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See detailEmbedding Open Science in Doctoral Education at the University of Liege
Halleux, Isabelle ULg

in Doctoral Education Bulletin (2015)

This article is part of special issue on Open Research and Open education for early stage researchers. It presents good practices and main achievements in innovative and open Science doctoral training at ... [more ▼]

This article is part of special issue on Open Research and Open education for early stage researchers. It presents good practices and main achievements in innovative and open Science doctoral training at Ulg [less ▲]

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See detailOne good reason to speak of 'climate refugees'
Gemenne, François ULg

in Forced Migration Review (2015), 49

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See detailTendinopathies and platelet-rich plasma (PRP): from pre-clinical experiments to therapeutic use
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Journal of Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine (2015), 11(1), 01101020000315031511

Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014 dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, five addressed lateral epicondylitis, two addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, ten dealt with patellar tendinopathies and three looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon's healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed. [less ▲]

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See detailModes de rémunération des médecins généralistes : quelles conséquences ?
Saint-Lary, Olivier; Franc, Carine; Raginel, Thibaud et al

in Exercer (2015), 119

Introduction. The health reform law crystallizes the tensions between the different health system players. Besides the specific issue of third-party payment, which will be addressed in an upcoming article ... [more ▼]

Introduction. The health reform law crystallizes the tensions between the different health system players. Besides the specific issue of third-party payment, which will be addressed in an upcoming article, some professional organizations wish to strengthen fee for servicies while others call for more mixed forms of remuneration. Many economic analyses were conducted to study the benefits and limits of each mode of physician compensation. This article offers a synthesis of the literature about these modes: fee for service, capitation, payment performance and wage labor. Method. Collaborative literature analysis between doctors and health economist. The databases searched were MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library and CAIRN. Results. Each mode has specific benefits and limits for the financer, the physicians and the patients. Fee for services increases physician productivity but may increases health spending. Capitation and salary decrease care supply but might help to control health spending and to develop preventive activities. The effectiveness of pay for performance is now being questioned. The current trend is to promote mixed forms of remuneration, hoping to combine the advantages and limit the share of defects of each modality. The complexity of such systems makes it difficult to compare from one country to another. Discussion. The choice of a mode by the financer must take into account both the possible combinations of different payment methods and the developments or societal aspirations to meet population health needs. [less ▲]

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See detailLinear and propeller-like fluoro-isoindigo based donor–acceptor small molecules for organic solar cells
Ouhib, Farid ULg; Tomassetti, Mirco ULg; Dierckx, Wauter et al

in Organic Electronics (2015), 20

Two donor–acceptor type fluoro-isoindigo based small molecule semiconductors are syn- thesized and their optical, electrochemical, thermal, and charge transport properties are investigated. The two ... [more ▼]

Two donor–acceptor type fluoro-isoindigo based small molecule semiconductors are syn- thesized and their optical, electrochemical, thermal, and charge transport properties are investigated. The two molecular chromophores differ by their architecture, linear (M1) vs propeller-like (M2). Both molecules present a broad absorption in the visible range and a low optical HOMO–LUMO gap (?1.6 eV). AFM images of solution-processed thin films show that the trigonal molecule M2 forms highly oriented fibrils after a few seconds of solvent vapor annealing. The materials are evaluated as electron donor components in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells using PC61BM as the electron acceptor. The devices based on the propeller-like molecule M2 exhibit a high open-circuit voltage (around 1.0 V) and a power conversion efficiency of 2.23%. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical Flavor Origin of ZN Symmetries
Aristizabal Sierra, Diego ULg; Vicente, Avelino ULg; Fong, Sheng et al

in Physical Review. D, Particles, Fields, Gravitation, and Cosmology (2015), 91(9),

Discrete Abelian symmetries (ZN) are a common “artifact” of beyond the standard model physics models. They provide different avenues for constructing consistent scenarios for lepton and quark mixing ... [more ▼]

Discrete Abelian symmetries (ZN) are a common “artifact” of beyond the standard model physics models. They provide different avenues for constructing consistent scenarios for lepton and quark mixing patterns, radiative neutrino mass generation as well as dark matter stabilization. We argue that these symmetries can arise from the spontaneous breaking of the Abelian U(1) factors contained in the global flavor symmetry transformations of the gauge-invariant kinetic Lagrangian. This will be the case provided the ultraviolet completion responsible for the Yukawa structure involves scalar fields carrying nontrivial U(1) charges. Guided by minimality criteria, we demonstrate the viability of this approach with two examples: first, we derive the “scotogenic” model Lagrangian, and second, we construct a setup where the spontaneous symmetry-breaking pattern leads to a Z3 symmetry which enables dark matter stability as well as neutrino mass generation at the two-loop order. This generic approach can be used to derive many other models, with residual ZN or ZN1×⋯×ZNk symmetries, establishing an intriguing link between flavor symmetries, neutrino masses and dark matter. [less ▲]

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See detailCorporate board attributes and conditional accounting conservatism: Evidence from French firms
Boussaid, Nabila ULg; Sougné, Danielle ULg; Hamza, Taher

in Journal of Applied Business Research (2015), Vol 31, No 3 (2015)

We investigate the relationship between corporate board of directors’ attributes and conditional accounting conservatism in the French context. Using a pooled regression model over the period 2009-2012 ... [more ▼]

We investigate the relationship between corporate board of directors’ attributes and conditional accounting conservatism in the French context. Using a pooled regression model over the period 2009-2012, our empirical results can be summarized as follows. First, greater board activity encourages more conservative reporting in financial statements. Second, larger board size diminishes conditional accounting conservatism. Lastly, there is a positive association between gender diversity and accounting conservatism. As a robustness test, we use alternative measures of accounting conservatism, namely time series and accrual-based measures in addition to asymmetric timeliness of earnings. Our findings suggest that boards of directors’ attributes are an important factor in determining the financial reporting quality of French firms. [less ▲]

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See detailTaming uncertainty: Towards a new governance approach for nuclear waste management in Belgium
Parotte, Céline ULg; Delvenne, Pierre ULg

in Technology Analysis & Strategic Management (2015)

We focus on the new governance practices in Belgian nuclear waste management from its ‘participatory turn’ in the late 1990s. Rather than praising (or rejecting) participation versus expert analysis, we ... [more ▼]

We focus on the new governance practices in Belgian nuclear waste management from its ‘participatory turn’ in the late 1990s. Rather than praising (or rejecting) participation versus expert analysis, we make use of a theoretical and analytical framework in which the relevant dynamics for the analysis are ‘opening up’ and ‘closing down’ technological appraisals and commitments. Even though nuclear waste management agencies often plead for an integrative approach between expert analysis and stakeholder participation, in practice both exercises are often kept separate. We address this separation and its consequences and we find that societal concerns remain subsumed in the technical options that have long been favoured by the Belgian agency. This article encourages scholars, waste managers and decision-makers to scrutinise the moments and situations in which opening up would be desirable, and when, by contrast, it would be better to close down options in nuclear waste management. [less ▲]

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See detailFast Chromatographic Method for Explosive Profiling
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Perrault, Katelynn A.; Focant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Chromatography (2015), 2

Security control is becoming a major global issue in strategic locations, such as airports, official buildings, and transit stations. The agencies responsible for public security need powerful and ... [more ▼]

Security control is becoming a major global issue in strategic locations, such as airports, official buildings, and transit stations. The agencies responsible for public security need powerful and sensitive tools to detect warfare agents and explosives. Volatile signature detection is one of the fastest and easiest ways to achieve this task. However, explosive chemicals have low volatility making their detection challenging. In this research, we developed and evaluated fast chromatographic methods to improve the characterization of volatile signatures from explosives samples. The headspace of explosives was sampled with solid phase micro-extraction fiber (SPME). Following this step, classical gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) were used for analysis. A fast GC approach allows the elution temperature of each analyte to be decreased, resulting in decreased thermal degradation of sensitive compounds (e.g., nitro explosives). Using fast GC×GC, the limit of detection is further decreased based on the cryo-focusing effect of the modulator. Sampling of explosives and chromatographic separation were optimized, and the methods then applied to commercial explosives samples. Implementation of fast GC methods will be valuable in the future for defense and security forensics applications. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving adjuvant systems for polyclonal egg yolk antibody (IgY) production in laying hens in terms of productivity and animal welfare
Marcq, Christopher ULg; Marlier, Didier ULg; Beckers, Yves ULg

in Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology (2015), 165(1-2), 54-63

The antibody production in the egg yolks of immunized laying hens is seen as a way of improving animal welfare compared with conventional production by mammals. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) technology, however ... [more ▼]

The antibody production in the egg yolks of immunized laying hens is seen as a way of improving animal welfare compared with conventional production by mammals. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) technology, however, has still to address welfare issues linked to the widespread use of an adjuvant in vaccines. Currently, Freund's adjuvants, complete (FCA) or incomplete (FIA), remain the standard. This study sought to evaluate various approaches used to enhance egg yolk antibody production in terms of both productivity and avian welfare. The outer membrane protein (OMP) of Salmonella Typhimurium was used as the prototype antigen. At 20 weeks of age, 56 ISA Brown hens, with specific-Salmonella-free status, were divided into seven groups (n = 8) and received an initial intramuscular immunization. Hens in the two negative control groups received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or FIA alone. Hens in the other groups received 80 μg of Salmonella OMP emulsified with one of the following adjuvants: 200 μl of FIA alone (T1); 200 μl of FIA supplemented with 8 μg of C-phosphate-guanosine oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) (T2); and 280 μl of Montanide ISA 70 VG (T4). Birds in the T3 group received the antigen in emulsion with FIA and were given the tested immunostimulatory component (l-carnitine) via their feed (100 mg/kg). A positive control group (PC) received FCA for the first and final immunizations and FIA for the other boosters. Immunization was repeated after 20, 46, 82 and 221 days. Eggs were collected regularly until 242 days after the first immunization and the anti-Salmonella Typhimurium activities in the yolk were determined by ELISA. After 242 days, the birds were euthanized and the injection sites were evaluated for gross and microscopic lesions. Among the tested immunostimulatory approaches, supplementation of FIA with CpG-ODN led to a significant and long-lasting enhancement of the specific antibody response. This treatment was even higher than the positive benchmark using FCA in the first immunization. The study results showed that a clinical examination of injection sites is insufficient for drawing conclusions about the local tolerance of vaccines. Tissue damage was noticeable in all treatment groups. The birds receiving the Montanide adjuvant, however, had fewer and less severe lesions. Given these limited side-effects, Montanide ISA 70 VG could provide the depot effect needed to ensure the immunomodulatory efficiency of CpG-ODN. The association of these two adjuvants could prove a promising alternative to Freund's adjuvants (FA). [less ▲]

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See detailFactors controlling Si export from soils: A soil column approach
Ronchi, Benedicta; Barao, Lucia; Clymans, Wim et al

in Catena (2015), 133

The release of dissolved silicon (DSi) from A and B horizons was investigated with leaching tests on unsaturated columns. As forest A horizons have larger biogenic Si (BSi) pools than arable lands, we ... [more ▼]

The release of dissolved silicon (DSi) from A and B horizons was investigated with leaching tests on unsaturated columns. As forest A horizons have larger biogenic Si (BSi) pools than arable lands, we compared the Si release from a forest and a cropland from the same geographical region developed on a Luvisol in Belgium and a Cambisol in Sweden. The A horizons released a quickly dissolving Si fraction in contrast to the B horizons, which did contain no or only little amounts of BSi and released lower Si concentrations. Our experiments show that Si export from forest soils is high because of the presence of a large reservoir of soluble BSi as well as due to the acidity of the soil (pH<4). Leaching at two different water fluxes revealed that export in forest soils was transport controlled while cropland soils were in equilibrium. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogenic Evaluation and Organochlorine Identification in Blubber of North Sea Harbour Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Stranded on the North Sea Coast
Didimo Imazaki, Pedro Henrique ULg; Brose, François ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in BioMed Research International (2015), 2015

Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000 ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using ... [more ▼]

Thirteen individual organochlorine compounds at 3 concentrations (80, 400, and 2000 ng/mL culture medium), as well as mixtures, were assayed for the estrogen receptor (ER) activation or inhibition, using a luciferase reporter gene assay (RGA). None of the PCB 138, 153, or 180 or their mixture induced a response in the RGA. o,p'-DDT was the most potent xenoestrogen fromthe DDT group, inducing a response already at 80 ng/mL. From the HCH and HCB group, only 𝛽-HCH (at 400 and 2000 ng/mL) and 𝛿-HCH (at 2000 ng/mL) displayed estrogenic activities.These 13 organochlorines were determined by GC-MS in 12 samples of North Sea harbor porpoise blubber. The PCBs were the main contaminants. Within each group, PCB 153 (6.0 × 102∼4.2 × 104 𝜇g/kg), p,p'- DDE (5.1 × 102∼8.6 × 103 𝜇g/kg), and HCB (7.6 × 101∼1.5 × 103 𝜇g/kg) were the compounds found in highest concentrations.The hormonal activity of the porpoise blubber samples was also assayed in RGA, where two samples showed estrogenic activity, seven samples showed antiestrogenic activity, and one sample showed both estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity. Our results suggest that the 13 POPs measured by GC-MS in the samples cannot explain alone the estrogenicity of the extracts. [less ▲]

