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See detailAnalyses croisées du monde du travail
Smette, Bernard ULg

in Cahiers du GRM (2014), 5

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See detailCoupling X-ray microtomography and macroscopic soil measurements: a method to enhance near saturation functions?
Beckers, Eléonore ULg; Plougonven, Erwan; Gigot, Nicolas et al

in Hydrology & Earth System Sciences (2014), 18

Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water ... [more ▼]

Agricultural management practices influence soil structure, but the characterization of these modifications and consequences are still not completely understood. In this study, we aim at improving water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves using both classical soil techniques and X-ray microtomography in the context of tillage simplification. We show a good match for retention and conductivity functions between macroscopic measurements and microtomographic information. Microtomography highlights the presence of a secondary pore system. Analysis of structural parameters for these pores appears to be significant and offers additional clues for objects differentiation. We show that relatively fast scans supply not only good results, but also enhance near saturation characterization, making microtomography a highly competitive instrument for routine soil characterization. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Pacifisme d'Auguste Beernaert. De l'homme d'Etat à l'homme des Etats
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Espace de Libertés : Magazine du Centre d'Action Laïque (2014), 429

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See detailMéthodes chromatographiques génériques de criblage pour lutter contre les médicaments de qualité inférieure
Habyalimana, Védaste; Kalenda Tshilombo, Nicodème; Dispas, Amandine ULg et al

in Spectra Analyse (2014), 43

Poor quality medicines are a danger and a threat to public health. In this context, several generic analytical methods have been developed to screen molecules of interest grouped by pharmacological class ... [more ▼]

Poor quality medicines are a danger and a threat to public health. In this context, several generic analytical methods have been developed to screen molecules of interest grouped by pharmacological class using an innovative strategy based on design of experiments followed in some cases by independent component analysis and calculation of design space. Once validated via the classical total error measurement approach, these methods were applied to quantify antimalarial, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and antibiotic medicines. Alarming results regarding the dosage of these drugs widely used by people confirm the need to fight against this scourge. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors associated with clinical inertia: an integrative review
Aujoulat, I; Jacquemin, p; Rietzschel, E et al

in Advances in Medical Education and Practice (2014), 5

Failure to initiate or intensify therapy according to evidence-based guidelines is increasingly being acknowledged as a phenomenon that contributes to inadequate management of chronic conditions, and is ... [more ▼]

Failure to initiate or intensify therapy according to evidence-based guidelines is increasingly being acknowledged as a phenomenon that contributes to inadequate management of chronic conditions, and is referred to as clinical inertia. However, the number and complexity of factors associated with the clinical reasoning that underlies the decision-making processes in medicine calls for a critical examination of the consistency of the concept. Indeed, in the absence of information on and justification of treatment decisions that were made, clinical inertia may be only apparent, and actually reflect good clinical practice. This integrative review seeks to address the factors generally associated with clinical inaction, in order to better delineate the concept of true clinical inertia. [less ▲]

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See detailResilience to Flooding - Draft Building Code
Clarkson, John; Sullican, David; Braun, Kenton et al

in PIANC Yearbook 2013 (2014)

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See detailCoupling building energy simulation and computational fluid dynamics: Application to a two-storey house in a temperate climate
Barbason, Mathieu ULg; Reiter, Sigrid ULg

in Building & Environment (2014), 75

This article reports the coupling of a building energy simulation (BES) made with TRNSYS with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation made with ANSYS FLUENT and its application to a typical ... [more ▼]

This article reports the coupling of a building energy simulation (BES) made with TRNSYS with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation made with ANSYS FLUENT and its application to a typical Belgian two-storey house. The coupling scheme developed in this study aims to improve the overheating prediction for buildings. This phenomenon is becoming increasingly frequent in Northern Europe due to increased insulation and a lack of sun protection and natural cooling strategies. Complementary contributions of the two numerical approaches are underlined and used to obtain accurate results in an acceptable computing time, even in a thermally stratified room. The space and time coupling is discussed to obtain an optimised tool in which BES is in charge of the primary portion of the effort, while CFD intervenes punctually on one room of interest. The numerical results are compared both qualitatively and quantitatively to the experimental results, and the improved accuracy of the coupled tool compared with a standalone BES is underlined. [less ▲]

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See detailDeterminant of fat mass percentage and absolute fat-free mass in preterm infants at the time of hospital discharge
Simon, Laure; Frondas-Chauty, Anne; SENTERRE, Thibault ULg et al

in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2014), 100(1), 98-104

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See detailHybrid MicroPET Imaging for Dosimetric Applications in Mice: Improvement of Activity Quantification in Dynamic MicroPET Imaging for Accelerated Dosimetry Applied to 6-[ 18 F] Fluoro- L -DOPA and 2-[ 18 F]Fluoro- L -Tyrosine
Bretin, Florian ULg; Mauxion, T; Warnock, G et al

in Molecular Imaging and Biology (2014), 16(3), 383-394

Purpose: Dynamic microPET imaging has advantages over traditional organ harvesting, but is pronetoquantificationerrorsinsmallvolumes.Hybridimaging,wheremicroPETactivitiesarecross- calibrated using post ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Dynamic microPET imaging has advantages over traditional organ harvesting, but is pronetoquantificationerrorsinsmallvolumes.Hybridimaging,wheremicroPETactivitiesarecross- calibrated using post scan harvested organs, can improve quantification. Organ harvesting, dynamic imaging and hybrid imaging were applied to determine the human and mouse radiation dosimetry of 6-[18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA and 2-[18 F]fluoro-L-tyrosine and compared. Procedures: Two-hour dynamic microPET imaging was performed with both tracers in four separate mice for 18 F-FDOPA and three mice for 18 F-FTYR. Organ harvesting was performed at 2, 5, 10, 30, 60 and 120 min post tracer injection with n=5 at each time point for 18 F-FDOPA and n=3 at each time point for 18 F-FTYR. Human radiation dosimetry projected from animal data was calculated for the three different approaches for each tracer using OLINDA/EXM. S- factors for the MOBY phantom were used to calculate the animal dosimetry. Results: Correlations between dose estimates based on organ harvesting and imaging was improved from r=0.997 to r=0.999 for 18 F-FDOPA and from r=0.985 to r=0.996 (p<0.0001 for all) for 18 F-FTYR by using hybrid imaging. Conclusion: Hybrid imaging yields comparable results to traditional organ harvesting while partially overcoming the limitations of pure imaging. It is an advantageous technique in terms of number of animals needed and labour involved. [less ▲]

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See detailMicroRNA Targeting of CoREST controls polarization of migrating cortical neurons
Volvert; Prévot, Pierre-Paul; Close, Pierre ULg et al

in Cell Reports (2014), 7(4), 1168-83

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See detailTransit confirmation and improved stellar and planet parameters for the super-Earth HD 97658 b and its host star
Van Grootel, Valérie ULg; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Valencia, D. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2014), 786

Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition ... [more ▼]

Super-Earths transiting nearby bright stars are key objects that simultaneously allow for accurate measurements of both their mass and radius, providing essential constraints on their internal composition. We present here the confirmation, based on Spitzer transit observations, that the super-Earth HD 97658 b transits its host star. HD 97658 is a low-mass ($M_*=0.77\pm0.05\,M_{\odot}$) K1 dwarf, as determined from the Hipparcos parallax and stellar evolution modeling. To constrain the planet parameters, we carry out Bayesian global analyses of Keck-HIRES radial velocities, and MOST and Spitzer photometry. HD 97658 b is a massive ($M_P=7.55^{+0.83}_{-0.79} M_{\oplus}$) and large ($R_{P} = 2.247^{+0.098}_{-0.095} R_{\oplus}$ at 4.5 $\mu$m) super-Earth. We investigate the possible internal compositions for HD 97658 b. Our results indicate a large rocky component, by at least 60% by mass, and very little H-He components, at most 2% by mass. We also discuss how future asteroseismic observations can improve the knowledge of the HD 97658 system, in particular by constraining its age. Orbiting a bright host star, HD 97658 b will be a key target for coming space missions TESS, CHEOPS, PLATO, and also JWST, to characterize thoroughly its structure and atmosphere. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-medication in persistent rhinitis: overuse of decongestants in half of the patients.
Mehuys, Els; Gevaert, Philippe; Brusselle, Guy et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology - In Practice (2014), 2(3), 313-319

BACKGROUND: Patients with rhinitis often self-medicate with over-the-counter drugs, however this self-treating population has remained largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To characterize individuals self ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Patients with rhinitis often self-medicate with over-the-counter drugs, however this self-treating population has remained largely unstudied. OBJECTIVE: To characterize individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis and to determine the prevalence of and risk factors for intranasal decongestant overuse within this population. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study of individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis (defined according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma guidelines). Participants (n = 895) completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess current symptoms, rhinitis medication, and previous physician diagnosis. Intranasal decongestant overuse was defined as daily use for at least 1 year. RESULTS: The vast majority of subjects (95%) had moderate-to-severe rhinitis. Nasal congestion was the predominant symptom (median visual analog scale, 6.6 cm; interquartile range, 3.4 cm). Sixty-five percent had had their current nasal problems for more than 5 years. Approximately 80% had a physician diagnosis (mainly allergic rhinitis or rhinosinusitis). The prevalence of intranasal decongestant overuse was high (49%), despite the fact that most of the patients (80%) were educated about the limit on duration of use. Use of intranasal glucocorticosteroids was inversely related to being an overuser (odds ratio 0.24 [95% CI, 0.17-0.35]). The risk of intranasal decongestant overuse also was reduced by use of other medications (oral H1 antihistamines and decongestants), use of nasal saline solution, and more symptoms of itchy and/or runny eyes or colored mucus. Risk was increased by a more severely blocked nose, longer duration of symptoms, the presence of sleep disturbance, higher body mass index, and previous advice to limit the duration of intranasal decongestant use. CONCLUSION: Half of the individuals self-medicating persistent rhinitis overused intranasal decongestants, despite the fact that they were educated about the limit on duration of use. [less ▲]

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See detailImplementing Human Rights in Benin: The Case of Inheritance Disputes
Andreetta, Sophie ULg

in Journal of Human Rights Practice (2014)

On 14 June 2004, Benin ratified a new Code on Persons and Family, adapting its previous dual legal system to the requirements of international human rights law. For the purpose of this article, I chose to ... [more ▼]

On 14 June 2004, Benin ratified a new Code on Persons and Family, adapting its previous dual legal system to the requirements of international human rights law. For the purpose of this article, I chose to focus on inheritance conflicts as a back door to questioning the implementation of a law directly inspired by international human rights standards and principles. When it comes to inheritance disputes, are human rights respected in Benin? What are the discourses of the judges, the lawyers, and the notaries regarding this new Code? How is it implemented and what are the obstacles to it? Combining both qualitative interviews with family members and participant observation in the courtrooms, I compiled a series of case studies, supplemented by interviews with judicial officials. These sets of data allowed me to grasp how laws are enforced and interpreted, and how citizens deal with their families and with the justice system. [less ▲]

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See detailProjected inhibition of platelet aggregation with ticagrelor twice daily vs. clopidogrel once daily based on patient adherence data (the TWICE project)
Vrijens, Bernard ULg; Claeys, M.J.; LEGRAND, Victor ULg et al

in British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology (2014), 77(5), 746-755

Abstract Aim Twice daily dosing is often perceived as inferior to once daily dosing due to a higher likelihood of missing a dose. However, more important is the extent to which drug action is maintained ... [more ▼]

