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See detailOsteoporosis in Frail Patients: A Consensus Paper of the Belgian Bone Club.
Gielen, E.; Bergmann, P.; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Calcified Tissue International (2017)

In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aims to provide a state of the art on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis in frail individuals, including patients with anorexia ... [more ▼]

In this consensus paper, the Belgian Bone Club aims to provide a state of the art on the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of osteoporosis in frail individuals, including patients with anorexia nervosa, patients on dialysis, cancer patients, persons with sarcopenia, and the oldest old. All these conditions may indeed induce bone loss that is superimposed on physiological bone loss and often remains under-recognized and under-treated. This is of particular concern because of the major burden of osteoporotic fractures in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic cost. Therefore, there is an urgent need to appreciate bone loss associated with these conditions, as this may improve diagnosis and management of bone loss and fracture risk in clinical practice. [less ▲]

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See detailLA THÉRAPIE MANUELLE ORTHOPÉDIQUE : définition, caractéristiques et mise au point sur la situation en Belgique
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Depas, Yannick ULg; Vanderthommen, Marc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(3), 126-131

Orthopaedic manual therapy : definition, characteristics and update on the situation in Belgium Summary : Although orthopaedic manual therapy (OMT) has existed for decades, and although a recent Belgian ... [more ▼]

Orthopaedic manual therapy : definition, characteristics and update on the situation in Belgium Summary : Although orthopaedic manual therapy (OMT) has existed for decades, and although a recent Belgian Royal Decree, published in 2014, recognized it as a particular professional qualification in physiotherapy for the treatment of neuromusculoskeletal dysfunctions, OMT remains little known by patients, but also by healthcare professionals. Yet, this professional qualification, based on clinical reasoning, using highly specific treatments, guided by the best available scientific and clinical evidence and the specific biopsychosocial characteristics of each patient, is the subject of a growing number of scientific studies pointing out its effectiveness. This article summarizes the knowledge related to OMT (definition, history, characteristics, techniques, indications, access and reimbursement) and describes its situation in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailUn regard comparatif sur les régionalismes africain et latino-américain
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in Interventions Economiques = Papers in Political Economy (2017)

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See detailSeasonal plasticity of auditory saccular sensitivity in “sneaker” type II male plainfin midshipman fish, Porichthys notatus
Bhandiwad, Ashwin A.; Whitchurch, Elizabeth A.; Colleye, Orphal ULg et al

in Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural and Behavioral Physiology (2017), 203(3), 211-222

Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive ... [more ▼]

Adult female and nesting (type I) male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) exhibit an adaptive form of auditory plasticity for the enhanced detection of social acoustic signals. Whether this adaptive plasticity also occurs in “sneaker” type II males is unknown. Here, we characterize auditory-evoked potentials recorded from hair cells in the saccule of reproductive and non-reproductive “sneaker” type II male midshipman to determine whether this sexual phenotype exhibits seasonal, reproductive state-dependent changes in auditory sensitivity and frequency response to behaviorally relevant auditory stimuli. Saccular potentials were recorded from the middle and caudal region of the saccule while sound was presented via an underwater speaker. Our results indicate saccular hair cells from reproductive type II males had thresholds based on measures of sound pressure and acceleration (re. 1 μPa and 1 ms−2, respectively) that were ~8–21 dB lower than non-reproductive type II males across a broad range of frequencies, which include the dominant higher frequencies in type I male vocalizations. This increase in type II auditory sensitivity may potentially facilitate eavesdropping by sneaker males and their assessment of vocal type I males for the selection of cuckoldry sites during the breeding season. [less ▲]

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See detailEntandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague (Meliaceae), une espèce ligneuse concurrentielle en Afrique centrale (synthèse bibliographique)
Tabi Eckebil, Paule ULg; Verheggen, François ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017), 21(1), 80-97

Introduction. De nos jours, la gestion des ressources forestières ne se focalise plus sur l’exploitation exclusive du bois d’oeuvre, mais prend également en considération les produits forestiers non ... [more ▼]

Introduction. De nos jours, la gestion des ressources forestières ne se focalise plus sur l’exploitation exclusive du bois d’oeuvre, mais prend également en considération les produits forestiers non ligneux. Entandrophragma cylindricum (Sprague) Sprague, de son nom commercial « sapelli/sapele », de la famille des Meliaceae, illustre parfaitement cette situation. Le présent article fait un état de l’art des connaissances concernant E. cylindricum et présente quelques informations sur la chenille qui lui est inféodée. Littérature. Le sapelli est une des espèces ligneuses les plus exploitées d’Afrique centrale pour son bois d’oeuvre. Il est répandu dans la forêt dense humide semi-caducifoliée du domaine guinéo-congolais. C’est une espèce semi-héliophile, son mode de dispersion est anémochore et sa phénologie est régulière. Selon la sylviculture appliquée, sa croissance en diamètre peut atteindre jusque 0,82 cm par an. Cette essence est également l’hôte d’une espèce de chenille comestible riche en protéines, I. oyemensis Rougeot. Fortement appréciée par les populations locales, cette chenille fait également l’objet d’un commerce régional et international. Enfin, l’écorce du sapelli est reconnue pour son intérêt ethnobotanique, particulièrement en médecine traditionnelle. Conclusions. Les informations tirées de la littérature ont permis de mettre en évidence certaines lacunes relatives à l’écologie et au mode de reproduction de cette espèce et, ceci, en dépit de son importance pour le commerce du bois. De plus, les inconnues quant à la productivité et la saisonnalité des chenilles d’Imbrasia oyemensis sur cet arbre nécessitent de développer des recherches complémentaires pour garantir la durabilité de l’exploitation simultanée de la ressource ligneuse et non ligneuse et pour proposer des modes de gestion concertés entre exploitants industriels et populations locales. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of local outliers detection techniques in spatial multivariate data
Ernst, Marie ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

in Data Mining & Knowledge Discovery (2017), 31(2), 371399

Outlier detection techniques in spatial data should allow to identify two types of outliers: global and local ones. Local outliers typically have non-spatial attributes that strongly differ from those ... [more ▼]

Outlier detection techniques in spatial data should allow to identify two types of outliers: global and local ones. Local outliers typically have non-spatial attributes that strongly differ from those observed on their neighbors. Detecting local outliers requires to be able to work locally, on neighborhoods, in order to take into account the spatial dependence between the statistical units under consideration, even though the outlyingness is usually measured on the non-spatial variables. Many procedures have been outlined in the literature, but their number reduces when one wants to deal with multivariate non-spatial attributes. In this paper, focus is on the multivariate context. A review of existing procedures is done. A new approach, based on a two-step improvement of an existing one, is also designed and compared with the benchmarked methods by means of examples and simulations. [less ▲]

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See detailLe projet sémiologique de Barthes dans la revue Communications
Lorent, Fanny ULg; Franck, Thomas ULg

in Revue Roland Barthes (2017), 3

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See detailCollecte in vivo d’ovocytes d’ânesses et chronologie de la maturation in vitro
Reigner, Fabrice; Barrière, Philippe; Blard, Thierry et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2017), 49(193), 38-43

La plupart des espèces d’ânes sauvages et domestiques est en danger d’extinction. Leur préservation nécessite la cryoconservation du sperme, des ovocytes et des embryons. L’objectif de cette étude était ... [more ▼]

La plupart des espèces d’ânes sauvages et domestiques est en danger d’extinction. Leur préservation nécessite la cryoconservation du sperme, des ovocytes et des embryons. L’objectif de cette étude était de mettre au point une technique de collecte in vivo et de maturation in vitro des ovocytes d’ânesses. Les ovocytes ont été collectés par ponction folliculaire transvaginale sous guide échographique, placés dans un milieu de maturation in vitro pendant 24, 30, 34 ou 38 heures puis analysés. Quatre-vingt-douze ovocytes ont été collectés dans 193 follicules (48%) avec une moyenne de 4,2 ovocytes par ânesse. Après 34 heures de maturation in vitro, 45% des ovocytes ont été matures. Pour la première fois une technique de collecte in vivo et de maturation in vitro d’ovocytes d’ânesses a été développée. Cette technique permet d’envisager la cryoconservation et la fécondation in vitro de ces ovocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailQuel « PRP » pour traiter les tendinopathies chroniques ?
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Emonds-Alt, Thibault ULg

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2017), 34(1), 76-90

Plasma rich platelets (PRP) consist of blood plasma with a high concentration of platelets autologous constituting a huge reservoir of growthfactors. The clinical use of the PRP is widespread in various ... [more ▼]

Plasma rich platelets (PRP) consist of blood plasma with a high concentration of platelets autologous constituting a huge reservoir of growthfactors. The clinical use of the PRP is widespread in various medical applications. Even it is very popular with athletes, the use of PRP intendinopathies is still scientifically discussed, particularly related to a disparity in the products called PRP. In order to optimize employment, itshould be interested in the different stages of obtaining of the PRP. In this literature review, we analyzed in particular 8 parameters that can influencethe quality of the PRP: (1) anticoagulants used to preserve the best feature of platelet; (2) centrifuge speeds used in order to extract platelets; (3)platelet concentrations and the presence of leukocytes and erythrocytes in the PRP; (4) the platelet activators for the mast of platelets and thus therelease of growth factors; (5) use of local anesthetics to achieve infiltration, in addition to these parameters, it might be interesting to analyze othervariables like: (6) employment or not of buffer to neutralize the acidity caused by anticoagulants; (7) injection under US guidance or not; and (8)volume of PRP injected to determine their influence on the healing potential. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la composition chimique et de l’activité antioxydante des différents extraits de la Lavande dentée (Lavandula dentata)
Bettaieb Rebey, I.; Bourgou, S.; Saidani Tounsi, M. et al

in Journal of New Sciences Agri & Biotech (2017), 39(2), 2096-2105

In this study, Lavandula dentata organs (roots, stems and leaves) were investigated for their essential oils, total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities. Essential oil yields were 0 ... [more ▼]

In this study, Lavandula dentata organs (roots, stems and leaves) were investigated for their essential oils, total phenolics, flavonoids contents and antioxidant activities. Essential oil yields were 0.22% in roots, 0.68 % in stems and 0.89 % in flowers. Major components of the oils were β-ocimene, limonene and 1,8 cineol in roots, stems and leaves and flowers, respectively. In all organs, total phenolics content ranged from 42.57 to 16.17 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dry weight (mg GAE/g DW).The antioxidant activities of Lavandula dentata extracts obtained from the three organs were assessed using two tests (DPPH and reducing power). The root extract was strongly effective as DPPH radical scavenger and reducing agent. Thus, the identification of individual target polyphenolic compounds of roots was performed by RP-HPLC. The major phenolic compound detected in roots was rosmarinic acid. This activity was high enough for the plant to be a new and natural source of strongly antioxidant substances for use as natural additives in food and pharmaceutical industry. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-Term Local Adaptation of Historical Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties and Implications for In Situ Management of Bean Diversity
Klaedtke, Stephanie ULg; Caproni, Leonardo; Klauck, Julia et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2017), 18

Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers’ and gardeners’ networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local ... [more ▼]

Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers’ and gardeners’ networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden. Twenty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and 13 phenotypic traits were assessed. In total, 68.2% of tested markers were polymorphic and a total of 66 different alleles were identified. FST analysis showed that the genetic composition of two varieties multiplied in different environments changed. At the phenotypic level, differences were observed in flowering date and leaf length. Results indicate that three years of multiplication suffice for local adaptation to occur. The spatial dynamics of genetic and phenotypic bean diversity imply that the maintenance of diversity should be considered at the scale of the network, rather than individual farms and gardens. The microevolution of bean populations within networks of gardens and farms emerges as a research perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailRevisiting global fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of ethane
Tzompa-Sosa, Z. A.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Franco, Bruno ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2017), 122(4), 2493--2512

Recent measurements over the Northern Hemisphere indicate that the long-term decline in the atmospheric burden of ethane (C2H6) has ended and the abundance increased dramatically between 2010 and 2014 ... [more ▼]