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See detailLa robinsonnade d’anticipation. Sur une forme composite et ses péripéties
Stienon, Valérie ULg

in Nineteenth Century French Studies (2015), vol. 43(n°3-4), 250-266

In nineteenth-century French literature, adventure novels and futuristic fictions share various narrative and thematic features which generate an extensive set of “science fiction adventure” novels that ... [more ▼]

In nineteenth-century French literature, adventure novels and futuristic fictions share various narrative and thematic features which generate an extensive set of “science fiction adventure” novels that have not attracted much critical attention to date. However, such hybrid narratives lead us to reconsider a certain kind of futuristic fiction as it is defined as much by a geographical shift as by time travel. The particular and prolific case of the robinsonnade, regarded as a pivotal subgenre of adventure, facilitates highlighting such generic interferences. This paper examines four novels related either to utopian travel literature or to Jules Verne’s literary and editorial paradigm of the “voyages extraordinaires” in order to shed light on the dynamics framing the earliest forms of science fiction built on the topic of remote, flying, or spatial island. (In French) [less ▲]

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See detailThe Kambarata 2 blast-fill dam, Kyrgyz Republic: blast event, geophysical monitoring and dam structure modelling
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Torgoev, Isakbek; Torgoev, Almazbek ULg et al

in Geoenvironmental Disasters (2015), 2(1), 1-15

Abstract Background The blast-and earth-fill dam of the Kambarata 2 hydropower station is situated in the seismically active Central Tien Shan region of the Kyrgyz Republic. More than 70% of the dam ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background The blast-and earth-fill dam of the Kambarata 2 hydropower station is situated in the seismically active Central Tien Shan region of the Kyrgyz Republic. More than 70% of the dam volume was produced during a blast event on December 22, 2009. In 2010– 2011, dam construction was completed after earth filling on top of the blasted material and installing concrete and clay screens together with bentonite grouts. A geophysical survey had been completed in 2012–2013, mainly to monitor the resistivities inside the dam. ... [less ▲]

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See detailLes réseaux lettrés du diplomate-écrivain Marcel-Henri Jaspar dans les années 1960. De la raison de Renan à l’ésotérisme de De Becker
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2015), 46

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See detailCardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Goffaux, Sébastien et al

in Journal of Sports Science & Medicine (2015), 14(2 (eCollection 2015 Jun)), 475-476

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See detailParathyroid carcinoma : Challenges in diagnosis and treatment
BETEA, Daniela ULg; Potorac, Iulia ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2015), 76

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See detailValid inequalities for the single arc design problem with set-ups
Agra, Agostinho; Doostmohammadi, Mahdi; Louveaux, Quentin ULg

in Discrete Optimization (2015), 16

We consider a mixed integer set which generalizes two well-known sets: the single node fixed- charge network set and the single arc design set. Such set arises as a relaxation of feasible sets of general ... [more ▼]

We consider a mixed integer set which generalizes two well-known sets: the single node fixed- charge network set and the single arc design set. Such set arises as a relaxation of feasible sets of general mixed integer problems such as lot-sizing and network design problems. We derive several families of valid inequalities that, in particular, generalize the arc resid- ual capacity inequalities and the flow cover inequalities. For the constant capacitated case we provide an extended compact formulation and give a partial description of the convex hull in the original space which is exact under a certain condition. By lifting some basic inequalities we provide some insight on the difficulty of obtaining such a full polyhedral description for the constant capacitated case. Preliminary computational results are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailLa justice et les inégalités environnementales : concepts, méthodes et traduction politique aux États-Unis et en Europe
Lejeune, Zoé ULg

in Revue Française des Affaires Sociales (2015), n°1-2(2015/1), 51-78

Dans cet article, nous centrons notre réflexion sur la notion de justice environnementale, depuis son émergence en tant que champ d’investigation scientifique et d’activisme environnemental et social aux ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous centrons notre réflexion sur la notion de justice environnementale, depuis son émergence en tant que champ d’investigation scientifique et d’activisme environnemental et social aux États-Unis dans les années 1980. Son intégration progressive au sein de politiques publiques environnementales ainsi que les résultats de cette mise à l’agenda public seront ensuite esquissés pour en montrer les évolutions et les limites. Ensuite, nous analysons son émergence dans le contexte européen pour montrer la plus-value que la justice environnementale peut apporter à la compréhension des rapports entre environnement et justice sociale. Les enjeux pour le contexte européen, en termes de recherche mais aussi de politiques publiques, sont abordés afin de mettre en lumière les apports potentiels de ce courant de recherche foisonnant aux États-Unis pour la réflexion sur le cumul d’inégalités socio-économiques et environnementales en Europe. [less ▲]

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See detailDPSC colonization of functionalized 3D textiles
Ortiz, Mariné; Rosales-Ibáñez, Raúl; de J Pozos-Guillén, Amaury et al

in Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (2015)

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See detailA spectroscopic investigation of the O-type star population in four Cygnus OB associations. II. Determination of the fundamental parameters
Mahy, Laurent ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg; De Becker, Michaël ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 577

Aims: Having established the binary status of nineteen O-type stars located in four Cygnus OB associations, we now determine their fundamental parameters to constrain their properties and their ... [more ▼]

Aims: Having established the binary status of nineteen O-type stars located in four Cygnus OB associations, we now determine their fundamental parameters to constrain their properties and their evolutionary status. We also investigate their surface nitrogen abundances, which we compare with other results from the literature obtained for galactic O-type stars. Methods: Using optical spectra collected for each object in our sample and some UV data from the archives, we apply the CMFGEN atmosphere code to determine their main properties. For the binary systems, we have disentangled the components to obtain their individual spectra and investigate them as if they were single stars. Results: We find that the distances of several presumably single O-type stars seem poorly constrained because their luminosities are not in agreement with the "standard" luminosities of stars with similar spectral types. The ages of these O-type stars are all less than 7 Myr. Therefore, the ages of these stars agree with those, quoted in the literature, of the four associations, except for Cyg OB8 for which the stars seem older than the association itself. However, we point out that the distance of certain stars is debatable relative to values found in the literature. The N content of these stars put in perspective with N contents of several other galactic O-type stars seems to draw the same five groups as found in the "Hunter" diagram for the O and B-type stars in the LMC even though their locations are obviously different. We determine mass-loss rates for several objects from the Halpha line and UV spectra. Finally, we confirm the "mass discrepancy" especially for O stars with masses smaller than 30 Msun;. [less ▲]

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See detailL'affirmation de soi par le jeu de l'acteur : Un adjuvant utile pour la pratique de l'affirmation de soi ? Une étude évaluative pilote
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Delvaux, Muriel ULg; Sarto, Danielle et al

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2015), XX(1), 6-14

En psychothérapie, les patients rapportent fréquemment des difficultés d’affirmation de soi, difficultés pour lesquelles les procédures thérapeutiques cognitives et comportementales ont démontré leur ... [more ▼]

En psychothérapie, les patients rapportent fréquemment des difficultés d’affirmation de soi, difficultés pour lesquelles les procédures thérapeutiques cognitives et comportementales ont démontré leur efficacité. L’objectif de cette recherche est de vérifier qu’une nouvelle combinaison de techniques (« jeu de l’acteur » et programme classique d’affirmation de soi) améliore le bien-être des patients. Ce programme est constitué de 10 séances alternativement animées par une actrice-metteuse en scène et par une psychologue-psychothérapeute. Les participants (N = 20) ont rempli des évaluations en pré et en post-test : questionnaire d’auto-efficacité sociale, échelles d’affirmation de soi, échelle d’estime de soi, échelle des aptitudes à la communication, échelles d’anxiété et de dépression. Des améliorations statistiquement significatives ont été mises en évidence pour chaque variable dépendante étudiée, sauf pour l’échelle de communication. La combinaison proposée permet bien une amélioration des différentes variables dépendantes mesurées même si les participants n’atteignent pas les scores d’un groupe contrôle exempt de difficultés d’affirmation de soi. [less ▲]

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See detailInterrompre ou poursuivre la grossesse à l’adolescence: facteurs de risque psychosociaux.
GRECO, Antonia ULg; REGGERS, Jean; Glowacz, Fabienne ULg

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence (2015)

précocesAbstractIntroduction. – Teenage pregnancy arouses lots of questions and remains a worldwide social and public health problem. This phenomenon isproblematic because it is often associated with ... [more ▼]

précocesAbstractIntroduction. – Teenage pregnancy arouses lots of questions and remains a worldwide social and public health problem. This phenomenon isproblematic because it is often associated with socio-economic, family and psychological difficulties.Objective. – Our study aims to identify the individual and environmental factors that influence the teenager’s decision whether to keep her child ornot.Method. – A sample of fourteen girls between 16 and 21 years old was recruited who had been or were pregnant. The girls were divided into2 groups: seven who decided to continue with their pregnancy and seven others who decided to have an abortion. This group was compared to girlswho had never been pregnant (n = 18). An interview was carried out and structured questionnaires were administered in order to evaluate individualand environmental characteristics as the age of menarche and the first sexual intercourse, the emotional and sexual education, the social and family support, the socio-cultural background and the socio-economic environment. Different other dimensions were analyzed: individual characteristics(Temperament and Character Inventory Junior, Impulsive Behaviour Scale, Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory) and family characteristics (AdverseChildhood Experiences) such as childhood family strengths and adverse childhood experiences.Results and conclusions. – Our study findings showed that a precarious socio-economic environment, a lack of support and affection in thefamily, emotional deprivations, a restricted social network, low self-esteem and school disinvestments would effectively predict the continuationof a pregnancy. Childhood family strengths seem to be strongly protective against early sexual intercourse, adolescent pregnancy and long-termpsychosocial consequences. On the other hand, no particular personality feature was demonstrated. Individual characteristics would thus have lessimpact on premature pregnancies than environmental characteristics. Prevention programs must stretch beyond the use of contraception, i.e. tendtoward an intervention for psycho-socially and socio-economically at risk families, so as to support them in their educational and affective rolewith their children. Psychological help could also be brought to young girls who have had experiences of maltreatment, to favour self-esteem andraise their awareness of the consequences of sexual risk behaviour. Finally, there should be specific help for the girls during the decision-makingperiod. Counselling during this period should be attentive to the resources and the motivations of the adolescent and to the circumstances of the pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detail'Een lent van vaerzen' als letterkundig spiegelkabinet
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Arabesken: Tijdschrift van het Louis Couperus Genootschap (2015)

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See detailGene expression of cytokines, growth factors and apoptosis regulators in a neonatal model of pulmonary stenosis.
Liersch, Peter N.; Schwarz, Andreas; Sachweh, Joerg et al

in Future cardiology (2015), 11(3), 297-307

ABSTRACT Background: Right ventricular remodeling due to pulmonary stenosis increases morbidity in children. Its pathophysiology needs to be clarified. METHODS: Six newborn lambs underwent pulmonary ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Background: Right ventricular remodeling due to pulmonary stenosis increases morbidity in children. Its pathophysiology needs to be clarified. METHODS: Six newborn lambs underwent pulmonary arterial banding, seven sham operation. mRNA encoding for cytokines, growth factors and regulators of apoptosis was sequentially measured in myocardium and blood before and up to 12 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS: Experimental animals showed hypertrophy and fibrosis of the right ventricular myocardium, myocardial over-expression of CT-1-mRNA and higher blood concentrations of mRNA encoding for VEGF, TGF-beta, Bak and BcL-xL than controls, respectively. CONCLUSION: Neonatal pulmonary stenosis leads to myocardial hypertrophy that is associated with CT-1 gene expression and with activation of growth- and apoptosis pathways in blood cells. [less ▲]

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See detailL'opposition et le délai de prescription de la peine
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (2015)

L'opposition formée après le délai de prescription de la peine prononcée par défaut est, sauf cas de force majeure, irrecevable.