Abstract Aim Twice daily dosing is often perceived as inferior to once daily dosing due to a higher likelihood of missing a dose. However, more important is the extent to which drug action is maintained when doses are delayed or missed. We compared the estimated inhibition of platelet aggregation (eIPA) for ticagrelor twice daily and clopidogrel once daily, based on their pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic relationships and patient dosing history data. Methods Drug dosing histories of 5014 patients prescribed cardiovascular medications (primarily antihypertensive medicines) were extracted from an electronically compiled dosing history database. eIPA levels were simulated for 677 twice daily and 677 once daily dosing histories over a 30 day period, based on published onset/offset models for ticagrelor and clopidogrel IPA characteristics. Results While many patients treated twice daily missed at least one dose in 30 days, only 25.7% missed two consecutive doses. By comparison, 46.8% of patients treated once daily missed at least one dose. Simulations based on patient adherence over time showed that the average mean eIPA for ticagrelor twice daily remained significantly higher than for clopidogrel once daily (81.1% vs. 55.0%, P < 0.001). Ticagrelor twice daily patients had an eIPA below 10% for 0.20% of the 30 day period compared with 2.05% for clopidogrel once daily (P = 0.0001). Conclusions The projected level of platelet inhibition remained higher for ticagrelor twice daily than clopidogrel once daily, mainly due to the higher eIPA level achieved with ticagrelor and the relatively low likelihood of missing two consecutive twice daily doses. This modelling and simulation study suggests a therapeutic benefit of ticagrelor over clopidogrel when taking into account the most common dosing omissions. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Fête du 14 juillet à Liège vue par le consul de France Léon Labbé (1919-1930). Une célébration sous surveillance
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Le Vieux-Liège (2014), 344

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See detailRénover ou réformer la fiscalité du logement en Wallonie
Xhignesse, Guillaume ULg

in Revue Générale de Fiscalité [= RFG] (2014)

Cette contribution a pour objectif de stimuler la discussion relative à la réforme de la fiscalité du logement en Belgique, et plus particulièrement en Wallonie. Nous y évoquons quelques enjeux d'une ... [more ▼]

Cette contribution a pour objectif de stimuler la discussion relative à la réforme de la fiscalité du logement en Belgique, et plus particulièrement en Wallonie. Nous y évoquons quelques enjeux d'une telle réforme et nous proposons diverses pistes de réflexions. [less ▲]

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See detailA Brief Review of Ultraviolet Auroral Emissions on Giant Planets
Grodent, Denis ULg

in Space Science Reviews (2014)

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although ... [more ▼]

The morphologies of the ultraviolet auroral emissions on the giant gas planets, Jupiter and Saturn, have conveniently been described with combinations of a restricted number of basic components. Although this simplified view is very handy for a gross depiction of the giant planets’ aurorae, it fails to scrutinize the diversity and the dynamics of the actual features that are regularly observed with the available ultraviolet imagers and spectrographs. In the present review, the typical morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn’s aurorae are represented with an updated and more accurate set of components. The use of sketches, rather than images, makes it possible to compile all these components in a single view and to put aside ultraviolet imaging technical issues that are blurring the emission sources, thus preventing one from disentangling the different auroral signatures. The ionospheric and magnetospheric processes to which these auroral features allude can then be more easily accounted. In addition, the use of components of the same kind for both planets may help to put forward similarities and differences between Jupiter and Saturn. The case of the ice giants Uranus and Neptune is much less compelling since their weak auroral emissions are very poorly documented and one can only speculate about their origin. This review presents a current perspective that will inevitably evolve in the future, especially with upcoming observing campaigns and forthcoming missions like Juno. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of a commercial monoacylglycerol on the crystallization mechanism of palm oil as compared to its pure constituents
Verstringe, Stefanie; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food Research International (2014), 62

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main ... [more ▼]

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main constituents of Myverol, monopalmitin and monostearin. The MAGs were added to PO in concentrations up to 8% and the blends were studied using different techniques (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM)). The DSC crystallization profiles revealed an earlier onset of crystallization along with extra crystallization peaks when MAGs were added to PO. Combined with X-ray results, it could be concluded that the crystallization process of the blends is initiated by the MAGs crystallizing in the α form and then transforming to sub-α. The effect on the non-isothermal crystallization of the PO TAGs is confined to an earlier onset of crystallization, probably through a template effect, and an effect on the crystal structure coarseness. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of a commercial monoacylglycerol on the crystallization mechanism of palm oil as compared to its pure constituents
Verstringe, Stefanie; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Food Research International (2014), 62

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main ... [more ▼]

The effect of a commercialmonoacylglycerol (MAG),Myverol™18 04-PK(Myverol), on the non-isothermal crystallization mechanismof palm oil (PO) was investigated and compared to the effect of the two main constituents of Myverol, monopalmitin and monostearin. The MAGs were added to PO in concentrations up to 8% and the blends were studied using different techniques (differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and polarized light microscopy (PLM)). The DSC crystallization profiles revealed an earlier onset of crystallization along with extra crystallization peaks when MAGs were added to PO. Combined with X-ray results, it could be concluded that the crystallization process of the blends is initiated by the MAGs crystallizing in the α form and then transforming to sub-α. The effect on the non-isothermal crystallization of the PO TAGs is confined to an earlier onset of crystallization, probably through a template effect, and an effect on the crystal structure coarseness. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with diffuser or point source illuminations for measuring deformations of aspheric mirrors
Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg; Queeckers, Patrick et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2014), 53(11), 112309

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a ... [more ▼]

Long-wave infrared digital holographic interferometry with CO2 laser and microbolometer arrays has been developed for testing the large deformations of space reflectors. The setup considered is a Mach–Zehnder, associated to the digital holography reconstruction of the wavefront in the inline configuration with phase shifting. Two possibilities exist for illuminating the tested reflector: either with a point source (similarly to classical interferometry) or an extended source (with a diffuser). This paper presents the development of a modular setup which allows comparing both in the case of a parabolic mirror [less ▲]

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See detailTendinopathies chroniques et Plasma Riche en Plaquettes
KAUX, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014)

Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of ... [more ▼]

Platelets contain growth factors released during their degranulation following activation. These growth factors promote tissue remodeling, wound healing and angiogenesis. Currently, the clinical effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is still discussed or even controversial. Our researches have evaluated the effectiveness of PRP on the healing of animal tendons and human suffering from chronic jumper's knee. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene oxide nanocomposites by a precipitation polymerization process and their dielectric and rheological characterization
Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Trifkovic, Milana; Alkarmo, Walid et al

in Macromolecules (2014), 47(6), 2149-2155

We report a method for achieving controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via the precipitation polymerization process in a water/ methanol mixture. GO acts as a ... [more ▼]

We report a method for achieving controlled dispersion of graphene oxide (GO) in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) via the precipitation polymerization process in a water/ methanol mixture. GO acts as a surfactant and adsorbs on the interface between polymerized PMMA particles and solvent mixture. Scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the precipitate consists of polymer particles (<1 μm) surrounded by the GO sheets. Compression molding of the precipitate yields a polymer nanocomposite with the GO organized into a regularly spaced 3D network which percolates at 0.2 wt % GO. Simple thermal reduction of the GO sheets dispersed in PMMA at relatively low temperature (210 °C) achieved electrical conductivity higher than 10−2 S/m at 0.4 wt % of GO. Parallel dielectric and rheological characterization demonstrated that the thermal reduction is a quite fast process without significant degradation of the polymer. The study should open up new opportunities in the design of GO-based polymer nanocomposites. [less ▲]

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See detailBrown rust disease control in winter wheat: II. Exploring the optimization of fungicide sprays through a decision support system
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; kOUADIO, Louis; Giraud, Frédéric et al

in Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014), 21(4), 4809-4818

A decision support system (DSS) involving an approach for predicting wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection and progress based on night weather variables (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall ... [more ▼]

A decision support system (DSS) involving an approach for predicting wheat leaf rust (WLR) infection and progress based on night weather variables (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall) and a mechanistic model for leaf emergence and development simulation (i.e., PROCULTURE) was tested in order to schedule fungicide time spray for controlling leaf rust progress in wheat fields. Experiments including a single fungicide treatment based upon the DSS along with double and triple treatment were carried out over the 2007–2009 cropping seasons in four representative Luxembourgish wheat field locations. The study showed that the WLR occurrences and severities differed according to the site, cultivar, and year. We also found out that the single fungicide treatment based on the DSS allowed a good protection of the three upper leaves of susceptible cultivars in fields with predominant WLR occurrences. The harvested grain yield was not significantly different from that of the double and triple fungicide-treated plots (P < 0.05). Such results could serve as basis or be coupled to cost-effective and environmentally friendly crop management systems in operational context. [less ▲]

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See detailStochastic exposure to sub-lethal high temperature enhances exopolysaccharides (EPS) excretion and improves Bifidobacterium bifidum cell survival to freeze-drying
Nguyen, Huu Thanh ULg; Razafindralambo, Hary; Blecker, Christophe ULg et al

in Biochemical Engineering Journal (2014), 88

Exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal stresses is known to increase cell robustness. In this work, a two-compartment bioreactor in which microbial cells are stochastically exposed to sub-lethal ... [more ▼]

Exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal stresses is known to increase cell robustness. In this work, a two-compartment bioreactor in which microbial cells are stochastically exposed to sub-lethal temperature stresses has been used in order to investigate the response of the stress sensitive Bifidobacterium bifidum THT 0101 to downstream processing operations. A stochastic model validated by residence time distribution experiments has shown that in the heat-shock configuration, a two-compartment bioreactor (TCB) allows the exposure of microbial cells to sub-lethal temperature of 42°C for a duration comprised between 100 and 300 seconds. This exposure resulted in a significant increase of cell resistance to freeze-drying by comparison with cells cultivated in conventional bioreactors or in the TCB in the cold shock mode (CS-TCB). The mechanism behind this robustness seems to be related with the coating of microbial cells with exopolysaccharide (EPS), as assessed by the change of the zeta potential and the presence of higher EPS concentration after heat shock. Conditioning of Bifidobacteria on the basis of the heat shock technique is interesting from the practical and economical point of view since this strategy can be directly implemented in the bioreactor during stationary phase preceding cell recovery and freeze-drying [less ▲]

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See detailElaboration of drug nanocarriers based on a glucosamine labeled amphiphilic polymer
Boyère, Cédric; Duhem, N; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2014), 5(8), 3030-3037

A new functional polymer micelle with high loading efficiency of a poorly soluble drug was made of biocompatible and/or biosourced compounds, i.e. cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol)-glucosamine (Chol-PEG ... [more ▼]

A new functional polymer micelle with high loading efficiency of a poorly soluble drug was made of biocompatible and/or biosourced compounds, i.e. cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol)-glucosamine (Chol-PEG-GlcNH2). A synthesis strategy combining enzymatic and metal-free click chemistry was developed in order to meet the increasingly stringent requirements of biomedical applications. After the self-assembly of the Chol-PEG-GlcNH2 amphiphilic polymer in water, the presence of glucosamine at the micelle surface confers an active targeting moiety to the nanocarriers whereas protonation of the peripheral primary amine delay their aggregation. The complete characterization of this novel functional amphiphilic bioconjugate is presented as well as its aqueous solution behaviour and encapsulation efficiency using ketoconazole as a model hydrophobic drug. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of polyaniline-modified local clay and study of its sorption capacity
Benhebal, Hadj; Chaid, Messaoud; Léonard, Angélique ULg et al

in Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry (2014), 4(98), 6

Clay minerals are frequently used in adsorption processes with aqueous solution; it was found that the adsorption properties of clays change when the samples are modified. In this context, polyaniline ... [more ▼]

Clay minerals are frequently used in adsorption processes with aqueous solution; it was found that the adsorption properties of clays change when the samples are modified. In this context, polyaniline-modified clay nanocomposite (at 10 %) was prepared by in situ polymerization processes. The structural and morphological characteristics of the synthesized material are systematically examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy techniques. The adsorption property of the modified clay was evaluated for the removal of a reactive dye (methylene blue) from aqueous solution at room temperature (25 C) via batch adsorption. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of isotopic tracers as a tool for understanding hydrodynamic behavior of the highly exploited Diass aquifer system (Senegal)
Madioune, Diakher Hélène; Faye, Serigne; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Hydrology (2014), 511

The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited in two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the ... [more ▼]