Recent measurements over the Northern Hemisphere indicate that the long-term decline in the atmospheric burden of ethane (C2H6) has ended and the abundance increased dramatically between 2010 and 2014. The rise in C2H6 atmospheric abundances has been attributed to oil and natural gas extraction in North America. Existing global C2H6 emission inventories are based on outdated activity maps that do not account for current oil and natural gas exploitation regions. We present an updated global C2H6 emission inventory based on 2010 satellite-derived CH4 fluxes with adjusted C2H6 emissions over the U.S. from the National Emission Inventory (NEI 2011). We contrast our global 2010 C2H6 emission inventory with one developed for 2001. The C2H6 difference between global anthropogenic emissions is subtle (7.9 versus 7.2 Tg yr−1), but the spatial distribution of the emissions is distinct. In the 2010 C2H6 inventory, fossil fuel sources in the Northern Hemisphere represent half of global C2H6 emissions and 95% of global fossil fuel emissions. Over the U.S., unadjusted NEI 2011 C2H6 emissions produce mixing ratios that are 14–50% of those observed by aircraft observations (2008–2014). When the NEI 2011 C2H6 emission totals are scaled by a factor of 1.4, the Goddard Earth Observing System Chem model largely reproduces a regional suite of observations, with the exception of the central U.S., where it continues to underpredict observed mixing ratios in the lower troposphere. We estimate monthly mean contributions of fossil fuel C2H6 emissions to ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate surface mixing ratios over North America of ~1% and ~8%, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailInterplay between Penicillin-binding proteins and SEDS proteins promotes bacterial cell wall synthesis.
Leclercq, Sophie ULg; Derouaux, Adeline ULg; Olatunji, Samir ULg et al

in Scientific Reports (2017), 7

Bacteria utilize specialized multi-protein machineries to synthesize the essential peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall during growth and division. The divisome controls septal PG synthesis and separation of ... [more ▼]

Bacteria utilize specialized multi-protein machineries to synthesize the essential peptidoglycan (PG) cell wall during growth and division. The divisome controls septal PG synthesis and separation of daughter cells. In E. coli, the lipid II transporter candidate FtsW is thought to work in concert with the PG synthases penicillin-binding proteins PBP3 and PBP1b. Yet, the exact molecular mechanisms of their function in complexes are largely unknown. We show that FtsW interacts with PBP1b and lipid II and that PBP1b, FtsW and PBP3 co-purify suggesting that they form a trimeric complex. We also show that the large loop between transmembrane helices 7 and 8 of FtsW is important for the interaction with PBP3. Moreover, we found that FtsW, but not the other flippase candidate MurJ, impairs lipid II polymerization and peptide cross-linking activities of PBP1b, and that PBP3 relieves these inhibitory effects. All together the results suggest that FtsW interacts with lipid II preventing its polymerization by PBP1b unless PBP3 is also present, indicating that PBP3 facilitates lipid II release and/or its transfer to PBP1b after transport across the cytoplasmic membrane. This tight regulatory mechanism is consistent with the cell's need to ensure appropriate use of the limited pool of lipid II. [less ▲]

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See detailCluster growth in driven granular gases
Noirhomme, Martial ULg; Ludewig, François; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2017)

We investigate numerically and theoretically the internal structures of a driven granular gas in cuboidal cell geometries. Clustering is reported and particles are classified as gaseous or clustered via a ... [more ▼]

We investigate numerically and theoretically the internal structures of a driven granular gas in cuboidal cell geometries. Clustering is reported and particles are classified as gaseous or clustered via a local packing fraction criterion based on a Voronoi tessellation. We observe that small clusters arise in the corners of the box, elucidating early reports of partial clustering. These aggregates have a condensation-like surface growth. When a critical size is reached, a structural transition occurs and all clusters merge together, leaving a hole in the center of the cell. This hole then becomes the new center of particle capture. Taking into account all structural modifications and defining a saturation packing fraction, we propose an empirical model for the cluster growth. [less ▲]

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See detailSeven temperate terrestrial planets around the nearby ultracool dwarf star
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Triaud, Amaury; Demory, Brice-Olivier et al

in Nature (2017), 542

One focus of modern astronomy is to detect temperate terrestrial exoplanets well-suited for atmospheric characterisation. A milestone was recently achieved with the detection of three Earth-sized planets ... [more ▼]

One focus of modern astronomy is to detect temperate terrestrial exoplanets well-suited for atmospheric characterisation. A milestone was recently achieved with the detection of three Earth-sized planets transiting (i.e. passing in front of) a star just 8% the mass of the Sun 12 parsecs away. Indeed, the transiting configuration of these planets combined with the Jupiter-like size of their host star - named TRAPPIST-1 - makes possible indepth studies of their atmospheric properties with current and future astronomical facilities. Here we report the results of an intensive photometric monitoring campaign of that star from the ground and with the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our observations reveal that at least seven planets with sizes and masses similar to the Earth revolve around TRAPPIST-1. The six inner planets form a near-resonant chain such that their orbital periods (1.51, 2.42, 4.04, 6.06, 9.21, 12.35 days) are near ratios of small integers. This architecture suggests that the planets formed farther from the star and migrated inward. The seven planets have equilibrium temperatures low enough to make possible liquid water on their surfaces. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementation of the biogenic emission model MEGAN(v2.1) into the ECHAM6-HAMMOZ chemistry climate model
Henrot, Alexandra-Jane ULg; Stanelle, T.; Schröder, S. et al

in Geoscientific Model Development [=GMD] (2017), 10

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See detailEnergy Efficiency in the Romanian Residential Building Stock: A Literature Review
Muresan, Adina Ana; Attia, Shady ULg

in Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews (2017), 74

The building sector in Romania is dominated by residential buildings that are old and have poor thermal performance. As member of the European Union, Romania has to reach the objectives imposed by the ... [more ▼]

The building sector in Romania is dominated by residential buildings that are old and have poor thermal performance. As member of the European Union, Romania has to reach the objectives imposed by the Directive 2009/28/EC and to fulfill the requirements of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) by year 2020. To reach the 2020 objectives, the old buildings from the Romanian building stock should be rehabilitated and the new buildings should be designed according to the latest thermal performance characteristics. The following paper presents the literature review of building energy performance in Romania. The purpose of the literature review analysis is to provide an overview on current building energy efficiency in Romania. The paper also presents future perspectives on implementation of high performance buildings such as the Passive House (PH), nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) and Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEB). The reviewed publications and case studies are classified under three categories: policy and regulations, technology and feasibility. Finally, the paper presents a holistic perspective on the Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOTs) of energy efficiency in Romania's residential building sector. [less ▲]

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See detailA Multiplatform Experiment to Unravel Meso- and Submesoscale Processes in an Intense Front (AlborEx)
Pascual, Ananda; Ruiz, Simon; Olita, Antonio et al

in Frontiers in Marine Science (2017)

The challenges associated with meso- and submesoscale variability (between 1 and 100 km) require high-resolution observations and integrated approaches. Here we describe a major oceanographic experiment ... [more ▼]

The challenges associated with meso- and submesoscale variability (between 1 and 100 km) require high-resolution observations and integrated approaches. Here we describe a major oceanographic experiment designed to capture the intense but transient vertical motions in an area characterized by strong fronts. Finescale processes were studied in the eastern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) about 400 km east of the Strait of Gibraltar, a relatively sparsely sampled area. In-situ systems were coordinated with satellite data and numerical simulations to provide a full description of the physical and biogeochemical variability. Hydrographic data confirmed the presence of an intense salinity front formed by the confluence of Atlantic Waters, entering from Gibraltar, with the local Mediterranean waters. The drifters coherently followed the northeastern limb of an anticyclonic gyre. Near real time data from acoustic current meter data profiler showed consistent patterns with currents of up to 1 m/s in the southern part of the sampled domain. High-resolution glider data revealed submesoscale structures with tongues of chlorophyll-a and oxygen associated with the frontal zone. Numerical results show large vertical excursions of tracers that could explain the subducted tongues and filaments captured by ocean gliders. A unique aspect of AlborEx is the combination of high-resolution synoptic measurements of vessel-based measurements, autonomous sampling, remote sensing and modeling, enabling the evaluation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed distributions and biogeochemical patchiness. The main findings point to the importance of fine-scale processes enhancing the vertical exchanges between the upper ocean and the ocean interior. [less ▲]

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See detailConception of a near-infrared spectrometer for ground-based observations of massive stars
Kintziger, Christian ULg; Desselle, Richard ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg et al

in Journal of Astronomical Telescopes, Instruments, and Systems (2017), 3(1), 015002

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument for stellar astrophysics. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the ... [more ▼]

In our contribution, we outline the different steps in the design of a fiber-fed spectrographic instrument for stellar astrophysics. Starting from the derivation of theoretical relationships from the scientific requirements and telescope characteristics, the entire optical design of the spectrograph is presented. Specific optical elements, such as a toroidal lens, are introduced to improve the instrument’s efficiency. Then the verification of predicted optical performances is investigated through optical analyses, such as resolution checking. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of pollen chemistry in evolutionary host shifts of bees
Vanderplanck, Maryse ULg; Vereecken, Nicolas; Grumiau, Laurent et al

in Scientific Reports (2017)

Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically ... [more ▼]

Although bee-plant associations are generally maintained through speciation processes, host shifts have occurred during evolution. Understanding shifts between both phylogenetically and morphologically unrelated plants (i.e., host-saltation) is especially important since they could have been key processes in the origin and radiation of bees. Probably far from being a random process, such host-saltation might be driven by hidden constraints associated with plant traits. We selected two clades of oligolectic bees (i.e., Colletes succinctus group and Melitta leporina group) foraging on co-flowering but unrelated host-plants to test this hypothesis. We analyzed floral scent, floral color and chemical composition of pollen from host and non-host plants of these two clades. We did not find evidence for host-plant evolution in the Melitta leporina group driven by one of the assayed floral traits. On the contrary, hosts of the C. succinctus group display similar primary nutritive content of pollen (i.e., amino acids and sterols) but not similar floral scent or color, suggesting that shared pollen chemistry probably mediates saltation in this clade. Our study revealed that constraints shaping floral associations are diverse and clearly depend on species life-history traits, but evidence suggests that pollen chemistry may act as a major floral filter and guide evolutionary host-shifts. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy harvesting from galloping of prisms: A wind tunnel experiment
Hémon, Pascal; Amandolèse, Xavier; Andrianne, Thomas ULg

in Journal of Fluids & Structures (2017), 70

We study the energy harvesting from the galloping oscillations of rigid prisms flexibly mounted in a wind tunnel. A square section and a 2/3 rectangular section are tested and the inclination angle of the ... [more ▼]

We study the energy harvesting from the galloping oscillations of rigid prisms flexibly mounted in a wind tunnel. A square section and a 2/3 rectangular section are tested and the inclination angle of the prisms referred to the flow direction is optimally adapted. The energy harvester is based on magnets moving with the prism in the front of a coil-core at rest. Energy is dissipated in a load resistance for which an optimal value is found. Efficiency of the "prism wind turbine" is weak compared to usual wind turbine due to the physics of the galloping mechanism. However such systems remain interesting for their potential of adaptation to various situations. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Mechanisms Involved in Schwann Cell Plasticity
Boerboom, Angélique ULg; Dion, Valérie ULg; CHARIOT, Alain ULg et al

in Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience (2017)

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See detailAssessment of natural radioactivity and associated radiation hazards in sand building material used in Douala Littoral Region of Cameroon, using gamma spectrometry
Guembou Shouop, Cébastien Joel ULg; Ndontchueng Moyo, Maurice; Chene, Grégoire ULg et al

in Environmental Earth Sciences (2017), 76(164),

Twenty-four sand samples were collected from different sand quarries from Douala Littoral Region (Wouri, Dibamba, Mungo and Docteur Anse rivers and Atlantic Sea) along the Guinea Golf. These samples were ... [more ▼]

