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See detailLower critical field and SNS-Andreev spectroscopy of 122-arsenides: Evidence of nodeless superconducting gap
Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Pereira, P.J.; Kuzmichev, S.A. et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2014), 90

Using two experimental techniques, we studied single crystals of the 122-FeAs family with almost the same critical temperature, Tc. We investigated the temperature dependence of the lower critical field ... [more ▼]

Using two experimental techniques, we studied single crystals of the 122-FeAs family with almost the same critical temperature, Tc. We investigated the temperature dependence of the lower critical field Hc1(T) of a Ca0.32Na0.68Fe2As2 (Tc ≈ 34 K) single crystal under static magnetic fields H parallel to the c axis. The temperature dependence of the London penetration depth can be described equally well either by a single anisotropic s-wave-like gap or by a two-gap model, while a d-wave approach cannot be used to fit the London penetration depth data. Intrinsic multiple Andreev reflection effect spectroscopy was used to detect bulk gap values in single crystals of the intimate compound Ba0.65K0.35Fe2As2, with the same Tc. We estimated the range of the large gap value L = 6–8 meV (depending on small variation of Tc) and its a k space anisotropy of about 30%, and the small gap Delta ≈ 1.7 ± 0.3 meV. This clearly indicates that the gap structure of our investigated systems more likely corresponds to a nodeless s-wave two gaps. [less ▲]

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See detailNeutrophil contribution to spinal cord injury and repair
Neirinckx, Virginie ULg; Coste, Cécile ULg; Franzen, Rachelle ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroinflammation (2014), 11(1),

Spinal cord injuries remain a critical issue in experimental and clinical research nowadays, and it is now well accepted that the immune response and subsequent inflammatory reactions are of significant ... [more ▼]

Spinal cord injuries remain a critical issue in experimental and clinical research nowadays, and it is now well accepted that the immune response and subsequent inflammatory reactions are of significant importance in regulating the damage/repair balance after injury. The role of macrophages in such nervous system lesions now becomes clearer and their contribution in the wound healing process has been largely described in the last few years. Conversely, the contribution of neutrophils has traditionally been considered as detrimental and unfavorable to proper tissue regeneration, even if there are very few studies available on their precise impact in spinal cord lesions. Indeed, recent data show that neutrophils are required for promoting functional recovery after spinal cord trauma. In this review, we gathered recent evidence concerning the role of neutrophils in spinal cord injuries but also in some other neurological diseases, highlighting the need for further understanding the different mechanisms involved in spinal cord injury and repair. [less ▲]

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See detailAntibiotic resistance trend of Staphylococcus aureus isolated between 2010 and 2012 from mastitis cases in Azawak zebu in Niger
Issa Ibrahim, Abdoulkarim ULg; Duprez, Jean-Noël ULg; Bada-Alambedji, Rianatou et al

in African Journal of Microbiology Research (2014), 8((35)), 3271-3275

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See detailIntérêt des cellules stromales mésenchymateuses en transplantation d’organes solides
Delens, Loic ULg; Jouret, François ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2014), 10

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) currently represents the best therapeutic option in end-stage diseases caused by the irrevocable functional loss of an organ. Still, SOT is associated with immunological ... [more ▼]

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) currently represents the best therapeutic option in end-stage diseases caused by the irrevocable functional loss of an organ. Still, SOT is associated with immunological and non-immunological injuries, whose severity impacts on early functional recovery and long-term survival of the transplant. Current research focuses on the identification of innovative approaches to 1) attenuate ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage, 2) accelerate processes of tissue repair, and 3) induce in fine graft tolerance. Encouraging observations from both preclinical studies and clinical trials suggest that the administration of mesenchymal stromal cells at the time of SOT might be beneficial, as a result of theirs immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. [less ▲]

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See detailIntérêt des cellules stromales mésenchymateuses en transplantation d’organes solides
Delens, Loic ULg; Jouret, François ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2014), 10

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) currently represents the best therapeutic option in end-stage diseases caused by the irrevocable functional loss of an organ. Still, SOT is associated with immunological ... [more ▼]

Solid organ transplantation (SOT) currently represents the best therapeutic option in end-stage diseases caused by the irrevocable functional loss of an organ. Still, SOT is associated with immunological and non-immunological injuries, whose severity impacts on early functional recovery and long-term survival of the transplant. Current research focuses on the identification of innovative approaches to 1) attenuate ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage, 2) accelerate processes of tissue repair, and 3) induce in fine graft tolerance. Encouraging observations from both preclinical studies and clinical trials suggest that the administration of mesenchymal stromal cells at the time of SOT might be beneficial, as a result of theirs immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vivo skin fluorescence imaging in young Caucasian adults with early malignant melanomas
PIERARD, Gérald ULg; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg et al

in Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology (2014), 7

Background: Human cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is an aggressive cancer showing a dramatic worldwide increase in incidence over the past few decades. The most prominent relative epidemiological ... [more ▼]

Background: Human cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is an aggressive cancer showing a dramatic worldwide increase in incidence over the past few decades. The most prominent relative epidemiological increase has been disclosed in young women. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of chronic sun exposures in order to rate the extend of melanocytic stimulations in the vicinity of CMM. Methods: The study was designed to evaluate the melanin distribution and density using ultraviolet light illumination. The present study was performed on surgical excision specimens of thin CMM lesion removed from the upper limbs of 55 Caucasian adults (37 women and 18 men). Two control groups comprised 23 men and 21 women of similar ages who had medium-size congenital melanocytic nevi, also present on the upper limbs. The peritumoral skin was scrutinized using a Visioscan® VC98 device, revealing the faint mosaic melanoderma (FMM) pattern that grossly indicates early signs of chronic photodamage in epidermal melanin units. Results: The median extent of relative FMM was significantly higher in the CMM male group. By contrast, the CMM female group showed a reverse bimodal distribution in FMM size. Only 12/37 (32.5%) of the CMM female group had an increased FMM size, whereas 25/37 (67.5%) of females with CMM had a global FMM extent in the normal range, relative to the controls. Conclusion: Thin CMM supervening in young women appear unrelated to repeat photoexposure. Other mechanisms are possibly involved. [less ▲]

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See detailPathogenicity of Aspergillus clavatus produced in a fungal biofilm bioreactor toward Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)
Seye, Fawrou; Bawin, Thomas ULg; Boukraa, Slimane ULg et al

in Journal of Pesticide Science (2014), 39(3), 127-132

Many entomopathogenic fungi have been demonstrated to be potential agents for efficiently controlling mosquito populations. In the present study, we investigated a bioreactor system to produce metabolites ... [more ▼]

Many entomopathogenic fungi have been demonstrated to be potential agents for efficiently controlling mosquito populations. In the present study, we investigated a bioreactor system to produce metabolites and conidia by combining technological advantages of submerged and solid-state fermentations. The efficiency of fungal products was tested toward mosquitoes. Aspergillus clavatus (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) was grown by semi-solid-state fermentation in a bioreactor for up to 7 days. Depending on conidial doses (2.5×10^7, 5×10^7, 7.5×10^7, 10×10^7 and 12.5×10^7 conidia/mL), mortality ranged from 37.2±15.0 to 86.3±5.0% toward larvae and from 35.8±2.0 to 85.2±1.5% toward adults. The metabolites (10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% v/v) yielded mortality from 23.7±15.0 to 100.0±0.1% toward larvae, and two sprayed volumes (5 and 10 mL) reached 45.5±1.4 and 75.6±2.6% mortality, respectively, toward adults. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopmental profiles of GFAP-positive astrocytes in sheep cerebellum
Salouci, Moustafa ULg; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Shikh Al Sook, Mohamad Khir ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (2014)

Astroglial account for the largest glial population in the brain and play a variety of vital functions in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). An immunohistochemical study was performed in ... [more ▼]

Astroglial account for the largest glial population in the brain and play a variety of vital functions in the development of the central nervous system (CNS). An immunohistochemical study was performed in 19 ovine foetuses ranging from two to five months of gestation, one newborn lamb and three adult sheep. Using the anit-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) marker, several variations were found in the degree of GFAP positive (GFAP+) astrocyte distribution between the different zones in the cerebellum of sheep during brain development. Our study indicates that the first appearance of astrocytes from restricted zones in the cerebellum occurs around the eighth week of gestation. Bergmann cells were found to be present from around the 15th week of gestation onwards. Our findings suggest that the maturation of astrocytes begins in the caudal parts of the cerebellum, developing from their initial ventral regions to spread first to dorsal regions radially within the white matter, then followed by the more rostral parts of the cerebellum. Astrocytes were also found to proliferate in the vermis before appearing in the cerebellar hemispheres. [less ▲]

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See detailNoise Reduction Properties of an Experimental Bituminous Slurry with Crumb Rubber Incorporated by the Dry Process
Bueno, Moises; Luong, Jeanne ULg; Teran, Fernando et al

in Coatings (2014), 4(3), 602-613

Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, cold technology for asphalt pavement in the field of road construction is considered as an alternative solution to conventional procedures from both an economic and environmental point of view. Among these techniques, bituminous slurry surfacing is obtaining an important role due to the properties of the obtained wearing course. The functional performance of this type of surfaces is directly related to its rough texture. Nevertheless, this parameter has a significant influence on the tire/road noise generation. To reduce this undesirable effect on the sound performance, new designs of elastic bituminous slurries have been developed. Within the FENIX project, this work presents the acoustical characterization of an experimental bituminous slurry with crumb rubber from wasted automobile tires incorporated by the dry process. The obtained results show that, under controlled operational parameters, the close proximity sound levels associated to the experimental slurry are considerably lower than those emitted by a conventional slurry wearing course. However, after one year of supporting traffic loads and different weather conditions, the evaluated bituminous slurry, although it conserves the original noise reduction properties in relation to the conventional one, noticeably increases the generated sound emission. Therefore, it is required to continue improving the design of experimental surfaces in order to enhance its long-term performance. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of Imaging in the Staging and Response Assessment of Lymphoma : Consensus of the International Conference on Malignant Lymphomas Imaging Working Group
BARRINGTON, SALLY F.; MIKKHAEEL, N. GEORGE; KOSTAKOGLU, LALE et al

in Journal of Clinical Oncology (2014)

This article comprises the consensus reached to update guidance on the use of PET-CT for staging and response assessment for 18F FDG-avid lymphomas in clinical practice and late-phase trials.

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See detailLabeo rosae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Congo basin: a relict distribution or a historical introduction?
Van SteenBerge, Maarten; Gajdzik, Laura ULg; Chilala, Alex et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2014)

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See detailEvaluation of [18F]UCB-H as a novel PET tracer for synaptic vesicle protein 2A in the brain.
Warnock, Geoffrey; Aerts, Joël ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg et al

in Journal of Nuclear Medicine (The) (2014), 55(8), 1336-1341

Synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2) proteins are critical to proper nervous system function and are involved in vesicle trafficking. The SV2A isoform has been identified as the binding site of the antiepileptic ... [more ▼]

Synaptic vesicle 2 (SV2) proteins are critical to proper nervous system function and are involved in vesicle trafficking. The SV2A isoform has been identified as the binding site of the antiepileptic levetiracetam (LEV), making it an interesting therapeutic target for epilepsy. [18F]UCB-H is a novel PET imaging agent with a nanomolar affinity for human SV2A. Methods: preclinical PET studies were carried out in isoflurane anesthetized rats. Arterial input function was measured using an arteriovenous shunt and beta microprobe system. [18F]UCB-H was injected IV (140 ± 20 MBq bolus). Results: brain uptake of [18F]UCB-H was high, matching the expected homogeneous distribution of SV2A. The distribution volume (Vt) for [18F]UCB-H was calculated using Logan’s graphical analysis and the effect of LEV pretreatment on Vt measured. In control animals the mean whole-brain Vt was 9.76 ± 0.52 ml/cm3 (mean ± SD, n=4, test-retest), and the mean reproducibility in test-retest studies was 10.4 ± 6.5 %. Uptake of [18F]UCB-H was dose-dependently blocked by pretreatment with LEV (0.1 - 100 mg/kg IV). Conclusion: our results indicate that [18F]UCB-H is a suitable radiotracer for the imaging of SV2A in vivo. This is the first PET tracer for in vivo quantification of SV2A. The necessary steps for implementation of [18F]UCB-H production under GMP conditions and first in human studies are planned. [less ▲]

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See detailA Deep Chandra Observation of the Giant H II Region N11. I. X-Ray Sources in the Field
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Wang, Q. Daniel; Chu, You-Hua et al

in Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2014), 213

A very sensitive X-ray investigation of the giant H II region N11 in the Large Megallanic Cloud was performed using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The 300 ks observation reveals X-ray sources with ... [more ▼]

A very sensitive X-ray investigation of the giant H II region N11 in the Large Megallanic Cloud was performed using the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The 300 ks observation reveals X-ray sources with luminosities down to 10[SUP]32[/SUP] erg s[SUP]–1[/SUP], increasing the number of known point sources in the field by more than a factor of five. Among these detections are 13 massive stars (3 compact groups of massive stars, 9 O stars, and one early B star) with log (L [SUB]X[/SUB]/L [SUB]BOL[/SUB]) ~–6.5 to –7, which may suggest that they are highly magnetic or colliding-wind systems. On the other hand, the stacked signal for regions corresponding to undetected O stars yields log (L [SUB]X[/SUB]/L [SUB]BOL[/SUB]) ~–7.3, i.e., an emission level comparable to similar Galactic stars despite the lower metallicity. Other point sources coincide with 11 foreground stars, 6 late-B/A stars in N11, and many background objects. This observation also uncovers the extent and detailed spatial properties of the soft, diffuse emission regions, but the presence of some hotter plasma in their spectra suggests contamination by the unresolved stellar population. [less ▲]

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See detailStandardization of DiaSorin and Roche automated third generation PTH assays with an international standard: impact on clinical populations
CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; LUKAS, Pierre ULg et al