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See detailCochlear supporting cell transdifferentiation and integration into hair cell layers by inhibition of ephrin-B2 signalling
Defourny, Jean; Mateo Sanchez, Susana ULg; Schoonaert, Lies et al

in Nature Communications (2015)

In mammals, cochlear sensory hair cells that are responsible for hearing are postmitotic and are not replaced after loss. One of the most promising strategies to regenerate hair cells is to identify and ... [more ▼]

In mammals, cochlear sensory hair cells that are responsible for hearing are postmitotic and are not replaced after loss. One of the most promising strategies to regenerate hair cells is to identify and inhibit the factors preventing the conversion of adjacent non-sensory supporting cells into hair cells. Here we demonstrate that mammalian hair cells can be directly generated from supporting cells by inhibition of ephrin-B2 signalling. Using either ephrin-B2 conditional knockout mice, shRNA-mediated gene silencing or soluble inhibitors, we found that downregulation of ephrin-B2 signalling at embryonic stages results in supporting cell translocation into hair cell layers and subsequent switch in cell identity from supporting cell to hair cell fate. As transdifferentiation is here a result of displacement across boundary, this original finding presents the interest that newly generated hair cells directly integrate either hair cell layer, then would be likely more rapidly able to fit into functional circuitry. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and evaluation in vitro and in vivo of injectable hydrolipidic gels with sustained-release properties for the management of articular pathologies such as osteoarthritis.
Réeff, Jonathan; Oprenyeszk, Frédéric ULg; Franck, Thierry ULg et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2015), 490

This study aimed to evaluate glycerol monooleate (GMO) as a carrier to develop viscoelastic and injectable sustained-release drug delivery systems. The potential pro- and antioxidant activity of the ... [more ▼]

This study aimed to evaluate glycerol monooleate (GMO) as a carrier to develop viscoelastic and injectable sustained-release drug delivery systems. The potential pro- and antioxidant activity of the developed hydrolipidic gels were evaluated by measuring the production of ROS by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In addition, the biocompatibility and effectiveness of two selected gel candidates were evaluated in vivo by evaluating the benefit of a single intraarticular injection of these new treatments in a model of osteoarthritis in rabbits. The in vitro study demonstrated that the carrier F1 did not have a pro-oxidative effect and even protected PMNs against natural auto-activation, regardless of the incorporation of either clonidine chlorhydrate or betamethasone dipropionate. The in vivo study demonstrated that F1 and F1-BDP induced a loss of cartilage quality in comparison to the control and reference groups but that the lesions of cartilage observed were generally mild, with not much full-depth erosion. Moreover, no exacerbating inflammation was observed when considering the synovial membranes and the PGE2 and CRP levels. These results seemed to demonstrate that the sustained-release formulation based on GMO could be well-tolerated after intraarticular injection. Moreover, it could have the potential to prevent inflammatory conditions while sustaining drug activity locally over weeks. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of past and future climate changes on the distribution of three Southeast Asian murine rodents
Latinne, Alice ULg; Meynard, Christine; Herbreteau, Vincent et al

in Journal of Biogeography (2015)

Aim: We tested the influence of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and the potential effect of future climate change on Southeast Asian small mammal distributions using two forest-dwelling (Leopoldamys ... [more ▼]

Aim: We tested the influence of Pleistocene climatic fluctuations and the potential effect of future climate change on Southeast Asian small mammal distributions using two forest-dwelling (Leopoldamys herberti and Leopoldamys sabanus) and one karst (Leopoldamys neilli) endemic rodent species as models. Location: Southeast Asia. Methods: We used presence–absence data of genetically identified individuals, bioclimatic variables and species distribution modelling techniques to predict potential distributions of the three studied species under current, past [Last Interglacial (LIG) and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)] and future conditions. We applied a variety of modelling techniques and then used consensus techniques to draw up robust maps of potential distribution ranges at all stages. Results: According to our models, these three Leopoldamys species did not experience significant range contraction during the LGM. Our models revealed substantial range contraction during the LIG for L. herberti in northern Indochina, while its distribution expanded in southern Indochina. Evidence of a southward range expansion during that period was also obtained for L. neilli, whereas L. sabanus remained widely distributed in insular Southeast Asia but experienced a range contraction on the Thai-Malay Peninsula. The two future climate change scenarios used predicted that large climatically suitable areas would still be available in the future for the three species. Main conclusions: Our model predictions contradict the well-established hypothesis that Southeast Asian forest-dwelling species were confined to small refugia during the LGM. Moreover, our results suggest that some Southeast Asian taxa may have been distributed in their refugial state during the LIG rather than the LGM. This could be because of vegetation changes that may have occurred at that time as a result of the increased seasonality observed during the LIG. These Pleistocene refugia may have been localized in northern Indochina but our study also revealed that southern Indochina could provide major potential refugia. [less ▲]

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See detailA cautionary note on the impact of protocol changes for Genome-Wide Association SNP x SNP Interaction studies: an example on ankylosing spondylitis
Bessonov, Kyrylo ULg; Gusareva, Elena ULg; Van Steen, Kristel ULg

in Human Genetics (2015)

Genome-wide association interaction (GWAI) studies have increased in popularity. Yet to date, no standard protocol exists. In practice, any GWAI workflow involves making choices about quality control ... [more ▼]

Genome-wide association interaction (GWAI) studies have increased in popularity. Yet to date, no standard protocol exists. In practice, any GWAI workflow involves making choices about quality control strategy, SNP filtering, linkage disequilibrium (LD) pruning, analytic tool to model or to test for genetic interactions. Each of these can have an impact on the final epistasis findings and may affect their reproducibility in follow-up analyses. Choosing an analytic tool is not straightforward, as different such tools exist and current understanding about their performance is based on often very particular simulation settings. In the present study, we wish to create awareness for the impact of (minor) changes in a GWAI analysis protocol can have on final epistasis findings. In particular, we investigate the influence of marker selection and marker prioritization strategies, LD pruning and the choice of epistasis detection analytics on study results, giving rise to 8 GWAI protocols. Discussions are made in the context of the ankylosing spondylitis (AS) data obtained via the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC2). As expected, the largest impact on AS epistasis findings is caused by the choice of marker selection criterion, followed by marker coding and LD pruning. In MB-MDR, co-dominant coding of main effects is more robust to the effects of LD pruning than additive coding. We were able to reproduce previously reported epistasis involvement of HLA-B and ERAP1 in AS pathology. In addition, our results suggest involvement of MAGI3 and PARK2, responsible for cell adhesion and cellular trafficking. Gene Ontology (GO) biological function enrichment analysis across the 8 considered GWAI protocols also suggested that AS could be associated to the Central Nervous System (CNS) malfunctions, specifically, in nerve impulse propagation and in neurotransmitters metabolic processes. [less ▲]

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See detailVertical Distribution of Functional Potential and Active Microbial Communities in Meromictic Lake Kivu
İnceoğlu, Özgul; Llirós, Marc; Crowe, Sean A. et al

in Microbial Ecology (2015)

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See detailEffect of nanocrystalline structure on magnetocaloric effect in manganite composites (1/3)La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/(2/3)La0.8Sr0.2MnO3
Pękała, M; Pękała, K; Drozd, V et al

in Journal of Alloys & Compounds (2015), 629

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See detailREGg is critical for skin carcinogenesis by modulating the Wnt/b-catenin pathway
Lei Li; Yongyan Dang; Jishen Zhang et al

in nature communications (2015)

Here we report that mice deficient for the proteasome activator, REGg, exhibit a marked resistance to TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-induced keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal hyperplasia ... [more ▼]

Here we report that mice deficient for the proteasome activator, REGg, exhibit a marked resistance to TPA (12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate)-induced keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal hyperplasia and onset of papillomas compared with wild-type counterparts. Interestingly, a massive increase of REGg in skin tissues or cells resulting from TPA induces activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/p38). Blocking p38 MAPK activation prevents REGg elevation in HaCaT cells with TPA treatment. AP-1, the downstream effector of MAPK/p38, directly binds to the REGg promoter and activates its transcription in response to TPA stimulation. Furthermore, we find that REGg activates Wnt/b-catenin signalling by degrading GSK-3b in vitro and in cells, increasing levels of CyclinD1 and c-Myc, the downstream targets of b-catenin. Conversely, MAPK/p38 inactivation or REGg deletion prevents the increase of cyclinD1 and c-Myc by TPA. This study demonstrates that REGg acts in skin tumorigenesis mediating MAPK/p38 activation of the Wnt/b-catenin pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailTumor suppressive p53 signaling empowers metastatic inhibitor KLF17-dependent transcription to overcome tumorigenesis in non-small cell lung cancer.
Ali, Amjad ULg; Zeeshan Bhatti M; Saboor Shah A et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2015)

Metastasis, which is controlled by concerted action of multiple genes, is a complex process, and is important cause of cancer death. KLF17 is a negative regulator of metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal ... [more ▼]

Metastasis, which is controlled by concerted action of multiple genes, is a complex process, and is important cause of cancer death. KLF17 is a negative regulator of metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) during cancer progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanism and biological relevance of KLF17 in cancer cells are poorly understood. Here, we show that tumor suppressor protein p53 plays an integral role to induce KLF17 expression in NSCLC. p53 is recruited to KLF17 promoter and results in the formation of p53-DNA complex. p53 enhances binding of p300, and favors histone acetylation on KLF17 promoter. Mechanistically, p53 physically interacts with KLF17 and thereby enhances anti-metastatic function of KLF17. p53 empowers KLF17 mediated EMT genes transcription via enhancing physical association of KLF17 to target gene promoters. Nutlin-3 recruits KLF17 to EMT target gene promoters and results in the formation of KLF17-DNA complex via p53-dependent pathway. p53 depletion abrogates DNA binding affinity of KLF17 to EMT target gene promoters. KLF17 is critical for p53 cellular activities in NSCLC. Importantly, KLF17 enhances p53 transcription to generate a novel positive feedback loop. KLF17 depletion accelerates lungs cancer cells growth in response to chemotherapy. Mechanistically, we found that KLF17 increases tumor suppressor genes p53, p21 and pRB expressions in NSCLC. Functionally, KLF17 required p53 to suppress cancer cell invasion and migration in NSCLC. In sum, our study highlights novel insight into anti-EMT affect of KLF17 via p53-dependent pathway in NSCLC, and KLF17 may be a new therapeutic target in NSCLC with p53 status. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of enzymatic hydrolysis on conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate
Ghribi, Abir Mokni; Maklouf Gafsi, Ines; Sila, Assaâd et al

in Food Chemistry (2015), 187

The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface ... [more ▼]

The impact of enzymatic hydrolysis by Alcalase on the conformational and functional properties of chickpea protein isolate (CPI) was investigated. The physicochemical, interfacial tension and surface characteristics of CPI and their hydrolysates (CPH) according to the degree of hydrolysis (DH) were also determined. These parameters were then related to the changes in the emulsification activity (EAI) and stability (ESI). The enzymatic hydrolysis was found to improve protein recovery and solubility, leading to a reduction in the molecular weight bands with a concomitant increase in the intensity and appearance of protein bands having apparent molecular mass below 20 kDa. The interfacial tension decreased from _66.5 mN m_1 for CPI to _59.1 mN m_1 for CPH. A similar trend was observed for the surface charge which declined from _27.55 mV to _16.4 mV for the CPI and CPH, respectively. These changes were found to have a detrimental effect on the EAI and ESI values. [less ▲]

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See detailDisrupting the wall accumulation of human sperm cells by artificial corrugation
Guidobaldi, H.A.; Jeyaram, Y.; Condat, C.A. et al

in Biomicrofluidics (2015), 9

Many self-propelled microorganisms are attracted to surfaces. This makes their dynamics in restricted geometries very di erent from that observed in the bulk. Swimming along walls is bene cial for ... [more ▼]

Many self-propelled microorganisms are attracted to surfaces. This makes their dynamics in restricted geometries very di erent from that observed in the bulk. Swimming along walls is bene cial for directing and sorting cells, but may be detrimental if homogeneous populations are desired, such as in counting microchambers. In this work, we characterize the motion of human sperm cells 60 um long, strongly confi ned to 25u m shallow chambers. We investigate the nature of the cell trajectories between the con fining surfaces and their accumulation near the borders. Observed cell trajectories are composed of a succession of quasi-circular and quasi-linear segments. This suggests that the cells follow a path of intermittent trappings near the top and bottom surfaces separated by stretches of quasi-free motion in between the two surfaces, as confi rmed by depth resolved confocal microscopy studies. We show that the introduction of arti cial petal-shaped corrugation in the lateral boundaries removes the tendency of cells to accumulate near the borders, an e ffect which we hypothesize may be valuable for micro fluidic applications in biomedicine. [less ▲]

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See detailDeformations of an elastic pipe submitted to gravity and internal fluid flow
Darbois-Texier, Baptiste ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in Journal Fluids and Structures (2015), 55

This article describes the deformation of an elastic pipe submitted to gravity and to an internal fluid flow. The pipe is clamped horizontally at one end and free at the other end. As the fluid velocity ... [more ▼]

This article describes the deformation of an elastic pipe submitted to gravity and to an internal fluid flow. The pipe is clamped horizontally at one end and free at the other end. As the fluid velocity increases, the shape changes from an elastic beam deflected by its own weight towards an horizontal posi- tion. The shape of the pipe is characterized experimentally and is compared with a theoretical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli approximation and the conservation of the fluid momentum. We study how the determination of the pipe deformation provides an estimation of the conveyed fluid flow. Finally, the vertical force produced by the conveyed fluid to lift off a mass is deduced. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficient one-pot synthesis of trans- Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(4-picoline)Cl complexes: Effective agents for enhanced expression of p53 tumor suppressor genes
Faiz-Ur-Rahman; Ali, Amjad ULg; Rong Guo et al

in Dalton Transactions (2015)

A series of trans-Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(4-picoline)Cl complexes were synthesized in 78‒87% yield using one-pot procedure from commercially available precursors. The structures of these complexes were ... [more ▼]

A series of trans-Pt(II)(salicylaldimine)(4-picoline)Cl complexes were synthesized in 78‒87% yield using one-pot procedure from commercially available precursors. The structures of these complexes were characterized by 1H, 19F and 13C NMR spectroscopy, HRMS (ESI) as well as single crystal X-ray analysis. Bioactivity investigations including bio-assay, time- and dosedependent, cell cycle progression study, caspase 3 and 9 apoptosis marker assay and DNA interaction using pBR322 plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis were performed. The results indicated that the complexes showed promising in vitro cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and A549 cancer cell lines. Moreover these complexes enhanced the expression of p53 tumor suppressor gene family members such as p63 and p73. [less ▲]

