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See detailSoutenir les proches d'une personne incarcérée. L'accompagnement d'un Service d'Aide aux justiciables.
Garcet, Serge ULg; Lecomte, Romain

in L'Observatoire (2016), 89(novembre/décembre), 46-49

Interview par R. Lecomte dans le cadre du dossier spécial "travail avec les proches" autour de la thématique de l'aide apportée aux détenus et à leurs proches.

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See detailShort-lived subduction and exhumation in Western Papua (Wandamen peninsula): Co-existence of HP and HT metamorphic rocks in a young geodynamic setting
François, Camille ULg; de Sigoyer, Julia; Pubellier, Manuel et al

in Lithos (2016), 266-267

Understanding processes of formation of accretionary wedges requires studying young and well preserved examples. The Lengguru wedge (West Papua) is younger than 10 Myr and is a result of oblique and fast ... [more ▼]

Understanding processes of formation of accretionary wedges requires studying young and well preserved examples. The Lengguru wedge (West Papua) is younger than 10 Myr and is a result of oblique and fast subduction (11cm/yr) of the Bird’s Head (a part of the Australian margin beneath the Melanesian Arc). Thus, the rapid formation of this wedge (actually a Fold and Thrust Belt) may be attributed to a single tectonic event. High pressure (HP) metabasic and metasedimentary rocks have been discovered in the core of the wedge in the Wandamen peninsula. Locally, these rocks are overprinted by migmatization during the decompression. Field relationships indicate that migmatites and anatectic leucogranite crosscut the HP metamorphic rocks. This paper reports characterization of petrology and thermobarometry of metasediments and metabasic samples, all included in a former mélange-type rock association, as well as geochronology of metasediments. Pressure-Temperature (PT) conditions highlight two stages of metamorphism within a small time bracket. In metasediments, a first stage of relatively HP (~13-17 kbar) is observed as attested by a first paragenesis of garnet-kyanite-phengite. Garnet, kyanite and phengite are then destabilized in favor of biotite during the decompression (5-12 kbar and > 550°C). Late fractures filled with chlorite and a second generation of white mica crosscut the foliation (< 7 kbar and 500-600°C). In metabasic rocks, the peak of pressure is reached from 15 to 23 kbar and from 525 to 650°C. Geochronological study was conducted using U-Pb dating (LA-MC-ICPMS) on zircons from the metasedimentary and migmatitic rocks. Some zircon cores often present high Th/U ratio typical for magmatic origin, as confirmed by trace element signature of metasediments, and recorded ages older than 300 Ma, witness of the activity of a volcanic arc on the former margin of the Australian craton. Most others zircons presents a low Th/U ratio attesting their metamorphic origin, confirmed by inclusions of kyanite. The metamorphic zircons are dated between 5.61 ± 0.04 Ma and 8.1 ± 1.1 Ma. These very young metamorphic ages attest for a rapid subduction and exhumation event. [less ▲]

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See detailNutritional Composition and Rearing Potential of the Meadow Grasshopper (Chorthippus parallelus Zetterstedt)
Paul, Aman ULg; Frederich, Michel ULg; Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULg et al

in Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology (2016), 19(4), 1111-1116

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are ... [more ▼]

Insects, particularly those belonging to the family Acrididae (grasshoppers), are commonly consumed as human food in many parts of the world. Grasshoppers of the species Chorthippus parallelus are abundantly found throughout Europe. However, these insects were not consumed by Europeans till now, but could possibly be used as human food, which is why we investigated their chemical composition. We found that they contain high level of proteins (69%), with an excellent amino acid profile and protein digestibility (97%). Furthermore, specimens of C. parallelus have an interesting fatty acids profile and minerals composition. Preliminary toxicity assessment indicates that these insects do not exhibit toxicity towards neutrophil cells (white blood cells). These data suggest that C. parallelus could be considered for human consumption. Rearing trials done during the study show that commercial rearing could be developed to produce sufficient biomass for sustaining human consumption. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst-principles reinvestigation of bulk WO3
Hamdi, Hanen ULg; Salje, Ekhard K. H.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 94

Using first-principles calculations, we analyze the structural properties of tungsten trioxide WO3. Our calculations rely on density functional theory and the use of the B1-WC hybrid functional, which ... [more ▼]

Using first-principles calculations, we analyze the structural properties of tungsten trioxide WO3. Our calculations rely on density functional theory and the use of the B1-WC hybrid functional, which provides very good agreement with experimental data. We show that the hypothetical high-symmetry cubic reference structure combines several ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive (antipolar cation motions, rotations, and tilts of oxygen octahedra) structural instabilities. Although the ferroelectric instability is the largest, the instability related to antipolar W motions combines with those associated to oxygen rotations and tilts to produce the biggest energy reduction, yielding a P21/c ground state. This nonpolar P21/c phase is only different from the experimentally reported P c ground state by the absence of a very tiny additional ferroelectric distortion. The calculations performed on a stoichiometric compound so suggest that the low-temperature phase of WO3 is not intrinsically ferroelectric and that the experimentally observed ferroelectric character might arise from extrinsic defects such as oxygen vacancies. Independently, we also identify never observed R3m and R3c ferroelectric metastable phases with large polarizations and low energies close to the P 21 /c ground state, which makes WO3 a potential antiferroelectric material. The relative stability of various phases is discussed in terms of the anharmonic couplings between different structural distortions, highlighting a very complex interplay. [less ▲]

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See detailLes complexes œstrogéniques sélectifs tissulaires : un scoop ou un flop ?
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Références en Gynécologie Obstétrique (2016), 17(1), 26-29

The controversy surrounding the benefits and risks associated with hormone replacement therapy with combined estrogen and progestin induces the development of new therapies avoiding progestin and its side ... [more ▼]

The controversy surrounding the benefits and risks associated with hormone replacement therapy with combined estrogen and progestin induces the development of new therapies avoiding progestin and its side effects. The tissue selective estrogen complexes pair the positive effect of estrogen with selective estrogen receptor modulator which allows endometrial and breast protection. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary management of breast cancer
Leclerc, Anne-France ULg; JERUSALEM, Guy ULg; DEVOS, Martine ULg et al

in Archives of Public Health (2016), 74

Breast cancer, with an increasing incidence, is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. The treatments proposed, generally a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, endocrine ... [more ▼]

Breast cancer, with an increasing incidence, is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women worldwide. The treatments proposed, generally a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and / or targeted therapy, are constantly improving, allowing a reduction in the mortality rate, but they are still causing many side effects, not only early but also late, which leads us to consider the post-cancer period as a chronic condition. Side effects, reviewed in this commentary, may affect physical functions, psychological status, social situation, body composition, well-being and quality of life of the patient. In view of the extent of these areas in which side effects of breast cancer and of its treatments can be found, the supportive care offered at the end of treatment need to be multidisciplinary. Different supportive care interventions may be proposed to the patients such as psychological and behavioral interventions, complementary therapies, diet interventions, physical activity/rehabilitation or also physiotherapy interventions for example, all having shown some beneficial effects in the literature. The benefits of these supportive care interventions are thereby already established and they are described in this article, but others studies will be needed to clearly define indications and most optimal modalities of application to reduce side effects and improve quality of life of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly exposure to Aroclor 1254 in vivo disrupts the functional synaptic development of newborn hippocampal granule cells.
Parent, Anne-Simone ULg; Pinson, Anneline ULg; Woods, N. et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2016), 44(12), 3001-3010

Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is sensitive to endogenous and exogenous factors that influence hippocampal function. Ongoing neurogenesis and the integration of these new neurons throughout life thus ... [more ▼]

Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus is sensitive to endogenous and exogenous factors that influence hippocampal function. Ongoing neurogenesis and the integration of these new neurons throughout life thus may provide a sensitive indicator of environmental stress. We examined the effects of Aroclor 1254 (A1254), a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), on the development and function of newly generated dentate granule cells. Early exposure to A1254 has been associated with learning impairment in children, suggesting potential impact on the development of hippocampus and/or cortical circuits. Oral A1254 (from the 6th day of gestation to postnatal day 21) produced the expected increase in PCB levels in brain at postnatal day 21, which persisted at lower levels into adulthood. A1254 did not affect the proliferation or survival of newborn neurons in immature animals nor did it cause overt changes in neuronal morphology. However, A1254 occluded the normal developmental increase in sEPSC frequency in the third post-mitotic week without altering the average sEPSC amplitude. Our results suggest that early exposure to PCBs can disrupt excitatory synaptic function during a period of active synaptogenesis, and thus could contribute to the cognitive effects noted in children exposed to PCBs. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche du régime alimentaire chez le Silure glane
Libois, Roland ULg; Rosoux, René; Gabris, Bruno

in Recherches Naturalistes en Région Centre (2016), 3 N.S.

The Wels originates from central and East-Europe. It was introduced in Europe as early as the Middle Ages and in France the species has been released many times since the 19th century. It invaded the ... [more ▼]

The Wels originates from central and East-Europe. It was introduced in Europe as early as the Middle Ages and in France the species has been released many times since the 19th century. It invaded the Loire river basin at the end of the last century. It is the largest predatory freshwater fish in Europe. Considering its recent increase in numbers and of range and its feeding behaviour, the Orleans museum coordinated a study of the species in the Loire valley from 2011 to 2014 in order to better know the species ecology and especially its choice of prey and food intake. The stomach contents from a sample of 60 individuals of all sizes, captured using nets, were analysed. It feeds on a wide variety of species, more than 23 were found during this study, mainly fish. Anadromous Fish and Lamprey made up an important part of the food intake (66%). [less ▲]

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See detailAttack-Prevention and Damage-Control Investments in Cybersecurity
Lam, Wing Man Wynne ULg

in Information Economics and Policy (2016)

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See detailLes fondements dogmatiques du droit chez Leibniz
Paksy, Máté ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016), LXI(3), 587-597

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See detailFondations, philanthropie et mécénat
Vandenbulke, Antoine ULg

in Revue Pratique des Sociétés - Tijdschrift voor Rechtspersoon en Vennootschap (2016), 7

The aim of this paper is to provide an in-depth presentation of the legal aspects of foundations in its philanthropic function. The study introduces historically this legal structure and then exposes its ... [more ▼]

The aim of this paper is to provide an in-depth presentation of the legal aspects of foundations in its philanthropic function. The study introduces historically this legal structure and then exposes its main aspects in positive Belgian law (constitution, increase of the assets, taxation and dissolution). It concludes with a comparison with French law. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation ENMG du plexus brachial
WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Lettre du Neurologue: le Courrier du Spécialiste (2016), XX(10), 334-344

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See detailPulsations of the polar cusp aurora at Saturn
Palmaerts, Benjamin ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg; Roussos, E. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2016), 121

The magnetospheric cusp is a region connecting the interplanetary environment to the ionosphere and enabling solar wind particles to reach the ionosphere. We report the detection of several isolated high ... [more ▼]

The magnetospheric cusp is a region connecting the interplanetary environment to the ionosphere and enabling solar wind particles to reach the ionosphere. We report the detection of several isolated high-latitude auroral emissions with the Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph of the Cassini spacecraft. We suggest that these auroral spots, located in the dawn-to-noon sector and poleward of the main emission, are the ionospheric signatures of the magnetospheric cusp, in agreement with some previous observations with the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-latitude cusp auroral signature has been associated with high-latitude lobe reconnection in the presence of a southward interplanetary magnetic field. The occurrence rate of the polar cusp aurora suggests that lobe reconnection is frequent at Saturn. Several auroral imaging sequences reveal a quasiperiodic brightening of the polar cusp aurora with a period in the range of 60 to 70 min. Similar pulsations in the energetic electron fluxes and in the azimuthal component of the magnetic field are simultaneously observed by Cassini instruments, suggesting the presence of field-aligned currents. Pulsed dayside magnetopause reconnection is a likely common triggering process for the cusp auroral brightenings at Saturn and the quasiperiodic pulsations in the high-latitude energetic electron fluxes. [less ▲]

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See detailNouveaux textes littéraires du scribe Amennakhte (et autres ostraca relatifs au scribe de la Tombe)
Dorn, Andreas ULg; Polis, Stéphane ULg

in Bulletin de l'Institut Français d'Archéologie Orientale (2016), 116

Cet article est le premier d’une série de contributions consacrées à la publication de documents inédits conservés à l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale et ayant pour point commun le fait d’être ... [more ▼]

