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See detailDe Nadar à Dornac. Hexis corporelle et figuration photographique de l'écrivain
Durand, Pascal ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2014), 14

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See detailDe Europese Unie en Brazilië: eindelijk een (strategisch?) partnershap
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Internationale Spectator (2014), 68(6), 40-44

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See detailFalsos positivos de C5-carnitina elevada en cribado neonatal: A que son debidos?
Yahyaoui, Raquel; Rueda; Dayaldasani, Anita et al

in Medicina Clinica (2014)

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See detailGenome-Wide Association Interaction Analysis for Alzheimer’s Disease
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Bellenguez, Céline et al

in Neurobiology of Aging (2014)

We propose a minimal protocol for exhaustive genome-wide association interaction analysis that involves screening for epistasis over large-scale genomic data combining strengths of different methods and ... [more ▼]

We propose a minimal protocol for exhaustive genome-wide association interaction analysis that involves screening for epistasis over large-scale genomic data combining strengths of different methods and statistical tools. The different steps of this protocol are illustrated on a real-life data application for Alzheimer's disease (AD) (2259 patients and 6017 controls from France). Particularly, in the exhaustive genome-wide epistasis screening we identified AD-associated interacting SNPs-pair from chromosome 6q11.1 (rs6455128, the KHDRBS2 gene) and 13q12.11 (rs7989332, the CRYL1 gene) (p = 0.006, corrected for multiple testing). A replication analysis in the independent AD cohort from Germany (555 patients and 824 controls) confirmed the discovered epistasis signal (p = 0.036). This signal was also supported by a meta-analysis approach in 5 independent AD cohorts that was applied in the context of epistasis for the first time. Transcriptome analysis revealed negative correlation between expression levels of KHDRBS2 and CRYL1 in both the temporal cortex (β = -0.19, p = 0.0006) and cerebellum (β = -0.23, p < 0.0001) brain regions. This is the first time a replicable epistasis associated with AD was identified using a hypothesis free screening approach. [less ▲]

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See detailProbabilistic Assessment of the Lifetime of Low-Earth-Orbit Spacecraft: Uncertainty Characterization
Dell'Elce, Lamberto ULg; Arnst, Maarten ULg; Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg

in Journal of Guidance Control & Dynamics (2014)

Orbital lifetime estimation is a problem of great timeliness and importance in astrodynamics. In view of the stochastic nature of the thermosphere and of the complexity of drag modeling, any deterministic ... [more ▼]

Orbital lifetime estimation is a problem of great timeliness and importance in astrodynamics. In view of the stochastic nature of the thermosphere and of the complexity of drag modeling, any deterministic assessment of orbital lifetime is likely to be bound to failure. This is why the present paper performs uncertainty quantification of satellite orbital lifetime estimation. Specifically, this paper focuses on the probabilistic characterization of the dominant sources of uncertainty inherent to low-altitude satellites. Uncertainties in the initial state of the satellite and in the atmospheric drag force, as well as uncertainties introduced by modeling limitations associated with atmospheric density models, are considered. Mathematical statistics methods, in conjunction with mechanical modeling considerations, are used to infer the probabilistic characterization of these uncertainties from experimental data and atmospheric density models. This characterization step facilitates the application of uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis methods, which in turn allows gaining insight into the impact that these uncertainties have on the orbital lifetime. The proposed developments are illustrated using one CubeSat of the QB50 constellation. [less ▲]

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See detailTemperature regimes and aphid density interactions differentially influence VOC emissions in Arabidopsis
Hien, Truong Thi Dieu ULg; Delory, Benjamin ULg; Vanderplanck, Maryse et al

in Arthropod-Plant Interactions (2014)

The effects of volatile emissions from plants exposed to individual abiotic and biotic stresses are well documented. However, the influence of multiple stresses on plant photosynthesis and defense ... [more ▼]

The effects of volatile emissions from plants exposed to individual abiotic and biotic stresses are well documented. However, the influence of multiple stresses on plant photosynthesis and defense responses, resulting in a variety of volatile profiles has received little attention. In this study, we investigated how temperature regimes in the presence and absence of the sucking insect Myzus persicae affected volatile organic compound emissions in Arabidopsis over three time periods (0-24 h, 24-48 h, and 48-72 h). Headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to evaluate Arabidopsis volatile organic compounds. The results showed that under laboratory conditions, eight volatile classes [alcohols (mainly 2-ethyl-hexan-1-ol), ketone (6-methyl hept-5-en-2-one), esters (mainly (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate), aldehydes (mainly phenylacetaldehyde), isothiocyanates (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate), terpenes (mainly (E,E)-α-farnesene), nitrile (5-(methylthio) pentanenitrile), and sulfide (dimethyl trisulfide)] were observed on plants exposed to stress combinations, whereas emissions of six volatile classes were observed during temperature stress treatments alone (with the exception of nitriles and sulfides). Aphid density at high temperature combinations resulted in significantly higher isothiocyanate, ester, nitrile and sulfide proportions. The results of the present study provide an insight into the effects of temperature - aphid interactions on plant volatile emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive comment on “Improved routines to model the ocean carbonate system: mocsy 1.0” by J. C. Orr and J.-M Epitalon
Munhoven, Guy ULg

in Geoscientific Model Development Discussions [=GMDD] (2014), 7

The manuscript "Improved routines to model the ocean carbonate system: mocsy 1.0" by J. C. Orr and J.-M Epitalon is reviewed and related issues and ideas are discussed.

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See detailMeandering jets in shallow rectangular reservoirs: POD analysis and identification of coherent structures
Peltier, Yann ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Experiments in Fluids (2014), 55

The effect of the shallowness on meandering jets in a shallow rectangular reservoir is investigated. Four meandering flows were investigated in an experimental shallow rectangular reservoir. Their ... [more ▼]

The effect of the shallowness on meandering jets in a shallow rectangular reservoir is investigated. Four meandering flows were investigated in an experimental shallow rectangular reservoir. Their boundary conditions were chosen to cover a large range of friction numbers (defined with the sudden expansion width). Due to the unsteady characteristics of the flows, a Proper Orthogonal Decomposition of the fluctu-ating part of the surface velocity fields measured using LSPIV was used for discriminating the flow struc-tures responsible for the meandering of the jet. Less than 1 % of the calculated POD modes significantly contribute to the meandering of the jet and two types of instability are in competition in such a flow con-figuration. The sinuous mode is the dominant mode in the flow and it induces the meandering of the flow, while the varicose mode is a source of local mixing and weakly participates to the flow. The fluctuating velocity fields were then reconstructed using the POD modes corresponding to 80% of the total mean fluctuating kinetic energy and the coherent structures were identified using the residual vorticity, their centres being localised using a topology algorithm. The trajectories of the structures centres emphasize that at high friction number the coherent structures are small and laterally paired in the near, middle and far fields of the jet, while with decreasing friction number the structures merge into large horizontal vortices in the far-field of the jet, their trajectories showing more variability in space and time. The analysis of the stability regime finally reveals that the sinuous mode is convectively unstable and may become absolutely unstable at the end of the reservoir when the friction number is small. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention quaternaire : agir est-il toujours justifié en médecine de famille ?
Widmer, Daniel; Herzig, Lilly; Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revue Médicale Suisse (2014), 10(430), 1052-6

La prévention quaternaire vise à protéger le patient ou la po- pulation de la surmédicalisation. Elle imprègne toute l’activité du médecin de famille par une interrogation tant sur l’utilité de la ... [more ▼]

La prévention quaternaire vise à protéger le patient ou la po- pulation de la surmédicalisation. Elle imprègne toute l’activité du médecin de famille par une interrogation tant sur l’utilité de la prévention primaire que du diagnostic précoce, ou sur les risques de la création de nouvelles entités pathologiques et d’une médecine maximaliste. Le médecin de famille favorise la prévention quaternaire en se centrant sur les priorités du patient et sur les ressources locales d’un système de soins efficace. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom propaganda to commemoration: reworking the national narrative.
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULg

in Rethinking History (2014), 18(3), 423-437

In Belgium, memories of the World War I have contributed to the production and the perpetuation of a fractured national narrative. While the official narration emphasizes the unity of the Belgian state ... [more ▼]

In Belgium, memories of the World War I have contributed to the production and the perpetuation of a fractured national narrative. While the official narration emphasizes the unity of the Belgian state and glorifies the heroism of Belgian soldiers acting as a unified force against the German invader, a counter-narrative presents the Flemish soldiers as victims who were used as cannon fodder by the French-speaking commanding elite. In the immediate postwar period, newsreels largely reinforced the image of a national unity during the Great War. Ten years later, however, cinema took an active part in the production of a counter-memory. Met onze jogens aan den IJzer/With Our Troops on the Yser (Clemens De Landtsheer, 1928), a Flemish film, is a key work in this regard. This article first examines the narratives and formal strategies the film resorts to in order to forcefully deconstruct the patriotic narrative and to forge a ‘Flamingant,’ Flemish activist collective memory. It subsequently analyzes more recent Frenchspeaking documentary film projects aiming to commemorate the memory of the Great War. Lacking any overt problematization of their relationship to the Flemish separatist narrative, the documentaries are still shaped by it. Indeed, they either attempt to overcome it by reinforcing Belgium’s sense of national identity or to counterbalance it by putting forward a regional narrative that specifically revives the French-speaking Belgians’ memory of the War. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear amphiphilic diblock copolymers of lactide and 2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate using bifunctional-initiator and one-pot approaches
Kryuchkov, Maksym A.; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Bazuin, Géraldine

in Polymer (2014), 55(10), 2316-2324

Linear amphiphilic diblock copolymers of polylactide (PLA) and poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of DMAEMA followed by ring ... [more ▼]

Linear amphiphilic diblock copolymers of polylactide (PLA) and poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of DMAEMA followed by ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of LLA using the bifunctional initiator, 2′-hydroxyethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate. NMR showed that the resulting PLA block was racemic and a quaternization/precipitation technique showed that there were significant amounts of racemic PLA homopolymer. In addition, simultaneous ATRP of DMAEMA and ROP of l-lactide by tin octoate were conducted at varied temperatures, indicating 90 °C as a suitable compromise temperature; this one-pot process also led to racemization and P(L)LA homopolymer. The racemization was attributed to reversible deprotonation of LLA by the N(CH3)2 moiety of (P)DMAEMA and the PLA homopolymer impurity was related to in situ formation of lactoyl lactate (LA–LA) due to nucleophilic ring opening of lactide by the amino moieties of (P)DMAEMA. The methods presented can be useful for the preparation of PDMAEMA–b–PLA/PLA composites in a two-step process or in a single step, one-pot process. [less ▲]