The Diass horst aquifer system located 50 km east of Dakar (Senegal) is exploited in two main aquifers covered by a sandy superficial aquifer: the confined/unconfined Palaeocene karstic limestone and the confined Maastrichtian sandstone aquifer underneath. This system has experienced intensive groundwater abstraction during the last 50 years to supply increasing water demand, agricultural and industrial needs. The high abstraction rate from 1989 to 2009 (about 109,000 m3/d) has caused a continuous groundwater level decline (up to 30 m), a modification of the groundwater flow and salinization in parts of the aquifers. The objective of the study is to improve our understanding of the system functioning with regards to high pumping, identify the geochemical reactions that take place in the system, infer origin and timing of recharge by using mainly stable (δ18O, δ2H, 13C) and radioactive (3H and 14C) isotopes. Water types defined in the Piper diagram vary in order of abundance from Ca–HCO3 (65%), Ca/Na–Cl (20%), Na–HCO3 (3%) and Na–Cl (12%). Values of δ18O and δ2H for the superficial aquifer range between −5.8 and −4.2‰ and between −42 and −31‰, respectively. For the Palaeocene aquifer they range from −5.8 to −5.0‰ and from −38 to −31‰, respectively; values in the Maastrichtian aquifer are between −5.9 and −4.3‰ for δ18O and −38 to −26‰ for δ2H. Plotted against the conventional δ18O vs δ2H diagram, data from the upper aquifer exhibit a dispersed distribution with respect to isotopic fractionation while those of the Palaeocene and Maastrichtian aquifers are aligned parallel and slightly below/or on the Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) evidencing ancient waters which had evaporated during infiltration. The low tritium (generally <0.7 TU) and 14C (0.7–57.2 pmc) contents indicate predominance of older water being recharged during the Pleistocene and Holocene periods. However, few boreholes which exhibit high tritium (1.2–4.3 TU) and 14C (65.7–70.8 pmc) values indicate some mixture with recent water likely through faulting and vertical drainage from the upper to deeper aquifers as well as lateral flow along flow paths to the piezometric depressions created by pumping. [less ▲]

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See detailLe TAT de Adolf Eichmann
Peralta, Alberto; Kramer, Richard; Stassart, Martine ULg

in Szondiana (2014), 33(Décembre 2013), 8-45

Under consideration of three major personality tests (TAT, Rorschach, Szondi), it appears that Adolf Eichmann chiefdirector for the deportation of jewish people from 1942 to 1945 was no common individual ... [more ▼]

Under consideration of three major personality tests (TAT, Rorschach, Szondi), it appears that Adolf Eichmann chiefdirector for the deportation of jewish people from 1942 to 1945 was no common individual but a perverse sadomasochistic one with schizoparanoïd features under an osessionnal mask. These data contradict the famous opinion of Hannah Arendt about the "banality of evil". [less ▲]

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See detailA multiple-level study of metal tolerance in Salix fragilis and Salix aurita clones
Evlard, Aricia ULg; Sergeant, Kjell; Printz, Bruno et al

in Journal of Proteomics (2014), 101C

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 ... [more ▼]

The response of two willow clones (Salix fragilis (Sf) and S. aurita (Sa)) to the presence of metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni) was studied. Rooted cuttings were planted in control and contaminated soil. After 100 days, different parameters (biomass, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), pigment and sugar concentrations, electrolyte leakage and proteome-level changes) were analyzed. The growth of Sa was not influenced by metals whereas Sf produced significantly less biomass when exposed to the pollutants. Furthermore, although Sa did not show a growth reduction in the presence of metals, the overall view of the physiological results among others the changes in the accumulation of sugars and pigments indicated that metals had a more severe impact on this clone. The response at the proteome level confirmed these observations. The growth reduction and the proteomic changes in Sf indicate that this clone adjusts its metabolism to maintain cellular homeostasis. Sa on the contrary maintains growth but the physiological and proteomics data suggests that this can only be done at the cost of cellular deregulation. Therefore high biomass is not linked with a good tolerance strategy. In a long-term study the survival of Sa might be compromised making it a poorer candidate for phytoremediation efforts. [less ▲]

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See detailThe A2 gene of alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 is a transcriptional regulator affecting cytotoxicity in virus-infected T cells but is not required for malignant catarrhal fever induction in rabbits.
Parameswaran, Nevi; Dewals, Benjamin G ULg; Giles, Tom C. et al

in Virus research (2014)

Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The A2 gene of AlHV-1 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family. We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene ... [more ▼]

Alcelaphine herpesvirus-1 (AlHV-1) causes malignant catarrhal fever (MCF). The A2 gene of AlHV-1 is a member of the bZIP transcription factor family. We wished to determine whether A2 is a virulence gene or not and whether it is involved in pathogenesis by interference with host transcription pathways. An A2 gene knockout (A2DeltaAlHV-1) virus, revertant (A2revAlHV-1) virus, and wild-type virus (wtAlHV-1) were used to infect three groups of rabbits. A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected rabbits succumbed to MCF, albeit with a delayed onset compared to the control groups, so A2 is not a critical virulence factor. Differential gene transcription analysis by RNAseq and qRT-PCR validation of a selection of these was performed in infected large granular lymphocyte (LGL) T cells obtained in culture from the MCF-affected animals. A2 was involved in the transcriptional regulation of immunological, cell cycle and apoptosis pathways. In particular, there was a bias towards gammadelta T cell receptor (TCR) expression and downregulation of alphabeta TCR. TCR signalling, apoptosis, cell cycle, IFN-gamma and NFAT pathways were affected. Of particular interest was partial inhibition of the cytotoxicity-associated pathways involving perforin and the granzymes A and B in the A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected LGLs compared to controls. In functional assays, A2DeltaAlHV-1-infected LGLs were significantly less cytotoxic than wtAlHV-1- and A2revAlHV-1-infected LGLs using rabbit corneal epithelial cells (SIRC) as targets. This implies that A2 is involved in a pathway enhancing the expression of LGL cytotoxicity. This is important as virus-infected T cell cytotoxicity in vivo has been suggested as a potential mechanism of disease induction in MCF. [less ▲]

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See detailThe PLATO Simulator: modelling of high-precision high-cadence space-based imaging
Marcos-Arenal, P.; Zima, W.; De Ridder, J. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014)

Many aspects of the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in ... [more ▼]

Many aspects of the design trade-off of a space-based instrument and its performance can best be tackled through simulations of the expected observations. The complex interplay of various noise sources in the course of the observations make such simulations an indispensable part of the assessment and design study of any space-based mission. We present a formalism to model and simulate photometric time series of CCD images by including models of the CCD and its electronics, the telescope optics, the stellar field, the jitter movements of the spacecraft, and all important natural noise sources. This formalism has been implemented in a versatile end-to-end simulation software tool, called PLATO Simulator, specifically designed for the PLATO space mission to be operated from L2, but easily adaptable to similar types of missions. We provide a detailed description of several noise sources and discuss their properties, in connection with the optical design, the allowable level of jitter, the quantum efficiency of the detectors, etc. The expected overall noise budget of generated light curves is computed as a function of the stellar magnitude, for different sets of input parameters describing the instrument properties. The simulator is offered to the scientific community for future use. [less ▲]

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See detailRates of CTL Killing in Persistent Viral Infection In Vivo
Elemans, Marjet; Florins, Arnaud; Willems, Luc ULg et al

in PLoS Computational Biology (2014), 4

The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected ... [more ▼]

The CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response is an important defence against viral invasion. Although CTL-mediated cytotoxicity has been widely studied for many years, the rate at which virus-infected cells are killed in vivo by the CTL response is poorly understood. To date the rate of CTL killing in vivo has been estimated for three virus infections but the estimates differ considerably, and killing of HIV-1-infected cells was unexpectedly low. This raises questions about the typical anti-viral capability of CTL and whether CTL killing is abnormally low in HIV-1. We estimated the rate of killing of infected cells by CD8+ T cells in two distinct persistent virus infections: sheep infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) and humans infected with Human T Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) which together with existing data allows us to study a total of five viruses in parallel. Although both BLV and HTLV-1 infection are characterised by large expansions of chronically activated CTL with immediate effector function ex vivo and no evidence of overt immune suppression, our estimates are at the lower end of the reported range. This enables us to put current estimates into perspective and shows that CTL killing of HIV-infected cells may not be atypically low. The estimates at the higher end of the range are obtained in more manipulated systems and may thus represent the potential rather than the realised CTL efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailExploiting SNP Correlations within Random Forest for Genome-Wide Association Studies
Botta, Vincent ULg; Louppe, Gilles ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

The primary goal of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to discover variants that could lead, in isolation or in combination, to a particular trait or disease. Standard approaches to GWAS, however ... [more ▼]

The primary goal of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is to discover variants that could lead, in isolation or in combination, to a particular trait or disease. Standard approaches to GWAS, however, are usually based on univariate hypothesis tests and therefore can account neither for correlations due to linkage disequilibrium nor for combinations of several markers. To discover and leverage such potential multivariate interactions, we propose in this work an extension of the Random Forest algorithm tailored for structured GWAS data. In terms of risk prediction, we show empirically on several GWAS datasets that the proposed T-Trees method significantly outperforms both the original Random Forest algorithm and standard linear models, thereby suggesting the actual existence of multivariate non-linear effects due to the combinations of several SNPs. We also demonstrate that variable importances as derived from our method can help identify relevant loci. Finally, we highlight the strong impact that quality control procedures may have, both in terms of predictive power and loci identification. [less ▲]

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See detailNest grouping patterns of bonobos (Pan paniscus) in relation to fruit availability in a forest-savannah mosaic
Serckx, Adeline ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Bastin, Jean-François ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the ... [more ▼]

A topic of major interest in socio-ecology is the comparison of chimpanzees and bonobos’ grouping patterns. Numerous studies have highlighted the impact of social and environmental factors on the different evolution in group cohesion seen in these sister species. We are still lacking, however, key information about bonobo social traits across their habitat range, in order to make accurate inter-species comparisons. In this study we investigated bonobo social cohesiveness at nesting sites depending on fruit availability in the forest-savannah mosaic of western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a bonobo habitat which has received little attention from researchers and is characterized by high food resource variation within years. We collected data on two bonobo communities. Nest counts at nesting sites were used as a proxy for night grouping patterns and were analysed with regard to fruit availability. We also modelled bonobo population density at the site in order to investigate yearly variation. We found that one community density varied across the three years of surveys, suggesting that this bonobo community has significant variability in use of its home range. This finding highlights the importance of forest connectivity, a likely prerequisite for the ability of bonobos to adapt their ranging patterns to fruit availability changes. We found no influence of overall fruit availability on bonobo cohesiveness. Only fruit availability at the nesting sites showed a positive influence, indicating that bonobos favour food ‘hot spots’ as sleeping sites. Our findings have confirmed the results obtained from previous studies carried out in the dense tropical forests of DRC. Nevertheless, in order to clarify the impact of environmental variability on bonobo social cohesiveness, we will need to make direct observations of the apes in the forest-savannah mosaic as well as make comparisons across the entirety of the bonobos’ range using systematic methodology. [less ▲]

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See detailConceptual metaphors as a tool for the efficient teaching of Dutch and German posture verbs
De Knop, Sabine; Perrez, Julien ULg

in Review of Cognitive Linguistics (2014), 12(1), 1-29

The article deals with the typological differences between the Romance lan- guage French and the Germanic languages German and Dutch for the linguistic expressions of posture and location. It describes ... [more ▼]