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2014), 52(8), 1137-41

Background: Standardization of parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays is a major issue, especially in hemodialyzed (HD) patients. Two automated third generation PTH assays (Roche Elecsys and DiaSorin Liaison ... [more ▼]

Background: Standardization of parathyroid hormone (PTH) assays is a major issue, especially in hemodialyzed (HD) patients. Two automated third generation PTH assays (Roche Elecsys and DiaSorin Liaison) are now available. These assays are specific for the (1-84) PTH and do not cross-react with the (7-84) fragment, contrary to second generation (intact) assays. We aimed to calibrate the two methods against the WHO International PTH Standard (IS) 95/646 to see if the two assays could provide comparable results in a population of healthy subjects, HD patients and patients suffering from primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP). Methods: We selected 79 healthy subjects and two populations of patients presenting PTH disorders: 56 HD and 27 PHP patients. We reconstituted the IS in a pool of human serum containing undetectable levels of 1-84 PTH and prepared 13 serum standards ranging from 0 to 2000 pg/mL. The standards were run on the two instruments to calibrate the assays on the IS. The different populations were run before and after restandardization. Results: As these kits were differently calibrated, the results obtained after restandarization were significantly different. Restandardization process improved concordance between assays and, taking the analytical variability of the two kits into account, the results could be considered to be similar. Conclusions: Restandardization of automated third generation PTH assays with the WHO 1-84 PTH Standard significantly reduces inter-method variability. Reference ranges and raw values are totally transposable from one method to the other in healthy subjects, but also in diseased patients, e.g., with HD or those suffering from PHP. [less ▲]

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See detailHow to correctly determine the kinetics of a photocatalytic degradation reaction?
Pirard, Sophie ULg; Malengreaux, Charline ULg; Toye, Dominique ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Journal (2014), 249

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See detailComparison and impact of waste heat recovery technologies on passenger car fuel consumption on a normalized driving cycle
Legros, Arnaud ULg; Guillaume, Ludovic ULg; Diny, Mouad et al

in Energies (2014)

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this article was to compare different waste heat recovery system technologies designed for automotive applications. A complete literature review is done and results in two comparative graphs. In the second part, simulation models are built and calibrated in order to assess the fuel consumption reduction that can be achieved on a real driving cycle. The strength of this article is that the models are calibrated using actual data. Finally, those simulations results are analyzed and the Rankine cycle and turbocompound are the two most profitable solutions. However the simulations of the turbocompound shows its limitations because the impact on the exhaust pressure drop is not taken into account in the assessment of the car fuel consumption. Fuel reduction of up to 6% could be achieved, depending on the driving cycle and the waste heat recovery technology. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganic and mineral imprints in fossil photosynthetic mats of an East Antarctic lake
Lepot, Kevin; Compère, Philippe ULg; Gerard, E et al

in Geobiology (2014), 12(5), 424-450

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See detailExperimental study of wings undergoing active root flapping and pitching
Abdul Razak, Norizham; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in Journal of Fluids & Structures (2014), 49

This paper presents the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings undergoing active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of experiments carried out on mechanical wings undergoing active root flapping and pitching in the wind tunnel. The objective of the work is to investigate the effect of the pitch angle oscillations and wing profile on the aerodynamic forces generated by the wings. The experiments were repeated for different reduced frequency, airspeed, flapping and pitching kinematics, geometric angle of attack and wing sections (one symmetric and two cambered airfoils). A specially designed mechanical flapper was used, modelled on large migrating birds. It is shown that, under pitch leading conditions, good thrust generation can be obtained at a wide range of Strouhal numbers if the pitch angle oscillation is adjusted accordingly. Consequently, high thrust was measured at both the lowest and the highest tested Strouhal numbers. Furthermore, the work demonstrates that the aerodynamic forces can be sensitive to the Reynolds number, depending on the camber of the wings. Under pitch lagging conditions, where the effective angle of attack amplitude is highest, the symmetric wing was affected by the Reynolds number, generating less thrust at the lowest tested Reynolds value. In contrast, under pure flapping conditions, where the effective angle of attack amplitude was lower but still significant, it was the cambered wings that demonstrated Reynolds sensitivity. [less ▲]

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See detailNatural intrauterine infection with Schmallenberg virus in malformed newborn calves: pathology and distribution of viral RNA
Bayrou, Calixte ULg; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ULg; Sarlet, Michaël ULg et al

in Emerging Infectious Diseases (2014), 20(8),

We comprehensively surveyed morphologic alterations in calves naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born deformed. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues ... [more ▼]

We comprehensively surveyed morphologic alterations in calves naturally infected in utero by Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and born deformed. SBV-specific RNA was distributed unevenly in different tissues. Implications for diagnosic procedures are highlighted. [less ▲]

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See detailReliabilität und Validität des "Voice Handicap Index (VHI) adaptiert an die Gesangsstimme"
Morsomme, Dominique ULg; Barsties, B.; Kropp, J. et al

in Laryngo Rhino Otologie (2014)

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See detailPhénologie et intensité de la migration postnuptiale diurne en Ardenne du nord-est par le suivi migratoire (Ramecroix, 2006 à 2010)
Beckers, Arnaud ULg; Baron, André

in Aves (2014), 51(2), 87-106

We present the results of five years of monitoring postnuptial migration in the northeast Ardennes (the Ramecroix site) from 2006 to 2010. The timing and intensity of migration have been calculated for ... [more ▼]

We present the results of five years of monitoring postnuptial migration in the northeast Ardennes (the Ramecroix site) from 2006 to 2010. The timing and intensity of migration have been calculated for the 19 commonest species. Phenology for each species varied markedly from year to year. The passage of two particular species (Northern Lapwing and Song Trush) was extremely concentrated in time. Comparison with data from the Netherland and from Les Awirs (Liège, Belgium) show differences between locations, for which we propose some explanations. The full dataset constitute a useful benchmark for future studies on the spatial variability of migration flow. [less ▲]

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See detailForage plants as alternative feed resource for sustainable pig production in the tropics: a review
Kambashi Mutiaka, Bienvenu ULg; Boudry, Christelle ULg; Picron, Pascale ULg et al

in Animal (2014), 8(8), 1298-1311

Globally, pressure on concentrate feed resources is increasing, especially in the tropics where many countries are net importers of food. Forage plants are a possible alternative but their use as feed ... [more ▼]

Globally, pressure on concentrate feed resources is increasing, especially in the tropics where many countries are net importers of food. Forage plants are a possible alternative but their use as feed ingredients for pigs raises several issues related to their higher fibre and plant secondary metabolites contents as well as their lower nutritive value. In this paper, the nutritive value of several forage species as well as the parameters that influence this nutritive value in relationship to the plant family, the physiological stage, the plant part and the preservation method (fresh, hay and silage) are reviewed. The influence of the breed and the physiological status of the animal on animal voluntary intake of fibre-rich ingredients, digestibility as related to gastrointestinal volume and transit time and growth performances are also discussed. The final section highlights the assets and drawbacks of forage plants in pig diets and stresses the need for proper economic evaluation to conclude on the benefits of the use of forage plants in pig feed. [less ▲]

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See detailCase studies of incorporation of prior information in electrical resistivity tomography: comparison of different approaches
Caterina, David ULg; Hermans, Thomas ULg; Nguyen, Frédéric ULg

in Near Surface Geophysics (2014), 12(4), 451-465

Many geophysical inverse problems are ill-posed and their solution non-unique. It is thus important to reduce the amount of mathematical solutions to more geologically plausible models by regularizing the ... [more ▼]

Many geophysical inverse problems are ill-posed and their solution non-unique. It is thus important to reduce the amount of mathematical solutions to more geologically plausible models by regularizing the inverse problem and incorporating all available prior information in the inversion process. We compare three different ways to incorporate prior information for electrical resistivity tomography (ERT): using a simple reference model or adding structural constraints to Occam's inversion and using geostatistical constraints. We made the comparison on four real cases representing different field applications in terms of scales of investigation and level of heterogeneities. In those cases, when electromagnetic logging data are available in boreholes to control the solution, it appears that incorporating prior information clearly improves the correspondence with logging data compared to the standard smoothness constrain. However, the way to incorporate it may have a major impact on the solution. A reference model can often be used to constrain the inversion; however, it can lead to misinterpretation if its weight is too strong or the resistivity values inappropriate. When the computation of the vertical and/or horizontal correlation length is possible, the geostatistical inversion gives reliable results everywhere in the section. However, adding geostatistical constraints can be difficult when there is not enough data to compute correlation lengths. When a known limit between two layers exists, the use of structural constrain seems to be more indicated particularly when the limit is located in zones of low sensitivity for ERT. This work should help interpreters to include their prior information directly into the inversion process through an appropriate way. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-period vehicle loading with stochastic release dates
Arda, Yasemin ULg; Crama, Yves ULg; Kronus, David ULg et al

in EURO Journal on Transportation and Logistics (2014), 3(2), 93-119

This paper investigates a multi-period vehicle loading problem with stochastic information regarding the release dates of items to be transported. The deterministic version of the problem can be ... [more ▼]

This paper investigates a multi-period vehicle loading problem with stochastic information regarding the release dates of items to be transported. The deterministic version of the problem can be formulated as a large-scale set covering problem. Several heuristic algorithms are proposed to generate decision policies for the stochastic optimization model over a long rolling horizon. The resulting policies have been extensively tested on instances which display the main characteristics of the industrial case-study that motivated the research. The tests demonstrate the benefits of the multi-period stochastic model over simple myopic strategies. A simple and efficient heuristic is shown to deliver good policies and to be robust against errors in the estimation of the probability distribution of the release dates. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of nitric oxide by diaminofluorescein visualizes the skeleton in living zebrafish.
Renn, Jörg ULg; Pruvot, Benoist; Muller, Marc ULg

in Journal of Applied Ichthyology (2014), 30(4), 701706

Several in vivo stainings, such as Calcein, Alizarin Red and Quercetin are commonly used to visualize ossification in living teleost specimen. These staining techniques represent important tools for bone ... [more ▼]

Several in vivo stainings, such as Calcein, Alizarin Red and Quercetin are commonly used to visualize ossification in living teleost specimen. These staining techniques represent important tools for bone research in fish, but do not visualize cartilage. In the present study, we show that nitric oxide (NO) labelling by DAF-FM DA visualizes both bone and cartilage in vivo during zebrafish skeletogenesis. NO detection performed in Tg(osterix:mCherry) or in combination with Alizarin Red in wild-type zebrafish reveals that intense staining through NO labelling colocalizes with the appearance of osteoblasts and characterizes ossified structures. Cartilage structures are clearly distinguished in the living larvae, although the labelling is less intensive when compared to ossified structures. This method is the first and easy to handle alternative to cartilage and bone double stainings on fixed samples. In contrast to most live skeletal stainings, which only stain the mineralized bone structures, this protocol in addition allows in vivo visualization of cartilage. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of the quantitative performances of Supercritical Fluid Chromatography : from method development to validation
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Lebrun, Pierre ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2014), 1353(Method Validation), 78-88

Recently, the number of papers about SFC increased drastically but scientists did not truly focus their work on quantitative performances of this technique. In order to prove the potential of UHPSFC, the ... [more ▼]

Recently, the number of papers about SFC increased drastically but scientists did not truly focus their work on quantitative performances of this technique. In order to prove the potential of UHPSFC, the present work discussed about the different steps of the analytical life cycle of a method: from development to validation and application. Moreover, the UHPSFC quantitative performances were evaluated in comparison with UHPLC, which is the main technique used for quality control in the pharmaceutical industry and then could be considered as a reference. The methods were developed using Design Space strategy, leading to the optimization of robust method. In this context, when the Design Space optimization shows guarantee of quality, no more robustness study is required prior to the validation. Then, the methods were geometrically transferred in order to reduce the analysis time. The UHPSFC and UHPLC methods were validated based on the total error approach using accuracy profile. Even if UHPLC showed better precision and sensitivity, UHPSFC method is able to give accurate results in a dosing range larger than the 80–120% range required by the European Medicines Agency. Consequently, UHPSFC results are valid and could be used for the control of active substance in a finished pharmaceutical product. Finally, UHPSFC validated method was used to analyse real samples and gave similar results than the reference method (UHPLC). [less ▲]

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See detailThe replication characteristics of infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) in the respiratory and conjunctival mucosa
Reddy, V.R.; Steukers, L.; Li, Y. et al

in Avian Pathology : Journal of the W.V.P.A (2014), 21

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See detailQuality of Work Life, Burnout, and Stress in Emergency Department Physicians: A Qualitative Review
Bragard, Isabelle ULg; Dupuis, Gilles; Fleet, Richard

in European Journal of Emergency Medicine (2014)

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See detailThe cerato-mandibular ligament: a key functional trait for grazing in damselfishes (Pomacentridae)
Olivier, Damien ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Spanopoulos-Zarco, Milton et al

in Frontiers in Zoology (2014), 11(63), 1-14

Introduction: The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The success of a taxonomic group can be promoted by a key character that allows the group to interact with its environment in a different way and to potentially occupy new niches. The Pomacentridae possess a synapomorphic trait, the cerato-mandibular (c-md) ligament, which joins the hyoid bar to the inner part of the lower jaw. It has previously been shown that this ligament is a key trait in communication in damselfishes because it enables them to slam the oral jaws shut causing teeth collision and sound production. This specific behavior of mouth closing could, however, also be used for other tasks, such as feeding. Many territorial damselfishes are referred to as farmers, due to their ability to manage algal crops on which they feed. This study hypothesizes that the c-md ligament provides an advantage for grazing filamentous algae, and should thus be considered a key trait for farming behavior. Results: The kinematic patterns associated with sound production and biting filamentous algae or attached animal prey are all based on the same mechanism and are associated with a slam of the oral jaws. We observed that transection of the c-md ligaments makes the fish unable to perform such actions. We also counted biting rates on filamentous algae in fish with and without the c-md ligament and observed a drop of more than 80% in the latter. Conclusion: This study shows that the c-md ligament is a key trait both for sound production and for grazing activities in damselfishes. The buccal jaw slam enables the fish to perform accurate strikes on small filamentous algae. This kind of bite probably plays a major role in farming activity and allows grazing damselfishes to occupy distinct niches, possibly increasing their competitive evolutionary success. [less ▲]