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See detailValidation of SCIAMACHY HDO/H2O measurements using the TCCON and NDACC-MUSICA networks
Scheepmaker, R. A.; Frankenberg, C.; Deutscher, N. M. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2015), 8(4), 1799-1818

Measurements of the atmospheric HDO/H2O ratio help us to better understand the hydrological cycle and improve models to correctly simulate tropospheric humidity and therefore climate change. We present an ... [more ▼]

Measurements of the atmospheric HDO/H2O ratio help us to better understand the hydrological cycle and improve models to correctly simulate tropospheric humidity and therefore climate change. We present an updated version of the column-averaged HDO/H2O ratio data set from the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). The data set is extended with 2 additional years, now covering 2003–2007, and is validated against co-located ground-based total column δD measurements from Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, produced within the framework of the MUSICA project). Even though the time overlap among the available data is not yet ideal, we determined a mean negative bias in SCIAMACHY δD of −35 ± 30‰ compared to TCCON and −69 ± 15‰ compared to MUSICA (the uncertainty indicating the station-to-station standard deviation). The bias shows a latitudinal dependency, being largest (∼ −60 to −80‰) at the highest latitudes and smallest (∼ −20 to −30‰) at the lowest latitudes. We have tested the impact of an offset correction to the SCIAMACHY HDO and H2O columns. This correction leads to a humidity- and latitude-dependent shift in δD and an improvement of the bias by 27‰, although it does not lead to an improved correlation with the FTS measurements nor to a strong reduction of the latitudinal dependency of the bias. The correction might be an improvement for dry, high-altitude areas, such as the Tibetan Plateau and the Andes region. For these areas, however, validation is currently impossible due to a lack of ground stations. The mean standard deviation of single-sounding SCIAMACHY–FTS differences is ∼ 115‰, which is reduced by a factor ∼ 2 when we consider monthly means. When we relax the strict matching of individual measurements and focus on the mean seasonalities using all available FTS data, we find that the correlation coefficients between SCIAMACHY and the FTS networks improve from 0.2 to 0.7–0.8. Certain ground stations show a clear asymmetry in δD during the transition from the dry to the wet season and back, which is also detected by SCIAMACHY. This asymmetry points to a transition in the source region temperature or location of the water vapour and shows the added information that HDO/H2O measurements provide when used in combination with variations in humidity. [less ▲]

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See detailZinc triggers a complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the metal homeostasis gene FRD3 in Arabidopsis relatives
Charlier, Jean_Benoit; Polese, Catherine; Nouet, Cécile ULg et al

in Journal of Experimental Botany (2015)

In Arabidopsis thaliana, FRD3 (Ferric Chelate Reductase Defective 3) plays a central role in metal homeostasis. FRD3 is among a set of metal homeostasis genes that are constitutively highly expressed in ... [more ▼]

In Arabidopsis thaliana, FRD3 (Ferric Chelate Reductase Defective 3) plays a central role in metal homeostasis. FRD3 is among a set of metal homeostasis genes that are constitutively highly expressed in roots and shoots of Arabidopsis halleri, a zinc hyperaccumulating and hypertolerant species. Here, we examined the regulation of FRD3 by zinc in both species to shed light on the evolutionary processes underlying the evolution of hyperaccumulation in A. halleri. We combined gene expression studies with the use of GUS and GFP reporter constructs to compare the expression profile, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of FRD3 in both species. The AtFRD3 and AhFRD3 genes display a conserved expression profile. In A. thaliana, alternative transcription initiation sites from two promoters determine transcript variants which are differentially regulated by zinc supply in roots and shoots to favour the most highly translated variant under zinc excess conditions. In A. halleri, a single transcript variant with higher transcript stability and enhanced translation has been maintained. The FRD3 gene thus undergoes complex transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation in Arabidopsis relatives. Our study reveals that a diverse set of mechanisms underlie increased gene dosage in the A. halleri lineage and illustrates how an environmental challenge can alter gene regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailThalamic and extrathalamic mechanisms of consciousness after severe brain injury.
Lutkenhoff, Evan; Chiang, Jeffrey; TSHIBANDA, Luaba ULg et al

in Annals of Neurology (2015)

Abstract OBJECTIVE: What mechanisms underlie the loss and recovery of consciousness after severe brain injury? We sought to establish, in the largest cohort of patients with disorders of consciousness ... [more ▼]

Abstract OBJECTIVE: What mechanisms underlie the loss and recovery of consciousness after severe brain injury? We sought to establish, in the largest cohort of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) to date, the link between gold standard clinical measures of awareness and wakefulness, and specific patterns of local brain pathology-thereby possibly providing a mechanistic framework for patient diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment development. METHODS: Structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected, in a continuous sample of 143 severely brain-injured patients with DOC (and 96 volunteers), across 2 tertiary expert centers. Brain atrophy in subcortical regions (bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, hippocampus, basal forebrain, and brainstem) was assessed across (1) healthy volunteers and patients, (2) clinical entities (eg, vegetative state, minimally conscious state), (3) clinical measures of consciousness (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised), and (4) injury etiology. RESULTS: Compared to volunteers, patients exhibited significant atrophy across all structures (p < 0.05, corrected). Strikingly, we found almost no significant differences across clinical entities. Nonetheless, the clinical measures of awareness and wakefulness upon which differential diagnosis rely were systematically associated with tissue atrophy within thalamic and basal ganglia nuclei, respectively; the basal forebrain was atrophied in proportion to patients' response to sensory stimulation. In addition, nontraumatic injuries exhibited more extensive thalamic atrophy. INTERPRETATION: These findings provide, for the first time, a grounding in pathology for gold standard behavior-based clinical measures of consciousness, and reframe our current models of DOC by stressing the different links tying thalamic mechanisms to willful behavior and extrathalamic mechanisms to behavioral (and electrocortical) arousal. Ann Neurol 2015. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Zinc, Cadmium and Lead Bioavailability in Contaminated Soils at the Single-Cell Level by a Combination of Whole-Cell Biosensors and Flow Cytometry
Hurdebise, Quentin ULg; Tarayre, Cédric ULg; Fischer, Christophe ULg et al

in Sensors (2015)

Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs) that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this ... [more ▼]

Zinc, lead and cadmium are metallic trace elements (MTEs) that are widespread in the environment and tend to accumulate in soils because of their low mobility and non-degradability. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the applicability of biosensors as tools able to provide data about the bioavailability of such MTEs in contaminated soils. Here, we tested the genetically-engineered strain Escherichia coli pPZntAgfp as a biosensor applicable to the detection of zinc, lead and cadmium by the biosynthesis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) accumulating inside the cells. Flow cytometry was used to investigate the fluorescence induced by the MTEs. A curvilinear response to zinc between 0 and 25 mg/L and another curvilinear response to cadmium between 0 and 1.5 mg/L were highlighted in liquid media, while lead did not produce exploitable results. The response relating to a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 was further investigated. In these conditions, E. coli pPZntAgfp responded to cadmium only. Several contaminated soils with a Zn2+/Cd2+ ratio of 10 were analyzed with the biosensor, and the metallic concentrations were also measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Our results showed that E. coli pPZntAgfp could be used as a monitoring tool for contaminated soils being processed. [less ▲]

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See detailVers une "dématérialisation" des droits fondamentaux? Convergence des droits fondamentaux dans une protection fragmentée, à la lumière du raisonnement du juge constitutionnel belge
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Revue des droits et libertés fondamentaux (2015)

Cet article contient un résumé de thèse (RDLF 2015, thèse n° 10), disponible sur http://www.revuedlf.com/theses/vers-une-dematerialisation-des-droits-fondamentaux-convergence-des-droits-fondamentaux-dans ... [more ▼]

Cet article contient un résumé de thèse (RDLF 2015, thèse n° 10), disponible sur http://www.revuedlf.com/theses/vers-une-dematerialisation-des-droits-fondamentaux-convergence-des-droits-fondamentaux-dans-une-protection-fragmentee-a-la-lumiere-du-raisonnement-du-juge-constitutionnel-belge/ [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Aphasia on Consciousness Assessment: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Schnakers, C; Bessou, H; Rubi-Fessen, I et al

in Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair (2015), 29

BACKGROUND: . Previous findings suggest that language disorders may occur in severely brain-injured patients and could interfere with behavioral assessments of consciousness. However, no study ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: . Previous findings suggest that language disorders may occur in severely brain-injured patients and could interfere with behavioral assessments of consciousness. However, no study investigated to what extent language impairment could affect patients' behavioral responses. OBJECTIVE: . To estimate the impact of receptive and/or productive language impairments on consciousness assessment. METHODS: . Twenty-four acute and subacute stroke patients with different types of aphasia (global, n = 11; Broca, n = 4; Wernicke, n = 3; anomic, n = 4; mixed, n = 2) were recruited in neurology and neurosurgery units as well as in rehabilitation centers. The Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) was administered. RESULTS: . We observed that 25% (6 out of 24) of stroke patients with a diagnosis of aphasia and 54% (6 out of 11) of patients with a diagnosis of global aphasia did not reach the maximal CRS-R total score of 23. An underestimation of the consciousness level was observed in 3 patients with global aphasia who could have been misdiagnosed as being in a minimally conscious state, even in the absence of any documented period of coma. More precisely, lower subscores were observed on the communication, motor, oromotor, and arousal subscales. CONCLUSION: . Consciousness assessment may be complicated by the co-occurrence of severe language deficits. This stresses the importance of developing new tools or identifying items in existing scales, which may allow the detection of language impairment in severely brain-injured patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCombining δ13C measurements and ERT imaging: improving our understanding of competition at the crop-soil-hedge interface
Hussain, Khalid; Wongleecharoen, Chalemchart; Hilger, Thomas et al

in Plant and Soil (2015)

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See detailRetrievals of formaldehyde from ground-based FTIR and MAX-DOAS observations at the Jungfraujoch station and comparisons with GEOS-Chem and IMAGES model simulations
Franco, Bruno ULg; Hendrick, François; Van Roozendael, Michel et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2015), 8

As an ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation ... [more ▼]

As an ubiquitous product of the oxidation of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) plays a key role as a short-lived and reactive intermediate in the atmospheric photo-oxidation pathways leading to the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. In this study, HCHO profiles have been successfully retrieved from ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar spectra and UV-visible Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) scans recorded during the July 2010–December 2012 time period at the Jungfraujoch station (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580m a.s.l.). Analysis of the retrieved products has revealed different vertical sensitivity between both remote sensing techniques. Furthermore, HCHO amounts simulated by two state-of-the-art chemical transport models (CTMs), GEOSChem and IMAGES v2, have been compared to FTIR total columns and MAX-DOAS 3.6–8 km partial columns, accounting for the respective vertical resolution of each ground-based instrument. Using the CTM outputs as the intermediate, FTIR and MAX-DOAS retrievals have shown consistent seasonal modulations of HCHO throughout the investigated period, characterized by summertime maximum and wintertime minimum. Such comparisons have also highlighted that FTIR and MAX-DOAS provide complementary products for the HCHO retrieval above the Jungfraujoch station. Finally, tests have revealed that the updated IR parameters from the HITRAN 2012 database have a cumulative effect and significantly decrease the retrieved HCHO columns with respect to the use of the HITRAN 2008 compilation. [less ▲]

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See detailDUSP3 genetic deletion confers M2-like−macrophage-dependent tolerance to septic shock
Singh, Pratibha; Dejager, Lien; Amand, Mathieu ULg et al

in Journal of Immunology (2015)

DUSP3 is a small dual-specificity protein phosphatase with an unknown physiological function. We report that DUSP3 is strongly expressed in human and mouse monocytes and macrophages and that its ... [more ▼]

DUSP3 is a small dual-specificity protein phosphatase with an unknown physiological function. We report that DUSP3 is strongly expressed in human and mouse monocytes and macrophages and that its deficiency in mice promotes tolerance to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced endotoxin shock and to polymicrobial septic shock following cecal ligation and puncture. By using adoptive transfer experiments, we demonstrate that resistance to endotoxin is macrophage-dependent and transferable and that this protection is associated with a striking increase of M2-like macrophages in DUSP3-/- mice in both the LPS and cecal ligation and puncture models. We show that the altered response of DUSP3-/- mice to sepsis is reflected in decreased TNF production and impaired ERK1/2 activation. Our results demonstrate that DUSP3 plays a key and non-redundant role as a regulator of innate immune responses by mechanisms involving the control of ERK1/2 activation, TNF secretion and macrophage polarization. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscrete Modeling : Thermidynamics Based on Shannon Entropy and Discrete States of Molecules
Pfleger, Martin; Wallek, Thomas; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (2015), 54

