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See detailIn vitro model to study the biological properties of humic fractions from landfill leachate and leonardite during root elongation of Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn and Betula pendula Roth.
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

in Plant Cell, Tissue & Organ Culture (2015), 122(3), 739-749

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Our study aims to determine the main biological properties of HS ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are organic compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues. Our study aims to determine the main biological properties of HS comparing landfill leachate (LHS) source to a stable formulation extracted from leonardite (HHS), and using an in vitro system of root development from shoot and leaf explants of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa L. Gaertn). Results showed that both explants of both species rooted closely to 100% when cultivated in absence of HS. The incorporation of HS or their fractions into the culture medium affect root growth, mainly lateral roots formation and primary root length. Applied at low concentration (10 ppm) HS stimulated especially primary root growth. But at high concentration (100 ppm), LHS inhibited root formation of alder, while birch was more tolerant. The application of 100 ppm of HHS, did not affect alder root growth but increased root growth in birch. Humic acids fractions (HA) were favorable and improved root growth while, fulvic acids (FA) and other molecules (OM) decreased significantly root growth, especially those extracted LHS. The root inhibition expressed at high LHS concentration may be due to the presence of different toxic molecules and root growth inhibitors in OM and FA fractions and that some of them remained in the OM fraction from leonardite. [less ▲]

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See detailMAVEN IUVS observations of the aftermath of the Comet Siding Spring meteor shower on Mars
Schneider, Nick; Deighan, Justin; Stewart, Ian et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2015)

We report the detection of intense emission from magnesium and iron in Mars' atmosphere caused by a meteor shower following Comet Siding Spring's close encounter with Mars. The observations were made with ... [more ▼]

We report the detection of intense emission from magnesium and iron in Mars' atmosphere caused by a meteor shower following Comet Siding Spring's close encounter with Mars. The observations were made with the Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph, a remote sensing instrument on the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft orbiting Mars. Ionized magnesium caused the brightest emission from the planet's atmosphere for many hours, resulting from resonant scattering of solar ultraviolet light. Modeling suggests a substantial fluence of low-density dust particles 1–100 µm in size, with the large amount and small size contrary to predictions. The event created a temporary planet-wide ionospheric layer below Mars' main dayside ionosphere. The dramatic meteor shower response at Mars is starkly different from the case at Earth, where a steady state metal layer is always observable but perturbations caused by even the strongest meteor showers are challenging to detect. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of γ-radiation on free radicals formation, structural changesand functional properties of wheat starch
Atrous, Hager; Benbettaieb, Nasreddine; Hosni, Faouzi et al

in International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2015), 80

Wheat starch was treated by different γ-radiation doses (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 kGy). The effects of γ-radiation on structural, thermal, physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of wheat ... [more ▼]

Wheat starch was treated by different γ-radiation doses (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 kGy). The effects of γ-radiation on structural, thermal, physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of wheat starch were studied. The presence of free radicals after γ-radiation treatment, which number decreased with time was confirmed. Structural analysis revealed decreases in the intensities of the O–H and C–H stretches and glycosidic linkages indicating the depolymerization of amylose and probably amy-lopectin into shorter chain molecules, but showed that γ-radiation treatment did not affect the crystalline structure. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) thermograms showed the absence of significant differences in the gelatinization temperatures, as well as the corresponding transition enthalpies since the DSC parameters are related to the crystalline ordering within the granules. Apparent amylose content decreased linearly with increasing irradiation dose leading to an increase in water solubility index. Anincrease in the swelling power was observed after irradiation treatment until 20 kGy, followed by a rapiddecrease at higher doses. Microscopic observations showed that the effect of γ-radiation was more visible on starch pastes than on starch granules. Rheological properties of the starch pastes decreased within creasing irradiation dose as a result of glycosidic bond cleavage. [less ▲]

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See detailCommercial farming of Leiolepis guttata in Binh Thuan province, Vietnam: implications for conservation and management
Rochette, Anne-Julie; Tran, Tinh ULg; De Martynoff, Abigail et al

in Herpetological Conservation and Biology (2015), 10(1),

Since the first Indochinese war, natural populations of Leiolepis guttata have been hunted for their meat in southeastern Vietnam as a subsistence meal; nowadays, it has become a luxury delicacy ... [more ▼]

Since the first Indochinese war, natural populations of Leiolepis guttata have been hunted for their meat in southeastern Vietnam as a subsistence meal; nowadays, it has become a luxury delicacy. Commercial farms have become established since 2004 because of wild population declines and increasing demand for meat. We interviewed farmers and restaurateurs about the breeding and trade of the species to better understand the impact on wild populations. The results highlight the recent flourishing expansion of farming with rapidly increasing product prices and number of farms, as well as the ease and profitability of this activity. Wild population declines are widely acknowledged by authorities and local communities. Farms are being regarded as conservation pools to offset wild stock depletion, in addition to an important source of income. We discuss the risks associated with this trade development and we emphasize the conservation implications. Demand for lizards as founders for farms and for meat are likely to increase further, but risks exist that the development of new farms would saturate the market causing prices to ultimately fall. Habitat destruction and over-collecting severely reduce wild populations, but the high densities of farmed lizards raise serious genetic and sanitary issues. We suggest that further information should be collected to assess the sustainability of this trade. Priority should be given to the assessment of natural population densities and hunting effort. Biological patterns of this species are poorly documented and sound knowledge would enable better management of farms, and if this species is recognized as endangered could lead restrictions on harvesting of wild populations. [less ▲]

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See detailKin recognition and inbreeding avoidance in a butterfly
Fischer; Karl, Isabell; Heuskin, Stéphanie ULg et al

in Ethology (2015), 121

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See detailCharacterizing the morphology of suburban settlements: a method based on a semi-automatic classification of building clusters
de Smet, Fabian; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Landscape Research (2015)

Urban sprawl is transforming our landscapes and rural areas at a spectacular pace. Measuring the strength of the phenomenon and proposing dynamic ways to delineate suburban areas have been the object of ... [more ▼]

Urban sprawl is transforming our landscapes and rural areas at a spectacular pace. Measuring the strength of the phenomenon and proposing dynamic ways to delineate suburban areas have been the object of much debate amongst scientists. The present article takes the view that, beyond measuring and delineating suburban areas, more efforts should be directed to qualifying the morphology of built settlements within these areas. Therefore it proposes a method based on a semi-automatic classification system of building clusters, designed to describe and interpret the phenomenon from a morphological perspective. This method is based on a combination of field surveys with numerical analyses of digital land cadastre maps. The application of this classification system to the suburban area around Liege reveals that, far from developing in a complete indifference of local conditions, contemporary suburban settlements are influenced by landscape structures inherited from the past. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Different Thermal Comfort Models on Zero Energy Residential Buildings in Hot Climate
Attia, Shady ULg; Carlucci, Salvatore

in Energy & Buildings (2015)

The selection of a thermal comfort model for establishing indoor optimal hygrothermal conditions during the hot period has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings in hot climates ... [more ▼]

The selection of a thermal comfort model for establishing indoor optimal hygrothermal conditions during the hot period has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings in hot climates. The objective of this paper is to compare the influence of using different thermal comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates. The paper compares the impact of applying Fanger’s model, Givoni’s model, the ASHRAE 55 adaptive comfort model and the EN 15251 adaptive comfort model on energy consumption and comfort performance. Using both the building performance simulation tools ZEBO and EnergyPlus for energy simulation, an existing prototype of a residential apartment module is used to evaluate energy performance and thermal comfort in two parametric series. The first one is the result of coupling natural ventilation and mechanical cooling and the second one is guided coupling natural ventilation, mechanical cooling and ceiling fans. This study shows that the percentage of energy consumption difference meeting the comfort criteria according to ISO 7730 in comparison to EN 15251, ASHRAE 55 or Givoni’s model varied up to 16%, 21% and 24.7% respectively for the presented case study. More energy savings can be expected for buildings in hot climates with greater cooling demands. [less ▲]

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See detailAPOBEC3 Interference during Replication of Viral Genomes
Willems, Luc ULg; Gillet, Nicolas ULg

in Viruses (2015)

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See detailA semiquantitative framework for gene regulatory networks: increasing the time and quantitative resolution of Boolean networks
Kerkhofs, Johan ULg; Geris, Liesbet ULg

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(6), 0130033

Boolean models have been instrumental in predicting general features of gene networks and more recently also as explorative tools in specific biological applications. In this study we introduce a basic ... [more ▼]

Boolean models have been instrumental in predicting general features of gene networks and more recently also as explorative tools in specific biological applications. In this study we introduce a basic quantitative and a limited time resolution to a discrete (Boolean) framework. Quantitative resolution is improved through the employ of normalized variables in unison with an additive approach. Increased time resolution stems from the introduction of two distinct priority classes. Through the implementation of a previously published chondrocyte network and T helper cell network, we show that this addition of quantitative and time resolution broadens the scope of biological behaviour that can be captured by the models. Specifically, the quantitative resolution readily allows models to discern qualitative differences in dosage response to growth factors. The limited time resolution, in turn, can influence the reachability of attractors, delineating the likely long term system behaviour. Importantly, the information required for implementation of these features, such as the nature of an interaction, is typically obtainable from the literature. Nonetheless, a trade-off is always present between additional computational cost of this approach and the likelihood of extending the model’s scope. Indeed, in some cases the inclusion of these features does not yield additional insight. This framework, incorporating increased and readily available time and semi-quantitative resolution, can help in substantiating the litmus test of dynamics for gene networks, firstly by excluding unlikely dynamics and secondly by refining falsifiable predictions on qualitative behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailFluorinated alcohols as activators for the solvent-free chemical fixation of carbon dioxide onto epoxides
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Alves, Margot ULg; Méreau, Raphaël et al

in ChemSusChem (2015), 8(11), 1845-1849

The addition of fluorinated alcohols to onium salts provides highly efficient organocatalysts for the chemical fixation of CO2 onto epoxides under mild experimental conditions. The combination of online ... [more ▼]

The addition of fluorinated alcohols to onium salts provides highly efficient organocatalysts for the chemical fixation of CO2 onto epoxides under mild experimental conditions. The combination of online kinetic studies, NMR titrations and DFT calculations allows understanding this synergistic effect that provides an active organocatalyst for CO2/epoxides coupling. [less ▲]

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See detailA new design of organic radical batteries (ORBs): carbon nanotube buckypaper electrode functionalized by electrografting
Aqil, Abdelhafid ULg; Vlad, Alexandru; Piedboeuf, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Chemical Communications (2015), 51(45), 9301-9304

A novel hybridmaterial displaying a fast and reversible charge storage capability is prepared by electrografting of an alkoxyamine-bearing acrylate onto a carbon nanotube buckypaper, followed by the quan ... [more ▼]

A novel hybridmaterial displaying a fast and reversible charge storage capability is prepared by electrografting of an alkoxyamine-bearing acrylate onto a carbon nanotube buckypaper, followed by the quan- titative generation of an electroactive polynitroxide. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative biochemical analysis after steam pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass from six combined morphological parts of Williams Cavendish banana plant (Triploid Musa AAA group)
Kamdem, Irenée ULg; Jacquet, Nicolas ULg; Tiappi Deumaga, Mathias Florian ULg et al

in Waste Management & Research : The Journal of the International Solid Wastes & Public Cleansing Association (2015)

The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the ... [more ▼]

