and Japanese knotweed (Fallopia sachalinensis (F. Schmidt Petrop.), Fallopia japonica (Houtt.) and hybrids). Based on visible and near-infrared UAS orthophoto, we derived simple spectral and texture image metrics computed at various scales of image segmentation (10,30, 45, 60 using eCognition software). Supervised classification based on the random forests algorithm was used to identify the most relevant variable (or combination of variables) derived from UAS imagery for mapping riparian invasive plant species. The models were built using 20% of the dataset, the rest of the dataset being used as a test set (80%). Except for H. mantegazzianum, the best results in terms of global accuracy were achieved with the finest scale of analysis (segmentation scale parameter = 10). The best values of overall accuracies reached 72%, 68%, and 97% for I. glandulifera, Japanese knotweed, and H. mantegazzianum respectively. In terms of selected metrics, simple spectral metrics (layer mean / camera brightness) were the most used. Our results also confirm the added value of texture metrics (GLCM derivatives) for mapping riparian invasive species. The results obtained for I. glandulifera and Japanese knotweed do not reach sufficient accuracies for operational applications. However, the results achieved for H. mantegazzianum are encouraging. The high accuracies values combined to relatively light model-inputs needed (delineation of a few umbels) make our approach a serious contender as a cost-effective tool to improve the field management of H. mantegazzianum. [less ▲]

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See detailBalancing benefits and risks of glucocorticoids in rheumatic diseases and other inflammatory joint disorders: new insights from emerging data. An expert consensus paper from the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO)
Cooper, C.; Bardin, T.; Brandi, M.L. et al

in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (2016), 28(1), 1-16

Purpose: This consensus review article considers the question of whether glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is still relevant in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, with a particular focus on rheumatoid ... [more ▼]

Purpose: This consensus review article considers the question of whether glucocorticoid (GC) therapy is still relevant in the treatment of rheumatic diseases, with a particular focus on rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and whether its side effects can be adequately managed. Recent basic and clinical research on the molecular, cellular and clinical effects of GCs have considerably advanced our knowledge in this field. An overview of the subject seems appropriate. Methods: This review is the result of a multidisciplinary expert working group, organised by European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis. The recent literature was surveyed and the salient evidence synthetized. Results: The pathophysiological basis of RA (and other inflammatory rheumatic diseases) now strongly implicates the adaptive immune system in addition to innate mechanisms. The molecular effect of GCs and differential GC sensitivity is better understood, although exploiting this knowledge is still in its infancy. The newer treatment strategies of early and aggressive control of RA have greatly improved clinical outcomes, but improvements are still possible. Newer targeted anti-inflammatory drugs have made an important impact, yet they too are associated with numerous side effects. Discussion: Short durations of moderate doses of GCs are generally well tolerated and have a positive benefit/risk ratio. Patients should be assessed for fracture risk and bone preserving agents and be prescribed calcium and vitamin D supplementation. Conclusions: Within a strategy of a disease modifying approach to inflammatory disease, combination therapy including a GC is effective approach. [less ▲]

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See detailPlatelet-rich plasma (PRP) to treat chronic patellar tendinopathies: comparison of a single versus two closely-timed injections
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Libertiaux, Vincent ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2016), 5(4 (eCollection 2015 Oct-Dec)), 297-298

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See detailCoeur de crèche
Courtejoie, Fabienne ULg

in A+ Architecture en Belgique (2016), 258

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See detailNew perspectives for the design of sustainable bioprocesses for phosphorus recovery from waste
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; De Clercq, Lies; Charlier, Raphaëlle et al

in Bioresource Technology (2016), 206

Phosphate rock has long been used for the production of phosphorus based chemicals. However, considering the depletion of the reservoirs and the decrease of the quality of phosphate rocks, a potential ... [more ▼]

Phosphate rock has long been used for the production of phosphorus based chemicals. However, considering the depletion of the reservoirs and the decrease of the quality of phosphate rocks, a potential market is now emerging for the recovery of phosphate from waste and its reuse for different applications. Notably, phosphate recovery from wastewater could be included in a circular economy approach. This review focuses on the use of microbial systems for phosphorus accumulation and recovery, by considering the actual range of analytical techniques available for the monitoring of phosphorus accumulating organisms, as well as the actual biochemical and metabolic engineering toolbox available for the optimization of bioprocesses. In this context, knowledge gathered from process, system and synthetic biology could potentially lead to innovative process design. [less ▲]

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See detailThe new Sfar journals are in place
Plaud, B; Lefrant, JY; BRICHANT, Jean-François ULg

in Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care (2016)

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See detailCOMMENT J'EXPLORE... LA BIPOLARITE EN PEDOPSYCHIATRIE : UNE SEMIOLOGIE DIMENSIONNELLE
SCHOLL, Jean-Marc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(2), 94-100

Despite its high frequency, bipolarity in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future is at ... [more ▼]

Despite its high frequency, bipolarity in childhood is little understood and is often diagnosed only after several years of development, and this during a time when the child’s psychosocial future is at stake. A proper diagnosis requires recognition of accurate clinical signs. It is therefore essential to furnish clinicians with precise semiological markers. This paper presents a dimensional semiology for use in anamnesis and in clinical observation of the child. These clinical signs enable the identification of a bipolar manic temperament in the child and/or the identification of various different forms of childhood bipolar and depressive disorder. The relevant differential diagnoses and comorbidities are also presented. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth partitioning within beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) varies in response to summer heat waves and related droughts
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Lebourgeois, François; Claessens, Hugues ULg

in Trees (2016), 30(1), 189-201

To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 ... [more ▼]