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See detailA 500-year seasonally resolved δ 18 O and δ 13 C, layer thickness and calcite aspect record from a speleothem deposited in the Han-sur-Lesse cave, Belgium
Van Rampelbergh, M.; Verheyden, S.; Allan, Mohammed ULg et al

in Climate of the Past (2015), 11

Speleothem δ18O and δ13C signals enable climate reconstructions at high resolution. However, scarce decadal and seasonally resolved speleothem records are often diffi- cult to interpret in terms of climate ... [more ▼]

Speleothem δ18O and δ13C signals enable climate reconstructions at high resolution. However, scarce decadal and seasonally resolved speleothem records are often diffi- cult to interpret in terms of climate due to the multitude of factors that affect the proxy signals. In this paper, a fast- growing (up to 2 mm yr−1) seasonally laminated speleothem from the Han-sur-Lesse cave (Belgium) is analyzed for its δ18O and δ13C values, layer thickness and changes in cal- cite aspect. The studied record covers the period between AD 2001 and 1479 as indicated by layer counting and con- firmed by 20 U / Th ages. The Proserpine proxies are sea- sonally biased and document drier (and colder) winters on multidecadal scales. Higher δ13C signals reflect increased prior calcite precipitation (PCP) and lower soil activity dur- ing drier (and colder) winters. Thinner layers and darker calcite relate to slower growth and exist during drier (and colder) winter periods. Exceptionally dry (and cold) winter periods occur from 1565 to 1610, at 1730, from 1770 to 1800, from 1810 to 1860, and from 1880 to 1895 and correspond to exceptionally cold periods in historical and instrumental records as well as European winter temperature reconstruc- tions. More relative climate variations, during which the four measured proxies vary independently and display lower am- plitude variations, occur between 1479 and 1565, between 1610 and 1730, and between 1730 and 1770. The winters during the first and last periods are interpreted as relatively wetter (and warmer) and correspond to warmer periods in historical data and in winter temperature reconstructions in Europe. The winters in the period between 1610 and 1730 are interpreted as relatively drier (and cooler) and correspond to generally colder conditions in Europe. Interpretation of the seasonal variations in δ18O and δ13C signals differs from that on a decadal and multidecadal scale. Seasonal δ18O variations reflect cave air temperature variations and suggest a 2.5◦C seasonality in cave air temperature during the two relatively wetter (and warmer) winter periods (1479–1565 and 1730–1770), which corresponds to the cave air temper- ature seasonality observed today. Between 1610 and 1730, the δ18O values suggest a 1.5◦C seasonality in cave air tem- perature, indicating colder summer temperatures during this drier (and cooler) interval. The δ13C seasonality is driven by PCP and suggests generally lower PCP seasonal effects be- tween 1479 and 1810 compared to today. A short interval of increased PCP seasonality occurs between 1600 and 1660, and reflects increased PCP in summer due to decreased win- ter recharge. [less ▲]

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See detailChallenges of Sustainable and Commercial Aquaponics
Goddek, Simon; Delaide, Boris ULg; Mankasingh, Utra et al

in Sustainability (2015), 7

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See detailImproved spectral fitting of nitrogen dioxide from OMI in the 405-465 nm window
van Geffen, J H G M; Boersma, K F; Van Roozendael, M et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (2015), 8

An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405–465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA’s EOS-Aura ... [more ▼]

An improved nitrogen dioxide (NO2) slant column density retrieval for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the 405–465 nm spectral region is presented. Since the launch of OMI on board NASA’s EOS-Aura satellite in 2004, differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) retrievals of NO2 slant column densities have been the starting point for the KNMI DOMINO and NASA SP NO2 vertical column data as well as the OMI NO2 data of some other institutes. However, recent intercomparisons between NO2 retrievals from OMI and other UV/Vis and limb spectrometers, as well as ground-based measurements, suggest that OMI stratospheric NO2 is biased high. This study revises and, for the first time, fully documents the OMI NO2 retrieval in detail. The representation of the OMI slit function to convolve high-resolution reference spectra onto the relevant spectral grid is improved. The window used for the wavelength calibration is optimised, leading to much-reduced fitting errors. Ozone and water vapour spectra used in the fit are updated, reflecting the recently improved knowledge of their absorption cross section in the literature. The improved spectral fit also accounts for absorption by the O2–O2 collision complex and by liquid water over clearwater areas. The main changes in the improved spectral fitting result from the updates related to the wavelength calibration: the RMS error of the fit is reduced by 23% and the NO2 slant column by 0.85 1015 molec cm-2, independent of latitude, solar zenith angle and NO2 value. Including O2–O2 and liquid water absorption and updating the O3 and water vapour cross-section spectra further reduces NO2 slant columns on average by 0.35 1015 molec cm-2, accompanied by a further 9% reduction in the RMS error of the fit. The improved OMI NO2 slant columns are consistent with independent NO2 retrievals from other instruments to within a range that can be explained by photochemically driven diurnal increases in stratospheric NO2 and by small differences in fitting window and approach. The revisions indicate that current OMI NO2 slant columns suffered mostly from an additive positive offset, which is removed by the improved wavelength calibration and representation of the OMI slit function. It is therefore anticipated that the improved NO2 slant columns are most important to retrievals of spatially homogeneous stratospheric NO2 rather than to heterogeneous tropospheric NO2. [less ▲]

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See detailGCxGC-TOFMS and supervised multivariate approaches to study human cadaveric decomposition olfactive signatures
Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Perrault, Katelynn A.; Stadler, Sonja et al

in Analytical Bioanalytical Chemistry (2015), 407(16), 4767-4778

In forensic thanato-chemistry, the understanding of the process of soft tissue decomposition is still limited. A better understanding of the decomposition process and the characterization of the ... [more ▼]

In forensic thanato-chemistry, the understanding of the process of soft tissue decomposition is still limited. A better understanding of the decomposition process and the characterization of the associated volatile organic compounds (VOC) can help to improve the training of victim recovery (VR) canines, which are used to search for trapped victims in natural disasters or to locate corpses during criminal investigations. The complexity of matrices and the dynamic nature of this process require the use of comprehensive analytical methods for investigation. Moreover, the variability of the environment and between individuals creates additional difficulties in terms of normalization. The resolution of the complex mixture of VOCs emitted by a decaying corpse can be improved using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC× GC), compared to classical singledimensional gas chromatography (1DGC). This study combines the analytical advantages of GC×GC coupled to timeof- flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) with the data handling robustness of supervised multivariate statistics to investigate the VOC profile of human remains during early stages of decomposition. Various supervised multivariate approaches are compared to interpret the large data set. Moreover, early decomposition stages of pig carcasses (typically used as human surrogates in field studies) are also monitored to obtain a direct comparison of the two VOC profiles and estimate the robustness of this human decomposition analog model. In this research, we demonstrate that pig and human decomposition processes can be described by the same trends for the major compounds produced during the early stages of soft tissue decomposition. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental constraints drive the partitioning of the soundscape in fishes
Ruppé, Laetitia; Clément, Gaël; Herrel, Anthony et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2015)

The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share ... [more ▼]

The underwater environment is more and more being depicted as particularly noisy, and the inventory of calling fishes is continuously increasing. However, it currently remains unknown how species share the soundscape and are able to communicate without misinterpreting the messages. Different mechanisms of interference avoidance have been documented in birds, mammals, and frogs, but little is known about interference avoidance in fishes. How fish thus partition the soundscape underwater remains unknown, as acoustic communication and its organization have never been studied at the level of fish communities. In this study, passive acoustic recordings were used to inventory sounds produced in a fish community (120 m depth) in an attempt to understand how different species partition the acoustic environment. We uncovered an important diversity of fish sounds, and 16 of the 37 different sounds recorded were sufficiently abundant to use in a quantitative analysis. We show that sonic activity allows a clear distinction between a diurnal and a nocturnal group of fishes. Moreover, frequencies of signals made during the day overlap, whereas there is a clear distinction between the different representatives of the nocturnal callers because of a lack of overlap in sound frequency. This first demonstration, to our knowledge, of interference avoidance in a fish community can be understood by the way sounds are used. In diurnal species, sounds are mostly used to support visual display, whereas nocturnal species are generally deprived of visual cues, resulting in acoustic constraints being more important. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieval of ethane from ground-based FTIR solar spectra using improved spectroscopy: recent burden increase above Jungfraujoch
Franco, Bruno ULg; Bader, Whitney ULg; Toon, G. C. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2015), 160(C), 36-49

An improved spectroscopy is used to implement and optimize the retrieval strategy of ethane (C2H6) from ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station ... [more ▼]

An improved spectroscopy is used to implement and optimize the retrieval strategy of ethane (C2H6) from ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) solar spectra recorded at the high-altitude station of Jungfraujoch (Swiss Alps, 46.5° N, 8.0° E, 3580m a.s.l.). The improved spectroscopic parameters include C2H6 pseudo-lines in the 2720-3100 cm-1 range and updated line parameters for methyl chloride and ozone. These improved spectroscopic parameters allow for substantial reduction of the fitting residuals as well as enhanced information content. They also contribute to limiting oscillations responsible for ungeophysical negative mixing ratio profiles. This strategy has been successfully applied to the Jungfraujoch solar spectra available from 1994 onwards. The resulting time series is compared with C2H6 total columns simulated by the state-of-the-art chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Despite very consistent seasonal cycles between both data sets, a negative systematic bias relative to the FTIR observations suggests that C2H6 emissions are underestimated in the current inventories implemented in GEOS-Chem. Finally, C2H6 trends are derived from the FTIR time series, revealing a statistically-significant sharp increase of the C2H6 burden in the remote atmosphere above Jungfraujoch since 2009. Evaluating cause of this change in the C2H6 burden, which may be related to the recent massive growth of shale gas exploitation in North America, is of primary importance for atmospheric composition and air quality in the Northern Hemisphere. [less ▲]

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See detailPerspective: Tyrosine Phosphatases As Novel Targets For Antiplatelet Therapy
Tautz, Lutz; Senis, Yotis; Oury, Cécile ULg et al

in Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry (2015), Epub ahead of print

Arterial thrombosis is the primary cause of most cases of myocardial infarction and stroke, the leading causes of death in the developed world. Platelets, highly specialized cells of the circulatory ... [more ▼]

Arterial thrombosis is the primary cause of most cases of myocardial infarction and stroke, the leading causes of death in the developed world. Platelets, highly specialized cells of the circulatory system, are key contributors to thrombotic events. Antiplatelet drugs, which prevent platelets from aggregating, have been very effective in reducing the mortality and morbidity of these conditions. However, approved antiplatelet therapies have adverse side effects, most notably the increased risk of bleeding. Moreover, there remains a considerable incidence of arterial thrombosis in a subset of patients receiving currently available drugs. Thus, there is a pressing medical need for novel antiplatelet agents with a more favorable safety profile and less patient resistance. The discovery of novel antiplatelet targets is the matter of intense ongoing research. Recent findings demonstrate the potential of targeting key signaling molecules, including kinases and phosphatases, to prevent platelet activation and aggregation. Here, we offer perspectives to targeting members of the protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) superfamily, a major class of enzymes in signal transduction. We give an overview of previously identified PTPs in platelet signaling, and discuss their potential as antiplatelet drug targets. We also introduce VHR (DUSP3), a PTP that we recently identified as a major player in platelet biology and thrombosis. We review our data on genetic deletion as well as pharmacological inhibition of VHR, providing proof-of-principle for a novel and potentially safer VHR-based antiplatelet therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of heroin-assisted treatment in Belgium: a randomised controlled trial
Demaret, Isabelle ULg; Quertemont, Etienne ULg; Litran, Géraldine et al

in European Addiction Research (2015), 21(4), 179-187

Background/Aims: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts still using street heroin after a methadone treatment. In Belgium, a new trial compared the efficacy of a HAT ... [more ▼]

Background/Aims: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts still using street heroin after a methadone treatment. In Belgium, a new trial compared the efficacy of a HAT to existing methadone maintenance treatment. Methods: In this randomised controlled trial, HAT was limited to 12 months. Participants were assessed every 3 months. They were responders if they showed improvement on the level of street heroin use, health or criminal involvement. Results: 74 participants were randomised in the trial. The experimental group (n=36) counted 30% of responders more than the control group (n=38) at each assessment point (p<0.05), except at 12 months where the difference (11%) was no longer significant (p=0.35). Still, after 12 months, participants in the experimental group reported significantly greater improvements (p<0.05) than the control group on the level of street heroin use and on the level of physical and mental health. Both groups reported significantly less criminal facts after 12 months (p<0.001), but with no significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: This trial confirms the short-term efficacy of HAT for severe heroin addicts, who already failed methadone treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailClimatic risk assessment to improve nitrogen fertilisation recommendations : A strategic crop model-based approach
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in European Journal of Agronomy (2015), 65(10-17),

Within the context of nitrogen (N) management, since 1950, with the rapid intensification of agriculture, farmers have often applied much larger fertiliser quantities than what was required to reach the ... [more ▼]