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See detailScalar triplet flavored leptogenesis: a systematic approach
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Dhen, Mikael; Hambye, Thomas

in Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics [= JCAP] (2014), 2014

Type-II seesaw is a simple scenario in which Majorana neutrino masses are generated by the exchange of a heavy scalar electroweak triplet. When endowed with additional heavy fields, such as right-handed ... [more ▼]

Type-II seesaw is a simple scenario in which Majorana neutrino masses are generated by the exchange of a heavy scalar electroweak triplet. When endowed with additional heavy fields, such as right-handed neutrinos or extra triplets, it also provides a compelling framework for baryogenesis via leptogenesis. We derive in this context the full network of Boltzmann equations for studying leptogenesis in the flavored regime. To this end we determine the relations which hold among the chemical potentials of the various particle species in the thermal bath. This takes into account the standard model Yukawa interactions of both leptons and quarks as well as sphaleron processes which, depending on the temperature, may be classified as faster or slower than the Universe Hubble expansion. We find that when leptogenesis is enabled by the presence of an extra triplet, lepton flavor effects allow the production of the B-L asymmetry through lepton number conserving CP asymmetries. This scenario becomes dominant as soon as the triplets couple more to leptons than to standard model scalar doublets. In this case, the way the B-L asymmetry is created through flavor effects is novel: instead of invoking the effect of L-violating inverse decays faster than the Hubble rate, it involves the effect of L-violating inverse decays slower than the Hubble rate. We also analyze the more general situation where lepton number violating CP asymmetries are present and actively participate in the generation of the B-L asymmetry, pointing out that as long as L-violating triplet decays are still in thermal equilibrium when the triplet gauge scattering processes decouple, flavor effects can be striking, allowing to avoid all washout suppression effects from seesaw interactions. In this case the amount of B-L asymmetry produced is limited only by a universal gauge suppression effect, which nevertheless goes away for large triplet decay rates. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification and Characterization of a Halotolerant, Cold-Active Marine Endo-β-1,4-Glucanase by Using Functional Metagenomics of Seaweed-Associated Microbiota
Martin, Marjolaine ULg; Biver, Sophie ULg; Steels, Sébastien ULg et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2014), 80(16), 4958-4967

A metagenomic library was constructed from microorganisms associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Functional screening of this library revealed 13 novel putative esterase loci and two ... [more ▼]

A metagenomic library was constructed from microorganisms associated with the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum. Functional screening of this library revealed 13 novel putative esterase loci and two glycoside hydrolase loci. Sequence and gene cluster analysis showed the wide diversity of the identified enzymes and gave an idea of the microbial populations present during the sample collection period. Lastly, an endo-β-1,4-glucanase having less than 50% identity to sequences of known cellulases was purified and partially characterized, showing activity at low temperature and after prolonged incubation in concentrated salt solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailA Remark on the Poroelastic Center of Dilation
Huynen, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel

in Journal of Elasticity (2014), 116(2), 189-206

In the original derivation due to Dougall (1897), the center of dilation is constructed from the superposition of orthogonal force dipoles. However, it can also be built by combining dislocation dipoles ... [more ▼]

In the original derivation due to Dougall (1897), the center of dilation is constructed from the superposition of orthogonal force dipoles. However, it can also be built by combining dislocation dipoles. While the two representations are equivalent in elasticity, the different nature of the force and dislocation dipoles leads to different transient behaviors in poroelasticity, when the response evolves from undrained to drained. Indeed, we show that the poroelastic solution of a center of dilation is obtained by superposing the corresponding elastic solution and either an instantaneous fluid sink or an instantaneous fluid source, depending on whether the center of dilation is treated as a singular stress or displacement discontinuity. A simple explanation to the instantaneous injection or withdrawal of a finite volume of fluid from/to the singularity is given by adopting an exploded view of the poroelastic center of dilation. The exploration of the drained, undrained and transient responses of this singularity also requires to clarify the close relationship between an instantaneous fluid source and a continuous fluid dodecapole, an object constructed by collapsing onto a point three orthogonal pairs of fluid dipoles. [less ▲]

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See detailWASP-117b: a 10-day-period Saturn in an eccentric and misaligned orbit
Lendl, Monika ULg; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 568

We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of M_p = 0.2755 (+/-0.0090) M_jup, a radius of R_p = 1.021 (-0.065 +0 ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of M_p = 0.2755 (+/-0.0090) M_jup, a radius of R_p = 1.021 (-0.065 +0.076) R_jup and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 +/-0.023), 10.02165 +/- 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V=10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a planetary equilibrium temperature of T_eq = 1024 (-26 +30) K and a low planetary density (rho_p = 0.259 (-0.048 +0.054) rho_jup) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of beta = -44 (+/-11) deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of psi = 69.5 (+3.6 -3.1) deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the stellar plane are weak, having had little impact on the planetary orbit over the system lifetime. WASP-117b joins a small sample of transiting giant planets with well characterized orbits at periods above ~8 days. [less ▲]

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See detailRural Credit and Farms Efficiency : Modelling Farmers Crédit Allocation Decisions, Evidences from Benin
Sossou, Comlan ULg; Noma, Freddy; Yabi, Jacob

in Economics Research International (2014), 2014

This paper analyses farmers’ credit allocation behaviors and their effects on technical efficiency. Data were collected from 476 farmers using themultistage sampling procedure.The stochastic frontier ... [more ▼]

This paper analyses farmers’ credit allocation behaviors and their effects on technical efficiency. Data were collected from 476 farmers using themultistage sampling procedure.The stochastic frontier truncated-normal with conditional mean model is used to assess allocation schemes effects on technical efficiency. Tobitmodel reveals the impact of farmers’ sociodemographic characteristics on efficiency scores. Results reveal that farm revenue (about 2,262,566 Fcfa on average) is positively correlated with land acreage, quantity of labour, and costs of fertilizers and insecticides. Farmers’ behaviors respond to six schemes which are categorized in two allocations contexts : out-farm and in-farm allocations. The model shows that only scheme (e) positively impacts technical efficiency.This scheme refers to the decision to invest credit to purchase better quality of pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and so forth. The positive effect of the scheme (c) may be significant under conditions of farmers’ education level improvement. Then, scheme (e) is a better investment for all farmers, but effect of credit allocation to buy agricultural materials is positive only for educated farmers. Efficiency scores are reduced by household size and gender of the household head. Therefore a household with more than 10 members and a woman as head is likely to not be technically efficient. [less ▲]

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See detailThiophene derivatives with donor–π–acceptor structures for enhanced light-absorption properties and efficient cationic polymerization upon green-light irradiation
Telitel, Sofia; Ouhib, Farid ULg; Fouassier, Jean-Pierre et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2014), 215(16), 1514-1524

Positively charged thermoresponsive nanogels (NGs) are easily synthesized by precipitation polymerization of N-isopropyl­acrylamide and 2-dimethyl(aminoethyl)­methacrylate crosslinked with dendritic ... [more ▼]

Positively charged thermoresponsive nanogels (NGs) are easily synthesized by precipitation polymerization of N-isopropyl­acrylamide and 2-dimethyl(aminoethyl)­methacrylate crosslinked with dendritic polyglycerol. The NGs are characterized in terms of size, thermoresponsive properties, and Z potential. Their potential applications as drug delivery carriers are evaluated by the encapsulation and release of different anticancer drugs. As model drugs, doxorubicin and methotrexate are studied. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts d’une association culturale de pois et de pommes de terre sur les pucerons et auxiliaires aphidiphages en Chine
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Serteyn, Laurent et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2014), 67

Crop associations can have beneficial effects on the control of insect pests. This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the impact of potatoes and peas association on the ... [more ▼]

Crop associations can have beneficial effects on the control of insect pests. This study was conducted in the Shandong province (China) to assess the impact of potatoes and peas association on the populations of aphids and their natural enemies. Observations on potato plants and trapping (yellow pan traps) were performed. During the season, the degree of infestation didn’t differ significantly between the association and the pure stand. However, one week after the aphids abundance peak, predators and parasitoid mummies were significantly more abundant in the association compared with the pure stand. Trapping give a more general idea about the richness and diversity of adult natural enemies present in the environment. The parasitoid specie Aphidius gifuensis (Ashmead) was the most abundant among beneficials. Propylea japonica (Thunberg) and Harmonia axyridis (Pallas) were prevalent among predators. Few hoverflies and lacewings were trapped. This study contributes to better evaluate the potential of crop associations as an alternative method to control aphids without insecticides in this region. [less ▲]

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See detailIs wild boar heading towards movement ecology? A review of trends and gaps
Morelle, Kevin ULg; Lehaire, François ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg

in Wildlife Biology (2014), 20(4), 196-205

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See detailPhytosanitary treatment of European pallets by microwave: developing a program to ensure compliance with ISPM 15 and monitoring its efficacy on the house longhorn beetle (Hylotrupes bajulus L.)
Henin, Jean-Marc; Leyman, Michael; Bauduin, Aline et al

in European Journal of Wood and Wood Products (2014)

Microwave heating was recently approved by the FAO as a significantly effective phytosanitary treatment for wood packaging material. According to ISPM 15 (FAO 2009), the target organisms are eradicated if ... [more ▼]

Microwave heating was recently approved by the FAO as a significantly effective phytosanitary treatment for wood packaging material. According to ISPM 15 (FAO 2009), the target organisms are eradicated if a temperature higher than 60 °C is maintained for 60 s across the entire profile of the board (i.e. 60 °C/60 s). A study using pallet boards was carried out in order to set up a treatment program that would meet ISPM 15 requirements in terms of wood temperature and insect mortality. A 4 m-long industrial tunnel oven (maximum power of 28.8 kW) was used to carry out the experiments. Temperature was measured by means of a VarioCAM® infrared camera. The most relevant results we found were: (i) achieving a temperature of 63.2 °C (Populus sp.) or 64.8 °C (Pinus sylvestris L.) on the upper surface of 22 mm-thick boards enabled compliance with FAO requirements (i.e. 60 °C/60 s), whatever the moisture content, basic density and initial temperature of the wood (provided the latter exceeded 0 °C); (ii) larvae >150 mg represented the most microwave-resistant life stage of Hylotrupes bajulus L.; (iii) the mortality rate of the larvae was influenced by the moisture content of the boards. Using the Gompertz model, we estimated the upper surface temperature that would be needed to achieve a 99.99683% mortality rate (the Probit 9 mortality level of efficacy) for the most microwave-resistant life stage of H. bajulus. This temperature was estimated to be 46.8 °C and 57 °C for wood with >50 and <25% moisture content, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailNew carbohydrate-active enzymes identified by screening two metagenomic libraries derived from the soil of a winter wheat field
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Vandenbol, Micheline ULg

in Journal of Applied Microbiology (2014)

Aims Soils are rich, diversified environments where β-glucosidases abound because of their importance in organic matter degradation. The aim of this work was to discover new β-glucosidases by constructing ... [more ▼]

Aims Soils are rich, diversified environments where β-glucosidases abound because of their importance in organic matter degradation. The aim of this work was to discover new β-glucosidases by constructing two metagenomic DNA libraries from soil samples collected in winter and spring from a field of winter wheat. Methods and Results Both libraries were screened on esculin-supplemented medium so as to isolate candidates showing β-glucosidase activity. Candidate analysis revealed seven putative β-glycosidases and two putative glycosyltransferases, displaying 25 to 82% identity to known enzymes. The putative β-glycosidases belong to families GH1, GH3 and GH20 and the two putative glycosyltransferases, probably, to new families. In characterization tests performed on bacteria in suspension or spread on agar plates, some candidates appeared to hydrolyse several natural and synthetic substrates. These tests also highlighted interesting industrial characteristics, such as the activity of four β-glycosidases under alkaline conditions and the esculin-hydrolysing activity of a β-glucosidase candidate in the presence of glucose. Conclusions Seven putative β-glycosidases and two putative glycosyltransferases were found by functional screening of two metagenomic DNA libraries derived from agricultural soil. Significance and Impact of the Study This study has identified β-glycosidases and putative glycosyltransferases that have or may have interesting industrial characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailSound production to electric discharge: sonic muscle evolution in progress in Synodontis spp. catfishes (Mochokidae)
Boyle, Kelly; Colleye, Orphal ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2014), 281

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See detailNeoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer induces miR-34a and miR-122 expression
FRERES, Pierre ULg; JOSSE, Claire ULg; Bovy, Nicolas ULg et al

in Journal of Cellular Physiology (2014)

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied in cancer as biomarkers but little is known regarding the influence of anti-cancer drugs on their expression levels. In this article, we ... [more ▼]

Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been extensively studied in cancer as biomarkers but little is known regarding the influence of anti-cancer drugs on their expression levels. In this article, we describe the modifications of circulating miRNAs profile after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer. The expression of 188 circulating miRNAs was assessed in the plasma of 25 patients before and after NAC by RT-qPCR. Two miRNAs, miR- 34a and miR-122, that were significantly increased after NAC, were measured in tumor tissue before and after chemotherapy in 7 patients with pathological partial response (pPR) to NAC. These 2 chemotherapy-induced miRNAs were further studied in the plasma of 22 patients with adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) as well as in 12 patients who did not receive any chemotherapy. Twenty-five plasma miRNAs were modified by NAC. Among these miRNAs, miR-34a and miR-122 were highly upregulated, notably in pPR patients with aggressive breast cancer. Furthermore, miR-34a level was elevated in the remaining tumor tissue after NAC treatment. Studying the kinetics of circulating miR-34a and miR-122 expression during NAC revealed that their levels were especially increased after anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Comparisons of the plasma miRNA profiles after NAC and AC suggested that chemotherapy-induced miRNAs originated from both tumoral and non-tumoral compartments. This study is the first to demonstrate that NAC specifically induces miRNA expression in plasma and tumor tissue, which might be involved in the anti-tumor effects of chemotherapy in breast cancer patients. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotographier le travail, représenter le futur. Iconographie du chantier des Halles à Paris
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Communication et Langages (2014), 180