To characterize growth partitioning within the tree and its responses to climate, we studied 8 dominant beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) of a pure, even-aged 98-year-old stand in Belgium. We sampled 10 disks along the stem from breast height to treetop and examined the inter-annual patterns of, and discrepancies between, ring-area and volume increments by performing detailed stem analysis and dendroecological investigations. Although the common inter-annual variation among all increment series was high, we observed increasing growth variability and climate sensitivity with height, leading to notable bole-crown discrepancies. Both the common inter-annual variation and bole-crown discrepancies were mainly driven by summer heat waves and related droughts of the previous year, and spring droughts of the current year. Despite these discrepancies, the radial growth at breast height can be considered a good estimate of the tree volume increment but not for the purpose of focusing on climatic effects of isolated years. Extreme climatic conditions increase the risk of inaccurate estimations. The results of the present study are discussed in relation to tree ecophysiology hypotheses. [less ▲]

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See detailMesh Management Methods in Finite Element Simulations of Orthodontic Tooth Movement
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg; Boman, Romain ULg

in Medical Engineering & Physics (2016), 38(2), 140-147

In finite element simulations of orthodontic tooth movement, one of the challenges is to represent long term tooth movement. Large deformation of the periodontal ligament and large tooth displacment due ... [more ▼]

In finite element simulations of orthodontic tooth movement, one of the challenges is to represent long term tooth movement. Large deformation of the periodontal ligament and large tooth displacment due to bone remodelling lead to large distortions of the finite element mesh when a Lagrangian formalism is used. We propose in this work to use an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism to delay remeshing operations. A large tooth displacement is obtained including effect of remodelling without the need of remeshing steps but keeping a good-quality mesh. Very large deformations in soft tissues such as the periodontal ligament is obtained using a combination of the ALE formalism used continuously and a remeshing algorithm used when needed. This work demonstrates that the ALE formalism is a very efficient way to delay remeshing operations. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of the Structure and Function of FOX-4 Cephamycinase
Lefurgy, S.T.; Malashkevich, V.N.; Aguilan, J.T. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2016), 60(2), 717-728

Class C β-lactamases poorly hydrolyze cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin, cefotetan, and moxalactam). In the past 2 decades, a new family of plasmid-based AmpC β-lactamases conferring resistance to cefoxitin ... [more ▼]

Class C β-lactamases poorly hydrolyze cephamycins (e.g., cefoxitin, cefotetan, and moxalactam). In the past 2 decades, a new family of plasmid-based AmpC β-lactamases conferring resistance to cefoxitin, the FOX family, has grown to include nine unique members descended from the Aeromonas caviae chromosomal AmpC. To understand the basis for the unique cephamycinase activity in the FOX family, we determined the first X-ray crystal structures of FOX-4, apo enzyme and the acyl-enzyme with its namesake compound, cefoxitin, using the Y150F deacylation-deficient variant. Notably, recombinant expression of N-terminally tagged FOX-4 also yielded an inactive adenylylated enzyme form not previously observed in β-lactamases. The posttranslational modification (PTM), which occurs on the active site Ser64, would not seem to provide a selective advantage, yet might present an opportunity for the design of novel antibacterial drugs. Substantial ligand-induced changes in the enzyme are seen in the acyl-enzyme complex, particularly the R2 loop and helix H10 (P289 to N297), with movement of F293 by 10.3 Å. Taken together, this study provides the first picture of this highly proficient class C cephamycinase, uncovers a novel PTM, and suggests a possible cephamycin resistance mechanism involving repositioning of the substrate due to the presence of S153P, N289P, and N346I substitutions in the ligand binding pocket. [less ▲]

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See detailProspects of a new dynamic simulation software for real-time applications on the Hydro-Québec system
Aristidou, Petros; Lebeau, Simon; Loud, Lester et al

in CIGRE Science and Engineering (2016), 4

Hydro-Québec has a long interest in on-line Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) driven by its challenging system dynamics. Presently, off-line calculated security limits are combined with an on-line ... [more ▼]

Hydro-Québec has a long interest in on-line Dynamic Security Assessment (DSA) driven by its challenging system dynamics. Presently, off-line calculated security limits are combined with an on-line monitoring system. However, new developments in dynamic simulation enable real-time or near-real-time DSA calculations and transfer limits determination. In this paper, the domain-decomposition-based algorithm implemented in the simulator RAMSES is presented, along with techniques to accelerate its sequential and parallel executions. RAMSES exploits the localized response to disturbances and the timescale decomposition of dynamic phenomena to provide sequential acceleration when the simulation is performed on a single processing unit. Additionally, when more units are available, the parallelization potential of domain-decomposition methods is exploited for further acceleration. The algorithm and techniques have been tested on a realistic model of the Hydro-Québec system to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic responses and the sequential and parallel performances. Finally, the real-time capabilities have been assessed using a shared-memory parallel processing platform. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Darwin's 'Abominable Mystery' still a mystery today?
Cascales-Miñana, Borja ULg; Cleal, Chris J.; Gerrienne, Philippe ULg

in Cretaceous Research (2016), 61

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See detailResidual tumor micro-foci and overwhelming regulatory T lymphocyte infiltration are the causes of bladder cancer recurrence.
Parodi, Alessia; Traverso, Paolo; Kalli, Francesca et al

in Oncotarget (2016), 7(6), 6424-6435

Bladder cancer has an unexplained, high recurrence rate. Causes of recurrence might include the presence of sporadic tumor micro-foci in the residual urothelial tissue after surgery associated with an ... [more ▼]