Cet article est le premier d’une série de contributions consacrées à la publication de documents inédits conservés à l’Institut Français d’Archéologie Orientale et ayant pour point commun le fait d’être, plus ou moins directement, liés au fameux scribe de la Tombe Amennakhte, fils d’Ipouy. L’objectif est de fournir les matériaux de base qui seront nécessaires à la réalisation de projets de plus grande ampleur, telles une étude micro-historique autour de l’individu en question et une analyse globale de la production textuelle d’un scribe de Deir el-Médineh à la 20e dynastie. Les six ostraca publiés ici appartiennent au fonds des ostraca dits « littéraires » de l’IFAO. Les deux premiers documents sont assurément les plus remarquables dans la mesure où ils viennent enrichir le nombre des textes littéraires ‘signés’ par le scribe Amennakhte. [less ▲]

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See detailSurfactant instillation in spontaneously breathing preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
RIGO, Vincent ULg; LEFEBVRE, Caroline ULg; BROUX, Isabelle ULg

in European Journal of Pediatrics (2016), 175(12), 1933-1942

Less invasive surfactant therapies (LIST) use surfactant instillation through a thin tracheal catheter in spontaneously breathing infants. This review and meta-analysis investigates respiratory outcomes ... [more ▼]

Less invasive surfactant therapies (LIST) use surfactant instillation through a thin tracheal catheter in spontaneously breathing infants. This review and meta-analysis investigates respiratory outcomes for preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome treated with LIST rather than administration of surfactant through an endotracheal tube. Randomised controlled trial (RCT) full texts provided outcome data for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), death or BPD, early CPAP failure, invasive ventilation requirements and usual neonatal morbidities. Relative risks (RR) from pooled data, with subgroup analyses, were obtained from a Mantel-Haenszel analysis using a random effect model. Six RCTs evaluated LIST: 4 vs InSurE and 1 each vs delayed or immediate intubation for surfactant. LIST resulted in decreased risks of BPD (RR = 0.71 [0.52-0.99]; NNT = 21), death or BPD (RR = 0.74 [0.58-0.94]; NNT = 15) and early CPAP failure or invasive ventilation requirements (RR = 0.67 [0.53-0.84]; NNT = 8 and RR = 0.69 [0.53-0.88]; NNT = 6). Compared to InSurE, LIST decreased the risks of BPD or death (RR = 0.63 [0.44-0.92]; NNT = 11) and of early CPAP failure (RR = 0.71 [0.53-0.96]; NNT = 11). Common neonatal morbidities were not different. CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory management with LIST decreases the risks of BPD and BPD or death, and the need for invasive ventilation. This strategy appears safe, but long-term follow-up is lacking. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Initial management of preterm infants with CPAP decreases the risk of death or BPD, but many still require surfactant or invasive ventilation. • Surfactant can be instilled through a tracheal thin catheter while the infant breathes on CPAP, but improvement in BPD is inconsistent between studies. What is New: • Less invasive surfactant therapy (LIST) strategies decrease the risks of BPD, of death or BPD, and of CPAP failure compared to strategies where surfactant is administered through an endotracheal tube. • LIST strategies decrease the risks of the composite outcome of BPD or death and of early CPAP failure when compared to "intubation-surfactant-extubation" approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailExpanding chemistry’s horizon with continuous-flow reactors  
Monbaliu, Jean-Christophe ULg; Emmanuel, Noémie ULg; Gerardy, Romaric ULg

in Chimie Nouvelle (2016), 122

Continuous-flow micro- and mesofluidic reactors come with inherent properties that can be advantageously utilized for expanding the horizon of preparative chemistry. Accurate control over local process ... [more ▼]

Continuous-flow micro- and mesofluidic reactors come with inherent properties that can be advantageously utilized for expanding the horizon of preparative chemistry. Accurate control over local process parameters, even under extreme conditions, inherent safety, production homogeneity and seamless scale-up are amongst the most important assets of continuous-flow chemistry. Besides, flow chemistry enables the design of efficient multistep processes with significantly reduced footprints. In this note, we discuss some of the most fascinating aspects of continuous-flow micro- and mesofluidic reactors in the specific context of preparative organic chemistry. [less ▲]

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See detailSediment carbon sink in low-density temperate eelgrass meadows (Baltic Sea)
Jankowska, Emilia; Michel, Loïc ULg; Zaborska, Agata et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Biogeosciences (2016), 121(12), 2918-2934

Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that can act as “blue carbon sinks” in coastal ecosystems by facilitating sedimentation and trapping particles. However, the magnitude and occurrence of ... [more ▼]

Seagrass meadows are highly productive habitats that can act as “blue carbon sinks” in coastal ecosystems by facilitating sedimentation and trapping particles. However, the magnitude and occurrence of these effects may be species and density dependent. The present study is the first estimation of seagrass sediment carbon sink in the temperate Zostera marina beds in the Baltic Sea. Several descriptors of organic matter characteristics, along with possible organic matter sources in the sediment were compared at vegetated and unvegetated bottoms. The 210Pb dating of the sediment has been used for accumulation rate assessment. The photopigments and POC concentrations in sediments were higher in vegetated bottoms. The SIAR (Stable Isotopes in R) mixing model based on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope values, indicated that higher percentages of organic matter originated from seagrass production in vegetated sediments (40–45%) compared to unvegetated ones (5–21%). The carbon stock in the upper 10 cm of the vegetated sediments ranged from 50.2 ± 2.2 to 228.0 ± 11.6 (g m−2), whereas the annual C accumulation amount from 0.84 ± 0.2 to 3.85 ± 1.2 (g m−2 yr−1). Our study shows that even the relatively weakly developed vegetation of the small temperate seagrass species enhance organic carbon concentration in the sediments. Estimated carbon stock was much lower than those reported for most of the seagrass meadows elsewhere, and the carbon burial rate was the lowest ever reported. Evidently, the global calculations of sediment carbon stock should be reconsidered by taking into account density and species-related variability. [less ▲]

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See detailDigital holographic interferometry in the long-wave infrared and temporal phase unwrapping for measuring large deformations and rigid body motions of segmented space detector in cryogenic test (invited paper)
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Martin, Laurent et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2016), 55(12), 121723

We present digital holographic interferometry in the long-wave infrared for monitoring the deformation under cryogenic conditions of a segmented focal plane array (FPA) to be used in a space mission. The ... [more ▼]

We present digital holographic interferometry in the long-wave infrared for monitoring the deformation under cryogenic conditions of a segmented focal plane array (FPA) to be used in a space mission. The long wavelength was chosen for its ability to allow measurement of displacements 20 times larger than DHI in the visible and which were foreseen with the test object under large temperature variations. The latter is a mosaic of 4×4 detectors assembled on a frame. DHI was required to assess the global deformation of the assembly, the deformation of each detector, and piston movements of each of them with respect to their neighbors. For that reason we incorporated the temporal phase unwrapping by capturing a sufficiently high number of holograms between which the phase does not undergo large variations. At last, since the specimen exhibits specular reflectivity at that wavelength, it is illuminated by means of a reflective diffuser. [less ▲]

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See detailEvolution récente des surface forestières et de la régénération des coupes rases en Wallonie
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Perin, Jérôme ULg; Lejeune, Philippe ULg

in FORÊT.NATURE (2016), 141

Une gestion réfléchie de la ressource forestière à l’échelle d’une région, telle que la Wallonie, nécessite de connaitre son état et de prédire son devenir. Pour y parvenir, nous proposons une méthode ... [more ▼]

Une gestion réfléchie de la ressource forestière à l’échelle d’une région, telle que la Wallonie, nécessite de connaitre son état et de prédire son devenir. Pour y parvenir, nous proposons une méthode relativement simple, combinant trois sources de données : l’inventaire forestier régional, la photo-interprétation d’orthoimages et une enquête de terrain, ayant comme finalité de décrire finement l’évolution des surfaces forestières, les peuplements mis à blanc et la régénération des coupes rases. [less ▲]

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See detailNotes sur les puces (Siphonaptera) dans la région de Py et Mantet (Pyrénées-Orientales): présence d'Amphipsylla sibirica sepifera et Callopsylla saxatilis
Libois, Roland ULg; Feliu, Carlos

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d'Entomologie = Bulletin van de Koninklijke Belgische Vereniging voor Entomologie (2016), 152(2), 128-132

327 fleas were collected in the fur of small mammals from Py and Mantet (Pyrénées- Orientales). Fiftheen species were identified with Leptopsylla taschenbergi amitina as the most common (42% of catches ... [more ▼]

327 fleas were collected in the fur of small mammals from Py and Mantet (Pyrénées- Orientales). Fiftheen species were identified with Leptopsylla taschenbergi amitina as the most common (42% of catches) and Ctenophthalmus spp. were slightly less common (25%) (C. baeticus arvernus and C. nobilis dobyi). These fleas were found in all stations from the bridge of the Rotja valley (900 m) to the pass of Mantet (1780 m). Three rare species were identified: Amphipsylla sibirica sepifera (2 ex.) on the pass of Mantet (1780 m), first time on the north side of the Pyrenees, Callopsylla saxatilis at Collada Verde (2320m) and Amalareus penicilliger pyrenaicus at the pass of Mantet, the screes of Mantet (1615 m) and Collada Verde. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly prediction of on-going hemorrhage in severe trauma: presentation of the existing scoring systems.
TONGLET, Martin ULg

in archives of trauma research (2016), 5(4),

Early prediction of ongoing hemorrhage may reduce mortality via the earlier delivery of blood products, adequate orientation of the patient in a dedicated highly specialized and trained infrastructure ... [more ▼]

Early prediction of ongoing hemorrhage may reduce mortality via the earlier delivery of blood products, adequate orientation of the patient in a dedicated highly specialized and trained infrastructure, and by earlier correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. We identified 14 scores or algorithms developed for the prediction of ongoing hemorrhage and the need for massive transfusion in severe trauma patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire on lateral elbow tendinopathy for French-speaking patients
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; DELVAUX, François ULg; SCHAUS, Jean ULg et al

in Journal of Hand Therapy (2016), 29(4), 496-504

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was specifically designed to measure ... [more ▼]

Background: The lateral elbow tendinopathy is a common injury in tennis players and physical workers. The Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) questionnaire was specifically designed to measure pain and functional limitations in patients with lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). First developed in English, this questionnaire has since been translated into several languages. Objectives: The aims of the study were to translate and cross-culturally adapt the PRTEE questionnaire into French and to evaluate the reliability and validity of this translated version of the questionnaire (PRTEE-F). Methods: The PRTEE was translated and cross-culturally adapted into French according to international guidelines. To assess the reliability and validity of the PRTEE-F, 115 participants were asked twice to fill in the PRTEE-F, and once the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH) and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Internal consistency (using Cronbach’s alpha), test-retest reliability (using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC)), and convergent and divergent validity (using the Spearman’s correlation coefficients respectively with the DASH and with some sub scales of the SF-36) were assessed. Results: The PRTEE was translated into French without any problems. PRTEE-F showed a good test-retest reliability for the overall score (ICC 0.86) and for each item (ICC 0.8-0.96) and a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.98). The correlation analyses revealed high correlation coefficients between PRTEE-F and DASH (convergent validity) and, as expected, a low or moderate correlation with the divergent subscales of the SF-36 (discriminant validity). There was no floor or ceiling effect. Conclusions: The PRTEE questionnaire was successfully cross-culturally adapted into French. The PRTEE-F is reliable and valid for evaluating French-speaking patients with lateral elbow tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailTriclosan exposure results in alterations of thyroid hormone status and retarded early development and metamorphosis in Cyprinodon variegatus
Schnitzler, Joseph ULg; Frederich, Bruno ULg; Dussenne, Mélanie ULg et al

in Aquatic Toxicology (2016), 181

Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely ... [more ▼]

Thyroid hormones are critically involved in somatic growth, development and metamorphosis of vertebrates. The structural similarity between thyroid hormones and triclosan, an antimicrobial compound widely employed in consumer personal care products, suggests triclosan can have adverse effects on the thyroid system. The sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegatus, is now used in ecotoxicological studies that have recently begun to focus on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by endocrine disrupting compounds. Here, we investigate the in vivo effects of exposure to triclosan (20, 50, and 100 μg L−1) on the thyroid system and the embryonic and larval development of C. variegatus. Triclosan exposure did not affect hatching success, but delayed hatching time by 6–13 h compared to control embryos. Triclosan exposure affected the ontogenetic variations of whole body thyroid hormone concentrations during the larval phase. The T3 peak around 12–15 dph, described to be indicative for the metamorphosis climax in C. variegatus, was absent in triclosan-exposed larvae. Triclosan exposure did not produce any deformity or allometric repatterning, but a delayed development of 18–32 h was observed. We conclude that the triclosan-induced disruption of the thyroid system delays in vivo the start of metamorphosis in our experimental model. We observed a global developmental delay of 24–45 h, equivalent to 4–7% prolongation of the developmental time in C. variegatus. The costs of delayed metamorphosis can lead to reduction of juvenile fitness and could be a determining factor in the outcome of competitive interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailCan regional blocs (still) talk with each other? The Euro-Mercosur relationship
Santander, Sébastian ULg

in World Affairs (2016), 2/33 (459)