Twenty-four sand samples were collected from different sand quarries from Douala Littoral Region (Wouri, Dibamba, Mungo and Docteur Anse rivers and Atlantic Sea) along the Guinea Golf. These samples were investigated using gamma-ray spectrometry system. Highest values of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K measured specific activities expressed in Bq Kg−1 units were, respectively, 146.7 (in Youpoue–Bamenda 2) 102.9 (in Village 1) and 928 (in Northern Akwa 6) while the lowest values were found to be, respectively, 11.8 (in Northern Akwa 6), 8.0 (in Bonaberi–Bonamikano 4) and 54.0 (Youpoue 3). The potential radiological hazards parameters were assessed by calculating successively radium equivalent activity (Raeq), outdoor absorbed gamma dose rate (Dout), annual effective dose rate, internal hazard (Hin) and external hazard (Hex) indices and alpha and gamma index from using those sand in the construction of dwellings and large buildings. Results obtained show that annual dose absorbed by inhabitants due to sand construction use in Douala is below 1.0 mSv year−1. Therefore, most of the types of sands studied and incorporated in constructions appear to be safe as building material. The outputs from this research will be useful to assess the radiation hazards of sand building material in humans and to initiate a sand database together with a radiological map of the area at stake. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclotheonellazoles A–C, Potent Protease Inhibitors from the Marine Sponge Theonella aff. swinhoei
Issac, Michal; Aknin, Maurice; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne et al

in Journal of Natural Products (2017), 80

he extract of a sample of the sponge Theonella aff. swinhoei collected in Madagascar exhibited promising in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The antiplasmodial activity was ascribed in part to the known ... [more ▼]

he extract of a sample of the sponge Theonella aff. swinhoei collected in Madagascar exhibited promising in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The antiplasmodial activity was ascribed in part to the known metabolite swinholide A. Further investigation of the extract afforded three unusual cyclic peptides, cyclotheonellazoles A–C (1–3), which contain six nonproteinogenic amino acids out of the eight acid units that compose these natural products. Among these acids the most novel were 4-propenoyl-2-tyrosylthiazole and 3-amino-4-methyl-2-oxohexanoic acid. The structure of the compounds was elucidated by interpretation of the 1D and 2D NMR data, HRESIMS, and advanced Merfay’s techniques. The new compounds were found to be nanomolar inhibitors of chymotrypsin and sub-nanomolar inhibitors of elastase, but did not present antiplasmodial activity. [less ▲]

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See detailDraft Genome of the Axenic Strain Phormidesmis priestleyi ULC007, a Cyanobacterium Isolated from Lake Bruehwiler (Larsemann Hills, Antarctica)
Lara, Yannick ULg; Durieu, Benoit ULg; Cornet, Luc ULg et al

in Genome Announcements (2017)

Phormidesmis priestleyi ULC007 is an Antarctic freshwater cyanobacte- rium. Its draft genome is 5,684,389 bp long. It contains a total of 5,604 protein- encoding genes, of which 22.2% have no clear ... [more ▼]

Phormidesmis priestleyi ULC007 is an Antarctic freshwater cyanobacte- rium. Its draft genome is 5,684,389 bp long. It contains a total of 5,604 protein- encoding genes, of which 22.2% have no clear homologues in known genomes. To date, this draft genome is the first one ever determined for an axenic cyanobacterium from Antarctica. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling the thickness dependence of the magnetic phase transition temperature in thin FeRh film
Ostler, Thomas ULg; Craig, Barton; Thomas, Thomson et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2017), 95

FeRh and its first-order phase transition can open new routes for magnetic hybrid materials and devices under the assumption that it can be exploited in ultra-thin-film structures. Motivated by ... [more ▼]

FeRh and its first-order phase transition can open new routes for magnetic hybrid materials and devices under the assumption that it can be exploited in ultra-thin-film structures. Motivated by experimental measurements showing an unexpected increase in the phase transition temperature with decreasing thickness of FeRh on top of MgO, we develop a computational model to investigate strain effects of FeRh in such magnetic structures. Our theoretical results show that the presence of theMgO interface results in a strain that changes the magnetic configuration which drives the anomalous behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailPerfectly matched layers for convex truncated domains with discontinuous Galerkin time domain simulations
Modave, Axel; Lambrechts, Jonathan; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in Computers & Mathematics with Applications (2017), 73(4), 684-700

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See detailEffect of different tillage systems on aggregate structure and inner distribution of organic carbon
Gao, Lili ULg; Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Liang, Guopeng et al

in Geoderma (2017), 288

Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. Pore network geometries are crucial to oxygen concentration, gas diffusivity, water location and water movement ... [more ▼]

Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. Pore network geometries are crucial to oxygen concentration, gas diffusivity, water location and water movement. Soil aggregates, 4–6 mm in diameter and collected from silty loam in Belgium and sandy loam in China, were scanned using a micro-computed tomography scanner. Images with a pixel size of 6.9 μm were then processed with ImageJ software for pore network analysis. The treatments were no tillage (C-NT) and conventional tillage (C-CT) in China, and shallow tillage (G-ST) and conventional tillage (G-CT) in Belgium. The results showed that aggregates in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) had numerous connected pores compared with conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT). The Euler number (Ev) was significantly lower and visible total porosity and surface area (SA) were significantly higher in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) than in conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) in both studied locations. The predominant size of pores was significantly higher in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) than in conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) (> 150 μm vs 90–120 μm). Pore location within the aggregates also showed differences, with porosity being evenly distributed in the aggregates under conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT). Under conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT), the aggregates were heterogeneous, showing higher porosity at the center of the aggregates. There was a higher soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the external layer than in the internal layer in conservational tillage in Belgium (G-ST). In no tillage in China (C-NT), the SOC in the external and internal layers, however, showed similar results. Overall, conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) reduced the proportion of the largest pores within soil aggregates, whereas there was no significant relationship between pore morphologies and SOC content. Further investigation is required to measure the active and slow carbon pool distribution in the different layers and under different tillage practices. [less ▲]

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See detailUV Visible Spectrophotometric Determination of the Quality of Antiretroviral Drugs Distributed in Kinshasa
Ntambwe Kamangu, Erick; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Mingu M., Arnold et al

in Open Acces Library Journal (2017)

Background: Antiretrovirals (ARVs) are the molecules used in the fight against infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Their main objective is to stop the virus from replicating and thus ... [more ▼]

Background: Antiretrovirals (ARVs) are the molecules used in the fight against infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Their main objective is to stop the virus from replicating and thus allow the immune system to recover. In 2001, the program to fight against HIV/AIDS United Nations (UNAIDS) and its partners has decided to strengthen the pharmaceutical channel and improve access to good quality care. Thus ARV quality control is recommended. Objective: The objective of this work was to monitor the quality of ARVs distributed in Kinshasa. Methodology: In this work, UV-visible spectrophotometry is used for the analysis of ARVs presented in simple form distributed in the city of Kinshasa. Results: The results of this work show that the stated and analyzed ARVs contain active ingredients; there is no placebo. Ten percent of these ARVs are non-compliant with regard to dosing of the active test. Conclusion: These results confirm the need to control these drugs to protect patients from adverse consequences related to their poor quality. [less ▲]

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See detailThe desire of parenthood: intuitive co-parental behaviors and quality of couple relationship among Italian and Belgian same-sex and opposite-sex couples.
Miscioscia, Marina ULg; Blavier, Adelaïde ULg; Pagone, Paolo et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8(110),

Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspectsrelated to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’satisfaction and quality of child’s ... [more ▼]

Studies that focused on family issues have allowed a great understanding of the aspectsrelated to its subsystems, such as parenting desire and its expectations, couples’satisfaction and quality of child’s outcomes. All these aspects are greatly interconnectedand contribute to the creation of specific family dynamics, such as the quality offamily interactions. The present study focuses on intuitive co-parental behaviors andthe quality of couple relationship observed during the decision process (intention anddesire) to be (or become) parents. Our first goal was to explore these aspects ina cross-national sample made of Italian and Belgian heterosexual, lesbian and gaycouples. We then aimed to evaluate if the degree of internalized homophobia affectsco-parental alliance. The quality of couple relationship and co-parental behaviors havebeen evaluated through the recruitment of a group of 115 stable heterosexual, gay andlesbian couples (230 individuals, 20–50 years of age) without children, who wanted tobecome parents. We used the Prenatal Lausanne Trilogue Play to evaluate the Co-parental Alliance; the couple’s satisfaction was assessed with the Dyadic AdjustmentScale and the Internalized Homophobia with the MISS-LG. In line with the existentliterature, the analysis did not find any difference between lesbian, gay and heterosexualcouples in terms of co-parental alliance. High levels of couple adjustment lead to betterparental performances among both Italian and Belgian couples. The results suggestalso that sexual stigma differs from one country to another, and it has an impact on thecapability of managing co-parenting. Clinical implications should be verified in furtherlongitudinal studies in order to observe the impact on the inter-generational transmissionof psychopathology. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetocaloric Properties of Zinc-Nickel Ferrites Around Room Temperature
El Maalam, Khadija; Fkhar, lahcen; Mohammed, Hamedoun et al

in Journal of Superconductivity and Novel Magnetism (2017)

In this paper, structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of zinc-doped nickel ferrite, Zn1−xNixFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) were investigated. The samples were prepared using solid-state reaction. X ... [more ▼]

In this paper, structural, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of zinc-doped nickel ferrite, Zn1−xNixFe2O4 (x = 0.3 and 0.4) were investigated. The samples were prepared using solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and magnetization measurements were performed to study crystallographic structure and magnetic properties. For a magnetic field changing from 0 to 5 T, the corresponding isothermal entropy change was found to be near 1.4 J/kg K for both samples. The decreasing of Ni content from x = 0.4 to 0.3, enables to shift the Curie temperature of Zn1−xNixFe2O4 from 450 K toward (325 K). As main results, it was found that the relative cooling power (RCP) could be significantly enhanced by changing Ni concentration in Zn1−xNixFe2O4 (505 J/kg (for x = 0.3) and 670 J/kg (for x = 0.4)), which is considered as a recommended parameter for a wide temperature range in magnetic refrigeration application. Our finding should inspire and open new ways for the enhancement of the magnetocaloric effect in spinel ferrite-based materials. [less ▲]

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See detailGuide du chercheur américaniste à Rome et au Vatican
Dauphin, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Nuevo Mundo Nuevos Mundos (2017)

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See detailUse of primary and secondary polyvinylamines for efficient gene transfection
Dréan, Mathilde; Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Gonçalves, Christine et al

in Biomacromolecules (2017), 18(2), 440-441

Gene transfection with polymeric carrier remains a challenge, particularly high transfection levels combined with low toxicity are hard to achieve. We herein revisit polyvinylamines, an old and neglected ... [more ▼]

Gene transfection with polymeric carrier remains a challenge, particularly high transfection levels combined with low toxicity are hard to achieve. We herein revisit polyvinylamines, an old and neglected family of cationic polymers. They can be readily obtained by controlled hydrolysis of polyvinylamides prepared through (controlled) radical polymerization. A series of tailor-made and well-defined polyvinylamines bearing primary amino groups, and poly(N- methylvinylamine) bearing secondary amines, were evaluated for the transfection of cells with pDNA as a function of their molar mass, molar mass distribution and degree of deacetylation. Unexpected high transfection levels, in combination with low cytotoxicity were recorded for both series. Surprisingly, a great impact of the molar mass was observed for the primary amine polyvinylamine series, whereas the results were mostly independent on molar mass or dispersity for the polymer bearing secondary amine. It was further established that a certain percentage of acetamide groups increased the transfection level, while maintaining low cytotoxicity. These results highlight for the first time the real potential of polyvinylamines as gene carriers, and make these polymers very attractive for further development in gene therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailHow phosphorus limitation can control climate-active gas sources and sinks
Gypens, Nathalie; Borges, Alberto ULg; Ghyoot, Caroline

in Journal of Marine Systems (2017), 170

Since the 1950's, anthropogenic activities have increased nutrient river loads to European coastal areas. Subsequent implementation of nutrient reduction policies have led to considerably reduction of ... [more ▼]

Since the 1950's, anthropogenic activities have increased nutrient river loads to European coastal areas. Subsequent implementation of nutrient reduction policies have led to considerably reduction of phosphorus (P) loads from the mid-1980's, while nitrogen (N) loads were maintained, inducing a P limitation of phytoplankton growth in many eutrophied coastal areas such as the Southern Bight f the North Sea (SBNS). When dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) is limiting, most phytoplankton organisms are able to indirectly acquire P from dissolved organic P (DOP). We investigate the impact of DOP use on phytoplankton production and atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the SBNS from 1951 to 2007 using an extended version of the RMIRO-BIOGAS model. This model includes a description of the ability of phytoplankton organisms to use DOP as a source of P. Results show that primary production can increase up to 30% due to DOP uptake under limiting DIP conditions. Consequently, simulated DMS emissions also increase proportionally while CO2 emissions to the atmosphere decrease, relative to the reference simulation without DOP uptake [less ▲]