The article deals with the typological differences between the Romance lan- guage French and the Germanic languages German and Dutch for the linguistic expressions of posture and location. It describes how these typological differ- ences can be problematic for French-speaking learners of German and Dutch. The main difference between both types of languages is that posture and loca- tion tend to be encoded by posture verbs in Germanic languages and by very general verbs in Romance languages (Talmy 2000). After a detailed description of the semantic networks of the German and Dutch posture verbs, the paper takes a critical look at how these expressions are dealt with in teaching manuals. It further presents strategies for the efficient teaching of posture verbs to foreign language learners. These strategies are among others awareness-raising exercis- es about the compulsory use of posture verbs in Germanic languages and the description of conceptual metaphors in different languages. These pedagogical avenues for the efficient teaching of the Dutch and German posture verbs con- stitute a first step towards the elaboration of an experimental set-up aiming at verifying them. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil organic carbon assessment by field and airborne spectrometry in bare croplands: accounting for soil surface roughness
Denis, Antoine ULg; Stevens, Antoine; Van Wesemael, Bas et al

in Geoderma (2014), 226-227(August 2014), 94102

Visible, Near and Short Wave Infrared (VNSWIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (350 nm to 2500 nm) has been proven to be an efficient tool to determine the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) content. SOC ... [more ▼]

Visible, Near and Short Wave Infrared (VNSWIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (350 nm to 2500 nm) has been proven to be an efficient tool to determine the Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) content. SOC assessment (SOCa) is usually done by using calibration samples and multivariate models. However one of the major constraints of this technique, when used in field conditions is the spatial variation in surface soil properties (soil water content, roughness, vegetation residue) which induces a spectral variability not directly related to SOC and hence reduces the SOCa accuracy. This study focuses on the impact of soil roughness on SOCa by outdoor VIS-NIR-SWIR spectroscopy and is based on the assumption that soil roughness effect can be approximated by its related shadowing effect. A new method for identifying and correcting the effect of soil shadow on reflectance spectra measured with an Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) spectroradiometer and an Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor (AHS-160) on freshly tilled fields in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg was elaborated and tested. This method is based on the shooting of soil vertical photographs in the visible spectrum and the derivation of a shadow correction factor resulting from the comparison of “reflectance” of shadowed and illuminated soil areas. Moreover, the study of laboratory ASD reflectance of shadowed soil samples showed that the influence of shadow on reflectance varies according to wavelength. Consequently a correction factor in the entire [350–2500 nm] spectral range was computed to translate this differential influence. Our results showed that SOCa was improved by 27% for field spectral data and by 25% for airborne spectral data by correcting the effect of soil relative shadow. However, compared to simple mathematical treatment of the spectra (first derivative, etc.) able to remove variation in soil albedo due to roughness, the proposed method, leads only to slightly more accurate SOCa. [less ▲]

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See detailMetabolically healthy overweight and obesity
Esser, Nathalie ULg; SCHEEN, André ULg; PAQUOT, Nicolas ULg

in Annals of Internal Medicine (2014), 160(7), 514

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See detailEpoch-dependent absorption line profile variability in lambda Cep
Uuh-Sonda, J. M.; Rauw, Grégor ULg; Eenens, P. et al

in Revista Mexicana de Astronomia y Astrofisica (2014), 50

We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6 Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star ... [more ▼]

We present the analysis of a multi-epoch spectroscopic monitoring campaign of the O6 Ief star lambda Cep. Previous observations reported the existence of two modes of non-radial pulsations in this star. Our data reveal a much more complex situation. The frequency content of the power spectrum considerably changes from one epoch to the other. We find no stable frequency that can unambiguously be attributed to pulsations. The epoch-dependence of the frequencies and variability patterns are similar to what is seen in the wind emission lines of this and other Oef stars, suggesting that both phenomena likely have the same, currently still unknown, origin. [less ▲]

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See detailExigences administratives et condition suspensive dans la vente immobilière
Kohl, Benoît ULg; Onclin, François ULg

in Revue Critique de Jurisprudence Belge [= RCJB] (2014), (1), 13-55

Cette étude est consacrée à l'utilisation de la condition suspensive en lien avec les exigences administratives, dans la matière spécifique de la vente immobilière. Le foisonnement des exigences de nature ... [more ▼]

Cette étude est consacrée à l'utilisation de la condition suspensive en lien avec les exigences administratives, dans la matière spécifique de la vente immobilière. Le foisonnement des exigences de nature urbanistique, environnementale et énergétique, en lien avec les biens immeubles, pousse les intervenants à la vente de biens immeubles - qu'il s'agisse de particuliers ou de professionnels - à recourir à la modalité de la condition suspensive. Se pose dès lors la question de la validité de cette pratique. Cette contribution suit en réalité un arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 24 février 2011 qui porte sur la conclusion de la vente d'une parcelle, issue de la division d'un bien, sous la condition suspensive de la délivrance d'un permis de lotir. L'étude se divise en deux parties. La première offre un rappel, bien nécessaire, du droit commun. Elle analyse donc les différentes composantes de la condition suspensive. La seconde étudie, de manière plus spécifique, la mise sous condition suspensive de différentes exigences administratives en lien avec la vente immobilière. L'arrêt de la Cour de cassation précité y est notamment commenté. [less ▲]

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See detailNetamines H-N, Tricyclic Alkaloids from the Marine Sponge Biemna laboutei and Their Antimalarial Activity.
Gros, Emmanuelle; Al-Mourabit, Ali; Martin, Marie-Therese et al

in Journal of natural products (2014), 77(4), 818-23

Chemical examination of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the Madagascar sponge Biemna laboutei resulted in the isolation of seven new tricyclic alkaloids, netamines H-N (1-7), along with the known ... [more ▼]

Chemical examination of the CH2Cl2-MeOH (1:1) extract of the Madagascar sponge Biemna laboutei resulted in the isolation of seven new tricyclic alkaloids, netamines H-N (1-7), along with the known netamine G and mirabilins A, C, and F. Their structures were elucidated by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and HRESIMS data. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicity against KB cells and their antiplasmodial activity. Netamine M (6) was found to be cytotoxic, with an IC50 value in the micromolar range, and netamine K (4) exhibited activity against Plasmodium falciparum with an IC50 value of 2.4 muM. [less ▲]

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See detailAircraft Engine Gas Path Diagnostic Methods: Public Benchmarking Results
Simon, Donald; Borguet, Sébastien ULg; Léonard, Olivier ULg et al

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines & Power (2014), 136(4), 041201

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem ... [more ▼]

Recent technology reviews have identified the need for objective assessments of aircraft engine health management (EHM) technologies. To help address this issue, a gas path diagnostic benchmark problem has been created and made publicly available. This software tool, referred to as the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (Pro- DiMES), has been constructed based on feedback provided by the aircraft EHM community. It provides a standard benchmark problem enabling users to develop, evaluate, and compare diagnostic methods. This paper will present an overview of ProDiMES along with a description of four gas path diagnostic methods developed and applied to the problem. These methods, which include analytical and empirical diagnostic techniques, will be described and associated blind-test-case metric results will be presented and compared. Lessons learned along with recommendations for improving the public benchmarking processes will also be presented and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailComparaison des populations de Culicoides Latreille 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) d’une bergerie belge et d’une prairie ovine associée
Zimmer, Jean-Yves ULg; Losson, Bertrand ULg; Saegerman, Claude et al

in Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (2014)

Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors for several pathogens, including the Bluetongue virus and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe ... [more ▼]

Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) serve as biological vectors for several pathogens, including the Bluetongue virus and the recently described Schmallenberg virus in northern Europe. These diseases have caused considerable direct and indirect economic losses to the sheep and cattle industries. This study undertaken between August and December 2007 on a sheep farm in the Namur province (Belgium) aims to evaluate Culicoides populations present inside a partially opened sheepfold and in a nearby sheep meadow, using light traps. The comparative analysis of insects trapped at 18 dates at regular intervals showed that Culicoides were most abundant inside this livestock building (17,450 midges) than in surrounding meadow (1,121 midges); this meadow had however a greater species diversity. The two species C. obsoletus and C. scoticus constituting the Obsoletus complex predominated for all trappings and females were much more numerous than males. Important capture of engorged females of the Obsoletus complex inside the sheepfold seems to reflect the possibility of an opportunistic endophagous behavior. Maintaining sheep inside livestock buildings in order to reduce the risk of Culicoides bites – and thus of pathogens transmission – however requires to limit biting midge populations which are likely to enter or to develop inside these buildings. Implementation of effective sanitation and hygiene measures against midges present inside farms, as well as establishing of measures to protect livestock against intrusion and improvement of “midge-proofing” of animal housing are therefore highly recommended. [less ▲]

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See detailAnimal health and welfare: equivalent or complementary?
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Revue scientifique et technique - Office international des épizooties (2014), 33(1), 91-96

Reflexion about the concepts of "health" and "welfare", applied to domestic animals in comparison with humans.

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See detailValidation analytique d'une méthode chromatographique destinée à rechercher et à identifier les opiacés naturels ou (semi) synthétiques
DUBOIS, Nathalie ULg; Counerotte, Stéphane ULg; Goffin, Eric ULg et al

in Annales de Biologie Clinique (2014), 72(2), 197-206

L’identification de la substance absorbée par un consommateur d’opiacés peut être problématique dans la mesure où il n’existe pas de biomarqueur spécifique pour toutes les molécules. Nous avons développé ... [more ▼]

L’identification de la substance absorbée par un consommateur d’opiacés peut être problématique dans la mesure où il n’existe pas de biomarqueur spécifique pour toutes les molécules. Nous avons développé une technique de chromatographie liquide ultra-haute pression couplée à un spectromètre de masse en tandem qui permet l’identification et le dosage de 25 opiacés dans le plasma. La préparation de l’échantillon consiste en une extraction en phase solide sur colonnes Oasis ® MCX (Waters). La méthode a été validée selon les critères préconisés par la FDA, complètement pour 21 substances et avec quelques réserves pour les 4 produits restants. Cette méthode a été appliquée à 80 patients traités au CHU de Liège pour lesquels la recherche d’opiacés était positive. L’identification du produit consommé a été effective dans 86 % des cas. [less ▲]

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See detailWidespread occurence of expressed fungal secretory peroxydases in forest soils
Kellner, Harald; Luis, Patricia; Pecyna, Marek, J. et al

in PLoS ONE (2014), 9(4),

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See detailThe rewriting ethos of the Vertigo imprint: critical perspectives on memory-making and canon formation in the American comics field
Dony, Christophe ULg

in Comicalités : Études de Culture Graphique (2014)

This essay investigates how and why strategies of rewriting have been central to Vertigo’s poetics and editorial project for over twenty years. Drawing notably on the works of Harold Bloom, Thierry ... [more ▼]

This essay investigates how and why strategies of rewriting have been central to Vertigo’s poetics and editorial project for over twenty years. Drawing notably on the works of Harold Bloom, Thierry Groensteen, and Geoffrey Klock, it first proceeds to establish the relevance of the concept of rewriting as it can be applied to comics (studies), particularly in showing how inter- and hypertextual relations are inherently connected to issues of nostalgia, memory as well as lineage, and therefore to processes of (self-)canonization and discourses of cultural legitimacy. It then moves on to identify some of the label's rewriting trends and discusses how they engage both intro- and retrospectively with the comics form, its history, and its (renewed) perception in the American context. More specifically, in recurrently paying homage to the DC archive, the pulp heritage, as well as to the Gothic tradition, it is my contention that Vertigo has participated in a critical logic of commemoration that distances itself from the mnemonic discourses championed by both the mainstream and alternative poles of the comics industry. In so doing, Vertigo may have attempted to create a canon of its own while certainly challenging Groensteen's claim that comics is an “art without memory”. But perhaps more importantly, the essay concludes that Vertigo's cherishing of specific rewriting strategies has helped it adopt a politics of demarcation in regards to the structuring forces of the American comics field, a politics that not only subverts the field's power relations dynamics but also “writes back” to its practices of domination and exclusion. [less ▲]

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See detailBiased binomial assessment of cross-validated estimation of classification accuracies illustrated in diagnosis predictions
Noirhomme, Quentin ULg; Lesenfants, Damien ULg; Gomez, Francisco et al

in NeuroImage: Clinical (2014), 4

Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a ... [more ▼]