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See detailANALYSES OF EARLY MEDIEVAL STAINED WINDOW GLASS FROM THE MONASTERY OF BAUME-LES- MESSIEURS (JURA, FRANCE)
Van Wersch, Line ULg; Loisel, C.; Mathis, François ULg et al

in Archaeometry (2016), 58(6), 930-946

The collection of early medieval window glass found in the abbey of Baume-les-Messieurs (Jura, France) is exceptional because it dates to the end of the eighth century, and due to the number of fragments ... [more ▼]

The collection of early medieval window glass found in the abbey of Baume-les-Messieurs (Jura, France) is exceptional because it dates to the end of the eighth century, and due to the number of fragments as well as their state of conservation. Different colours and forms have been identified. These pieces are a rare opportunity to address the glass craft, its recipes and techniques for a phase of its history that has remained little known. Analyses in PIXE–PIGE prove that, in addition to fragments from two soda glass items, the pieces are made from wood-ash glass. Most of them probably came from the same production and the raw material is present in the region. At this early stage of wood-ash glass production, the glassmakers had mastered the glass as well as the colour processes. [less ▲]

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See detailL’« ordre géométrique » et le dispositif argumentatif des Méditations métaphysiques de René Descartes
Dubouclez, Olivier ULg

in Revue d'Histoire des Sciences (2016), 69(2), 255-278

Summary : Although nothing shows at first sight that the Metaphysical meditations are built in accordance with a mathematical model, Des- cartes’ claim to have followed the « mos geometricus » invites us ... [more ▼]

Summary : Although nothing shows at first sight that the Metaphysical meditations are built in accordance with a mathematical model, Des- cartes’ claim to have followed the « mos geometricus » invites us to pass over that first impression and to reconsider the Cartesian art of medita- tion. Descartes’ main letters of 1640 (where he describes and also criti- cizes his metaphysical method) along with the last pages of the Second replies of 1641 reveal indeed a mathematical pattern of argumentation based on the classical notion of geometrical analysis. But, if analysis plays an active role in the realization of the « order of reasons » within the context of hyperbolic doubt, its is deeply transformed by Descartes and amounts to a combination of two argumentative tools, namely sup- position and enumeration, which are common to geometry and meta- physics. This article suggests in which sense the very method of Cartesian metaphysics, while not following a strictly linear « chain of reasons », can be genuinely said geometrical. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of pheromone traps against Tuta absoluta
Ettaib, Refki; Belkadhi Mohamed, Sadok; Ben Belgacem, Ali et al

in Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies (2016), 4(6)

In the Tunisian south, the heated greenhouses are an important axis of development of agriculture thanks to the big geothermal potential of this zone. Currently, this sector suffers from several ... [more ▼]

In the Tunisian south, the heated greenhouses are an important axis of development of agriculture thanks to the big geothermal potential of this zone. Currently, this sector suffers from several phytosanitary problems. In the last years, a new insect, Tuta absoluta, threaten the cultures of cultivated tomatoes in heated greenhouses. To improve control of T. absoluta, the effectiveness of pheromone traps (associated or not with a source of light) and luminous traps (associated or not with water, with limed buckets for limed covers) were compared. The results show that the traps with pheromones significantly catch more adults of T. absoluta compared to all the other types of traps (average number of trapped adults of T. absoluta = 73.4 (± 142)). The luminous traps associated with water, with limed buckets as with limed covers show, as for them, an intermediate effectiveness. In spite of this slightly less effectiveness, the luminous traps have the advantage of low costs of production as well as the advantage of simultaneously capturing males and females of T. absoluta. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Uncoupled Damage Models to Predict Ductile Fracture in Sheet Metal Blanking
Canales Cardenas, Cristian ULg; Boman, Romain ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Key Engineering Materials (2016), 725

The use of uncoupled damage models has been widely used over the years for the prediction of ductile fracture in engineering applications. Nevertheless, its applicability in the prediction of failure has ... [more ▼]

The use of uncoupled damage models has been widely used over the years for the prediction of ductile fracture in engineering applications. Nevertheless, its applicability in the prediction of failure has been shown to be limited in the wide range of loading conditions encountered in different manufacturing processes. In order to enhance the formulation of former damage models, the Lode angle has been recently used to characterize the stress states along with the stress triaxiality. This new family of damage models has been demonstrated to give excellent results when proportional loading paths are considered, but its efficiency in more complex applications still need further analysis. To this end, a comparative study of former and recently developed uncoupled damage models is performed in this work. The identification of material parameters is done considering simple mechanical tests under different conditions. Then, the models are used to predict the onset and propagation of cracks during blanking, where numerical predictions are compared with experimental results. Finally, the selected damage models presented a remarkable overall performance in the range of clearances under study. [less ▲]

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See detailRéforme du bonus logement et instauration du Chèque habitat en Wallonie
Voisin, Fanny ULg

in Les Echos du Logement (2016), 118

Description technique de la réforme du bonus logement entreprise en Région wallonne pour les contrats d’emprunt hypothécaire conclus au plus tard le 31 décembre 2015 et pour les contrats d’emprunt ... [more ▼]

Description technique de la réforme du bonus logement entreprise en Région wallonne pour les contrats d’emprunt hypothécaire conclus au plus tard le 31 décembre 2015 et pour les contrats d’emprunt hypothécaire conclus à partir du 1er janvier 2016. [less ▲]

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See detail'Migrations Environnementales? Ramener le politique au coeur du débat'
Vigil Diaz Telenti, Sara ULg

in Cités : Philosophie, Politique, Histoire (2016), 68

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See detailFacilitators and barriers for the adoption, implementation and monitoring of child safety interventions: a multinational qualitative analysis.
Scholtes, Béatrice ULg; Schroder-Back, Peter; MacKay, J. Morag et al

in Injury prevention : journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention (2016)

The efficiency and effectiveness of child safety interventions are determined by the quality of the implementation process. This multinational European study aimed to identify facilitators and barriers ... [more ▼]

The efficiency and effectiveness of child safety interventions are determined by the quality of the implementation process. This multinational European study aimed to identify facilitators and barriers for the three phases of implementation: adoption, implementation and monitoring (AIM process). Twenty-seven participants from across the WHO European Region were invited to provide case studies of child safety interventions from their country. Cases were selected by the authors to ensure broad coverage of injury issues, age groups and governance level of implementation (eg, national, regional or local). Each participant presented their case and provided a written account according to a standardised template. Presentations and question and answer sessions were recorded. The presentation slides, written accounts and the notes taken during the workshops were analysed using thematic content analysis to elicit facilitators and barriers. Twenty-six cases (from 26 different countries) were presented and analysed. Facilitators and barriers were identified within eight general themes, applicable across the AIM process: management and collaboration; resources; leadership; nature of the intervention; political, social and cultural environment; visibility; nature of the injury problem and analysis and interpretation. The importance of the quality of the implementation process for intervention effectiveness, coupled with limited resources for child safety makes it more difficult to achieve successful actions. The findings of this study, divided by phase of the AIM process, provide practitioners with practical suggestions, where proactive planning might help increase the likelihood of effective implementation. [less ▲]

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See detailL’impact des connaissances sémantiques préexistantes en mémoire associative dans le vieillissement normal
Folville, Adrien ULg; Delhaye, Emma ULg; Bastin, Christine ULg

in Revue de Neuropsychologie, Neurosciences Cognitives et Cliniques (2016), 8(4), 253-260

The formation of a global and complex episodic memory requires memory for single units of information of the target event but also binding these elements together. This binding capacity diminishes in ... [more ▼]

The formation of a global and complex episodic memory requires memory for single units of information of the target event but also binding these elements together. This binding capacity diminishes in healthy aging leading to a so-called associative memory deficit. Interestingly, when support is provided during encoding thanks to semantic prior-knowledge (e.g., semantically related word pairs), this associative deficit can be alleviated. The aim of the present review is to summarize the current literature about the influence of prior-knowledge on associative memory performance in healthy aging. Through an analysis of the procedures that have been used in associative memory studies, we suggest two factors that appear to modulate the impact of prior knowledge on older adults’ associative memory. First, the way word pairs are recombined from the encoding to the retrieval phase is the main factor that has to be taken into account. Conditions that promote recall-to-reject discrimination processes lead to similar performance in older compared to younger adults, whereas conditions that require recollection discrimination lead to an age-related decline. Second, the nature of the semantic relations involved in the prior-knowledge support may influence older adults’ performance by modulating the contribution of recollection and familiarity to recognition. Indeed, categorical semantic relations engage both recollection and familiarity-based discrimination, whereas thematic relations allow participants to rely on familiarity-based discrimination only. This latest observation is crucial when one considers recollection as a declining process, in contrast to familiarity, which remains spared in healthy aging. Therefore, future studies should explore the propensity of other semantic relations to alleviate the age-related associative memory decline. [less ▲]

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See detailQui a peur du style en sociologie de la littérature ?
Stienon, Valérie ULg; Dessy, Clément; van Nuijs, Laurence

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2016), 18

Une certaine idée romantique du style a contribué, depuis le début du XIXe siècle, à développer une conception singularisante du style, qui associe celui-ci à l'expression d'une originalité de l'individu ... [more ▼]

Une certaine idée romantique du style a contribué, depuis le début du XIXe siècle, à développer une conception singularisante du style, qui associe celui-ci à l'expression d'une originalité de l'individu écrivant. Que faire alors de cette conception de la singularité en sociologie de la littérature, discipline qui privilégie l’explication par le collectif et s’attache à situer chaque pratique dans le tout social ? Comment retrouver les traces de l’individu social dans la matière verbale ou la trace écrite qu’il produit ? L’expression et la saisie d’une subjectivité, censées être le propre du style, sont-elles objectivables ? Dans quelle mesure les styles peuvent-ils rencontrer les dynamiques collectives ? Cet article propose un état de la question et quelques pistes méthodologiques à la lumière des approches sociales du littéraire. [less ▲]

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See detailThe SHARDDS survey: First resolved image of the HD 114082 debris disk in the Lower Centaurus Crux with SPHERE
Wahhaj, Zahed; Milli, Julien; Kennedy, Grant et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 596

We present the first resolved image of the debris disk around the 16 ± 8 Myr old star, HD 114082. The observation was made in the H-band using the SPHERE instrument. The star is at a distance of 92 ± 6 pc ... [more ▼]

We present the first resolved image of the debris disk around the 16 ± 8 Myr old star, HD 114082. The observation was made in the H-band using the SPHERE instrument. The star is at a distance of 92 ± 6 pc in the Lower Centaurus Crux association. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis, we determined that the debris is likely in the form of a dust ring with an inner edge of 27.7[SUP]+2.8[/SUP][SUB]-3.5[/SUB] au, position angle -74.3°[SUP]+0.5[/SUP][SUB]-1.5[/SUB], and an inclination with respect to the line of sight of 6.7°[SUP]+3.8[/SUP][SUB]-0.4[/SUB]. The disk imaged in scattered light has a surface density that is declining with radius of r[SUP]-4[/SUP], which is steeper than expected for grain blowout by radiation pressure. We find only marginal evidence (2σ) of eccentricity and rule out planets more massive than 1.0 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] orbiting within 1 au of the inner edge of the ring, since such a planet would have disrupted the disk. The disk has roughly the same fractional disk luminosity (L[SUB]disk[/SUB]/L[SUB]∗[/SUB] = 3.3 × 10[SUP]-3[/SUP]) as HR 4796 A and β Pictoris, however it was not detected by previous instrument facilities most likely because of its small angular size (radius 0.4''), low albedo ( 0.2), and low scattering efficiency far from the star due to high scattering anisotropy. With the arrival of extreme adaptive optics systems, such as SPHERE and GPI, the morphology of smaller, fainter, and more distant debris disks are being revealed, providing clues to planet-disk interactions in young protoplanetary systems. The reduced images are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/L4">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/L4</A> [less ▲]

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See detailChemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum in function of harvesting time
Mith, Hasika; Yayi-Ladékan, Eléonore; Dosso Sika Kpoviessi, Salomé et al

in Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants [=JEOBP] (2016), 19(6), 1413-1425

The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum from Benin as affected by harvesting time, were analyzed ... [more ▼]