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See detailSupercritical CO2 and polycarbonate based nanocomposites: A critical issue for foaming
Monnereau, Laure; Urbanczyk, Laetitia; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Polymer (2014), 55(10), 2422-2431

Supercritical carbon dioxide readily induced foaming of various polymers. In that context, supercritical CO2 was applied to carbon nanotubes based polycarbonate nanocomposites to ensure their foaming ... [more ▼]

Supercritical carbon dioxide readily induced foaming of various polymers. In that context, supercritical CO2 was applied to carbon nanotubes based polycarbonate nanocomposites to ensure their foaming. Surprisingly, efficient foaming only occurs when low pressure is applied while at high pressure, no expansion of the samples was observed. This is related to the ability of supercritical carbon dioxide to induce crystallization of amorphous polycarbonate. Moreover, this behaviour is amplified by the presence of carbon nanotubes that act as nucleating agents for crystals birth. The thermal behaviour of the composites was analysed by DSC and DMA and was related to the foaming observations. The uniformity of the cellular structure was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). By saturating the polycarbonate nanocomposites reinforced with 1 wt% of MWNTs at 100 bar and 100 °C during 16 h, microcellular foams were generated, with a density of 0.62, a cell size ranging from 0.6 to 4 μm, and a cellular density of 4.1 × 1011 cells cm−3. The high ability of these polymeric foams to absorb electromagnetic radiation was demonstrated at low MWNT content as the result of the high affinity of the polycarbonate matrix for MWNTs, and therefore to the good MWNTs dispersion. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term evolution and seasonal modulation above Jungfraujoch (46.5°N, 8.0°E): Optimisation of the retrieval strategy, comparison with model and independant observations
Bader, Whitney ULg; Stavrakou, T; Muller, J-F et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Papers in Open Discussion (2014), 7

Methanol (CH3OH) is the second most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere after methane. In this work, we present the first long-term time series of methanol total, lower tropospheric and ... [more ▼]

Methanol (CH3OH) is the second most abundant organic compound in the Earth's atmosphere after methane. In this work, we present the first long-term time series of methanol total, lower tropospheric and upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric partial columns derived from the analysis of high resolution Fourier transform infrared solar spectra recorded at the Jungfraujoch station (46.5° N, 3580 m a.s.l.). The retrieval of methanol is very challenging due to strong absorptions of ozone in the region of the selected υ8 band of CH3OH. Two wide spectral intervals have been defined and adjusted in order to maximize the information content. Methanol does not exhibit a significant trend over the 1995–2012 time period, but a strong seasonal modulation characterized by maximum values and variability in June–July, minimum columns in winter and a peak-to-peak amplitude of 130%. In situ measurements performed at the Jungfraujoch and ACE-FTS occultations give similar results for the methanol seasonal variation. The total and lower tropospheric columns are also compared with IMAGESv2 model simulations. There is no systematic bias between the observations and IMAGESv2 but the model underestimates the peak-to-peak amplitude of the seasonal modulations. [less ▲]

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See detailPassive temperature tomography experiments to characterize transmissivity and connectivity of preferential flow paths in fractured media
Klepikova, Maria ULg

in Journal of Hydrology (2014)

The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are major challenges in fractured rock hydrology. In this study, we propose to use temperature as a passive ... [more ▼]

The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are major challenges in fractured rock hydrology. In this study, we propose to use temperature as a passive tracer to characterize fracture connectivity and hydraulic properties. In particular, we propose a new temperature tomography field method in which borehole temperature profiles are measured under different pumping conditions by changing successively the pumping and observation boreholes. To interpret these temperature-depth profiles, we propose a three step inversion-based framework. We consider first an inverse model that allows for automatic permeable fracture detection from borehole temperature profiles under pumping conditions. Then we apply a borehole-scale flow and temperature model to produce flowmeter profiles by inversion of temperature profiles. This second step uses inversion to characterize the relationship between temperature variations with depth and borehole flow velocities (Klepikova et al., 2011). The third inverse step, which exploits cross-borehole flowmeter tests, is aimed at inferring inter-borehole fracture connectivity and transmissivities. This multi-step inverse framework provides a means of including temperature profiles to image fracture hydraulic properties and connectivity. We test the proposed approach with field data obtained from the Ploemeur (N.W. France) fractured rock aquifer, where the full temperature tomography experiment was carried out between three 100 m depth boreholes 10 m apart. We identified several transmissive fractures and their connectivity which correspond to known fractures and corroborate well with independent information, including available borehole flowmeter tests and geophysical data. Hence, although indirect, temperature tomography appears to be a promising approach for characterizing connectivity patterns and transmissivities of the main flow paths in fractured rock. [less ▲]

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See detailPassive temperature tomography experiments to characterize transmissivity and connectivity of preferential flow paths in fractured media
Klepikova, Maria ULg

in Journal of Hydrology (2014)

The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are major challenges in fractured rock hydrology. In this study, we propose to use temperature as a passive ... [more ▼]

The detection of preferential flow paths and the characterization of their hydraulic properties are major challenges in fractured rock hydrology. In this study, we propose to use temperature as a passive tracer to characterize fracture connectivity and hydraulic properties. In particular, we propose a new temperature tomography field method in which borehole temperature profiles are measured under different pumping conditions by changing successively the pumping and observation boreholes. To interpret these temperature-depth profiles, we propose a three step inversion-based framework. We consider first an inverse model that allows for automatic permeable fracture detection from borehole temperature profiles under pumping conditions. Then we apply a borehole-scale flow and temperature model to produce flowmeter profiles by inversion of temperature profiles. This second step uses inversion to characterize the relationship between temperature variations with depth and borehole flow velocities (Klepikova et al., 2011). The third inverse step, which exploits cross-borehole flowmeter tests, is aimed at inferring inter-borehole fracture connectivity and transmissivities. This multi-step inverse framework provides a means of including temperature profiles to image fracture hydraulic properties and connectivity. We test the proposed approach with field data obtained from the Ploemeur (N.W. France) fractured rock aquifer, where the full temperature tomography experiment was carried out between three 100 m depth boreholes 10 m apart. We identified several transmissive fractures and their connectivity which correspond to known fractures and corroborate well with independent information, including available borehole flowmeter tests and geophysical data. Hence, although indirect, temperature tomography appears to be a promising approach for characterizing connectivity patterns and transmissivities of the main flow paths in fractured rock. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the RE (RE = Eu, Er) doping on the structural and textural properties of mesoporous TiO2 thin films obtained by evaporation induced self-assembly method
Borlaf, Mario; Caes, Sébastien ULg; Dewalque, Jennifer ULg et al

in Thin Solid Films (2014), 558

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The ... [more ▼]

Polymeric sol–gel route has been used for the preparation of TiO2 and RE2O3–TiO2 (RE = Eu, Er) mesoporous thin films by evaporation induced self-assembly method using Si (100) as a substrate. The influence of the relative humidity (RH) on the preparation of the film has been studied being necessary to work under 40% RH in order to obtain homogeneous and transparent thin films. The films were annealed at different temperatures until 900 °C/1 h and the anatase crystallization and its crystal size evolution were followed by low angle X-ray diffraction. Neither the anatase–rutile transition nor the formation of other compounds was observed in the studied temperature range. Ellipsoporosimetry studies demonstrated that the thickness of the thin films did not change after calcination at 500 °C, the porosity was constant until 700 °C, the pore size increased and the specific surface area decreased with temperature. Moreover, the effect of the doping with Er3 + and Eu3 + was studied and a clear inhibition of the crystal growth and the sintering process was detected (by transmission electron and atomic force microscopy) when the doped films are compared with the undoped ones. Finally, Eu3 + and Er3 + f–f transitions were detected by PL measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing the Multiple SEA Method to Synthesize Pt/Carbon Xerogel Electrocatalysts for PEMFC Applications
Zubiaur, Anthony ULg; Chatenet, Marian; Maillard, Frédéric et al

in Fuel Cells - From Fundamentals to Systems (2014), 14(3), 343-349

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See detailEnzymatic process for the fractionation of baker’s yeast cell wall (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
Borchani, Chema; Fonteyn, Fabienne; Jamin, Guilhem et al

in Food Chemistry (2014), 163

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See detailMicrolensing of the broad-line region in the quadruply imaged quasar HE0435-1223
Braibant, Lorraine ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Sluse, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 565

Using infrared spectra of the z = 1.693 quadruply lensed quasar HE0435-1223 acquired in 2009 with the spectrograph SINFONI at the ESO Very Large Telescope, we have detected a clear microlensing effect in ... [more ▼]

Using infrared spectra of the z = 1.693 quadruply lensed quasar HE0435-1223 acquired in 2009 with the spectrograph SINFONI at the ESO Very Large Telescope, we have detected a clear microlensing effect in images A and D. While microlensing affects the blue and red wings of the Hα line profile in image D very differently, it de-magnifies the line core in image A. The combination of these different effects sets constraints on the line-emitting region; these constraints suggest that a rotating ring is at the origin of the Hα line. Visible spectra obtained in 2004 and 2012 indicate that the MgII line profile is microlensed in the same way as the Hα line. Our results therefore favour flattened geometries for the low-ionization line-emitting region, for example, a Keplerian disk. Biconical models cannot be ruled out but require more fine-tuning. Flux ratios between the different images are also derived and confirm flux anomalies with respect to estimates from lens models with smooth mass distributions. Based on observations made with the ESO-VLT, Paranal, Chile; Proposal 084.B-0013 (PI: Rix).Tables 2, 3 and Appendix A are available in electronic form at <A href="http://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201423633/olm">http://www.aanda.org</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe Transcription Factor EGR1 Localizes to the Nucleolus and Is Linked to Suppression of Ribosomal Precursor Synthesis
Ponti, Donatella; Bellenchi, Gian Carlo; Puca, Rosa et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(5),

EGR1 is an immediate early gene with a wide range of activities as transcription factor, spanning from regulation of cell growth to differentiation. Numerous studies show that EGR1 either promotes the ... [more ▼]

