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See detailSystemic nitroglycerin increases nNOS levels in rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis.
Pardutz, A.; Krizbai, I.; Multon, Sylvie ULg et al

in Neuroreport (2000), 11(14), 3071-5

Systemic administration of nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide donor, triggers in migraineurs a delayed attack of unknown mechanisms. Subcutaneous nitroglycerin (10 mg/kg) produced a significant increase of ... [more ▼]

Systemic administration of nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide donor, triggers in migraineurs a delayed attack of unknown mechanisms. Subcutaneous nitroglycerin (10 mg/kg) produced a significant increase of nitric oxide synthase (NOS)- and c-fos-immunoreactive neurons in the cervical part of trigeminal nucleus caudalis in rats after 4 h. This effect was not observed in the thoracic dorsal horn. Similar increase of NOS and c-fos was obtained in the brain stem after a somatic nociceptive stimulus, i.e. on the side of the formalin injection in the lip. Nitric oxide is thus able to increase NOS availability in second order nociceptive trigeminal neurons, which may be relevant for central sensitization and the understanding of its effect in migraine. [less ▲]

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See detailL'antibiothérapie en néonatalogie: mise-au-point
Langhendries, JP; Kalenga, Masendu ULg; Battisti, Oreste ULg et al

in Journal du Pédiatre Belge (2000), 2

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See detailSm-Nd isotope systematics in deep-sea sediments: clay-size versus coarser fractions
Innocent, C.; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Hillaire-Marcel, C.

in Marine Geology (2000), 168(1-4), 79-87

Sm-Nd studies were carried out on Last Glacial and Holocene sediments from the Labrador Sea. Three grain-size fractions were analyzed for each sediment: the clay-size fraction (<2 mu m), the fine cohesive ... [more ▼]

Sm-Nd studies were carried out on Last Glacial and Holocene sediments from the Labrador Sea. Three grain-size fractions were analyzed for each sediment: the clay-size fraction (<2 mu m), the fine cohesive silts (2-10 mu m) and the coarse silts (10-63 mu m) In most cases, Sm-Nd signatures are different from one grain-size to another. In addition, different Sm-Nd signatures are derived from the clay-size fractions compared to the cohesive silt fraction, indicating that the cohesive fraction is heterogeneous and that distinct origins in terms of source-areas are implied. Silt fractions record the influence of supplies from the North American Precambrian Shield, whereas clay-size fractions (<2 mu m) are more sensitive to sedimentary input from the Eastern Basins, in relation with deep currents. Coupling Sm-Nd studies on silt and clay fractions may be a powerful tool to unravel the evolution of deep circulations versus detrital supplies. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFirst insights into the molecular basis of pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands.
Voz, Marianne ULg; Van de Ven, W. J.; Kas, K.

in Advances in Dental Research (2000), 14

Pleomorphic adenoma, or mixed tumor of the salivary glands, is a benign tumor originating from the major and minor salivary glands. Eighty-five percent of these tumors are found in the parotid gland, 10 ... [more ▼]

Pleomorphic adenoma, or mixed tumor of the salivary glands, is a benign tumor originating from the major and minor salivary glands. Eighty-five percent of these tumors are found in the parotid gland, 10% in the minor (sublingual) salivary glands, and 5% in the submandibular gland. It is the most common type of salivary gland tumor, accounting for almost 50% of all neoplasms in these organs. In fact, after the first observation of recurrent loss of chromosome 22 in meningioma, this was the second type of benign tumor for which non-random chromosomal changes were reported. The rate of malignant change with the potential to metastasize has been reported to be only 2 to 3%, and only a few cases of metastasizing pleomorphic salivary gland adenomas have been described to date. The fact that these tumors arise in organs located in an ontogenetic transitional zone, a region where endoderm and ectoderm meet, might be one of the reasons for the often-problematic histopathological classification. This type of benign tumor has been cytogenetically very well-characterized, with several hundreds of tumors karyotyped. In addition to the cytogenetic subgroup with an apparently normal diploid stemline (making up approximately 30% of the cases), three major cytogenetic subgroups can be distinguished. In addition to a subgroup showing non-recurrent clonal abnormalities, another subgroup is various translocations involving 12q15. By far the largest cytogenetic subgroup, however, consists of tumors with chromosome 8 abnormalities, mainly showing translocations involving region 8q12. The most frequently encountered aberration in this group is a t(3;8)(p21;q12). [less ▲]