The chemical composition of essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from aerial parts of Ocimum basilicum, Ocimum canum and Ocimum gratissimum from Benin as affected by harvesting time, were analyzed by GC-FID (Gas chromatography-Flame ionization detector) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Based on the composition analysis, major components were as follows: estragol (43.0-44.7%) and linalool (24.6 29.8%) in O. basilicum oils; carvacrol (12.0-30.8%) and p-cymene (19.5-26.2%) in O. canum oils; thymol (28.3-37.7%) and γ-terpinene (12.5-19.3 %) in O. gratissimum oils. Disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of essential oils and their main components against two foodborne bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. The tested oils and their components exhibited notable antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium. The O. canum and O. gratissimum oils collected at 7h and 19h showed significant higher activities against L. monocytogenes and S. Typhimurium (MICs and MBCs 0.34 - 2.5 μL/mL) (p < 0.05), whereas O. basilicum showed lower activity (MICs and MBCs 2.0 - 8.0 μL/mL) at any daytime of harvest, the weakest being at 19h (MIC and MBC 12.0 - 32.0 μL/mL). The daytime of harvest can influence the composition of oils and their activities on bacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailLaBGen: A method based on motion detection for generating the background of a scene
Laugraud, Benjamin ULg; Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Van Droogenbroeck, Marc ULg

in Pattern Recognition Letters (2016)

Given a video sequence acquired with a fixed camera, the generation of the stationary background of the scene is a challenging problem which aims at computing a reference image for a motionless background ... [more ▼]

Given a video sequence acquired with a fixed camera, the generation of the stationary background of the scene is a challenging problem which aims at computing a reference image for a motionless background. For that purpose, we developed our method named LaBGen, which emerged as the best one during the Scene Background Modeling and Initialization (SBMI) workshop organized in 2015, and the IEEE Scene Background Modeling Contest (SBMC) organized in 2016. LaBGen combines a pixel-wise temporal median filter and a patch selection mechanism based on motion detection. To detect motion, a background subtraction algorithm decides, for each frame, which pixels belong to the background. In this paper, we describe the LaBGen method extensively, evaluate it on the SBI 2016 dataset and compare its performance with other background generation methods. We also study its computational complexity, the performance sensitivity with respect to its parameters, and the stability of the predicted background image over time with respect to the chosen background subtraction algorithm. We provide an open source C++ implementation at http://www.telecom.ulg.ac.be/labgen. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantum fidelity of symmetric multipartite states
Neven, Antoine ULg; Mathonet, Pierre ULg; Gühne, Otfried et al

in Physical Review A (2016), 94

For two symmetric quantum states one may be interested in maximizing the overlap under local operations applied to one of them. The question arises whether the maximal overlap can be obtained by applying ... [more ▼]

For two symmetric quantum states one may be interested in maximizing the overlap under local operations applied to one of them. The question arises whether the maximal overlap can be obtained by applying the same local operation to each party. We show that for two symmetric multiqubit states and local unitary transformations this is the case; the maximal overlap can be reached by applying the same unitary matrix everywhere. For local invertible operations (stochastic local operations assisted by classical communication equivalence), however, we present counterexamples, demonstrating that considering the same operation everywhere is not enough. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrection of inertial oscillations by assimilation of HFradar data in a model of the Ligurian Sea
Vandenbulcke, Luc ULg; Barth, Alexander ULg; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Ocean Dynamics (2016)

This article aims at analyzing if high-frequency radar observations of surface currents allow to improve model forecasts in the Ligurian Sea, where inertial oscillations are a dominant feature. An ... [more ▼]

This article aims at analyzing if high-frequency radar observations of surface currents allow to improve model forecasts in the Ligurian Sea, where inertial oscillations are a dominant feature. An ensemble of ROMS models covering the Ligurian Sea, and nested in the Mediterranean Forecasting System, is coupled with two WERA high-frequency radars. A sensitivity study allows to determine optimal parameters for the ensemble filter. By assimilating observations in a single point, the obtained correction shows that the forecast error covariance matrix represents the inertial oscillations, as well as large- and meso-scale processes. Furthermore, it is shown that the velocity observations can correct the phase and amplitude of the inertial oscillations. Observations are shown to have a strong effect during approximately half a day, which confirms the importance of using a high temporal observation frequency. In general, data assimilation of HF radar observations leads to a skill score of about 30 % for the forecasts of surface velocity. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhanced Biogas Production During Anaerobic Digestion of Steam-pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass from Williams Cavendish Banana Plants
Kamdem, Irenée ULg

in Waste and Biomass Valorization (2016)

In the context of green energy valorisation, this study reports the chemical analysis and improvement of biogas production via anaerobic digestion of treated and untreated agricultural waste ... [more ▼]

In the context of green energy valorisation, this study reports the chemical analysis and improvement of biogas production via anaerobic digestion of treated and untreated agricultural waste lignocellulosic biomass from Williams Cavendish banana plants (WCLB). With a worldwide annual production of 26 million tons of dry matter (DM), large amounts of this waste are abandoned in plantations after fruit harvesting. Steam explosion (SE) and steam cracking (SC) pretreatments were investigated at severity factors of 3.16 and 4.29, respectively, to improve the biogas potential over 135 days under mesophilic conditions. The study revealed a carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio of 27.3, indicating that WCLB has sufficient N content for successful fermentation. The proportions of liquid and solid fractions recovered after SC were 20% and 80%, respectively, whereas SE yielded 17% and 83% liquid and solids, respectively. The neutral sugar content of the studied fractions indicated that glucose and xylose constituted the highest hexose and pentose fractions, respectively, in WCLB. The highest and lowest total biogas potentials were obtained from LFSC (280 mL g-1 of DM) and untreated WCLB (240 mL g-1 of DM), respectively. The methane yield from untreated WCLB and combined solid and liquid fractions from SE and SC were 40, 42, and 51%, respectively, of the theoretical methane potential. The maximum biogas production rate (7.8 mL g-1 d-1) was obtained with SFSC. This study reveals that SC deconstructs WCLB efficiently and thereby greatly enhances methane production. [less ▲]

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See detailDe l’émergence à la canonisation. Instances et supports du cursus honorum artistique et littéraire
Dozo, Björn-Olav ULg; Ellena, Laurence; Saint-Amand, Denis ULg

in COnTEXTES : Revue de Sociologie de la Littérature (2016)

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See detailLa transaction pénale élargie face au contrôle de la Cour constitutionnelle
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2016), (2016/39), 1847-1852

L'article fait le point sur les incidences d'une transaction intervenant en cours de procédure et sur le contrôle de cette transaction par le juge en application de l'article 216bis du Code d'instruction ... [more ▼]

L'article fait le point sur les incidences d'une transaction intervenant en cours de procédure et sur le contrôle de cette transaction par le juge en application de l'article 216bis du Code d'instruction criminelle. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical study of Saturn's auroral electron properties with Cassini/UVIS FUV spectral images
Gustin, Jacques ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Radioti, Aikaterini ULg et al

in Icarus (2016)

About 2000 FUV spectra of different regions of Saturn's aurora, obtained with Cassini/UVIS from December 2007 to October 2014 have been examined. Two methods have been employed to determine the mean ... [more ▼]

About 2000 FUV spectra of different regions of Saturn's aurora, obtained with Cassini/UVIS from December 2007 to October 2014 have been examined. Two methods have been employed to determine the mean energy 〈E〉 of the precipitating electrons. The first is based on the absorption of the auroral emission by hydrocarbons and the second uses the ratio between the brightness of the Lyman-α line and the H2 total UV emission (Lyα/H2), which is directly related to 〈E〉 via a radiative transfer formalism. In addition, two atmospheric models obtained recently from UVIS polar occultations have been employed for the first time. It is found that the atmospheric model related to North observations near 70° latitude provides the results most consistent with constraints previously published. On a global point of view, the two methods provide comparable results, with 〈E〉 mostly in the 7–17 keV range with the hydrocarbon method and 〈E〉 in the 1–11 keV range with the Lyα/H2 method. Since hydrocarbons have been detected on ∼20% of the auroral spectra, the Lyα/H2 technique is more effective to describe the primary auroral electrons, as it is applicable to all spectra and allows an access to the lowest range of energies (≤5 keV), unreachable by the hydrocarbon method. The distribution of 〈E〉 is found fully compatible with independent HST/ACS constraints (emission peak in the 840–1450 km range) and FUSE findings (emission peaking at pressure level ≤0.2 µbar). In addition, 〈E〉 exhibits enhancements in the 3 LT–10 LT sector, consistent with SKR intensity measurements. An energy flux–electron energy diagram built from all the data points strongly suggests that acceleration by field-aligned potentials as described by Knight's theory is a main mechanism responsible for electron precipitation creating the aurora. Assuming a fixed electron temperature of 0.1 keV, a best-fit equatorial electron source population density of 3 × 103 m−3 is derived, which matches very well to the plasma properties observed with Cassini MAG and CAPS/ELS instruments. However, several auroral regions are characterized by relatively high 〈E〉 and low energy flux, suggesting that additional processes such as plasma injections or magnetic reconnections must be accounted for to explain the emission in these regions. The Lyα/H2 ratio technique can be used to build maps of 〈E〉 from single spectral images. As expected, preliminary results show that the spatial distribution of 〈E〉 is not uniform, as seen on Jupiter. Our study reveals that a fraction of the aurora is due to very low energy electrons (<1 keV). Even in this case, comparisons between observed and modeled spectra show that 100 eV is a suitable value to represent the average energy of the secondary electrons. [less ▲]

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See detailSustainability and management control. Exploring and theorizing control patterns in large European firms
Crutzen, Nathalie ULg; Zvezdov, Dimitar; Schaltegger, Stefan

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2016), Online version

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See detailNuclear Medicine techniques in transplantation
LOVINFOSSE, Pierre ULg; HUSTINX, Roland ULg

in Clinical and Translational Imaging (2016)

Organ transplantation has grown over the past decades thanks to major improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive treatment. Nuclear medicine is used for non-invasively improving the ... [more ▼]

Organ transplantation has grown over the past decades thanks to major improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive treatment. Nuclear medicine is used for non-invasively improving the selection of candidates to give or receive a transplant, for monitoring graft recipients and for diagnosing and managing early and late complications. This review describes the clinical role of nuclear medicine in transplantation and discusses some of the possible perspectives. [less ▲]

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See detailProtein encapsulation and release from PEO-b-polyphosphoester templated calcium carbonate particles
Ergül, Zeynep ULg; Cordonnier, Thomas; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2016), 513

Calcium carbonate particles are promising candidates as proteins carriers for their controlled delivery in the body. The present paper aims at investigating the protein encapsulation by in situ ... [more ▼]

Calcium carbonate particles are promising candidates as proteins carriers for their controlled delivery in the body. The present paper aims at investigating the protein encapsulation by in situ precipitation of calcium carbonate particles prepared by a process based on supercritical CO2 and using a new type of degradable well-defined double hydrophilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and polyphosphoester blocks acting as templating agent for the calcium carbonate. For this study, lysozyme was chosen as a model for therapeutic protein for its availability and ease of detection. It was found that by this green process, loading into the CaCO3 microparticles with a diameter about 2 mm can be obtained as determined by scanning electron microscopy. A protein loading up to 6.5% active lysozyme was measured by a specific bioassay (Micrococcus lysodeikticus). By encapsulating fluorescent-labelled lysozyme (lysozyme-FITC), the confocal microscopy images confirmed its encapsulation and suggested a core–shell distribution of lysozyme into CaCO3, leading to a release profile reaching a steady state at 59% of release after 90 min. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional sea level changes for the 20th and the 21st century induced by the regional variability in Greenland ice sheet surface mass loss
Meyssignac, B.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; Chevrier, R. et al

in Journal of Climate (2016), online

Surface mass balance (SMB) variations of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been identified as an important contributor to contemporary and projected global mean sea level variations but their impact on ... [more ▼]

Surface mass balance (SMB) variations of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been identified as an important contributor to contemporary and projected global mean sea level variations but their impact on the regional sea level change pattern is still poorly known. This study provides for the first time, consistent estimates (i.e. computed with the same models over the past -1900-2015- and over the future -2015-2100-) of GrIS SMB over 1900-2100 based on the output of 32 atmospheric-ocean General Circulation Models and Earth system models involved in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). It is based on a downscaling technique calibrated against the MAR regional climate model in order to calculate an ensemble of 32 Greenland SMB estimates at regional scale. Because the GrIS SMB does not respond uniformly to greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. the southern part of the GrIS is more sensitive to climate warming. This study shows that it should be in imbalance in the 21st century sooner that the northern part. This regional variability affects significantly the associated relative sea level pattern over the entire ocean and particularly along the eastern coast of US and the northern coast of Europe. This highlights the necessity of taking into account GrIS regional SMB changes to evaluate accurately relative sea level changes in future projections. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the subwavelength grating of L-band annular groove phase masks for high coronagraphic performance
Vargas Catalán, E.; Huby, Elsa ULg; Forsberg, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 595