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See detailThermoelectric properties of layered calcium cobaltite Ca3Co4O9 from hybrid functional first-principles calculations
Lemal, Sébastien ULg; Varignon, Julien ULg; Bilc, Daniel ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2017), 95

Using a combination of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and Boltzmann semiclassical transport theory, we compute and study the properties of pristine layered calcium ... [more ▼]

Using a combination of first-principles calculations based on density functional theory and Boltzmann semiclassical transport theory, we compute and study the properties of pristine layered calcium cobaltite Ca3Co4O9. We model the system with the B1WC hybrid functional. Two supercells of increasing size which approximate the incommensurate crystallographic structure of the compound are studied and we determine their structural, magnetic, and electronic properties. It is found that the B1WC hybrid functional is appropriate to reproduce the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties, which are then extensively discussed. From the electronic band structure, the Seebeck (S) and electrical resistivity (ρ) tensors are computed using Boltzmann transport theory within the constant relaxation-time approximation. The differences between the diagonal components are detailed and reveal a strong in-plane anisotropy of the properties. The qualitative behavior of the averaged in-plane properties, S // and ρ//, is consistent with the measurements reported in the literature. Our calculation clarifies and provides a broad picture of the evolution of the thermoelectric properties with both carrier density and temperature, and suggests that the change in S// and ρ// around 100 K is not necessarily related to the magnetic transitions occurring around 100 K. [less ▲]

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See detailStress indicator gene expression profiles, colony dynamics and tissue development of honey bees exposed to sub-lethal doses of imidacloprid in laboratory and field experiments
De Smet, Lina; Hatjina; Ioannidis, Pavlos et al

in PLOS One (2017), 10(137),

In this study, different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response were studied. Honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid during a time period ... [more ▼]

In this study, different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response were studied. Honey bees were exposed to different concentrations of imidacloprid during a time period of 40 days. Next to these variables, a laboratory-field comparison was conducted. The influence of the chronic exposure on gene expression levels was determined using an in-house developed microarray targeting different immunity-related and detoxification genes to determine stress-related gene expression changes. Increased levels of the detoxification genes encoding, CYP9Q3 and CYT P450, were detected in imidacloprid- exposed honey bees. The different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on honey bees were confirmed physiologically by decreased hypopharyngeal gland sizes. Honey bees exposed to imidacloprid in laboratory cages showed a general immunosuppression and no detoxification mechanisms were triggered significantly, while honey bees infield showed a resilient response with an immune stimulation at later time points. However, the treated colonies had a brood and population decline tendency after the first brood cycle in the field. In conclusion, this study highlighted the different context-dependent effects of imidacloprid exposure on the honey bee response. These findings warn for possible pitfalls concerning the generalization of results based on specific experiments with short exposure times. The increased levels of CYT P450 and CYP9Q3 combined with an immune response reaction can be used as markers for bees which are exposed to pesticides in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Super-Atom Molecular Orbitals in Doped Fullerenes in a Femtosecond Intense Laser Field
Xiong, Hui; Mignolet, Benoît ULg; Fang, Li et al

in Scientific Reports (2017)

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See detailSputum biomarkers in IPF: Evidence for raised gene expression and protein level of IGFBP-2, IL-8 and MMP-7.
GUIOT, Julien ULg; Henket, Monique; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2017), 12(2), 0171344

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare lung disease of unknown origin leading rapidly to death. This paper addresses the issue of whether sputum induction is a suitable tool to study ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare lung disease of unknown origin leading rapidly to death. This paper addresses the issue of whether sputum induction is a suitable tool to study respiratory tract inflammation and potential biomarkers in IPF compared to COPD, a fibrosing airway wall disease. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis, 15 IPF patients, 32 COPD and 30 healthy subjects underwent sputum induction. Total sputum cell counts and the amount of TGF- beta, IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IL-8, IL-13, MMP-7, MMP-9, YKL-40, TNF-alpha and KL-6 in sputum supernatant were analysed. We also profiled gene expression of cells in the induced sputum for TGF-beta, MMP-7, YKL-40, IGFBP-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha. RESULTS: IPF patients, like COPD, had increased sputum absolute number of neutrophils, eosinophils, macrophages and epithelial cells compared to HS. IPF sputum supernatants had increased concentrations of IGFBP-2, IL-8, TGF-beta, MMP-7, MMP-9 and KL-6 (p<0.05, p<0.0001, p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.0001, p<0.05 respectively) when compared to healthy subjects where COPD had higher IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels than IPF (p<0.05 and p<0.05 respectively) and HS (p<0.0001 and p<0.001 respectively) and higher IL-8 and MMP-9 than HS (p<0.0001 and p<0.001 respectively). Conversely to IL-6 and TNF-alpha, MMP-7 was increased in IPF compared to COPD (p<0.05). The KL-6 and MMP-7 protein levels in sputum were inversely correlated with total lung capacity (TLC, % of predicted) in IPF patients (r = -0.73 and r = -0.53 respectively). Sputum gene expression analysis identified a significant increase for IGFBP-2, IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-7 in IPF compared to HS (p<0.05, p<0.01, p<0.05 and p<0.0001 respectively) and for IGFBP-2, YKL-40, IL-6, IL-8 and MMP-7 compared to COPD (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.05, p<0.01 and p<0.0001 respectively). Furthermore, gene expression of TGF-beta was increased in IPF compared to COPD (p<0.001) but not to HS. CONCLUSION: Our data show clear increase in expression and production of IGFBP-2, IL-8 and MMP-7 in sputum from patients with IPF that may contribute to the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPerineuronal nets and vocal plasticity in songbirds: a proposed mechanism to explain the difference between closed-ended and open-ended learning
Cornez, Gilles ULg; Madison, F.N.; Van der Linden, A. et al

in Developmental Neurobiology (2017)

Perineuronal nets (PNN) are aggregations of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans surrounding the soma and proximal processes of neurons, mostly GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin. They limit the ... [more ▼]

Perineuronal nets (PNN) are aggregations of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans surrounding the soma and proximal processes of neurons, mostly GABAergic interneurons expressing parvalbumin. They limit the plasticity of their afferent synaptic connections. In zebra finches PNN develop in an experience-dependent manner in the song control nuclei HVC and RA (nucleus robustus arcopallialis) when young birds crystallize their song. Because songbird species that are open-ended learners tend to recapitulate each year the different phases of song learning until their song crystallizes at the beginning of the breeding season, we tested whether seasonal changes in PNN expression would be found in the song control nuclei of a seasonally breeding species such as the European starling. Only minimal changes in PNN densities and total number of cells surrounded by PNN were detected. However, comparison of the density of PNN and of PNN surrounding parvalbumin-positive cells revealed that these structures are far less numerous in starlings that show extensive adult vocal plasticity, including learning of new songs throughout the year, than in the closed-ended learner zebra finches. Canaries that also display some vocal plasticity across season but were never formally shown to learn new songs in adulthood were intermediate in this respect. Together these data suggest that establishment of PNN around parvalbumin-positive neurons in song control nuclei has diverged during evolution to control the different learning capacities observed in songbird species. This differential expression of PNN in different songbird species could represent a key cellular mechanism mediating species variation between closed-ended and open-ended learning strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailVLT/SPHERE robust astrometry of the HR8799 planets at milliarcsecond-level accuracy. Orbital architecture analysis with PyAstrOFit
Wertz, Olivier; Absil, Olivier ULg; Gómez González, Carlos ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 598

HR8799 is orbited by at least four giant planets, making it a prime target for the recently commissioned Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE). As such, it was observed on ... [more ▼]

HR8799 is orbited by at least four giant planets, making it a prime target for the recently commissioned Spectro-Polarimetric High-contrast Exoplanet REsearch (VLT/SPHERE). As such, it was observed on five consecutive nights during the SPHERE science verification in December 2014. We aim to take full advantage of the SPHERE capabilities to derive accurate astrometric measurements based on H-band images acquired with the Infra-Red Dual-band Imaging and Spectroscopy (IRDIS) subsystem, and to explore the ultimate astrometric performance of SPHERE in this observing mode. We also aim to present a detailed analysis of the orbital parameters for the four planets. We report the astrometric positions for epoch 2014.93 with an accuracy down to 2.0 mas, mainly limited by the astrometric calibration of IRDIS. For each planet, we derive the posterior probability density functions for the six Keplerian elements and identify sets of highly probable orbits. For planet d, there is clear evidence for nonzero eccentricity ($e \simeq 0.35$), without completely excluding solutions with smaller eccentricities. The three other planets are consistent with circular orbits, although their probability distributions spread beyond $e = 0.2$, and show a peak at $e \simeq 0.1$ for planet e. The four planets have consistent inclinations of about $30\deg$ with respect to the sky plane, but the confidence intervals for the longitude of ascending node are disjoint for planets b and c, and we find tentative evidence for non-coplanarity between planets b and c at the $2 \sigma$ level. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical study of Balearic meteotsunami generation and propagation under synthetic gravity wave forcing
Matjaž, Ličer; Mourre, Baptiste; Troupin, Charles ULg et al

in Ocean Modelling (2017), 111

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See detailCrystal structure and biochemical characterization of the transmembrane PAP2 type phosphatidylglycerol phosphate phosphatase from Bacillus subtilis.
El Ghachi, Meriem ULg; Howe, Nicole; Auger, Rodolphe et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2017)

Type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAP2s) can be either soluble or integral membrane enzymes. In bacteria, integral membrane PAP2s play major roles in the metabolisms of glycerophospholipids ... [more ▼]

Type 2 phosphatidic acid phosphatases (PAP2s) can be either soluble or integral membrane enzymes. In bacteria, integral membrane PAP2s play major roles in the metabolisms of glycerophospholipids, undecaprenyl-phosphate (C55-P) lipid carrier and lipopolysaccharides. By in vivo functional experiments and biochemical characterization we show that the membrane PAP2 coded by the Bacillus subtilis yodM gene is the principal phosphatidylglycerol phosphate (PGP) phosphatase of B. subtilis. We also confirm that this enzyme, renamed bsPgpB, has a weaker activity on C55-PP. Moreover, we solved the crystal structure of bsPgpB at 2.25 A resolution, with tungstate (a phosphate analog) in the active site. The structure reveals two lipid chains in the active site vicinity, allowing for PGP substrate modeling and molecular dynamic simulation. Site-directed mutagenesis confirmed the residues important for substrate specificity, providing a basis for predicting the lipids preferentially dephosphorylated by membrane PAP2s. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractive family dynamics and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury in psychiatric adolescent patients: a single case study
Gatta, Michela; Miscioscia, Marina ULg; Sisti, Marta et al

in Frontiers in Psychology (2017), 8(46),

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See detailLe behaviorisme logique en question
Dony, Arthur ULg

in Bulletin d'Analyse Phénoménologique (2017), XIII(1), 1-19

Dans une démarche inspirée des sciences de la nature, le behaviorisme logique se présente comme une théorie philosophique visant à rendre compte des états mentaux de façon « objective », en réduisant ceux ... [more ▼]

Dans une démarche inspirée des sciences de la nature, le behaviorisme logique se présente comme une théorie philosophique visant à rendre compte des états mentaux de façon « objective », en réduisant ceux-ci au comportement observable. Comme l’énonçait déjà Hempel, il s’agit de traduire tout énoncé psychologique en un énoncé où ne figurent plus que des concepts physiques de façon à faire l’économie de la dimension subjective de l’expérience, laquelle ne constituerait rien de plus qu’un simple rouage à vide, inessentiel à l’état mental lui-même. Dans cet article, je propose d’examiner les principaux arguments, désormais jugés classiques, avancés par Wittgenstein, Ryle et Dennett en faveur de cette théorie. Mon but est non seulement de mettre au jour les déficiences de l’argumentation et les présupposés problématiques qui la guident, mais plus fondamentalement de montrer en quoi cette doctrine, en dépit de la popularité qu’elle s’est acquise en philosophie contemporaine, s’avère à l’analyse inconsistante. [less ▲]