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See detailOn the scalar meson exchange in the baryon spectra
Stassart, Pierre ULg; Stancu, Floarea ULg; Richard, J. M. et al

in Journal of Physics : G Nuclear & Particle Physics (2000), G26

We explore the role of a scalar meson exchange interaction between quarks in a semirelativistic constituent quark model where the quarks are also subject to a linear confinement. We study how the spectrum ... [more ▼]

We explore the role of a scalar meson exchange interaction between quarks in a semirelativistic constituent quark model where the quarks are also subject to a linear confinement. We study how the spectrum evolves when the strength of the scalar meson exchange increases. Our results are relevant to the long-standing problem of the relative position of the first positive-parity (Roper resonance) and the first orbitally excited states in the baryon spectrum. [less ▲]

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See detailHamstring muscle tear with recurrent complaints: An isokinetic profile
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2000), 8(3), 175-180

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See detailGeochemistry of granitoids from the south Carpathians: A review
Berza, Tudor; Andar, Petre; Tatu, Mihai et al

in Anuarul Institutului Geologic al României (2000), 71

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See detailAb initio study of organic mixed valency
Dehareng, Dominique ULg; Dive, Georges ULg; Moradpour, Alec

in International Journal of Quantum Chemistry (2000), 76(4), 552-573

A series of six radical cations of the type (D-L-B)(+) was investigated at the ab initio unrestricted Hartree-Fock level. One localized and one delocalized conformation were systematically searched by ... [more ▼]

A series of six radical cations of the type (D-L-B)(+) was investigated at the ab initio unrestricted Hartree-Fock level. One localized and one delocalized conformation were systematically searched by full geometry optimization At both nuclear arrangements, mostly found as being minima in the symmetry-restrained Hartree-Fock framework, excitation energies were calculated through the expansion of the wave function on single electronic excitations of the Hart ee-Fock fundamental determinant and at the unrestricted Hartree-Fock or at the multiconfigurational self consistent field levels. Few calculations were also performed by taking into account some part of the electronic correlation. Except for N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl p-phenylenediamine, all the studied compounds are localized stable cations, at the symmetry-restrained Hartree-Fock level. However, the reoptimization of their wave function changes this observation since only three of them seem to conserve a localized stable conformation. Most of the studied systems are characterized by one or two excited electronic states very dose to the fundamental one and should thus present an unresolved broadened first absorption band in the near-infrared region These features are in agreement with the available experimental data. Strong Hartree-Fock instabilities are found for the delocalized structure and put in relation with the existence of the large nonadiabatic coupling in this conformational region. The solvent influence is discussed in the Onsager dipolar reaction field framework. (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailLimited effects of placental and pituitary growth hormone on cytokine expression in vitro
Thellin, Olivier ULg; Coumans, Bernard ULg; Devos, Sébastien ULg et al

in European Cytokine Network (2000), 11(3), 452-455

The hypothesis that growth hormone (GH) can affect immune responses in man has been evaluated by monitoring cytokine expression in cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, by enzyme-linked ... [more ▼]

The hypothesis that growth hormone (GH) can affect immune responses in man has been evaluated by monitoring cytokine expression in cultures from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ribonuclease protection assay, and in tonsillar cells by ELISA. In addition to pituitary GH (GH-N), the placental form (GH-V), differing from pituitary GH by 13 amino acids has also been tested. Only few effects reached statistical significance and were in no case greater than 15%. Pituitary GH slightly reduced IL-5 production and stimulated IFN-gamma production. The latter effect was also observed with prolactin and could thus be induced through the prolactin receptor. It is proposed that GH has no strong effects on the parameters investigated, possibly as a result of redundancy in the cytokine network. Alternatively, effects on leukocytes are mediated by other tissues such as the liver or are clear only in response to stronger challenges. [less ▲]

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See detailSeismic hazard in the Sea of Marmara following the Izmit Earthquake
Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Barka, Aykut; Jacques, Eric et al

in Nature (2000), 404

On 17 August 1999, a destructive magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred 100 km east of Istanbul, near the city of Izmit, on the North Anatolian fault. This 1,600-km-long plate boundary1,2 slips at an average ... [more ▼]