Multivariate classification is used in neuroimaging studies to infer brain activation or in medical applications to infer diagnosis. Their results are often assessed through either a binomial or a permutation test. Here, we simulated classification results of generated random data to assess the influence of the cross-validation scheme on the significance of results. Distributions built from classification of random data with crossvalidation did not follow the binomial distribution. The binomial test is therefore not adapted. On the contrary, the permutation test was unaffected by the cross-validation scheme. The influence of the crossvalidation was further illustrated on real-data from a brain–computer interface experiment in patients with disorders of consciousness and from an fMRI study on patients with Parkinson disease. Three out of 16 patients with disorders of consciousness had significant accuracy on binomial testing, but only one showed significant accuracy using permutation testing. In the fMRI experiment, the mental imagery of gait could discriminate significantly between idiopathic Parkinson’s disease patients and healthy subjects according to the permutation test but not according to the binomial test. Hence, binomial testing could lead to biased estimation of significance and false positive or negative results. In our view, permutation testing is thus recommended for clinical application of classification with cross-validation. [less ▲]

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See detailProjet TADAM: Conclusions scientifiques et recommandations
Lemaître, André ULg; ANSSEAU, Marc ULg; Demaret, Isabelle ULg

in Lettre du RESPADD (2014), (18), 2-4

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See detailInvestigation of the death of calves after epileptiform seizures associated with metabolic disorders
Chevalier, Marine; Lebreton, Pascal; Garnier, Catherine et al

in Cattle Practice (2014), 22(1), 10-16

Death of calves after epileptiform seizures can be caused by metabolic disorders including hypomagnesaemia, although a range of other conditions may also be implicated and therefore also warrant ... [more ▼]

Death of calves after epileptiform seizures can be caused by metabolic disorders including hypomagnesaemia, although a range of other conditions may also be implicated and therefore also warrant investigation. Hypomagnesaemia is primarily observed in herds where calves are fed exclusively with either milk or milk substitute products. Hyperparathyroidism is associated with congestion and hypertrophy of the parathyroid gland and causes both hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. However, its exact aetiology currently remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to explain epileptiform seizures in calves from a cattle herd presenting both deaths and decreased average daily gain (ADG). A Montbeliard herd with calves presenting epileptiform seizures from the age of five weeks was studied. The herd consisted of 39 cows and 46 calves. Tachycardia, nervousness and trampling, violent seizures of tetany lasting approximately 15 minutes were all observed, while opisthotonos was observed in 5 calves. Three of the latter calves died. The remaining calves presented a decreased ADG. Blood and urine biochemical assays were performed on 8 sick calves to determine the aetiology of the clinical signs. The assays revealed normo/hyper-calcaemia, hypophosphataemia and hypomagnesaemia, as well as hypocalciuria, hyperphosphaturia and hypomagnesuria. Deficiencies in iodine, iron and vitamins A, D3 and E were also reported in the herd. These calves could potentially be suffering from hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism results in hypomagnesaemia, hypovitaminosis-A and, on occassion, hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia. This condition can lead to seizures, muscular problems, heart attacks and anorexia. The simultaneous occurrence of hypomagnesaemia, hyperparathyroidism and hypovitaminosis-A has been never described in related research literature. This is, therefore, in all likelihood a new metabolic disorder facing young cattle. Blood and urine biochemical assays are important tools for the detection of this pathological entity in calves. A dosage of parathyroid hormone (PTH) by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) method using a kit suitable for cattle can be used to detect hyperparathyroidism. [less ▲]

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See detailLa relation structure chimique-propriétés physiques des galactomannanes extraits de la caroube
Gillet, Sébastien ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Paquot, Michel ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus Chimie (2014), 17(4),

Carob galactomannan fine chemical structure is closely related to the physical behavior developed in aqueous solution. Three elements of structural characterization are mainly described in the literature ... [more ▼]

Carob galactomannan fine chemical structure is closely related to the physical behavior developed in aqueous solution. Three elements of structural characterization are mainly described in the literature: the degree of galactose substitution, chain length, and galactose units distribution. This review article will attempt to highlight the impact of different structural features on physical properties such as solubility, viscosity, formation of hydrogels or gels in combination with other saccharides. The impact of industrial purification process on the structure and physical properties is also developed. [less ▲]

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See detailEnonciation journalistique et espace public. Une hégémonie pleine de voix ?
Servais, Christine ULg

in Communication (2014), 32(2),

L’auteure examine la manière dont l’espace public est non seulement traversé, mais également divisé et structuré par l’énonciation journalistique. En concevant l’acte d’énonciation comme inachevé, au sens ... [more ▼]

L’auteure examine la manière dont l’espace public est non seulement traversé, mais également divisé et structuré par l’énonciation journalistique. En concevant l’acte d’énonciation comme inachevé, au sens où il ne peut être rapporté à un sujet singulier, elle dirige l’analyse vers la question de la responsabilité et, à partir de là, vers une étude de la réception. L’analyse de trois formes de division à l’œuvre dans l’énonciation médiatique permet de considérer sa complexité dans son rapport à un « nous », présent ou à venir, et par conséquent à une communauté politique. [less ▲]

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See detailTime variations of O2(a1Delta) nightglow spots on the Venus nightside and dynamics of the upper mesosphere
Soret, Lauriane ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Piccioni, Giuseppe et al

in Icarus (2014), 237

The dynamical regime of the Venus upper atmosphere is mainly decomposed into three regions. The first one, located below 65 km of altitude is governed by the retrograde superrotational zonal (RSZ ... [more ▼]

The dynamical regime of the Venus upper atmosphere is mainly decomposed into three regions. The first one, located below 65 km of altitude is governed by the retrograde superrotational zonal (RSZ) circulation. The second region above 130 km is dominated by the subsolar to antisolar (SS–AS) circulation. The dynamics of the transition region in between are still not fully understood. However, the O2(a1D) nightglow emission at 1.27 lm, whose emitting layer is located at 96 km, can be used as a tracer of the dynamics in this transition region and the imaging spectrometer VIRTIS-M on board Venus Express, orbiting Venus since April 2006, acquired a large amount of nadir observations at this wavelength. Several previous studies showed that the O2(a1D) nightglow emission is statistically located near the antisolar point. In this study, individual VIRTIS-M nadir observations have been analyzed to investigate the variability of the phenomenon. Bright patches of 1.27 lm airglow have been extracted from every observation. It appears that the location of the bright patch is highly variable, even though the brightest patches occur near the antisolar point. Nadir observations have also been divided into time series, allowing generating animations to follow the intensity and the displacement of bright patches over time. Apparent wind velocities and characteristic decay/rise times and have been deduced from these time series. The speed of the displacements varies from 0 up to 213 m s 1, with a mean value of 54 m s 1. Owing to the high variability of the direction of the displacements both in the short and the long terms, no clear trend of a global motion at 96 km can be deduced from these observations. The mean decay time is 750 min while the mean rise time is 1550 min. The decay time can be explained as a combination of radiative decay and atomic oxygen transport. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of Biomass-Fuelled Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) Systems Integrated with Subcritical or Transcritical Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs)
Maraver, Daniel; Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Royo, Javier

in Entropy (2014), 16(5), 2433-2453

This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from ... [more ▼]

This work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs), coupled with absorption or adsorption cooling units, for combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) generation from biomass combustion. Results were obtained by modelling with the main aim of providing optimization guidelines for the operating conditions of these types of systems, specifically the subcritical or transcritical ORC, when integrated in a CCHP system to supply typical heating and cooling demands in the tertiary sector. The thermodynamic approach was complemented, to avoid its possible limitations, by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the pump of the ORC. The working fluids considered are: n-pentane, n-heptane, octamethyltrisiloxane, toluene and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane. In addition, the energy and environmental performance of the different optimal CCHP plants was investigated. The optimal plant from the energy and environmental point of view is the one integrated by a toluene recuperative ORC, although it is limited to a development with a turbine type expander. Also, the trigeneration plant could be developed in an energy and environmental efficient way with an n-pentane recuperative ORC and a volumetric type expander. [less ▲]

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See detailLa place et le rôle des médecins généralistes dans le suivi de chirurgie bariatrique en province de Liège
Gaspard, Stéphanie; Ketterer, Frédéric ULg; Belche, Jean-Luc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2014), 69

This paper is concerned with the place and role of general practitioners in the follow-up of patients submitted to bariatric surgery in the province of Liège. The results of the analysis were compared ... [more ▼]

This paper is concerned with the place and role of general practitioners in the follow-up of patients submitted to bariatric surgery in the province of Liège. The results of the analysis were compared with clinical practice guidelines published by the French Haute Autorité de Santé (HAS). Fifteen interviews were conducted with GPs who follow up operated patients. The results highlight the GPs’ wish to fully participate in the follow-up of those patients. Their medical supervision is centered on the HAS clinical practice guidelines, taking into account the intake deficiencies as well as the patient’s psychological experience. However, some aspects are disregarded, mainly because of a lack of theoretical knowledge (some biological parameters, pregnancy and contraception). The short consultation time along with the poor communication with the hospital multidisciplinary team were mentioned as obstacles to a good quality follow-up. Progress is still needed to reach the clinical practice guidelines. However, there is a wish to better collaborate. Organising coordination meetings between professionals along with an early implication of the GP – even before surgery – represent possible solutions. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic precision of PET imaging and functional MRI in disorders of consciousness: a clinical validation study
Stender, Johan; Gosseries, Olivia ULg; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie ULg et al

in Lancet Neurology (2014)

Background: Bedside clinical examinations can have high rates of misdiagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (vegetative state) or minimally conscious state. The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness ... [more ▼]

Background: Bedside clinical examinations can have high rates of misdiagnosis of unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (vegetative state) or minimally conscious state. The diagnostic and prognostic usefulness of neuroimaging-based approaches has not been established in a clinical setting. We did a validation study of two neuroimaging-based diagnostic methods: PET imaging and functional MRI (fMRI). Methods: For this clinical validation study, we included patients referred to the University Hospital of Liège, Belgium, between January, 2008, and June, 2012, who were diagnosed by our unit with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, locked-in syndrome, or minimally conscious state with traumatic or non-traumatic causes. We did repeated standardised clinical assessments with the Coma Recovery Scale—Revised (CRS—R), cerebral 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET, and fMRI during mental activation tasks. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of both imaging methods with CRS—R diagnosis as reference. We assessed outcome after 12 months with the Glasgow Outcome Scale—Extended. Findings: We included 41 patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, four with locked-in syndrome, and 81 in a minimally conscious state (48=traumatic, 78=non-traumatic; 110=chronic, 16=subacute). 18F-FDG PET had high sensitivity for identification of patients in a minimally conscious state (93%, 95% CI 85—98) and high congruence (85%, 77—90) with behavioural CRS—R scores. The active fMRI method was less sensitive at diagnosis of a minimally conscious state (45%, 30—61) and had lower overall congruence with behavioural scores (63%, 51—73) than PET imaging. 18F-FDG PET correctly predicted outcome in 75 of 102 patients (74%, 64—81), and fMRI in 36 of 65 patients (56%, 43—67). 13 of 42 (32%) of the behaviourally unresponsive patients (ie, diagnosed as unresponsive with CRS—R) showed brain activity compatible with (minimal) consciousness (ie, activity associated with consciousness, but diminished compared with fully conscious individuals) on at least one neuroimaging test; 69% of these (9 of 13) patients subsequently recovered consciousness. Interpretation: Cerebral 18F-FDG PET could be used to complement bedside examinations and predict long-term recovery of patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. Active fMRI might also be useful for differential diagnosis, but seems to be less accurate. Funding: The Belgian National Funds for Scientific Research (FNRS), Fonds Léon Fredericq, the European Commission, the James McDonnell Foundation, the Mind Science Foundation, the French Speaking Community Concerted Research Action, the University of Copenhagen, and the University of Liège. [less ▲]