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See detailModified Thomas splint-cast combination for the management of limb fractures in small equids
Ladefogen, Soren; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg et al

in Veterinary Surgery : The Official Journal of the American College of Veterinary Surgeons (2017)

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See detail“Don't pretend to be my friend!” When an informal brand communication style backfires on social media
Gretry, Anaïs ULg; Horváth, Csilla; Belei, Nina et al

in Journal of Business Research (2017), 74

Social media are now essential platforms for marketing communications, and the volume of consumer-brand in- teractions on these platforms is exploding. Even so, it remains unclear how brands should ... [more ▼]

Social media are now essential platforms for marketing communications, and the volume of consumer-brand in- teractions on these platforms is exploding. Even so, it remains unclear how brands should communicate with consumers to foster relationships and, in particular, to gain their trust. A fundamental decision in this regard is the choice of a communication style, specifically, whether an informal or a formal style should be used in social media communications. In this paper, we investigate how adopting an informal (vs. formal) communication style affects brand trust and demonstrate that using an informal style can either have a positive or negative effect on brand trust, depending on whether consumers are familiar with the brand or not. We further show that these ef- fects occur because consumers expect brands to behave according to social norms, such that the use of an infor- mal style is perceived to be appropriate for familiar brands and inappropriate for unfamiliar ones. [less ▲]

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See detailStrong XUV irradiation of the Earth-sized exoplanets orbiting the ultracool dwarf TRAPPIST-1
Wheatley, Peter J.; Louden, Tom; Bourrier, Vincent et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of TRAPPIST-1, which is an ultracool dwarf star recently discovered to host three transiting and temperate Earth-sized planets. We find the star is a relatively ... [more ▼]

We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of TRAPPIST-1, which is an ultracool dwarf star recently discovered to host three transiting and temperate Earth-sized planets. We find the star is a relatively strong and variable coronal X-ray source with an X-ray luminosity similar to that of the quiet Sun, despite its much lower bolometric luminosity. We find L_x/L_bol=2-4x10^-4, with the total XUV emission in the range L_xuv/L_bol=6-9x10^-4. Using a simple energy-limited model we show that the relatively close-in Earth-sized planets, which span the classical habitable zone of the star, are subject to sufficient X-ray and EUV irradiation to significantly alter their primary and perhaps secondary atmospheres. Understanding whether this high-energy irradiation makes the planets more or less habitable is a complex question, but our measured fluxes will be an important input to the necessary models of atmospheric evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailA new asteroseismic diagnostic for internal rotation in γ Doradus stars
Ouazzani, Rhita-Maria; Salmon, Sébastien ULg; Antoci, V. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465

With four years of nearly-continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to $\gamma$ Doradus stars. In particular several analyses have demonstrated the ... [more ▼]

With four years of nearly-continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to $\gamma$ Doradus stars. In particular several analyses have demonstrated the possibility to detect non-uniform period spacings, which have been predicted to be directly related to rotation. In the present work, we define a new seismic diagnostic for rotation in $\gamma$ Doradus stars that are too rapidly rotating to present rotational splittings. Based on the non uniformity of their period spacings, we define the observable $\Sigma$ as the slope of the period spacing when plotted as a function of period. We provide a one-to-one relation between this observable $\Sigma$ and the internal rotation, which applies widely in the instability strip of $\gamma$ Doradus stars. We apply the diagnostic to a handful of stars observed by Kepler. Thanks to g-modes in $\gamma$ Doradus stars, we are now able to determine the internal rotation of stars on the lower main sequence, which is still not possible for Sun-like stars. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure and distribution of the sensilla on the antennae of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Collard, France ULg; De Backer, Lara ULg et al

in Micron (2017), 96

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based ... [more ▼]

The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a widespread devastating pest that develops on tomato and other economically important solanaceous crops. Current semiochemically-based management strategies still fail to significantly reduce damages and need to be improved. Here we describe under scanning and transmission electron microscopy the structure and distribution of the sensilla that are displayed on adult antennae. These were similar in size between males (3424.4 ± 135.3 μm) and females (3292.1 ± 111.5 μm), being segmented into a scape, a pedicel, and a distal filiform flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were observed on both sexes: Böhm’s bristles, sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica (two subtypes), sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla auricillica, and sensilla styloconica. The main sexual dimorphism was related to the higher abundance of sensilla trichodea in males, twice as abundant as in females. The putative functional significance of the different sensilla types regarding the insect ecology is discussed based on the available literature. This work provides descriptions of the antennae and related sensory structures. We expect these results to help develop further electrophysiological investigations aiming to a better understanding of T. absoluta olfaction. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical settings in knee osteoarthritis: Pathophysiology guides treatment
Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Bruyère, Olivier ULg et al

in Maturitas (2017), 96

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disorder and its prevalence increases rapidly during midlife. Complex interactions of genetic alterations, sex hormone deficit, and aging with ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disorder and its prevalence increases rapidly during midlife. Complex interactions of genetic alterations, sex hormone deficit, and aging with mechanical factors and systemic inflammation-associated metabolic syndrome lead to joint damage. Thus, the expression of a clinical phenotype in the early stages of OA relies on the main underlying pathway and predominant joint tissue involved at a given time. Moreover, OA often coexists with other morbidities in the same patient, which in turn condition the OA process. In this scenario, an appropriate identification of clinical phenotypes, especially in the early stages of the disease, may optimize the design of individualized treatments in OA. An ESCEO-EUGMS (European Union Geriatric Medicine Society) working group has recently suggested possible patient profiles in OA. Hereby, we propose the existence of 4 clinical phenotypes – biomechanical, osteoporotic, metabolic and inflammatory – whose characterization would help to properly stratify patients with OA in clinical trials or studies. Further research in this field is warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailTemporal changes in groundwater quality of the Saloum coastal aquifer
Dieng, Ndeye Maguette ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg; Otten, Joël ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology: Regional Studies (2017), 9

Abstract Study region: Groundwater in the southern part of the Saloum Basin in Senegal. Study focus: The Saloum estuary is a hypersaline and ‘inverse’ estuary where the salinity of river water increases ... [more ▼]

Abstract Study region: Groundwater in the southern part of the Saloum Basin in Senegal. Study focus: The Saloum estuary is a hypersaline and ‘inverse’ estuary where the salinity of river water increases in the upstream direction. This region is problematic in that due to the underlain superficial Continental Terminal aquifer bordered by the hypersaline estuary constitutes the unique fresh groundwater reservoir for water supply for its estimated 466,000 residents living in 18 rural districts (belonging to the regions of Fatick, Kaolack and Kaffrine). This is of high value given that the deep Maastrichtian aquifer (200-300m depth) is saline. This study aims to describe and understand temporal changes in the chemical and isotopic compositions of groundwater, the geochemical processes and especially the groundwater salinization. New hydrological insights for the region: The analytical data were discriminated into 3 groups on the basis of the water types. Na-Cl, Ca-Cl and Ca-SO4 rich waters derived from saline water intrusion at the vicinity of the Saloum River accompanied by ion exchange reactions and pollution dominate the first group. The second group located mainly in the centre and eastern parts of the region is featured fresh groundwater of Ca-HCO3 derived from calcite dissolution reactions. The third group of Na-HCO3 type and less mineralized indicates freshening processes by recently infiltrating rainwaters. Slight seasonal chemical variations are observed due to new infiltrating water reaching the water table. High variation in rainfall between the 2 reference years (2003 and 2012) also changes chemical patterns in the groundwater. Chemical evolution of the groundwater is geographically observed and is due to a combination of dilution by recharge, anthropic contamination and seawater intrusion. The results of environmental isotopes (δ18O, δ2H) compared with the local meteoric line indicate that the groundwater has been affected by evaporation processes before and during infiltration. The results also clearly indicate mixing with saltwater and an evolution towards relative freshening between 2003 and 2012 in some wells near the Saloum River. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement du pectus excavatum chez le chat
Hamon, Martin ULg; Claeys, Stéphanie ULg

in Monde Vétérinaire (Le) (2017), 166

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See detailThe constant of recognizability is computable for primitive morphisms
Durand, Fabien; Leroy, Julien ULg

in Journal of Integer Sequences (2017), 20(4),

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See detailDescription of patients consulting the voice clinic regarding gender, age, occupational status, and diagnosis
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Petitfils, Cloé; FINCK, Camille ULg et al

in European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology : Official Journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) (2017), 274(3), 1567-1576

Purpose. To describe the gender, age, occupational status and diagnosis of dysphonic patients. Method. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 1079 patients examined at the Voice clinic of the ... [more ▼]

Purpose. To describe the gender, age, occupational status and diagnosis of dysphonic patients. Method. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 1079 patients examined at the Voice clinic of the University hospital of Liège in French-speaking Belgium. Results. Overall, seven out of 10 patients who attended the voice clinic for dysphonia were females. The patients’ ages ranged from 4 to 93 (mean=43.5). Females predominantly consulted at the age of 54 and males at the age of 9. Regarding the occupational status, workers represented more than half of our patients (53%), while 11.2% were unemployed, 15.4% were students, and 19.9% were retired. Regarding the diagnoses of the 1079 patients, nodules were the most common pathologies (n=182, 16.9% of the patients), prevailing in females (n=142, 18.8% of the females), encountered in 16.8% of the workers and 42.8% of the students consulting the voice clinic. Following nodules, laryngeal mobility disorders were diagnosed in 16.4% of the patients (n=177), mainly females (n=115), and was the most frequent diagnosis in retirees (n=75, 34.9%). Conclusions. The majority of the patients consulting the voice clinic for dysphonia were adult females, in their workforce, diagnosed with vocal nodules. The identification of the patients’ characteristics and diagnoses is important to develop treatments and prevention of dysphonia, estimate their costs, and allow comparisons across referral centers. [less ▲]

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See detailLes ASBL et le Tax Shelter : un cadeau empoisonné ?
Garroy, Sabine ULg

in ASBL Actualités (2017)

Une loi du 25 décembre 2016 a étendu le régime du Tax Shelter, réservé jusqu’ici aux « œuvres audiovisuelles », aux œuvres dites « scéniques » (visant ainsi notamment l’opéra, le cirque, le théâtre ou ... [more ▼]

Une loi du 25 décembre 2016 a étendu le régime du Tax Shelter, réservé jusqu’ici aux « œuvres audiovisuelles », aux œuvres dites « scéniques » (visant ainsi notamment l’opéra, le cirque, le théâtre ou encore le ballet). Outre un rappel du système Tax Shelter (I), les spécificités du régime applicable aux « œuvres scéniques » (II) sont présentées. Si les ASBL peuvent s’inscrire dans la dynamique du Tax Shelter en tant que société de production éligible ou intermédiaire, elles seront par conséquent assujetties à l’impôt des sociétés (ci-après : ISOC), et ce, pour une certaine durée ; nous nous demandons enfin si le législateur a réservé, par le biais cette loi de Noël dernier, un si joli présent aux ASBL (III). [less ▲]

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See detailDe l'évaluation des Enseignements à la régulation des pratiques des enseignants: quels possibles et quelles conditions ?
Detroz, Pascal ULg; Verpoorten, Dominique ULg

in Education & Formation (2017), e307

Cet article propose une modélisation des divers usages des résultats de l’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). Nous considérons l’usage et les effets sur les enseignements, mais également ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose une modélisation des divers usages des résultats de l’évaluation des enseignements par les étudiants (EEE). Nous considérons l’usage et les effets sur les enseignements, mais également ceux produits sur le développement pédagogique des enseignants. Nous déterminons ensuite certains éléments du dispositif EEE favorisant une utilisation accrue et pertinente. [less ▲]

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See detailLes marqueurs biologiques de l’arthrose: De la découverte à l’analyse biologique de routine
Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Rhumatos (2017), 14(123), 180-183

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See detailAdverse Health Events Related to Self-Medication Practices Among Elderly: A Systematic Review.
Locquet, Médéa ULg; Honvo, Germain ULg; Rabenda, Véronique ULg et al

in Drugs & Aging (2017)