The accessibility of fermentable substrates to enzymes is a limiting factor for the efficient bioconversion of agricultural wastes in the context of sustainable development. This paper presents the results of a biochemical analysis performed on Williams Cavendish Lignocellulosic Biomass (WCLB) after steam cracking (SC) and steam explosion (SE) pretreatments. Solid (S) and liquid (L) fractions (Fs) obtained from SC pretreatment performed at 180°C (SLFSC180) and 210°C (SLFSC210) generated, after diluted acid hydrolysis, the highest proportions of neutral sugar (NS) contents, specifically 52.82±3.51 and 49.78±1.39 %w/w WCLB’s dry matter (DM), respectively. The highest proportions of glucose were found in SFSC210 (53.56±1.33 %w/w DM) and SFSC180 (44.47±0.00 %w/w DM), while the lowest was found in unpretreated WCLB (22.70±0.71 %w/w DM). Total NS content assessed in each LF immediately after SC and SE pretreatments was less than 2 %w/w of the LF’s DM, thus revealing minor acid autohydrolysis consequently leading to minor NS production during the steam pretreatment. WCLB subjected to SC at 210°C (SC210) generated up to 2.7-fold bioaccessible glucan and xylan. SC and SE pretreatments showed potential for the deconstruction of WCLB (delignification, depolymerisation, decrystallization and deacetylation), enhancing its enzymatic hydrolysis. The concentrations of enzymatic inhibitors such as 2-furfuraldehyde and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural from LFSC210 were the highest (41 and 21 µg mL-1, respectively). This study shows that steam pretreatments in general and SC210 in particular are required for efficient bioconversion of WCLB. Yet, biotransformation through biochemical processes (e.g., anaerobic digestion) must be performed to assess the efficiency of these pretreatments. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal parasite and Rattus rodent invasions: The consequences for rodent-borne diseases
Morand, Serge; Bordes, Frédéric; Chen, Hsuan-Wien et al

in Integrative Zoology (2015)

We summarize the current knowledge on parasitism-related invasion processes of the globally invasive Rattus lineages, originating from Asia, and how these invasions have impacted the local epidemiology of ... [more ▼]

We summarize the current knowledge on parasitism-related invasion processes of the globally invasive Rattus lineages, originating from Asia, and how these invasions have impacted the local epidemiology of rodent-borne diseases. Parasites play an important role in the invasion processes and successes of their hosts through multiple biological mechanisms such as "parasite release", "immunocompetence advantage", “biotic resistance” and "novel weapon". Parasites may also greatly increase the impact of invasions by spillover of parasites and other pathogens, introduced with invasive hosts, into new hosts potentially leading to novel emerging diseases. Another potential impact is the ability of the invader to amplify local parasites by spill-back. In both cases, local fauna and humans may be exposed to new health risks, which may decrease biodiversity and may potentially cause increases in human morbidity and mortality. Here we review the current knowledge on these processes and propose some research priorities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe physics of badminton
Cohen, Caroline; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste ULg; Quéré, David et al

in New Journal of Physics (2015), 17

The conical shape of a shuttlecock allows it to flip on impact. As a light and extended particle, it flies with a pure drag trajectory.We first study the flip phenomenon and the dynamics of the flight and ... [more ▼]

The conical shape of a shuttlecock allows it to flip on impact. As a light and extended particle, it flies with a pure drag trajectory.We first study the flip phenomenon and the dynamics of the flight and then discuss the implications on the game. Lastly, a possible classification of different shots is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Holothuroid Ichtyotoxic Saponins on the Gills of Free-Living Fishes and Symbiotic Pearlfishes
Eeckhaut, Igor; Caulier, Guillaume; Brasseur, Lola et al

in The Biological Bulletin (2015), 228(3), 253-265

Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to ... [more ▼]

Several carapid fishes, known as pearlfishes, are endosymbiotic in holothuroids and asteroids. These echinoderms contain a strong concentration of saponins that are efficient membranolytic repellents to predators. We compared the effects of exposure to saponins from the sea cucumber body wall and from the Cuvierian tubules on the behavior and gill ultrastructure of pearlfishes and free-living fishes. Saponins were extracted from the body wall of two holothuroids, the Mediterranean Holothuria forskali and the tropical Bohadschia atra, and from the water surrounding the Cuvierian tubules of B. atra. Five species of carapids that live in symbiosis with holothuroids and seven species of free-living fishes were exposed to these extracts. The free-living fishes exhibited a stress response and died about 45 times faster than pearlfishes when exposed to the same quantity of saponins. Cuvierian tubules and saponins extracted from the body wall were lethal to the free-living fishes, whereas the carapids were much less sensitive. The carapids did not exhibit a stress response. The high toxicity shown by Cuvierian tubules was not explained by the nature of the saponins that were identified by mass spectrometry, but it is likely due to the higher concentration of saponins in the tubules. Histology and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the gills of the free-living fishes and pearlfishes showed that saponins act at the level of the secondary lamellae where they induce the detachment of the epithelia, create edema at the level of the epithelia, and induce pores in the epithelial cells that lead to their destruction and the invasion of inner cells (pillar cells and red blood cells). This sequence of events happens 5 min after saponin exposure in free-living fishes and after 1 h in carapids. [less ▲]

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See detailHubble Space Telescope search for the transit of the Earth-mass exoplanet α Centauri B b
Demory, Brice-Olivier; Ehrenreich, David; Queloz, Didier et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

Results from exoplanet surveys indicate that small planets (super-Earth size and below) are abundant in our Galaxy. However, little is known about their interiors and atmospheres. There is therefore a ... [more ▼]

Results from exoplanet surveys indicate that small planets (super-Earth size and below) are abundant in our Galaxy. However, little is known about their interiors and atmospheres. There is therefore a need to find small planets transiting bright stars, which would enable a detailed characterization of this population of objects. We present the results of a search for the transit of the Earth-mass exoplanet α Centauri B b with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We observed α Centauri B twice in 2013 and 2014 for a total of 40 h. We achieve a precision of 115 ppm per 6-s exposure time in a highly saturated regime, which is found to be consistent across HST orbits. We rule out the transiting nature of α Centauri B b with the orbital parameters published in the literature at 96.6 per cent confidence. We find in our data a single transit-like event that could be associated with another Earth-sized planet in the system, on a longer period orbit. Our programme demonstrates the ability of HST to obtain consistent, high-precision photometry of saturated stars over 26 h of continuous observations. [less ▲]

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See detailPluto's atmosphere from stellar occultations in 2012 and 2013
Dias-Oliveira, A.; Sicardy, B.; Lellouch, E. et al

in ArXiv e-prints (2015), 1506

We analyze two multi-chord stellar occultations by Pluto observed on July 18th, 2012 and May 4th, 2013, and monitored respectively from five and six sites. They provide a total of fifteen light-curves ... [more ▼]

We analyze two multi-chord stellar occultations by Pluto observed on July 18th, 2012 and May 4th, 2013, and monitored respectively from five and six sites. They provide a total of fifteen light-curves, twelve of them being used for a simultaneous fit that uses a unique temperature profile, assuming a clear (no-haze) and pure N_2 atmosphere, but allowing for a possible pressure variation between the two dates. We find a solution that fits satisfactorily (i.e. within the noise level) all the twelve light-curves, providing atmospheric constraints between ~1,190 km (pressure ~ 11 \mubar) and ~ 1,450 km (pressure ~0.1 \mubar) from Pluto's center. Our main results are: (1) the best-fitting temperature profile shows a stratosphere with strong positive gradient between 1,190 km (at 36 K, 11 \mubar) and r = 1,215 km (6.0 \mubar), where a temperature maximum of 110 K is reached; above it is a mesosphere with negative thermal gradient of -0.2 K/km up to ~ 1,390 km (0.25 \mubar), where, the mesosphere connects itself to a more isothermal upper branch around 81 K; (2) the pressure shows a small (6 [less ▲]

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See detailThe nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber
Soltani, Payam ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Smart Materials and Structures (2015), 24(07), 075015

This paper proposes a piezoelectric vibration absorber, termed the nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber (NPTVA), for the mitigation of nonlinear resonances of mechanical systems. The new ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a piezoelectric vibration absorber, termed the nonlinear piezoelectric tuned vibration absorber (NPTVA), for the mitigation of nonlinear resonances of mechanical systems. The new feature of the NPTVA is that its nonlinear restoring force is designed according to a principle of similarity, i.e., the NPTVA should be an electrical analog of the nonlinear host system. Analytical formulas for the NPTVA parameters are derived using the homotopy perturbation method. Doing so, a nonlinear generalization of Den Hartog’s equal-peak tuning rule is developed for piezoelectric vibration absorbers. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel nanosized water soluble fluorescent micelles with embedded perylene diimide fluorophores for potential biomedical applications: Cell permeability, localization and cytotoxicity
Bryaskova, Rayna; Georgiev, Nikolai I.; Dimov, Stefan M. et al

in Materials Science & Engineering : C (2015), 51

Novel biocompatiblewater-soluble fluorescent micelleswithembedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly ... [more ▼]

Novel biocompatiblewater-soluble fluorescent micelleswithembedded perylene diimides (PDI) for intracellular applications have been prepared by self assembling of amphiphilic poly(vinyl alcohol)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVA-b-PAN) copolymers in the presence of synthesized fluorophores. Amphiphilic PVA-b-PAN copolymers were obtained by selective hydrolysis of well-defined poly(vinyl acetate)-b-poly(acrylonitrile) (PVAc-b-PAN) copolymer. The preparation of the novel fluorescence micelles consisting of PVA hydrophilic shell and PAN hy- drophobic core with incorporated PDI fluorophores has been confirmed by DLS and TEManalysis. The cytotoxic- ity of the water-soluble fluorophores and their internalization into living cells depending on the micellar concentration have been tested. Itwas shown that they could successfully enter in living cellswithout destroying their morphology. The results obtained indicate that the novel water-soluble fluorescent micelles with embed- ded PDI fluorophores would be suitable for potential intracellular biomedical applications. [less ▲]

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See detailTriiodothyronine-predominant Graves’ disease in childhood: detection and therapeutic implications
HARVENGT, Julie ULg; boizeau, priscilla; chevenne, didier et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2015), 172(6), 715-723

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See detailDe la périménopause à la ménopause, quel intérêt d'un examen biologique
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Revue de la Médecine Générale (2015), 324

Do hormonal blood tests provide support to the management of perimenopause? Should there be a systematic biological assessment before initiating hormonal therapy and to help monitoring it?

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See detailLaTeX, un peu, beaucoup (8. Compteurs)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2015)

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See detailExtended end-plate to concrete- filled rectangular column joint using long bolts
Hoang, Van Long ULg; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2015), 113

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See detailChanges in Activity Patterns and Intergroup Relationships After a Significant Mortality Event in Commensal Long- Tailed Macaques (Macaca Fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia
Brotcorne, Fany ULg; Fuentes, Agustin; Wandia, I Nengah et al

in International Journal of Primatology (2015), 36(3), 548566

Little is known regarding behavioral and social responses of free-ranging primates to demographic changes emerging from significant mortality events. Here, we report on the activity patterns and ... [more ▼]

Little is known regarding behavioral and social responses of free-ranging primates to demographic changes emerging from significant mortality events. Here, we report on the activity patterns and intergroup sociospatial relationships in a commensal population of long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Bali, Indonesia, that underwent a significant mortality event in summer 2012. During the period of interest, we noted heightened mortality in three of the five social groups present in this population, with adult females and juveniles experiencing higher mortality rates than adult and subadult males. Limited diagnostic data regarding pathogen identification and a lack of any conclusive etiology of the deaths prevent our ascertainment of the agent(s) responsible for the observed mortality, but given the characteristics of the event we assume it was caused by a transmissible disease outbreak. Comparing the pre- and postmortality event periods, we found significant differences in activity patterns, including a decreased proportion of affiliation in adult females. This result is likely indicative of enhanced social instability induced by the high mortality of adult females that constitute the stable core of macaque social structure. A higher social tension between groups after the mortality event was indicated by more frequent and intense agonistic intergroup encounters. Intergroup conflict success was inversely proportional to the rate of mortality a group suffered. Our results illustrate how changes in demographic structure caused by significant mortality events may have substantial consequences on behavior and social dynamics in primate groups and at the level of a population. [less ▲]

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See detailConsommation de pornographie à l’adolescence : quelles représentations de la sexualité et de la pornographie, pour quelle sexualité ?
Puglia, Rosa ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence (2015), 63(4), 231-237