On 17 August 1999, a destructive magnitude 7.4 earthquake occurred 100 km east of Istanbul, near the city of Izmit, on the North Anatolian fault. This 1,600-km-long plate boundary1,2 slips at an average rate of 2–3 cm yr−1 (refs 3–5), and historically has been the site of many devastating earthquakes6,7. This century alone it has ruptured over 900 km of its length6. Models of earthquake-induced stress change8 combined with active fault maps9 had been used to forecast that the epicentral area of the 1999 Izmit event was indeed a likely location for the occurrence of a large earthquake9,10. Here we show that the 1999 event itself significantly modifies the stress distribution resulting from pre- vious fault interactions9,10. Our new stress models take into account all events in the region with magnitudes greater than 6 having occurred since 1700 (ref. 7) as well as secular interseismic stress change, constrained by GPS data11. These models provide a consistent picture of the long term spatio–temporal behaviour of the North Anatolian fault and indicate that two events of magnitude equal to, or greater than, the Izmit earthquake are likely to occur within the next decades beneath the Marmara Sea, south of Istanbul. [less ▲]

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See detailLes orfèvres mosans devant l'histoire (XIe-XIIIe siècle)
George, Philippe ULg; Stiennon, Jacques ULg; Kupper, Jean-Louis ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Le Vieux-Liège (2000)

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See detailPatologia hipofisaria y NEM-1
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Betea, Daniela ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Revista Argentina de Endocrinologia y Metabolismo (2000), 37(3), 181-193

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas and the anterior pituitary gland. Recently the ... [more ▼]

Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid glands, the endocrine pancreas and the anterior pituitary gland. Recently the identification on chromosome 11 (locus q13) of the gene responsible for MEN 1 has allowed direct genetic diagnosis of MEN 1-affected family members. To date almost 300 families have been described and genetically characterized. The genetic etiology of most pituitary tumours remains unknown. Pituitary adenomas can develop sporadically or as a part of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. In this review, the recently published data on the pathology of the MEN 1 syndrome will be summarized. The clinical, morphological and genetic aspects of sporadic and MEN 1-associated pituitary adenomas will be outlined. [less ▲]

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See detailThe unseen face of humanitarian crisis in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: was nutritional relief properly targeted?
Porignon, Denis ULg; Katulanya, I.; Elongo, L. et al

in Journal of epidemiology and community health (2000), 54(1), 6-9

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Comparison of children's nutritional status in refugee populations with that of local host populations, one year after outbreak refugee crisis in the North Kivu region of Democratic ... [more ▼]

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Comparison of children's nutritional status in refugee populations with that of local host populations, one year after outbreak refugee crisis in the North Kivu region of Democratic Republic of Congo. DESIGN: Cross sectional surveys. SETTING: Temporary and other settlements, in the town of Goma and surrounding rural areas. SUBJECTS: Anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and presence or absence of oedema were measured among 5121 children aged 6 to 59 months recruited by cluster sampling with probability proportional to size, between June and August 1995. RESULTS: Children in all locations demonstrated a typical pattern of growth deficit relative to international reference. Prevalence of acute malnutrition (wt/ht < -2 Z score) was higher among children in the rural non-refugee populations (3.8 and 5.8%) than among those in the urban non-refugee populations (1.4%) or in the refugee population living in temporary settlements (1.7%). Presence of oedema was scarcely noticed in camps (0.4%) while it was a common observation at least in the most remote rural areas (10.1%). As compared with baseline data collected in 1989, there is evidence that nutritional status was worsening in rural non-refugee populations. CONCLUSIONS: Children living in the main town or in the refugee camps benefited the most from nutritional relief while those in the rural non-refugee areas were ignored. This is a worrying case of inequity in nutritional relief. [less ▲]

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See detailSilencing subdomains of v-ErbA interact cooperatively with corepressors: involvement of helices 5/6
Busch, Kerstin; Martin, Bernd; Baniahmad, Aria et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.) (2000), 14(2), 201-11

Members of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family act on vertebrate development and homeostasis by activating or repressing transcription of specific target genes in a ligand-dependent way. Repression ... [more ▼]