Bladder cancer has an unexplained, high recurrence rate. Causes of recurrence might include the presence of sporadic tumor micro-foci in the residual urothelial tissue after surgery associated with an inverted ratio between intratumoral effector and regulatory T cell subsets. Hence, surgical specimens of both tumors and autologous, macroscopically/histologically free-of-tumor tissues were collected from 28 and 20 patients affected by bladder or renal cancer, respectively. The frequencies of effector (IFNγ+ and IL17+ T cells) and regulatory (CD4+CD25hiCD127lo and CD8+CD28-CD127loCD39+ Treg) T cell subpopulations among tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were analyzed by immunofluorescence, while the gene expression of MAGE-A1 and MAGE-A2 tumor-associated antigens was studied by RT-PCR. The results show that both the T cell infiltrate and the frequency of MAGE-A1/A2 gene expression were comparable in tumors and in autologous free-of-tumor tissues in bladder cancer, while the autologous free-of-tumor renal tissues showed reduced T cell infiltrate and frequency of MAGE gene expression as compared to the autologous tumors. Importantly, the intra-tumor T effector/Treg cell ratio was consistently <1 in bladder cancer patients (n. 7) who relapsed within two years, while it was always >1 in patients (n. 6) without recurrence (regardless of tumor stage) (P = 0.0006, Odds ratio = 195). These unprecedented findings clarify the pathogenic mechanism of bladder cancer recurrence and suggest that microscopically undetectable micro-foci of tumor may predispose to recurrence when associated with an inverted intratumoral T effector/Treg cell ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailMaster equation for collective spontaneous emission with quantized atomic motion
Damanet, François ULg; Braun, Daniel; Martin, John ULg

in Physical Review A (2016), 93

We derive a Markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including all effects related to the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying ... [more ▼]

We derive a Markovian master equation for the internal dynamics of an ensemble of two-level atoms including all effects related to the quantization of their motion. Our equation provides a unifying picture of the consequences of recoil and indistinguishability of atoms beyond the Lamb-Dicke regime on both their dissipative and conservative dynamics, and applies equally well to distinguishable and indistinguishable atoms. We give general expressions for the decay rates and the dipole-dipole shifts for any motional states, and we find closed-form formulas for a number of relevant states (Gaussian states, Fock states, and thermal states). In particular, we show that dipole-dipole interactions and cooperative photon emission can be modulated through the external state of motion. [less ▲]

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See detailL'arrêt de mort des (trop) petites circonscriptions électorales wallonnes
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2016), 6634

Cet article propose un commentaire de l'arrêt n° 169/2015 de la Cour constitutionnelle belge, par lequel elle a considéré que les règles législatives qui instaurent les plus petites circonscriptions ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose un commentaire de l'arrêt n° 169/2015 de la Cour constitutionnelle belge, par lequel elle a considéré que les règles législatives qui instaurent les plus petites circonscriptions utilisées pour les élections du Parlement wallon sont inconstitutionnelles. L'article revient sur les enjeux du découpage du territoire en circonscriptions électorales, sur la jurisprudence antérieure en la matière et suggère un certain nombre d'adaptations que le législateur wallon pourrait adopter pour réagir à l'arrêt. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes biobased polymer achieve better environmental impacts than fossil polymer? Comparison of fossil HDPE and biobased HDPE produced from sugar beet and wheat
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Biomass & Bioenergy (2016), 85

Polymers are one of the most used materials and the majority of their production is based on fossil fuels. Due to the decrease of oil resources and concerns about climate change, alternatives are needed ... [more ▼]

Polymers are one of the most used materials and the majority of their production is based on fossil fuels. Due to the decrease of oil resources and concerns about climate change, alternatives are needed, the transformation of biobased ethanol into biobased polymer being one of them. This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of the production of biobased polymer produced from two different feedstock cultivated in Belgium: sugar beet and wheat. Both crops cultivation are studied as well as their transformation into biobased ethanol, first, and then to biobased ethylene, focusing on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as final product. These scenarios are analyzed and compared with the production of conventional polymer using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology with reference to relevant environmental impact categories. This study shows a reduction of impact of around 60% for both climate change and fossil fuel depletion categories when using biobased HDPE instead of its fossil counterpart. For all other impact categories, fossil HDPE achieves better results than the biobased product. [less ▲]

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See detailNo favorable effect of reduced tillage on microbial community diversity in a silty loam soil (Belgium)
Degrune, Florine ULg; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ULg; Dufrêne, Marc ULg et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2016)

Among the soil management practices used to promote sustainable agriculture, reduced tillage and retention of residues from the previous crop are reported to enhance significantly both soil fertility and ... [more ▼]

Among the soil management practices used to promote sustainable agriculture, reduced tillage and retention of residues from the previous crop are reported to enhance significantly both soil fertility and crop productivity. Here, high-throughput sequencing (454 technology) was used to see how the tillage regime (conventional vs. reduced tillage) and the fate of crop residues (retention or removal) affect microbial communities at two sampling depths (top soil: 0–5 cm and deeper soil: 15–20 cm) in a fertile silty loam soil in Belgium. All combinations of these three factors were studied. After 6 years of conversion from conventional to reduced tillage, depth emerged as the main factor responsible for variation in microbial diversity, tillage regime ranked second, and finally, crop residue fate had no influence on microbial diversity. For both bacteria and fungi, the diversity appeared higher in the top soil than in the deeper soil, and surprisingly, higher under conventional than under reduced tillage. These differences are explained by changes in community composition due to taxon loss rather than taxon replacement. The specific local set of environmental conditions (a loess-derived soil and an oceanic temperate climate) may explain these results. These observations raise the question: does impoverishment in indicator taxa influence soil processes, and thus crop production? To answer this question, we discuss how the presence of certain indicator taxa liable to play an ecological role might relate to crop productivity. [less ▲]

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See detailTraumatologie du rugby à VII
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Julia, Marc; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in Science & Sports (2016), 31(1), 1-5

Aims. — To estimate the risk of injury in rugby sevens.News. — The rugby sevens is an increasingly popular sport since the creation of the IRB SevensWorld Series in 2000 and its introduction as an Olympic ... [more ▼]