Cette recherche, réalisée sur une population de 319 adolescents (150 filles et 169 garçons) âgés de 15 à 19 ans, présente deux grands objectifs. Premièrement, elle vise à évaluer l’impact de ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche, réalisée sur une population de 319 adolescents (150 filles et 169 garçons) âgés de 15 à 19 ans, présente deux grands objectifs. Premièrement, elle vise à évaluer l’impact de l’accessibilité et de la visualisation de la pornographie au niveau des représentations de ce média et de la sexualité. Deuxièmement, elle vise à évaluer l’influence de la consommation pornographique au niveau du développement psycho-sexuel des adolescents. Un protocole comprenant plusieurs dimensions telles que les relations sentimentales, la sexualité, la pornographie, et les représentations a été administré aux participants de manière groupale et anonyme. Il en ressort que les adolescents consommateurs de pornographie soulignent davantage les effets positifs associés à la pornographie, qu’ils reconnaissent une influence de ce média sur leur vie sexuelle et qu’ils adoptent des pratiques sexuelles plus diversifiées que celles de leurs pairs non-consommateurs. En revanche, consommateurs et non-consommateurs soulignent de manière identique les effets négatifs associés à ce média. Cette conscientisation des effets négatifs aurait un effet modérateur sur l’influence de la pornographie. Actuellement, la consommation de pornographie est un comportement expérimenté par une majorité d’adolescents ; elle pourrait s’inscrire dans un processus développemental adolescentaire et se comprendre comme une conduite exploratoire répondant à diverses fonctions dont la recherche de repères au niveau de la sexualité. [less ▲]

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See detailPanorama des incitants fiscaux destinés à stimuler l’investissement privé dans le secteur cinématographique
Vandenbulke, Antoine ULg

in Agefi Luxembourg (2015)

The film industry in Europe is largely funded through States support mechanisms. Among the many instruments set up by the various national laws, particular attention should be given to tax incentives ... [more ▼]

The film industry in Europe is largely funded through States support mechanisms. Among the many instruments set up by the various national laws, particular attention should be given to tax incentives aimed to stimulate private capital investments in this sector particularly risky. This short paper aims to outline the main features of tax breaks for the private financing of an audiovisual work in three States in particular: France, Belgium and Luxembourg. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevenção quaternária: primeiro não causar dano - Editorial
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015), 10(35), 1-3

A prevenção clínica, sob a influência da saúde pública, foi organizada de forma cronológica, desde meados do século XX. No entanto, uma mudança de paradigma de uma ordem cronológica para um padrão ... [more ▼]

A prevenção clínica, sob a influência da saúde pública, foi organizada de forma cronológica, desde meados do século XX. No entanto, uma mudança de paradigma de uma ordem cronológica para um padrão construtivista fundamentado em uma relação preventiva de atendimento, oferece novas,reflexões à prática dos médicos. Essa mudança de paradigma traz à tona o conceito de prevenção quaternária, um olhar crítico sobre as atividades médicas, com ênfase na necessidade de não causar danos. A prevenção quaternária aborda a questão principal do que se constitui como ‘muita’ ou ‘pouca’ medicina. Ela é a quarta forma de prevenção de doenças, e também a quarta etapa de ação dos médicos de família [less ▲]

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See detailDefensins: « simple » antimicrobial peptides or broad-spectrum molecules ?
Suarez-Carmona, Meggy ULg; Hubert, Pascale ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews (2015), 26

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See detailVentilation buccale et SAOS chez l'enfant
BRUWIER, Annick ULg; LIMME, Michel ULg

in Réalites Cliniques : Revue Européenne d'Odontologie (2015), 26

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See detailConsommation de pornographie à l’adolescence : quelles représentations de la sexualité et de la pornographie, pour quelle sexualité ?
Puglia, Rosa ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence (2015), 63(4), 231-237

Cette recherche, réalisée sur une population de 319 adolescents (150 filles et 169 garçons) âgés de 15 à 19 ans, présente deux grands objectifs. Premièrement, elle vise à évaluer l’impact de ... [more ▼]

Cette recherche, réalisée sur une population de 319 adolescents (150 filles et 169 garçons) âgés de 15 à 19 ans, présente deux grands objectifs. Premièrement, elle vise à évaluer l’impact de l’accessibilité et de la visualisation de la pornographie au niveau des représentations de ce média et de la sexualité. Deuxièmement, elle vise à évaluer l’influence de la consommation pornographique au niveau du développement psycho-sexuel des adolescents. Un protocole comprenant plusieurs dimensions telles que les relations sentimentales, la sexualité, la pornographie, et les représentations a été administré aux participants de manière groupale et anonyme. Il en ressort que les adolescents consommateurs de pornographie soulignent davantage les effets positifs associés à la pornographie, qu’ils reconnaissent une influence de ce média sur leur vie sexuelle et qu’ils adoptent des pratiques sexuelles plus diversifiées que celles de leurs pairs non-consommateurs. En revanche, consommateurs et non-consommateurs soulignent de manière identique les effets négatifs associés à ce média. Cette conscientisation des effets négatifs aurait un effet modérateur sur l’influence de la pornographie. Actuellement, la consommation de pornographie est un comportement expérimenté par une majorité d’adolescents ; elle pourrait s’inscrire dans un processus développemental adolescentaire et se comprendre comme une conduite exploratoire répondant à diverses fonctions dont la recherche de repères au niveau de la sexualité. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacokinetics and clinical evaluation of the alogliptin plus pioglitazone combination for type 2 diabetes.
Scheen, André ULg

in Expert opinion on drug metabolism & toxicology (2015), 11(6), 1005-20

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease with multiple defects, which generally requires a combination of several pharmacological approaches to reach glucose control targets. A unique fixed-dose ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease with multiple defects, which generally requires a combination of several pharmacological approaches to reach glucose control targets. A unique fixed-dose combination combines a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) and a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (alogliptin). Area covered: An extensive literature search was performed to analyze the pharmacokinetics of pioglitazone and alogliptin when used separately and in combination as well as to summarize clinical and toxicological considerations about the combined therapy. Expert opinion: Pioglitazone, a potent insulin sensitizer, and alogliptin, an incretin-based agent that potentiates post-meal insulin secretion and reduces glucagon secretion, have complementary mechanisms of action. The clinical efficacy of a combined therapy is superior to any single therapy in patients treated with diet or with metformin (with or without sulphonylurea). These two drugs can be administered once daily, with or without a meal. No clinically relevant pharmacokinetic interactions between the two agents have been described and the fixed-dose combination has shown bioequivalence with alogliptin and pioglitazone given separately. Combining alogliptin with pioglitazone does not alter the safety profile of each compound. Weight gain observed with pioglitazone may be limited with the addition of alogliptin. The concern of an increased risk of heart failure remains to be better investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement to the Nansen Initiative: What the Governance of Environmental Migration Can Learn from the Governance of Internal Displacement
Gemenne, François ULg; Brücker, Pauline

in International Journal of Refugee Law (2015), 27(2), 245-263

Environmental migration is often presented as one of the gravest consequences of environmental disruptions – climate change in particular, and is already a reality in many parts of the world. Yet the ... [more ▼]

Environmental migration is often presented as one of the gravest consequences of environmental disruptions – climate change in particular, and is already a reality in many parts of the world. Yet the protection of these migrants is not adequately addressed in the international normative frameworks on migration. As a result, a growing number of scholars and advocacy groups have sought to create a special convention and/or an ad hoc status for these migrants, while others have contended that such a legal status is not the answer. As a result, the protection of environmental migrants is currently the subject of vigorous debates amongst scholars and policy-makers, and no clear solution is yet in sight. Research however has little considered the debates that surrounded the protection of those displaced within their countries (IDPs) in the 1990s. Both phenomena have sometimes overlapped, especially as environmental displacement is often internal. Yet, the debate on IDPs has had some significant success, in particular, the adoption of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement in 1998, and the signature of the Organization for African Unity’s Kampala Convention in 2009. This article argues that important lessons can be drawn from the protection of IDPs in order to inform the current debates on the protection of environmental migrants, as the political contexts and policy challenges associated with both crises of the migration regime are often similar. The article identifies such lessons and assesses the opportunities and caveats of applying a similar approach of soft law to environmental migration – and what would be needed to achieve it. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Herschel view of the nebula around the luminous blue variable star AG Carinae
Vamvatira-Nakou, Chloi ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Royer, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 578

Far-infrared Herschel PACS imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula around the luminous blue variable (LBV) star AG Car have been obtained along with optical imaging in the Halpha+[NII] filter ... [more ▼]

Far-infrared Herschel PACS imaging and spectroscopic observations of the nebula around the luminous blue variable (LBV) star AG Car have been obtained along with optical imaging in the Halpha+[NII] filter. In the infrared light, the nebula appears as a clumpy ring shell that extends up to 1.2 pc with an inner radius of 0.4 pc. It coincides with the Halpha nebula, but extends further out. Dust modeling of the nebula was performed and indicates the presence of large grains. The dust mass is estimated to be ~ 0.2 Msun. The infrared spectrum of the nebula consists of forbidden emission lines over a dust continuum. Apart from ionized gas, these lines also indicate the existence of neutral gas in a photodissociation region that surrounds the ionized region. The abundance ratios point towards enrichment by processed material. The total mass of the nebula ejected from the central star amounts to ~ 15 Msun, assuming a dust-to-gas ratio typical of LBVs. The abundances and the mass-loss rate were used to constrain the evolutionary path of the central star and the epoch at which the nebula was ejected, with the help of available evolutionary models. This suggests an ejection during a cool LBV phase for a star of ~ 55 Msun with little rotation. [less ▲]

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See detailL’indication comme concept. La logique des « groupes althussériens » (1965-1968)
Mancuso, Eva ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2015), VII

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See detailChangement climatique et familles politiques en Europe. Entre soutien et résistance aux politiques climatiques
Moelher, Karin; Piet, Grégory ULg; Zaccai, Edwin

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), 2257

Le changement climatique constitue une thématique politique relativement récente dans les agendas politiques et électoraux. Souvent, dans le grand public, la question climatique est perçue à travers la ... [more ▼]

Le changement climatique constitue une thématique politique relativement récente dans les agendas politiques et électoraux. Souvent, dans le grand public, la question climatique est perçue à travers la médiatisation des grands sommets des Nations Unies consacrés à cette problématique (Rio de Janeiro en 1992, Kyoto en 1997, Copenhague en 2009, Paris en 2015, etc.). Mais les positions que défendent les différents pays lors de ces réunions ont bien entendu été préalablement construites, entre autres, sur les scènes nationales. Les partis politiques sont à la fois les reflets des opinions publiques et les initiateurs des régulières redéfinitions des orientations politiques qui entourent la thématique du changement climatique. Ils filtrent également les demandes politiques de la société civile qui paraissent compatibles avec leur programme et leur faisabilité, et les transforment. Aux États-Unis, la polarisation politique autour de la question du changement climatique est aisément détectable . Le Republican Party se montre fortement critique, non seulement à l’égard des politiques climatiques discutées dans les cénacles de l’ONU, mais aussi, pour une part de ce courant, quant à l’existence du phénomène du changement climatique d’origine humaine. Ce type de position est particulièrement présent au sein du Tea Party. À l’inverse, le Democratic Party se montre nettement plus favorable à des objectifs climatiques, de même que, à l’instar du président Barack Obama ou du vice-président Al Gore précédemment, il reconnaît sans ambiguïté la réalité de ce phénomène physique, l’estime inquiétant et devant motiver l’action. Qu’en est-il en Europe ? L’opinion publique s’y déclare majoritairement convaincue de la réalité de changements climatiques d’origine anthropique et la trouve préoccupante, même s’il existe une part significative de la population qui en doute. Ce scepticisme se traduit-il toutefois dans les programmes électoraux de certains partis politiques, à l’instar de ce que l’on constate aux États-Unis ? Telle a été la question à la base du présent Courrier hebdomadaire. Annonçons cependant d’emblée que ce que nous désignerons ici par « climato-scepticisme », au sens strict de mise en doute du changement climatique d’origine humaine, n’est qu’un aspect assez partiel de cette étude. Nos résultats révèlent en effet que cette position climato-sceptique est extrêmement minoritaire parmi les formations politiques d’Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailA simplified analytical method to estimate the resistance of plane lock gates impacted by river barges
Buldgen, Loïc ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé; Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Marine Structures (2015), 43