EGR1 is an immediate early gene with a wide range of activities as transcription factor, spanning from regulation of cell growth to differentiation. Numerous studies show that EGR1 either promotes the proliferation of stimulated cells or suppresses the tumorigenic growth of transformed cells. Upon interaction with ARF, EGR1 is sumoylated and acquires the ability to bind to specific targets such as PTEN and in turn to regulate cell growth. ARF is mainly localized to the periphery of nucleolus where is able to negatively regulate ribosome biogenesis. Since EGR1 colocalizes with ARF under IGF-1 stimulation we asked the question of whether EGR1 also relocate to the nucleolus to interact with ARF. Here we show that EGR1 colocalizes with nucleolar markers such as fibrillarin and B23 in the presence of ARF. Western analysis of nucleolar extracts from HeLa cells was used to confirm the presence of EGR1 in the nucleolus mainly as the 100 kDa sumoylated form. We also show that the level of the ribosomal RNA precursor 47S is inversely correlated to the level of EGR1 transcripts. The EGR1 iseffective to regulate the synthesis of the 47S rRNA precursor. Then we demonstrated that EGR1 binds to the Upstream Binding Factor (UBF) leading us to hypothesize that the regulating activity of EGR1 is mediated by its interaction within the transcriptional complex of RNA polymerase I. These results confirm the presence of EGR1 in the nucleolus and point to a role for EGR1 in the control of nucleolar metabolism. [less ▲]

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See detailForest radiative transfer models: which approach for which application?
Ligot, Gauthier ULg; Balandier, Philippe; Courbaud, Benoît et al

in Canadian Journal of Forest Research = Journal Canadien de la Recherche Forestière (2014), 44(5), 385-397

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See detailHigh resolution saturated hydraulic conductivity logging of friable to poorly indurated borehole cores using air permeability measurements
Rogiers, Bart; Winters, P.; Huysmans, Marijke et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2014)

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. This paper investigates ... [more ▼]

Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) is one of the most important parameters determining groundwater flow and contaminant transport in both unsaturated and saturated porous media. This paper investigates the hand-held air permeameter technique for high resolution hydraulic conductivity determination on borehole cores using a spatial resolution of ~0.05 m. We test the suitability of such air permeameter measurements on friable to poorly indurated sediments to improve the spatial prediction of classical laboratory based Ks measurements obtained at a much lower spatial resolution (~2 m). About 368 Ks measurements were made on ~350 m of borehole cores originating from the Campine basin, Northern Belgium, while ~5230 air permeability measurements were performed on the same cores. The heterogeneity in sediments, ranging from sand to clayey sand with distinct clay lenses, resulted in a Ks range of seven orders of magnitude. Cross-validation demonstrated that using air permeameter data as secondary variable and laboratory based Ks measurements as primary variable increased performance from R2 = 0.35 for ordinary kriging (laboratory Ks only) to R2 = 0.61 for co-kriging. Due to the large degree of small-scale variability detected by the air permeameter, the spatial granularity in the predicted laboratory Ks also increases drastically. The separate treatment of Kh and Kv revealed considerable anisotropy in certain lithostratigraphical units, while others where clearly isotropic at the sample scale. Air permeameter measurements on borehole cores provide a cost-effective way to improve spatial predictions of traditional laboratory based Ks. [less ▲]

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See detailIs isokinetic eccentric exercise dangerous for the heart?
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; LAURENT, Terry ULg et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2014), 22(2), 131-136

BACKGROUND: Very strenuous exercises can be performed on an isokinetic dynamometer in order to evaluate the resistance to fatigue of different muscular groups. Good cardiac function is necessary in order ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Very strenuous exercises can be performed on an isokinetic dynamometer in order to evaluate the resistance to fatigue of different muscular groups. Good cardiac function is necessary in order to perform these very intensive exercises; otherwise an acute myocardial dysfunction could theoretically appear in predisposed patients. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to observe the cardiovascular impact of a maximal intense isokinetic eccentric exercise performed by a population of sedentary young men. METHODS: Resting and post-exercise (just after, 3 hours and 24 hours after the exercise) blood samples were taken from 12 young male sedentary healthy subjects. These subjects performed an intense maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise of the quadriceps muscle.We evaluated markers of cardiovascular risk (troponin I, highly sensitive troponin T, NT-proBNP,myoglobin), of inflammation (hsCRP) and of oxidative stress (myeloperoxydase, lipidic peroxides, reduced and oxidized glutathione). RESULTS: The following observations were made: no significant increase in cardiac (NT-proBNP, troponins) or inflammation (hsCRP) biomarkers; a significant increase in myoglobin, myeloperoxidase, lipidic peroxides, oxidised glutathione just after the exercise. CONCLUSIONS: No modification in cardiac biomarkers were observed after the maximal eccentric isokinetic exercise. We were thus able to prove that the exercise could be performed without any risk to cardiac function in young sedentary subjects. However, a significant level of oxidative stress was induced by this exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a real time release approach for manufacturing tablets using NIR spectroscopy
Pestieau, Aude ULg; Krier, Fabrice ULg; Thoorens, Grégory et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 98

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See detailSpatiotemporal monitoring of the antibiome secreted by Bacillus biofilms on plant roots using MALDI mass spectrometry imaging
Debois, Delphine ULg; Jourdan, Emmanuel; Smargiasso, Nicolas ULg et al

in Analytical Chemistry (2014), 86(9), 4431-4438

Some soil Bacilli living in association with plant roots can protect their host from infection by pathogenic microbes and are therefore being developed as biological agents to control plant diseases. The ... [more ▼]

Some soil Bacilli living in association with plant roots can protect their host from infection by pathogenic microbes and are therefore being developed as biological agents to control plant diseases. The plant protective activity of these bacteria has been correlated with the potential to secrete a wide array of antibiotic compounds upon growth as planktonic cells in isolated cultures under laboratory conditions. However, in situ expression of these antibiotics in the rhizosphere where bacterial cells naturally colonize root tissues is still poorly understood. In this work, we used Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) to examine spatio-temporal changes in the secreted antibiome of B. amyloliquefaciens developing as biofilms on roots. Non-ribosomal lipopeptides such as the plant immunity elicitor surfactin or the highly fungitoxic iturins and fengycins were readily produced albeit in different time-frames and quantities in the surrounding medium. Interestingly, MS/MS experiments performed directly from the gelified culture medium, also allowed to identify a new variant of surfactins released at later time points. However, no other bioactive compounds such as polyketides were detected at any time, strongly suggesting that the antibiome expressed in planta by B. amyloliquefaciens does not reflect the vast genetic arsenal devoted to the formation of such compounds. This first dynamic study reveals the power of MALDI MSI as tool to identify and map antibiotics synthesized by root-associated bacteria and more generally, to investigate plant-microbe interactions at the molecular level. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Fête du 14 juillet à Liège vue par le consul de France Léon Labbé (1919-1930). Une célébration sous surveillance
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Le Vieux-Liège (2014), 344

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See detailThe XMM-Newton view of the yellow hypergiant IRC+10420 and its surroundings
De Becker, Michaël ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg

in New Astronomy (2014), 29

Among evolved massive stars likely in transition to the Wolf-Rayet phase, IRC +10420 is probably one of the most enigmatic. It belongs to the category of yellow hypergiants and it is characterized by ... [more ▼]

Among evolved massive stars likely in transition to the Wolf-Rayet phase, IRC +10420 is probably one of the most enigmatic. It belongs to the category of yellow hypergiants and it is characterized by quite high mass loss episodes. Even though IRC+10420 benefited of many observations in several wavelength domains, it has never been a target for an X-ray observatory. We report here on the very first dedicated observation of IRC+10420 in X-rays, using the XMM-Newton satellite. Even though the target is not detected, we derive X-ray flux upper limits of the order of 1–3 ×10−14 erg cm−2 s−1 (between 0.3 and 10.0 keV), and we discuss the case of IRC+10420 in the framework of emission models likely to be adequate for such an object. Using the Optical/UV Monitor on board XMM-Newton, we present the very first upper limits of the flux density of IRC +10420 in the UV domain (between 1800 and 2250 Å and between 2050 and 2450 Å). Finally, we also report on the detection in this field of 10 X-ray and 7 UV point sources, and we briefly discuss their properties and potential counterparts at longer wavelengths. [less ▲]

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See detailA Brief Review of Ultraviolet Auroral Emissions on Giant Planets
Grodent, Denis ULg

in Space Science Reviews (2014)

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although ... [more ▼]

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although this simplified view is very handy for a gross depiction of the giant planets’ aurorae, it fails to scrutinize the diversity and the dynamics of the actual features that are regularly observed with the available ultraviolet imagers and spectrographs. In the present review, the typical morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn’s aurorae are represented with an updated and more accurate set of components. The use of sketches, rather than images, makes it possible to compile all these components in a single view and to put aside ultraviolet imaging technical issues that are blurring the emission sources, thus preventing one from disentangling the different auroral signatures. The ionospheric and magnetospheric processes to which these auroral features allude can then be more easily accounted. In addition, the use of components of the same kind for both planets may help to put forward similarities and differences between Jupiter and Saturn. The case of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune is much less compelling since their weak auroral emissions are very poorly documented and one can only speculate about their origin. This review presents a current perspective that will inevitably evolve in the future, especially with upcoming observing campaigns and forthcoming missions like Juno. [less ▲]

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See detailCapillary-driven bi-dimensional buoyancy in vertical soap films
Adami, Nicolas ULg; Caps, Hervé

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2014)

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See detailDeterminant of fat mass percentage and absolute fat-free mass in preterm infants at the time of hospital discharge
Simon, Laure; Frondas-Chauty, Anne; SENTERRE, Thibault ULg et al

in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2014), 100(1), 98-104

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See detailStratégies analytiques pour la détection de contrefaçons de médicaments pour la dysfonction érectile
Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Deconinck, Eric; Marini Djang'Eing'A, Roland ULg et al

in Spectra Analyse (2014), 43

Erectile dysfunction drugs are among the most counterfeit drug classes in industrialized countries. To fight against this plague, several analytical approaches are available for control laboratories. The ... [more ▼]

Erectile dysfunction drugs are among the most counterfeit drug classes in industrialized countries. To fight against this plague, several analytical approaches are available for control laboratories. The present article reviews the main used techniques and concludes presenting a general strategy for the detection and handling of drug counterfeits. [less ▲]

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See detailProjected inhibition of platelet aggregation with ticagrelor twice daily vs. clopidogrel once daily based on patient adherence data (the TWICE project)
Vrijens, Bernard ULg; Claeys, M.J.; LEGRAND, Victor ULg et al

in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2014), 77(5), 746-755

Abstract Aim Twice daily dosing is often perceived as inferior to once daily dosing due to a higher likelihood of missing a dose. However, more important is the extent to which drug action is maintained ... [more ▼]