This article investigates the semiotic strategies of visual representation in the urban space, as exemplified by the renovation project of the Forum des Halles in Paris. The corpus of images, taken from ... [more ▼]

This article investigates the semiotic strategies of visual representation in the urban space, as exemplified by the renovation project of the Forum des Halles in Paris. The corpus of images, taken from the brochure of the construction site and from the website www.parisleshalles.fr, includes photographic documentation and illustrations of the future buildings. The analysis of the visual enunciation marks out the relative simulacra of the producers and consumers of these images, and a semiotic study of the modes of representation of the buildings (virtualisation, actualisation, realisation, etc.) helps understanding how the present and the future are articulated in the iconography of a construction work in progress. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations
Mascart, Thibaud ULg; Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Deschoemaeker, Silke et al

in Journal of Sea Research (2014)

The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated ... [more ▼]

The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 42°35’N, 8°43’E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome: a systematic review of prevalence studies
Van Erp, WS; Lavrijsen, JC; Van De Laar, FA et al

in European Journal of Neurology (2014)

One of the worst outcomes of acquired brain injury is the vegetative state, recently renamed ‘unresponsive wakefulness syndrome’ (VS/UWS). A patient in VS/UWS shows reflexive behaviour such as spontaneous ... [more ▼]

One of the worst outcomes of acquired brain injury is the vegetative state, recently renamed ‘unresponsive wakefulness syndrome’ (VS/UWS). A patient in VS/UWS shows reflexive behaviour such as spontaneous eye opening and breathing, but no signs of awareness of the self or the environment. We performed a systematic review of VS/UWS prevalence studies and assessed their reliability. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched in April 2013 for cross-sectional point or period prevalence studies explicitly stating the prevalence of VS/UWS due to acute causes within the general population. We additionally checked bibliographies and consulted experts in the field to obtain ‘grey data’ like government reports. Relevant publications underwent quality assessment and data-extraction. We retrieved 1032 papers out of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. Prevalence figures varied from 0.2 to 6.1 VS/UWS patients per 100 000 members of the population. However, the publications’ methodological quality differed substantially, in particular with regards to inclusion criteria and diagnosis verification. The reliability of VS/UWS prevalence figures is poor. Methodological flaws in available prevalence studies, the fact that 5/14 of the studies predate the identification of the minimally conscious state (MCS) as a distinct entity in 2002, and insufficient verification of included cases may lead to both overestimation and underestimation of the actual number of patients in VS/UWS. [less ▲]

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See detailLiver proteomic response to hypertriglyceridemia in human-apolipoprotein C-III transgenic mice at cellular and mitochondrial compartment levels
Ehx, Grégory ULg; Gerin, Stéphanie ULg; Mathy, Grégory et al

in Lipids in Health and Disease (2014), 13

Background: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is defined as a triglyceride (TG) plasma level exceeding 150 mg/dl and is tightly associated with atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and acute ... [more ▼]

Background: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is defined as a triglyceride (TG) plasma level exceeding 150 mg/dl and is tightly associated with atherosclerosis, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes and acute pancreatitis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the impact of hypertriglyceridemia on the mitochondrial, sub-mitochondrial and cellular proteomes in the hepatocytes of a hypertriglyceridemic transgenic mouse model overexpressing the human apolipoproteinC-III. Methods: Quantitative comparative proteomics (2D-DIGE) was carried out in both “low-expressor” (LE) and “high-expressor” (HE) mice, respectively exhibiting moderate and severe HTG, to characterize the effect of the TG plasma level on the proteomic response. Results: The mitoproteome analysis revealed the occurrence of a large-scale adaptation in transgenic mice consisting of a general down-regulation of matricial proteins and up-regulation of inner membrane proteins. Remarkably, the magnitude of these proteomic changes appears to strongly depend on the TG plasma level. Altogether, our different analyses indicate that, in HE mice, the capacity of several metabolic pathways is altered to promote the availability of acetyl-CoA, glycerol-3-phosphate, ATP and NADPH for de novo TG biosynthesis. The up-regulation of several cytosolic ROS detoxifying enzymes also tend to confirm that the cytoplasm of HTG mice is subjected to oxidative stress as previously stated. The up-regulation of cytosolic ferritin indicates that iron over-accumulation could take place in the cytosol of HE mice hepatocytes and contribute to (i) enhance oxidative stress and (ii) promote cellular proliferation. Conclusions: The present analyses demonstrate that important TG dose-responsive metabolic adaptations are set up in human apolipoproteinC-III-overexpressing mice. Our results indicate that these adaptations could support the higher TG production rates which have been previously reported in this HTG model, and also suggest that cytosolic oxidative stress may result from FFA over-accumulation, iron overload and enhanced activity of some ROS-producing catabolic enzymes. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of the ruminant origin of bone particles using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).
Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline ULg; Ledoux, Quentin; Berben, Gilbert et al

in Scientific reports (2014), 4

Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone ... [more ▼]

Molecular biology techniques such as PCR constitute powerful tools for the determination of the taxonomic origin of bones. DNA degradation and contamination by exogenous DNA, however, jeopardise bone identification. Despite the vast array of techniques used to decontaminate bone fragments, the isolation and determination of bone DNA content are still problematic. Within the framework of the eradication of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (including BSE, commonly known as "mad cow disease"), a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) protocol was developed. Results from the described study showed that this method can be applied directly to bones without a demineralisation step and that it allows the identification of bovine and ruminant bones even after severe processing. The results also showed that the method is independent of exogenous contamination and that it is therefore entirely appropriate for this application. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing spatiotemporal variability and trends (2000-2013) of modeled and measured Greenland Ice Sheet albedo
Alexander, P.; Tedesco, M.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Cryosphere Discussions (The) (2014), 8

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the crucial role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and ... [more ▼]

Accurate measurements and simulations of Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) surface albedo are essential, given the crucial role of surface albedo in modulating the amount of absorbed solar radiation and meltwater production. In this study, we assess the spatio-temporal variability of GrIS albedo (during June, July, and August) for the period 2000–2013. We use two remote sensing products derived from data collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), as well as outputs from the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) regional climate model (RCM) and data from in situ automatic weather stations. Our results point to an overall consistency in spatiotemporal variability between remote sensing and RCM albedo, but reveal a difference in mean albedo of up to ~0.08 between the two remote sensing products north of 70° N. At low elevations, albedo values simulated by the RCM are positively biased with respect to remote sensing products and in situ measurements by up to ~0.1 and exhibit low variability compared with observations. We infer that these differences are the result of a positive bias in simulated bare-ice albedo. MODIS albedo, RCM outputs and in situ observations consistently point to a~decrease in albedo of −0.03 to −0.06 per decade over the period 2003–2013 for the GrIS ablation zone (where there is a net loss of mass at the GrIS surface). Nevertheless, satellite products show a~decline in albedo of −0.03 to −0.04 per decade for regions within the accumulation zone (where there is a net gain of mass at the surface) that is not confirmed by either the model or in situ observations. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf broadening coefficients and improved line intensities for the ν7 band of ethylene near 10.5 µm, and impact on ethylene retrievals from Jungfraujoch spectra
Vander Auwera, J; Fayt, A; Tudorie, M et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2014), 148

Relying on high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, the present work involved extensive measurements of individual line intensities and self broadening coefficients for the nu7 band of ... [more ▼]

Relying on high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, the present work involved extensive measurements of individual line intensities and self broadening coefficients for the nu7 band of 12C2H4. The measured self broadening coefficients exhibit a dependence on both J and Ka. Compared to the corresponding information available in the latest edition of the HITRAN spectroscopic database, the measured line intensities were found to be higher by about 10 % for high J lines in the P branch and lower by about 5 % for high J lines of the R branch, varying between these two limits roughly linearly with the line positions. The impact of the presently measured line intensities on retrievals of atmospheric ethylene in the 949.0-952.0 cm-1 microwindow was evaluated using a subset of ground-based high-resolution FTIR solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station. The use of HITRAN 2012 with line intensities modified to match the present measurements led to a systematic reduction of the measured total columns of ethylene by -4.1+/-0.1 %. [less ▲]

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See detailA formulation on the special Euclidean group for dynamic analysis of multibody systems
Sonneville, Valentin ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg

in Journal of Computational and Nonlinear Dynamics (2014), 9(4), 041002

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See detailEffect of lignocellulose related compounds on microalgae growth and product biosynthesis: a review
Miazek, Krystian ULg; Remacle, Claire ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Energies (2014), 7(2014), 4446-4481

Microalgae contain valuable compounds that can be harnessed for industrial applications. Lignocellulose biomass is a plant material containing in abundance organic substances such as carbohydrates ... [more ▼]

Microalgae contain valuable compounds that can be harnessed for industrial applications. Lignocellulose biomass is a plant material containing in abundance organic substances such as carbohydrates, phenolics, organic acids and other secondary compounds. As growth of microalgae on organic substances was confirmed during heterotrophic and mixotrophic cultivation, lignocellulose derived compounds can become a feedstock to cultivate microalgae and produce target compounds. In this review, different treatment methods to hydrolyse lignocellulose into organic substrates are presented first. Secondly, the effect of lignocellulosic hydrolysates, organic substances typically present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as well as minor co-products, on growth and accumulation of target compounds in microalgae cultures is described. Finally, the possibilities of using lignocellulose hydrolysates as a common feedstock for microalgae cultures are evaluated. [less ▲]

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See detailDiversity of Bacterial Communities in a Profile of a Winter Wheat Field: Known and Unknown Members
Stroobants, Aurore ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg; Olivier, Claire et al

in Microbial Ecology (2014)

In soils, bacteria are very abundant and diverse. They are involved in various agro-ecosystem processes such as the nitrogen cycle, organic matter degradation, and soil formation. Yet, little is known ... [more ▼]

In soils, bacteria are very abundant and diverse. They are involved in various agro-ecosystem processes such as the nitrogen cycle, organic matter degradation, and soil formation. Yet, little is known about the distribution and composition of bacterial communities through the soil profile, particularly in agricultural soils, as most studies have focused only on topsoils or forest and grassland soils. In the present work, we have used bar-coded pyrosequencing analysis of the V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene to analyze bacterial diversity in a profile (depths 10, 25, and 45 cm) of a well-characterized field of winter wheat. Taxonomic assignment was carried out with the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) Classifier program with three bootstrap scores: a main run at 0.80, a confirmation run at 0.99, and a run at 0 to gain information on the unknown bacteria. Our results show that biomass and bacterial quantity and diversity decreased greatly with depth. Depth also had an impact, in terms of relative sequence abundance, on 81 % of the most represented taxonomic ranks, notably the ranks Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteridae, and Acidobacteria. Bacterial community composition differed more strongly between the topsoil (10 and 25 cm) and subsoil (45 cm) than between levels in the topsoil, mainly because of shifts in the carbon, nitrogen, and potassium contents. The subsoil also contained more unknown bacteria, 53.96 % on the average, than did the topsoil, with 42.06 % at 10 cm and 45.59 % at 25 cm. Most of these unknown bacteria seem to belong to Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Rhizobiales, and Acidobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean Renal Best Practice Guideline on kidney donor and recipient evaluation and perioperative care
Abramowicz, Daniel; Cochat, Pierre; Claas, Frans H.J et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2014)

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See detailThe endocrine milieu and CD4 T-lymphocyte polarization during pregnancy
Polese, Barbara ULg; Gridelet, Virginie ULg; Arakioti, Eleni et al

in Frontiers in Endocrinology (2014), 5(Article 106), 1-11

Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother’s immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has ... [more ▼]

Acceptance of the fetal semi-allograft by the mother’s immune system has become the focus of intensive research. CD4+ T cells are important actors in the establishment of pregnancy. Th1/Th2 paradigm has been expanded to include CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Pregnancy hormones exert very significant modulatory properties on the maternal immune system. In this review, we describe mechanisms by which the endocrine milieu modulates CD4 T cell polarization during pregnancy. We first focused on Treg and Th17 cells and on their importance for pregnancy. Secondly, we review the effects of pregnancy hormones [progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2)] on immune cells previously described, with a particular attention to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The importance of Treg cells for pregnancy is evidenced. They are recruited before implantation and are essential for pregnancy maintenance. Decreased number or less efficient Treg cells are implicated in fertility disorders. As for Th17 cells, the few available studies suggest that they have a negative impact on fertility. Th17 frequency is increased in infertile patients. With the combination of its pro-effects on Th2 and Treg cells and anti-effects on Th1 and Th17 cells, P4 contributes to establishment of a favorable environment for pregnancy. E2 effects are more dependent on the context but it seems that E2 promotes Treg and Th2 cells while it inhibits Th1 cells. hCG positively influences activities of Treg and uterine natural killer cells. This embryo signal is an essential actor for the success of pregnancy, both as the endocrine factor regulating P4 secretion by the ovarian corpus luteum, but also as a paracrine agent during implantation as well as an angiogenic and immunologic mediator during the course of gestation. Luteinizing hormone (LH) immune properties begin to be studied but its positive impact on Treg cells suggests that LH could be a considerable immunomodulator in the mouse. [less ▲]

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See detailInsect pests occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) in rural areas in Gabon
Poligui, René Noël ULg; MOUARAGADJA, ISAAC; Vandereycken, Axel ULg et al

in Neotropical Entomology (2014), 43(4), 322-334

The inventory of pests occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) was carried out in rural areas in Gabon during 2009 and 2010. Yellow traps and visual observations were used to record weekly pests ... [more ▼]