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See detailEnjeux autour des forêts congolaises
Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

in Cahiers africains (2014), 84

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See detailLate Night, la danse de la déperdition
Delhalle, Nancy ULg

in Alternatives Théâtrales (2014), (120),

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See detailDo Consumers Pay More for What They Value More? The Case of Local Milk-based Dairy Products in Senegal
Lefevre, Mélanie ULg

in Agricultural and Resource Economics Review (2014), 43(1), 158-177

Senegalese consumers prefer milk-based dairy products that are local and fresh to ones produced with imported powder. However, prices for fresh-milk-based and powder-based products are not significantly ... [more ▼]

Senegalese consumers prefer milk-based dairy products that are local and fresh to ones produced with imported powder. However, prices for fresh-milk-based and powder-based products are not significantly different. I address this puzzle by first confirming the preference using choice-based conjoint data to evaluate whether Senegalese consumers will pay a significant positive premium for fresh local products. I then identify price determinants using a unique dataset of milk product characteristics. The results verify the Senegalese preference for fresh local dairy products and show that consumers’ misinformation regarding product composition prevents them from allocating a higher price to local milk-based products. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing meltwater discharge from the Nuuk region of the Greenland ice sheet and implications for mass balance (1960-2012)
Van As, D; Andersen, ML; Petersen, D et al

in Journal of Glaciology (2014), 60(220), 314-322

We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region ... [more ▼]

We assess the runoff and surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet in the Nuuk region (southwest) using output of two regional climate models (RCMs) evaluated by observations. The region encompasses six glaciers that drain into Godtha ̊bsfjord. RCM data (1960–2012) are resampled to a high spatial resolution to include the narrow (relative to the native grid spacing) glacier trunks in the ice mask. Comparing RCM gridded results with automatic weather station (AWS) point measurements reveals that locally models can underestimate ablation and overestimate accumulation by up to tens of per cent. However, comparison with lake discharge indicates that modelled regional runoff totals are more accurate. Model results show that melt and runoff in the Nuuk region have doubled over the past two decades. Regional SMB attained negative values in recent high-melt years. Taking into account frontal ablation of the marine-terminating glaciers, the region lost 10–20 km3 w.e. a–1 in 2010–12. If 2010 melting prevails during the remainder of this century, a low-end estimate of sea-level rise of 5 mm is expected by 2100 from this relatively small section (2.6%) of the ice sheet alone. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of vocal loading parameters in kindergarten and elementary school teachers
Remacle, Angélique ULg; Morsomme, Dominique ULg; FINCK, Camille ULg

in Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing research (2014), (406-415),

Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others. This study ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Although a global picture exists of teachers’ voice demands in general, few studies have compared specific groups of teachers to determine whether some are more at risk than others. This study compared vocal loading of kindergarten and elementary school teachers; professional and non-professional vocal load was determined for both groups. Method: Twelve kindergarten and twenty elementary school female teachers without voice problems were monitored during one workweek using the Ambulatory Phonation Monitor. Vocal loading parameters analyzed were F0, SPL, time dose, distance dose and cycle dose. Results: Comparisons between the groups showed significantly higher cycle dose and distance dose for kindergarten teachers than for elementary school teachers, in both professional and non-professional environments. Professional and non-professional voice use comparisons showed significant differences for all parameters, indicating that vocal load was higher in the professional environment for both groups. Conclusions: The higher vocal doses measured in kindergarten teachers suggest that particular attention should be paid to this specific group of teachers. Although non-professional vocal load is lower than professional vocal load, it is important to take both into account because of their cumulative effects. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective breeding of Arabian and Thoroughbred racehorses in Algeria: perceptions, objectives and practices of owners-breeders
Tennah, Safia ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Kafidi, Nacerredine et al

in Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia (2014), 43(4), 188-196

This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a ... [more ▼]

This survey, conducted with 461 racehorse owners-breeders in Algeria between 2009 and 2011, investigates their perceptions, objectives and practices regarding selective breeding. Racehorse breeding is a full-time professional activity for a third of interviewees. The holdings are small-sized with 77% owning one or two mares. The regular practice of mating is here used to categorize breeders according to their degree of professionalization (38.4% professional vs. 61.6% occasional breeders). Experience in the sector was also used to classify breeders, considering as “junior” the breeders under 10 years experience (38.8%) and as “senior” those above 10 years (61.2%). More than professionalization, experience shows a significant impact on practices and objectives. Thus, experience influences breed choice (junior breeders tend to specialize while senior own both Arabian and Thoroughbreds), age at first foaling (sooner among senior breeders), information sources considered for selecting stallions (senior use more diversified sources), the importance granted to the price of mating (greater for junior breeders), the importance granted to the ranking compared to earnings (the ranking being more important to junior breeders), and the priority given to breeding (junior breeders give higher priority to a buy-race-resell activity). Finally, racehorse breeding is poorly professionalized, the only financial goal being cost coverage. Despite inappropriate practices, an interest for selection is noticed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Cour constitutionnelle fait sienne la jurisprudence Zolotoukhine et Ruotsalainen
Kéfer, Fabienne ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2014), (14), 679-683

Si un employeur ou un assuré social a d’abord été poursuivi pénalement, et condamné ou acquitté par un jugement définitif, l’administration devra renoncer à infliger la sanction administrative. Si celle ... [more ▼]

Si un employeur ou un assuré social a d’abord été poursuivi pénalement, et condamné ou acquitté par un jugement définitif, l’administration devra renoncer à infliger la sanction administrative. Si celle-ci est appliquée avant que le juge pénal statue, il se peut que la décision administrative ne soit pas définitive ; en ce cas, le juge pénal reste libre de prononcer une condamnation pénale, ce qui tiendra en échec la sanction administrative. En revanche, si celle-ci a déjà fait l’objet d’une contestation tranchée de manière définitive par un tribunal, ou si, le cas échéant, l’employeur n’a pas formé dans le délai légal une opposition à la contrainte décernée par l’administration, la décision judiciaire ou administrative est une décision définitive au sens de l’article 4 du Protocole n° 7 ; dans ce cas, une condamnation pénale violerait le principe non bis in idem. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of metallurgical size effects on plasticity of thin mettallic materials
Hug, Eric; keller, clement; Habraken, Anne ULg

in Materials Science Forum (2014), 783-786

Three examples involving size effects are presented witj implications concerning the formability: small Ni-20wt.%Cr resistive bridges, magnetic micro-sensors performed with (Ni,Co,Fe)based alloys and ... [more ▼]

Three examples involving size effects are presented witj implications concerning the formability: small Ni-20wt.%Cr resistive bridges, magnetic micro-sensors performed with (Ni,Co,Fe)based alloys and copper clad aluminum thin wires. The mechanical properties are directly linked to the ratio thickness over grain size (t/d ratio) of the parts.These metallurgical considerations must be taken into account when we are concerned by numerical simulation of the process of such components. It is shown that the simulations can correctly reproduce the softening effect linked to a decrease in thickness and in number of grains across the thickness. Finally the effect of a moderate increase in temperature on these results will be briefly reported. [less ▲]

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See detailA computational model for cell/ECM growth on 3D surfaces using the level set method: a bone tissue engineering case study
Guyot, Yann ULg; papantoniou, Ioannis; Chai, Yoke Chin et al

in Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology (2014)

Three dimensional (3D) open porous scaffolds are commonly used in tissue engineering (TE) applications to provide an initial template for cell attachment and subsequent cell growth and construct ... [more ▼]

Three dimensional (3D) open porous scaffolds are commonly used in tissue engineering (TE) applications to provide an initial template for cell attachment and subsequent cell growth and construct development. The macroscopic geometry of the scaffold is key in determining the kinetics of cell growth and thus in vitro ‘tissue’ formation. In this study we developed a computational framework based on the level set methodology to predict curvature-dependent growth of the cell/extracellular matrix domain within TE constructs. Scaffolds with various geometries (hexagonal, square, triangular) and pore sizes (500 and 1000 µm) were produced in house by additive manufacturing, seeded with human periosteum-derived cells and cultured under static conditions for 14 days. Using the projected tissue area as an output measure, the comparison between the experimental and the numerical results demonstrated a good qualitative and quantitative behavior of the framework. The model in its current form is able to provide important spatio-temporal information on final shape and speed of pore-filling of tissue engineered constructs by cells and extracellular matrix during static culture. [less ▲]

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See detailLatitudinal structure of the Venus O2 infrared airglow: A signature of small-scale dynamical processes in the upper atmosphere
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Soret, Lauriane ULg; Piccioni, Giuseppe et al

in Icarus (2014), 236

Images of the nightside limb of Venus have been obtained in the northern hemisphere with the VIRTIS multispectral infrared imager on board Venus Express between April 2006 and October 2008. We analyze the ... [more ▼]

Images of the nightside limb of Venus have been obtained in the northern hemisphere with the VIRTIS multispectral infrared imager on board Venus Express between April 2006 and October 2008. We analyze the latitudinal distribution of the O2(a1D) airglow limb profiles at 1.27 lm to characterize its distribution and variability. We show that the instantaneous structure of the emission is very different from the statistical global view of an enhanced emission near the equator, decreasing in brightness and slightly increasing in altitude toward the poles. The peak intensity of the limb profiles varies by a factor up to 50 between the brightest spots and the darkest regions. The bright airglow spots correspond to regions of enhanced downward flow of oxygen atoms originating from the dayside. Considerable variations in brightness and morphology are observed in the altitude–latitudinal distribution over a 24-h period. Analysis of the limb profiles indicates that secondary airglow peaks located at altitudes higher than the mean value of 96 km are observed on about 30% of the latitudinal cuts, but they are concentrated in narrow latitude areas extending over a few hundred kilometers. Most of them occur in transition regions between two altitude regimes in the 50 to 60 N region, possibly associated with the drop of the cloud top altitude observed equatorward of the ‘‘cold collar’’. We interpret these results as an indication that the strength of vertical transport in this mesosphere–thermosphere transition region is very variable both in location and time. This variability, also observed in nadir airglow images and wind measurements, is a key characteristic of the mesosphere–thermosphere transition region. It may be caused by fluctuations of the global day-to-night circulation generated by gravity waves. We show with a one dimensional model that local enhancements of eddy transport is a possibility. This variability is currently not accounted for by global circulation models that predict a single stable region of enhanced airglow in the vicinity of the antisolar point. [less ▲]

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See detailBrown rust disease control in winter wheat: I. Exploring an approach for disease progression based on night weather conditions
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg

in Environmental Science & Pollution Research (2014), 21(4), 4797-4808

An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The ... [more ▼]

An empirical approach for simulating the infection and progress of leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) during stem elongation on winter wheat was analysed for the 2000 to 2006 growing seasons. The approach was elaborated based on night weather conditions (i.e., air temperature, relative humidity and rainfall) and leaf rust occurrences. Data from three consecutive cropping seasons (2000-2002) at four representative sites of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg were used in the set-up phase. The capability to correctly simulate the occurrence expression of P. triticina infections on the upper leaf layers was then assessed over the 2003-2006 period. Our study revealed that the development of leaf rust required a period of at least 12 consecutive hours with air temperatures ranging between 8 and 16 °C, a relative humidity greater than 60 % (optimal values being 12-16 °C and up to 80 % for air temperatures and relative humidity, respectively) and rainfall less than 1 mm. Moreover, leaf rust occurrences and infections were satisfactorily simulated. The false alarm ratio was ranged from 0.06 to 0.20 in all the study sites. The probability of detection and critical success index for WLR infection were also close to 1 (perfect score). [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular evidence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Belgium
Nahayo, Adrien; Bardiau, Marjorie ULg; Volpe, Rosario ULg et al

in BMC Veterinary Research (2014), 10(80),

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium ... [more ▼]

Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a tick-borne pathogen of veterinary and human importance. Both ticks as vectors and vertebrates as reservoir hosts are essential for the cycle maintenance of this bacterium. Currently, the whole range of animal species reservoirs for A. phagocytophilum in natural environment is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of infection with A. phagocytophilum in the wild boar population in southern Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of aortic stenosis with a self-expanding transcatheter valve: the International Multi-centre ADVANCE Study
Linke, Axel; Wenaweser, Peter; Gerckens, Ulrich et al

in European Heart Journal (2014)