Abstract Aim Twice daily dosing is often perceived as inferior to once daily dosing due to a higher likelihood of missing a dose. However, more important is the extent to which drug action is maintained when doses are delayed or missed. We compared the estimated inhibition of platelet aggregation (eIPA) for ticagrelor twice daily and clopidogrel once daily, based on their pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic relationships and patient dosing history data. Methods Drug dosing histories of 5014 patients prescribed cardiovascular medications (primarily antihypertensive medicines) were extracted from an electronically compiled dosing history database. eIPA levels were simulated for 677 twice daily and 677 once daily dosing histories over a 30 day period, based on published onset/offset models for ticagrelor and clopidogrel IPA characteristics. Results While many patients treated twice daily missed at least one dose in 30 days, only 25.7% missed two consecutive doses. By comparison, 46.8% of patients treated once daily missed at least one dose. Simulations based on patient adherence over time showed that the average mean eIPA for ticagrelor twice daily remained significantly higher than for clopidogrel once daily (81.1% vs. 55.0%, P < 0.001). Ticagrelor twice daily patients had an eIPA below 10% for 0.20% of the 30 day period compared with 2.05% for clopidogrel once daily (P = 0.0001). Conclusions The projected level of platelet inhibition remained higher for ticagrelor twice daily than clopidogrel once daily, mainly due to the higher eIPA level achieved with ticagrelor and the relatively low likelihood of missing two consecutive twice daily doses. This modelling and simulation study suggests a therapeutic benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel when taking into account the most common dosing omissions. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society. [less ▲]

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See detailDialectique de l'esthétique: Hans-Jürgen Krahl et le "marxisme occidental" entre art et politique.
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

L’article étudie – à partir des fragments de H.-J. Krahl – les débats sur l’esthétique et ses rapports avec la politique et la philosophie de l’histoire depuis la philosophie classique allemande jusqu’aux ... [more ▼]

L’article étudie – à partir des fragments de H.-J. Krahl – les débats sur l’esthétique et ses rapports avec la politique et la philosophie de l’histoire depuis la philosophie classique allemande jusqu’aux analyses post-adorniennes de l’industrie culturelle. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling X-ray microtomography and macroscopic soil measurements: a method to enhance near saturation functions?
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Plougonven, Erwan; Gigot, Nicolas et al

in Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2014), 18

Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water ... [more ▼]

Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves using both classical soil techniques and X-ray microtomography in the context of tillage simplification. We show a good match for retention and conductivity functions between macroscopic measurements and microtomographic information. Microtomography highlights the presence of a secondary pore system. Analysis of structural parameters for these pores appears to be significant and offers additional clues for objects differentiation. We show that relatively fast scans supply not only good results, but also enhance near saturation characterization, making microtomography a highly competitive instrument for routine soil characterization. [less ▲]

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See detailSur quelques thèmes chez Heiner Muller
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

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See detailSelf-medication in persistent rhinitis: overuse of decongestants in half of the patients.
Mehuys, Els; Gevaert, Philippe; Brusselle, Guy et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - In Practice (2014), 2(3), 313-319

BACKGROUND: Patients with rhinitis often self-medicate with over-the-counter drugs, however this self-treating population has remained largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To characterize individuals self ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Patients with rhinitis often self-medicate with over-the-counter drugs, however this self-treating population has remained largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To characterize individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis and to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for intranasal decongestant overuse within this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study of individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis (defined according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines). Participants (n = 895) completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess current symptoms, rhinitis medication, and previous physician diagnosis. Intranasal decongestant overuse was defined as daily use for at least 1 year. RESULTS: The vast majority of subjects (95%) had moderate-to-severe rhinitis. Nasal congestion was the predominant symptom (median visual analog scale, 6.6 cm; interquartile range, 3.4 cm). Sixty-five percent had had their current nasal problems for more than 5 years. Approximately 80% had a physician diagnosis (mainly allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis). The prevalence of intranasal decongestant overuse was high (49%), despite the fact that most of the patients (80%) were educated about the limit on duration of use. Use of intranasal glucocorticosteroids was inversely related to being an overuser (odds ratio 0.24 [95% CI, 0.17-0.35]). The risk of intranasal decongestant overuse also was reduced by use of other medications (oral H1 antihistamines and decongestants), use of nasal saline solution, and more symptoms of itchy and/or runny eyes or colored mucus. Risk was increased by a more severely blocked nose, longer duration of symptoms, the presence of sleep disturbance, higher body mass index, and previous advice to limit the duration of intranasal decongestant use. CONCLUSION: Half of the individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis overused intranasal decongestants, despite the fact that they were educated about the limit on duration of use. [less ▲]

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See detailLa spectroscopie proche infrarouge, une technique non destructive dans la lutte contre la contrefaçon des médicaments
Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème; Chavez, Pierre-François ULg et al

in Spectra Analyse (2014), 43

Near infrared spectroscopy is a very promising and expanding analytical technique. It has to be noted that this technique is becoming more used in the pharmaceutical field for the quality control of ... [more ▼]

Near infrared spectroscopy is a very promising and expanding analytical technique. It has to be noted that this technique is becoming more used in the pharmaceutical field for the quality control of products. Indeed near infrared spectroscopy allows to perform fast, non-destructive, versatile analysis of the sample and minimization of the sample preparation. Based on those advantages, this spectroscopic method is one of the first reliable analytical techniques for fighting against counterfeit medicines. [less ▲]

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See detailResilience to Flooding - Draft Building Code
Clarkson, John; Sullican, David; Braun, Kenton et al

in PIANC Yearbook 2013 (2014)

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See detailThe Robust Economic Statistical Design of the Hotelling’s T^2 Chart
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Chalaki, Kamyar; Saniga, Erwin et al

in Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation (2014)

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the ... [more ▼]

Economic statistical designs aim at minimizing the cost of process monitoring when a specific scenario or a set of estimated process and cost parameters is given. However, in practical situations the process may be affected by more than one scenario which may lead to severe cost penalties for upsetting the true scenario. This paper presents the robust economic statistical design (RESD) of the T^2 chart to reduce the monetary losses when there are multiple distinct scenarios. The genetic algorithm optimization method is employed here to minimize the total expected monitoring cost across all distinct scenarios. Through two numerical examples the proposed method is illustrated. Simulation studies indicate that the robust economic statistical designs should be encouraged in practice. [less ▲]

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See detailMéthodes chromatographiques génériques de criblage pour lutter contre les médicaments de qualité inférieure
Habyalimana, Védaste; Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème; Dispas, Amandine ULg et al

in Spectra Analyse (2014), 43

Poor quality medicines are a danger and a threat to public health. In this context, several generic analytical methods have been developed to screen molecules of interest grouped by pharmacological class ... [more ▼]

Poor quality medicines are a danger and a threat to public health. In this context, several generic analytical methods have been developed to screen molecules of interest grouped by pharmacological class using an innovative strategy based on design of experiments followed in some cases by independent component analysis and calculation of design space. Once validated via the classical total error measurement approach, these methods were applied to quantify antimalarial, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antibiotic medicines. Alarming results regarding the dosage of these drugs widely used by people confirm the need to fight against this scourge. [less ▲]

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See detailLa radicalité ouvrière en mots et en actes. Polysémie des termes et disqualification politique
Geuens, Geoffrey ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (2014), 84 ("La radicalité ouvrière en Europe. Acteurs, pratiques, discours")(printemps 2014),

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See detailGenetic regulation of immunoglobulin E level in different pathological states: integration of mouse and human genetics
Gusareva, Elena ULg; Kurey, Irina; Grekov, Igor et al

in Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society (2014), 89(2), 375-405

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) first evolved in mammals. It plays an important role in defence against helminths and parasitic infection and in pathological states including allergic reactions, anti-tumour ... [more ▼]

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) first evolved in mammals. It plays an important role in defence against helminths and parasitic infection and in pathological states including allergic reactions, anti-tumour defence and autoimmune diseases. Elucidation of genetic control of IgE level could help us to understand regulation of the humoral immune response in health and disease, the etiology and pathogenesis of many human diseases, and to facilitate discovery of more effective methods for their prevention and cure. Herein we summarise progress in the genetics of regulation of IgE level in human diseases and show that integration of different approaches and use of animal models have synergistic effects in gaining new knowledge about both protective and pathological roles of this important antibody. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupling building energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics: Application to a two-storey house in a temperate climate
Barbason, Mathieu ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Building & Environment (2014), 75

This article reports the coupling of a building energy simulation (BES) made with TRNSYS with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation made with ANSYS FLUENT and its application to a typical ... [more ▼]

This article reports the coupling of a building energy simulation (BES) made with TRNSYS with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation made with ANSYS FLUENT and its application to a typical Belgian two-storey house. The coupling scheme developed in this study aims to improve the overheating prediction for buildings. This phenomenon is becoming increasingly frequent in Northern Europe due to increased insulation and a lack of sun protection and natural cooling strategies. Complementary contributions of the two numerical approaches are underlined and used to obtain accurate results in an acceptable computing time, even in a thermally stratified room. The space and time coupling is discussed to obtain an optimised tool in which BES is in charge of the primary portion of the effort, while CFD intervenes punctually on one room of interest. The numerical results are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively to the experimental results, and the improved accuracy of the coupled tool compared with a standalone BES is underlined. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroRNA Targeting of CoREST controls polarization of migrating cortical neurons
Volvert; Prévot, Pierre-Paul; Close, Pierre ULg et al

in Cell Reports (2014), 7(4), 1168-83

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See detailHybrid MicroPET Imaging for Dosimetric Applications in Mice: Improvement of Activity Quantification in Dynamic MicroPET Imaging for Accelerated Dosimetry Applied to 6-[ 18 F] Fluoro- L -DOPA and 2-[ 18 F]Fluoro- L -Tyrosine
Bretin, Florian ULg; Mauxion, T; Warnock, G et al

in Molecular Imaging and Biology (2014), 16(3), 383-394

Purpose: Dynamic microPET imaging has advantages over traditional organ harvesting, but is pronetoquantificationerrorsinsmallvolumes.Hybridimaging,wheremicroPETactivitiesarecross- calibrated using post ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Dynamic microPET imaging has advantages over traditional organ harvesting, but is pronetoquantificationerrorsinsmallvolumes.Hybridimaging,wheremicroPETactivitiesarecross- calibrated using post scan harvested organs, can improve quantification. Organ harvesting, dynamic imaging and hybrid imaging were applied to determine the human and mouse radiation dosimetry of 6-[18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA and 2-[18 F]fluoro-L-tyrosine and compared. Procedures: Two-hour dynamic microPET imaging was performed with both tracers in four separate mice for 18 F-FDOPA and three mice for 18 F-FTYR. Organ harvesting was performed at 2, 5, 10, 30, 60 and 120 min post tracer injection with n=5 at each time point for 18 F-FDOPA and n=3 at each time point for 18 F-FTYR. Human radiation dosimetry projected from animal data was calculated for the three different approaches for each tracer using OLINDA/EXM. S- factors for the MOBY phantom were used to calculate the animal dosimetry. Results: Correlations between dose estimates based on organ harvesting and imaging was improved from r=0.997 to r=0.999 for 18 F-FDOPA and from r=0.985 to r=0.996 (p<0.0001 for all) for 18 F-FTYR by using hybrid imaging. Conclusion: Hybrid imaging yields comparable results to traditional organ harvesting while partially overcoming the limitations of pure imaging. It is an advantageous technique in terms of number of animals needed and labour involved. [less ▲]