Aims. — To estimate the risk of injury in rugby sevens.News. — The rugby sevens is an increasingly popular sport since the creation of the IRB SevensWorld Series in 2000 and its introduction as an Olympic sport in 2016. Despite its strong simi-larities to rugby union, it remains a different sport with higher game intensity, causing a moresignificant number of injuries. The average incidence of injury in rugby sevens is 249.27 for1000 hours of play against 102.25 for 1000 hours of rugby union matches.Conclusion. — This epidemiological review of injuries among the rugby sevens refers to theirlocation and their nature, the causes, the position of players, the type of field, as well as thedowntime of practice following trauma. [less ▲]

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See detailHyaluronic acid and tendon lesions
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; SAMSON, Antoine; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal (2016), 5(4 (eCollection 2015 Oct-Dec)), 264-269

Introduction: Recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies. Some fundamental studies show encouraging results ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Recently, the viscoelastic properties of hyaluronic acid on liquid connective tissue have been proposed for the treatment of tendinopathies. Some fundamental studies show encouraging results on hyaluronic acid’s ability to promote tendon gliding and reduce adhesion as well as to improve tendon architectural organisation. Some observations also support its use in a clinical setting to improve pain and function. This literature review analyses studies relating to the use of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of tendinopathies. Methods: This review was constructed using the Medline database via Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar. The keywords hyaluronic acid, tendon and tendinopathy were used for the research. Results: In total, 27 articles (in English and French) on the application of hyaluronic acid to tendons were selected for their relevance and scientific quality, including eight for the 'in vitro' part, three for the 'in vivo' animal part and six for the human section. Conclusions: Preclinical studies demonstrate encouraging results: HA permits tendon gliding, reduces adhesions, creates better tendon architectural organisation and limits inflammation. These laboratory observations appear to be supported by limited but encouraging short-term clinical results on pain and function. However, controlled randomised studies are still needed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of dissolved organic carbon and bacterial respiration on pCO2 in experimental sea ice
Zhou, Jiayun; Kotovitch, Marie ULg; Kaartokallio, H. et al

in Progress in Oceanography (2016), 141

Previous observations have shown that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in sea ice brines is generally higher in Arctic sea ice compared to those from the Antarctic sea ice, especially in ... [more ▼]

Previous observations have shown that the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in sea ice brines is generally higher in Arctic sea ice compared to those from the Antarctic sea ice, especially in winter and early spring. We hypothesized that these differences result from the higher dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content in Arctic seawater: Higher concentrations of DOC in seawater would be reflected in a greater DOC incorporation into sea ice, enhancing bacterial respiration, which in turn would increase the pCO2 in the ice. To verify this hypothesis, we performed an experiment using two series of mesocosms: one was filled with seawater (SW) and the other one with seawater with an addition of filtered humic-rich river water (SWR). The addition of river water increased the DOC concentration of the water from a median of 142 µmol L-1 in SW to 249 µmol L-1 in SWR. Sea ice was grown in these mesocosms under the same physical conditions over 19 days. Microalgae and protists were absent, and only bacterial activity has been detected. We measured the DOC concentration, bacterial respiration, total alkalinity and pCO2 in sea ice and the underlying seawater, and we calculated the changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in both media. We found that bacterial respiration in ice was higher in SWR: median bacterial respiration was 25 nmol C L-1 h-1 compared to 10 nmol C L-1 h-1 in SW. pCO2 in ice was also higher in SWR with a median of 430 ppm compared to 356 ppm in SW. However, the differences in pCO2 were larger within the ice interiors than at the surfaces or the bottom layers of the ice, where exchanges at the air-ice and ice-water interfaces might have reduced the differences. In addition, we used a model to simulate the differences of pCO2 and DIC based on bacterial respiration. The model simulations support the experimental findings and further suggest that bacterial growth efficiency in the ice might be 0.15-0.2. It is thus credible that the higher pCO2 in Arctic sea ice brines compared with those from the Antarctic sea ice were due to an elevated bacterial respiration, sustained by higher riverine DOC loads. These conclusions should hold for locations and time frames when bacterial activity is relatively dominant compared to algal activity, considering our experimental conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the equivalent static load method for flexible multibody systems described with a nonlinear finite element formalism
Tromme, Emmanuel ULg; Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg et al

in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2016)

The equivalent static load (ESL) method is a powerful approach to solve dynamic response structural optimization problems. The method transforms the dynamic response optimization into a static response ... [more ▼]

The equivalent static load (ESL) method is a powerful approach to solve dynamic response structural optimization problems. The method transforms the dynamic response optimization into a static response optimization under multiple load cases. The ESL cases are defined based on the transient analysis response whereupon all the standard techniques of static response optimization can be used. In the last decade, the ESL method has been applied to perform the structural optimization of flexible components of mechanical systems modeled as multibody systems (MBS). The ESL evaluation strongly depends on the adopted formulation to describe the MBS and has been initially derived based on a floating frame of reference formulation. In this paper, we propose a method to derive the ESL adapted to a nonlinear finite element approach based on a Lie group formalism for two main reasons. Firstly, the finite element approach is completely general to analyze complex MBS and is suitable to perform more advanced optimization problems like topology optimization. Secondly, the selected Lie group formalism leads to a formulation of the equations of motion in the local frame, that turns out to be a strong practical advantage for the ESL evaluation. Examples are provided to validate the proposed method. [less ▲]

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See detailSHANNA WATERSTOWN La tornade noire venue de Floride
Sacré, Robert ULg

in ABS Magazine (2016), (49),

Interview de la chanteuse noire américaine Shanna Waterstown ; son histoire et son parcours artistique

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See detailUse of dual carbon-chlorine isotope analysis to assess the degradation pathways of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater
Palau, Jordi; Jamin, Pierre ULg; Badin, Alice et al

in Water Research (2016)

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool to track contaminant fate in groundwater. However, the application of CSIA to chlorinated ethanes has received little attention so far. These ... [more ▼]