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See detailAlthusser : une nouvelle pratique de la philosophie entre politique et idéologie. Conversation avec Étienne Balibar et Yves Duroux (Partie I)
Balibar, Etienne; Duroux, Yves; Bruschi, Fabio et al

in Cahiers du GRM (2015), VII

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See detailFor a Critical Iconology : the Meaning, Dynamics and Effectiveness of Images
Hagelstein, Maud ULg

in Critique d'Art : Actualité Francophone et Internationale de la Littérature Critique sur l'Art Contemporain = The International Review of Contemporary Art Criticism (2015)

The present-day theory of image comes in the wake of iconology, by virtue of the explicit re-use of several problematic themes which are central to this method, and permit its critical redevelopment : 1 ... [more ▼]

The present-day theory of image comes in the wake of iconology, by virtue of the explicit re-use of several problematic themes which are central to this method, and permit its critical redevelopment : 1. Reflection about iconic representation, about its relation to language and its specific logic; 2. The investigation into the dynamics of the image (circulation, persistence and development); 3. The study of the effectiveness of images and the production of many different kinds ok knowledge under the effect of editing operations. [less ▲]

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See detailA simplified analytical method to evaluate the seismic pressure on plane lock gates
Buldgen, Loïc ULg; Rigo, Philippe ULg; Le Sourne, Hervé

in Engineering Structures (2015), 100

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See detailLa Belgique, un pays ‘neutre’ ou un ‘petit pays’ ? La controverse autour du maintien de la neutralité imposée de la Belgique (1914-1919)
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin d'Information du Centre Liégeois d'Histoire et d'Archéologie Militaires (2015), 138

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See detailThe site of administration influences both the type and the magnitude of the immune response induced by DNA vaccine electroporation
Vandermeulen, G; Vanvarenberg, K; De Beuckelaer, A et al

in Vaccine (2015), 33

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See detailLe dosage du cobalt dans le sang par ICP-MS : application aux patients porteurs de prothèses de hanche en métal
MISTRETTA, Virginie ULg; Charlier, Corinne ULg

in Toxicologie Analytique & Clinique (2015), 27(2), 91-98

Objectif Les patients porteurs de prothèse de hanche à couple métal-métal (PHM) présentent un taux de cobalt circulant supérieur à celui de la population générale. Chez ces patients, le dosage du cobalt ... [more ▼]

Objectif Les patients porteurs de prothèse de hanche à couple métal-métal (PHM) présentent un taux de cobalt circulant supérieur à celui de la population générale. Chez ces patients, le dosage du cobalt permet d’apprécier le risque toxique éventuel de l’implant et peut servir d’indicateur de révision ou de remplacement de cette prothèse. A cette fin, une méthode de dosage a été validée et appliquée à des patients porteurs de PHM. Méthode Le dosage du cobalt est réalisé sur 500 μL de sang total, après dilution dix fois dans une solution aqueuse acide et après ajout de 100 μL d’une solution de standard interne titrée à 500 μg/L de germanium. L’échantillon est ensuite analysé par un spectromètre de masse avec source d’ionisation par plasma induit haute fréquence (ICP-MS). La méthode décrite a été validée par l’approche de l’erreur totale au moyen du logiciel e•noval (Arlenda®). Résultats La méthode de dosage a été validée avec succès. Elle est linéaire de 0,5 à 50 μg/L. L’inexactitude et l’imprécision intra- et inter-essais sont inférieures à 5 % et 8 %, respectivement. L’incertitude de mesure est inférieure à 17 %. La concentration sanguine moyenne de cobalt estimée sur une période de 1 an à partir de 107 prélèvements de patients porteurs de PHM est de 2,61 μg/L (nombre de patients : 98 ; âge moyen : 60 ans ; ratio hommes/femmes : 38/60). Ce résultat est inférieur au seuil recommandé dans ces populations, fixé à 7 μg/L de cobalt sanguin. Conclusion La méthode analytique présentée permet de doser le cobalt sanguin, notamment chez les patients porteurs de PHM. Ce dosage est recommandé pour le suivi de ces patients, en association avec un examen clinique et radiologique. [less ▲]

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See detailLes prix de traduction fabriquent-ils une image régulatrice du traducteur ?
Mogollon Zapata, Juan Manuel ULg; Valéry, Plouhinec

in Convergences francophones (2015), 2

Les prix de traduction participent à la fois aux luttes pour la détention d’un capital de consécration et à la construction de l’image publique du traducteur. Ils sont une excellente entrée pour mesurer ... [more ▼]

Les prix de traduction participent à la fois aux luttes pour la détention d’un capital de consécration et à la construction de l’image publique du traducteur. Ils sont une excellente entrée pour mesurer les discours qui circulent dans l’espace du livre sur le traducteur et sa pratique. Comment ces prix construisent-ils une image légitimante du traducteur ? Quels critères guident le choix des jurys et quels dispositifs discursifs les justifient ? Quelles retombées pour les traducteurs et l’image de la traduction en général ? À travers l’analyse de nombreux exemples, cet article cherche à établir la manière dont les prix de traduction produisent un discours légitimant sur la figure du traducteur qui contribue à la fabrication de son image. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Authority of Strasbourg Jurisprudence from the Perspective of the International Criminal Court
Deprez, Christophe ULg

in Journal Européen des Droits de l'Homme = European Journal of Human Rights (2015), 3

Although the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (Eur. Ct. H.R.) exerts a critical influence on the development of the practice of the International Criminal Court (ICC), it remains unclear ... [more ▼]

Although the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (Eur. Ct. H.R.) exerts a critical influence on the development of the practice of the International Criminal Court (ICC), it remains unclear what the exact authority of such external jurisprudence is vis-à-vis the international criminal judge. This article addresses the question whether ICC judges have used Strasbourg jurisprudence in a consistent manner, in particular as regards the authority which they decided to vest the latter with. It demonstrates that the Court’s chambers have relied on European human rights practice, alternatively, as a mere source of inspiration, as binding interpretation, as a corpus having ambivalent authority, or as a source whose value it simply left unspecified. It therefore concludes that the ICC has been mostly inconsistent regarding the authority of the case law of the Eur. Ct. H.R. in the context of international criminal proceedings. Such inconsistency, it is argued, amounts to a discretionary use of Strasbourg jurisprudence that further reinforces the ICC’s paradoxical position as the ultimate authority for defining the boundaries of its own human rights constraint. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystal structure of arsenuranospathite from Rabejac, Lodève, France
Dal Bo, Fabrice ULg; Hatert, Frédéric ULg; Baijot, Maxime ULg et al

in European Journal of Mineralogy (2015), 27

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See detailEvaluation of the Economic Statistical Design of the Multivariate T2 Control Chart with Multiple Variable Sampling Intervals Scheme: NSGA-II Approach
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Seif, Asghar; Sadeghifar

in Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation (2015), 85(12), 2442-2455

The economic and statistical merits of a multiple variable sampling intervals (MVSI) scheme are studied. The problem is formulated as a double-objective optimization problem with the adjusted average time ... [more ▼]

The economic and statistical merits of a multiple variable sampling intervals (MVSI) scheme are studied. The problem is formulated as a double-objective optimization problem with the adjusted average time to signal as the statistical objective and the expected cost per hour as the economic objective. Bai and Lee’s ‎[2] economic model is considered. Then we find the Pareto-optimal designs in which the two objectives are minimized simultaneously by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. Through an illustrative example, the advantages of the proposed approach is shown by providing a list of viable optimal solutions and graphical representations, which indicate the advantage of flexibility and adaptability of our approach. [less ▲]

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See detailClinically relevant subgroups in COPD and asthma.
Turner, Alice M.; Tamasi, Lilla; SCHLEICH, FLorence ULg et al

in European respiratory review : an official journal of the European Respiratory Society (2015), 24(136), 283-98

As knowledge of airways disease has grown, it has become apparent that neither chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) nor asthma is a simple, easily defined disease. In the past, treatment options ... [more ▼]

As knowledge of airways disease has grown, it has become apparent that neither chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) nor asthma is a simple, easily defined disease. In the past, treatment options for both diseases were limited; thus, there was less need to define subgroups. As treatment options have grown, so has our need to predict who will respond to new drugs. To date, identifying subgroups has been largely reported by detailed clinical characterisation or differences in pathobiology. These subgroups are commonly called "phenotypes"; however, the problem of defining what constitutes a phenotype, whether this should include comorbid diseases and how to handle changes over time has led to the term being used loosely. In this review, we describe subgroups of COPD and asthma patients whose clinical characteristics we believe have therapeutic or major prognostic implications specific to the lung, and whether these subgroups are constant over time. Finally, we will discuss whether the subgroups we describe are common to both asthma and COPD, and give some examples of how treatment might be tailored in patients where the subgroup is clear, but the label of asthma or COPD is not. [less ▲]

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See detailThe words of prevention, part II: ten terms in the realm of quaternary prevention
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Gavilan, Enrique; Cardoso, Raquel Val et al

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015), 10(35), 1-9

ABSTRACT Objective: This part II article about the ‘words of prevention’ presents in a terminological way the content of ten current concepts used in the prevention domain which are closely linked to ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Objective: This part II article about the ‘words of prevention’ presents in a terminological way the content of ten current concepts used in the prevention domain which are closely linked to quaternary prevention: (1) overinformation, (2) overdiagnosis, (3) medically unexplained symptoms, (4) overmedicalisation, (5) incidentaloma, (6) overscreening, (7) overtreatment, (8) shared decision making, (9) deprescribing, and (10) disease mongering. Methods: with the support of the laboratory team of the University of Rouen, France, which is dedicated to medical terminology and semantic relationships, it was possible to utilize a graphic user interface (called DBGUI) allowing the construction of links for each of chosen terms, and making automatic links to MeSH, if any. Those concepts are analyzed in their environment in current literature, as well as in their MeSH counterparts, if any, and related semantic online terminologies. Results and Discussion: The rules in terminological development aspire to cover the whole field of a concept and in the meantime, it helps to avoid the noise due to proxy and not exactly related issues. This refers to exhaustivity and specificity in information retrieval. Our finds show that referring to MeSH only in information retrieval in General Practice/Family medicine can induce much noise and poor adequacy to the subject investigated. Conclusion: Gathering concepts in specially prepared terminologies for further development of ontologies is a necessity to enter in the semantic web area and the era of distributed data. [less ▲]

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See detailMen in childcare services: From enrolment in training programs to job retention
Pirard, Florence ULg; Schoenmaeckers, Pauline ULg; Camus, Pascale

in European Early Childhood Education Research Journal (2015)

This article presents a study conducted in Federation Wallonia-Brussels (FWB) to identify factors that motivate men to enrol in training programmes and work in a field where women are the majority, in a ... [more ▼]

This article presents a study conducted in Federation Wallonia-Brussels (FWB) to identify factors that motivate men to enrol in training programmes and work in a field where women are the majority, in a context in which few proactive measures are taken to overcome gender stereotypes. Comprehensive interviews conducted with male childcare ‘informants’ who had been working with children under the age of three for at least a year in subsidised childcare centres helped us to identify factors which seemed to influence their decision to enrol in and continue an initial training programme with a curriculum that is not genderneutral, and then work in a profession that is almost exclusively female. [less ▲]

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See detailThe words of prevention, part I: changing the model
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Gavilan, Enrique; Cardoso, Raquel Val et al