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See detailRénover ou réformer la fiscalité du logement en Wallonie
Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg

in Revue Générale de Fiscalité [= RFG] (2014)

Cette contribution a pour objectif de stimuler la discussion relative à la réforme de la fiscalité du logement en Belgique, et plus particulièrement en Wallonie. Nous y évoquons quelques enjeux d'une ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution a pour objectif de stimuler la discussion relative à la réforme de la fiscalité du logement en Belgique, et plus particulièrement en Wallonie. Nous y évoquons quelques enjeux d'une telle réforme et nous proposons diverses pistes de réflexions. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyses croisées du monde du travail
Smette, Bernard ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

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See detailCan we use circulating biomarkers to monitor bone turnover in CKD haemodialysis patients? Hypotheses and facts
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2014), 29(5), 997-1004

Assessing bone turnover is a key diagnostic tool in the global management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Since bone biopsy is invasive and cannot be repeated in clinical ... [more ▼]

Assessing bone turnover is a key diagnostic tool in the global management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Since bone biopsy is invasive and cannot be repeated in clinical practice and because bone histomorphometry is less available due to the lack of specialized laboratories, we will focus on potential biomarkers used to assess and monitor bone turnover. After briefly reviewing the pathophysiology of bone turnover in CKD and haemodialysis patients, we will focus on the strengths and limitations of the now recommended biomarkers, i.e. parathormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. We will consider the clinical and also the biological aspects of the topic and also insist on the use of these biomarkers for the monitoring, and the follow-up of the turnover in haemodialysis subjects. Finally, we will discuss some of the most promising, but still not recommended, emerging biomarkers. [less ▲]

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See detailLutter contre le fléau des médicaments contrefaits
Rudaz, Serge; Hubert, Philippe ULg

in Spectra Analyse (2014), 298

Editorial

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See detailTransit confirmation and improved stellar and planet parameters for the super-Earth HD 97658 b and its host star
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Valencia, D. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 786

Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition ... [more ▼]

Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition. We present here the confirmation, based on Spitzer transit observations, that the super-Earth HD 97658 b transits its host star. HD 97658 is a low-mass ($M_*=0.77\pm0.05\,M_{\odot}$) K1 dwarf, as determined from the Hipparcos parallax and stellar evolution modeling. To constrain the planet parameters, we carry out Bayesian global analyses of Keck-HIRES radial velocities, and MOST and Spitzer photometry. HD 97658 b is a massive ($M_P=7.55^{+0.83}_{-0.79} M_{\oplus}$) and large ($R_{P} = 2.247^{+0.098}_{-0.095} R_{\oplus}$ at 4.5 $\mu$m) super-Earth. We investigate the possible internal compositions for HD 97658 b. Our results indicate a large rocky component, by at least 60% by mass, and very little H-He components, at most 2% by mass. We also discuss how future asteroseismic observations can improve the knowledge of the HD 97658 system, in particular by constraining its age. Orbiting a bright host star, HD 97658 b will be a key target for coming space missions TESS, CHEOPS, PLATO, and also JWST, to characterize thoroughly its structure and atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Musée de la Vie wallonne, indissociablement lié aux dialectologues liégeois
Frankinet, Baptiste ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2014)

Au-delà d’un travail pointu de description et d’explication, les dialectologues liégeois ont toujours veillé à préserver les traces d’un patrimoine immatériel menacé de disparition. Selon eux, ce ... [more ▼]

Au-delà d’un travail pointu de description et d’explication, les dialectologues liégeois ont toujours veillé à préserver les traces d’un patrimoine immatériel menacé de disparition. Selon eux, ce patrimoine dépassait le cadre strictement linguistique ou lexical pour épouser les formes d’un ensemble bien plus vaste : la vie wallonne tout entière. Impossible pour eux d’étudier un dialecte sans veiller à garder les usages ou les objets qu’il nomme, ni le souvenir des gens qui le parlent. Ainsi, en plus d’être des observateurs attentifs à leurs propres parlers, ils devinrent les premiers conservateurs de leur région. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors associated with clinical inertia: an integrative review
Aujoulat, I; Jacquemin, p; Rietzschel, E et al

in Advances in Medical Education and Practice (2014), 5

Failure to initiate or intensify therapy according to evidence-based guidelines is increasingly being acknowledged as a phenomenon that contributes to inadequate management of chronic conditions, and is ... [more ▼]

Failure to initiate or intensify therapy according to evidence-based guidelines is increasingly being acknowledged as a phenomenon that contributes to inadequate management of chronic conditions, and is referred to as clinical inertia. However, the number and complexity of factors associated with the clinical reasoning that underlies the decision-making processes in medicine calls for a critical examination of the consistency of the concept. Indeed, in the absence of information on and justification of treatment decisions that were made, clinical inertia may be only apparent, and actually reflect good clinical practice. This integrative review seeks to address the factors generally associated with clinical inaction, in order to better delineate the concept of true clinical inertia. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Pacifisme d'Auguste Beernaert. De l'homme d'Etat à l'homme des Etats
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Espace de Libertés : Magazine du Centre d'Action Laïque (2014), 429

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See detailEditorial
Cavazzini, Andrea ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

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See detailImplementing Human Rights in Benin: The Case of Inheritance Disputes
Andreetta, Sophie ULg

in Journal of Human Rights Practice (2014)

On 14 June 2004, Benin ratified a new Code on Persons and Family, adapting its previous dual legal system to the requirements of international human rights law. For the purpose of this article, I chose to ... [more ▼]

On 14 June 2004, Benin ratified a new Code on Persons and Family, adapting its previous dual legal system to the requirements of international human rights law. For the purpose of this article, I chose to focus on inheritance conflicts as a back door to questioning the implementation of a law directly inspired by international human rights standards and principles. When it comes to inheritance disputes, are human rights respected in Benin? What are the discourses of the judges, the lawyers, and the notaries regarding this new Code? How is it implemented and what are the obstacles to it? Combining both qualitative interviews with family members and participant observation in the courtrooms, I compiled a series of case studies, supplemented by interviews with judicial officials. These sets of data allowed me to grasp how laws are enforced and interpreted, and how citizens deal with their families and with the justice system. [less ▲]

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See detailA new analysis of quasar polarization alignments
Pelgrims, Vincent ULg; Cudell, Jean-René ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014), 442(1), 1239-1248

We propose a new method to analyse the alignment of optical polarization vectors from quasars. This method leads to a definition of intrinsic preferred axes and to a determination of the probability that ... [more ▼]

We propose a new method to analyse the alignment of optical polarization vectors from quasars. This method leads to a definition of intrinsic preferred axes and to a determination of the probability that the distribution of polarization directions is random. This probability is found to be as low as 0,003 percent for one of the region of redshift. [less ▲]

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See detailStructured reflection breaks embedded in an online course – Effects on learning experience, time on task and performance
Verpoorten, Dominique ULg; Westera, Wim

in Interactive Learning Environments (2014)

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the effects of practicing short, frequent and structured reflection breaks interspersed with the learning material in a computer-based course. To that end ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the effects of practicing short, frequent and structured reflection breaks interspersed with the learning material in a computer-based course. To that end, the study sets up a standardised control trial with 2 groups of secondary-school pupils. The study shows that, while performance is not affected by these embedded “reflection rituals”, they significantly impact time on task and perceived learning. The study also suggests that the exposure to such built-in opportunities for reflection modifies the engagement with the content and fosters the claimed readiness for application of a similar reflective approach to learning in other occasions. [less ▲]

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See detailTransiting hot Jupiters from WASP-South, Euler and TRAPPIST: WASP-95b to WASP-101b
Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2014)

We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-95b, WASP-96b, WASP-97b, WASP-98b, WASP-99b, WASP-100b and WASP-101b. All are hot Jupiters with orbital periods in the range 2.1-5.7 d, masses of ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the transiting exoplanets WASP-95b, WASP-96b, WASP-97b, WASP-98b, WASP-99b, WASP-100b and WASP-101b. All are hot Jupiters with orbital periods in the range 2.1-5.7 d, masses of 0.5-2.8 MJup and radii of 1.1-1.4 RJup. The orbits of all the planets are compatible with zero eccentricity. WASP-99b produces the shallowest transit yet found by WASP-South, at 0.4 per cent. The host stars are of spectral type F2-G8. Five have metallicities of [Fe/H] from -0.03 to +0.23, while WASP-98 has a metallicity of -0.60, exceptionally low for a star with a transiting exoplanet. Five of the host stars are brighter than V = 10.8, which significantly extends the number of bright transiting systems available for follow-up studies. WASP-95 shows a possible rotational modulation at a period of 20.7 d. We discuss the completeness of WASP survey techniques by comparing to the HATnet project. [less ▲]

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See detailCan we use circulating biomarkers to monitor bone turnover in CKD haemodialysis patients? Hypotheses and facts
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Lafage-Proust, Marie-Hélène et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (2014), 29(5), 997-1004

Assessing bone turnover is a key diagnostic tool in the global management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Since bone biopsy is invasive and cannot be repeated in clinical ... [more ▼]

Assessing bone turnover is a key diagnostic tool in the global management of chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD). Since bone biopsy is invasive and cannot be repeated in clinical practice and because bone histomorphometry is less available due to the lack of specialized laboratories, we will focus on potential biomarkers used to assess and monitor bone turnover. After briefly reviewing the pathophysiology of bone turnover in CKD and haemodialysis patients, we will focus on the strengths and limitations of the now recommended biomarkers, i.e. parathormone and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase. We will consider the clinical and also the biological aspects of the topic and also insist on the use of these biomarkers for the monitoring, and the follow-up of the turnover in haemodialysis subjects. Finally, we will discuss some of the most promising, but still not recommended, emerging biomarkers. [less ▲]