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool to track contaminant fate in groundwater. However, the application of CSIA to chlorinated ethanes has received little attention so far. These compounds are toxic and prevalent groundwater contaminants of environmental concern. The high susceptibility of chlorinated ethanes like 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) to be transformed via different competing pathways (biotic and abiotic) complicates the assessment of their fate in the subsurface. In this study, the use of a dual C-Cl isotope approach to identify the active degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA is evaluated for the first time in an aerobic aquifer impacted by 1,1,1-TCA and trichloroethylene (TCE) with concentrations of up to 20 mg/L and 3.4 mg/L, respectively. The reaction-specific dual carbon-chlorine (C-Cl) isotope trends determined in a recent laboratory study illustrated the potential of a dual isotope approach to identify contaminant degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA. Compared to the dual isotope slopes (Δδ13C/Δδ37Cl) previously determined in the laboratory for dehydrohalogenation / hydrolysis (DH/HY, 0.33 ± 0.04) and oxidation by persulfate (∞), the slope determined from field samples (0.6 ± 0.2, r2 = 0.75) is closer to the one observed for DH/HY, pointing to DH/HY as the predominant degradation pathway of 1,1,1-TCA in the aquifer. The observed deviation could be explained by a minor contribution of additional degradation processes. This result, along with the little degradation of TCE determined from isotope measurements, confirmed that 1,1,1-TCA is the main source of the 1,1-dichlorethylene (1,1-DCE) detected in the aquifer with concentrations of up to 10 mg/L. This study demonstrates that a dual C-Cl isotope approach can strongly improve the qualitative and quantitative assessment of 1,1,1-TCA degradation processes in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailEmployee Emotional Competence: Construct Conceptualization and Validation of a Customer-Based Measure
Delcourt, Cécile ULg; Gremler, Dwayne; van Riel, Allard et al

in Journal of Service Research (2016), 19(1), 72-87

Customers often experience intense emotions during service encounters. Their perceptions of how well contact employees demonstrate emotional competence in emotionally charged service encounters can affect ... [more ▼]

Customers often experience intense emotions during service encounters. Their perceptions of how well contact employees demonstrate emotional competence in emotionally charged service encounters can affect their service evaluations and loyalty intentions. Previous studies examining employees’ potential to behave in emotionally competent ways (i.e., employee emotional intelligence [EEI]) have used self- or supervisor-reported scales to predict customer outcomes, presenting EEI as stable and independent of the context. However, service firms should be more concerned with the actual display of emotionally competent behaviors by employees (employee emotional competence [EEC]), because employee behaviors vary across encounters. Moreover, a customer perspective of EEC is useful as customer perceptions of employee performance are crucial predictors of satisfaction and loyalty. Therefore, this study proposes a conceptualization and operationalization of EEC in a service encounter context. On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and in-depth interviews, the authors develop a scale to capture customer-perceived EEC, defined as an employee’s competence in perceiving, understanding, and regulating customer emotions during a discrete service encounter. The scale achieves good reliability and validity. Researchers can use it to explore the role of EEC in service contexts; managers can employ the scale to diagnose EEC and improve customers’ service encounter experiences. [less ▲]

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See detailLe livre au futur antérieur. Les ambiguïtés d’un motif d’anticipation
Stienon, Valérie ULg; Barel-Moisan, Claire

in Autour de Vallès : Revue de Lectures et d'Etudes Vallésiennes (2016), 45(2015), 147-168

Du tournant du XIXe siècle aux années 1940, le récit d’anticipation est enclin à articuler un imaginaire social et des extrapolations du présent qui le portent à considérer, parmi d’autres aspects ... [more ▼]

Du tournant du XIXe siècle aux années 1940, le récit d’anticipation est enclin à articuler un imaginaire social et des extrapolations du présent qui le portent à considérer, parmi d’autres aspects socioculturels, la situation de la littérature et de ce qu’on peut nommer le modèle culturel « lettré », avec son histoire, ses valeurs, ses acteurs et ses institutions. Sur ce point, on peut observer à la fois la perméabilité des fictions conjecturales aux discours et représentations liés à leur premier contexte, et les modulations originales qu’elles y apportent. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of Internalization and Recycling of the Pro-Metastatic Membrane Type 4-Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT4-MMP) in Breast Cancer Cells
Truong, Alice ULg; Yip, Cassandre ULg; PAYE, Alexandra ULg et al

in FEBS Journal (2016), 283(4), 704-22

MT4-MMP (MMP17) is a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored membrane-type MMP expressed on the cell surface of human breast cancer cells. In triple negative breast cancer cells, MT4-MMP promotes ... [more ▼]

MT4-MMP (MMP17) is a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol (GPI)-anchored membrane-type MMP expressed on the cell surface of human breast cancer cells. In triple negative breast cancer cells, MT4-MMP promotes primary tumor growth and lung metastases. Although trafficking and internalization of the transmembrane MT1-MMP have been extensively investigated, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of the GPI-anchored MT4-MMP. Here, we investigated the fate and cellular trafficking of MT4-MMP by analyzing its homophilic complex interactions, internalization and recycling dynamics compared to an inert form, MT4-MMP-E249A. Oligomeric and dimeric complexes were analyzed by co-transfection of cells with FLAG- or Myc-tagged MT4-MMP by reducing and non-reducing immunoblots and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. The trafficking of MT4-MMP was studied using an antibody feeding assay and confocal microscopy analysis or cell surface protein biotinylation and Western blot analysis. We demonstrate that MT4-MMP forms homophilic complexes at the cell surface, internalizes in early endosomes, and some of the enzyme is either auto-degraded or recycled to the cell surface. Our data indicate that MT4-MMP is internalized by the CLIC/GEEC pathway, a mechanism that differs from other MT-MMP members. Although MT4-MMP localizes with caveolin-1, MT4-MMP internalization was not affected by inhibitors of caveolin-1 or clathrin endocytosis pathways but was reduced by cdc42 or RhoA silencing with siRNA. We provide a new mechanistic insight into the regulatory mechanisms of MT4-MMP, which may have implications in the design of novel therapeutic strategies for metastatic breast cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailTEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF TWO CLINICAL TESTS FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF HIP ABDUCTOR ENDURANCE IN HEALTHY FEMALES
Van Cant, Joachim; Dumont, Gregory; Pitance, Laurent et al

in The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy (2016), 11(1), 24-33