Members of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family act on vertebrate development and homeostasis by activating or repressing transcription of specific target genes in a ligand-dependent way. Repression by TR in the absence of ligand is mediated by an active silencing mechanism. The oncogene v-ErbA is a variant form of TR unable to bind hormone and thus acts as a constitutive repressor. Functional studies and mutation analysis revealed that the TR/v-ErbA silencing domain is composed of three silencing subdomains (SSD1-3) which, although nonfunctional individually, synergize such that silencing activity is restored when they are combined in a heteromeric complex. Here we demonstrate, using protein interaction assays in vitro and in vivo, that the inactive v-ErbA point mutant L489R within helix 5/6 in SSD2 fails to interact with the two corepressors N-CoR (nuclear receptor corepressor) or SMRT (silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor). Furthermore, mutants in SSD1 and SSD3 exhibit a reduced corepressor recruitment corresponding to their weak residual silencing activity. In mammalian two-hybrid assays, only the combination of all three silencing subdomains, SSD1-3, leads to a cooperative binding to the corepressors N-CoR or SMRT comparable to that of the full-length v-ErbA repression domain. In conclusion, full silencing activity requires corepressor interaction with all three silencing subdomains, SSD1-3. Among these, SSD2 is a new target for N-CoR and SMRT and is essential for corepressor binding and function. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro study of the antioxidant properties of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by chemiluminescence and electron spin resonance (ESR).
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Zheng, S. X.; Deby-Dupont, G. P. et al

in Free Radical Research (2000), 33(5), 607-21

OBJECTIVES: To determine the antioxidant activities of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), we examined by chemiluminescence (CL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) their scavenging properties ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To determine the antioxidant activities of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), we examined by chemiluminescence (CL) and electron spin resonance (ESR) their scavenging properties towards lipid peroxides, hypochlorous acid and peroxynitrite. METHODS: The antioxidant properties of nimesulide (NIM), 4-hydroxynimesulide (4-HONIM), aceclofenac (ACLO), 4-hydroxyaceclofenac (4-HOA-CLO), diclofenac (DICLO) and indomethacin (INDO) were tested on four different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating systems: (I) phorbol-myristate acetate (PMA)-activated neutrophils, (II) Fe2+/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation, (III) HOCl-induced light emission, (IV) the kinetics of ONOO- decomposition followed by spectrophotometry. ROS production was monitored by luminol-enhanced CL or by ESR using two different spin traps. RESULTS: At 10 microM, ACLO, NIM, 4-HONIM, 4-HOA-CLO, and DICLO decreased luminol-enhanced CL generated by PMA-activated neutrophils. Inversely, INDO increased the luminol enhanced CL. Interestingly, hydroxylated metabolites were more potent antioxidants than the parent drugs. Furthermore, all drugs tested, excepted ACLO, lowered lipid peroxidation induced by Fe2+/ascorbate system. ACLO and DICLO, even at the highest concentration tested (100 microM), did not significantly lower HOCl induced CL, whereas the other drugs were potent scavengers. Finally, all the NSAIDS accelerated decomposition of ONOO-, suggesting a potential capacity of the molecules to scavenge peroxynitrite. CONCLUSION: The NSAIDs possess variable degrees of antioxidant activities, linked to their ability to react with HOCl, lipid peroxides or ONOO-. These antioxidant activities could offer interesting targeted side-effects in the treatment of joint inflammatory diseases. [less ▲]

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See detail14-3-3 testing in diagnosing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: a prospective study in 112 patients.
Lemstra, A. W.; van Meegen, M. T.; Vreyling, J. P. et al

in Neurology (2000), 55(4), 514-6

OBJECTIVE: To study the sensitivity and specificity of 14-3-3 testing in a prospective series of patients suspected of having Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). BACKGROUND: The 14-3-3 protein immunoassay on ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To study the sensitivity and specificity of 14-3-3 testing in a prospective series of patients suspected of having Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). BACKGROUND: The 14-3-3 protein immunoassay on CSF has favorable test characteristics as a premortem diagnostic tool in CJD. However, the 14-3-3 protein is a normal cellular protein expressed in various tissues, and its presence in CSF reflects extensive destruction of brain tissue as in CJD, but also in ischemic stroke and meningoencephalitis. METHODS: 14-3-3 was tested in the CSF of a prospective series of 110 consecutive patients suspected of having CJD. RESULTS: The sensitivity was 97% and the specificity was 87% in this series. False-positive results were mainly caused by stroke and meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSION: The 14-3-3 protein is a highly sensitive and specific marker for CJD when used in the appropriate clinical context. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical and neuropathological parameters affecting the diagnostic yield of nerve biopsy.
Deprez, Manuel ULg; de Groote, C. C.; Gollogly, L. et al

in Neuromuscular Disorders (2000), 10(2), 92-8

The value of nerve biopsy in the investigation of peripheral neuropathies is an important and controversial issue, partially obscured by the large variations in the diagnostic yield routinely reported for ... [more ▼]