BACKGROUND: Older adults often resort to self-medication to relieve symptoms of their current illnesses; however, the risks of this practice are multiplied in old age. In particular, this age group is ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Older adults often resort to self-medication to relieve symptoms of their current illnesses; however, the risks of this practice are multiplied in old age. In particular, this age group is more vulnerable to adverse drug events because of the physiological changes that occur due to senescence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to obtain an overview of the adverse health events related to self-medication among subjects aged 60 years and over through a systematic review of the literature. METHODS: A study of relevant articles was conducted among databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EBM Reviews-Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews). Eligibility criteria were established and applied by two investigators to include suitable studies. The results and outcomes of interest were detailed in a descriptive report. RESULTS: The electronic search identified 4096 references, and the full texts of 74 were reviewed, of which four were retained in the analysis: three had a cross-sectional design and one prospectively followed elderly subjects. The first study showed a 26.7% prevalence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) among elders, the second study found a 75% prevalence of side effects, and, finally, a prospective study showed an ADR incidence of 4.5% among self-medicated elders. These studies showed that adverse health events related to self-medication are relatively frequently reported. They also highlighted that analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs are the most self-medicated products, while vitamins and dietary supplements also appear to be frequently self-administered, but by older individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Studies on self-medication in the elderly and its adverse health effects are clearly lacking. There is a need to perform prospective studies on this topic to gain a clear understanding of the extent of this problem and to enhance the awareness of health professionals to better inform seniors. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of design space optimization strategy to the developmentof LC methods for simultaneous analysis of 18 antiretroviral medicinesand 4 major excipients used in various pharmaceutical formulations
Habyalimana, Védaste ULg; Mbinze Kindenge, Jérémie ULg; Yemoa, Loconon ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 139

tAs one of the world’s most significant public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries,HIV/AIDS deserves to be treated with appropriate medicines, however which are not spared from coun ... [more ▼]

tAs one of the world’s most significant public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries,HIV/AIDS deserves to be treated with appropriate medicines, however which are not spared from coun-terfeiting. For that, we developed screening and specific HPLC methods that can analyze 18 antiretroviralmedicines (ARV) and 4 major excipients. Design of experiments and design space methodology wereinitially applied for 15 ARV and the 4 excipients with prediction thanks to Monte Carlo simulations andfocusing on rapidity and affordability thus using short column and low cost organic solvent (methanol)in gradient mode with 10 mM buffer solutions of ammonium hydrogen carbonate. Two other specificmethods dedicated to ARV in liquid and in solid dosage formulations were also predicted and opti-mized. We checked the ability of one method for the analysis of a fixed-dose combination composedby emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz in tablet formulations. Satisfying validation results were obtainedby applying the total error approach taking into account the accuracy profile as decision tool. Then, thevalidated method was applied to test two samples coded A and B, and claimed to contain the tested ARV.Assay results were satisfying only for sample B. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypes to genetically reduce greenhouse gas emissions in dairying
de Haas, Yvette; Pszczola, Marcin; Soyeurt, Hélène ULg et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2017), 100(2), 855-870

Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as ... [more ▼]

Phenotypes have been reviewed to select for lower-emitting animals in order to decrease the environmental footprint of dairy cattle products. This includes direct selection for breath measurements, as well as indirect selection via indicator traits such as feed intake, milk spectral data, and rumen microbial communities. Many of these traits are expensive or difficult to record, or both, but with genomic selection, inclusion of methane emission as a breeding goal trait is feasible, even with a limited number of registrations. At present, methane emission is not included among breeding goals for dairy cattle worldwide. There is no incentive to include enteric methane in breeding goals, although global warming and the release of greenhouse gases is a much-debated political topic. However, if selection for reduced methane emission became a reality, there would be limited consensus as to which phenotype to select for: methane in liters per day or grams per day, methane in liters per kilogram of energy-corrected milk or dry matter intake, or a residual methane phenotype, where methane production is corrected for milk production and the weight of the cow. We have reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of these traits, and discuss the methods for selection and consequences for these phenotypes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe recent increase of atmospheric methane from 10 years of ground-based NDACC FTIR observations since 2005
Bader, Whitney ULg; Bovy, Benoît ULg; Conway, Stephanie et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2017)

Changes of atmospheric methane total columns (CH4/ since 2005 have been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar observations carried out at 10 ground-based sites, affiliated to the Network ... [more ▼]

Changes of atmospheric methane total columns (CH4/ since 2005 have been evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar observations carried out at 10 ground-based sites, affiliated to the Network for Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From this, we find an increase of atmospheric methane total columns of 0.31±0.03 %/year (2-sigma level of uncertainty) for the 2005–2014 period. Comparisons with in situ methane measurements at both local and global scales show good 10 agreement. We used the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model tagged simulation, which accounts for the contribution of each emission source and one sink in the total methane, simulated over 2005–2012. After regridding according to NDACC vertical layering using a conservative 15 regridding scheme and smoothing by convolving with respective FTIR seasonal averaging kernels, the GEOS-Chem simulation shows an increase of atmospheric methane total columns of 0.35±0.03 %/year between 2005 and 2012, which is in agreement with NDACC measurements over the same time period (0.30±0.04 %/year, averaged over 10 stations). Analysis of the GEOS-Chem-tagged simulation allows us to quantify the contribution of each tracer to the global methane change since 2005. We find that natural sources such as wetlands and biomass burning contribute to the interannual variability of methane. However, anthropogenic emissions, such as coal mining, and gas and oil transport and exploration, which are mainly emitted in the Northern Hemisphere and act as secondary contributors to the global budget of methane, have played a major role in the increase of atmospheric methane observed since 2005. Based on the GEOS-Chem-tagged simulation, we discuss possible cause(s) for the increase of methane since 2005, which is still unexplained. [less ▲]

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See detailPédagogie universitaire et Evaluation de l’enseignement par les étudiants 
Younes, Nathalie; Paivendi, Saeed; Detroz, Pascal ULg

in Education & Formation (2017), e307

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See detailTowards a community-based concession model in the DRC
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Karsenty, Alain

in International Forestry Review (2017)

In 2014 Decree 14/018 laying down the rules for granting forest concessions to local communities, followed by Ministerial Order 0/25 on the same issue, was published in the DRC. This paper aims to analyse ... [more ▼]

In 2014 Decree 14/018 laying down the rules for granting forest concessions to local communities, followed by Ministerial Order 0/25 on the same issue, was published in the DRC. This paper aims to analyse the abovementioned legislation with respect to participatory management of forests. The explicit recognition of the duality of a customary de facto local community forest and a modern legal entity (concession) is an innovation. However, viewed from the perspective of the long-established habits within the country, the question remains whether these legal measures can be sufficient for ensuring the sustainable development of these community-held forested areas. Allowing community concessions up to 50,000 ha demonstrated a shift in the government policy away from the industrial timber cultivation model. However, an area this size is much larger than the communities can monitor, particularly in the case of artisanal charcoal or wood exploitation. [less ▲]

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See detailVoyage[s] à travers le thymus
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Science et Culture (2017), (465), 14-15

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See detailInduced Drag Calculations with the Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method for Cambered Wings
Lambert, Thomas ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg

in AIAA Journal (2017), 55(2), 668-672

The Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method (UVLM) is an approach widely used to estimate the aerodynamic loads in unsteady subsonic flows. It is based on modeling the camber surface of a lifting body by means of ... [more ▼]

The Unsteady Vortex Lattice Method (UVLM) is an approach widely used to estimate the aerodynamic loads in unsteady subsonic flows. It is based on modeling the camber surface of a lifting body by means of bound vortex rings. Even though this method has been known and used for several decades, there is little discussion of the modeling of the leading-edge suction in the literature. To address this concern, Simpson et al. [1] presented a comparison of two different ways to model this effect for the case of uncambered airfoils and wings in harmonic pitch or plunge motions. They concluded that the Joukowski method converges significantly faster than the Katz technique as the number of chorwise panels is increased. The present paper is an extension of the study by Simpson et al. to cambered lifting surfaces. It shows that the presence of camber can change radically the convergence performance of the two methods. For cambered wings, the Katz approach converges significantly faster than the Joukowski technique. [less ▲]

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See detailLa littérature belge francophone en classe de FLE
Outers, Pierre ULg; Stilmant, Nicolas

in Bulletin SUF (2017), 89

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See detailEvaluation of the ruminal function of Belgian dairy cows suspected of subacute ruminal acidosis.
Lessire, Françoise ULg; Knapp, Emilie; Theron, Léonard et al

in Vlaams Diergeneeskundig tijdschrift (2017), 86(1), 16-23

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) has been considered a major pathology in high producing dairy herds for years. These findings were corroborated by several studies in Europe. However, different feeding ... [more ▼]

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) has been considered a major pathology in high producing dairy herds for years. These findings were corroborated by several studies in Europe. However, different feeding practices and herds’ production levels are found in Southern Belgium. This study aimed to ascertain whether dairy cows of several herds from the south of Belgium (Wallonia) with a suspicion of SARA really did present too low ruminal pH values. Twenty-four herds were visited and 172 cows were sampled using an oropharyngeal device to collect ruminal fluid, i.e. Geishauser probe. On the samples, three tests were performed: pH measurement, methylene blue reduction test and microscopic evaluation of protozoa vitality. Based on these analyses, no cows demonstrated pH values lower than 5.5 and, only ten cows could be considered at risk for SARA. By contrast, in eightteen cows, pH values higher than 7.0 were measured and ruminal inactivity was suspected. In this study, ruminal alkalosis appeared to be more frequently observed than SARA. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative determination of salbutamol sulfate impurities using achiral supercritical fluid chromatography
Dispas, Amandine ULg; Desfontaine, Vincent; Andri, Bertyl ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 134

In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography has largely been acknowledged as a singular and performing technique in the field of separation sciences. Recent studies highlighted the interest of ... [more ▼]

In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography has largely been acknowledged as a singular and performing technique in the field of separation sciences. Recent studies highlighted the interest of SFC for the quality control of pharmaceuticals, especially in the case of the determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).Nevertheless, quality control requires also the determination of impurities. The objectives of the present work were to i) demonstrate the interest of SFC as a reference technique for the determination of impurities in salbutamol sulfate API and ii) to propose an alternative to a reference HPLC method from the European Pharmacopeia (EP) involving ionpairing reagent. Firstly, a screening was carried out to select the most adequate and selective stationary phase. Secondly, in the context of robust optimization strategy, the method was developed using design space methodology. The separation of salbutamol sulfate and related impurities was achieved in 7 minutes, which is seven times faster than the LC-UV method proposed by European Pharmacopeia (total run time of 50 minutes). Finally, full validation using accuracy profile approach was successfully achieved for the determination of impurities B, D, F and G in salbutamol sulfate raw material. The validated dosing range covered 50 to 150 % of the targeted concentration (corresponding to 0.3 % concentration level), LODs close to 0.5 μg/mL were estimated. The SFC method proposed in this study could be presented as a suitable fast alternative to EP LC method for the quantitative determination of salbutamol impurities. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Martian diffuse aurora: a model of ultraviolet and visible emissions
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Shematovich, V.I. et al

in Icarus (2017), 288

A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar ... [more ▼]

A new type of Martian aurora, characterized by an extended spatial distribution, an altitude lower than the discrete aurora and electron precipitation up to 200 keV has been observed following solar activity on several occasions from the MAVEN spacecraft. We describe the results of Monte Carlo simulations of the production of several ultraviolet and violet auroral emissions for initial electron energies extending from 0.25 to 200 keV. These include the CO2+ ultraviolet doublet (UVD) at 288.3 and 289.6 nm and the Fox–Duffendack–Barker (FDB) bands, CO Cameron and Fourth Positive bands, OI 130.4 and 297.2 nm and CI 156.1 nm and 165.7 nm multiplets. We calculate the nadir and limb production rates of several of these emissions for a unit precipitated energy flux. Our results indicate that electrons in the range 50-200 keV produce maximum CO2+ UVD emission below 75 km, in agreement with the MAVEN observations. We calculate the efficiency of photon production per unit precipitated electron power. The strongest emissions are the CO2+ FDB, UVD and CO Cameron bands and the oxygen mission at 297.2 nm. The metastable a 3Π state which radiates the Cameron bands is deactivated by collisions below about 110 km. As a consequence, we show that the Cameron band emission is expected to peak at a higher altitude than the CO2+ UVD and FDB bands. Collisional quenching also causes the intensity ratio of the CO2+ UVD to CO Cameron bands to increase below ∼100 km in the energetic diffuse aurora. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis and indications on long-term forecasting of the Oceanic Niño Index with wavelet-induced components
Deliège, Adrien ULg; Nicolay, Samuel ULg

in Pure and Applied Geophysics (2017), 174(4), 1815-1826

The present paper provides an analysis and a long-term forecasting scheme of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) using the continuous wavelet transform. First, it appears that oscillatory components with main ... [more ▼]