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See detailVitamin D status of schoolchildren in Northern Algeria, seasonal variations and determinants of vitamin D deficiency
Djennane, M; Lebbah, S; Roux, C et al

in Osteoporosis International (2014), 25(5), 1493-502

Summary There are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa. In 435 healthy Algerian children 5–15 years old, we found that vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25 ... [more ▼]

Summary There are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa. In 435 healthy Algerian children 5–15 years old, we found that vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) <50 nmol/L) was frequent, especially in winter. Low vitamin D status was associated with increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) and leg deformation Introduction As there are no published data on the vitamin D status of children living in North Africa, we evaluated the 25OHD concentration of healthy Algerian children at the end of summer and at the end of winter. As secondary objectives, we studied the various determinants of vitamin D status and the PTH-25OHD relationship in these subjects. Methods Four hundred thirty-five children 5–15 years old were examined and had a blood sample in September 2010. Of them, 408 were sampled again in March 2011. Results Median 25OHD concentration in the whole group was 71.4 nmol/L in September and 52.9 nmol/L in March. In September, 58.4, 29.9, and 8.1 % had a 25OHD concentration below 75, 50, and 30 nmol/L respectively. In March, these percentages increased to 65.2, 41.4, and 17.4 % for the 75, 50, and 30 nmol/L threshold, respectively. In multivariate analysis, older age, darker skin phototype, low daily vitamin D and calcium intake, poor socioeconomic status, and short daily sun exposure remained significantly associated with a 25OHD <50 nmol/L at both visits. In 72 (16.6 %) children, genu varum/valgum was present. Compared to the 363 children without leg deformation, they presented more frequently with the risk factors of vitamin D insufficiency. They also had lower 25OHD concentrations and higher PTH and tALP. Serum PTH and 25OHD concentrations were negatively and significantly correlated (r=−0.43; p<0.001) without a 25OHD threshold above which PTH does not decrease anymore. Conclusion Despite a sunny environment, vitamin D insufficiency is frequent in healthy Algerian children. [less ▲]

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See detailAngles corniculaires et de demi-cercle chez Euclide
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Hors Série Tangente (2014), 53

Les angles datent de l’Antiquité : ils sont présents dans le célèbre ouvrage "Les Éléments" d’Euclide. En partant des "Commentaires" de Proclus, nous présentons la façon dont Euclide introduisait le ... [more ▼]

Les angles datent de l’Antiquité : ils sont présents dans le célèbre ouvrage "Les Éléments" d’Euclide. En partant des "Commentaires" de Proclus, nous présentons la façon dont Euclide introduisait le concept d'angle et sa distinction entre les angles rectilignes et mixtilignes. Les cas des angles corniculaires et de demi-cercle sont spécialement traités. [less ▲]

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See detailShewhart Control Charts for Monitoring Reliability with Weibull Lifetimes
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Saniga, Erwin; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in Quality and Reliability Engineering International (2014)

In this paper, we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we present Shewhart type Z ̅ and S2 control charts for monitoring individual or joint shifts in the scale and shape parameters of a Weibull distributed process. The advantage of this method is its ease of use and flexibility for the case where the process distribution is Weibull, although the method can be applied to any distribution. We illustrate the performance of our method through simulation and the application through the use of an actual data set. Our results indicate that Z ̅ and S2 control charts perform well in detecting shifts in the scale and shape parameters. We also provide a guide that would enable a user to interpret out-of-control signals. [less ▲]

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See detailDes performances de production laitière et de reproduction élevées sont compatibles. Le management en est la clé.
Chapaux, Philippe; Glorieux, Géry; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Veterinaria (Bruxelles) : Bulletin d’Information de l’Union Syndicale Vétérinaire Belge (2014)

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See detailEt si la promotion de la santé était un art du paradoxe !
Vandoorne, Chantal ULg

in Education Santé (2014), (300), 6-7

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See detailImplementation of a non-orthogonal constitutive model for the finite element simulation of textile composite draping
Pierce, Robert S; Falzon, Brian G; Thompson, Mark C et al

in Applied Mechanics and Materials (2014), 553

In the pursuit of producing high quality composite aircraft structures at a low cost, out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes for textile reinforcements are being simulated with increasing accuracy. This ... [more ▼]

In the pursuit of producing high quality composite aircraft structures at a low cost, out-of-autoclave manufacturing processes for textile reinforcements are being simulated with increasing accuracy. This paper focuses on the continuum-based, finite element modelling of textile composites as they deform during the draping process. A non-orthogonal constitutive model tracks yarn orientations within a material subroutine developed for Abaqus/Explicit, resulting in the realistic determination of fabric shearing and material draw-in. Supplementary material characterisation was experimentally performed in order to define the tensile and non-linear shear behaviour accurately. The validity of the finite element model has been studied through comparison with similar research in the field and the experimental lay-up of carbon fibre textile reinforcement over a tool with double curvature geometry, showing good agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailX-ray microtomography: A porosity-based thresholding method to improve soil pore network characterization?
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Plougonven, Erwan ULg; Roisin, Christian et al

in Geoderma (2014), 219-220

X-ray microtomography, through quantification of soil structure at the microscale, could greatly facilitate the current understanding of soil hydrodynamic behaviour. However, binarisation method and ... [more ▼]

X-ray microtomography, through quantification of soil structure at the microscale, could greatly facilitate the current understanding of soil hydrodynamic behaviour. However, binarisation method and processing choices are subjective and can have a strong impact on results and conclusions. In this study, we test a new method based on the porosity detectable by X-ray microtomography, while validation is achieved through comparison of soil microtomogram information with soil physical measurements. These measurements consist of water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using two different soil populations with only structural differences. To assess the porosity-based method performances, we compare it to four other methods, namely the global method of Otsu and three recent soil-dedicated local methods. The robustness of the porosity-based method is also tested in regard to different pre-processing procedures. In this paper we demonstrate that soil segmentation through a porosity-based method is an interesting issue. Indeed, it is less demanding in terms of time and computational requirements than its alternatives, and combines robustness and performances broadly comparable with the recent local methods. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of transient scattering problems using a discontinuous Galerkin method: application to the shielding effectiveness of enclosures with heterogeneous walls
Boubekeur, Mohamed; Kameni, Abelin; Pichon, Lionel et al

in International Journal of Numerical Modelling: Electronic Networks, Devices and Fields (2014), 27(3), 626-635

In this paper, different formulations of Maxwell equations are combined for computing the shielding effectiveness of enclosures made from heterogeneous periodic materials. The validity of the homogenized ... [more ▼]

In this paper, different formulations of Maxwell equations are combined for computing the shielding effectiveness of enclosures made from heterogeneous periodic materials. The validity of the homogenized parameters given by Maxwell-Garnett rules in the frequency domain are tested in the time domain using a nodal discontinuous Galerkin method, which uses an interface condition based on analytical solution in the frequency domain to replace a conductive sheet. This interface condition allows to avoid meshing the thin sheet, thus reducing the computational cost. Results of scattering by composite enclosures are presented in the frequency domain thanks to a Fast Fourier Transform. [less ▲]

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See detailHeterochrony in a complex world: disentangling environmental processes of facultative paedomorphosis in an amphibian
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Ficetola, Gentile Francesco

in Journal of Animal Ecology (2014), 83(3), 606-615

1. Heterochrony, the change in the rate or timing of development between ancestors and their descendants, plays a major role in evolution. When heterochrony produces polymorphisms, it offers the ... [more ▼]

1. Heterochrony, the change in the rate or timing of development between ancestors and their descendants, plays a major role in evolution. When heterochrony produces polymorphisms, it offers the possibility to test hypotheses that could explain its success across environments. Amphibians are particularly suitable to exploring these questions because they express complex life cycles (i.e. metamorphosis) that have been disrupted by heterochronic processes (paedomorphosis: retention of larval traits in adults). The large phenotypic variation across populations suggests that more complex processes than expected are operating, but they remain to be investigated through multivariate analyses over a large range of natural populations across time. 2. In this study we compared the likelihood of multiple potential environmental determinants of heterochrony. We gathered data on the proportion of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) across more than 150 populations during 10 years, and used an information-theoretic approach to compare the support of multiple potential processes. 3. Six environmental processes jointly explained the proportion of paedomorphs in populations: predation, water availability, dispersal limitation, aquatic breathing, terrestrial habitat suitability, and anti-predator refuges. Analyses of variation across space and time supported models based on the advantage of paedomorphosis in favourable aquatic habitats. 4. Paedomorphs were favoured in deep ponds, in conditions favourable to aquatic breathing (high oxygen content), with lack of fish, and surrounded by suitable terrestrial habitat. Metamorphs were favoured by banks allowing easy dispersal. 5. These results indicate that heterochrony relies on complex processes involving multiple ecological variables and exemplifies why heterochronic patterns occur in contrasted environments. On the other hand, the fast selection of alternative morphs shows that metamorphosis and paedomorphosis developmental modes could be easily disrupted in natural populations. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of a commercial monoacylglycerol on the crystallization mechanism of palm oil as compared to its pure constituents
Verstringe, Stefanie; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food Research International (2014), 62

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main ... [more ▼]

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main constituents of Myverol, monopalmitin and monostearin. The MAGs were added to PO in concentrations up to 8% and the blends were studied using different techniques (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM)). The DSC crystallization profiles revealed an earlier onset of crystallization along with extra crystallization peaks when MAGs were added to PO. Combined with X-ray results, it could be concluded that the crystallization process of the blends is initiated by the MAGs crystallizing in the α form and then transforming to sub-α. The effect on the non-isothermal crystallization of the PO TAGs is confined to an earlier onset of crystallization, probably through a template effect, and an effect on the crystal structure coarseness. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of a commercial monoacylglycerol on the crystallization mechanism of palm oil as compared to its pure constituents
Verstringe, Stefanie; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food Research International (2014), 62

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main ... [more ▼]

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main constituents of Myverol, monopalmitin and monostearin. The MAGs were added to PO in concentrations up to 8% and the blends were studied using different techniques (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM)). The DSC crystallization profiles revealed an earlier onset of crystallization along with extra crystallization peaks when MAGs were added to PO. Combined with X-ray results, it could be concluded that the crystallization process of the blends is initiated by the MAGs crystallizing in the α form and then transforming to sub-α. The effect on the non-isothermal crystallization of the PO TAGs is confined to an earlier onset of crystallization, probably through a template effect, and an effect on the crystal structure coarseness. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with diffuser or point source illuminations for measuring deformations of aspheric mirrors
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Queeckers, Patrick et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2014), 53(11), 112309

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a ... [more ▼]