Aim Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an alternative to surgery in higher risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. The aim of the ADVANCE study was to evaluate outcomes following ... [more ▼]

Aim Transcatheter aortic valve implantation has become an alternative to surgery in higher risk patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis. The aim of the ADVANCE study was to evaluate outcomes following implantation of a self-expanding transcatheter aortic valve system in a fully monitored, multi-centre ‘real-world’ patient population in highly experienced centres. Methods and results Patients with severe aortic stenosis at a higher surgical risk inwhomimplantation of theCoreValve Systemwas decided by the Heart Teamwere included. Endpointswere a composite of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE; all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or reintervention) and mortality at 30 days and 1 year. Endpoint- related eventswere independently adjudicated based on Valve AcademicResearch Consortiumdefinitions.Atotal of 1015 patients [mean logistic EuroSCORE 19.4+12.3% [median (Q1,Q3), 16.0% (10.3, 25.3%)], age 81+6 years] were enrolled. Implantation of the CoreValve System led to a significant improvement in haemodynamics and an increase in the effective aortic valve orifice area. At 30 days, theMACCErate was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.3–9.7%), all-cause mortalitywas 4.5% (3.2–5.8%), cardiovascular mortality was 3.4% (2.3–4.6%), and the rate of stroke was 3.0% (2.0–4.1%). The lifethreatening or disabling bleeding rate was 4.0% (2.8–6.3%). The 12-month rates of MACCE, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and stroke were 21.2% (18.4–24.1%), 17.9% (15.2–20.5%), 11.7% (9.4–14.1%), and 4.5% (2.9–6.1%), respectively. The 12-month rates of all-cause mortality were 11.1, 16.5, and 23.6% among patients with a logistic Euro- SCORE ≤10%, EuroSCORE 10–20%, and EuroSCORE .20% (P , 0.05), respectively. Conclusion The ADVANCE study demonstrates the safety and effectiveness of the CoreValve System with low mortality and stroke rates in higher risk real-world patients with severe aortic stenosis. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometrical guidance and trapping transition of human sperm cells
Guidobaldi, Alejandro; Jeyaram, Yogesh; Berdakin, Ivan et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2014), 89

The guidance of human sperm cells under con finement in quasi 2D microchambers is investigated using a purely physical method to control their distribution. Transport property measurements and simulations ... [more ▼]

The guidance of human sperm cells under con finement in quasi 2D microchambers is investigated using a purely physical method to control their distribution. Transport property measurements and simulations are performed with diluted sperm populations, for which eff ects of geometrical guidance and concentration are studied in detail. In particular, a trapping transition at convex angular wall features is identi ed and analyzed. We also show that highly efficient microratchets can be fabricated by using curved asymmetric obstacles to take advantage of the spermatozoa specifi c swimming strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailSimulation of spatial and temporal trends in nitrate concentrations at the regional scale in the Upper Dyle basin, Belgium
César, Emilie; Wildemeersch, Samuel ULg; Orban, Philippe ULg et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2014), 22

Models are the only tools capable of predicting the evolution of groundwater systems at a regional scale in taking into account a large amount of information. This study presents the association of a ... [more ▼]

Models are the only tools capable of predicting the evolution of groundwater systems at a regional scale in taking into account a large amount of information. This study presents the association of a water balance model (WetSpass) with a groundwater flow and solute transport model (SUFT3D, « Saturated and Unsaturated Flow and Transport in 3D ») in order to simulate the present and future groundwater quality in terms of nitrate in the Upper Dyle basin (439 km², Belgium). The HFEMC (« Hybrid Finite Element Mixing Cell ») method implemented in the SUFT3D code is used to model groundwater flow and nitrate transport. A spatially-distributed recharge modelled with WetSpass is considered for prescribing the recharge to the groundwater flow model. The feasibility of linking WetSpass model with the finite-elements SUFT3D code is demonstrated. Time evolution and distribution of nitrate concentration are then simulated using the calibrated model. Nitrate inputs are spatially-distributed according to land use. The spatial simulations and temporal trends are compared with previously published data on this aquifer and show good results. [less ▲]

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See detailAdding Value to Agricultural Products and Agrifood Byproducts by Highlighting Functional Ingredients
Besbes, Souhail; Besbes, Souhail; Attia, Hamadi et al

in Journal of Chemistry (2014), 2014(848231), 1-2

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See detailNIMEFI: Gene Regulatory Network Inference using Multiple Ensemble Feature Importance Algorithms
Ruyssinck, Joeri; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2014)

One of the long-standing open challenges in computational systems biology is the topology inference of gene regulatory networks from high-throughput omics data. Recently, two community-wide efforts ... [more ▼]

One of the long-standing open challenges in computational systems biology is the topology inference of gene regulatory networks from high-throughput omics data. Recently, two community-wide efforts, DREAM4 and DREAM5, have been established to benchmark network inference techniques using gene expression measurements. In these challenges the overall top performer was the GENIE3 algorithm. This method decomposes the network inference task into separate regression problems for each gene in the network in which the expression values of a particular target gene are predicted using all other genes as possible predictors. Next, using tree-based ensemble methods, an importance measure for each predictor gene is calculated with respect to the target gene and a high feature importance is considered as putative evidence of a regulatory link existing between both genes. The contribution of this work is twofold. First, we generalize the regression decomposition strategy of GENIE3 to other feature importance methods. We compare the performance of support vector regression, the elastic net, random forest regression, symbolic regression and their ensemble variants in this setting to the original GENIE3 algorithm. To create the ensemble variants, we propose a subsampling approach which allows us to cast any feature selection algorithm that produces a feature ranking into an ensemble feature importance algorithm. We demonstrate that the ensemble setting is key to the network inference task, as only ensemble variants achieve top performance. As second contribution, we explore the effect of using rankwise averaged predictions of multiple ensemble algorithms as opposed to only one. We name this approach NIMEFI (Network Inference using Multiple Ensemble Feature Importance algorithms) and show that this approach outperforms all individual methods in general, although on a specific network a single method can perform better. An implementation of NIMEFI has been made publicly available. [less ▲]

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See detailSur quelles connaissances se baser pour évaluer l’état de santé des populations de truite commune (Salmo trutta)?
Gouraud, Véronique; Baran, Philippe; Bardonnet, Agnès et al

in Hydroécologie appliquée (2014)

Le retour au premier plan de la notion de santé des écosystèmes met en évidence la préoccupation de la société à mettre en oeuvre des mesures pour la protection des milieux anthropisés. Les critères ... [more ▼]

Le retour au premier plan de la notion de santé des écosystèmes met en évidence la préoccupation de la société à mettre en oeuvre des mesures pour la protection des milieux anthropisés. Les critères d’évaluation de la santé des peuplements piscicoles mis en oeuvre sont rarement débattus au sein de la communauté scientifique. L’exercice proposé ici devait permettre d’avoir ce débat sur la truite commune (Salmo trutta), espèce phare des cours d’eau situés en tête de bassin, qui représentent la majorité du réseau hydrographique français. La démarche visait à recueillir la conception qu’avait un nombre restreint d’experts, sur le fonctionnement de ces populations et sur les critères d’évaluation de leur fonctionnement. Les paramètres clé régulant chaque stade de développement ont été identifiés et hiérarchisés. Unconsensus s’est dégagé sur le fait que, dans l’état actuel des connaissances, le diagnostic peut être établi sur la base de l’analyse des paramètres abiotiques essentiels pour la biologie et, plus difficilement, sur l’analyse des paramètres biotiques. Pour tous les stades de développement, les paramètres identifiés sont liés à l’habitat (qualité du substrat, conditions hydrauliques, température et qualité de l’eau), l’hydrologie et la connectivité. Des connaissances demandent d’être acquises pour définir des critères biologiques. Cela implique de renforcer la surveillance biologique à long terme et les actions de recherche pour caractériser la variabilité des paramètres biologiques et identifier les échelles spatio-temporelles pertinentes et les processus fonctionnels. [less ▲]

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See detailWhy do heroin users refuse to participate in a heroin-assisted treatment trial?
Demaret, Isabelle ULg; Litran, Géraldine; Magoga, Cécile et al

in Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems (2014), Epub ahead of print, March 22, 2014

Background: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts who are resistant to other treatments. However, in a new HAT trial in Belgium, fewer subjects than expected were ... [more ▼]

Background: Heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) can improve the condition of heroin addicts who are resistant to other treatments. However, in a new HAT trial in Belgium, fewer subjects than expected were included. Aim: Our research team explored the reasons given by heroin users in explaining why they did not want to participate. Methods: In 2011, during the trial recruitment, we interviewed heroin users (n=52) who never took the opportunity to meet the research team during the recruitment process preceding the trial. Results: Of those 52 heroin users, 25 were afraid of the limited length of the HAT and 11 feared becoming more dependent as a result of HAT. Conclusion: A trial that was planned to last for a limited length of time may have demotivated heroin users who could otherwise have benefited from this new programme. [less ▲]

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See detailApport du traitement d'images dans le suivi de l'influence des teneurs en nutriments sur la croissance des lentilles d'eau (Lemna minor)
Tangou Tabou, Thierry ULg; Baya, Dehenould Trésor; Liady, Mouhamadou Nourou Dine ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18(1), 37-48

The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) is an important component in the process in wasterwater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ... [more ▼]

The growth of duckweed (Lemna minor) is an important component in the process in wasterwater floating macrophyte ponds. An excess or shortage of this biomass may be responsible for the dysfunction of such ponds. Modeling these duckweed ponds through mass balances based on Petersen's matrix may be helpful in facilitating the optimal management of such facilities. This study sought at assessing the efficiency of digital image processing in the growth monitoring of Lemna minor under different concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus. The experiments were carried out in a growth chamber (phytotron) using an experimental pilot involving initial fresh Lemna minor biomass (1 g), nitrogen and phosphorus concentration varying between 5 and 64 mg N-NH4+.L-1, and 1 and 24 mg P-PO43-.L-1, respectively. The digital image processing was achieved in addition to gravimetric methods (fresh weight and/or dry weight). Our results showed that image processing method allowed a continuous and non destructive monitoring of duckweeds biomass. The growth of Lemna minor progressively decreases when nitrogen and phosphorus were greater than 16 mg N-NH4+.L-1 and 6 mg P-PO43-.L-1. The maximum growth rate μmax are of the order of 0.07 d-1, the kinetic constants Ks and Ki are respectively 3.83 mg.L-1 and 204 mg L-1 for nitrogen, 1.26 mg.L-1 and 13.3 mg.L-1 for phosphorus. Such results are interesting as they could serve in the optimal management of Lemna minor and the modeling of biological reactors. [less ▲]

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See detailCFD-based Compartment model for description of mixing in bioreactors
Delafosse, Angélique ULg; Calvo, Sébastien ULg; Collignon, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Chemical Engineering Science (2014), 106

In most bioprocesses, it is fundamental to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. Computational Fluid Dynamics can ... [more ▼]

In most bioprocesses, it is fundamental to accurately predict the hydrodynamics behavior of bioreactors of different size and its interaction with the biological reaction. Computational Fluid Dynamics can provide detailed modeling about hydrodynamics and mixing. However, it is computationally intensive, especially when reactions are taken into account. Another way to predict hydrodynamics is the use of “Compartment” or “Network-of-zones” model which are much less demanding in computation time than CFD. However, compartments and fluxes between them are often defined by considering global quantities not representative of the flow complexity. To overcome the limitations of these two methods, a solution is to combine compartment modeling and CFD simulations. The aim of this study is to propose a compartment model where the flow rates between two adjacent compartments are easily computed from the velocity fields obtained by CFD. The mixing evolution predicted by the CFD-based compartment model have been then compared with mixing experiment results. Unlike a CFD mixing simulation and a classical compartment model, the CFD-based compartment model proposed in this work reproduces with a good accuracy the spatial distribution of concentrations during the mixing process and this, without any adjustable parameters. [less ▲]