The inventory of pests occurring on Dacryodes edulis (Burseraceae) was carried out in rural areas in Gabon during 2009 and 2010. Yellow traps and visual observations were used to record weekly pests during the tree flowering stage, in five villages. Catches from yellow traps rose to 7,296 and 1,722 insect pests in 2009 and 2010, respectively, whereas records from visual observations corresponded to 1,812 and 171 insect pests in 2009 and 2010, respectively. During both years, abundance from traps and visual monitoring was significantly different between sampling sites (p<0.05). The difference in pests’ diversity between sampling sites was not significant (p>0.05) according to traps, but significant (p≤0.04) according to visual observations in 2010. Mecocorynus loripes Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae) attacked the stem of D. edulis, while Oligotrophus sp. (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Pseudophacopteron serrifer Malenovsky and Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Phacopteronidae), and Selenothrips rubrocinctus Giard (Thysanopera: Thripidae) attacked leaves. Pseudonoorda edulis Maes and Poligui (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) and Lobesia aeolopa Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) infested fruits and inflorescences, respectively. These insects are specifically linked to plant patterns, and their identification provided the first basic information for developing suitable strategies to control pests of D. edulis in Gabon, as well as in neighboring central African countries. [less ▲]

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See detailTrait decoupling promotes evolutionary diversification of the trophic and acoustic system of damselfishes
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Olivier, Damien ULg; Litsios, Glenn et al

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2014)

Trait decoupling, wherein evolutionary release of constraints permits specialization of formerly integrated structures, represents a major conceptual framework for interpreting patterns of organismal ... [more ▼]

Trait decoupling, wherein evolutionary release of constraints permits specialization of formerly integrated structures, represents a major conceptual framework for interpreting patterns of organismal diversity. However, few empirical tests of this hypothesis exist. A central prediction, that the tempo of morphological evolution and ecological diversification should increase following decoupling events, remains inadequately tested. In damselfishes (Pomacentridae), a ceratomandibular ligament links the hyoid bar and lower jaws, coupling two main morphofunctional units directly involved in both feeding and sound production. Here, we test the decoupling hypothesis by examining the evolutionary consequences of the loss of the ceratomandibular ligament in multiple damselfish lineages. As predicted, we find that rates of morphological evolution of trophic structures increased following the loss of the ligament. However, this increase in evolutionary rate is not associated with an increase in trophic breadth, but rather with morphofunctional specialization for the capture of zooplanktonic prey. Lineages lacking the ceratomandibular ligament also shows different acoustic signals (i.e. higher variation of pulse periods) from others, resulting in an increase of the acoustic diversity across the family. Our results support the idea that trait decoupling can increase morphological and behavioral diversity through increased specialization rather than the generation of novel ecotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting exoplanets from the CoRoT space mission. XXVI. CoRoT-24: a transiting multiplanet system
Alonso, R.; Moutou, C.; Endl, M. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 567

We present the discovery of a candidate multiply transiting system, the first one found in the CoRoT mission. Two transit-like features with periods of 5.11 and 11.76 d are detected in the CoRoT light ... [more ▼]

We present the discovery of a candidate multiply transiting system, the first one found in the CoRoT mission. Two transit-like features with periods of 5.11 and 11.76 d are detected in the CoRoT light curve around a main sequence K1V star of r = 15.1. If the features are due to transiting planets around the same star, these would correspond to objects of 3.7 ± 0.4 and 5.0 ± 0.5 R[SUB]⊕[/SUB] , respectively. Several radial velocities serve to provide an upper limit of 5.7 M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] for the 5.11 d signal and to tentatively measure a mass of 28[SUP]+11[/SUP][SUB]-11[/SUB] M[SUB]⊕[/SUB] for the object transiting with a 11.76 d period. These measurements imply low density objects, with a significant gaseous envelope. The detailed analysis of the photometric and spectroscopic data serves to estimate the probability that the observations are caused by transiting Neptune-sized planets as much as over 26 times higher than a blend scenario involving only one transiting planet and as much as over 900 times higher than a scenario involving two blends and no planets. The radial velocities show a long-term modulation that might be attributed to a 1.5 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planet orbiting at 1.8 AU from the host, but more data are required to determine the precise orbital parameters of this companion. The CoRoT space mission, launched on 27 December 2006, has been developed and is operated by the CNES, with the contribution of Austria, Belgium, Brazil, ESA (RSSD and Science Program), Germany, and Spain. Some of the observations were made with the HARPS spectrograph at ESO La Silla Observatory (184.C-0639) and with the HIRES spectrograph at the Keck Telescope (N035Hr, N143Hr 260 and N095Hr). Partly based on observations obtained at ESO Paranal Observatory, Chile (086.C-0235(A) and B).Tables 2-4 and Fig. 12 are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201118662/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailColour-magnitude diagrams of transiting Exoplanets - II. A larger sample from photometric distances
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Lanotte, Audrey ULg; Smalley, Barry et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 444(1), 711-728

CColour-magnitude diagrams form a traditional way of presenting luminous objects in the Universe and compare them to each other. Here, we estimate the photometric distance of 44 transiting exoplanetary ... [more ▼]

CColour-magnitude diagrams form a traditional way of presenting luminous objects in the Universe and compare them to each other. Here, we estimate the photometric distance of 44 transiting exoplanetary systems. Parallaxes for seven systems confirm our methodology. Combining those measurements with fluxes obtained while planets were occulted by their host stars, we compose colour-magnitude diagrams in the near and mid-infrared. When possible, planets are plotted alongside very low mass stars and field brown dwarfs, who often share similar sizes and equilibrium temperatures. They offer a natural, empirical, comparison sample. We also include directly imaged exoplanets and the expected loci of pure blackbodies. Irradiated planets do not match blackbodies; their emission spectra are not featureless. For a given luminosity, hot Jupiters' daysides show a larger variety in colour than brown dwarfs do and display an increasing diversity in colour with decreasing intrinsic luminosity. The presence of an extra absorbent within the 4.5 μm band would reconcile outlying hot Jupiters with ultra-cool dwarfs' atmospheres. Measuring the emission of gas giants cooler than 1000 K would disentangle whether planets' atmospheres behave more similarly to brown dwarfs' atmospheres than to blackbodies, whether they are akin to the young directly imaged planets, or if irradiated gas giants form their own sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the stellar content in the western part of the Carina nebula
Kumar, Brajesh; Sharma, Saurabh; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 567

Context. The low obscuration and proximity of the Carina nebula make it an ideal place to study the ongoing star formation process and impact of massive stars on low-mass stars in their surroundings. <BR ... [more ▼]

Context. The low obscuration and proximity of the Carina nebula make it an ideal place to study the ongoing star formation process and impact of massive stars on low-mass stars in their surroundings. <BR /> Aims: To investigate this process, we generated a new catalog of the pre-main-sequence stars in the Carina west (CrW) region and studied their nature and spatial distribution. We also determined various parameters (reddening, reddening law, age, mass), which are used further to estimate the initial mass function and K-band luminosity function for the region under study. <BR /> Methods: We obtained deep UBVRI Hα photometric data of the field situated to the west of the main Carina nebula and centered on WR 22. Medium-resolution optical spectroscopy of a subsample of X-ray selected objects along with archival data sets from Chandra, XMM-Newton and 2MASS surveys were used for the present study. Different sets of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams are used to determine reddening for the region and to identify young stellar objects (YSOs) and estimate their age and mass. <BR /> Results: Our spectroscopic results indicate that the majority of the X-ray sources are late spectral type stars. The region shows a large amount of differential reddening with minimum and maximum values of E(B - V) as 0.25 and 1.1 mag, respectively. Our analysis reveals that the total-to-selective absorption ratio R[SUB]V[/SUB] is ~3.7 ± 0.1, suggesting an abnormal grain size in the observed region. We identified 467 YSOs and studied their characteristics. The ages and masses of the 241 optically identified YSOs range from ~0.1 to 10 Myr and ~0.3 to 4.8 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB], respectively. However, the majority of them are younger than 1 Myr and have masses below 2 M[SUB]⊙[/SUB]. The high mass star WR 22 does not seem to have contributed to the formation of YSOs in the CrW region. The initial mass function slope, Γ, in this region is found to be -1.13 ± 0.20 in the mass range of 0.5 < M/M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] < 4.8. The K-band luminosity function slope (α) is also estimated as 0.31 ± 0.01. We also performed minimum spanning tree analysis of the YSOs in this region, which reveals that there are at least ten YSO cores associated with the molecular cloud, and that leads to an average core radius of 0.43 pc and a median branch length of 0.28 pc. Full Table 3 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A109">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/567/A109</A> [less ▲]

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See detailModalités de conservation et de destruction des produits cellulaires cryopréservés : recommandations de la SFGM-TC
CALMELS, ; Boulanger, F; BAUDOUX, Etienne ULg et al

in Pathologie et Biologie (2014), 62(3),

Thousands of autologous and at less extent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) bags are cryopreserved in France. The majority of autologous HSC grafts are used within a year after collection ... [more ▼]

Thousands of autologous and at less extent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) bags are cryopreserved in France. The majority of autologous HSC grafts are used within a year after collection. However, many bags are still unused and cryopreserved for many years. In France and on a European scale, the ever-growing number of cryopreserved bags represents a real economic health concern. Indeed, the cost of storage is about 100 € per bag and per year. In addition, quality and therapeutic value of these long-term cryopreserved grafts needs to be evaluated. In the attempt to harmonize clinical practices between different French transplantation centers, the French Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapies (SFGM-TC) set up its fourth annual series of workshops which brought together practitioners from its member centers across France. These workshops took place in September 2013 in Lille. In this article, we addressed the issue of the destruction of long-term cryopreserved grafts be them autologous or allogeneic and provide recommendations regarding their destruction. [less ▲]

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See detailContrôle de qualité des USP via segments attachés : recommandations de la SFGM-TC
De Vos, John; Birebent, B; Faucher, Catherine et al

in Pathologie et Biologie (2014)

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See detailMcCune-Albright Syndrome: A Detailed Pathological And Genetic Analysis of Disease Effects in an Adult Patient.
Vasilev, Vladimir; Daly, Adrian ULg; THIRY, Albert ULg et al

in The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism (2014)

Context: McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) is a clinical association of endocrine and non-endocrine anomalies caused by post-zygotic mutation of the GNAS1 gene, leading to somatic activation of the ... [more ▼]

Context: McCune Albright syndrome (MAS) is a clinical association of endocrine and non-endocrine anomalies caused by post-zygotic mutation of the GNAS1 gene, leading to somatic activation of the stimulatory alpha subunit of G protein (Gsalpha). Important advances have been made recently in describing pathological characteristics of many MAS-affected tissues, particularly pituitary, testicular and adrenal disease. Other rarer disease related features are emerging. Objective: To study pathological and genetic findings of MAS on a tissue-by-tissue basis in classically and non classically affected tissues. Design: A comprehensive autopsy and genetic analysis Setting: Tertiary referral University Hospital Patients: Adult male patient with MAS and severe disease burden including gigantism Intervention(s): Clinical, hormonal and radiographic studies; gross and microscopic pathology analyses, conventional PCR and droplet digital PCR analyses of affected and non affected tissues Main Outcome Measure: Pathological findings, presence of GNAS1 mutations Results: The patient was diagnosed with MAS syndrome at six years of age based on the association of cafe-au-lait spots and radiological signs of polyostotic fibrous dysplasia. Gigantism developed and hyperprolactinemia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and hyperparathyroidism were diagnosed throughout adult period. The patient died at the age of 39 from pulmonary embolism. A detailed study revealed mosaiscism for the p.R201C GNAS mutation distributed across many endocrine and non-endocrine tissues. These genetically implicated tissues included rare or previously undescribed disease associations including primary hyperparathyroidism, and hyperplasia of the thymus and endocrine pancreas. Conclusions: This comprehensive pathological study of a single patient highlights the complex clinical profile of MAS and illustrates important advances in understanding the characteristics of somatic GNAS1 related pathology across a wide range of affected organs. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidimensional analysis of the importance given to physical activity promotion in secondary schools of French-speaking Belgium
Snyers, Jérôme; Halkin, Anne-Sophie; Lejacques, Thibaut et al

in Global Journal of Health and Physical Education Pedagogy (2014), 3(3), 212-227

Schools present a privileged environment to address physical inactivity. Actions to promote an active lifestyle have been launched for over 20 years in the European Union. In French-speaking Belgium, such ... [more ▼]

Schools present a privileged environment to address physical inactivity. Actions to promote an active lifestyle have been launched for over 20 years in the European Union. In French-speaking Belgium, such actions have multiplied, but efficiency remains undocumented due to the lack of systematic data regarding health and physical activity (PA) promotion at school. This research aimed to create a tool and to use it to establish an empirical baseline regarding PA promotion in secondary schools. Six main dimensions, all broken into variables, were identified after an extensive literature search. Six experts assigned different weighting factors to each dimension and variable, thereby allowing the attribution of scores. Fifty-one secondary schools were analyzed on this basis. The mean global score of the sample was 44.7 on a maximum of 100. PA was better promoted in urban schools with 250 to 499 students with high socioeconomic status. Real in-school policies aimed at promoting PA were lacking. Active transport to and from school was seldom encouraged. The number of PE classes was insufficient. The facilities used were of better quality than expected. This exploratory research constitutes an important step toward the conception of a tool based solely on objective variables. It should also serve as a catalyst to implement new field projects. [less ▲]

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See detailReactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; de Medeiros Varzielas, Ivo

in Journal of High Energy Physics [=JHEP] (2014), 2014(7),

In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure ... [more ▼]

In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying A4 flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading order effective operators. We prove this idea is viable by constructing an A4-based ultraviolet completion, where the dominant tribimaximal structure arises from the type-I seesaw while the subleading contribution is determined by either type-II or type-III seesaw driven by a non-trivial A4 singlet (minimal hybrid model). After finding general criteria, we identify all the ZN symmetries capable of producing such A4-based minimal hybrid models. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic characterisation of large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O superconductor–soft ferromagnetic alloy hybrid structures
Philippe, Matthieu ULg; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg; Kirsch, Sébastien ULg et al

in Physica C: Superconductivity (2014), 502

Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In ... [more ▼]