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See detailA 3-year long study of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from subclinical mastitis in three Azawak zebu herds at the Sahelian experimental farm of Toukounous, Niger
Issa Ibrahim, Abdoulkarim; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg; Bada-alambdeji, Rianatou et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2016), 48(2), 321-329

bovine mastitis. The aim of the present work was to follow in three herds and during the 3 years the clonality of S. aureus isolated from California Mastitis Test (CMT)-positive cows at the experimental ... [more ▼]

bovine mastitis. The aim of the present work was to follow in three herds and during the 3 years the clonality of S. aureus isolated from California Mastitis Test (CMT)-positive cows at the experimental station of Toukounous (Niger) by (i) comparing their pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprints, (ii) identifying their virulotypes by PCR amplification and (iii) assessing the production of capsule and the formation of biofilm. The 88 S. aureus isolates belonged to 14 different pulsotypes, 3 of them being predominant: A (30 %), D (27 %), B (15 %). A and B pulsotypes had the highest profile similarity coefficient (94 %), while others had similarity coefficients under 60 %. Seventy-five S. aureus isolates were further studied for their virulotypes, capsular antigens and biofilm production. Most surface factor-, leukocidin- and haemolysin-, but not the enterotoxin-encoding genes were detected in the majority (>75 %) of the isolates and were evenly distributed between the A, B and D pulsotype isolates. The majority of the 72 S. aureus positive with the cap5H or cap8H PCR produced the CP5 (82 %) or the CP8 (88 %) capsular antigen, respectively. Biofilm production by the 57 icaA-positive isolates was strong for 8 isolates, moderate for 31 isolates but weak for 18 isolates, implying that the icaA gene may not be expressed in vitro by one third of the positive isolates. Similar to other studies, those results confirm that a restricted number of S. aureus clones circulate within the three herds at Toukounous and that their specific virulence-associated properties must still be further studied [less ▲]

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See detailLet’s work together
Chatelus, Renaud ULg; Sevini, Filippo

in WorldECR (2016), issue 47

Export control systems are complex by nature. They involve many national stakeholders. A typical national export controlapparatus requires the cooperation of between seven and 15 governmental ministries ... [more ▼]

Export control systems are complex by nature. They involve many national stakeholders. A typical national export controlapparatus requires the cooperation of between seven and 15 governmental ministries, services and agencies, each having its own mandate, constraints and work culture. But export control cannot be seen from a purely national perspective. Export control’s ultimate purpose, overall efficacy, and legal basis are genuinely international. International instruments and bodies, such as Resolution 1540 and its committee, or the various multilateral export control regimes, provide some guidance and opportunities for cooperation. It is, however, far from sufficient for addressing all the cooperation challenges at the national and international levels. Recognising this important need for cooperation, the Nuclear Security Unit of the European Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy, organised in March 2015, a three-day innovative EU export control simulation exercise with operatives of 11 Member States, involving standard work processes as well as specific fraud patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailDiacerein: Benefits, Risks and Place in the Management of Osteoarthritis. An Opinion-Based Report from the ESCEO
Pavelka, Karel; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Cooper, Cyrus et al

in Drugs & Aging (2016), 33(2), 75-85

Diacerein is a symptomatic slow-acting drug in osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) with anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic properties on cartilage and synovial membrane. It has also recently been ... [more ▼]

Diacerein is a symptomatic slow-acting drug in osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) with anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic properties on cartilage and synovial membrane. It has also recently been shown to have protective effects against subchondral bone remodelling. Following the end of the revision procedure by the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency, the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) constituted a panel of 11 experts to better define the real place of diacerein in the armamentarium for treating OA. Based on a literature review of clinical trials and meta-analyses, the ESCEO confirms that the efficacy of diacerein is similar to that of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) after the first month of treatment, and superior to that of paracetamol. Additionally, diacerein has shown a prolonged effect on symptoms of several months once treatment was stopped. The use of diacerein is associated with common gastrointestinal disorders such as soft stools and diarrhoea, common mild skin reactions, and, uncommonly, hepatobiliary disorders. However, NSAIDs and paracetamol are known to cause potentially severe hepatic, gastrointestinal, renal, cutaneous and cardiovascular reactions. Therefore, the ESCEO concludes that the benefit–risk balance of diacerein remains positive in the symptomatic treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis. Furthermore, similarly to other SYSADOAs, the ESCEO positions diacerein as a first-line pharmacological background treatment of osteoarthritis, particularly for patients in whom NSAIDs or paracetamol are contraindicated [less ▲]

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See detailConséquences génétiques et morphologiques des glaciations du Quaternaire : une lignée relique du barbeau (Luciobarbus pallaryi, Cyprinidae) dans le bassin du Guir (Algerie)
Brahimi, Amina; Tarai, Nacer; Benhassane, Abdelkrim et al

in Comptes Rendus Biologies (2016), 339

Climatic variations during the Quaternary period had a considerable impact on landscapes and habitat fragmentation (rivers) in North Africa. These historical events can have significant consequences on ... [more ▼]