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015), 10(35), 1-9

ABSTRACT Objective: This part I article explores the different meanings of relevant keywords for General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) in the prevention domain. The aim is to contribute to information ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Objective: This part I article explores the different meanings of relevant keywords for General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) in the prevention domain. The aim is to contribute to information process in GP/FM by keeping in line with the main terms used in health care organization. Methods: Important keywords for GP/FM in the prevention domain were selected. Then, a search was carried out on the main sources in GP/FM databases, as well as in Medical Subject Heading and major terminological databases available online. Results and Discussion: There is discrepancy between the conceptual contents of major prevention models amongst the usual bibliographic sources of knowledge in GP/FM in particular and medicine in general. Conclusion: For GP/FM, distribution of preventive activities is now firmly established on a new constructivist model, privileging the doctor-patient relationships and introducing a cybernetic thinking on the health care activities with a special commitment to ethics and the positive duty of beneficence. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiple analyses of microbial communities applied to the gut of the wood-feeding termite Reticulitermes flavipes fed on artificial diets
Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Bauwens, Julien ULg; Mattéotti, Christel et al

in Symbiosis (2015)

The purpose of this work was the observation of the differences between the microbial communities living in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes fed on different diets. The termites were fed on ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work was the observation of the differences between the microbial communities living in the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes fed on different diets. The termites were fed on poplar wood (original diet) and artificial diets consisting of crystalline cellulose (with and without lignin), α-cellulose (with and without lignin) and xylan. The termites were then dissected and the protist communities were analyzed through microscopy, leading to the conclusion that protist species are strongly influenced by diets. BIOLOG ECO Microplates® were used to assess the metabolic properties of the different types of consortia, highlighting strong differences on the basis of principal component analysis and calculation of similarity rates. The microorganisms were cultivated in liquid media corresponding to the artificial diets before being characterized through a metagenetic analysis of gut microbiota (16S ribosomal DNA). This analysis identified several phyla: Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Fibrobacteres, Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, OP9, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, TM6, Tenericutes, Verrucomicrobia and WS3. The OTUs were also determined and confirmed the abundance of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Verrucomicrobia. It was possible to isolate several strains from the liquid media, and one bacterium and several fungi were found to produce interesting enzymatic activities. The bacterium Chryseobacterium sp. XAvLW produced α-amylase, β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase, endo-1,4-β-D-xylanase and filter paper-cellulase, while the fungi Sarocladium kiliense CTGxxyl and Trichoderma virens CTGxAviL generated the same activities added with endo-1,3-β-D-glucanase. [less ▲]

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See detailLa remise en question du droit international public. La charge critique du juriste Albéric Rolin (1918-1920)
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin d'Information du Centre Liégeois d'Histoire et d'Archéologie Militaires (2015), 138

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See detailExperimental investigation of a reversible heat pump / organic Rankine cycle unit designed to be coupled with a passive house (Net Zero Energy Building)
Dumont, Olivier ULg; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Lemort, Vincent ULg

in International Journal of Refrigeration (2015), 54

This paper presents an innovative reversible Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle (HP/ORC) experimental unit designed to be coupled to a Net Zero Energy Building (connected to a 120 m2 thermal solar roof and a ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an innovative reversible Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle (HP/ORC) experimental unit designed to be coupled to a Net Zero Energy Building (connected to a 120 m2 thermal solar roof and a ground heat exchanger). The system can operate in three different modes: an ORC mode to produce electricity when a large amount of heat is collected by the solar roof, a direct heating mode using exclusively the solar roof, and a HP mode for space heating during cold weather conditions. This paper describes a comprehensive experimental campaign carried out on a prototype unit using a modified HVAC scroll compressor (4 kWe). From the results, the technical feasibility of the system is demonstrated. A cycle efficiency of 4.2% is achieved in ORC mode (with condensation and evaporation temperature respectively of 25 C and 88 C) and a COP of 3.1 is obtained in HP mode (with condensation and evaporation temperature respectively of 61 C and 21 C). [less ▲]

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See detailAn echographic study of follicular growth during induced estrus in female Azawak zebu in Niger
Moussa Garba, Mahamadou; Moumouni, Issa; Hamani, Marichatou et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2015)

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See detailuelle définition du concept de tangente ? Pour quelles raisons ?
Balhan, Kevin ULg; Schneider-Gilot, Marguerite ULg; Krysinska, Marysa

in Repères : Revue des Instituts de Recherche sur l'Enseignement des Mathématiques (2015)

Dans le présent article, nous présentons un parcours didactique visant à faire évoluer chez les élèves le concept de tangente, de leur connaissance antérieure de tangente à un cercle comme droite ne ... [more ▼]

Dans le présent article, nous présentons un parcours didactique visant à faire évoluer chez les élèves le concept de tangente, de leur connaissance antérieure de tangente à un cercle comme droite ne coupant la courbe qu’en un seul point jusqu’à une définition formalisée au sein d’un cours d’analyse. Nous montrons ainsi qu’une définition d’un objet mathématique n’est ni définitive, ni une simple description de l’objet. Le choix d’une définition au détriment d’une autre doit se faire à la lumière d’un projet plus global relatif à l’institution à laquelle elle appartient. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of Demagnetization in HTS Stacked Tapes Implemented in Electric Machines as a Result of Crossed Magnetic Field
Baghdadi, M.; Ruiz, H. S.; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (2015), 25(3), 6602404

This paper investigates the practical effectiveness of employing superconducting stacked tapes to superconducting electric machinery. The use of superconducting bulks in various practical applications has ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates the practical effectiveness of employing superconducting stacked tapes to superconducting electric machinery. The use of superconducting bulks in various practical applications has been addressed extensively in the literature. However, in practice, dramatic decrease in magnetization would occur on superconducting bulks due to the crossed field effect. In our study, we employed the superconducting stacked tapes in a synchronous superconducting motor, which was designed and fabricated in our laboratory, aiming to lessen demagnetization due to crossed field effect in comparison with superconducting bulks. Applying the transverse AC field, the effects of frequency, amplitude, and number of cycles of the transverse magnetic field are discussed. Furthermore, a stack of 16 layers of superconducting tapes is modelled and the consequences of applying the crossed magnetic field on the sample are evaluated. The confrontation between experiments and simulation allows us to thoroughly understand the crossed field effects on stacked tapes. At the end, a preventive treatment, based on the shielding characteristic of superconductor and materials with high permeability, i.e. $mu$-metal and metalic glass, is suggested. On the other hand, the shielding feature of aforementioned materials will hinder the penetration of magnetic field and, consequently, reduction of the demagnetization will be attained. [less ▲]

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See detailLe marché des radicaux libres. Sur quelques conditions médiatiques de la posture « néo-réactionnaire ».
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2015), 87(printemps), 101-118

Years 1990-2000 could be characterized in France by the emergence of a current of thought and a nebula of intellectual actors collectively gathered under the label of the « New Reactionaries » since the ... [more ▼]

Years 1990-2000 could be characterized in France by the emergence of a current of thought and a nebula of intellectual actors collectively gathered under the label of the « New Reactionaries » since the publication of the controversial pamphlet, Le Rappel à l’ordre, by Daniel Lindenberg in 2002. Journalists, novelists, essayists, columnists, philosophers, showing a posture of refusal towards the « politically correct », the « moral left » and the « dominant ideology », they can be viewed as a kind of generic character, made up of peculiarities breaking away from any sociological assignment. The topics of this discourse tend to be analyzed from a point of view not included within the concerned polemical filed. The aim of this paper is to contribute to such an analysis by pointing out the transformations of the journalistic and publishing field from which the « new reactionaries » draw some of their powerful polemical efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention et promotion de la santé : quels modèles pour soutenir l’évolution des pratiques en soins de santé primaires ?
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg; Mathonet, Julien; Miermans, Marie-Christine ULg et al

in Presse Médicale (2015), 44(6), 211-20

Objectives Published operating models about preventive health care and health promotion in primary care were sought with the aim of 1) compiling a functional inventory; and 2) to formulate working ... [more ▼]

Objectives Published operating models about preventive health care and health promotion in primary care were sought with the aim of 1) compiling a functional inventory; and 2) to formulate working hypotheses for the improvement of clinical practice towards more efficiency and more equity. Methods Narrative literature review, using keywords related to the various prevention classes, health promotion, primary care, practice models and health care delivery. The diversity of models led to a multi-criteria analysis. Results Twelve models were selected. Their characteristics were unevenly distributed. The models, whose authors announce that they apply to prevention, mainly describe approaches that focus on individuals within physician-patient relationship, and take into account practice organization. Some socio ecological and systems models illustrate health promotion: educational practice, group- or population-based targets, community environment and social determinants of health. There is little room for patients in elaborating the models, as they have little role in health care systems. The definitions of prevention, health promotion and patient education greatly differ from one model to another. Discussion Little is known about practical implementation of the models; assessment data are scarce. Some elements valued by health promotion could be integrated to health care: empowerment of citizens, addressing community environment; increased involvement in local health professionals’ networks; integration of individual and collective approaches within the same health care facilities to address simultaneously individual customization, efficiency and equity objectives. Conclusion These developments may call for adaptation in vocational training and continuous professional development: communication skills, awareness to public health concepts, and early and longitudinal exposure to community-based learning experiences for students. [less ▲]

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See detailQuaternary prevention: first, do not harm - Editorial
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015), 10(35), 1-3

Clinical prevention, under the influence of public health, has been organised in a chronological manner since the middle of the 20th century. A paradigm shift from a chronological to a constructivist ... [more ▼]

Clinical prevention, under the influence of public health, has been organised in a chronological manner since the middle of the 20th century. A paradigm shift from a chronological to a constructivist relationship-based preventive pattern of care offers new insights into the practice of doctors. This paradigm shift brings to light the concept of quaternary prevention, a critical look at medical activities with an emphasis on the need not to harm. Quaternary prevention addresses the fundamental question of what constitutes too much or too little medicine. It is the fourth form of disease prevention, but also the fourth frame of action for family doctors [less ▲]

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See detailLe millénaire liturgique de l'abbatiale bénédictine de Saint-Jacques de Liège. Samedi 25 juillet 1030
George, Philippe ULg

in Trésor de Liège. Bulletin trimestriel (2015), 43(juin 2015), 7-9

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See detailCognitive support for a better handoff: does it improve the quality of medical communication at shift change in an emergency department?
Gillet, Aline ULg; GHUYSEN, Alexandre ULg; BONHOMME, Suzanne ULg et al

in European Journal of Emergency Medicine (2015), 22(3), 192-198

AIM: To improve the communication during shift handover in an emergency department. METHODS: We observed the handover process and analysed the discourse between physicians at shift change first, and then ... [more ▼]

AIM: To improve the communication during shift handover in an emergency department. METHODS: We observed the handover process and analysed the discourse between physicians at shift change first, and then we created two cognitive tools and tested their clinical impact on the field. We used different measures to evaluate this impact on the health care process including the frequency and type of information content communicated between physicians, duration of the handoff, physician self-evaluation of the quality of the handoff and a posthandover study of patient handling. RESULTS: Our results showed that the patient's medical history, significant test results, recommendations (treatment plan) and patient follow-up were communicated to a greater extent when the tools are used. We also found that physicians spent more time at the bedside and less time consulting medical records using these tools. CONCLUSION: The present study showed how in-depth observations and analyses of real work processes can be used to better support the quality of patient care. [less ▲]

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See detailThe strength of multi-row models
Louveaux, Quentin ULg; Poirrier, Laurent; Salvagnin, Domenico

in Mathematical Programming Computation (2015), 7(2), 113-148

We develop a method for computing facet-defining valid inequalities for any mixed-integer set PJ. Our practical implementation does not return only facet- defining inequalities, but it is able to find a ... [more ▼]

We develop a method for computing facet-defining valid inequalities for any mixed-integer set PJ. Our practical implementation does not return only facet- defining inequalities, but it is able to find a separating cut whenever one exists. The separator is not comparable in speed with the specific cutting-plane generators used in branch-and-cut solvers, but it is general-purpose. We can thus use it to compute cuts derived from any reasonably small relaxation PJ of a general mixed- integer problem, even when there exists no specific implementation for computing cuts with PJ. Exploiting this, we evaluate, from a computational perspective, the usefulness of cuts derived from several types of multi-row relaxations. In particular, we present results with four different strengthenings of the two-row intersection cut model, and multi-row models with up to fifteen rows. We conclude that only fully-strengthened two-row cuts seem to offer a significant advantage over two-row intersection cuts. Our results also indicate that the improvement obtained by going from models with very few rows to models with up to fifteen rows may not be worth the increased computing cost. [less ▲]

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See detailLa cécidomyie équestre quelle nuisibilité sur le blé?
Censier, Florence ULg; Chavalle, Sandrine; San Martin Y Gomez, Gilles et al

in Phytoma : La Défense des Végétaux (2015), 685

Une équipe belge a évalué la nuisibilité de la cécidomyie Haplodiplosis marginata et en tire des conseils pour la protection du blé tendre d'hiver. Le tout est valable en France aussi!