Large grain, bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O (YBCO) high temperature superconductors (HTS) have significant potential for use in a variety of practical applications that incorporate powerful quasi-permanent magnets. In the present work, we investigate how the trapped field of such magnets can be improved by combining bulk YBCO with a soft FeNi, ferromagnetic alloy. This involves machining the alloy into components of various shapes, such as cylinders and rings, which are attached subsequently to the top surface of a solid, bulk HTS cylinder. The effect of these modifications on the magnetic hysteresis curve and trapped field of the bulk superconductor at 77 K are then studied using pick-up coil and Hall probe measurements. The experimental data are compared to finite element modelling of the magnetic flux distribution using Campbell’s algorithm. Initially we establish the validity of the technique involving pick-up coils wrapped around the bulk superconductor to obtain its magnetic hysteresis curve in a non-destructive way and highlight the difference between the measured signal and the true magnetization of the sample. We then consider the properties of hybrid ferromagnet/superconductor (F/S) structures. Hall probe measurements, together with the results of the model, establish that flux lines curve outwards through the ferromagnet, which acts, effectively, like a magnetic short circuit. Magnetic hysteresis curves show that the effects of the superconductor and the ferromagnet simply add when the ferromagnet is saturated fully by the applied field. The trapped field of the hybrid structure is always larger than that of the superconductor alone below this saturation level, and especially when the applied field is removed. The results of the study show further that the beneficial effects on the trapped field are enhanced when the ferromagnet covers the entire surface of the superconductor for different ferromagnetic components of various shapes and fixed volume. [less ▲]

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See detailCollapsing and reswelling kinetics of thermoresponsive polymers on surfaces: a matter of confinement and constraints
Willet, Nicolas ULg; Gabriel, Sabine ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Soft Matter (2014), 10

We report on the collapsing and reswelling ability of grafted poly(methyl vinyl ether) chains of different molecular architectures. In order to study the influence of constraints and confinement of the ... [more ▼]

We report on the collapsing and reswelling ability of grafted poly(methyl vinyl ether) chains of different molecular architectures. In order to study the influence of constraints and confinement of the chains, the polymer was grafted onto AFM tips, as a model of a curved nano-sized surface, and onto macroscopic silicon substrates for comparison purposes. AFM-based force spectroscopy experiments were performed to characterise at the nanoscale the temperature-dependent collapsing process and the reversibility to the swollen state on both substrates. The reversible character of the thermoresponsive transition and its kinetics were shown to greatly depend on the polymer architecture and the constraints encountered by the chains. [less ▲]

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See detailNghiên cứu và thiết kế hai kiểu chuồng nuôi nhông cát Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829) phù hợp với điều kiện nuôi và vốn đầu tư tại huyện Bắc Bình, tỉnh Bình Thuận
Tran, Tinh ULg; Tran, Ngoc Nguyen Kim Dieu; Vo, Kim Thong et al

in Journal of Agriculture Sciences and Technology (2014), 1/2014

Building of an enclosure for rearing of the spotted butterfly lizard, Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829), by the first farmer in 2004 (in Hong Chinh commune, Hoa Thang ward, Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan ... [more ▼]

Building of an enclosure for rearing of the spotted butterfly lizard, Leiolepis guttata (Cuvier, 1829), by the first farmer in 2004 (in Hong Chinh commune, Hoa Thang ward, Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan province) is considered as a fortuitous discovery which was the initiator of the current expanding trend of its rearing. Because L. guttata is a wild animal, with strong disease resistance and adaptation capacity, livestock farmers are presently not very interested in important aspects: rearing techniques, enclosure’s types, sex ratio, diseases’ prevention, etc. Notably the building of enclosures not perfectly suitable breeds a noticeable loss of the number of lizards and a reduction in the profits for the farmers. To this end, the building of two types of enclosures adapted to local rearing conditions and the investing capital available in Bac Binh district, Binh Thuan province is presently essential. We descrite two types of enclosure: the first one surrounded by a bricks (or breeze blocks) wall, the second one fended by a fiber cement corrugated sheets wall. Moreover, we suggest to introduce plants in order to build a vegetal cover nearer to the natural environment of L. guttata: shrubs and a plant carpet becoming the preferential refuge area of the spotted butterfly lizard. [less ▲]

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See detailEvent-driven integration of linear structural dynamics models under unilateral elastic constraints
Depouhon, Alexandre ULg; Detournay, Emmanuel; Denoël, Vincent ULg

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2014), 276

This paper proposes an algorithm for the numerical simulation of linear structural dynamics problems under unilateral elastic constraints, i.e., constraints with a linear force/displacement characteristic ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes an algorithm for the numerical simulation of linear structural dynamics problems under unilateral elastic constraints, i.e., constraints with a linear force/displacement characteristic whenever active. The presented procedure relies on an event-driven strategy for the handling of the contact constraints, in combination with one-step schemes dedicated to the time integration of the second-order equations of motion. Efficiency of the procedure follows from the use of cubic Hermite interpolation to continuously extend the normal gap functions that reflect the openings of the contact interfaces. Robustness follows from the proper handling of complex numerical situations, e.g., numerical grazing or discontinuity sticking, through appropriate algorithm structure and numerical implementation. And, integration stability is guaranteed by the very nature of the algorithm and that of the one-step integration scheme. Following a detailed coverage of the integration procedure and the countermeasures to the expected numerical difficulties, three application examples are treated for illustration purposes. A MATLAB implementation of the procedure is provided online; download and usage information are given in the Appendix. [less ▲]

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See detailWenn Puppen es machen. Eindrücke von der 11. figuma in Eupen (B)
Wunsch-Viehöver, Vera ULg; Wunsch, Stephan

in Das Andere Theater (2014), 24(85),

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See detailPhylogenetic placement, species delimitation, and cyanobiont identity of endangered aquatic Peltigera species (lichen-forming Ascomycota, Lecanoromycetes)
Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Richardson, David; Magain, Nicolas ULg et al

in American Journal of Botany (2014)

Premise of this study: Aquatic cyanolichens from the genus Peltigera section Hydrothyriae are subject to anthropogenic threats and, therefore, are considered endangered. In this study we addressed the ... [more ▼]

Premise of this study: Aquatic cyanolichens from the genus Peltigera section Hydrothyriae are subject to anthropogenic threats and, therefore, are considered endangered. In this study we addressed the phylogenetic placement of section Hydrothyriae within Peltigera. We delimited species within the section and identified their symbiotic cyanobacteria. • Methods: Species delimitation and population structure were explored using monophyly as a grouping criterion (RAxML) and Structurama based on three protein-coding genes in combination with two nuclear ribosomal loci. The 16S and rbcLX sequences for the cyanobionts were analyzed in the broad phylogenetic context of free-living and symbiotic cyanobacteria. • Key results: We confirm with high confidence the placement of section Hydrothyriae within the monophyletic genus Peltigera; however, its phylogenetic position within the genus remains unsettled. We recovered three distinct monophyletic groups corresponding to three species: P. hydrothyria, P. gowardii s.s., and P. aquatica Miadl. & Lendemer, the latter being formally introduced here. Each species was associated with an exclusive set of Nostoc haplotypes. • Conclusions: The ITS region alone provides sufficient genetic information to distinguish the three morphologically cryptic species within section Hydrothyriae. Section Hydrothyriae seems to be associated with a monophyletic lineage of Nostoc, that has not been found in symbiotic association with other members of Peltigera. Capsosira lowei should be transferred to the genus Nostoc. Potential threats to P. aquatica should be re-examined based on the recognition of two aquatic species in western North America. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale Computational Modeling of Deformation Mechanics andIntergranular Fracture in Nanocrystalline Copper
Péron-Lührs, Vincent ULg; Sansoz, Frédéric; Jérusalem, Antoine et al

in Computational Materials Science (2014), 90

The material description is based on two constitutive elements, the grains (or bulk crystals) and the grainboundaries (GBs), both having their behavior determined atomistically using the quasicontinuum ... [more ▼]

The material description is based on two constitutive elements, the grains (or bulk crystals) and the grainboundaries (GBs), both having their behavior determined atomistically using the quasicontinuum (QC) method by simulating the plastic deformation of [110] tilt crystalline interfaces undergoing simple shear, tension and nano-indentation. Unlike our previous work [V. Péron-Lührs et al., JMPS, 2013] however, the GB thickness is here calibrated in the model, providing more accurate insight into the GB widths according to the interface misorientation angle. In this contribution, the new two-scale model is also validated against fullyatomistic NC simulations tests for two low-angle and high-angle textures and two grain sizes. A simplified strategy aimed at predicting the mechanical behavior of more general textures without the need to run more QC simulations is also proposed, demonstrating significant reduction in computational cost compared to full atomistic simulations. Finally, by studying the response of dogbone samples made of NC copper, we show in this paper that such a two-scale model is able to quantitatively capture the differences in mechanical behavior of NC metals as a function of the texture and grain size, as well as to accurately predict the processes of inter-granular fracture for different GB character distributions. This two-scale method is found to be an effective alternative to other atomistic methods for the prediction of plasticity and fracture in NC materials with a substantial number of 2-D grains such as columnar-grained thin films for micro-scale electro-mechanical devices. [less ▲]

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See detailThe development of a safety culture: a fanciful hope in the health care sector ?
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Belgian Journal of Medical Oncology [=BJMO] (2014), 8(3), 66-71

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See detail« Sémiotique de l’action : textualisation et notation »
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in CASA - Cadernos de Semiótica Aplicada (2014), 12(1), 15-57

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining ... [more ▼]

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining the forms of enunciative praxis through different levels of pertinence analysis. Secondly, we propose the concept of ‘textualization’ as a mediation between text and action: textualizations (photographs, videos, notes) organize and represent practices which are in themselves ephemeral and elusive. Finally, we will consider the textual diagrammatization that we call ‘notation’: this analytical form of mediation between text and practice does not have the same status of in-vivo textualisations, but it works like an ex-post reconstruction which highlights the main gestures and exchanges while performing their grammaticalization. A more general aim of this essay is an enquiry into the legitimate objects of textual semiotics: what are the objects that it can analyze without betraying its principle of immanence, but also without being confined to it and, as a consequence, being unable to analyze practices and respond to topical questions on social issues and on the research in the human sciences? [less ▲]

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See detailKeep the nest clean: survival advantages of corpse removal in ants
Diez, Lise; Lejeune, Philippe ULg; Detrain, Claire

in Biology Letters (2014), 10(7),

Sociality increases exposure to pathogens. Therefore, social insects have developed a wide range of behavioural defences, known as ‘social immunity’. However, the benefits of these behaviours in terms of ... [more ▼]

Sociality increases exposure to pathogens. Therefore, social insects have developed a wide range of behavioural defences, known as ‘social immunity’. However, the benefits of these behaviours in terms of colony survival have been scarcely investigated. We tested the survival advantage of prophylaxis, i.e. corpse removal, in ants. Over 50 days, we compared the survival of ants in colonies that were free to remove corpses with those that were restricted in their corpse removal. From Day 8 onwards, the survival of adult workers was significantly higher in colonies that were allowed to remove corpses normally. Overall, larvae survived better than adults, but were slightly affected by the presence of corpses in the nest. When removal was restricted, ants removed as many corpses as they could and moved the remaining corpses away from brood, typically to the nest corners. These results show the importance of nest maintenance and prophylactic behaviour in social insects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe concept of economic security of the hospital: A new look at the levers of control
Shutyak, Yuliya ULg; Van Caillie, Didier ULg

in Forum Scientiae Oeconomia (2014), 2/2

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See detailPrecision Asteroseismology of the Pulsating White Dwarf GD 1212 Using a Two-wheel-controlled Kepler Spacecraft
Hermes, J.J.; Charpinet, Stéphane; Barclay, Thomas et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 789

We present a preliminary analysis of the cool pulsating white dwarf (WD) GD 1212, enabled by more than 11.5 days of space-based photometry obtained during an engineering test of the two-reaction-wheel ... [more ▼]

We present a preliminary analysis of the cool pulsating white dwarf (WD) GD 1212, enabled by more than 11.5 days of space-based photometry obtained during an engineering test of the two-reaction-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft. We detect at least 19 independent pulsation modes, ranging from 828.2-1220.8 s, and at least 17 nonlinear combination frequencies of those independent pulsations. Our longest uninterrupted light curve, 9.0 days in length, evidences coherent difference frequencies at periods inaccessible from the ground, up to 14.5 hr, the longest-period signals ever detected in a pulsating WD. These results mark some of the first science to come from a two-wheel-controlled Kepler spacecraft, proving the capability for unprecedented discoveries afforded by extending Kepler observations to the ecliptic. [less ▲]

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See detailDonor age as a risk factor in donation after circulatory death liver transplantation in a controlled withdrawal protocol programme.
DETRY, Olivier ULg; DE ROOVER, Arnaud ULg; MEURISSE, Nicolas ULg et al

in The British journal of surgery (2014), 10(7), 784-792

BACKGROUND: Results of donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation are impaired by graft loss, resulting mainly from non-anastomotic biliary stricture. Donor age is a risk factor in ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Results of donation after circulatory death (DCD) liver transplantation are impaired by graft loss, resulting mainly from non-anastomotic biliary stricture. Donor age is a risk factor in deceased donor liver transplantation, and particularly in DCD liver transplantation. At the authors' institute, age is not an absolute exclusion criterion for discarding DCD liver grafts, DCD donors receive comfort therapy before withdrawal, and cold ischaemia is minimized. METHODS: All consecutive DCD liver transplantations performed from 2003 to 2012 were studied retrospectively. Three age groups were compared in terms of donor and recipient demographics, procurement and transplantation conditions, peak laboratory values during the first post-transplant 72 h, and results at 1 and 3 years. RESULTS: A total of 70 DCD liver transplants were performed, including 32 liver grafts from donors aged 55 years or less, 20 aged 56-69 years, and 18 aged 70 years or more. The overall graft survival rate at 1 month, 1 and 3 years was 99, 91 and 72 per cent respectively, with no graft lost secondary to non-anastomotic stricture. No difference other than age was noted between the three groups for donor or recipient characteristics, or procurement conditions. No primary non-function occurred, but one patient needed retransplantation for artery thrombosis. Biliary complications were similar in the three groups. Graft and patient survival rates were no different at 1 and 3 years between the three groups (P = 0.605). CONCLUSION: Results for DCD liver transplantation from younger and older donors were similar. Donor age above 50 years should not be a contraindication to DCD liver transplantation if other donor risk factors (such as warm and cold ischaemia time) are minimized. [less ▲]