Context. The annular groove phase mask (AGPM) is one possible implementation of the vector vortex coronagraph, where the helical phase ramp is produced by a concentric subwavelength grating. For several ... [more ▼]

Context. The annular groove phase mask (AGPM) is one possible implementation of the vector vortex coronagraph, where the helical phase ramp is produced by a concentric subwavelength grating. For several years, we have been manufacturing AGPMs by etching gratings into synthetic diamond substrates using inductively coupled plasma etching. <BR /> Aims: We aim to design, fabricate, optimize, and evaluate new L-band AGPMs that reach the highest possible coronagraphic performance, for applications in current and forthcoming infrared high-contrast imagers. <BR /> Methods: Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) is used for designing the subwavelength grating of the phase mask. Coronagraphic performance evaluation is performed on a dedicated optical test bench. The experimental results of the performance evaluation are then used to accurately determine the actual profile of the fabricated gratings, based on RCWA modeling. <BR /> Results: The AGPM coronagraphic performance is very sensitive to small errors in etch depth and grating profile. Most of the fabricated components therefore show moderate performance in terms of starlight rejection (a few 100:1 in the best cases). Here we present new processes for re-etching the fabricated components in order to optimize the parameters of the grating and hence significantly increase their coronagraphic performance. Starlight rejection up to 1000:1 is demonstrated in a broadband L filter on the coronagraphic test bench, which corresponds to a raw contrast of about 10[SUP]-5[/SUP] at two resolution elements from the star for a perfect input wave front on a circular, unobstructed aperture. <BR /> Conclusions: Thanks to their exquisite performance, our latest L-band AGPMs are good candidates for installation in state of the art and future high-contrast thermal infrared imagers, such as METIS for the E-ELT. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Risk of Group B Streptococcus Invasive Infection in HIV-Exposed but Uninfected Infants: A Review of the Evidence and Possible Mechanisms.
DAUBY, Nicolas; CHAMEKH, Mustapha; MELIN, Pierrette ULg et al

in Frontiers in Immunology (2016), 7

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are ... [more ▼]

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection. Maternal GBS colonization during pregnancy is a major risk factor for early-onset GBS invasive disease, but colonization rates are not higher in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected pregnant women, while selective colonization with more virulent strains in HIV-infected women is suggested in some studies. Lower serotype-speci c GBS maternal antibody transfer and quantitative and qualitative defects of innate immune responses in HEU infants may play a role in the increased risk of GBS invasive disease. The impact of maternal antiretroviral treatment and its consequences on immune activation in HEU newborns are important to study. Maternal immunization presents a promising intervention to reduce GBS burden in the growing HEU population. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon balance of an intensively grazed grassland in southern Belgium
Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULg; Jérôme, Elisabeth; Mamadou, Ossénatou et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2016), 228-229

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See detailSensitivity of the annual net ecosystem exchange to the cospectral model used for high frequency loss corrections at a grazed grassland site
Mamadou, Ossenatou; Gourlez de la Motte, Louis ULg; De Ligne, Anne ULg et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2016), 228-229

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See detailReprint of Advancing the integration of corporate sustainability measurement, management and reporting
Maas, Karen; Schaltegger, Stefan; Crutzen, Nathalie ULg

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2016), 136

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See detailMalachite and heterogenite behavior during the locked-cycle recycling of process water in flotation of copper-cobalt oxide ores
Shengo, Michel; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan ULg; Kalenga, Pierre

in International Journal of Mineral Processing (2016), 157

The behavior of malachite and heterogenite was investigated during the process water recycling in flotation of copper-cobalt oxide ores from the deposit of Luiswishi located in Haut-Katanga province (DRC ... [more ▼]

The behavior of malachite and heterogenite was investigated during the process water recycling in flotation of copper-cobalt oxide ores from the deposit of Luiswishi located in Haut-Katanga province (DRC). A synthetic mill wastewater (SMWW) was utilized as feed water alone and in mixture with water recovered from the flotation tails in view to achieve at the laboratory scale the locked-cycle recycling of the industrial mill wastewater (IMWW). To simulate the chemical species presence in the pulp and their effects on the flotation of malachite and heterogenite, calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions were added to the feed water and the recoveries of copper and cobalt followed during the roughing flotation stage. The concentrate XRD and SEM analysis together with the floated minerals microanalyses by EDX spectroscopy, leaching tests of mono-minerals followed by the Pourbaix diagrams construction and DRIFT spectroscopy analyses, have enabled identifying changes in the surface properties of malachite and heterogenite interfering on the recovery of copper (40 %) and cobalt (58 %) with a significant drop in their concentrate grades (7.3 % Cu and 2.7 % Co). The deterioration of the concentrate characteristics results also from the gangue minerals entrainment. A better description of the valuable minerals behaviour in the SMWW presence could enable designing strategies in view enhancing their floatability during the locked-cycle recycling of water. [less ▲]

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See detailMyoferlin is a novel exosomal protein and functional regulator of cancer-derived exosomes
Blomme, Arnaud; Fahmy, Karim; Peulen, Olivier ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2016)

Exosomes are communication mediators participating in the intercellular exchange of proteins, metabolites and nucleic acids. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes are characterized by a unique ... [more ▼]

Exosomes are communication mediators participating in the intercellular exchange of proteins, metabolites and nucleic acids. Recent studies have demonstrated that exosomes are characterized by a unique proteomic composition that is distinct from the cellular one. The mechanisms responsible for determining the proteome content of the exosomes remain however obscure. In the current study we employ ultrastructural approach to validate a novel exosomal protein myoferlin. This is a multiple C2-domain containing protein, known for its conserved physiological function in endocytosis and vesicle fusion biology. Emerging studies demonstrate that myoferlin is frequently overexpressed in cancer, where it promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Our data expand these ndings by showing that myoferlin is a general component of cancer cell derived exosomes from different breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Using proteomic analysis, we demonstrate for the rst time that myoferlin depletion in cancer cells leads to a signi cantly modulated exosomal protein load. Such myoferlin-depleted exosomes were also functionally de cient as shown by their reduced capacity to transfer nucleic acids to human endothelial cells (HUVEC). Beyond this, myoferlin-depleted cancer exosomes also had a signi cantly reduced ability to induce migration and proliferation of HUVEC. The present study highlights myoferlin as a new functional player in exosome biology, calling for novel strategies to target this emerging oncogene in human cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrating corporate sustainability assessment, management accounting, control, and reporting
Maas, Karen; Schaltegger, Stefan; Crutzen, Nathalie ULg

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2016), 136

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See detailWhole genome sequencing of 51 breast cancers reveals that tumors are devoid of bovine leukemia virus DNA
Gillet, Nicolas ULg; Willems, Luc ULg

in Retrovirology (2016)

Controversy exists regarding the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and breast cancer. PCR-based experimental evidence indicates that BLV DNA is present in breast tissue and that as many as 37% of ... [more ▼]

Controversy exists regarding the association of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and breast cancer. PCR-based experimental evidence indicates that BLV DNA is present in breast tissue and that as many as 37% of cancer cases may be attributable to viral exposure. Since this association might have major consequences for human health, we evaluated 51 whole genomes of breast cancer samples for the presence of BLV DNA. Among 32 billion sequencing reads retrieved from the NCBI database of genotype and phenotype, none mapped on different strains of the BLV genome. Controls for sequence divergence and proviral loads further validated the approach. This unbiased analysis thus excludes a clonal insertion of BLV in breast tumor cells and strongly argues against an association between BLV and breast cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevalence of viruses infecting plantain (Musa sp., AAB genome) in the major growing regions in Cote d'Ivoire
Kouadio, Kouakou Théodore; De Clerck, Caroline; Agneroh, Thérèse Atcham et al

in African Journal of Agricultural Research (2016), 11(44), 4532-4541

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See detailNon-reef environments impact the diversification of extant jacks, remoras and allies (Carangoidei, Percomorpha)
Frederich, Bruno ULg; Marrama, Giuseppe; Carnevale, Giorgio et al

in Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences (2016), 283

Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the ... [more ▼]

Various factors may impact the processes of diversification of a clade. In the marine realm, it has been shown that coral reef environments have promoted diversification in various fish groups. With the exception of requiem sharks, all the groups showing a higher level of diversity in reefs than in non-reef habitats have diets based predominantly on plankton, algae or benthic invert- ebrates. Here we explore the pattern of diversification of carangoid fishes, a clade that includes numerous piscivorous species (e.g. trevallies, jacks and dolphinfishes), using time-calibrated phylogenies as well as ecological and morphological data from both extant and fossil species. The study of caran- goid morphospace suggests that reef environments played a role in their early radiation during the Eocene. However, contrary to the hypothesis of a reef-association-promoting effect, we show that habitat shifts to non-reef environments have increased the rates of morphological diversification (i.e. size and body shape) in extant carangoids. Piscivory did not have a major impact on the tempo of diversification of this group. Through the ecological radiation of carangoid fishes, we demonstrate that non-reef environments may sustain and promote processes of diversification of different marine fish groups, at least those including a large proportion of piscivorous species. [less ▲]

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See detailNitrogen isotopic ratios of NH 2 in comets: implication for 15 N-fractionation in cometary ammonia
Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 462

The isotopic ratios are diagnostics for the physico-chemical conditions governing molecular formation. In comets, 14N/15N ratios have been measured from HCN in three comets and from CN in more than 20 ... [more ▼]

The isotopic ratios are diagnostics for the physico-chemical conditions governing molecular formation. In comets, 14N/15N ratios have been measured from HCN in three comets and from CN in more than 20 comets. Those ratios are enriched in 15N compared to the Sun by a factor of ∼3, have a small diversity and do not depend on the dynamical type of the comets. The origin of this high 15N-fractionation is still in debate because CN probably comes not only from HCN, but also from other materials (such as polymers or organic dusts) in the coma. Consequently, an interpretation of the isotopic ratios in cometary CN is quite complicated due to the multiple possible parents of CN. In contrast with CN, the isotopic ratios of nitrogen in NH3 give us a much clearer interpretation than in CN because NH3 is directly incorporated in the nuclear ices. To estimate the 14N/15N ratios in NH3, 14N/15N ratios have been determined from high-resolution spectra of NH2 in the optical wavelength region. NH2 is indeed a dominant photodissociation product of NH3. Those ratios were also found to be enriched in 15N compared to the Sun by a factor of ∼3. In this paper, we present 14N/15N ratios in NH2 for an additional sample of 16 comets. Our sample includes short-period comets as well as long-period comets. We found that the 14N/15N ratios in cometary NH2 also show a small dispersion and do not depend on the dynamical origin of the comets. [less ▲]

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See detailOrtho-to-para abundance ratios of NH2in 26 comets: implications for the real meaning of OPRs
Shinnaka, Yoshiharu; Kawakita, Hideyo; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 462

Abundance ratios of nuclear-spin isomers for cometary molecules having identical protons, such as water and ammonia, have been measured and discussed from the viewpoint that they are primordial characters ... [more ▼]

Abundance ratios of nuclear-spin isomers for cometary molecules having identical protons, such as water and ammonia, have been measured and discussed from the viewpoint that they are primordial characters in comet. In the case of ammonia, its ortho-to-para abundance ratio (OPR) is usually estimated from OPRs of NH2 because of difficulty in measuring OPR of ammonia directly. We report our survey for OPRs of NH2 in 26 comets. A weighted mean of ammonia OPRs for the comets is 1.12 ± 0.01 and no significant difference is found between the Oort Cloud comets and the Jupiter-family comets. These values correspond to ∼30 K as nuclear-spin temperatures. The OPRs of ammonia in comets probably reflect the physicochemical conditions in coma, rather than the conditions for the molecular formation or condensation in the pre-solar molecular cloud/the solar nebula, based on comparison of OPRs (and nuclear-spin temperatures) of ammonia with those of water, 14N/15N ratios in ammonia, and D/H ratios in water. The OPRs could be reset to a nuclear-spin weights ratio in solid phase and modified by interactions with protonated ions like H3O+, water clusters (H2O)n, ice grains, and paramagnetic impurities (such as O2 molecules and grains) in the inner coma gas. Relationship between the OPRs of ammonia and water is a clue to understanding the real meaning of the OPRs. [less ▲]

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See detailGaia Data Release 1. Summary of the astrometric, photometric, and survey properties
Gaia Collaboration; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 595

Context. At about 1000 days after the launch of Gaia we present the first Gaia data release, Gaia DR1, consisting of astrometry and photometry for over 1 billion sources brighter than magnitude 20.7. <BR ... [more ▼]