The value of nerve biopsy in the investigation of peripheral neuropathies is an important and controversial issue, partially obscured by the large variations in the diagnostic yield routinely reported for this procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and neuropathological parameters affecting the yield of nerve biopsy. We compared the experience of two independent neuropathology laboratories with different patient recruitment and neuropathological methods over 11 years (01/1987-12/1997). Clinicopathological correlations were studied retrospectively in 355 patients. Using the same criteria of evaluation, contributive biopsies accounted for 35.5% in one laboratory, and 47.3% in the other. Clinical parameters affecting the yield of nerve biopsy were: (a) the presumptive diagnosis at time of referral for biopsy; (b) the distribution of symptoms; and (c) the interval between disease onset and biopsy. Greater yield was associated with clinically suspected vasculitis, inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy or hereditary sensorimotor neuropathies. Contributive findings were more often reported with multifocal or asymmetrical presentations, and onset-to-biopsy interval of less than 6 months. The contribution of nerve biopsy varied according to neuropathological techniques: (a) serial sections on frozen. paraffin-embedded and resin-embedded material improved sensitivity for interstitial pathology: (b) combined muscle biopsy increased sensitivity in the detection of vasculitis; and (c) teasing of nerve fibers added critical information to other classical techniques in only 4/102 cases. [less ▲]

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See detailLa probatio internetica
Vanbrabant, Bernard ULg

in Actualités du Droit (2000)

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See detailHuitième campagne de fouilles à Tell Beydar
Van der Stede, Véronique ULg; Talon, Philippe

in Annales d'Histoire de l'Art et d'Archéologie (2000), XXII

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See detailSurveillance thérapeutique des traitements anticancéreux
Gougnard, Th; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Immuno-Analyse & Biologie Spécialisée [=IBS] (2000), 15(4), 258-261

Drug monitoring of anticancer chemotherapies.Drug doses used in anticancer treatments are mostly calculated by the use of clinical criteria, sometimes by using nomograms providing a posology based on the ... [more ▼]

Drug monitoring of anticancer chemotherapies.Drug doses used in anticancer treatments are mostly calculated by the use of clinical criteria, sometimes by using nomograms providing a posology based on the body surface area (BSA) but rarely by taking into account classical pharmacokinetic parameters, as usually for optimizing the treatment with other pharmaceutical classes of drugs (antibiotics, antiepileptics,…). Because the narrow therapeutic index and important intra- and interindividual variations of the pharmacokinetic parameters, anticancer drugs could constitute a pharmacological class for which the posology could be defined by a classical therapeutic drug monitoring. Of course, the determination of the plasmatic level of anticancer drug does not always permit to predict their pharmacological efficacy and toxicity. To reach it, it is necessary to calculate the area under the curve obtained on base of several blood concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailTheoretical Lifetimes and Oscillator Strengths in Ce II. Application to the Chemical Composition of the Sun
Palmeri, P.; Quinet, Pascal ULg; Wyart, J. F. et al

in Physica Scripta (2000), 61

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See detailApproches thérapeutiques du cancer ovarien
Bonnet, Christophe ULg; Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (2000), 58

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See detailSkin Tensile Strength Modulation by Compressive Garments in Burn Patients. A Pilot Study
Fournier, R.; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology (2000), 24(6, Nov-Dec), 277-80

Compression therapy is frequently used to prevent hypertrophy of post-burn scars. This pilot study was performed in 6 patients to assess non-invasive changes induced in the tensile strength of the skin ... [more ▼]

Compression therapy is frequently used to prevent hypertrophy of post-burn scars. This pilot study was performed in 6 patients to assess non-invasive changes induced in the tensile strength of the skin before any clinical improvement can be perceived. Assessments were performed using a computerized suction device delivering three 5 s cycles of 500 mbar depression. Measurements were made at one-month intervals for three months after initiating the garment compression therapy. Comparisons were made between the intact skin, the ungrafted and grafted post-burn scars and the graft donor sites. Data show that garment compression therapy alters the tensile strength in the skin of all test sites. The most reliable variations consist of an increase in both the extensibility and elasticity of the tissues submitted to traction. [less ▲]

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See detailCrossing a "Human River of Shattered Lives": Caryl Phillips's Diasporic Fiction/Visions
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Literary Criterion (2000), 35(1-2), 157-169