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See detailA comparative study of triaxial and uniaxial magnetic shields made out of YBCO coated conductors
Wera, Laurent ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Levin, George et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

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See detailTerrestrial OH nightglow measurements during the Rosetta flyby
Migliorini, A.; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2015), 42

We present a study of the terrestrial hydroxyl nightglow emissions observed with the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer on board the Rosetta mission. During these observations, the OH Δv  ... [more ▼]

We present a study of the terrestrial hydroxyl nightglow emissions observed with the Visible and Infrared Thermal Imaging Spectrometer on board the Rosetta mission. During these observations, the OH Δv = 1 and 2 sequences were measured simultaneously. This allowed investigating the relative population of the v = 1 to 9 vibrational levels by using both sequences. In particular, the relative population of the vibrational level v = 1 is determined for the first time from observations. The vibrational population decreases with increasing vibrational quantum number. A good agreement is found with a recent model calculation assuming multiquantum relaxation for OH(v) quenching by O2 and single-quantum relaxation for OH(v) by N2. [less ▲]

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See detailTeaching and learning Quaternary prevention
Gomes, Luis Enrique; Gusso, Gustavo; Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015), 10(35), 1-14

This article presents an overview of different techniques and skills required for teaching and learning quaternary prevention (P4). It adopts the Expertise Model that defines the competences required in ... [more ▼]

This article presents an overview of different techniques and skills required for teaching and learning quaternary prevention (P4). It adopts the Expertise Model that defines the competences required in P4 for each level: novice, competent, proficient, and expert. This should be used as a step-wise roadmap for teachers in order to achieve high standard levels of performance. This is complemented by a list of methods used in teaching and assessment of learners’ performance and competence. By covering a range of learning and teaching issues, those who aim to teach quaternary prevention can explore the proposed framework. Quaternary prevention is a research and teaching fertile medical field that requires the integration of different areas such as health service organization, epidemiology, communication skills, and andragogy either at the macro or the micro levels health related activities. [less ▲]

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See detailEGFR and NF-kB: partners in cancer
Shostak, Kateryna ULg; Chariot, Alain ULg

in Trends in Molecular Medicine (2015), 21

Oncogenic proteins cooperate to promote tumor development and progression by sustaining cell proliferation, survival and invasiveness. Constitutive EGFR and NF-kappaB activities are seen in multiple solid ... [more ▼]

Oncogenic proteins cooperate to promote tumor development and progression by sustaining cell proliferation, survival and invasiveness. Constitutive EGFR and NF-kappaB activities are seen in multiple solid tumors and combine to provide oncogenic signals to cancer cells. Understanding how these oncogenic pathways are connected is critical, given their role in intrinsic or acquired resistance to targeted anti-cancer therapies. We review molecular mechanisms by which both EGFR- and NF-kappaB-dependent pathways establish positive loops to increase their oncogenic potential. We also describe how NF-kappaB promotes resistance to EGFR inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailLouis Althusser. Politique et subjectivité. Editorial
Bruschi, Fabio; Mancuso, Eva ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2015), VII

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See detailAvis 2/13 de la CJUE : l'obsession du contrôle ?
Petit, Nicolas ULg; Pilorge, Joëlle ULg

in Revue des Affaires Européennes [= RAE] = Law & European Affairs (2015)

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See detailGroupes délinquants juvéniles, quelle méthode pour une recherche « ethno-criminologique » ? La loi des 4 C
Witvrouw, Line ULg; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Revue Internationale de Criminologie et de Police Technique et Scientifique [= RICPTS] (2015), LXVIII(Avril-Juin), 196-209

La criminologie nous amène à travailler avec des populations difficiles d’accès et requiert une démarche méthodologique structurée et prenant en compte les caractéristiques du milieu de rencontre. A ... [more ▼]

La criminologie nous amène à travailler avec des populations difficiles d’accès et requiert une démarche méthodologique structurée et prenant en compte les caractéristiques du milieu de rencontre. A partir de notre recherche portant sur les groupes de jeunes délinquants ou déviants, une spécificité est apparue dès le début des démarches empiriques. En effet, une notion d’exclusivité est entendue entre chaque membre du groupe, rendant l’accès à l’information difficile tant les frontières de ce groupe vis-à-vis de l’extérieur sont imperméables. Le chercheur se trouve alors confronté à différents obstacles: la difficulté de prise de contacts avec les groupes, la difficulté d’intégration du chercheur au sein de ceux-ci et la difficulté de récolte de données suffisantes pour la recherche. Au vu des constats de terrain, nous avons développé une méthodologie spécifique inspirée de modèles ethnologiques. En prenant en compte les jeunes en tant qu’experts de leur vécu et les intervenants médiateurs d’inclusion sur un terrain, ce processus méthodologique relève d’une co-construction de trois pôles et partenaires et s’apparente à une approche ethno-criminologique. Ce processus par étapes se décline en séquences temporelles successives. Tout d’abord, le positionnement du chercheur comme non-détenteur du savoir, la triangulation de la relation, l’acceptation de la temporalité de la démarche et de l’instrumentalisation de la relation sont autant d’éléments constituant l’étape préalable de ce processus méthodologique. Les étapes suivantes se construisent sur la base de l’évolution du lien entre le chercheur et les jeunes. La loi des 4 C réunit ces étapes, la relation évoluant de la confiance, à la confidence, ensuite à la communication pour aboutir à la coopération [less ▲]

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See detail'Een lent van vaerzen' als letterkundig spiegelkabinet
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Arabesken: Tijdschrift van het Louis Couperus Genootschap (2015), 23(45), 22-28

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See detailEarly evolution of large microorganisms with cytological complexity revealed by microanalyses of 3.4 Ga organic-walled microfossils.
Sugitani; Mimura, K; Takeuchi, M et al

in Geobiology (2015)

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See detailChitosan enriched three-dimensional matrix reduces inflammatory and catabolic mediators production by human chondrocytes
Oprenyeszk, Frédéric ULg; Sanchez, Christelle ULg; Dubuc, Jean-Emile et al

in PLoS ONE (2015), 10(5),

This in vitro study investigated the metabolism of human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes encapsulated in a spherical matrix enriched of chitosan. Human OA chondrocytes were encapsulated and cultured for ... [more ▼]

This in vitro study investigated the metabolism of human osteoarthritic (OA) chondrocytes encapsulated in a spherical matrix enriched of chitosan. Human OA chondrocytes were encapsulated and cultured for 28 days either in chitosan-alginate beads or in alginate beads. The beads were formed by slowly passed dropwise either the chitosan 0.6%- alginate 1.2% or the alginate 1.2% solution through a syringe into a 102 mM CaCl2 solution. Beads were analyzed histologically after 28 days. Interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, prostaglandin (PG) E2, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hyaluronan and aggrecan were quantified directly in the culture supernatant by specific ELISA and nitric oxide (NO) by using a colorimetric method based on the Griess reaction. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that chitosan was homogeneously distributed through the matrix and was in direct contact with chondrocytes. The production of IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-3 by chondrocytes significantly decreased in chitosan-alginate beads compared to alginate beads. PGE2 and NO decreased also significantly but only during the first three days of culture. Hyaluronan and aggrecan production tended to increase in chitosan-alginate beads after 28 days of culture. Chitosan-alginate beads reduced the production of inflammatory and catabolic mediators by OA chondrocytes and tended to stimulate the synthesis of cartilage matrix components. These particular effects indicate that chitosan-alginate beads are an interesting scaffold for chondrocytes encapsulation before transplantation to repair cartilage defects. [less ▲]

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See detailOrco mediates olfactory behaviors and winged morph differentiation induced by alarm pheromone in the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae
Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Francis, Frédéric ULg et al

in Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (2015), 64

Olfaction is crucial for short distance host location and pheromone detection by insects. Complexes of olfactory receptors (ORs) are composed of odor-specific ORs and OR co-receptors (Orco). Orcos are ... [more ▼]

Olfaction is crucial for short distance host location and pheromone detection by insects. Complexes of olfactory receptors (ORs) are composed of odor-specific ORs and OR co-receptors (Orco). Orcos are widely co-expressed with odor-specific ORs and are conserved across insect taxa. A number of Orco orthologs have been studied to date, although none has been identified in cereal aphids. In this study, an Orco gene ortholog was cloned from the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, and named “SaveOrco”; RNA interference (RNAi) reduced the expression of SaveOrco to 34.11% in aphids, resulting in weaker EAG (electroantennogram) responses to plant volatiles (Z-3-hexene-1-ol; methyl salicylate, MeSA) and aphid alarm pheromone (E-b-farnesene, EBF). Aphid wing differentiation induced by EBF was investigated in both RNAi treated and untreated aphids. EBF induced production of winged aphids in both pre-natal and postnatal periods in untreated aphids, but no such induction was observed in the RNAi-treated aphids. We conclude that SaveOrco is crucial for the aphid's response to pheromones and other volatiles, and is involved in wing differentiation triggered by EBF [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated production at the curie level of no-carrier-added 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa and 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine on a FASTlab synthesizer
Lemaire, Christian ULg; Libert, Lionel; Franci, Xavier et al

in Journal of Labelled Compounds (2015), 58

An efficient, fully automated, enantioselective multi-step synthesis of no-carrier-added (nca) 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa ([18F]FDOPA) and 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine ([18F]FTYR) on a GE FASTlab synthesizer in ... [more ▼]

An efficient, fully automated, enantioselective multi-step synthesis of no-carrier-added (nca) 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa ([18F]FDOPA) and 2-[18F]fluoro-L-tyrosine ([18F]FTYR) on a GE FASTlab synthesizer in conjunction with an additional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification has been developed. A PTC (phase-transfer catalyst) strategy wasused to synthesize these two important radiopharmaceuticals. According to recent chemistry improvements, automationof the whole process was implemented in a commercially available GE FASTlab module, with slight hardware modificationusing single use cassettes and stand-alone HPLC. [18F]FDOPA and [18F]FTYR were produced in 36.3 ± 3.0 % (n = 8) and50.5 ± 2.7 % (n = 10) FASTlab radiochemical yield (decay corrected). The automated radiosynthesis on the FASTlab modulerequires about 52 min. Total synthesis time including HPLC purification and formulation was about 62 min. Enantiomericexcesses for these two aromatic amino acids were always >95 %, and the specific activity of was >740 GBq/μmol. Thisautomated synthesis provides high amount of [18F]FDOPA and [18F]FTYR (>37 GBq end of synthesis (EOS)). The process, fullyadaptable for reliable production across multiple PET sites, could be readily implemented into a clinical good manufacturingprocess (GMP) environment. [less ▲]

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See detailHow shattered flakes were used : Micro-wear analysis of quartz flake fragments
Knutsson, Helena; Knutsson, Kjel; Taipale, Noora ULg et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2015), 2