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a Mach–Zehnder, associated to the digital holography reconstruction of the wavefront in the inline configuration with phase shifting. Two possibilities exist for illuminating the tested reflector: either with a point source (similarly to classical interferometry) or an extended source (with a diffuser). This paper presents the development of a modular setup which allows comparing both in the case of a parabolic mirror [less ▲]

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See detailTendinopathies chroniques et Plasma Riche en Plaquettes
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014)

Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of ... [more ▼]

Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is still discussed or even controversial. Our researches have evaluated the effectiveness of PRP on the healing of animal tendons and human suffering from chronic jumper's knee. [less ▲]

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See detailAltered Desferrioxamine-mediated Iron Utilization is a Common Trait of bald Mutants of Streptomyces coelicolor
Lambert, Stéphany ULg; Traxler, Matthew F; Craig, Matthias et al

in Metallomics (2014)

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See detailBrown rust disease control in winter wheat: II. Exploring the optimization of fungicide sprays through a decision support system
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; kOUADIO, Louis; Giraud, Frédéric et al

in Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014), 21(4), 4809-4818

A decision support system (DSS) involving an approach for predicting wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection and progress based on night weather variables (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall ... [more ▼]

A decision support system (DSS) involving an approach for predicting wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection and progress based on night weather variables (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) and a mechanistic model for leaf emergence and development simulation (i.e., PROCULTURE) was tested in order to schedule fungicide time spray for controlling leaf rust progress in wheat fields. Experiments including a single fungicide treatment based upon the DSS along with double and triple treatment were carried out over the 2007–2009 cropping seasons in four representative Luxembourgish wheat field locations. The study showed that the WLR occurrences and severities differed according to the site, cultivar, and year. We also found out that the single fungicide treatment based on the DSS allowed a good protection of the three upper leaves of susceptible cultivars in fields with predominant WLR occurrences. The harvested grain yield was not significantly different from that of the double and triple fungicide-treated plots (P < 0.05). Such results could serve as basis or be coupled to cost-effective and environmentally friendly crop management systems in operational context. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide nanocomposites by a precipitation polymerization process and their dielectric and rheological characterization
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Trifkovic, Milana; Alkarmo, Walid et al

in Macromolecules (2014), 47(6), 2149-2155

We report a method for achieving controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via the precipitation polymerization process in a water/ methanol mixture. GO acts as a ... [more ▼]

We report a method for achieving controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via the precipitation polymerization process in a water/ methanol mixture. GO acts as a surfactant and adsorbs on the interface between polymerized PMMA particles and solvent mixture. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the precipitate consists of polymer particles (<1 μm) surrounded by the GO sheets. Compression molding of the precipitate yields a polymer nanocomposite with the GO organized into a regularly spaced 3D network which percolates at 0.2 wt % GO. Simple thermal reduction of the GO sheets dispersed in PMMA at relatively low temperature (210 °C) achieved electrical conductivity higher than 10−2 S/m at 0.4 wt % of GO. Parallel dielectric and rheological characterization demonstrated that the thermal reduction is a quite fast process without significant degradation of the polymer. The study should open up new opportunities in the design of GO-based polymer nanocomposites. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic exposure to sub-lethal high temperature enhances exopolysaccharides (EPS) excretion and improves Bifidobacterium bifidum cell survival to freeze-drying
Nguyen, Huu Thanh ULg; Razafindralambo, Hary; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2014), 88

Exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal stresses is known to increase cell robustness. In this work, a two-compartment bioreactor in which microbial cells are stochastically exposed to sub-lethal ... [more ▼]

Exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal stresses is known to increase cell robustness. In this work, a two-compartment bioreactor in which microbial cells are stochastically exposed to sub-lethal temperature stresses has been used in order to investigate the response of the stress sensitive Bifidobacterium bifidum THT 0101 to downstream processing operations. A stochastic model validated by residence time distribution experiments has shown that in the heat-shock configuration, a two-compartment bioreactor (TCB) allows the exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal temperature of 42°C for a duration comprised between 100 and 300 seconds. This exposure resulted in a significant increase of cell resistance to freeze-drying by comparison with cells cultivated in conventional bioreactors or in the TCB in the cold shock mode (CS-TCB). The mechanism behind this robustness seems to be related with the coating of microbial cells with exopolysaccharide (EPS), as assessed by the change of the zeta potential and the presence of higher EPS concentration after heat shock. Conditioning of Bifidobacteria on the basis of the heat shock technique is interesting from the practical and economical point of view since this strategy can be directly implemented in the bioreactor during stationary phase preceding cell recovery and freeze-drying [less ▲]

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See detailElaboration of drug nanocarriers based on a glucosamine labeled amphiphilic polymer
Boyère, Cédric; Duhem, N; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(8), 3030-3037

A new functional polymer micelle with high loading efficiency of a poorly soluble drug was made of biocompatible and/or biosourced compounds, i.e. cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol)-glucosamine (Chol-PEG ... [more ▼]

A new functional polymer micelle with high loading efficiency of a poorly soluble drug was made of biocompatible and/or biosourced compounds, i.e. cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol)-glucosamine (Chol-PEG-GlcNH2). A synthesis strategy combining enzymatic and metal-free click chemistry was developed in order to meet the increasingly stringent requirements of biomedical applications. After the self-assembly of the Chol-PEG-GlcNH2 amphiphilic polymer in water, the presence of glucosamine at the micelle surface confers an active targeting moiety to the nanocarriers whereas protonation of the peripheral primary amine delay their aggregation. The complete characterization of this novel functional amphiphilic bioconjugate is presented as well as its aqueous solution behaviour and encapsulation efficiency using ketoconazole as a model hydrophobic drug. [less ▲]

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See detail(Co)Polymerization of vinyl levulinate by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization and functionalization by ketoxime click chemistry
Allaoua, Imène; Eleuterio, Beatriz; Obadia, Mona M. et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(8), 2973-2979

Vinyl levulinate is synthesized from levulinic acid by palladium-catalyzed vinyl exchange and is characterized by NMR and ESI-HRMS techniques. Homopolymerization of vinyl levulinate and random ... [more ▼]

Vinyl levulinate is synthesized from levulinic acid by palladium-catalyzed vinyl exchange and is characterized by NMR and ESI-HRMS techniques. Homopolymerization of vinyl levulinate and random copolymerization with vinyl acetate by cobalt-mediated radical polymerization affords well-defined ketone functionalized poly(vinyl ester)s. The impact of temperature, solvent and theoretical degree of polymerization on monomer conversion and control of the polymerization is studied by 1H NMR and size exclusion chromatography techniques. The ketoxime conjugation of O-benzylhydroxylamine with the pendant ketone functionality of poly(vinyl levulinate-co-vinyl acetate) is demonstrated. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of polyaniline-modified local clay and study of its sorption capacity
Benhebal, Hadj; Chaid, Messaoud; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry (2014), 4(98), 6

Clay minerals are frequently used in adsorption processes with aqueous solution; it was found that the adsorption properties of clays change when the samples are modified. In this context, polyaniline ... [more ▼]

Clay minerals are frequently used in adsorption processes with aqueous solution; it was found that the adsorption properties of clays change when the samples are modified. In this context, polyaniline-modified clay nanocomposite (at 10 %) was prepared by in situ polymerization processes. The structural and morphological characteristics of the synthesized material are systematically examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The adsorption property of the modified clay was evaluated for the removal of a reactive dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution at room temperature (25 C) via batch adsorption. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of isotopic tracers as a tool for understanding hydrodynamic behavior of the highly exploited Diass aquifer system (Senegal)
Madioune, Diakher Hélène; Faye, Serigne; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2014), 511

The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited in two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the ... [more ▼]

The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited in two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the confined Maastrichtian sandstone aquifer underneath. This system has experienced intensive groundwater abstraction during the last 50 years to supply increasing water demand, agricultural and industrial needs. The high abstraction rate from 1989 to 2009 (about 109,000 m3/d) has caused a continuous groundwater level decline (up to 30 m), a modification of the groundwater flow and salinization in parts of the aquifers. The objective of the study is to improve our understanding of the system functioning with regards to high pumping, identify the geochemical reactions that take place in the system, infer origin and timing of recharge by using mainly stable (δ18O, δ2H, 13C) and radioactive (3H and 14C) isotopes. Water types defined in the Piper diagram vary in order of abundance from Ca–HCO3 (65%), Ca/Na–Cl (20%), Na–HCO3 (3%) and Na–Cl (12%). Values of δ18O and δ2H for the superficial aquifer range between −5.8 and −4.2‰ and between −42 and −31‰, respectively. For the Palaeocene aquifer they range from −5.8 to −5.0‰ and from −38 to −31‰, respectively; values in the Maastrichtian aquifer are between −5.9 and −4.3‰ for δ18O and −38 to −26‰ for δ2H. Plotted against the conventional δ18O vs δ2H diagram, data from the upper aquifer exhibit a dispersed distribution with respect to isotopic fractionation while those of the Palaeocene and Maastrichtian aquifers are aligned parallel and slightly below/or on the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) evidencing ancient waters which had evaporated during infiltration. The low tritium (generally <0.7 TU) and 14C (0.7–57.2 pmc) contents indicate predominance of older water being recharged during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods. However, few boreholes which exhibit high tritium (1.2–4.3 TU) and 14C (65.7–70.8 pmc) values indicate some mixture with recent water likely through faulting and vertical drainage from the upper to deeper aquifers as well as lateral flow along flow paths to the piezometric depressions created by pumping. [less ▲]

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See detailLe TAT de Adolf Eichmann
Peralta, Alberto; Kramer, Richard; Stassart, Martine ULg

in Szondiana (2014), 33(Décembre 2013), 8-45

Under consideration of three major personality tests (TAT, Rorschach, Szondi), it appears that Adolf Eichmann chiefdirector for the deportation of jewish people from 1942 to 1945 was no common individual ... [more ▼]

Under consideration of three major personality tests (TAT, Rorschach, Szondi), it appears that Adolf Eichmann chiefdirector for the deportation of jewish people from 1942 to 1945 was no common individual but a perverse sadomasochistic one with schizoparanoïd features under an osessionnal mask. These data contradict the famous opinion of Hannah Arendt about the "banality of evil". [less ▲]

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See detailA multiple-level study of metal tolerance in Salix fragilis and Salix aurita clones
Evlard, Aricia ULg; Sergeant, Kjell; Printz, Bruno et al

in Journal of Proteomics (2014), 101C

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 ... [more ▼]