Within the context of nitrogen (N) management, since 1950, with the rapid intensification of agriculture, farmers have often applied much larger fertiliser quantities than what was required to reach the yield potential. However, to prevent pollution of surface and groundwater induced by nitrates, The European Community launched The European Nitrates Directive 91/6/76/EEC. In 2002, in Wallonia (Belgium), the Nitrates Directive has been transposed under the Sustainable Nitrogen Management in Agriculture Program (PGDA), with the aim of maintaining productivity and revenue for the country’s farmers, while reducing the environmental impact of excessive N application. A feasible approach for addressing climatic uncertainty lies in the use of crop models such as the one commonly known as STICS (simulateur multidisciplinaire pour les cultures standard). These models allow the impact on crops of the interaction between cropping systems and climatic records to be assessed. Comprehensive historical climatic records are rare, however, and therefore the yield distribution values obtained using such an approach can be discontinuous. In order to obtain better and more detailed yield distribution information, the use of a high number of stochastically generated climate time series was proposed, relying on the LARS-Weather Generator. The study focused on the interactions between varying N practices and climatic conditions. Historically and currently, Belgian farmers apply 180 kg N ha−1, split into three equal fractions applied at the tillering, stem elongation and flag-leaf stages. This study analysed the effectiveness of this treatment in detail, comparing it to similar practices where only the N rates applied at the flag-leaf stage were modified. Three types of farmer decision-making were analysed. The first related to the choice of N strategy for maximising yield, the second to obtaining the highest net revenue, and the third to reduce the environmental impact of potential N leaching, which carries the likelihood of taxation if inappropriate N rates are applied. The results showed reduced discontinuity in the yield distribution values thus obtained. In general, the modulation of N levels to accord with current farmer practices showed considerable asymmetry. In other words, these practices maximised the probability of achieving yields that were at least superior to the mean of the distribution values, thus reducing risk for the farmers. The practice based on applying the highest amounts (60–60–100 kg N ha−1) produced the best yield distribution results. When simple economical criteria were computed, the 60–60–80 kg N ha−1 protocol was found to be optimal for 80–90% of the time. There were no statistical differences, however, between this practice and Belgian farmers’ current practice. When the taxation linked to a high level of potentially leachable N remaining in the soil after harvest was considered, this methodology clearly showed that, in 3 years out of 4, 30 kg N ha−1 could systematically be saved in comparison with the usual practice. [less ▲]

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See detailA Brief Review of Ultraviolet Auroral Emissions on Giant Planets
Grodent, Denis ULg

in Space Science Reviews (2015), 187(1-4), 23-50

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although ... [more ▼]

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although this simplified view is very handy for a gross depiction of the giant planets’ aurorae, it fails to scrutinize the diversity and the dynamics of the actual features that are regularly observed with the available ultraviolet imagers and spectrographs. In the present review, the typical morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn’s aurorae are represented with an updated and more accurate set of components. The use of sketches, rather than images, makes it possible to compile all these components in a single view and to put aside ultraviolet imaging technical issues that are blurring the emission sources, thus preventing one from disentangling the different auroral signatures. The ionospheric and magnetospheric processes to which these auroral features allude can then be more easily accounted. In addition, the use of components of the same kind for both planets may help to put forward similarities and differences between Jupiter and Saturn. The case of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune is much less compelling since their weak auroral emissions are very poorly documented and one can only speculate about their origin. This review presents a current perspective that will inevitably evolve in the future, especially with upcoming observing campaigns and forthcoming missions like Juno. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative effectiveness of silvicultural interventions for increasing timber production and sustaining conservation values in natural tropical production forests. A systematic review protocol
Petrokofsky, Gillian; Sist, Plinio; Blanc, Lilian et al

in Environmental Evidence (2015), 4(8),

Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples ... [more ▼]

Background: Currently, about 400 million hectares of tropical moist forests worldwide are designated production forests, about a quarter of which are managed by rural communities and indigenous peoples. There has been a gradual impoverishment of forest resources inside selectively logged forests in which the volume of timber extracted over the first cutting cycle was mostly from large, old trees that matured over a century or more and grew in the absence of strong anthropological pressures. In forests now being logged for a second and third time, that volume has not been reconstituted due in part to the lack of implementation of post-logging silvicultural treatments. This depletion of timber stocks renders the degraded forests prone to conversion to other land uses. Although it is essential to preserve undisturbed primary forests through the creation of protected areas, these areas alone will not be able to ensure the conservation of all species on a pan-tropical scale, for social, economic and political reasons. The conservation of tropical forests of tomorrow will mostly take place within human-modified (logged, domesticated) forests. In this context, silvicultural interventions are considered by many tropical foresters and forest ecologists as tools capable of effectively conserving tropical forest biodiversity and ecosystem services while stimulating forest production. This systematic review aims to assess past and current evidence of the impact of silviculture on tropical forests and to identify silvicultural practices appropriate for the current conditions in the forests and forestry sectors of the Congo Basin, Amazonia and Southeast Asia. Methods: This systematic review will undertake an extensive search of literature to assess the relative effectiveness of different silvicultural interventions on timber production and the conservation value of forests, and to determine whether there is a relationship between sustainability of timber harvesting and the maintenance/conservation of other ecosystem services and biodiversity in production forests. Data will be extracted for meta-analysis of at least sub-sets of the review questions. Findings are expected to help inform policy and develop evidence-based practice guidelines on silvicultural practices in tropical forests. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper extraction from coarsely ground printed circuit boards using moderate thermophilic bacteria in a rotating-drum reactor
Rodrigues, Michael; Leão, Versiane; Gomes, Otavio et al

in Waste Management (2015), 41

The current work reports on a new approach for copper bioleaching from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by moderate thermophiles in a rotating-drum reactor. Initially leaching of PCB was carried out in shake ... [more ▼]

The current work reports on a new approach for copper bioleaching from Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by moderate thermophiles in a rotating-drum reactor. Initially leaching of PCB was carried out in shake flasks to assess the effects of particle size ( 208 lm + 147 lm), ferrous iron concentration (1.25–10.0 g/L) and pH (1.5–2.5) on copper leaching using mesophile and moderate thermophile microorganisms. Only at a relatively low solid content (10.0 g/L) complete copper extraction was achieved from the particle size investigated. Conversely, high copper extractions were possible from coarse-ground PCB (20 mm-long) working with increased solids concentration (up to 25.0 g/L). Because there was as the faster leaching kinetics at 50 C Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans was selected for experiments in a rotating-drum reactor with the coarser-sized PCB sheets. Under optimal conditions, copper extraction reached 85%, in 8 days and microscopic observations by SEM–EDS of the on nonleached and leached material suggested that metal dissolution from the internal layers was restricted by the fact that metal surface was not entirely available and accessible for the solution in the case of the 20 mm-size sheets. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de la modernisation de tannerie sur l’impact de ses activités sur la qualité des eaux : cas de la tannerie de Maradi au Niger
Saidou, H.; Laminou Manzo, O.; Ozer, Pierre ULg et al

in Research Inventy: International Journal Of Engineering And Science (2015), 5(4), 30-38

The modernization of the tannery of Maradi had intervened in 2009 with the introduction of the process of tanning in the chromium. We estimated the influence of this change of operating process through an ... [more ▼]

The modernization of the tannery of Maradi had intervened in 2009 with the introduction of the process of tanning in the chromium. We estimated the influence of this change of operating process through an evaluation of the impact characteristics evolution of the solid and liquid discharges of this tannery on water. It stands out that the modernization of the tannery activities had more or less significant effects on these environment elements. We noted a relative improvement of the quality of underground waters illustrated by the regression of the content in chloride and nitrates rates stabilization. While the content in chromium evolved in a significant way as well as the pH. However, all the four above parameters remain below WHO standards. By cons, this modernization has almost not influenced the impact on the quality of surface waters. The values of BOD and COD have continued to rise despite the installation of a treatment system. Thus this surface water, including the pond, proved to be a major public health risk for domestic and agricultural use and is also a source of air pollution. [less ▲]

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See detailAnisotropy and tension-compression asymmetry modeling of the room temperature plastic response of Ti-6A1-4V
Tuninetti, Victor; Gilles, Gaëtan ULg; Pardoen, Thomas et al

in International Journal of Plasticity (2015), 67

The mechanical behavior of the alloy Ti-6A1-4V is characterized using uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, simple shear and place strain tests in three orthogonal material directions. The experimental ... [more ▼]

The mechanical behavior of the alloy Ti-6A1-4V is characterized using uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, simple shear and place strain tests in three orthogonal material directions. The experimental results reveal tension/compression asymmetry, anisotropic yielding and anisotropic strain-hardening. These features are incorporated into an elasto-plastic constitutive law based on the macroscopic orthotropic yield criterion "CPB06" adapted to hexagonal metals. A new identification method for the yield criterion parameters is proposed by inverse modeling of the axial strain field compression specimens in the three orthogonal directions of the material. The sensitivity of different sets of material parameters to the identification method is also analysed and the capacity of the model to accurately predict the forces and displacement field is discussed. A validation of the best set of identified CPB06material parameters is performed by comparing the load-displacement curves in different loading directions for tensile tests on notched round bars with different levels of stress triaxiality and for compression tests on elliptical cross-section specimens, both tests involving multiaxial strain fields and large deformations. [less ▲]

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See detailL’Affaire Édouard Descamps à la Cour de La Haye en 1921. Un recul international de la Belgique ?
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue Générale (2015), 3/4(mars-avril), 35-42

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See detailQuelle place pour le test de génération de thrombine au sein du laboratoire de biologie clinique?
LECUT, Christelle ULg; PETERS, Pierre ULg; MASSION, Paul ULg et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2015), 73(2), 137-149

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See detailAssociations of Plasma Concentrations of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Prostate Cancer: A Case–Control Study in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)
Emeville, Elise; Giusti, Arnaud ULg; Coumoul, Xavier et al

in Environmental Health Perspectives (2015), 123(4), 317-323

Background: Long-term exposure to persistent pollutants with hormonal properties (endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs) may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, epidemiological ... [more ▼]

Background: Long-term exposure to persistent pollutants with hormonal properties (endocrine-disrupting chemicals, EDCs) may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, epidemiological evidence remains limited. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between PCa and plasma concentrations of universally widespread pollutants, in particular p,p’- dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) and the non-dioxin like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB153). Methods and Findings: We evaluated before treatment 576 men with newly diagnosed PCa and 655 controls in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Exposure was analyzed according to case-control status. Associations were assessed by unconditional logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors. Missing data were handled by multiple imputation. We estimated a significant positive association between DDE and PCa (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.53; 95% CI 1.02, 2.30 for the highest versus lowest quintile of exposure; PTrend= 0.01). PCB153 was inversely associated with PCa (OR 0.30; 95% CI 0.19, 0.47 for the highest versus lowest quintile of exposure values; PTrend<0.001). Also, PCB153 was more strongly associated to low-grade than high grade PCa. Conclusions: Associations of PCa with DDE and PCB153 were in opposite directions. This may reflect differences in the mechanisms of action of these EDCs, and although our findings need to be replicated in other populations, they are consistent with complex effects of EDCs on human health. [less ▲]

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See detailL’anéantissement des donations : questions de droit international privé
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; Fongaro, Eric

in Revue de planification patrimoniale belge et internationale (2015), 2(1), 39-64

Avec le développement d'une véritable pratique transfrontière de la planification successorale, les questions de droit international privé entourant les donations ont beaucoup retenu l'attention ces ... [more ▼]

Avec le développement d'une véritable pratique transfrontière de la planification successorale, les questions de droit international privé entourant les donations ont beaucoup retenu l'attention ces dernières années. Cet intérêt renouvelé pour un sujet classique a permis d'élucider le statut pour le moins complexe de la donation qui présente une dimension internationale. On a toutefois peu évoqué les difficultés que peuvent susciter la fragilité des donations : institution de droit civil aux contours pour le moins polymorphes, la donation est entourée de nombreuses limitations et obstacles qui ont pour objectif de conjurer les risques que peut faire naître, tant pour le donateur, sa famille que pour ses créanciers, cet acte particulier d'appauvrissement sans contrepartie. Le régime contemporain des donations est fondé sur une série de règles et mécanismes qui permettent de remettre en question la libéralité. Tantôt c'est la capacité d'une des parties (à donner ou à recevoir) qui fait l'objet de dispositions dérogatoires au droit commun, tantôt c'est le consentement du donateur qui suscite l'application d'une règle spéciale, tantôt encore des exigences particulières sont posées à propos des formes que doit revêtir une donation. Ces règles complexes, qui nourrissent un contentieux fourni, sont autant d'obstacles qui peuvent être posés au plein accomplissement des donations. Elles conduisent parfois à la révocation de la donation, qui peut produire ses effets ex nunc ou dans certains cas de façon rétroactive. Dans d'autres situations, la donation est annulée et dès lors considérée comme n'ayant jamais existé. Une donation peut également faire l'objet d'une déclaration ou encore être frappée de caducité ou de déchéance. Ces questions sont abordées dans la présente contribution sous l'angle du droit international privé belge et français, en mettant l'accent tant sur les différences que sur les simillitudes entre ces droits. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensions du concept de fonction
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente Hors Série (2015), (56), 41

Extensions modernes du concept de fonction Comme la plupart des concepts mathématiques, celui de fonction s’est transformé progressivement pour devenir ce qui nous en est enseigné aujourd’hui. Il évolue ... [more ▼]