Context. At about 1000 days after the launch of Gaia we present the first Gaia data release, Gaia DR1, consisting of astrometry and photometry for over 1 billion sources brighter than magnitude 20.7. <BR /> Aims: A summary of Gaia DR1 is presented along with illustrations of the scientific quality of the data, followed by a discussion of the limitations due to the preliminary nature of this release. <BR /> Methods: The raw data collected by Gaia during the first 14 months of the mission have been processed by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) and turned into an astrometric and photometric catalogue. <BR /> Results: Gaia DR1 consists of three components: a primary astrometric data set which contains the positions, parallaxes, and mean proper motions for about 2 million of the brightest stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues - a realisation of the Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) - and a secondary astrometric data set containing the positions for an additional 1.1 billion sources. The second component is the photometric data set, consisting of mean G-band magnitudes for all sources. The G-band light curves and the characteristics of 3000 Cepheid and RR Lyrae stars, observed at high cadence around the south ecliptic pole, form the third component. For the primary astrometric data set the typical uncertainty is about 0.3 mas for the positions and parallaxes, and about 1 mas yr[SUP]-1[/SUP] for the proper motions. A systematic component of 0.3 mas should be added to the parallax uncertainties. For the subset of 94 000 Hipparcos stars in the primary data set, the proper motions are much more precise at about 0.06 mas yr[SUP]-1[/SUP]. For the secondary astrometric data set, the typical uncertainty of the positions is 10 mas. The median uncertainties on the mean G-band magnitudes range from the mmag level to 0.03 mag over the magnitude range 5 to 20.7. <BR /> Conclusions: Gaia DR1 is an important milestone ahead of the next Gaia data release, which will feature five-parameter astrometry for all sources. Extensive validation shows that Gaia DR1 represents a major advance in the mapping of the heavens and the availability of basic stellar data that underpin observational astrophysics. Nevertheless, the very preliminary nature of this first Gaia data release does lead to a number of important limitations to the data quality which should be carefully considered before drawing conclusions from the data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe puzzling properties of the magnetic O star Tr16-22
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Barbá, Rodolfo; Bagnulo, Stefano et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 596(A44), 1-7

Context. The detection of bright, hard, and variable X-ray emission in Tr16-22 prompted spectropolarimetric observations of this star, which in turn led to the discovery of a surface magnetic field. <BR ... [more ▼]

Context. The detection of bright, hard, and variable X-ray emission in Tr16-22 prompted spectropolarimetric observations of this star, which in turn led to the discovery of a surface magnetic field. <BR /> Aims: We want to further constrain the properties of this star, in particular to verify whether X-ray variations are correlated to changes in optical emission lines and magnetic field strength, as expected from the oblique rotator model that is widely accepted for magnetic O stars. <BR /> Methods: We have obtained new low-resolution spectropolarimetric and long-term high-resolution spectroscopic monitoring of Tr16-22, and we also analyse new, serendipitous X-ray data. <BR /> Results: The new X-ray observations are consistent with previous data, but their addition does not help to solve the ambiguity in the variation timescale because of numerous aliases. No obvious periodicity or any large variations are detected in the spectropolarimetric data of Tr16-22 obtained over three months. The derived field values appear to be in line with previous measurements, suggesting constancy of the field (though the possibility of small, short-term field variations cannot be excluded). Variations in the equivalent widths of Hα are very small, and they do not appear to be related to the X-ray timescale; the overall lack of large variations in optical emission lines is consistent with the magnetic field constancy. In addition, variations of the radial velocities indicate that Tr16-22 is probably a SB1 binary with a very long period. <BR /> Conclusions: Our new measurements of optical emission lines and magnetic field strength do not show an obvious correlation with X-ray variations. Our current data thus cannot be interpreted in terms of the common model, which assumes the electromagnetic emission associated with a wind confined by a dipolar field tilted with respect to the rotation axis. However, the sampling is imperfect and new data are needed to further constrain the actual periodicity of the various observed phenomena. If inconsistencies are confirmed, then we will need to consider alternative scenarios. Based on XMM-Newton observations (ObsIDs 0691970101, 0742850301, 0742850401, 0762910401) and ESO data (Prog. 386.D-0624A, 086.D-0997B, 089.D-0975A, 091.D-0090B, 095.D-0082).The reduced polarisation spectra (as ascii files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A44">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A44</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gaia mission
Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 595

Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept ... [more ▼]

Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. <A href="http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia">http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia</A> [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of timing of insemination and GnRH treatment on pregnancy rates of N’Dama females after induction of oestrus with progestin
Okouyi M’foumou W’otari, Marcel; Hanzen, Christian ULg

in Revue d'Elévage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux (2016), 69(2), 73-78

The aim of this clinical trial was to quantify the results of pregnancy after treating trypanotolerant N'Dama female cattle (n=168) using a CIDR® (1.38g of progesterone) inserted for seven days. An ... [more ▼]

The aim of this clinical trial was to quantify the results of pregnancy after treating trypanotolerant N'Dama female cattle (n=168) using a CIDR® (1.38g of progesterone) inserted for seven days. An intramuscular (IM) PG injection (500µg of cloprostenol) was administered two days before removal of the device. Subsequently, an IM injection of 400UI of eCG was administered when the device was removed. The animals were inseminated respectively 48 (Group 1) and 72 hours (Group 2) after removal of the CIDR®. In both groups, half the animals were treated with 4.2µg of buserelin acetate and the other half with 1ml of physiological saline. Four protocols were thus tested: CIDR-PG-eCG/IA48h, CIDR-PG-eCG/IA48h/GnRH+, CIDR-PG-eCG/IA72h, and CIDR-PG-eCG/IA72h/GnRH+. A pregnancy diagnosis has been done by echography 45 to 60 days after insemination. The average pregnancy rate was 37.5% (n=168). That of the adult cows (43.2%, n=111) was significantly (P < 0.03) higher than that of the heifers (26.3%, n=57). The pregnancy rate observed in animals in Group 2 (48.8%) was significantly higher (P < 0.002) than that observed in the animals in Group 1 (26.2%). Physiological condition and the injection of GnRH at the time of insemination had no significant impact on the pregnancy rate. The hormonal protocol using CIDR-PG-eCG (400UI) and a timed artificial insemination 72 h later improves the pregnancy rates in the N’Dama female. [less ▲]

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See detailChandra View of Magnetically Confined Wind in HD191612: Theory Versus Observations
Nazé, Yaël ULg; ud-Doula, Asif; Zhekov, Svetozar A.

in Astrophysical Journal (2016), 831(#138), 11

High-resolution spectra of the magnetic star HD 191612 were acquired using the Chandra X-ray Observatory at both maximum and minimum emission phases. We confirm the flux and hardness variations previously ... [more ▼]

High-resolution spectra of the magnetic star HD 191612 were acquired using the Chandra X-ray Observatory at both maximum and minimum emission phases. We confirm the flux and hardness variations previously reported with XMM-Newton, demonstrating the high repeatability of the behavior of HD 191612 over a decade. The line profiles appear typical for magnetic massive stars: no significant line shift, relatively narrow lines for high-Z elements, and formation radius at about 2 {R}[SUB]* [/SUB]. Line ratios confirm the softening of the X-ray spectrum at the minimum emission phase. Shift or width variations appear of limited amplitude at most (slightly lower velocity and slightly increased broadening at minimum emission phase, but within 1–2σ of values at maximum). In addition, a fully self-consistent 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the confined wind in HD 191612 was performed. The simulation results were directly fitted to the data, leading to a remarkable agreement overall between them. [less ▲]

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See detailResting-state Network-specific Breakdown of Functional Connectivity during Ketamine Alteration of Consciousness in Volunteers
BONHOMME, Vincent ULg; VANHAUDENHUYSE, Audrey ULg; Demertzi, Athina ULg et al

in Anesthesiology (2016), 125(5), 873-878

Background: Consciousness-altering anesthetic agents disturb connectivity between brain regions composing the resting-state consciousness networks (RSNs). The default mode network (DMn), executive control ... [more ▼]

Background: Consciousness-altering anesthetic agents disturb connectivity between brain regions composing the resting-state consciousness networks (RSNs). The default mode network (DMn), executive control network, salience network (SALn), auditory network, sensorimotor network (SMn), and visual network sustain mentation. Ketamine modifies consciousness differently from other agents, producing psychedelic dreaming and no apparent interaction with the environment. The authors used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore ketamine-induced changes in RSNs connectivity. Methods: Fourteen healthy volunteers received stepwise intravenous infusions of ketamine up to loss of responsiveness. Because of agitation, data from six subjects were excluded from analysis. RSNs connectivity was compared between absence of ketamine (wake state [W1]), light ketamine sedation, and ketamine-induced unresponsiveness (deep sedation [S2]). Results: Increasing the depth of ketamine sedation from W1 to S2 altered DMn and SALn connectivity and suppressed the anticorrelated activity between DMn and other brain regions. During S2, DMn connectivity, particularly between the medial prefrontal cortex and the remaining network (effect size β [95% CI]: W1 = 0.20 [0.18 to 0.22]; S2 = 0.07 [0.04 to 0.09]), and DMn anticorrelated activity (e.g., right sensory cortex: W1 = −0.07 [−0.09 to −0.04]; S2 = 0.04 [0.01 to 0.06]) were broken down. SALn connectivity was nonuniformly suppressed (e.g., left parietal operculum: W1 = 0.08 [0.06 to 0.09]; S2 = 0.05 [0.02 to 0.07]). Executive control networks, auditory network, SMn, and visual network were minimally affected. Conclusions: Ketamine induces specific changes in connectivity within and between RSNs. Breakdown of frontoparietal DMn connectivity and DMn anticorrelation and sensory and SMn connectivity preservation are common to ketamine and propofol-induced alterations of consciousness. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition to democracy in Tunisia. Learning about citizenship in a national and transnational context
Nachi, Mohamed ULg

in Social Sciences Information = Information sur les Sciences Sociales (2016), 55(4),

La transition en Tunisie a constitué un moment fort d'apprentissage de la démocratie.

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See detailUse of long bolts for beam-to-concrete-filled rectangular hollow section column joints in seismic-resistant frames
Hoang, Van Long; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Demonceau, Jean-François ULg

in Steel Construction (2016), 9(4), 305-314

A research on a specific type of unstiffened extended end-plate joint used to connect I-shaped beams to concrete-filled rectangular hollow section columns is presented in this paper. The main idea is to ... [more ▼]

A research on a specific type of unstiffened extended end-plate joint used to connect I-shaped beams to concrete-filled rectangular hollow section columns is presented in this paper. The main idea is to use long bolts throughout the column to connect the beam end-plates, so: (1) avoiding intermediate connecting elements (e.g. a reverse U channel) or special bolts (e.g. blind bolts) that are sometimes used in practice; (2) improving the resistance and stiffness of the joint to be used in seismic resistant frames. Firstly, a test program has been performed within a RFCS European project entitled HSS-SERF “High Strength Steel in Seismic Resistant Building Frames”, 2009-2013. In the test program, specimens subjected to significant bending moments (and shear) or to shear only have been defined. Then, analytical models based on the component approach and aimed at predicting the joint response have been proposed; their validity is demonstrated through comparisons with the test results. Finally, the requirements of EN-1998-1-1 related to full strength resistance for the proposed joint configuration are discussed, accounting for the actual position of plastic hinges and the possible individual over-strength factors for each component. [less ▲]

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See detailLe contrat de travail et la prescription : cas particuliers
Cordier, Quentin ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2016)

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See detailAvoir faim au risque d'en mourir ? Le paradoxe de l'anorexie mentale.
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Moukhaiber, sophie; PIETTE, Catherine ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(11), 495-501

Anorexia nervosa is a complex pathology that regularly leads clinicians to a therapeutic impasse. The origin of this disorder is multifactorial. It occurs most often in adolescence and affects mainly ... [more ▼]

Anorexia nervosa is a complex pathology that regularly leads clinicians to a therapeutic impasse. The origin of this disorder is multifactorial. It occurs most often in adolescence and affects mainly women. Paradoxically, hunger is present but dissociated from adequate food function. Somatic and psychological impact can be particularly heavy. The treatment is difficult and requires a multidisciplinary care. An eclectic and integrative approach, moving away from rigid therapeutic methods and integrating the plurality of techniques, seems to be particularly recommended to increase the chances of therapeutic success. This article summarizes the various theoretical models of anorexia nervosa and its modalities of treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailLoadbearing capacity criteria in fire resistance testing
Dumont, Fabien ULg; Wellens, Eric ULg; Gernay, Thomas ULg et al

in Materials and Structures (2016), 49(11), 4565-4581

The European system for fire testing and classification of loadbearing building elements lacks consistency because the two standards that have to be applied prescribe different criteria for assessing the ... [more ▼]