Prehistoric quartz assemblages have always posed a special problem for archaeologists. Due to its brittle nature, quartz is hard to understand within lithic classification systems that are based on ... [more ▼]

Prehistoric quartz assemblages have always posed a special problem for archaeologists. Due to its brittle nature, quartz is hard to understand within lithic classification systems that are based on formally varied flint assemblages. In this paper we explore ways to deal with this problem by applying two analytical methods, fracture analysis and use-wear analysis. A sample of 544 unmodified quartz flakes and flake fragments from Mesolithic and Neolithic sites in Sweden and Finland was analysed. It can be concluded that both whole and fragmented flakes were used as tools. Larger flakes and flake fragments were preferred as tool blanks and the type of use was correlated to variation in edge qualities rather than the formal characteristics of flakes. The results of this investigation suggest that making behavioural inferences from quartz assemblages with low formal variability requires the assemblages to be approached with a focus on functional types. [less ▲]

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See detailAcetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from IASI satellite observations: global distributions, validation, and comparison with model
Duflot, V.; Wespes, C.; Clarisse, L. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15(10), 14357--14401

We present global distributions of C2H2 and HCN total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). These distributions are obtained with a fast method allowing to retrieve ... [more ▼]

We present global distributions of C2H2 and HCN total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). These distributions are obtained with a fast method allowing to retrieve C2H2 abundance globally with a 5% precision and HCN abundance in the tropical (subtropical) belt with a 10% (30%) precision. IASI data are compared for validation purposes with ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer measurements at four selected stations. We show that there is an overall agreement between the ground-based and space measurements. Global C2H2 and subtropical HCN abundances retrieved from IASI spectra show the expected seasonality linked to variations in the anthropogenic emissions and seasonal biomass burning activity, as well as exceptional events, and are in good agreement with previous spaceborne studies. IASI measurements are also compared to the distributions from the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART- 4). Seasonal cycles observed from satellite data are reasonably well reproduced by the model. However, the model seems to overestimate (underestimate) anthropogenic (biomass burning) emissions and a negative global mean bias of 1% (16 %) of the model relative to the satellite observations was found for C2H2 (HCN). [less ▲]

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See detailOn the use of the transmission disequilibrium test to detect pseudo-autosomal variants affecting traits with sex-limited expression
Elansary, Mahmoud ULg; Stinckens, Anneleen; Ahariz, Naïma ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2015)

We herein describe the realization of a genome-wide association study for scrotal hernia and cryptorchidism in Norwegian and Belgian commercial pig populations. We have used the transmission ... [more ▼]

We herein describe the realization of a genome-wide association study for scrotal hernia and cryptorchidism in Norwegian and Belgian commercial pig populations. We have used the transmission disequilibrium test to avoid spurious associations due to population stratification. By doing so, we obtained genome-wide significant signals for both diseases with SNPs located in the pseudo-autosomal region in the vicinity of the pseudo-autosomal boundary. By further analyzing these signals, we demonstrate that the observed transmission disequilibria are artifactual. We determine that transmission bias at pseudo-autosomal markers will occur (i) when analyzing traits with sex-limited expression and (ii) when the allelic frequencies at the marker locus differ between X and Y chromosomes. We show that the bias is due to the fact that (i) sires will preferentially transmit the allele enriched on the Y (respectively X) chromosome to affected sons (respectively daughters) and (ii) dams will appear to preferentially transmit the allele enriched on the Y (respectively X) to affected sons (respectively daughters), as offspring inheriting the other allele are more likely to be non-informative. We define the conditions to mitigate these issues, namely by (i) extracting information from maternal meiosis only and (ii) ignoring trios for which sire and dam have the same heterozygous genotype. We show that by applying these rules to scrotal hernia and cryptorchidism, the pseudo-autosomal signals disappear, confirming their spurious nature. [less ▲]

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See detailGold nanorods coated with mesoporous silica shell as drug delivery system for remote near infrared light-activated release and potential phototherapy
Liu, Ji; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg et al

in Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) (2015), 11(19), 2323-2332

In this study, we report the synthesis of a nanoscaled drug delivery system, which is composed of a gold nanorod-like core and a mesoporous silica shell (GNR@MSNP) and partially uploaded with phase ... [more ▼]

In this study, we report the synthesis of a nanoscaled drug delivery system, which is composed of a gold nanorod-like core and a mesoporous silica shell (GNR@MSNP) and partially uploaded with phase-changing molecules (1-tetradecanol, TD, Tm 39 degrees C) as gatekeepers, as well as its ability to regulate the release of doxorubicin (DOX). Indeed, a nearly zero premature release is evidenced at physiological temperature (37 degrees C), whereas the DOX release is efficiently achieved at higher temperature not only upon external heating, but also via internal heating generated by the GNR core under near infrared irradiation. When tagged with folate moieties, GNR@MSNPs target specifically to KB cells, which are known to overexpress the folate receptors. Such a precise control over drug release, combining with the photothermal effect of GNR cores, provides promising opportunity for localized synergistic photothermal ablation and chemotherapy. Moreover, the performance in killing the targeted cancer cells is more efficient compared with the single phototherapeutic modality of GNR@MSNPs. This versatile combination of local heating, phototherapeutics, chemotherapeutics and gating components opens up the possibilities for designing multifunctional drug delivery systems. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined estrogenic and anti-estrogenic properties of estetrol on breast cancer may provide a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms
Gérard, Céline ULg; Mestdagt, Mélanie; Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2015)

Increased risk of breast cancer is a critical side effect associated with the use of a menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver and is a ... [more ▼]

Increased risk of breast cancer is a critical side effect associated with the use of a menopausal hormone therapy (MHT). Estetrol (E4) is a natural estrogen produced by the human fetal liver and is a promising compound for clinical use in MHT. However, its impact on breast cancer is controversial and poorly defined. In this preclinical study, we show that E4 acts as a weak estrogen by stimulating the growth of hormone-dependent breast cancer only at concentrations exceeding menopausal therapeutic needs. E4 presents also an antitumor activity by decreasing the strong proliferative effect of estradiol (E2). While estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) is the predominant receptor mediating its effects, the dual weak-estrogenic/anti-estrogenic feature of E4 results from differential signaling pathways activation. Both nuclear and rapid extra-nuclear signaling pathway are necessary for a complete estrogenic effect of E4. However, the antitumor action of E4 is not due to a capacity to antagonize E2-induced nuclear activity. Altogether, our results highlight that E4 has a limited impact on breast cancer and may offer a safe therapeutic window for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailPrésentation
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Glinoer, Anthony

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2015), 46

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See detailInfluence of substrate nature and β-lactoglobulin on cleanability after soiling by suspension spraying and drying
Toure, Yetioman ULg; Sindic, Marianne ULg; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2015), 134

Glass and stainless steel (StSteel, AISI304-2R), previously cleaned with ethanol (-Eth) or with ethanol and UV–Ozone treatment (-UVO), were soiled with quartz suspensions in water and in a β-lactoglobulin ... [more ▼]

Glass and stainless steel (StSteel, AISI304-2R), previously cleaned with ethanol (-Eth) or with ethanol and UV–Ozone treatment (-UVO), were soiled with quartz suspensions in water and in a β-lactoglobulin (β-LGB) solution, and dried. The cleanability (ease of quartz particle detachment) in water was evaluated using a radial-flow cell. The soiling suspension containing β-LGB was used as such or after heating for 4h at 75°C, which provoked coagulation of about 75% of β-LGB. The substrate–solution interfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of conditioned substrates and by contact angle measurements. The substrate surfaces are covered by a layer of organic contaminants which are not removed by pre-cleaning or are adsorbed from the surroundings. The presence of β-LGB in the soiling suspension leads to protein adsorption, but a significant amount of contaminants remains at the surface. For three of the substrates tested (Glass-Eth, Glass-UVO, StSteel-UVO) the increase of cleanability when the soiling suspension contained β-LGB may be explained by lower capillary forces acting upon drying. Capillary forces are proportional to the liquid surface tension and depend in a less important way on substrate contact angle. However the order of cleanability observed for the substrates soiled with a suspension of quartz particles in water (Glass-Eth≅Glass-UVO<StSteel-UVO<StSteel-Eth) and the influence of β-LGB on the cleanability of StSteel-Eth may not be explained only by computed capillary forces. The contact angle may exert a direct influence on droplet spreading and particle–substrate contact. The organic contaminants present on the surfaces, which are often neglected by supposing model solid surfaces, may have a significant influence on cleanability through physico-chemical processes which remain to be appreciated. [less ▲]

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See detailRheological behavior of β-Ti and NiTi powders produced by atomization for SLM production of open porous orthopedic implants
Yablokova, G.; Speirs, M.; Van Humbeeck, J. et al

in Powder Technology (2015)

The growing interest for Selective Laser Melting (SLM) in orthopedic implant manufacturing is accompanied by the introduction of novel Ti alloys, in particular β-Ti for their excellent corrosion ... [more ▼]

The growing interest for Selective Laser Melting (SLM) in orthopedic implant manufacturing is accompanied by the introduction of novel Ti alloys, in particular β-Ti for their excellent corrosion resistance as well as favorable combination of high mechanical strength, fatigue resistance and relatively low elastic modulus. As part of the SLM process for producing quality β-Ti parts powder flowability is essential to achieve uniform thickness of powder layers. In this work the flowability of different gas atomized β-Ti, including NiTi, powders has been studied. Their rheological properties were compared to those of commercially available plasma-atomized Ti–6Al–4V powder using a newly developed semi-automatic experimental set-up. Not only the particle size, shape and size distribution of the powders display a large influence on the powder flowability but also particle surface properties such as roughness, chemical composition and the presence of liquid on the surface of the particles. It was found that plasma or gas atomization production techniques for SLM powder have a considerable effect on the particle topography. Among the powders studied regarding SLM applicability only rheological properties of the fine size fraction (25–45 μm) of Ti–45Nb didn't conform to SLM processing requirements. To improve flowability of the Ti–45Nb powder itwas annealed both in air and argon atmosphere at 600 °C during 1 h, resulting in an improved rheological behavior suitable for SLM processing. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurements on magnetized GdBCO pellets subjected to small transverse ac magnetic fields at very low frequency: Evidence for a slowdown of the magnetization decay
Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Kirsch, Sébastien; Morita, Mitsuru et al

in Physica C: Superconductivity (2015), 512

Due to their ability to trap large magnetic inductions, superconducting bulk materials can be used as powerful permanent magnets. The permanent magnetization of such materials, however, can be ... [more ▼]

Due to their ability to trap large magnetic inductions, superconducting bulk materials can be used as powerful permanent magnets. The permanent magnetization of such materials, however, can be significantly affected by the application of several cycles of a transverse variable magnetic field. In this work, we study, at T = 77 K, the long term influence of transverse ac magnetic fields of small amplitudes (i.e. much smaller than the full penetration field) on the axial magnetization of a bulk single grain superconducting GdBCO pellet over a wide range of low frequencies (1 mHz–20 Hz). Thermocouples are placed against the pellet surface to probe possible self-heating of the material during the experiments. A high sensitivity cryogenic Hall probe is placed close to the surface to record the local magnetic induction normal to the surface. The results show first that, for a given number of applied triangular transverse cycles, higher values of dBapp/dt induce smaller magnetization decays. An important feature of practical interest is that, after a very large number of cycles which cause the loss of a substantial amount of magnetization (depending on the amplitude and the frequency of the field), the rate of the magnetization decay goes back to its initial value, corresponding to the relaxation of the superconducting currents due to flux creep only. In the amplitude and frequency range investigated, the thermocouples measurements and a 2D magneto-thermal modelling show no evidence of sufficient self-heating to affect the magnetization so that the effect of the transverse magnetic field cycles on the trapped magnetic moment is only attributed to a redistribution of superconducting currents in the volume of the sample and not to a thermal effect. [less ▲]