Extensions modernes du concept de fonction Comme la plupart des concepts mathématiques, celui de fonction s’est transformé progressivement pour devenir ce qui nous en est enseigné aujourd’hui. Il évolue encore de nos jours : il est toujours plus général, mais également plus abstrait et sophistiqué. Nous donnons ici un petit aperçu intuitif de quelques-unes de ses généralisations modernes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dépression est une complication fréquente du lupus érythémateux disséminé : considérations épidémiologiques, pathogéniques et thérapeutiques
Lemaire, Benoît ULg; Geron, Donatienne ULg; MALAISE, Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 215-218

Le lupus érythémateux disséminé (LED) est une maladie de système aux conséquences aussi multiples qu’invalidantes. La prévalence des épisodes dépressifs majeurs y est significativement supérieure à celle ... [more ▼]

Le lupus érythémateux disséminé (LED) est une maladie de système aux conséquences aussi multiples qu’invalidantes. La prévalence des épisodes dépressifs majeurs y est significativement supérieure à celle des sujets sains ou atteints d’autres pathologies inflammatoires. S’il est évident que le statut de maladie chronique au dénouement souvent péjoratif et le nombre de traitements qu’elle impose constituent des facteurs favorisants, il est probable que les mécanismes pathogéniques du LED occasionnent une atteinte cérébrale précipitant une symptomatologie dépressive. Cet article approfondit les liens entre LED et dépression à travers des notions épidémiologiques, étiopathogéniques et thérapeutiques. [less ▲]

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See detailLa création de partenariats par les services publics de l’emploi belges et suisses: Quels sont les impacts du modèle de gestion du partenariat sur la collaboration ?
Remy, Céline ULg

in Politiques et management public (2015), 32(1), 63-77

Les services publics de l’emploi (SPE) belges et suisses font appel, depuis des années, à des opérateurs privés marchands et non-marchands pour la mise en place de projets de formation et d’accompagnement ... [more ▼]

Les services publics de l’emploi (SPE) belges et suisses font appel, depuis des années, à des opérateurs privés marchands et non-marchands pour la mise en place de projets de formation et d’accompagnement à destination des demandeurs d’emploi. Chaque SPE possède un modèle spécifique de management des collaborations qui est, selon nous, plus ou moins autonomisé et capacitant pour les parties-prenantes. Nous nous intéressons, dans le cadre de cet article, aux effets des modèles de gestion du partenariat sur la collaboration établie entre les services publics de l’emploi et les opérateurs privés. L’objectif est de montrer que le modèle de partenariat peut faire apparaître des attitudes spécifiques dans le chef des prestataires. Certains comportements peuvent nuire à la bonne collaboration entre les parties-prenantes. [less ▲]

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See detailAgonistic sounds and swim bladder morphology in a malapterurid electric catfish
Boyle, Kelly; Bolen, Géraldine ULg; Parmentier, Eric ULg

in Journal of Zoology (2015)

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See detailChamps électriques et magnétiques et santé : quel message au grand public ?
Ledent, Maryse ULg; Beauvois, Véronique ULg; Demaret, Isabelle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 172-178

Les revues de littérature scientifique ne permettent pas de conclure de manière définitive à l’absence d’un effet des champs électriques et magnétiques 50 Hz sur la santé. L’incertitude entraîne de ... [more ▼]

Les revues de littérature scientifique ne permettent pas de conclure de manière définitive à l’absence d’un effet des champs électriques et magnétiques 50 Hz sur la santé. L’incertitude entraîne de nombreux questionnements. Dans cet article, nous aborderons les concepts-clés permettant de bien comprendre les effets potentiels des champs électriques et magnétiques sur la santé. Nous donnerons également des valeurs d’exposition de la vie quotidienne et proposerons des pistes à suivre face à un patient posant des questions sur les effets sur la santé des champs électriques et magnétiques 50 Hz. [less ▲]

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See detailLaboratory challenges in primary aldosteronism screening and diagnosis
Rehan, Muhammad; Raizman, Joshua; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg et al

in Clinical Biochemistry (2015), 48(6), 377-387

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See detailMeteorological variation in daily travel behaviour: evidence from revealed preference data from the Netherlands
Creemers, Lieve; Wets, Geert; Cools, Mario ULg

in Theoretical & Applied Climatology (2015), 120(1-2), 183-194

This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation (trip motives) and daily modal choices in the Netherlands. To this end, data from the Dutch National Travel Household Survey of 2008 were matched to hourly weather data provided by the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute and were complemented with thermal indices to indicate the level of thermal comfort and additional variables to indicate the seasonality of the weather conditions. Two multinomial logit–generalised estimation equations (MNL-GEE) models were constructed, one to assess the impact of weather conditions on trip motives and one to assess the effect of weather conditions on modal choice. The modelling results indicate that, depending on the travel attribute of concern, other factors might play a role. Nonetheless, the thermal component, as well as the aesthetical component and the physical component of weather play a significant role. Moreover, the parameter estimates indicate significant differences in the impact of weather conditions when different time scales are considered (e.g. daily versus hourly based). The fact that snow does not play any role at all was unexpected. This finding can be explained by the relatively low occurrence of this weather type in the study area. It is important to consider the effects of weather in travel demand modelling frameworks because this will help to achieve higher accuracy and more realistic traffic forecasts. These will in turn allow policy makers to make better long-term and short-term decisions to achieve various political goals, such as progress towards a sustainable transportation system. Further research in this respect should emphasise the role of weather conditions and activityscheduling attributes. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel procedure to measure shrinkage-free tree-rings from very large wood samples combining photogrammetry, high-resolution image processing, and GIS tools
Latte, Nicolas ULg; Beeckman, Hans; Bauwens, Sébastien ULg et al

in Dendrochronologia (2015), 34

We present a new procedure for wood sampling and tree-ring measurement that can be used for dendrochronological investigation on very large trees, specifically adapted for tropical rainforest species ... [more ▼]

We present a new procedure for wood sampling and tree-ring measurement that can be used for dendrochronological investigation on very large trees, specifically adapted for tropical rainforest species. This procedure takes advantage of the technological developments in computing, image processing, and geographic information systems (GIS) to overcome the technical limitations of the currently used methods. Two types of wood samples can be used (stem disks and/or bars) depending on tree diameter, and the difficulty of ring delineation and crossdating. Bars are an effective compromise between cores and disks. We developed an application combining several programs (Excel, R, ArcGIS, and MapWinGIS) in the Windows operating system for semi-automatic measurement of tree-rings from high-resolution images of the sanded cross-section. Using an innovative method to reverse the wood shrinkage resulting from the drying process, tree-ring measurement can be performed on shrinkage-free images, thus referring to the actual growth of the tree. [less ▲]

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See detailPhylogenetic analysis of cultivation-resistant terrestrial cyanobacteria with massive sheaths (Stigonema spp. and Petalonema alatum, Nostocales, Cyanobacteria) using single-cell and filament sequencing of environmental samples
Mares, Jan; Lara, Yannick ULg; Dadakova, Ina et al

in Journal of Phycology (2015), 51(2), 288297

Molecular assessment of a large portion of traditional cyanobacterial taxa has been hindered by the failure to isolate and grow them in culture. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for ... [more ▼]

Molecular assessment of a large portion of traditional cyanobacterial taxa has been hindered by the failure to isolate and grow them in culture. In this study, we developed an optimized protocol for single cell/filament isolation and 16S rRNA gene sequencing of terrestrial cyanobacteria with large mucilaginous sheaths, and applied it to determine the phylogenetic position of typical members of the genera Petalonema and Stigonema. A methodology based on a glass-capillary isolation technique and a semi-nested PCR protocol enabled reliable sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene from all samples analyzed. Ten samples covering seven species of Stigonema from Europe, North and Central America, and Hawaii, and the type species of Petalonema from Slovakia were sequenced. Contrary to some previous studies, which proposed a relationship with heteropolar nostocalean cyanobacteria, Petalonema appeared to belong to the family Scytonemataceae. Analysis of Stigonema specimens recovered a unique coherent phylogenetic cluster, substantially broadening our knowledge of the molecular diversity within this genus. Neither the uni- to biseriate species nor the multiseriate species formed monophyletic subclusters within the genus. Typical multiseriate species of Stigonema clustered in a phylogenetic branch derived from uni- to biseriate S. ocellatum Thuret ex Bornet & Flahault in our analysis, suggesting that species with more complex thalli may have evolved from the more simple ones. We propose the technique tested in this study as a promising tool for a future revision of the molecular taxonomy in cyanobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailAccess to human tissues for research and product development
Pirnay, Jean‐Paul; BAUDOUX, Etienne ULg; Cornu, Olivier et al

in EMBO Reports (2015)

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See detailMolding thrombus of an ECMO cannula floating in the right atrium.
MORIMONT, Philippe ULg; LAMBERMONT, Bernard ULg; GARSPARD, Valérie ULg et al

in Intensive Care Medicine (2015)

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See detailTeaching and learning Quaternary prevention
Gomes, Luis Enrique; Gusso, Gustavo; Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015)

This article presents an overview of different techniques and skills required for teaching and learning quaternary prevention (P4). It adopts the Expertise Model that defines the competences required in ... [more ▼]

This article presents an overview of different techniques and skills required for teaching and learning quaternary prevention (P4). It adopts the Expertise Model that defines the competences required in P4 for each level: novice, competent, proficient, and expert. This should be used as a step-wise roadmap for teachers in order to achieve high standard levels of performance. This is complemented by a list of methods used in teaching and assessment of learners’ performance and competence. By covering a range of learning and teaching issues, those who aim to teach quaternary prevention can explore the proposed framework. Quaternary prevention is a research and teaching fertile medical field that requires the integration of different areas such as health service organization, epidemiology, communication skills, and andragogy either at the macro or the micro levels health related activities. [less ▲]

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See detailPhytochemical Profile and Biological Activity Evaluation of Zanthoxylum heterophyllum Leaves against Malaria
Ledoux, Allison ULg; Mareatefau, Hinerava; Jansen, Olivia ULg et al

in Planta Medica Letters (2015), 2

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of Zanthoxylum heterophyllum, an endemic plant from the Mascarene Islands. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethyl acetate and ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of Zanthoxylum heterophyllum, an endemic plant from the Mascarene Islands. In vitro antiplasmodial activity of ethyl acetate and dichloromethane crude extracts obtained from leaf samples collected on Reunion Island was evaluated on the Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 chloroquine-sensitive strain using a colorimetric method. The major active compound was identified by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods. The best antiplasmodial activity was obtained for the ethyl acetate extract (15 µg/mL < IC50 < 50 µg/mL). The major compound was identified as a sanshool derivative, an alkylamide compound that has moderate antimalarial activity (IC50 = 11.3 µg/mL). This is the first report of the presence of a sanshool derivative in Z. heterophyllum. The moderate antiplasmodial activity of hydroxy-γ-isosanshool was demonstrated for the first time. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Hémangiome épithélioïde, une tumeur osseuse rare.
Gérard, Valérie; TOMASELLA, Marco ULg; KURTH, William ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 169-171

A case of pathological hip fracture associated with an epithelioid hemangioma is reported. Epithelioid hemangioma is a benign tumor, rarely localized in a bone. When the tumor is found on the skeleton, it ... [more ▼]

A case of pathological hip fracture associated with an epithelioid hemangioma is reported. Epithelioid hemangioma is a benign tumor, rarely localized in a bone. When the tumor is found on the skeleton, it generally involves a long bone. X-ray does not permit the differenciation of epithelioid hemangioma from other,malignant, vascular tumors. Therefore,the diagnosis requires surgery. Although no consensus treatment guidelines exist, the curettage – filling is most often proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailTendon et acide hyaluronique
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Samson, Antoine; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Science & Sports (2015), 30(2), 57-65

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See detailL’agency de la route Yucumo-Rurrenabaque entre développement, conservation et autonomie indigène: une étude de cas dans l’Amazonie Bolivienne
Marquez Guerra, José Francisco ULg

in Desenvolvimento e Meio Ambiente (2015), 33

Very often roads that are continuously built through Amazonia are thought to mechanically and irreversibly induce colonisation, deforestation and environmental and cultural degradation. This paper ... [more ▼]

Very often roads that are continuously built through Amazonia are thought to mechanically and irreversibly induce colonisation, deforestation and environmental and cultural degradation. This paper provides a detailed case study questioning this taken-for-granted idea. It concerns the Pilón Lajas (Bolivia) and shows that the road gets irreversible only through the interplay between development framing and conservation framing as both define road and spaces, and through the interactions these framings induce between actors that refer to them. Road agency only performs by reciprocal relations that actors develop to stabilise their own practices around roads. Indigenous people, quartered between dilution in interculturality and domination bay conservation, are trying to reconcile autonomy and development by skipping between these frameworks. [less ▲]

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See detailLa défense belge dans le futur
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Revue de Défense nationale (2015), (4),

Analyse de l'évolution récente de l'armée belge avec quelques propositions relatives à son avenir dans le cadre de la préparation d'un nouveau plan stratégique à l'horizon 2030

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See detailTranshumanisme : un imaginaire de l’exploitation ?
Absil, Gaëtan ULg; Govers, Patrick ULg

in Salut & Fraternité (2015), 89

Vaincre la mort semble un horizon plausible du transhumanisme : l’utilisation des sciences et des technologies pour améliorer la condition humaine et en exclure le handicap, la maladie, le vieillissement ... [more ▼]