The European system for fire testing and classification of loadbearing building elements lacks consistency because the two standards that have to be applied prescribe different criteria for assessing the loadbearing performance. This article analyzes the implications of the present conflict between the standard for testing and the standard for classification. The prescribed criteria for loadbearing performance are related to the exceedance of deflection and rate of deflection thresholds. A database of 46 fire resistance tests performed at the University of Liege is collected that contains the time at which these thresholds are reached in fire tests with different typologies of elements (walls, floors, columns and beams). Then, the loadbearing performance (and hence the fire resistance rating) can be derived according to the two standards. The evolutions of deflection and rate of deflection during the tests are also analyzed to gain a better understanding of the adequacy of the standards. The selection of one or the other standard affects the time at which “failure” is deemed to occur in fire tests. Statistically speaking, the difference in terms of failure time that results from using one or the other standard has a 25% probability to exceed 10%. In certain cases, this results in a difference in fire resistance rating; this was observed for 3 of the analyzed tests. The apparent contradiction in two codes in application has potential practical implications and therefore needs to be solved. The article suggests some guidelines for defining homogenized and consistent criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of different in vitro dissolution tests based on level A in vitro–in vivo correlations for fenofibrate self-emulsifying lipid-based formulations
Pestieau, Aude ULg; Lebrun, Sonia; Cahay, Bernard et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutics & Biopharmaceutics (2016)

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See detailLa décharge du débiteur après transfert, sous autorité de justice, de la totalité de son entreprise : les conditions et la procédure en questions
Pasteger, David ULg; Vandenbulke, Antoine ULg

in Revue de Droit Commercial Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Handelsrecht (2016), 9

Comment of the judgment of the Commercial Court of Ghent (Oudenaarde section), October 1st 2015, concerning the discharge of a debtor whose business has been fully transferred on the basis of Article 67 ... [more ▼]

Comment of the judgment of the Commercial Court of Ghent (Oudenaarde section), October 1st 2015, concerning the discharge of a debtor whose business has been fully transferred on the basis of Article 67 of the Law on Business Continuity (LBC), excluding the extraordinary debts in the moratorium secured by a mortgage on the family home. The paper then explains in detail the conditions of the discharge provided under Article 70 LBC and compares it with the similar mechanism of the bankrupt's excusability. [less ▲]

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See detailResults From Belgium’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth
Wijtzes, Anne I; Verloigne, Maïté; Mouton, Alexandre ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health (2016), 13((Suppl 2)), 95-103

This 2016 Belgium Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first systematic evaluation of physical activity (PA) behaviors, related health behaviors, health outcomes, and influences ... [more ▼]

This 2016 Belgium Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first systematic evaluation of physical activity (PA) behaviors, related health behaviors, health outcomes, and influences thereon, using the Active Healthy Kids Canada grading framework. A research working group consisting of PA experts from both Flanders and Wallonia collaborated to determine the indicators to be graded, data sources to be used, and factors to be taken into account during the grading process. Grades were finalized after consensus was reached among the research working group and 2 stakeholder groups consisting of academic and policy experts in the fields of PA, sedentary behavior, and dietary behavior. Eleven indicators were selected and assigned the following grades: Overall PA (F+), Organized Sport Participation (C-), Active Play (C+), Active Transportation (C-), Sedentary Behaviors (D-), School (B-), Government Strategies and Investment (C+), and Weight Status (D). Incomplete grades were assigned to Family and Peers, Community and the Built Environment, and Dietary Behaviors due to a lack of nationally representative data. In conclusion, despite moderately positive social and environmental influences, PA levels of Belgian children and youth are low while levels of sedentary behaviors are high. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurements of reference ISO nozzles by high-speed imaging
De Cock, Nicolas ULg; Massinon, Mathieu ULg; Nuyttens, David et al

in Crop Protection (2016), 89

Agricultural spray characteristics determine the efficiency of a pesticide application because size and velocity affect droplet trajectory and impact behavior. At present, the relevance of different ... [more ▼]

Agricultural spray characteristics determine the efficiency of a pesticide application because size and velocity affect droplet trajectory and impact behavior. At present, the relevance of different characterization techniques remains controversial since discrepancies may be significant between measurements performed in different laboratories. A digital image acquisition technique and analysis algorithm is proposed for droplet size and velocimetry measurements as an alternative to well-established techniques such as the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) or laser diffraction spectrometry (LDS). The algorithm requires double exposed shadow images acquired in a back-lighted arrangement with a Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) camera and a pulsed light emitting diode (LED). Spatial illumination heterogeneities are corrected by subtracting from each image a mean background acquired on several images without any particle. The algorithm accuracy is ensured by the rejection of out-of-focus particles using a focus parameter depending on gradient intensity at the particle edges. Thresholds for focus particle selection were determined by studying the evolution of the focus parameter and the error on particle size measurements from images containing droplets with uniform size at various distance of the object plane. Selected droplets were identified on both pairs of images to determine their size and velocity. Droplet size distributions were corrected to account for the uneven sampling probability caused by the volumetric method. Droplet size distributions of a set of reference nozzle/pressure combinations defined in the ISO/DIS 25358 were measured. The image technique was able to distinguish each of the reference sprays well. Comparison with PDPA measurements showed that the imaging technique tends to measure an equivalent Dv50, a lower Dv10 and a higher Dv90 leading therefore to a higher relative span factor. Velocity measurements showed good agreement between both techniques except for one nozzle/pressure combination. [less ▲]

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See detailExtraction Socket Management with Buccal Plate Expansion: Preliminary Results of a Novel Technique
Fernandez Ayora, Alberto; González-Martín, Oscar; ROMPEN, Eric ULg et al

in International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry (2016), 36(6),

The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate a new socket preservation technique involving the intentional expansion of the extraction socket buccal plate using a flapless internal ... [more ▼]

The primary objective of this pilot study was to evaluate a new socket preservation technique involving the intentional expansion of the extraction socket buccal plate using a flapless internal corticotomy and biomaterials. A total of 11 patients requiring tooth extraction were enrolled in this study. The aim of this technique was to maintain or improve the hard and soft tissue contour of the ridge after tooth extraction. All surgical sites healed uneventfully. Significant alveolar bone dimension changes were observed in the coronal region of the ridge (-1.4 ± 0.9 mm); however, it was only slightly lower at the medium (-0.35 ± 0.7 mm) and apical levels (-0.3 ± 0.8 mm) (P > .05). The ridge dimensional changes were significantly higher in the buccal aspect than in the palatal aspect in all patients. Vertical bone resorption was not significant. Concerning the soft tissue contour, the horizontal distance between the preoperative and postoperative buccal profiles ranged from 0.94 to -2.88 mm. The proposed ridge preservation technique may help maintain the volume of the healed ridge but cannot completely prevent contour changes after tooth extraction. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modeling of coupled thermal-hydro-mechanical behavior of GMZ bentonite in the China-Mock-up test
Zhao, Jingbo; Chen, Liang; Collin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Engineering Geology (2016), 214

Gaomiaozi (GMZ) bentonite is currently considered as themost suitable buffermaterial for high-level radioactive waste geological repository in China. To investigate the long-term performance of GMZ ... [more ▼]

Gaomiaozi (GMZ) bentonite is currently considered as themost suitable buffermaterial for high-level radioactive waste geological repository in China. To investigate the long-term performance of GMZ bentonite under repository conditions, a large scale mock-up test has been carried out since 2011. In the test, a hydration systemand an electrical heater were employed to simulate the Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) coupled conditions near a repository. In this work, a numerical study is performed to reproduce the experimental data obtained in the first three years of the China-Mock-up experiment. The principle THM characteristics and parameters of the bentonite are presented. On this basis, a THM coupled constitutive model is introduced. With the proposed model, numerical simulations of the China-Mock-up test are carried out using LAGAMINE. The numerical data of temperature, relative humidity, and swelling pressure of the GMZ compacted bentonite are compared with the experimental ones.We discuss the effect of the balance between the drying effect and water penetration process on the THM behavior of the GMZ bentonite. The good agreement between the predicted and experimental results suggests that the proposed model can reproduce the fundamental behavior of GMZ compacted bentonite under coupled THM conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude transfrontalière des besoins de formation en Education Thérapeutique du Patient souffrant de diabète et/ou d’obésité pour le personnel médical et paramédical : enquête par méthode du groupe nominal
Pétré, Benoît ULg; Ketterer, Frédéric ULg; Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg et al

in Presse Médicale (2016), 45(10), 351-361

INTRODUCTION: The design of continuous training programs in therapeutic patient education (ETP) should be inspired by needs shown by the professionals concerned in terms of mobilization or acquisition of ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: The design of continuous training programs in therapeutic patient education (ETP) should be inspired by needs shown by the professionals concerned in terms of mobilization or acquisition of skills in this domain. The objective of this study is to analyze needs expressed by healthcare professionals (HP) involved in patients' management presenting a type 2 diabetes (T2D) and/or obesity and to compare them with the existing recommendations. METHODS: One hundred and five PS (general practitioners, dietitians and nurses) of 3 frontier regions of French-speaking European countries (France, Belgium and Grand duchy of Luxembourg) were questioned in 12 monodisciplinary groups according to the technique of the nominal group. Needs expressed by the participants were classified in the categories of the reference table of skills to dispense TPE (National Institute for Health Prevention and Education [INPES], 2013). RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Among needs expressed by HP, 52 % of the votes targeted relational skills, 10 % of the skills relative to the biomedical techniques, 20 % of the skills relative to the educational techniques and 11 %, those of organization and the coordination. Seven percent of the proposals were out of the categories of the INPES. Results do not allow to establish profiles of skills according to the studied region or profession. The recognition of the TPE by the French legislation does not seem to influence in a major way the data. CONCLUSION: The needs expressed by PS in the context of this study are focused on the relation HP/patient that is the heart of the TPE. It would however be necessary to raise awareness among HP in the acquisition of the other skills which concern in particular the animation of group, the interprofessional coordination, the consideration of the environment or more generally the procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailPolyhydroxyurethane hydrogels: synthesis and characterizations
Gennen, Sandro ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in European Polymer Journal (2016), 84

Hydrogels based on polyurethane (PU) are promising (bio-) materials because of their bio- compatibility, biodegradation and excellent mechanical properties. In this publication, polyurethane hydrogels ... [more ▼]

Hydrogels based on polyurethane (PU) are promising (bio-) materials because of their bio- compatibility, biodegradation and excellent mechanical properties. In this publication, polyurethane hydrogels were produced for the first time by a non-isocyanate route by solvent-free step-growth copolymerization between a CO2-sourced hydrophilic polyethy- lene glycol bi-cyclic carbonate with diamines in the presence of a cross-linker. Kinetic of poly(hydroxyurethane) (PHU) synthesis was monitored by ATR-IR and the chemical cross-linking was confirmed by rheology and gel contents measurements. Hydrogels were obtained by immersion of PHUs in water and the influence of the diamine/cross-linker ratio and the nature of diamine on the water swelling and compression properties (compression modulus, strain and stress at break) of PHU hydrogels was evaluated. Additionally, the compression properties of the hydrogels were improved by the addition of Montmorillonite as nanofiller in the PHU formulation. This work opens new application fields for CO2-sourced PHUs. [less ▲]

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See detailA scanning Hall probe microscope for high resolution, large area, variable height magnetic field imaging
Shaw, Gorky ULg; Kramer, R. B. G.; Dempsey, N. M. et al

in Review of Scientific Instruments (2016), 87(11),

We present a scanning Hall probe microscope operating in ambient conditions. One of the unique features of this microscope is the use of the same stepper motors for both sample positioning as well as ... [more ▼]

We present a scanning Hall probe microscope operating in ambient conditions. One of the unique features of this microscope is the use of the same stepper motors for both sample positioning as well as scanning, which makes it possible to have a large scan range (few mm) in the x and y directions, with a scan resolution of 0.1 μm. Protocols have been implemented to enable scanning at different heights from the sample surface. The z range is 35 mm. Microstructured Hall probes of size 1-5 μm have been developed. A minimum probe-sample distance <2 μm has been obtained by the combination of new Hall probes and probe-sample distance regulation using a tuning fork based force detection technique. The system is also capable of recording local B(z) profiles. We discuss the application of the microscope for the study of micro-magnet arrays being developed for applications in micro-systems. [less ▲]

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See detailHybridation, intergénéricité et ironie dans “Arsène Schrauwen” d’Olivier Schrauwen
Crucifix, Benoît ULg; Meesters, Gert

in Neuvième art 2.0. (2016)

« La vraie vie, c’est ce qui se passe dans la tête quand on fait la vaisselle », ou « J’ai souvent une idée [de ce à quoi ressemblera ma prochaine histoire], mais généralement mon subconscient a d’autres ... [more ▼]