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See detailCharge Migration in the Bifunctional PENNA Cation Induced and Probed by Ultrafast Ionization: A Dynamical Study.
Mignolet, Benoît ULg; Levine, R. D.; Remacle, Françoise ULg

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2014), 47

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See detailRasa3 Controls Megakaryocyte Rap1 Activation, Integrin Signaling and Differentiation into Proplatelet
Molina Ortiz, Patricia ULg; Polizzi, Séléna; Ramery, Eve ULg et al

in PLoS Genetics (2014), 10(6), 1004420

Rasa3 is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 family which targets Ras and Rap1. Ubiquitous Rasa3 catalytic inactivation in mouse results in early embryonic lethality. Here, we show that Rasa3 ... [more ▼]

Rasa3 is a GTPase activating protein of the GAP1 family which targets Ras and Rap1. Ubiquitous Rasa3 catalytic inactivation in mouse results in early embryonic lethality. Here, we show that Rasa3 catalytic inactivation in mouse hematopoietic cells results in a lethal syndrome characterized by severe defects during megakaryopoiesis, thrombocytopenia and a predisposition to develop preleukemia. The main objective of this study was to define the cellular and the molecular mechanisms of terminal megakaryopoiesis alterations. We found that Rasa3 catalytic inactivation altered megakaryocyte development, adherence, migration, actin cytoskeleton organization and differentiation into proplatelet forming megakaryocytes. These megakaryocyte alterations were associated with an increased active Rap1 level and a constitutive integrin activation. Thus, these mice presented a severe thrombocytopenia, bleeding and anemia associated with an increased percentage of megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, bone marrow fibrosis, extramedular hematopoiesis, splenomegaly and premature death. Altogether, our results indicate that Rasa3 catalytic activity controls Rap1 activation and integrin signaling during megakaryocyte differentiation in mouse. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata (Annonaceae) for the control of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus (Culicidae)
Raveloson Ravaomanarivo, Lala Harivelo; Andrianiaina Razafindraleva, Herisolo; Raharimalala, Fara Nantenaina ULg et al

in Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine (2014), 4(10), 787-795

Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex ... [more ▼]

Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy of seed extracts of Annona squamosa and Annona muricata used as natural insecticides to control adult and larvae of the vectors Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. Methods: Aqueous and oil extracts of the two plants were prepared from dried identifications of the chemical components of each seed extracts were performed using microreactional and GCP Technique. Larvea and adults of Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus were collected for the breeding sites in coastal and highlands regions of Madagascar. WHO standardized tests of susceptibility for larvae and imaginal stage of mosquitoes were realized to 50 of mosquitoes. Results: Chemical identifications showed that these extracts contain alkaloids and flavonoids compounds that probably confer their biological insecticidal propriety. CPG analysis showed also the presenceof various fatty acids. On adults mosquitoes, significant insecticidal effects were observed with both aqueous and oil extracts of the two plant seeds compared to mortality induced by deltamethrin, an insecticide used as reference. Extracts of Annona muricata induced high mortality rate to both species of mosquito compared to extracts of Annona squamosa at all concentrations 50 of seed extracts ranged from 1% to 5% for adults and 0.5% to 1% for larvae. Conclusions: The seed extracts of these two plants may be used as mosquito controlling agents and offer a new approach to a less costly, pratical and environmentally friendly control of vector borne diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailTriple negative tumors accumulate significantly less methylglyoxal specific adducts than other human breast cancer subtypes
Chiavarina, Barbara ULg; Nokin, Marie-Julie; Durieux, Florence ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2014)

Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer development and progression. Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolysis by- product, is generated through a non-enzymatic ... [more ▼]

Metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with increased risk of breast cancer development and progression. Methylglyoxal (MG), a glycolysis by- product, is generated through a non-enzymatic reaction from triose-phosphate intermediates. This dicarbonyl compound is highly reactive and contributes to the accumulation of advanced glycation end products. In this study, we analyzed the accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine, a MG-arginine adduct, in human breast adenocarcinoma and we observed a consistent increase of Arg-pyrimidine in cancer cells when compared with the non-tumoral counterpart. Further immunohistochemical comparative analysis of breast cancer subtypes revealed that triple negative lesions exhibited low accumulation of Arg-pyrimidine compared with other subtypes. Interestingly, the activity of glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1), an enzyme that detoxifies MG, was significantly higher in triple negative than in other subtype lesions, suggesting that these aggressive tumors are able to develop an efficient response against dicarbonyl stress. Using breast cancer cell lines, we substantiated these clinical observations by showing that, in contrast to triple positive, triple negative cells induced Glo-1 expression and activity in response to MG treatment. This is the first report that Arg- pyrimidine adduct accumulation is a consistent event in human breast cancer with a differential detection between triple negative and other breast cancer subtypes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe gingembre, antiémétique de premier choix dans la pratique officinale
Angenot, Luc ULg

in Pharma-Sphère (2014), 18(195), 30-31

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See detailModélisation de la canopée forestière par photogrammétrie depuis des images acquises par drone
Lisein, Jonathan ULg; Bonnet, Stéphanie ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Française de Photogrammétrie et de Télédétection (2014), 206

Les petits drones civils développés à des fins de cartographie rapide offrent, à une échelle locale, de nombreuses opportunités pour le suivi d’écosystèmes forestiers. Nous utilisons dans cette recherche ... [more ▼]

Les petits drones civils développés à des fins de cartographie rapide offrent, à une échelle locale, de nombreuses opportunités pour le suivi d’écosystèmes forestiers. Nous utilisons dans cette recherche des images acquises avec un avion sans pilote à voilure fixe afin de modéliser la surface de la canopée de peuplements feuillus. Une chaine de traitements photogrammétriques est mise en place au moyen des outils de la suite open source MICMAC. Nous comparons différentes stratégies de corrélation automatique d’images afin de déterminer le paramétrage qui permet au mieux de reconstruire les détails de la canopée. Bien que le modèle de surface photogrammétrique ne permette pas d’appréhender les petites dépressions et élévations des houppiers, nos résultats montrent que l’utilisation conjointe d’images drone et d’un modèle numérique de terrain LiDAR permet d’estimer la hauteur dominante des peuplements feuillus. Ces résultats confirment la faisabilité de modéliser l’évolution de la hauteurs des peuplements forestiers depuis une série temporelle d’images drone. [less ▲]

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See detailComment gérer la nutrition artificielle chez un patient diabétique ?
PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg; DE FLINES, Jenny ULg; Preiser, Jean-Charles

in Nutrition Clinique et Metabolisme (2014)

Hyperglycaemia in patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition is a major problem due to its high prevalence and possible consequences interms of morbidity and mortality. However, the management of ... [more ▼]

Hyperglycaemia in patients receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition is a major problem due to its high prevalence and possible consequences interms of morbidity and mortality. However, the management of diabetes/stress hyperglycaemia during artificial nutrition remains largely unknown,especially in non-critically ill patients. The indications and access routes for artificial nutrition are not different in patients with diabetes/stressdiabetes than in non-diabetics. We do not recommend using enteral formulas designed for patients with diabetes. The glycaemic objective mustbe individualized. We recommend a preprandial blood glucose levels between 100 and 140 mg/dL (5.5 and 7.8 mmol/L) and postprandial levelsbetween 140 and 180 mg/dL (7.8 and 10 mmol/L). A frequent monitoring of capillary glycaemias is mandatory. The best drug treatment for treatinghyperglycaemia/diabetes is insulin and we recommend to adapt the theoretical insulin action to the nutrition infusion regimen. The managementof these patients needs the help of a multidisciplinary experimented staff. [less ▲]

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See detailInfusion of clinical-grade enriched regulatory T cells delays experimental xenogeneic graft-versus-host disease
Hannon, Muriel ULg; LECHANTEUR, Chantal ULg; Lucas, Sophie et al

in Transfusion (2014), 54(February), 353-363

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See detailAssessment of water quality effects on flotation of copper-cobalt oxide ore
Shengo, Michel; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Kalenga, Pierre

in Minerals Engineering (2014), 65

Results from lab scale flotation show that when process water was re-used copper and cobalt recovery from an oxidized ore decreased respectively with 25 and 30 percent at the rougher stage bringing lower ... [more ▼]

Results from lab scale flotation show that when process water was re-used copper and cobalt recovery from an oxidized ore decreased respectively with 25 and 30 percent at the rougher stage bringing lower grade concentrate as well. The presence of thiosulphate ions contributed to slow down of NaHS consumption during sulphidization of pure malachite and hindered collector adsorption. Elevated concentration of thiosulphate ions affected malachite surface properties and induced dissolution effects. DRIFT spectroscopy on activated malachite enabled to reveal the effects of thiosulphate ions presence with hydrophilic species being identified. [less ▲]

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See detailDesign and fabrication of an electrode array sensor for probing the electric potential distribution at the mesoscopic scale in antistatic felts
Boutaayamou, Mohamed ULg; Lemaire, Philippe; Vanderheyden, Benoît ULg et al

in Measurement Science and Technology (2014), 25

We present an original voltage probe design for measuring the electric potential distribution at the mesoscopic scale (i.e., 1 mm–1 cm) in antistatic felts. The felts are composed of a mixture of non ... [more ▼]

We present an original voltage probe design for measuring the electric potential distribution at the mesoscopic scale (i.e., 1 mm–1 cm) in antistatic felts. The felts are composed of a mixture of non-conductive and metallic fibers and exhibit complex nonlinear electric behavior—including possibly nonlinearity and hysteresis effects—which may be due to localized electrical or electromechanical phenomena. The sensor consists of an array of 8 × 9 needle electrodes (phgr 160 µm at the shaft and less than phgr 50 µm toward the apex), which are mechanically maintained at fixed relative positions while their tips are inserted inside the fabric of the sample. The interelectrode distance is 1.5 mm and the overall active area is 12 × 12 mm². The electrical insulation resistance for nearest neighbor pairs of electrodes was found to be larger than 860 GΩ, thus making the sensor suitable for measuring antistatic felts with an electric resistance that typically does not exceed a few GΩ. The sensor was successfully used for measuring the distribution of the electric potential in a polyester fabric subjected to voltages of up to 6.2 kV, and in a sample containing 2% in weight of metallic fibers, demonstrating the presence of irreversible changes in that felt sample (i.e., with conductive fibers) at high voltages. It is concluded that the developed probe voltage is a promising technique that could be used for the assessment of the conduction mechanisms in the antistatic materials at the mesoscopic scale. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of entomopathogenic Aspergillus strains against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
Seye, Fawrou; Bawin, Thomas ULg; Boukraa, Slimane ULg et al

in Applied Entomology and Zoology (2014)

Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) are sap-sucking insect pests that feed on several plants of agronomical importance. Entomopathogenic fungi are valuable tools for potential aphid control. As part of a ... [more ▼]

Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) are sap-sucking insect pests that feed on several plants of agronomical importance. Entomopathogenic fungi are valuable tools for potential aphid control. As part of a selection process, laboratory bioassays were carried with five different concentrations of Aspergillus clavatus (Desmazières), Aspergillus flavus (Link) and Metarhizium anisopliae ((Metschnikoff) Sorokin) spores against the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris). Aspergillus isolates induced higher mortalities than M. anisopliae which is a well-known entomopathogen in the literature. Lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) were 1.23 x 10^3 and 1.34 x 10^7 spores/ml for A. flavus, 4.95 x 10^2 and 5.65 x 10^7 spores/ml for A. clavatus, and 3.67 x 10^3 and 9.71 x 10^7 spores/ml for M. anisopliae five days after treatment. Mycelia development and sporulation on adult cadavers was observed 48 hours after incubation. The intrinsic growth rate of A. pisum decreased with increased spore concentration for all fungal strains suggesting an increase in pathogen fitness related to a consumption of host resources. In conclusion, Aspergillus species could be useful in aphid control as pest control agents despite their saprophytic lifestyle. This is also in our knowledge the first report of A. clavatus and A. flavus strains pathogenic to aphids. [less ▲]

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See detailVery deep images of the innermost regions of the beta Pictoris debris disc at L'
Milli, J.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Mawet, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 566

Context. Very few debris discs have been imaged in scattered light at wavelengths beyond 3 mum because the thermal emission from both the sky and the telescope is generally too strong with respect to the ... [more ▼]

Context. Very few debris discs have been imaged in scattered light at wavelengths beyond 3 mum because the thermal emission from both the sky and the telescope is generally too strong with respect to the faint emission of a debris disc. We present here the first analysis of a high angular resolution image of the disc of beta Pictoris at 3.8 mum. <BR /> Aims: Our primary objective is to probe the innermost parts of the beta Pictoris debris disc and describe its morphology. We performed extensive forward modelling to correct for the biases induced by angular differential imaging on extended objects and derive the physical parameters of the disc. <BR /> Methods: This work relies on a new analysis of seven archival data sets of beta Pictoris observed with the NaCo instrument at the Very Large Telescope in the L' band, including observations made with the Annular Groove Phase Mask vortex coronagraph in 2013. The data analysis consists of angular differential imaging associated with disc forward modelling to correct for the biases induced by that technique. The disc model is subtracted from the data and the reduction performed again in order to minimize the residuals in the final image. <BR /> Results: The disc is detected above a 5sigma level between 0.4'' and 3.8''. The two extensions have a similar brightness within error bars. We confirm an asymmetry previously observed at larger distances from the star and at shorter wavelengths: the isophotes are more widely spaced [less ▲]