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See detailSystematic optimization of subcritical and transcritical organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) constrained by technical parameters in multiple applications
Maraver, Daniel; Royo, Javier; Lemort, Vincent ULg et al

in Applied Energy (2014), 117

The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil ... [more ▼]

The present work is focused on the thermodynamic optimization of organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) for power generation and CHP from different average heat source profiles (waste heat recovery, thermal oil for cogeneration and geothermal). The general goal is to provide optimization guidelines for a wide range of operating conditions, for subcritical and transcritical, regenerative and non-regenerative cycles. A parameter assessment of the main equipment in the cycle (expander, heat exchangers and feed pump) was also carried out. An optimization model of the ORC (available as an electronic annex) is proposed to predict the best cycle performance (subcritical or transcritical), in terms of its exergy efficiency, with different working fluids. The working fluids considered are those most commonly used in commercial ORC units (R134a, R245fa, Solkatherm, n-Pentane, Octamethyltrisiloxane and Toluene). The optimal working fluid and operating conditions from a purely thermodynamic approach are limited by the technological constraints of the expander, the heat exchangers and the feed pump. Hence, a complementary assessment of both approaches is more adequate to obtain some preliminary design guidelines for ORC units. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of the magnetic penetration depth in a superconducting Pb film
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Raes, Bart; Van de Vondel, Joris et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2014), 115(10), 103906

By means of scanning Hall probe microscopy technique we accurately map the magnetic field pattern produced by Meissner screening currents in a thin superconducting Pb stripe. The obtained field profile ... [more ▼]

By means of scanning Hall probe microscopy technique we accurately map the magnetic field pattern produced by Meissner screening currents in a thin superconducting Pb stripe. The obtained field profile allows us to quantitatively estimate the Pearl length Λ without the need of pre-calibrating the Hall sensor. This fact contrasts with the information acquired through the spatial field dependence of an individual flux quantum where the scanning height and the magnetic penetration depth combine in a single inseparable parameter. The derived London penetration depth λL coincides with the values previously reported for bulk Pb once the kinetic suppression of the order parameter is properly taken into account. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging: First step for the determination of an impurity in a pharmaceutical model
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Dumont, Elodie ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2014), 90

This publication reports, for the first time, the development of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging (SER-CI). A pharmaceutical model presented as tablets based on ... [more ▼]

This publication reports, for the first time, the development of a quantitative approach using surface-enhanced Raman chemical imaging (SER-CI). A pharmaceutical model presented as tablets based on paracetamol, which is the most sold drug around the world, was used to develop this approach. 4-Aminophenol is the main impurity of paracetamol and is actively researched in pharmaceutical formulations because of its toxicity. As its concentration is generally very low (<0.1%, w/w), conventional Raman chemical imaging cannot be used. In this context, a SER-CI method was developed to quantify 4-aminophenol assessing a limit of quantification below its limit of specification of 1000 ppm. Citrate-reduced silver nanoparticles were used as SERS substrate and these nanoparticles were functionalized using 1-butanethiol. Different ways to cover the tablets surface by butanethiol-functionalized silver nanoparticles were tested and a homogeneity study of the silver nanoparticles covering was realized. This homogeneity study was performed in order to choose the best way to cover the surface of tablets by silver colloid. Afterwards, the optimization of the SER-CI approach was necessary and different spectral intensity normalizations were tested. Finally, a quantitative approach using SER-CI was developed enabling to quantify 4-aminophenol from 0.025% to 0.2% in paracetamol tablets. This quantitative approach was tested on two different series of tablets using different batches of silver nanoparticles. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall impact of surrounding oceanic conditions on 2007–2012 Greenland Ice Sheet surface mass balance
Noel, Brice; Fettweis, Xavier ULg; van de Berg, W.J. et al

in Cryosphere Discussions (The) (2014), 8

During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North ... [more ▼]

During recent summers (2007–2012), several surface melt records were broken over the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). The extreme summer melt resulted in part from a persistent negative phase of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), favouring warmer than normal conditions over the GrIS. In addition, it has been suggested that significant anomalies in sea ice cover (SIC) and sea surface temperature (SST) may partially explain recent anomalous GrIS surface melt. To assess the impact of 2007–2012 SIC and SST anomalies on GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), a set of sensitivity experiments was carried out with the regional climate model MAR. These simulations suggest that changes in SST and SIC in the seas surrounding Greenland do not significantly impact GrIS SMB, due to the katabatic winds blocking effect. These winds are strong enough to prevent oceanic near-surface air, influenced by SIC and SST variability, from penetrating far inland. Therefore, the ice sheet SMB response is restricted to coastal regions, where katabatic winds are weaker. However, anomalies in SIC and SST could have indirectly affected the surface melt by changing the general circulation in the North Atlantic region, favouring more frequent warm air advection to the GrIS. [less ▲]

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See detailThe yellow hypergiant HR 5171 A: Resolving a massive interacting binary in the common envelope phase
Chesneau, O.; Meilland, A.; Chapellier, E. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 563

Context. Only a few stars are caught in the very brief and often crucial stages when they quickly traverse the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and none has yet been spatially resolved in the mass transfer ... [more ▼]

Context. Only a few stars are caught in the very brief and often crucial stages when they quickly traverse the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and none has yet been spatially resolved in the mass transfer phase. Aims: We initiated long-term optical interferometry monitoring of the diameters of massive and unstable yellow hypergiants (YHG) with the goal of detecting both the long-term evolution of their radius and shorter term formation of a possible pseudo-photosphere related to proposed large mass-loss events. Methods: We observed HR 5171 A with AMBER/VLTI. We also examined archival photometric data in the visual and near-IR spanning more than 60 years, as well as sparse spectroscopic data. Results: HR 5171 Aexhibits a complex appearance. Our AMBER data reveal a surprisingly large star for a YHG R∗ = 1315 ± 260R⊙ (or ~6.1 AU) at the distance of 3.6 ± 0.5 kpc. The source is surrounded by an extended nebulosity, and these data also show a large level of asymmetry in the brightness distribution of the system, which we attribute to a newly discovered companion star located in front of the primary star. The companion's signature is also detected in the visual photometry, which indicates an orbital period of Porb = 1304 ± 6 d. Modeling the light curve with the NIGHTFALL program provides clear evidence that the system is a contact or possibly over-contact eclipsing binary. A total current system mass of 39^+40_-22 M⊙ and a high mass ratio q ≥ 10 is inferred for the system. Conclusions: The low-mass companion of HR 5171 is very close to the primary star that is embedded within its dense wind. Tight constraints on the inclination and vsini of the primary are lacking, which prevents us from determining its influence precisely on the mass-loss phenomenon, but the system is probably experiencing a wind Roche-Lobe overflow. Depending on the amount of angular momentum that can be transferred to the stellar envelope, HR 5171 A may become a fast-rotating B[e]/luminous blue variable/Wolf-Rayet star. In any case, HR 5171 A highlights the possible importance of binaries for interpreting the unstable YHGs and for massive star evolution in general. [less ▲]

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See detailImpacts of earthworms on soil components and dynamics. A review
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Colinet, Gilles ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2014), 18

Earthworm populations are important decomposers contributing to aggregate formation and nutrient cycling processes involving nitrogen cycles, phosphorus and carbon. They are known to influence soil ... [more ▼]

Earthworm populations are important decomposers contributing to aggregate formation and nutrient cycling processes involving nitrogen cycles, phosphorus and carbon. They are known to influence soil fertility by participating to important processes in soil such as soil structure regulation and organic matter dynamics. Earthworms also modify the microbial communities through digestion, stimulation and dispersion in casts. Consequently, changes in the activities of earthworm communities, as a result of soil management practices, can also be used as indicators of soil fertility and quality. It is therefore important to understand how earthworm communities affect soil dynamics. This review adresses the current state of knowledge on earthworm’s impacts on soil structure and soil organic matter (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) dynamics, with special emphasis on the effects of land management practices on earthworm communities. [less ▲]

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See detailIntroduction : Visions du Paradis/Visions of paradise
Melice, Anne ULg; Van Wolputte, Steven; Pype, Katrien

in Social Compass (2014), 61 (1)

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See detailMode identification based on time-series spectrophotometry for the bright rapid sdB pulsator EC 01541-1409
Randall, Suzanna K; Fontaine, Gilles; Geier, Stephan et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2014), 563

We present an analysis of time-resolved spectrophotometry gathered with FORS/VLT for the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf EC 01541-1409 with the aim of identifying the degree index ℓ of the larger ... [more ▼]

We present an analysis of time-resolved spectrophotometry gathered with FORS/VLT for the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarf EC 01541-1409 with the aim of identifying the degree index ℓ of the larger amplitude modes. This mode identification can be extremely useful in detailed searches for viable asteroseismic models in parameter space, and can be crucial for testing the validity of a solution a posteriori. To achieve it, we exploit the ℓ-dependence of the monochromatic amplitude, phase, and velocity-to-amplitude ratio of a mode as a function of wavelength. We use the ℓ-sensitive phase lag between the flux perturbation and the radial velocity as an additional diagnostic tool. On this basis, we are able to unambiguously identify the dominant 140.5 s pulsation of our target as a radial mode, and the second-highest amplitude periodicity at 145.8 s as an ℓ = 2 mode. We further exploit the exceptionally high-sensitivity data that we gathered for the dominant mode to infer modal properties that are usually quite difficult to estimate in sdB pulsators, namely the physical values of the dimensionless radius, temperature, and surface gravity perturbations. [less ▲]

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See detailClimatological study of ionospheric irregularities over the European mid-latitude sector with GPS
Wautelet, Gilles ULg; Warnant, René ULg

in Journal of Geodesy (2014), 88(3), 223-240

High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements ... [more ▼]

High-frequency variability of the ionosphere, or irregularities, constitutes the main threat for real-time precise positioning techniques based on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements. Indeed, during periods of enhanced ionospheric variability, GNSS users in the field – who cannot verify the integrity of their measurements – will experience positioning errors that can reach several decimeters, while the nominal accuracy of the technique is cm-level. In the frame of this paper, a climatological analysis of irregularities over the European mid-latitude region is presented. Based on a ten year GPS dataset over Belgium, the work analyzes the occurrence rate (as a function of the solar cycle, season and local time) as well as the amplitude of ionospheric irregularities observed at a single GPS station. The study covers irregularities either due to space weather events (solar origin) or of terrestrial origin. If space weather irregularities are responsible for the largest effects in terms of ionospheric error, their occurrence rate highly depends on solar activity. Indeed, the occurrence rate of ionospheric irregularities is about 9% during solar maximum, whereas it drops to about 0% during medium or low solar activity periods. Medium-Scale Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs) occurring during daytime in autumn/winter are the most recurrent pattern of the time series, with yearly proportions slightly varying with the solar cycle and an amplitude of about 10% of the TEC background. Another recurrent irregularity type, though less frequent than MSTIDs, is the noise-like variability in TEC observed during summer nighttime, under quiet geomagnetic conditions. These summer nighttime irregularities exhibit amplitudes ranging between 8 and 15% of the TEC background. [less ▲]

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See detailLéopold Ier et la religion catholique (1831-1865). L’opium d’un Roi ?
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Trésor de Liège : Bulletin trimestriel (2014), 38

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See detailA differential Lyapunov framework for contraction analysis
Forni, Fulvio ULg; Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2014), 59(3), 614-628

Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to ... [more ▼]

Lyapunov's second theorem is an essential tool for stability analysis of differential equations. The paper provides an analog theorem for incremental stability analysis by lifting the Lyapunov function to the tangent bundle. The Lyapunov function endows the state-space with a Finsler structure. Incremental stability is inferred from infinitesimal contraction of the Finsler metrics through integration along solutions curves. [less ▲]

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See detailPourquoi tant de richesse? Dossier Reliques & reliquaires
George, Philippe ULg

in Arts Sacrés (2014), 28

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