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 days, different parameters (biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), pigment and sugar concentrations, electrolyte leakage and proteome-level changes) were analyzed. The growth of Sa was not influenced by metals whereas Sf produced significantly less biomass when exposed to the pollutants. Furthermore, although Sa did not show a growth reduction in the presence of metals, the overall view of the physiological results among others the changes in the accumulation of sugars and pigments indicated that metals had a more severe impact on this clone. The response at the proteome level confirmed these observations. The growth reduction and the proteomic changes in Sf indicate that this clone adjusts its metabolism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Sa on the contrary maintains growth but the physiological and proteomics data suggests that this can only be done at the cost of cellular deregulation. Therefore high biomass is not linked with a good tolerance strategy. In a long-term study the survival of Sa might be compromised making it a poorer candidate for phytoremediation efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailThe A2 gene of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 is a transcriptional regulator affecting cytotoxicity in virus-infected T cells but is not required for malignant catarrhal fever induction in rabbits.
Parameswaran, Nevi; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Giles, Tom C. et al

in Virus research (2014)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The A2 gene of AlHV-1 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family. We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The A2 gene of AlHV-1 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family. We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene or not and whether it is involved in pathogenesis by interference with host transcription pathways. An A2 gene knockout (A2DeltaAlHV-1) virus, revertant (A2revAlHV-1) virus, and wild-type virus (wtAlHV-1) were used to infect three groups of rabbits. A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected rabbits succumbed to MCF, albeit with a delayed onset compared to the control groups, so A2 is not a critical virulence factor. Differential gene transcription analysis by RNAseq and qRT-PCR validation of a selection of these was performed in infected large granular lymphocyte (LGL) T cells obtained in culture from the MCF-affected animals. A2 was involved in the transcriptional regulation of immunological, cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. In particular, there was a bias towards gammadelta T cell receptor (TCR) expression and downregulation of alphabeta TCR. TCR signalling, apoptosis, cell cycle, IFN-gamma and NFAT pathways were affected. Of particular interest was partial inhibition of the cytotoxicity-associated pathways involving perforin and the granzymes A and B in the A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected LGLs compared to controls. In functional assays, A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected LGLs were significantly less cytotoxic than wtAlHV-1- and A2revAlHV-1-infected LGLs using rabbit corneal epithelial cells (SIRC) as targets. This implies that A2 is involved in a pathway enhancing the expression of LGL cytotoxicity. This is important as virus-infected T cell cytotoxicity in vivo has been suggested as a potential mechanism of disease induction in MCF. [less ▲]

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See detailThe PLATO Simulator: modelling of high-precision high-cadence space-based imaging
Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)

Many aspects of the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in ... [more ▼]

Many aspects of the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations make such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment and design study of any space-based mission. We present a formalism to model and simulate photometric time series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources. This formalism has been implemented in a versatile end-to-end simulation software tool, called PLATO Simulator, specifically designed for the PLATO space mission to be operated from L2, but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. We provide a detailed description of several noise sources and discuss their properties, in connection with the optical design, the allowable level of jitter, the quantum efficiency of the detectors, etc. The expected overall noise budget of generated light curves is computed as a function of the stellar magnitude, for different sets of input parameters describing the instrument properties. The simulator is offered to the scientific community for future use. [less ▲]

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See detailRates of CTL Killing in Persistent Viral Infection In Vivo
Elemans, Marjet; Florins, Arnaud; Willems, Luc ULg et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2014), 4

The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected ... [more ▼]

The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected cells are killed in vivo by the CTL response is poorly understood. To date the rate of CTL killing in vivo has been estimated for three virus infections but the estimates differ considerably, and killing of HIV-1-infected cells was unexpectedly low. This raises questions about the typical anti-viral capability of CTL and whether CTL killing is abnormally low in HIV-1. We estimated the rate of killing of infected cells by CD8+ T cells in two distinct persistent virus infections: sheep infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) and humans infected with Human T Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) which together with existing data allows us to study a total of five viruses in parallel. Although both BLV and HTLV-1 infection are characterised by large expansions of chronically activated CTL with immediate effector function ex vivo and no evidence of overt immune suppression, our estimates are at the lower end of the reported range. This enables us to put current estimates into perspective and shows that CTL killing of HIV-infected cells may not be atypically low. The estimates at the higher end of the range are obtained in more manipulated systems and may thus represent the potential rather than the realised CTL efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailExploiting SNP Correlations within Random Forest for Genome-Wide Association Studies
Botta, Vincent ULg; Louppe, Gilles ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

The primary goal of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to discover variants that could lead, in isolation or in combination, to a particular trait or disease. Standard approaches to GWAS, however ... [more ▼]

The primary goal of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to discover variants that could lead, in isolation or in combination, to a particular trait or disease. Standard approaches to GWAS, however, are usually based on univariate hypothesis tests and therefore can account neither for correlations due to linkage disequilibrium nor for combinations of several markers. To discover and leverage such potential multivariate interactions, we propose in this work an extension of the Random Forest algorithm tailored for structured GWAS data. In terms of risk prediction, we show empirically on several GWAS datasets that the proposed T-Trees method significantly outperforms both the original Random Forest algorithm and standard linear models, thereby suggesting the actual existence of multivariate non-linear effects due to the combinations of several SNPs. We also demonstrate that variable importances as derived from our method can help identify relevant loci. Finally, we highlight the strong impact that quality control procedures may have, both in terms of predictive power and loci identification. [less ▲]

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See detailNest grouping patterns of bonobos (Pan paniscus) in relation to fruit availability in a forest-savannah mosaic
Serckx, Adeline ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Bastin, Jean-François ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the ... [more ▼]

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits across their habitat range, in order to make accurate inter-species comparisons. In this study we investigated bonobo social cohesiveness at nesting sites depending on fruit availability in the forest-savannah mosaic of western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a bonobo habitat which has received little attention from researchers and is characterized by high food resource variation within years. We collected data on two bonobo communities. Nest counts at nesting sites were used as a proxy for night grouping patterns and were analysed with regard to fruit availability. We also modelled bonobo population density at the site in order to investigate yearly variation. We found that one community density varied across the three years of surveys, suggesting that this bonobo community has significant variability in use of its home range. This finding highlights the importance of forest connectivity, a likely prerequisite for the ability of bonobos to adapt their ranging patterns to fruit availability changes. We found no influence of overall fruit availability on bonobo cohesiveness. Only fruit availability at the nesting sites showed a positive influence, indicating that bonobos favour food ‘hot spots’ as sleeping sites. Our findings have confirmed the results obtained from previous studies carried out in the dense tropical forests of DRC. Nevertheless, in order to clarify the impact of environmental variability on bonobo social cohesiveness, we will need to make direct observations of the apes in the forest-savannah mosaic as well as make comparisons across the entirety of the bonobos’ range using systematic methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptual metaphors as a tool for the efficient teaching of Dutch and German posture verbs
De Knop, Sabine; Perrez, Julien ULg

in Review of Cognitive Linguistics (2014), 12(1), 1-29

The article deals with the typological differences between the Romance lan- guage French and the Germanic languages German and Dutch for the linguistic expressions of posture and location. It describes ... [more ▼]

The article deals with the typological differences between the Romance lan- guage French and the Germanic languages German and Dutch for the linguistic expressions of posture and location. It describes how these typological differ- ences can be problematic for French-speaking learners of German and Dutch. The main difference between both types of languages is that posture and loca- tion tend to be encoded by posture verbs in Germanic languages and by very general verbs in Romance languages (Talmy 2000). After a detailed description of the semantic networks of the German and Dutch posture verbs, the paper takes a critical look at how these expressions are dealt with in teaching manuals. It further presents strategies for the efficient teaching of posture verbs to foreign language learners. These strategies are among others awareness-raising exercis- es about the compulsory use of posture verbs in Germanic languages and the description of conceptual metaphors in different languages. These pedagogical avenues for the efficient teaching of the Dutch and German posture verbs con- stitute a first step towards the elaboration of an experimental set-up aiming at verifying them. [less ▲]

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See detailEpoch-dependent absorption line profile variability in lambda Cep
Uuh-Sonda, J. M.; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Eenens, P. et al

in Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica (2014), 50

We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6 Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star ... [more ▼]

We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6 Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star. Our data reveal a much more complex situation. The frequency content of the power spectrum considerably changes from one epoch to the other. We find no stable frequency that can unambiguously be attributed to pulsations. The epoch-dependence of the frequencies and variability patterns are similar to what is seen in the wind emission lines of this and other Oef stars, suggesting that both phenomena likely have the same, currently still unknown, origin. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolically healthy overweight and obesity
Esser, Nathalie ULg; SCHEEN, André ULg; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg

in Annals of Internal Medicine (2014), 160(7), 514

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See detailSoil organic carbon assessment by field and airborne spectrometry in bare croplands: accounting for soil surface roughness
Denis, Antoine ULg; Stevens, Antoine; Van Wesemael, Bas et al

in Geoderma (2014), 226-227(August 2014), 94102

Visible, Near and Short Wave Infrared (VNSWIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (350 nm to 2500 nm) has been proven to be an efficient tool to determine the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) content. SOC ... [more ▼]

Visible, Near and Short Wave Infrared (VNSWIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (350 nm to 2500 nm) has been proven to be an efficient tool to determine the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) content. SOC assessment (SOCa) is usually done by using calibration samples and multivariate models. However one of the major constraints of this technique, when used in field conditions is the spatial variation in surface soil properties (soil water content, roughness, vegetation residue) which induces a spectral variability not directly related to SOC and hence reduces the SOCa accuracy. This study focuses on the impact of soil roughness on SOCa by outdoor VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy and is based on the assumption that soil roughness effect can be approximated by its related shadowing effect. A new method for identifying and correcting the effect of soil shadow on reflectance spectra measured with an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer and an Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor (AHS-160) on freshly tilled fields in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was elaborated and tested. This method is based on the shooting of soil vertical photographs in the visible spectrum and the derivation of a shadow correction factor resulting from the comparison of “reflectance” of shadowed and illuminated soil areas. Moreover, the study of laboratory ASD reflectance of shadowed soil samples showed that the influence of shadow on reflectance varies according to wavelength. Consequently a correction factor in the entire [350–2500 nm] spectral range was computed to translate this differential influence. Our results showed that SOCa was improved by 27% for field spectral data and by 25% for airborne spectral data by correcting the effect of soil relative shadow. However, compared to simple mathematical treatment of the spectra (first derivative, etc.) able to remove variation in soil albedo due to roughness, the proposed method, leads only to slightly more accurate SOCa. [less ▲]

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