The present paper provides an analysis and a long-term forecasting scheme of the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI) using the continuous wavelet transform. First, it appears that oscillatory components with main periods of about 17, 31, 43, 61 and 140 months govern most of the variability of the signal, which is consistent with previous works. Then, this information enables us to derive a simple algorithm to model and forecast ONI. The model is based on the observation that the modes extracted from the signal are generally phased with positive or negative anomalies of ONI (El Niño and La Niña events). Such a feature is exploited to generate locally stationary curves that mimic this behavior and which can be easily extrapolated to form a basic forecast. The wavelet transform is then used again to smooth out the process and finalize the predictions. The skills of the technique described in this paper are assessed through retroactive forecasts of past El Niño and La Niña events and via classic indicators computed as functions of the lead time. The main asset of the proposed model resides in its long-lead prediction skills. Consequently, this approach should prove helpful as a complement to other models for estimating the long-term trends of ONI. [less ▲]

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See detailIs langdurig ziekteverzuim voorspelbaar en meetbaar ?
Goorts, Kaat; Duchesnes, Christiane ULg; Vandenbroeck, Sofie et al

in Tijdschrift voor Bedrijfs- en Verzekeringsgeneeskunde (2017), 25(2), 59-62

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See detailPrix fixe du livre : les propositions belges contredisent-elles le droit européen de la concurrence ?
Van Cleynenbreugel, Pieter ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Belgische Mededinging [=TBM] = Revue de la Concurrence Belge [=RCB] (2017), 4

Cet article analyse la compatibilité des propositions par les gouvernements communautaires belges des décrets relatifs aux prix fixes du livre, d'un point de vue du droit du marché intérieur ainsi que du ... [more ▼]

Cet article analyse la compatibilité des propositions par les gouvernements communautaires belges des décrets relatifs aux prix fixes du livre, d'un point de vue du droit du marché intérieur ainsi que du droit européen de la concurrence. [less ▲]

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See detailThe importance of open data and software: Is energy research lagging behind?
Pfenninger, Stefan; DeCariolis, Joseph; Hirth, Lion et al

in Energy Policy (2017)

Energy policy often builds on insights gained from quantitative energy models and their underlying data. As climate change mitigation and economic concerns drive a sustained transformation of the energy ... [more ▼]

Energy policy often builds on insights gained from quantitative energy models and their underlying data. As climate change mitigation and economic concerns drive a sustained transformation of the energy sector, transparent and well-founded analyses are more important than ever. We assert that models and their associated data must be openly available to facilitate higher quality science, greater productivity through less duplicated effort, and a more effective science-policy boundary. There are also valid reasons why data and code are not open: ethical and security concerns, unwanted exposure, additional workload, and institutional or personal inertia. Overall, energy policy research ostensibly lags behind other fields in promoting more open and reproducible science. We take stock of the status quo and propose actionable steps forward for the energy research community to ensure that it can better engage with decision-makers and continues to deliver robust policy advice in a transparent and reproducible way. [less ▲]

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See detailLe rôle des rongeurs dans la dispersion des diaspores en milieu forestier (synthèse bibliographique)
Evrard, Quentin ULg; Haurez, Barbara ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2017)

Introduction. Seed dispersal is a key interaction that influences a number of ecological processes that are important to the maintenance of diversity in forest ecosystems. Rodents, mainly considered as ... [more ▼]

Introduction. Seed dispersal is a key interaction that influences a number of ecological processes that are important to the maintenance of diversity in forest ecosystems. Rodents, mainly considered as seed predators, can carry, hide and discard seeds, often transporting them over considerable distances from the parent tree and thus leading to an enhanced germination rate. The role of rodents on forest regeneration therefore depends upon several environmental variables influencing their behavior. Literature. Many publications demonstrate that rodents are mostly seed predators for many species. Nevertheless, because it is hard to define their movement pattern, the role of rodents on regeneration could be underestimated. Through scatter-hoarding, rodents may play a crucial role, particularly in those forests where anthropogenic pressures have led to a reduction in the density of large mammals. However, very few studies have been conducted in African moist forests where defaunation can be high, and the role of rodents has been very poorly studied. Conclusions. To understand the phenomenon, we suggest to further investigate the interactions between seeds and rodents by employing methods that have been commonly used on other continents. [less ▲]

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See detailGlomerular filtration rate in healthy living potential kidney donors: a meta-analysis supporting the construction of the the Full Age Spectrum equation.
Pottel, H; Hoste, L; Yayo, E et al

in Nephron (2017), 135(2), 105-119

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See detailTwo-domain and three-domain limit cycles in a typical aeroelastic system with freeplay in pitch
Verstraelen, Edouard ULg; Dimitriadis, Grigorios ULg; Dal Ben Rossetto, Gustavo et al

in Journal of Fluids & Structures (2017), 69

Freeplay is a significant source of nonlinearity in aeroelastic systems and is strictly regulated by airworthiness authorities. It splits the phase plane of such systems into three piecewise linear ... [more ▼]

Freeplay is a significant source of nonlinearity in aeroelastic systems and is strictly regulated by airworthiness authorities. It splits the phase plane of such systems into three piecewise linear subdomains. Depending on the location of the freeplay, limit cycle oscillations can result that span either two or three of these subdomains. The purpose of this work is to demonstrate the existence of two-domain cycles both theoretically and experimentally. A simple aeroelastic system with pitch, plunge and control deflection degrees of freedom is investigated in the presence of freeplay in pitch. It is shown that two-domain and three-domain cycles can result from a grazing bifurcation and propagate in the decreasing airspeed direction. Close to the bifurcation, the two limit cycle branches interact with each other and aperiodic oscillations ensue. Equivalent linearization is used to derive the conditions of existence of each type of limit cycle and to predict their amplitudes and frequencies. Comparisons with measurements from wind tunnel experiments demonstrate that the theory describes these phenomena with accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between ambulatory physical activity assessed by activity trackers and physical frailty among nursing home residents.
Buckinx, Fanny ULg; Mouton, Alexandre ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Gait & Posture (2017), 54

BACKGROUNDS: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of ambulatory physical activity, measured by physical activity tracker, and the clinical components of physical frailty ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUNDS: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the level of ambulatory physical activity, measured by physical activity tracker, and the clinical components of physical frailty, among nursing home residents. METHODS: We proceeded in 3 steps: (1) Validation of the physical activity tracker (i.e. the Pebble): 24 volunteer adults walked on a treadmill. The number of steps recorded by the Pebble worn by the subjects was compared with the number of steps counted by the investigators, by means of the Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). (2) Measurement of ambulatory physical activity, using the Pebble trackers, over a 7-day period. (3) Relationship between the results obtained with the Pebble trackers (step 2) and subjects' clinical characteristics, linked to physical frailty. RESULTS: ICC data, showed that the reliability of the Pebble was better when it was worn at the foot level (ICC ranged from 0.60 to 0.93 depending on the tested speed). Gait speed is also an important determinant of the reliability, which is better for low gait speed. On average, the 27 nursing home residents included in the second step of this study walked 1678.4+/-1621 (median=1300) steps per day. Most physical components of frailty measured in this study were significantly different between subjects who walked less than 1300 steps per day and those who were more active. CONCLUSION: This study showed that nursing home residents have a poor ambulatory physical activity, assessed using a physical activity tracker, which is associated with poorer physical performances and higher disability. [less ▲]

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See detailChez Froidmont au Nord : lectures polyphoniques d’une quête identitaire
Baiwir, Esther ULg; Adams, Juliette; Demonchaux, Chloé et al

in Tortue verte. Revue en ligne des littératures francophones (2017)

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See detailA specific immune and lymphatic profile characterizes the pre-metastatic state of the sentinel lymph node in patients with early cervical cancer
Balsat, Cédric ULg; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Herfs, Michael ULg et al

in Oncoimmunology (2017), 6(2), 1265718

The lymph node (LN) pre-metastatic niche is faintly characterized in lymphophilic human neoplasia, although LN metastasis is considered as the strongest prognostic marker of patient survival. Due to its ... [more ▼]

The lymph node (LN) pre-metastatic niche is faintly characterized in lymphophilic human neoplasia, although LN metastasis is considered as the strongest prognostic marker of patient survival. Due to its specific dissemination through a complex bilateral pelvic lymphatic system, early cervical cancer is a relevant candidate for investigating the early nodal metastatic process. In the present study, we analyzed in-depth both the lymphatic vasculature and the immune climate of pre-metastatic sentinel LN (SLN), in 48 cases of FIGO stage IB1 cervical neoplasms. An original digital image analysis methodology was used to objectively determine whole slide densities and spatial distributions of immunostained structures. We observed a marked increase in lymphatic vessel density (LVD) and a specific capsular and subcapsular distribution in pre-metastatic SLN when compared with non-sentinel counterparts. Such features persisted in the presence of nodal metastatic colonization. The inflammatory profile attested by CD8+, Foxp3, CD20 and PD-1expression was also significantly increased in pre-metastatic SLN. Remarkably, the densities of CD20+ B cells and PD-1 expressing germinal centers were positively correlated with LVD. All together, these data strongly support the existence of a pre-metastatic dialog between the primary tumor and the first nodal relay. Both lymphatic and immune responses contribute to the elaboration of a specific pre-metastatic microenvironment in human SLN. Moreover, this work provides evidence that, in the context of early cervical cancer, a pre-metastatic lymphangiogenesis occurs within the SLN (pre-metastatic niche) and is associated with a specific humoral immune response. [less ▲]

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See detailLearning from blind tests: Determining the function of experimental grinding stones through use-wear and residue analysis
Hayes, Elspeth H.; Cnuts, Dries ULg; Lepers, Christian et al

in Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2017), 11

Abstract Blind tests provide an objective means to evaluate the accuracy of functional interpretations based on the presence of use-wear and residue traces on stone tools. Previous blind tests have ... [more ▼]

Abstract Blind tests provide an objective means to evaluate the accuracy of functional interpretations based on the presence of use-wear and residue traces on stone tools. Previous blind tests have highlighted interpretive errors commonly associated with use-wear and residue analyses leading to significant methodological developments in each of the respective fields. While a number of blind tests have been performed on flaked stone tools, only a single blind test has been published for use-wear on grinding tools. We present the results of a two-part blind test performed on 15 experimental grinding implements that were used in a controlled setting, designed to evaluate the relative importance of residue analysis for determining the worked material (1) when contextual information is available and (2) when contextual information is absent. We argue that use-wear and residue analyses are successful procedures to identify the use of grinding stones, and that residue analysis may be a particularly valuable means for determining the worked material on tools that have insufficient use-wear development. We suggest that residues should be sufficiently abundant to infer use, if we are to avoid the potential confusion caused by contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailMapIT!: a simple and user-friendly MATLAB script to
elaborate elemental distribution images from LA-
ICP-MS data

Sforna, Marie-Catherine ULg; Lugli, Federico

in Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry [=JAAS] (2017)

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See detailMeasurement of pleural pressure swings with a fluid-filled esophageal catheter vs pulmonary artery occlusion pressure
VERSCHEURE, Sara ULg; MASSION, Paul ULg; GOTTFRIED, S et al

in Journal of Critical Care (2017), 37

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See detailResidential heat pump as flexible load for direct control service with parametrized duration and rebound effect
Georges, Emeline ULg; Cornélusse, Bertrand ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in Applied Energy (2017), 187