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See detailLa Forêt fossile d'Overlaar, Belgique (transition Paléocène-Eocène).
Gerrienne, Philippe ULg; Damblon, Freddy ULg; Fairon-Demaret, Muriel ULg et al

in Monografias Academia Ciencias, Exactas Fisicas, Quimicas y Naturales de Zaragoza (2000), 16

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See detailGenetics of Crohn's Disease Behaviour
Louis, Edouard ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2000), 63(4, Oct-Dec), 377-9

Crohn's disease is probably an heterogeneous entity. This heterogeneity may be linked to either genetics or environment. In particular the behaviour of the disease, i.e. the tendency to develop ... [more ▼]

Crohn's disease is probably an heterogeneous entity. This heterogeneity may be linked to either genetics or environment. In particular the behaviour of the disease, i.e. the tendency to develop stricturing and/or penetrating lesions, may be linked to the genetic background. While epidemiological and clinical data suggest the relevance of these behavioural classifications, the progresses in the characterization of the immuno-inflammatory reaction in the bowel wall shed a new light on possible candidate genes for these genetic predispositions to various Crohn's disease behaviours. Association studies an linkage analysis focusing on growth factors, metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors as well as cytokines may bring new interesting data in this field. [less ▲]

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See detailLe courant excito-moteur: aspects scientifiques et rééducatifs
Vanderthommen, Marc ULg

in Kine Acta (2000), 356

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See detailEnantioseparation of aminoglutethimide with cyclodextrins in capillary electrophoresis and studies of selector-selectand interactions using NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.
Chankvetadze, Bezhan; Fillet, Marianne ULg; Burjanadze, N. et al

in Enantiomer (2000), 5(3-4), 313-22

The enantiomers of aminoglutethimide [2-(p-aminophenyl)-2-ethylglutarimide, AGT] can be resolved in CE using all of three most commonly used native cyclodextrins (CD): alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CDs. The ... [more ▼]

The enantiomers of aminoglutethimide [2-(p-aminophenyl)-2-ethylglutarimide, AGT] can be resolved in CE using all of three most commonly used native cyclodextrins (CD): alpha-, beta-, and gamma-CDs. The migration order of the enantiomers was opposite using beta-CD compared to alpha- and gamma-CDs as chiral selectors. In order to examine some underlying mechanisms of the chiral recognition the interaction of AGT with the chiral selectors was studied with one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The Job's and Scott's plots constructed based on the complexation-induced chemical shifts (CICS) observed in NMR spectra provided some preliminary information on the stoichiometry of the intermolecular complexes but did not seem to be absolutely reliable perhaps because the self-association of the analyte molecules and the formation of multiple type selectand-selector complexes. Therefore, an attempt was made to characterize the complexes using ESI-MS. This technique provided information on the stoichiometry and relative affinity constants of selector-selectand complexes. The information on the structure of complexes in the solution was obtained using one-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser enhancement (1D-ROESY) NMR spectroscopic studies. Significant differences were observed between the structures of the AGT complexes with beta- and gamma-CD. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural and electronic properties of high-temperature fluid selenium
Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Saul, A.; Gaspard, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Computational Materials Science (2000), 17(2-4), 239-242242

A semi-empirical tight-binding energy model is developed for selenium. It includes s and p electrons as well as an empirical description of the dispersion forces. The band structure parameters are ... [more ▼]

A semi-empirical tight-binding energy model is developed for selenium. It includes s and p electrons as well as an empirical description of the dispersion forces. The band structure parameters are obtained by fitting ab initio calculations. The simulated liquid structures are in very good agreement with the most recent X-ray scattering and EXAFS measurements. The Monte Carlo simulations performed show that the complex liquid structures observed result from the breaking and branching of the selenium chains. The total coordination number is shown to result from the balance between one-, two- and three-fold coordinated atoms. The role of these defects is discussed in relationship with the electrical conductivity of the liquid, i.e. the semiconductor-metal and metal-non-metal transitions observed at high pressure and temperature [less ▲]

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See detailCompétition et choix du partenaire sexuel chez les primates
Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg

in Cahiers d'Ethologie (2000), 20(1), 85-112

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See detailConvergentie en divergentie in de Nederlandse standaardtaal. Het stripverhaal Suske en Wiske als casus.
Meesters, Gert ULg

in Nederlandse Taalkunde (2000), 5(2), 164-176

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See detailMicro-phonochirurgie assistée au laser CO2 des lésions bénignes des cordes vocales
Remacle, Marc; Giovanni, Antoine; Lawson, George et al

in Cahiers d'Oto-rhino-laryngologie, de Chirurgie Cervico-faciale et d'Audiophonologie (Les) (2000), 35(6), 293-300