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See detailPolarization holography for vortex retarders recording: laboratory demonstration
Piron, Pierre ULg; Blain, Pascal ULg; Décultot, Marc ULg et al

in Applied Optics (2015), 54(15), 4765--4770

This paper will present a prototype of the first set of vortex retarders made of liquid crystal polymers recorded by polarization holography. Vortex retarders are birefringent plates characterized by a ... [more ▼]

This paper will present a prototype of the first set of vortex retarders made of liquid crystal polymers recorded by polarization holography. Vortex retarders are birefringent plates characterized by a rotation of their fast axis. Liquid crystals possess birefringent properties and they are locally orientable. Their orientation is defined by the perpendicular to the local orientation of the recording field. Polarization holography is a purely optical recording method. It is based on the superimposition of coherent and differently polarized beams. It is used to shape the electric field pattern to enable the recording of vortex retarders. The paper details the mathematical model of the superimposition process. The recording setup is exposed; it is characterized by a nearly common path interferometer. Two sets of measurements allowing the prediction of the retarder’s features are presented and compared. Finally, the experimentally recorded retarder is shown, its characteristics are investigated and compared to the predicted ones. [less ▲]

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See detailThe utility of Google Scholar when searching geographical literature: comparison with three commercial bibliographic databases
Stirbu, Simona ULg; Thirion, Paul ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg et al

in Journal of Academic Librarianship (2015), 41(3), 322-329

This study aims to highlight what benefits, if any, Google Scholar (GS) has for academic literature searches in the field of geography, compared to three commercial bibliographic databases: Web of Science ... [more ▼]

This study aims to highlight what benefits, if any, Google Scholar (GS) has for academic literature searches in the field of geography, compared to three commercial bibliographic databases: Web of Science (WoS) and FRANCIS (multidisciplinary databases) and GeoRef (specialized in geosciences). To ensure a valid comparison, identical bibliographic searches were applied using each of the four bibliographic tools. To exclude automatic variations of the ten keywords tested, they were placed between quotation marks and searched only in the “title” field of the respective search tools’ interfaces. The results were limited to bibliographic references published from 2005 to 2009. In order to assess the repeatability of the results, the exact same process was repeated monthly between November 2010 and July 2011. Initially the whole set of results was analyzed, after which the search results for two keywords (selected since they yielded a manageable number of results) were studied in more detail. The results indicate that GS search results show a large degree of overlap with those of the other databases but, moreover, yield numerous unique hits, which should be useful to researchers in both the fields of human and physical geography. GS leads the other tools widely on number of results, independently of keyword, subfield, year of publication, or time of search. [less ▲]

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See detailCortical reorganization in an astronaut's brain after long-duration spaceflight.
Demertzi, Athina ULg; Van Ombergen, Angelique; Tomilovskaya, Elena et al

in Brain Structure & Function (2015)

To date, hampered physiological function after exposure to microgravity has been primarily attributed to deprived peripheral neuro-sensory systems. For the first time, this study elucidates alterations in ... [more ▼]

To date, hampered physiological function after exposure to microgravity has been primarily attributed to deprived peripheral neuro-sensory systems. For the first time, this study elucidates alterations in human brain function after long-duration spaceflight. More specifically, we found significant differences in resting-state functional connectivity between motor cortex and cerebellum, as well as changes within the default mode network. In addition, the cosmonaut showed changes in the supplementary motor areas during a motor imagery task. These results highlight the underlying neural basis for the observed physiological deconditioning due to spaceflight and are relevant for future interplanetary missions and vestibular patients. [less ▲]

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See detailFoamability and Foam Stability of Male and Female Date Palm Sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) During the Collection Period
Makhlouf-gafsi, Ines; Mokni-ghribi, Abir; Bchir, Brahim et al

in Food Biophysics (2015)

This work aimed to study the influence of date palm sex on the surface properties of date palm sap (DPS) (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during the collection period. The behavior at the interface and foaming ... [more ▼]

This work aimed to study the influence of date palm sex on the surface properties of date palm sap (DPS) (Phoenix dactylifera L.) during the collection period. The behavior at the interface and foaming properties were evaluated via equilibrium surface tension (drop volume) and bubbling method, respectively. Unlike male sap, the female sap was unable to produce foam due to its low rate of adsorption, low average hydrophobicity values, and low bulk viscosity values throughout the collection period. For male sap, there are significant differences (p<0.05) on foaming properties throughout the collection period. In fact, the last 3 weeks of sap collection were characterized by a decrease pace of surface tension which explains the enhancement of both foam capacity and stability. The last week of collection period present the best foam power (0.9). To explain these differences, the interactions of several factors and their affects on foaming properties were examined. Results showed a positive correlation between foam capacity and average hydrophobicity values. In the other hand, foam stability exhibits a positive correlation with the increase of protein concentration and bulk viscosity. [less ▲]

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See detailAntimicrobial, antitumor and brine shrimp lethality assay of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts
Muhammad Zeeshan Bhatti; Ali, Amjad ULg; Asma Saeed et al

in Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2015)

To investigate the antitumor activity, brine shrimp lethality assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity of Methanol Extract (ME), Water Extract (WE), Acetone Extract (AE), Chloroform Extract (CE ... [more ▼]

To investigate the antitumor activity, brine shrimp lethality assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity of Methanol Extract (ME), Water Extract (WE), Acetone Extract (AE), Chloroform Extract (CE), Methanol-Water Extract (MWE), Methanol-Acetone Extract (MAE), Methanol-Chloroform Extract (MCE) of Ranunculus arvensis (L.). Antitumor activity was evaluated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens (At10) induced potato disc assay. Cytotoxicity was evaluated with brine shrimp lethality assay. Antibacterial activity was evaluated with six bacterial strains including Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus luteus and Streptococcus anginosus and antifungal screening was done against five fungal strains including Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, A. fumigates, Fusarium solani and Mucor species by using disc diffusion method. Best antitumor activity was obtained with ME and WE, having highest IC50 values 20.27±1.62 and 93.01±1.33μg/disc. Brine shrimp lethality assay showed LC50 values of AE, MAE and ME were obtained as 384.66±9.42μg/ml, 724.11±8.01μg/ml and 978.7±8.01μg/ml respectively. WE of R. arvensis revealed weak antimicrobial result against the tested microorganisms. On the other hand, the antifungal activity of the plant extracts was found to be insignificant. These findings demonstrate that extracts of R. arvensis possesses significant antitumor activity. Further extensive study is necessary to assess the therapeutic potential of the plant [less ▲]

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See detailLipin-1 regulates cancer cell phenotype and is a potential target to potentiate rapamycin treatment
Brohée, Laura ULg; Demine, Stéphane; Willems, Jérôme ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2015), 6(13), 11264-11280

Lipogenesis inhibition was reported to induce apoptosis and repress proliferation of cancer cells while barely affecting normal cells. Lipins exhibit dual function as enzymes catalyzing the ... [more ▼]

Lipogenesis inhibition was reported to induce apoptosis and repress proliferation of cancer cells while barely affecting normal cells. Lipins exhibit dual function as enzymes catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol and as co-transcriptional regulators. Thus, they are able to regulate lipid homeostasis at several nodal points. Here, we show that lipin-1 is up-regulated in several cancer cell lines and overexpressed in 50 % of high grade prostate cancers. The proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells, but not of non-tumorigenic cells, was repressed upon lipin-1 knock-down. Lipin-1 depletion also decreased cancer cell migration through RhoA activation. Lipin-1 silencing did not significantly affect global lipid synthesis but enhanced the cellular concentration of phosphatidic acid. In parallel, autophagy was induced while AKT and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation were repressed. We also observed a compensatory regulation between lipin-1 and lipin-2 and demonstrated that their co-silencing aggravates the phenotype induced by lipin-1 silencing alone. Most interestingly, lipin-1 depletion or lipins inhibition with propranolol sensitized cancer cells to rapamycin. These data indicate that lipin-1 controls main cellular processes involved in cancer progression and that its targeting, alone or in combination with other treatments, could open new avenues in anticancer therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailFuture climate and surface mass balance of Svalbard glaciers in an RCP8.5 climate scenario: a study with the regional climate model MAR forced by MIROC5
Lang, Charlotte ULg; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Erpicum, Michel ULg

in Cryosphere (The) (2015), 9

We simulated the 21st century Svalbard SMB with the regional model MAR (RCP8.5 scenario). Melt is projected to increase gently up to 2050 and then dramatically increase, with a larger increase in the ... [more ▼]

We simulated the 21st century Svalbard SMB with the regional model MAR (RCP8.5 scenario). Melt is projected to increase gently up to 2050 and then dramatically increase, with a larger increase in the south of the archipelago. This difference is due to larger ice albedo decrease in the south causing larger increase of absorbed solar radiation. The ablation area is projected to disappear over the entire Svalbard by 2085. The SMB decrease compared to present is projected to contribute 7mm to SLR. [less ▲]

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See detailArmée européenne : quelle phase transitoire ?
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Europe Diplomatie & Défense (2015), (792), 3

Page Idées sur la nécessité de créer les conditions d'une Union européenne de sécurité et de défense (UESD) à partir de quelques Etats membres de l'UE

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See detailChitosan-coated electrospun nanofibers with antibacterial activity
Croisier, Florence ULg; Sibret, Pierre ULg; Dupont-Gillain, Christine C. et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2015), 3(17), 3508-2517

Charged nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning (ESP) poly(ε-caprolactone) with a copolymer bearing carboxylic acid functions. The presence of these functions allowed exposing some negative charges on ... [more ▼]

Charged nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning (ESP) poly(ε-caprolactone) with a copolymer bearing carboxylic acid functions. The presence of these functions allowed exposing some negative charges on the fiber surface, by dipping the fibers in a phosphate buffer. A layer of chitosan, a polycation in acidic medium, was then deposited on the nanofiber surface, thanks to electrostatic attraction. Fibers were characterized at each step of the process and the influence of the copolymer architecture on chitosan deposition was discussed. The antibacterial activity of the resulting fibers was finally assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailA fungal biofilm reactor based on metal structured packing improves the quality of a Gla::GFP fusion protein produced by Aspergillus oryzae
Zune, Quentin ULg; Delepierre, Anissa ULg; Gofflot, Sebastien et al

in Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (2015)

Fungal biofilm is known to promote the excretion of secondary metabolites in accordance with solid-state related physiological mechanisms. This work is based on the comparative analysis of classical ... [more ▼]

Fungal biofilm is known to promote the excretion of secondary metabolites in accordance with solid-state related physiological mechanisms. This work is based on the comparative analysis of classical submerged fermentation with a fungal biofilm reactor for the production of a Gla::GFP fusion protein by Aspergillus oryzae. The biofilm reactor comprises a metal structured packing allowing the attachment of the fungal biomass. Since the production of the target protein is under the control of the promoter glaB, specifically induced in solid-state fermentation, the biofilm mode of culture is expected to enhance the global productivity. Although production of the target protein was enhanced by using the biofilm mode of culture, we also found that fusion protein production is also significant when the submerged mode of culture is used. This result is related to high shear stress leading to biomass autolysis and leakage of intracellular fusion protein into the extracellular medium. Moreover, 2D-gel electrophoresis highlights the preservation of fusion protein integrity produced in biofilm conditions. Two fungal biofilm reactor designs were then investigated further, i.e. with full immersion of the packing or with medium recirculation on the packing, and the scale-up potentialities were evaluated. In this context, it has been shown that full immersion of the metal packing in the liquid medium during cultivation allows for a uniform colonization of the packing by the fungal biomass and leads to a better quality of the fusion protein. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolomic analysis of the green microalga Chlamydomonasreinhardtii cultivated under day/night conditions
Willamme, Rémi ULg; Alsafra, Zouheir; Arumugam, Rameshkumar et al

in Journal of Biotechnology (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (7 ULg)