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See detailDiscovery of X-ray pulsations from a massive star
Oskinova, Lidia M.; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Todt, Helge et al

in Nature Communications (2014), 5

X-ray emission from stars much more massive than the Sun was discovered only 35 years ago. Such stars drive fast stellar winds where shocks can develop, and it is commonly assumed that the X-rays emerge ... [more ▼]

X-ray emission from stars much more massive than the Sun was discovered only 35 years ago. Such stars drive fast stellar winds where shocks can develop, and it is commonly assumed that the X-rays emerge from the shock-heated plasma. Many massive stars additionally pulsate. However, hitherto it was neither theoretically predicted nor observed that these pulsations would affect their X-ray emission. All X-ray pulsars known so far are associated with degenerate objects, either neutron stars or white dwarfs. Here we report the discovery of pulsating X-rays from a non-degenerate object, the massive B-type star ξ[SUP]1[/SUP] CMa. This star is a variable of β Cep-type and has a strong magnetic field. Our observations with the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM-Newton) telescope reveal X-ray pulsations with the same period as the fundamental stellar oscillations. This discovery challenges our understanding of stellar winds from massive stars, their X-ray emission and their magnetism. [less ▲]

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See detailExtremely Organic-rich Coma of Comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) during its Outburst in 2012
Kawakita, Hideyo; Dello Russo, Neil; Vervack, Ron et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 788

We performed high-dispersion near-infrared spectroscopic observations of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) at 2.5 AU from the Sun using NIRSPEC (R ≈ 25,000) at the Keck II Telescope on UT 2012 January 9 and 10 ... [more ▼]

We performed high-dispersion near-infrared spectroscopic observations of comet C/2010 G2 (Hill) at 2.5 AU from the Sun using NIRSPEC (R ≈ 25,000) at the Keck II Telescope on UT 2012 January 9 and 10, about a week after an outburst had occurred. Over the two nights of our observations, prominent emission lines of CH[SUB]4[/SUB] and C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], along with weaker emission lines of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, HCN, CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH, and CO were detected. The gas production rate of CO was comparable to that of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O during the outburst. The mixing ratios of CO, HCN, CH[SUB]4[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], and CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH with respect to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O were higher than those for normal comets by a factor of five or more. The enrichment of CO and CH[SUB]4[/SUB] in comet Hill suggests that the sublimation of these hypervolatiles sustained the outburst of the comet. Some fraction of water in the inner coma might exist as icy grains that were likely ejected from nucleus by the sublimation of hypervolatiles. Mixing ratios of volatiles in comet Hill are indicative of the interstellar heritage without significant alteration in the solar nebula. [less ▲]

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See detailThe four duties of family doctors. Quaternary prevention: First, do no harm
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Hong Kong Practitioner (2014), 36

Cl inical prevent ion has been organised in a chronological manner since the middle of the 20th century. A paradigm shift from a chronological to a relationship-based preventive pattern of care offers new ... [more ▼]

Cl inical prevent ion has been organised in a chronological manner since the middle of the 20th century. A paradigm shift from a chronological to a relationship-based preventive pattern of care offers new insight into the practice of doctors, and brings to light the concept of quaternary prevention, a critical look at medical activities with an emphasis on the need not to harm. Quaternary prevention addresses the fundamental question of what constitutes too much or too little medicine. It is the fourth form of disease prevention, but also the fourth frame of action for family doctors. New definitions of prevention published in the Wonca Dictionary of Family Medicine offer a structured way to discuss the activities of family doctors, including ethical considerations on the patient-doctor encounter. 摘要 [less ▲]

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See detailPhase resolved X-ray spectroscopy of HDE 228766: Probing the wind of an extreme Of+/WNLha star
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Mahy, Laurent; Nazé, Yaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 566

Context. HDE 228766 is a very massive binary system hosting a secondary component, which is probably in an intermediate evolutionary stage between an Of supergiant and an WN star. The wind of this star ... [more ▼]

Context. HDE 228766 is a very massive binary system hosting a secondary component, which is probably in an intermediate evolutionary stage between an Of supergiant and an WN star. The wind of this star collides with the wind of its O8 II companion, leading to relatively strong X-ray emission. <BR /> Aims: Measuring the orbital variations of the line-of-sight absorption toward the X-ray emission from the wind-wind interaction zone yields information on the wind densities of both stars. <BR /> Methods: X-ray spectra have been collected at three key orbital phases to probe the winds of both stars. Optical photometry has been gathered to set constraints on the orbital inclination of the system. <BR /> Results: The X-ray spectra reveal prominent variations of the intervening column density toward the X-ray emission zone, which are in line with the expectations for a wind-wind collision. We use a toy model to set constraints on the stellar wind parameters by attempting to reproduce the observed variations of the relative fluxes and wind optical depths at 1 keV. <BR /> Conclusions: The lack of strong optical eclipses sets an upper limit of ~ 68° on the orbital inclination. The analysis of the variations of the X-ray spectra suggests an inclination in the range 54-61° and indicates that the secondary wind momentum ratio exceeds that of the primary by at least a factor 5. Our models further suggest that the bulk of the X-ray emission arises from the innermost region of the wind interaction zone, which is from a region whose outer radius, as measured from the secondary star, lies between 0.5 and 1.5 times the orbital separation. Based on observations collected with XMM-Newton, an ESA science mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA member states and the USA (NASA), and on data collected at the San Pedro Mártir observatory (Mexico). [less ▲]

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See detailL- and V-curves for Optimal Smoothing
Frasso, Gianluca ULg; Eilers, Paul H. C.

in Statistical Modelling : An International Journal (2014)

The L-curve is a tool for the selection of the regularization parameter in ill-posed inverse problems. It is a parametric plot of the size of the residuals vs that of the penalty. The corner of the L ... [more ▼]

The L-curve is a tool for the selection of the regularization parameter in ill-posed inverse problems. It is a parametric plot of the size of the residuals vs that of the penalty. The corner of the L indicates the right amount of regularization. In the context of smoothing the L-curve is easy to compute and works surprisingly well, even for data with correlated noise. We present the theoretical background and applications to real data together with an alternative criterion for finding the corner automatically. We introduce as simplification, the V-curve, which replaces finding the corner of the L-curve by locating a minimum. [less ▲]

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See detailLe “Pacte budgétaire” européen, quelle influence sur les finances publiques belges ?
Uhoda, Maxime ULg

in Pyramides : Revue du Laboratoire d’Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique (2014), 25(25 - 2014/1), 87-122

La contribution se propose d’étudier les nouvelles obligations qui découlent du « pacte budgétaire » contenu dans le « Traité sur la stabilité, la coordination et la gouvernance au sein de l'union ... [more ▼]

La contribution se propose d’étudier les nouvelles obligations qui découlent du « pacte budgétaire » contenu dans le « Traité sur la stabilité, la coordination et la gouvernance au sein de l'union économique et monétaire ». Il s’agit d’un traité intergouvernemental signé par vingt-cinq États membres de l’Union européenne (à l’exclusion du Royaume-Uni et de la République Tchèque) dont le contenu est appelé à être intégré dans le cadre juridique de l’Union avant le 1er janvier 2018. Dans le contexte d’une double dynamique que connaissent actuellement les finances publiques des États membres de la zone euro – d’un côté, la construction de l’Union économique et monétaire européenne et de l’autre côté, dans certains pays, des phénomènes de décentralisation fiscale – le resserrement de la discipline budgétaire européenne semble traduire une tendance vers l’émergence de nouveaux principes constitutionnels de type financier. En Belgique, les modalités concrètes de transposition de ces nouvelles obligations – à savoir, l’incorporation en droit belge d’une règle d’équilibre budgétaire définie en termes structurels, l’instauration d’un « mécanisme de correction interne » et la mise en place d’une autorité de contrôle budgétaire indépendante, passent par la signature d’un accord de coopération et de nouvelles missions confiées à la section « Besoins de financement des pouvoirs publics » du Conseil supérieur des finances. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of SOx and NOx Emissions from a Medium Size Biomass Boiler Biomass and Bioenergy
Sartor, Kevin ULg; Restivo, Yannick ULg; Ngendakumana, Philippe ULg et al

in Biomass and Bioenergy (2014), 65

While small and medium size biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants (i.e., up to 5 MW of electrical rated power) represent an attractive option to exploit locally available biomass resources at low ... [more ▼]

While small and medium size biomass combined heat and power (CHP) plants (i.e., up to 5 MW of electrical rated power) represent an attractive option to exploit locally available biomass resources at low cost, the corresponding investment per unit of rated power significantly rises when the installed power decreases. In these cases, secondary pollutant emissions control measures are most of the time not economically viable and primary emissions control must be used alone to avoid the formation of undesired compounds such as $NO_x$ and $SO_x$. Primary control measures require the careful optimization of fuel quality and combustion process. For plant operators, being able to accommodate biomass quality changes in order to minimize the fuel cost can be of great importance in order to guarantee the profitability of the plant. This contribution is dedicated to the development of a zero-dimensional (input-output) combustion simulation model able to predict the pollutants emissions resulting from complete and incomplete combustion with respect to varying combustion operation (ambient temperature, humidity, fumes recirculation,..). This tool is intended to be integrated in a global simulation model of the CHP plant and the attached district heating network installed on the University campus in Liège. Doing so, the plant operation can be optimized with respect to economic as well as environmental and energetic aspects (3E approach) thus ensuring the sustainability of the approach. [less ▲]

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See detailComputational homogenization of cellular materials
Nguyen, Van Dung ULg; Noels, Ludovic ULg

in International Journal of Solids and Structures (2014), 51(11-12), 2183-2203

In this work we propose to study the behavior of cellular materials using a second–order multi–scale computational homogenization approach. During the macroscopic loading, micro-buckling of thin ... [more ▼]

In this work we propose to study the behavior of cellular materials using a second–order multi–scale computational homogenization approach. During the macroscopic loading, micro-buckling of thin components, such as cell walls or cell struts, can occur. Even if the behavior of the materials of which the micro–structure is made remains elliptic, the homogenized behavior can lose its ellipticity. In that case, a localization band is formed and propagates at the macro–scale. When the localization occurs, the assumption of local action in the standard approach, for which the stress state on a material point depends only on the strain state at that point, is no–longer suitable, which motivates the use of the second-order multi–scale computational homogenization scheme. At the macro–scale of this scheme, the discontinuous Galerkin method is chosen to solve the Mindlin strain gradient continuum. At the microscopic scale, the classical finite element resolutions of representative volume elements are considered. Since the meshes generated from cellular materials exhibit voids on the boundaries and are not conforming in general, the periodic boundary conditions are reformulated and are enforced by a polynomial interpolation method. With the presence of instability phenomena at both scales, the arc–length path following technique is adopted to solve both macroscopic and microscopic problems. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes the achievement of an intermediate glycemic target reduce organ failure and mortality? A post-hoc analysis of the Glucontrol Trial
Penning, Sophie ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey; Preiser, Jean-Charles et al

in Journal of Critical Care (2014)

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See detailSpatial optimization in perfusion bioreactors improves bone tissue-engineered construct quality attributes
Papantoniou, Ioannis; Guyot, Yann ULg; Sonnaert, Maarten et al

in Biotechnology and Bioengineering (2014)

Perfusion bioreactors have shown great promise for tissue engineering applications providing a homogeneous and consistent distribution of nutrients and flow-induced shear stresses throughout tissue ... [more ▼]

Perfusion bioreactors have shown great promise for tissue engineering applications providing a homogeneous and consistent distribution of nutrients and flow-induced shear stresses throughout tissue-engineered constructs. However, non uniform fluid-flow profiles found in the perfusion chamber entrance region have been shown to affect tissue-engineered construct quality characteristics during culture. In this study a whole perfusion and construct, three dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics approach was used in order to optimize a critical design parameter such as the location of the regular pore scaffolds within the perfusion bioreactor chamber. Computational studies were coupled to bioreactor experiments for a case-study flow rate. Two cases were compared in the first instance seeded scaffolds were positioned immediately after the perfusion chamber inlet while a second group was positioned at the computationally determined optimum distance were a steady state flow profile had been reached. Experimental data showed that scaffold location affected significantly cell content and neo-tissue distribution, as determined and quantified by contrast enhanced nanoCT, within the constructs both at 14 and 21 days of culture. However gene expression level of osteopontin and osteocalcin was not affected by the scaffold location. This study demonstrates that the bioreactor chamber environment, incorporating a scaffold and its location within it, affects the flow patterns within the pores throughout the scaffold requiring therefore dedicated optimization that can lead to bone tissue engineered constructs with improved quality attributes [less ▲]

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See detailQuality assessment of marketed eggs in Eastern Algeria
Kara Ali, Monira; Ait Kaki, Asma ULg; Milet, Asma et al

in Nature & Technologie (2014), 11(2), 52-58

The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from ... [more ▼]

The objective of this study was to compare eggs quality between industrial and local chickens in four departments of Eastern Algeria (Bejaia, Jijel, Mila and Setif). A total of 4748 eggs were bought from three marketing channels as following: shops (1184), public markets (2757) and supermarkets (807). The percentage of stained eggs was significantly different (P<0.001) between industrial (15.25%) and local eggs (27.61%). A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed between industrial and local egg weight (61.01 vs 53.28g), egg shell weight (7.10 vs 6.30g), albumen weight (37.44 vs 29.69g), albumen percentage (61.34 vs 55.71%), shell thickness (0.381 vs 0.325mm). However, yolk weight (6.10 vs 6.30g), yolk percentage (27.06 vs 32.44%), shell percentage (11.60 vs 11.89%), yolk/albumen ratio (0.44 vs 0.58), albumen height (5.27 vs 5.93mm), Haugh unit (69.12 vs 77.80), yolk color (9.52 vs 10.94) and egg price (7.67 vs 12.84DA) of local chicken were significantly (P<0.01) higher than in the case of industrial hen. Marketing channels affected significantly (P<0.01) egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight, albumen height and price of a total studied eggs. Egg weight (59.03g) and egg price (10.87DA) from supermarkets were the highest. Eggs of local hens presented according to the national preference, interesting quality criteria such as freshness, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk color. [less ▲]

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