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See detailRisedronate reverses bone loss in postmenopausal women with low bone mass: results from a multinational, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMD-MN Study Group.
Fogelman, I; Ribot, C; Smith, R et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2000), 85(5), 1895-900

Our objective was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of risedronate in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Women with a mean lumbar spine T-score of -2 or less (n = 543) received 24 months ... [more ▼]

Our objective was to investigate the efficacy and tolerability of risedronate in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Women with a mean lumbar spine T-score of -2 or less (n = 543) received 24 months of placebo or risedronate (2.5 or 5 mg/day). All received calcium (1 g/day). The principal outcome measures were bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and femoral trochanter. At 24 months, lumbar spine BMD increased from baseline by 4% with 5 mg risedronate and 1.4% in the 2.5-mg group, compared with no change with placebo. Efficacy was similar in women who were less than 5 yr and more than 5 yr postmenopausal. At 24 months, risedronate (5 mg) had also increased BMD at the femoral neck and trochanter, whereas BMD decreased in the placebo group. BMD increases were seen at all three sites with risedronate (5 mg) after only 6 months of therapy. Risedronate was well tolerated; upper gastrointestinal adverse events were similar to placebo. We conclude that risedronate (5 mg) increases BMD rapidly and effectively and is well tolerated in postmenopausal women with low bone mass, regardless of time since menopause. [less ▲]

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See detailNew or interesting records of foliicolous lichens. VII. Calenia flava (Ostropales: Gomphillaceae)
Lücking, Robert; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg; Sipman, J.M. Harrie

in Tropical Bryology (2000), 19

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See detailSimilar Efficiency of DNA-Liposome Complexes and Retrovirus-Producing Cells for Hsv-Tk Suicide Gene Therapy of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
Princen, Frederic; Lechanteur, Chantal ULg; Lopez, Marie-Josée ULg et al

in Journal of Drug Targeting (2000), 8(2), 79-89

Several experimental approaches have been tested for suicide gene delivery into tumor cells, including viral and non-viral vectors. In this study, we compared the efficiency of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 ... [more ▼]

Several experimental approaches have been tested for suicide gene delivery into tumor cells, including viral and non-viral vectors. In this study, we compared the efficiency of Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) delivery by retrovirus-producing cells and DNA/liposome complexes for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis induced in syngeneic rats by DHD/K12 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. After in vitro determination of the best transduction conditions, rats were treated with multiple intraperitoneal injections of plasmid DNA containing one or two copies of CMV-driven HSV-tk gene (pCMV-TK and p(CMV-TK)2, respectively) associated with LipofectAMINE, each injection being followed by a Ganciclovir (GCV) course. Animals treated by DNA/liposome complexes and GCV or with retrovirus-producing cells and GCV showed a similar increase of survival as compared to the control group. After DNA/ liposome injections, expression of the tk transgene was detected in tumor nodes (epiploon) and also in liver, lung, spleen, bowels and brain. The expression was not homogeneous throughout the different organs and most likely reflected the transfection of only a limited number of cells. [less ▲]

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See detailHeadache tutorial.
Russell, M. B.; Nielsen, K. D.; Rasmussen, C. et al

in Studies in Health Technology & Informatics (2000), 78

The headache multimedia educational tool for the general practitioners, consists of five different modules, i.e. classification, clinical data, headache tutorial, diagnostic headache diary and ... [more ▼]

The headache multimedia educational tool for the general practitioners, consists of five different modules, i.e. classification, clinical data, headache tutorial, diagnostic headache diary and nomenclature. It is possible to move between the modules both vertically and horizontally. This paper concerns the headache tutorial. It consist of case records that the user can test his diagnostic abilities on. Each case record is subdivided into an interview by the physician, physical and neurological examination, laboratory test, sum of positive diagnostic elements, suggestions of diagnoses and management. A total of 12 case records are provided. The system will be available on a CD-ROM. [less ▲]

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See detailProjectively Equivariant Symbol Calculus for Bidifferential Operators
Boniver, Fabien ULg

in Letters in Mathematical Physics (2000), 54(2), 83-100

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See detailWanze/Huccorgne : la grotte du Docteur
Miller, Rebecca ULg; Otte, Marcel ULg

in Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne (2000), 8

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See detailMultivariate optimization approach for the separation of water-soluble vitamins and related compounds by capillary electrophoresis.
Fotsing, Lucas; Boulanger, Bruno ULg; Chiap, Patrice ULg et al

in Biomedical Chromatography : BMC (2000), 14(1), 10-1

Multivariate optimization approach for the separation of water-soluble vitamins and related compounds by capillary electrophoresis.