This paper addresses the problem of an aggregator controlling residential heat pumps to offer a direct control flexibility service. The service consists of a power modulation, upward or downward, that is ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of an aggregator controlling residential heat pumps to offer a direct control flexibility service. The service consists of a power modulation, upward or downward, that is activated at a given time period over a fixed number of periods. The service modulation is relative to an optimized baseline that minimizes the energy costs. The load modulation is directly followed by a constrained rebound effect, consisting of a delay time with no deviations from the baseline consumption and a payback time to return to the baseline state. The potential amount of modulation and the constrained rebound effect are computed by solving mixed integer linear problems. Within these problems, the thermal behavior of the building is modeled by an equivalent thermal network made of resistances and lumped capacitances. Simulations are performed for different sets of buildings typical of the Belgian residential building stock and are presented in terms of achievable modulation amplitude, deviations from the baseline and associated costs. A cluster of one hundred ideal buildings, corresponding to retrofitted freestanding houses, is then chosen to investigate the influence of each parameter defined within the service. Results show that with a set of one hundred heat pumps, a load aggregator could expect to harvest mean modulation amplitudes of up to 138 kW for an upward modulation and up to 51 kW for a downward modulation. The obtained values strongly depend on the proposed flexibility service. For example, they can decrease down to 2.6 kW and 0.4 kW, respectively, if no rebound effect is allowed. [less ▲]

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See detailMultiscale model of the human cardiovascular system: Description of heart failure and comparison of contractility indices
Kosta, Sarah ULg; Negroni, Jorge; Lascano, Elena et al

in Mathematical Biosciences (2017), 284

A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological ... [more ▼]

A multiscale model of the cardiovascular system is presented. Hemodynamics is described by a lumped parameter model, while heart contraction is described at the cellular scale. An electrophysiological model and a mechanical model were coupled and adjusted so that the pressure and volume of both ventricles are linked to the force and length of a half-sarcomere. Particular attention was paid to the extreme values of the sarcomere length, which must keep physiological values. This model is able to reproduce healthy behavior, preload variations experiments, and ventricular failure. It also allows to compare the relevance of standard cardiac contractility indices. This study shows that the theoretical gold standard for assessing cardiac contractility, namely the end-systolic elastance, is actually load-dependent and therefore not a reliable index of cardiac contractility. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches
Lamourou, Ali ULg; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie ULg

in Journal of African Earth Sciences (2017), 129C

A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allows reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim is identifying the ... [more ▼]

A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allows reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim is identifying the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 meter water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay < 2 m. The three cores broadly present the same sedimentological and mineralogical features. Microscopical observations of petrographic slides allow to identifying six main sedimentary facies. Bulk mineralogical assemblages comprise clay minerals, quartz, calcite, gypsum and K-feldspars. The main change concerns the carbonate content that mimics the bioclaste abundance and dilute the detrital minerals (clay minerals, quartz and feldspars). The gypsum mainly occurs in the lower sedimentary columns (SC12 and SC9) and in the upper/middle of core SC6. The clay fraction is made of a mixture of kaolinite, illite, smectite and palygorskite with no clear variation through core depth. Both grain-size parameters and magnetic susceptibility profile indicates a sharp transition in the upper 2 to 5 m of the sedimentological columns. Coarse, sandy to gravely, sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal are replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies showed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. Core-top sediments, however, record a littoral marine environment characterized by sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical parameters are consistent with a transition from a continental, fluviatile, depositional environment, with some emersion phases marked by the gypsum precipitation to a marine littoral environment. Such evolution is consistent with a relative sea-level rise which flooded the fluvial system at the coastal plain during the Holocene, in agreement with sea-level fluctuations in southeast Tunisia during the Holocene. [less ▲]

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See detailEnonciation et modes d'existence
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2017), 120

Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique ... [more ▼]

Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique francophone contemporaine qu’à la base de la réflexion de Bruno Latour, des années 1970 jusqu’à présent . Notre propos se déploie en deux moments : dans un premier temps, nous revenons sur l’article "Petite Philosophie de l’énonciation" (1998), et nous en suivons le développement dans l’Enquête sur les modes d’existence (2012). Dans un second temps, nous réalisons une rapide archéologie de la théorie de l’énonciation dans la sémiotique contemporaine, afin de mettre en lumière les liens entre différentes traditions sémiotiques et la théorie latourienne. Plus précisément, nous nous attachons aux propositions récentes de Jacques Fontanille et de Claudio Paolucci, en prenant également en considération les contributions d’Umberto Eco et Patrizia Violi. Il s’agit de voir comment les sémioticiens peuvent tirer profit de la théorie latourienne des modes d’existence et vice versa. [less ▲]

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See detailL'énonciation d'une synthèse
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2017)

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See detailSeasonal variations in drag coefficient over a sastrugi-covered snowfield in coastal East Antarctica
Amory, Charles ULg; Gallee, Hubert; Naaim-Bouvet, Florence et al

in Boundary-Layer Meteorology (2017)

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See detailInteractions between groundwater and the cavity of an old slate mine used as lower reservoir of an UPSH (Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity): A modelling approach
Bodeux, Sarah ULg; Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Engineering Geology (2017), 217

In the actual evolving energy context, characterized by an increasing part of intermittent renewable sources, the development of energy storage technologies are required, such as pumped storage ... [more ▼]

In the actual evolving energy context, characterized by an increasing part of intermittent renewable sources, the development of energy storage technologies are required, such as pumped storage hydroelectricity (PSH). While new sites for conventional PSH plants are getting scarce, it is proposed to use abandoned underground mines as lower reservoirs for Underground Pumped Storage Hydroelectricity (UPSH). However, the hydrogeological consequences produced by the cyclic solicitations (continuous pumpings and injections) have been poorly investigated. Therefore, in this work, groundwater interactions with the cyclically fill and empty cavity were numerically studied considering a simplified description of a slate mine. Two pumping/injection scenarios were considered, both for a reference slate rock case and for a sensitivity analysis of variations of aquifer hydraulic conductivity value. Groundwater impacts were assessed in terms of oscillations of piezometric heads and mean drawdown around the cavity. The value of the hydraulic conductivity clearly influences the magnitude of the aquifer response. Studying interactions with the cavity highlighted that seepage into the cavity occurs over time. The volume of seeped water varies depending on the hydraulic conductivity and it could become non-negligible in the UPSH operations. These preliminary results allow finally considering first geological feasibility aspects, which could vary conversely according to the hydraulic conductivity value and to the considered groundwater impacts. [less ▲]

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See detailCyanobacterial Contribution to Travertine Deposition in the Hoyoux River System, Belgium
Kleinteich, Julia; Golubic, Stjepko; Pessi, Igor S. et al

in Microbial Ecology (2017)

Travertine deposition is a landscape-forming process, usually building a series of calcareous barriers differentiating the river flow into a series of cascades and ponds. The process of carbonate ... [more ▼]

Travertine deposition is a landscape-forming process, usually building a series of calcareous barriers differentiating the river flow into a series of cascades and ponds. The process of carbonate precipitation is a complex relationship between biogenic and abiotic causative agents, involving adapted microbial assemblages but also requiring high levels of carbonate saturation, spontaneous degassing of carbon dioxide and slightly alkaline pH. We have analysed calcareous crusts and water chemistry from four sampling sites along the Hoyoux River and its Triffoy tributary (Belgium) in winter, spring, summer and autumn 2014. Different surface textures of travertine deposits correlated with particular microenvironments and were influenced by the local water flow. In all microenvironments, we have identified the cyanobacterium Phormidium incrustatum (Nägeli) Gomont as the organism primarily responsible for carbonate precipitation and travertine fabric by combining morphological analysis with molecular sequencing (16S rRNA gene and ITS, the Internal Transcribed Spacer fragments), targeting both field populations and cultures to exclude opportunistic microorganisms responding favourably to culture conditions. Several closely related cyanobacterial strains were cultured; however, only one proved identical with the sequences obtained from the field population by direct PCR. This strain was the dominant primary producer in the calcareous deposits under study and in similar streams in Europe. The dominance of one organism that had a demonstrated association with carbonate precipitation presented a valuable opportunity to study its function in construction, preservation and fossilisation potential of ambient temperature travertine deposits. These relationships were examined using scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Evolution of PhD Education in Spain: A Chronological Review of Supra-national and National Actions
Aliaga Isla, Rocio ULg

in Higher Education Teaaching and Learning (2017), 7

PhD education in Spain has changed; the current conception of the PhD is different from its initial concept. PhD education policy in Spain has experienced changes in its objectives and structure. Since ... [more ▼]

PhD education in Spain has changed; the current conception of the PhD is different from its initial concept. PhD education policy in Spain has experienced changes in its objectives and structure. Since its membership into the European Community, institutional policies at supra-national and national level have shaped and conditioned such changes. Therefore, how have PhD education policies changed over a long time in Spain? To answer this question, a chronological review has been conducted under the light of institutional theory. Several legal documents enacted at supra-national level are reviewed to frame the changes of PhD education policy at a national level. Moreover, national legal documents are reviewed to follow the evolution of PhD education in Spain. This study shows that PhD education in Spain has experienced rapid changes, which are congruent to some extent with the supra-national policies that have emerged from the social and economic change in the European Union. [less ▲]

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See detailBeech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production
Miazek, Krystian ULg; Remacle, Claire ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg et al

in Bioresource Technology (2017), 230(April 2017), 122131

This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H2SO4) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized ... [more ▼]

This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H2SO4) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent uptake of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is associated with increased prevalence of Pfdhfr mutations in Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso
Cisse, Mamoudou; Awandare, Gordon; Soulama, Alamissa et al

in Malaria Journal (2017), 16

Background: The impact of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) on mutant parasite selection has been poorly documented in Burkina Faso. This ... [more ▼]

Background: The impact of sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine (SP) used as intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp-SP) on mutant parasite selection has been poorly documented in Burkina Faso. This study sought first to explore the relationship between IPTp-SP and the presence of mutant parasites. Second, to assess the Relationship between the mutant parasites and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: From September to December 2010, dried blood spots (DBS) were collected during antenatal care visits and at delivery from 109 pregnant women with microscopically confirmed falciparum malaria infection. DBS were analysed by PCR–restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR–RFLP) for the polymorphisms at codons 51, 59, 108 and 164 of the Pfdhfr gene and codons 437 and 540 in the Pfdhps gene. Results: Both the Pfdhfr and Pfdhps genes were successfully genotyped in 92.7% (101/109) of the samples. The prevalence of Pfdhfr mutations N51I, C59R and S108N was 71.3, 42.6 and 64.4%, respectively. Overall, 80.2% (81/101) of samples carried the Pfdhps A437G mutation. None of the samples had the Pfdhfr I164L and the Pfdhps K540E mutations. The prevalence of the triple mutation N51I + C59R + S108N was 25.7% (26/101). The use of IPTp-SP was associated with a threefold increased odds of Pfdhfr C59R mutation [crude OR 3.29; 95% CI (1.44–7.50)]. Pregnant women with recent uptake of IPTp-SP were at higher odds of both the Pfdhfr C59R mutation [adjusted OR 4.26; 95% CI (1.64–11.07)] and the Pfdhfr intermediate-to-high resistance, i.e., ≥ 2 Pfdhfr mutations [adjusted OR 3.45; 95% CI (1.18–10.07)]. There was no statistically significant association between the presence of the Pfdhfr intermediate-tohigh resistance and parasite densities or both maternal haemoglobin level and anaemia. Conclusion: The data indicate that despite the possibility that IPTp-SP contributes to the selection of resistant parasites, it did not potentiate pregnancy-associated malaria morbidity, suggesting the continuation of SP use as IPTp in Burkina Faso. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotocleavable stabilizer for the preparation of PHEMA nanogels by dispersion polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxide
Alaimo, David; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Kuppan, Chandrasekar et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2017), 8(3), 581-591

A new photo-sensitive diblock copolymer composed of a hydrophilic sequence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) linked to a CO2-philic sequence of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) (PFDA) by a ... [more ▼]

A new photo-sensitive diblock copolymer composed of a hydrophilic sequence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) linked to a CO2-philic sequence of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) (PFDA) by a light sensitive o- nitrobenzyl group was successfully synthesized by RAFT polymerization and used as stabilizer for the free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in dispersion in ?,?,?-trifluorotoluene and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Thanks to this fluorinated stabilizer, well-defined particles of PHEMA down to 350 nm of diameter were produced in scCO2. Advantageously, the photocleavable group at the block junction of the stabilizer could be cleaved by exposing the particles to UV light so that the fluorinated block could be extracted in TFT or scCO2. As supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, up to 80 % of the fluorinated block of the stabilizer can be removed, leading to efficient swelling and dispersion of the resulting PHEMA nanogels in water. [less ▲]

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