Vaincre la mort semble un horizon plausible du transhumanisme : l’utilisation des sciences et des technologies pour améliorer la condition humaine et en exclure le handicap, la maladie, le vieillissement et la mort. L’immortalité relève des instances imaginaires, matérielles et des relations sociales. Elle relève d’une anthropologie du corps et d’une analyse de la technique comme « recherche du moyen le plus efficace dans tous les domaines. » [less ▲]

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See detailThe words of prevention, part II: ten terms in the realm of quaternary prevention
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Gavilan, Enrique; Cardoso, Raquel Val et al

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015)

ABSTRACT Objective: This part II article about the ‘words of prevention’ presents in a terminological way the content of ten current concepts used in the prevention domain which are closely linked to ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Objective: This part II article about the ‘words of prevention’ presents in a terminological way the content of ten current concepts used in the prevention domain which are closely linked to quaternary prevention: (1) overinformation, (2) overdiagnosis, (3) medically unexplained symptoms, (4) overmedicalisation, (5) incidentaloma, (6) overscreening, (7) overtreatment, (8) shared decision making, (9) deprescribing, and (10) disease mongering. Methods: with the support of the laboratory team of the University of Rouen, France, which is dedicated to medical terminology and semantic relationships, it was possible to utilize a graphic user interface (called DBGUI) allowing the construction of links for each of chosen terms, and making automatic links to MeSH, if any. Those concepts are analyzed in their environment in current literature, as well as in their MeSH counterparts, if any, and related semantic online terminologies. Results and Discussion: The rules in terminological development aspire to cover the whole field of a concept and in the meantime, it helps to avoid the noise due to proxy and not exactly related issues. This refers to exhaustivity and specificity in information retrieval. Our finds show that referring to MeSH only in information retrieval in General Practice/Family medicine can induce much noise and poor adequacy to the subject investigated. Conclusion: Gathering concepts in specially prepared terminologies for further development of ontologies is a necessity to enter in the semantic web area and the era of distributed data. [less ▲]

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See detailChoix de la première contraception
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Réalités en Gynécologie-Obstétrique (2015), vol 176

Proposer une contraception adéquate chez les adolescentes est primordial afin d’éviter toute grossesse non désirée. Il est indispensable de conseiller les jeunes filles de façon appropriée pour améliorer ... [more ▼]

Proposer une contraception adéquate chez les adolescentes est primordial afin d’éviter toute grossesse non désirée. Il est indispensable de conseiller les jeunes filles de façon appropriée pour améliorer l’observance et leur expliquer les effets secondaires éventuels pour éviter les échecs de contraception. Le risque d’infection sexuellement transmissible n’est pas négligeable et il faut insister sur l’intérêt de l’usage du préservatif. La contraception combinée œstroprogestative orale présente aussi des avantages non contraceptifs comme l’amélioration de la dysménorrhée entre autre. Le choix du contraceptif hormonal doit tenir compte des facteurs de risque personnels et familiaux et il est nécessaire de reprogrammer une consultation ultérieure afin d’adapter la contraception si nécessaire [less ▲]

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See detailPetit voyage à travers les âges: de l'expression à la fonction
Bair, Jacques ULg; Henry, Valérie ULg

in Tangente Hors Série (2015), (56), 12-15

Le concept de fonction est assurément fondamental en mathématiques. Il a été construit lentement, par de multiples améliorations successives. Dans cet article, nous souhaitons évoquer succinctement ... [more ▼]

Le concept de fonction est assurément fondamental en mathématiques. Il a été construit lentement, par de multiples améliorations successives. Dans cet article, nous souhaitons évoquer succinctement quelques étapes marquantes de son élaboration. [less ▲]

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See detailThe words of prevention, part I: changing the model
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Gavilan, Enrique; Cardoso, Raquel Val et al

in Revista Brasileira de Medicina de Família e Comunidade (2015)

ABSTRACT Objective: This part I article explores the different meanings of relevant keywords for General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) in the prevention domain. The aim is to contribute to information ... [more ▼]

ABSTRACT Objective: This part I article explores the different meanings of relevant keywords for General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) in the prevention domain. The aim is to contribute to information process in GP/FM by keeping in line with the main terms used in health care organization. Methods: Important keywords for GP/FM in the prevention domain were selected. Then, a search was carried out on the main sources in GP/FM databases, as well as in Medical Subject Heading and major terminological databases available online. Results and Discussion: There is discrepancy between the conceptual contents of major prevention models amongst the usual bibliographic sources of knowledge in GP/FM in particular and medicine in general. Conclusion: For GP/FM, distribution of preventive activities is now firmly established on a new constructivist model, privileging the doctor-patient relationships and introducing a cybernetic thinking on the health care activities with a special commitment to ethics and the positive duty of beneficence. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Belgique dans la hiérarchie internationale. La contribution belge au Droit international (1870-1930) : Vécu et mémoire des juristes belges au contact du premier conflit mondial
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin d'Information de l'Association Belge d'Histoire Contemporaine = Mededelingenblad van de Belgische Vereniging voor Nieuwste Geschiedenis (2015), XXXVII(2015/1), 12-16

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois : prise en charge d'une hypophosphatémie
HUART, Justine ULg; DUBOIS, Bernard ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(4), 163-168

Hypophosphatemia is defined by a serum phosphate level lower than 0.8 mmol/l. If hypophosphatemia is chronically maintained, it is associated with muscular, osteous, neurological or cardio-respiratory ... [more ▼]

Hypophosphatemia is defined by a serum phosphate level lower than 0.8 mmol/l. If hypophosphatemia is chronically maintained, it is associated with muscular, osteous, neurological or cardio-respiratory disorders. We describe a patient with isolated hypophosphatemia, detail the mechanisms of phosphate homeostasis, and envisage the differential diagnosis of hypophosphatemia. Furthermore, we propose a sequential decisional algorithm based on basic biological tests and few complementary investigations. Treatment options are reviewed. [less ▲]

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See detailPrélèvements fiscaux et prestations sociales en Belgique: l'impact de vingt années de réformes
Decoster, André; Perelman, Sergio ULg; Vandelannoote, Dieter et al

in Revue Française d'économie (2015), 24

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See detailL'Union européenne et le testament conjonctif : la fin des incertitudes?
Wautelet, Patrick ULg

in Droit & Patrimoine (2015), 246(40-47),

Le sort des testaments conjonctifs dans les relations internationales privées a de longue date suscité des questions. Cette contribution s'interroge sur l'apport du Règlement successions (650/2012) : ce ... [more ▼]

Le sort des testaments conjonctifs dans les relations internationales privées a de longue date suscité des questions. Cette contribution s'interroge sur l'apport du Règlement successions (650/2012) : ce Règlement permet-il de garantir la circulation d'un testament conjonctif entre Etats membres? [less ▲]

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See detailNear-Death Experiences in patients with locked-in syndrome: Not always a blissful journey
Charland-Verville, Vanessa ULg; Lugo, Zulay; Jourdan, Jean-Pierre et al

in Consciousness & Cognition (2015), 34

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) most often are recounted as emotionally positive events. At present, no satisfactory explanatory model exists to fully account for the rich phenomenology of NDEs ... [more ▼]

Memories of Near-Death Experiences (NDEs) most often are recounted as emotionally positive events. At present, no satisfactory explanatory model exists to fully account for the rich phenomenology of NDEs following a severe acute brain injury. The particular population of patients with locked-in syndrome (LIS) provides a unique opportunity to study NDEs following infratentorial brain lesions. We here retrospectively characterized the content of NDEs in 8 patients with LIS caused by an acute brainstem lesion (i.e., ‘‘LIS NDEs’’) and 23 NDE experiencers after coma with supratentorial lesions (i.e., ‘‘classical NDEs’’). Compared to ‘‘classical NDEs’’, ‘‘LIS NDEs’’ less frequently experienced a feeling of peacefulness or well-being. It could be hypothesized that NDEs containing less positive emotions might have a specific neuroanatomical substrate related to impaired pontine/paralimbic connectivity or alternatively might be related to the emotional distress caused by the presence of conscious awareness in a paralyzed body. [less ▲]

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See detailProgress on research on rodents and rodent-borne zoonoses in Southeast Asia
Blasdell, Kim; Bordes, Frédéric; Chaisiri, Kittipong et al

in Wildlife Research (2015), 42(2), 98-107

This review aims to synthesize the knowledge on the taxonomy of Southeast Asian murine rodents and the challenges associated with the identification of habitat preferences and associated rodent-borne ... [more ▼]

This review aims to synthesize the knowledge on the taxonomy of Southeast Asian murine rodents and the challenges associated with the identification of habitat preferences and associated rodent-borne diseases. Recent studies concerning the Rattini tribe have identified unclear species boundaries that would benefit from further investigation. The development of barcoding may allow more accurate identification of rodents, specifically for complex species. However, knowledge on the distribution and habitat specializations of many common murine rodents is still scarce, particularly regarding the specific habitat preferences of most synanthropic rodent species (Rattus tanezumi or Rattus exulans). Several studies have analyzed the prevalence of major rodent-borne diseases in Southeast Asia and it appears that the greatest risk of rodent zoonoses are in the lowland rainfed and irrigated landscapes, generally in and around rice fields. [less ▲]

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See detailBiomarkers and physiolpathology in the cardiorenal syndrome
BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg; KRZESINSKI, Jean-Marie ULg; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2015), 443

Acute cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) corresponds to an association of acute heart failure and a worsening of renal function. The detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) unfortunately occurs at a late stage of ... [more ▼]

Acute cardiorenal syndrome (CRS) corresponds to an association of acute heart failure and a worsening of renal function. The detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) unfortunately occurs at a late stage of CRS, leading to an increased mortality of the patients. In this review, we described the pathophysiology of CRS and discussed the potential interest of biochemical biomarkers (namely creatinine, cystatin C, NGAL, KIM-1, fatty acid binding protein, Nacetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and IL-18) that could potentially help to detect AKI earlier and thus reduce the morbi-mortality of the patients suffering from CRS. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergetics and Structural Characterization of Isomers Using Ion Mobility and Gas-phase H/D Exchange: Learning from Lasso Peptides
Hanozin, Emeline ULg; Morsa, Denis ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Proteomics (2015), online accepted paper

State-of-the-art characterization of proteins using mass spectrometry namely relies on fragmentation methods which allows exploring featured dissociative reaction pathways. These pathways are often ... [more ▼]

State-of-the-art characterization of proteins using mass spectrometry namely relies on fragmentation methods which allows exploring featured dissociative reaction pathways. These pathways are often initiated by a series of potentially informative mass-constant conformational changes that are nonetheless frequently overlooked by lack of adequate investigation techniques. In the present study, we propose a methodology to readily address both structural and energetic aspects of stereoisomerization reactions using ion mobility coupled with mass spectrometry. To this end, a commercial spectrometer was used as a reactor comprising an energy resolved collisional activation step intended at promoting controlled conformational changes and a structural assignment step dedicated to the identification of the generated isomers. This identification relies on ion mobility and other on-line coupled techniques, namely an originally designed gas-phase H/D exchange experiment. We here apply this methodology to characterize the isomerization kinetics of capistruin, a 19-residue long lasso-folded peptide. We expect this approach to bring insights into the physical origin of global dissociation thresholds monitored in tandem mass spectrometry experiments and to set a promising basis for quantitative investigations of the stability of different molecular folds. [less ▲]

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See detailAdherence to physical activity recommendations and its associated factors: an interregional population-based study
Alkerwi, Ala'a; Schuh, Barbara; Sauvageot, Nicolas et al

in Journal of Public Health Research (2015), 4(1),

Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity ... [more ▼]

Background. Though the influence of physical activity in preventing cardiovascular diseases is well documented, only a few comparative studies have determined the degree of adherence to physical activity recommendations among populations and identified the demographic, socioeconomic, behavioural and health-related factors associated with good compliance. Design and methods. Cross-sectional interregional NESCaV survey of 3133 subjects compared three populations, Luxembourg, Lorraine (France) and Wallonia (Belgium), by using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Age and gender prevalence rates of physical activity were standardized to the European population. Results. The likelihood to meet the recommendations was higher in Luxembourg, after adjustment for age, gender, education, employment, weight status, morbidity score, health perception and level of importance attributed to the practice of physical activity (P<0.0001). The odds for meeting the recommendations were significantly higher among those with secondary than tertiary education. Compared to good self-health perception, subjects with poor or fair self-perceived health were less likely to meet the recommendations; this also applied to those attributing little or enough importance to physical activity compared with great importance. Conclusions. Region, education, self-perceived health and perception of importance of physical activity were emerged as independent determinants of meeting the recommendations. Awareness of the positive health effects of physical activity might thus be crucial for motivating the people to become more active. Further research is needed to explore potential region-specific factors which might explain the difference in population behaviours with respect to physical activity. [less ▲]

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See detailGigantism, acromegaly, and GPR101 mutations.
Daly, Adrian ULg; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine

in New England Journal of Medicine (2015), 372(13), 1265

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