« La vraie vie, c’est ce qui se passe dans la tête quand on fait la vaisselle », ou « J’ai souvent une idée [de ce à quoi ressemblera ma prochaine histoire], mais généralement mon subconscient a d’autres projets ». Ces citations, tirées d’un récent entretien, sont typiques de la posture d’Olivier Schrauwen et indiquent directement qu’une histoire sur le Congo belge, dans ses mains, ressemblera à toute autre chose que les récits (post)coloniaux auxquels la bande dessinée s’est habituée. Paru en français en 2015 à L’Association, Arsène Schrauwen fait le récit halluciné du voyage au Congo qu’aurait effectué, comme le titre semble l’induire, le grand-père de l’auteur. En partant d’un contexte de production où la bande dessinée documentaire et autobiographique sont désormais bien ancrés, nous nous pencherons sur la façon dont Arsène Schrauwen se distingue de telles approches, souvent par l’absurde et l’ironie, mais aussi en invoquant des thèmes et motifs typiques des genres populaires qui ont dominés l’histoire de la bande dessinée. L’ouvrage de Schrauwen revendique ainsi une portée auto-réflexive qui s’étend d’autant plus à une réflexion comique sur le « langage » de la bande dessinée, un jeu qui sert le propos du livre à des fins plus profondes qu’il ne pourrait paraître. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon Supply and Photoacclimation Cross Talk in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
Polukhina, I; Fristedt, R; Dinc, E et al

in Plant Physiology (2016), 172(3), 1494-1505

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See detailNonlinear dynamical tunneling of optical whispering gallery modes in the presence of a Kerr nonlinearity
Shim, Jeong -Bo ULg; Schlagheck, Peter ULg; Hentschel, Martina et al

in Physical Review A (2016), 94

The effect of a Kerr nonlinearity on dynamical tunneling is studied, using coupled whispering gallery modes in an optical microcavity. The model system that we have chosen is the “add-drop filter,” which ... [more ▼]

The effect of a Kerr nonlinearity on dynamical tunneling is studied, using coupled whispering gallery modes in an optical microcavity. The model system that we have chosen is the “add-drop filter,” which is comprised of an optical microcavity and two waveguides coupled to the cavity. Due to the evanescent fields scattering on the waveguide, the whispering gallery modes in the microcavity form doublets, which manifest themselves as splittings in the spectrum. As these doublets can be regarded as a spectral feature of dynamical tunneling between two different dynamical states with a spatial overlap, the effect of a Kerr nonlinearity on the doublets is numerically investigated in the more general context of the relationship between cubic nonlinearity and dynamical tunneling. Within the numerical realization of the model system, it is observed that the doublets show a bistable transition in their transmission curve as the Kerr nonlinearity in the cavity is increased. At the same time, one rotational mode becomes dominant over the other one in the transmission, since the two states in the doublet have uneven linewidths. By using coupled-mode theory, the underlying mode dynamics of the phenomena is theoretically modeled and clarified. [less ▲]

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See detail2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS.
Kirchhof, Paulus; Benussi, Stefano; Kotecha, Dipak et al

in Europace : European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology : Journal of the Working Groups on Cardiac Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Cellular Electrophysiology of the European Society of Cardiology (2016), 18(11), 1609-1678

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See detailA method for measuring the sensitivity of building structural members to fire decay phases
Gernay, Thomas ULg

in Acta Polytechnica (2016), 56(4), 344-352

Fire brigades face a major threat when intervening in a building in fire: the possibility of structural collapse during the cooling phase of the fire, or soon thereafter. Currently this threat is ... [more ▼]

Fire brigades face a major threat when intervening in a building in fire: the possibility of structural collapse during the cooling phase of the fire, or soon thereafter. Currently this threat is amplified by the fact that the behaviour of structures after the time of peak gas temperature is not well understood, and is not taken into account in the design. This work presents an analysis of the behaviour of different structural members under natural fires and develops a method to characterize their sensitivity to fire decay phases. Thermo-mechanical numerical simulations based on the non-linear finite element method are conducted using the parametric fire model of Eurocode to represent natural fires. Results show that, for all the studied members (column, beam) and materials (reinforced concrete, steel and timber), structural failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire is a possible event. The major factors that promote delayed structural failure are the thermal inertia and the constituting material of the member. A method, based on a new indicator, is proposed to quantify the propensity to delayed failure for structural members under natural fire. This work enhances the understanding of the structural behaviour under natural fires and has important implications for the safety of the fire brigades and people proceeding to a building inspection after a fire. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the Variable Dilatancy Angle in Rocks Around Underground Galleries
Salehnia, Fatemeh ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Charlier, Robert ULg

in Rock Mechanics & Rock Engineering (2016)

Correct estimation of the dilatant behavior of a rock has an essential role in a realistic numerical simulation of the fracturing threshold during the rock deformation process and its post-failure ... [more ▼]

Correct estimation of the dilatant behavior of a rock has an essential role in a realistic numerical simulation of the fracturing threshold during the rock deformation process and its post-failure response, based on experimental and field observations. This importance has been poorly treated in most of the numerical analyses dealing with the rock engineering common problems such as deep excavations. The dilatancy angle as a commonly used parameter for describing the dilatation response of a rock is mostly simplified to be a constant value. Contrarily, a literature review declares the inadequacy of this approach in those rock mechanics applications. In the present paper, a new formula for considering the variable dilatancy angle is presented which relates this parameter to the plastic shear strain in the course of a loading procedure. It is aimed at characterizing an evolution of the dilatant or contracting volumetric response of a rock as well as giving the possibility to simulate a dilatant/contracting transitional behavior. The model is applied to simulate the development of strain localization, in shear band mode, within the inevitable excavation damaged zone created around an underground opening in rock. It is illustrated that using the model of variable dilatancy angle in a deep excavation modeling could help to better reproduce the fractures development around the opening in the course of tunneling. [less ▲]

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See detail2016 ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation developed in collaboration with EACTS.
Kirchhof, Paulus; Benussi, Stefano; Kotecha, Dipak et al

in European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery (2016), 50(5), 1-88

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See detailRevealed preference tests of collectively rational consumption behavior: formulations and algorithms
Talla Nobibon, Fabrice; Cherchye, Laurens; Crama, Yves ULg et al

in Operations Research (2016), 64(6), 11971216

This paper focuses on revealed preference tests of the collective model of household consumption. We start by showing that the decision problems corresponding to testing collective rationality are {\sc np ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on revealed preference tests of the collective model of household consumption. We start by showing that the decision problems corresponding to testing collective rationality are {\sc np}-complete. This makes the application of these tests problematic for (increasingly available) large(r) scale data sets. We then present two approaches to overcome this negative result. First, we introduce exact algorithms based on mixed-integer programming ({\sc mip}) formulations of the collective rationality tests, which can be usefully applied to medium sized data sets. Next, we propose simulated annealing heuristics, which allow for efficient testing of the collective model in the case of large data sets. We illustrate our methods by a number of computational experiments based on Dutch labor supply data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe construction of religion as a ‘public problem’. The emergence of Islam in the public space during Tunisia’s transition to democracy (2011--2014)
Nachi, Mohamed ULg

in Social Sciences Information = Information sur les Sciences Sociales (2016), 55(4),

La construction de l'islam en "problème public" au cours de la période de transition démocratique.

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See detailLa reconnaissance internationale de la République du Kosovo (2008-2016) : succès, défis et perspectives de ce nouvel État
Lika, Liridon ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2016)

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See detailBreaking Barriers Between Arts: Bob Dylan’s Nobel Prize
Lombard, David ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2016), (10),

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See detailAre there biologic factors of good prognosis after a platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection for tendinopathies ?
Libertiaux, Vincent ULg; Sancerne, Audrey; LE GOFF, Caroline ULg et al

in Journal of Exercise, Sports & Orthopedics (2016), 3(2), 1-4

Background : The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of a single PRP injection followed by a standardized reeducation protocol among patients suffering from different tendinopathies, but ... [more ▼]

Background : The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of a single PRP injection followed by a standardized reeducation protocol among patients suffering from different tendinopathies, but otherwise healthy, and to determine the biomarkers that constitute good prognosis factors, if any. Methods : 48 patients suffering from different tendinopathies and refractory to conventional physiotherapy were treated with a single PRP injection. Prior to the injection, a blood sample was drawn and some biological parameters (glycemia, cholesterolemia,...) were measured. A pain assessment was then made using a Visual Analog Scale of pain (VAS) and a pressure algometer. The same assessment was carried out after 6 weeks and 12 weeks when possible. Results : There is an overall significant improvement in VAS score at the end of the 12 weeks follow- up. However, no correlation was found between the evolution of the clinical scores and the biological parameters measured. Conclusion: A PRP injection followed by a program of eccentric rehabilitation positively affects the algo-functional scores of patients with tendinopathies who were refractory to conventional physio- therapy, whatever the initial values of the measuured biological parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailIncidence and Phenotype at Diagnosis of Very-early-onset Compared with Later-onset Paediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-based Study [1988-2011].
Bequet, Emeline ULg; Sarter, Hélène; Fumery, Mathurin et al

in Journal of Crohn's and Colitis [=JCC] (2016)

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See detailA Novel Physiological Glycosaminoglycan-Deficient Splice Variant of Neuropilin-1 Is Anti-Tumorigenic In Vitro and In Vivo
Hendricks, Céline; Dubail, Johanne; Brohée, Laura ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016)

Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a transmembrane protein acting as a co-receptor for several growth factors and interacting with other proteins such as integrins and plexins/semaphorins. It is involved in axonal ... [more ▼]

Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a transmembrane protein acting as a co-receptor for several growth factors and interacting with other proteins such as integrins and plexins/semaphorins. It is involved in axonal development, angiogenesis and cancer progression. Its primary mRNA is subjected to alternative splicing mechanisms generating different isoforms, some of which lack the transmembrane domain and display antagonist properties to NRP1 full size (FS). NRP1 is further post-translationally modified by the addition of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) side chains through an O-glycosylation site at serine612. Here, we characterized a novel splice variant which has never been investigated, NRP1-Δ7, differing from the NRP1-FS by a deletion of 7 amino acids occurring two residues downstream of the O-glycosylation site. This short sequence contains two aspartic residues critical for efficient glycosylation. As expected, the high molecular weight products appearing as a smear in SDS-PAGE and reflecting the presence of GAG in NRP1-FS were undetectable in the NRP1-Δ7 protein. NRP1-Δ7 mRNA was found expressed at an appreciable level, between 10 and 30% of the total NRP1, by various cells lines and tissues from human and murine origin. To investigate the biological properties of this isoform, we generated prostatic (PC3) and breast (MDA-MB-231) cancer cells able to express recombinant NRP1-FS or NRP1-Δ7 in a doxycycline-inducible manner. Cells with increased expression of NRP1-Δ7 were characterized in vitro by a significant reduction of proliferation, migration and anchorage-independent growth, while NRP1-FS had the expected opposite “pro-tumoral” effects. Upon VEGF-A165 treatment, a lower internalization rate was observed for NRP1-Δ7 than for NRP1-FS. Finally, we showed that NRP1-Δ7 inhibited growth of prostatic tumors and their vascularization in vivo. This report identifies NRP1-Δ7 as a splice variant displaying anti-tumorigenic properties in vitro and in vivo, emphasizing the need to consider this isoform in future studies. [less ▲]

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See detailLacunes extrinsèques et effets au contentieux préjudiciel : lorsque la Cour de cassation fait d'une pierre deux coups
Pironnet, Quentin ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2016), 35(2016), 1652-1658

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See detailEffects of interactions on the relaxation processes in magnetic nanostructures
Atkinson, Lewis; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Ondrej, Hovorka et al

in Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2016), 94

Controlling the relaxation of magnetization in magnetic nanostructures is key to optimizing magnetic storage device performance. This relaxation is governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic relaxation ... [more ▼]

Controlling the relaxation of magnetization in magnetic nanostructures is key to optimizing magnetic storage device performance. This relaxation is governed by both intrinsic and extrinsic relaxation mechanisms and with the latter strongly dependent on the interactions between the nanostructures. In the present work we investigate laser induced magnetization dynamics in a broadband optical resonance type experiment revealing the role of interactions between nanostructures on the relaxation processes of granular magnetic structures. The results are corroborated by constructing a temperature dependent numerical micromagnetic model of magnetization dynamics based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation. The model predicts a strong dependence of damping on the key material properties of coupled granular nanostructures in good agreement with the experimental data. We show that the intergranular, magnetostatic and exchange interactions provide a large extrinsic contribution to the damping. Finally we show that the mechanism can be attributed to an increase in spin-wave degeneracy with the ferromagnetic resonance mode as revealed by semianalytical spin-wave calculations. [less ▲]

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