Climatic variations during the Quaternary period had a considerable impact on landscapes and habitat fragmentation (rivers) in North Africa. These historical events can have significant consequences on the genetic structure of the populations. Indeed, geographi- cally separated and genetically isolated populations tend to differentiate themselves through time, eventually becoming distinct lineages, allowing new species to emerge in later generations. The aim of the present study is to use genetic and morphological techniques to evaluate the major role of the Saalian glaciation (Middle Quaternary) in the establishment of the geographic space and in the evolution of the intraspecific genetic diversity, by tracing the demographic history of barbels belonging to the Luciobarbus pallaryi (Cyprinidae) species in the Guir Basin (Algeria). In this context, two populations, from two distinct and isolated sites, were studied. Analysis of the cytochrome b (cyt b) mitochondrial markers and of the ‘‘D-loop’’ control region has shown that the ‘‘upstream’’ and ‘‘downstream’’ Guir populations are genetically differentiated. The molecular analyses suggest that the upstream population was disconnected from this hydrographic system during the Saalian glaciation period of the Quaternary. Subsequently, it was isolated in the foggaras underground waters in the Great Western Erg, at approximately 320 000 years BP, creating, through a bottleneck effect, a new allopatric lineage referred to as ‘‘Adrar’’. Conversely, the high genetic diversity in the upstream Guir (Bechar) population suggests that the stock is globally in expansion. These barbels (n = 52) were also examined with meristic, morphometric, osteological, and biological features [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modeling of the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste in a bioreactor landfill
Hubert, Julien ULg; Xianfeng, Liu; Collin, Frédéric ULg

in Computers and Geotechnics (2016), 72

This paper presents a thermo-hydro–biochemo-mechanical model for simulating the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in a bioreactor landfill, in which the multi-physics coupling mechanism ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a thermo-hydro–biochemo-mechanical model for simulating the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in a bioreactor landfill, in which the multi-physics coupling mechanism plays a dominant role. In the model, a two-stage anaerobic biochemical model based on McDougall’s formulation is incorporated into a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical models originally developed for unsaturated porous medium. The mechanical model is a modified Camclay model allowing for biochemical hardening/softening, while the thermal model is described by a classical energy balance equation with a source term accounting for the heat generation from the biodegradation of organic matter. The hydraulic model is an unsaturated flow model using Richard’s equation. The derived coupled model is implemented into an in-house built multi-physics finite element code. Finally, numerical simulations were performed to illustrate the capability of the proposed model for estimating long-term settlement of a bioreactor landfill and its aptitude as a landfill management tool for optimizing the landfill operation [less ▲]

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See detailSubstituted azafluorenones: access from dihalogeno diaryl ketones by palladium-catalyzed auto-tandem processes and evaluation of their antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial and antiproliferative activities
Marquise, Nada; Chevallier, Floris; Nassar, Ekhlas et al

in Tetrahedron (2016), 72(6), 825-836

Substituted azafluorenones were synthesized from dihalogeno diaryl ketones under palladium catalysis by combining, in auto-tandem processes, Suzuki coupling and intramolecular arylation reactions ... [more ▼]

Substituted azafluorenones were synthesized from dihalogeno diaryl ketones under palladium catalysis by combining, in auto-tandem processes, Suzuki coupling and intramolecular arylation reactions. Different dihalogenated diaryl ketones, prepared by sequential deprotocupration-aroylation, were identified as suitable substrates to this purpose. Conditions were identified to allow successful syntheses of several 6-/7-arylated 4-azafluorenones, 1-substituted 4-azafluorenones, 2-phenyl-3-azafluorenone, and 4-phenyl-3-azafluorenone from 3-(bromobenzoyl)-2-chloropyridines, 3-benzoyl-4-bromo-2-chloropyridines, 4-benzoyl-2,5-dichloropyridine, and 4-benzoyl-2,3-dichloropyridine, respectively. Some of the synthesized compounds exhibit interesting biological properties [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic Distribution and Interaction of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 Subfamily Splicing Factors
Stankovic, Nancy ULg; Schloesser, Marie ULg; Joris, Marine ULg et al

in Plant Physiology (2016), 170

Serine/Arginine-rich (SR) proteins are essential nucleus-localized splicing factors. Our prior studies showed that Arabidopsis RSZ22, a homolog of the human SRSF7 SR factor, exits the nucleus through two ... [more ▼]

Serine/Arginine-rich (SR) proteins are essential nucleus-localized splicing factors. Our prior studies showed that Arabidopsis RSZ22, a homolog of the human SRSF7 SR factor, exits the nucleus through two pathways, either dependent or independent on the XPO1 receptor. Here, we examined the expression profiles and shuttling dynamics of the Arabidopsis SRSF1 subfamily (SR30, SR34, SR34a and SR34b) under control of their endogenous promoter in Arabidopsis and in transient expression assay. Due to its rapid nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and high expression level in transient assay, we analysed the multiple determinants that regulate the localisation and shuttling dynamics of SR34. By site-directed mutagenesis of SR34 RNA-binding sequences and RS domain, we further show that functional RRM1 or RRM2 are dispensable for the exclusive protein nuclear localization and speckle-like distribution. However, mutations of both RRMs induced aggregation of the protein whereas mutation in the RS domain decreased the stability of the protein and suppressed its nuclear accumulation. Furthermore, the RNA-binding motif mutants are defective for their export through the XPO1 (CRM1/Exportin-1) receptor pathway, but retain nucleocytoplasmic mobility. We performed a yeast two hybrid screen with SR34 as bait and discovered SR45 as a new interactor. SR45 is an unusual SR splicing factor bearing two RS domains. These interactions were confirmed in planta by FLIM-FRET and BiFC and the roles of SR34 domains in protein-protein interactions were further studied. Altogether, our report extends our understanding of shuttling dynamics of Arabidopsis SR splicing factors [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor
Mounir, Majid ULg; shafiei, rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh et al

in Journal of Bioscience & Bioengineering (2016), 121(2), 166-171

The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to ... [more ▼]

The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois. Insuline glargine 300 U/mL (Toujeo®)
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71

Summary : This article presents a new formulation of insulin glargine concentrated at 300 U/mL (Gla-300). It is commercialized under the trade name of Toujeo® in an optimized pre-filled SoloStar™ pen for ... [more ▼]

Summary : This article presents a new formulation of insulin glargine concentrated at 300 U/mL (Gla-300). It is commercialized under the trade name of Toujeo® in an optimized pre-filled SoloStar™ pen for the treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in adults. Besides a threefold higher concentration compared to the classical insulin Lantus® (100 U/mL or Gla-100), both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of Gla-300 are flatter and longer (more than 24 hours) and have a lesser intra-/inter-variability, which makes them more reproducible. Overall, Toujeo® offers the same hypoglycaemic efficacy and the same safety profile when compared with Lantus®. However, a lower risk of hypoglycaemia, especially at night, a slightly smaller weight gain and a better flexibility in the time of injection have been reported. The two insulin formulations are not bioequivalent and the daily insulin requirement is slightly higher with insulin Gla-300 than with insulin Gla-100. The shift from an already available basal insulin towards Toujeo® may require a dose adjustment and a reinforcement of blood glucose monitoring. [less ▲]

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See detailData-driven selection of the minimum-gradient support parameter in time-lapse focused electrical imaging
Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Kemna, Andreas; Robert, Tanguy et al

in Geophysics (2016), 81(1), 1-5

We have considered the problem of the choice of the minimum-gradient support (MGS) parameter in focused inversion for time-lapse (TL) electric resistivity tomography. Most existing approaches have relied ... [more ▼]

We have considered the problem of the choice of the minimum-gradient support (MGS) parameter in focused inversion for time-lapse (TL) electric resistivity tomography. Most existing approaches have relied either on an arbitrary choice of this parameter or one based on the prior information, such as the expected contrast in the TL image. We have decided to select the MGS parameter using a line search based on the value of the TL data root-mean-square misfit at the first iteration of the nonlinear inversion procedure. The latter was based on a Gauss-Newton scheme minimizing a regularized objective function in which the regularization functional was defined by the MGS functional. The regularization parameter was optimized to achieve a certain target level, following the Occam principles. We have validated our approach on a synthetic benchmark using a complex and heterogeneous model and determined its effectiveness on electric tomography TL data collected during a salt tracer experiment in fractured limestone. Our results have determined that the approach was successful in retrieving the focused anomaly and did not rely on prior information. [less ▲]

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See detailWalphy, un projet expérimental de réhabilitation de cours d’eau : suivis hydromorphologiques et écologiques
Castelain, Liévin; Peeters, Alexandre ULg; Halleux, Marie et al

in Hydroécologie Appliquée (2016)

Le projet Life Environnement WALPHY, co-financé par l’Union Européenne, a eu pour objectif de réaliser des travaux de restauration de la qualité hydromorphologique du Bocq, affluent de la Meuse. La ... [more ▼]

Le projet Life Environnement WALPHY, co-financé par l’Union Européenne, a eu pour objectif de réaliser des travaux de restauration de la qualité hydromorphologique du Bocq, affluent de la Meuse. La continuité longitudinale, qui concerne la libre circulation des poissons et le transport naturel des sédiments, a été fortement perturbée par un grand nombre d’obstacles (vannages, déversoirs, …). Afin de rétablir cette continuité, des travaux d’arasement ou d’aménagement (passes à bassins, bras de contournement, rampes rugueuses...) d’obstacles ont été réalisés. De plus, des travaux de reméandration, de diversification des écoulements ou de création d’habitats piscicoles ont été menés afin d’améliorer la continuité transversale. Ces travaux ont fait l’objet de suivis scientifiques sur base d’analyses géomorphologiques, hydromorphologiques et écologiques. Des méthodes standardisées et reproductibles ont été mises au point pour comparer la situation avant et après travaux. L’application de ces méthodes a montré que le suivi des microhabitats couplé à l’analyse des populations de macroinvertébrés et de poissons est à même de mettre en évidence les évolutions post-travaux. Deux exemples d’études avant et après travaux sont présentés : l’arasement d’un déversoir et la reméandration d’un secteur rectifié. Les résultats montrent une bonne évolution des indicateurs biologiques. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental comparison of organic fluids for low temperature ORC (organic Rankine cycle) systems for waste heat recovery applications
Desideri, Adriano ULg; Gusev, Sergei; Van den Broek, Martijn et al

in Energy (2016), 97

This contribution experimentally evaluates and compares the performance of an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system for stationary bottoming WHR (waste heat recovery) application operating with two different ... [more ▼]

This contribution experimentally evaluates and compares the performance of an ORC (organic Rankine cycle) system for stationary bottoming WHR (waste heat recovery) application operating with two different working fluids, SES36 and R245fa. The test rig is a regenerative cycle equipped with a single screw expander modified from a standard compressor characterized by a nominal shaft power of 11 kW. A total of 36 and 43 steady-state points are collected for SES36 and R245fa respectively, over a wide range of operating conditions by changing the expander rotational speed, the pump frequency and the cooling condenser flow rate. The performances of the ORC components are individually evaluated. A maximum expander isentropic efficiency of 60% is reached using SES36 at 3000 rpm, and a value of 52% is reached with R245fa at 3000 rpm. However, for a given pressure ratio the expander output power is higher with R245fa than with SES36. The overall performance of the ORC unit are investigated in terms of first and second law efficiencies and net output power for the two fluids. The results experimentally demonstrate the correlation between the working fluid critical temperature and the ORC unit working characteristics for low temperature waste heat recovery applications. Open experimental data are provided for both fluids. [less ▲]

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