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See detailLes xeno-oestrogènes et leur impact sur l’environnement
Meurens, F.; Delaunois, A.; Beckers, Jean-François ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2000), 145

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See detailManagement of central isosexual precocity: diagnosis, treatment, outcome.
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Current opinion in pediatrics (2000), 12(4), 394-9

The diagnosis of central isosexual precocity, a condition much more common in girls than in boys, is currently viewed as a spectrum of disorders between isolated premature thelarche and borderline early ... [more ▼]

The diagnosis of central isosexual precocity, a condition much more common in girls than in boys, is currently viewed as a spectrum of disorders between isolated premature thelarche and borderline early puberty. In some countries, a trend may be seen toward onset of puberty at earlier ages. Integration of the clinical findings with bone age, pelvic echography, and hormonal data as well as follow-up ascertainment of progression of development is critical to define which patients should be proposed for therapy. The use of long-acting forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists may not be indicated in slowly progressive variants or borderline early puberty because they do not affect final height. Preservation of height potential is particularly obvious in precocious puberty starting at young ages. In some selected patients, associated growth hormone therapy may increase adult height but further studies are warranted. The psychosocial and behavioral correlates of precocious puberty are an important and under investigated area. [less ▲]

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See detailThymic neuroendocrine self-antigens. Role in T-cell development and central T-cell self-tolerance
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Martens, Henri ULg; Brilot, Fabienne et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (2000), 917

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See detailLa querelle judiciaire au sujet de l'indemnité forfaitaire en faveur de l'ONSS
Kefer, Fabienne ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux du Travail (2000)

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See detailGenetic Determinants Of Bovine Leukemia Virus Pathogenesis
Willems, Luc ULg; Burny, A.; Collete, Delphine et al

in Aids Research and Human Retroviruses (2000), 16(16), 1787-95

The understanding of HTLV-induced disease is hampered by the lack of a suitable animal model allowing the study of both viral replication and leukemogenesis in vivo. Although valuable information has been ... [more ▼]

The understanding of HTLV-induced disease is hampered by the lack of a suitable animal model allowing the study of both viral replication and leukemogenesis in vivo. Although valuable information has been obtained in different species, such as rabbits, mice, rats, and monkeys, none of these systems was able to conciliate topics as different as viral infectivity, propagation within the host, and generation of leukemic cells. An alternate strategy is based on the understanding of diseases induced by viruses closely related to HTLV-1, like bovine leukemia virus (BLV). Both viruses indeed belong to the same subfamily of retroviruses, harbor a similar genomic organization, and infect and transform cells of the hematopoietic system. The main advantage of the BLV system is that it allows direct experimentation in two different species, cattle and sheep. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of colors on habituation of visual evoked potentials in patients with migraine with aura and in healthy volunteers.
Afra, J; Ambrosini, A; Génicot, Roger ULg et al

in Headache (2000), 40(1), 36-40

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether colored glasses influence the habituation of visual evoked potentials. BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that during pattern-reversal stimulations lasting 2 minutes ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether colored glasses influence the habituation of visual evoked potentials. BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that during pattern-reversal stimulations lasting 2 minutes the amplitude of the visual evoked potential increases in migraine with and without aura between attacks, whereas it decreases in healthy volunteers. Red light was found to increase visually evoked EEG fast activity only in children with migraine with aura. Wearing rose-tinted glasses for 4 months decreased attack frequency in parallel with a reduction of the visually evoked EEG fast activity. METHODS: We compared the change in amplitude of the visual evoked potential using five different tinted glasses in 12 patients with migraine with aura and in 10 healthy volunteers. During continuous stimulation at 3.1 Hz, five blocks of 50 responses were sequentially averaged using red, yellow, green, blue, and grey glasses and without glasses in a random order and analyzed in terms of latencies and N1-P1 amplitudes. Amplitude changes were calculated for each block by comparison with the first block in every condition and analyzed statistically using Zerbe's method. RESULTS: In healthy volunteers, the visual evoked potential amplitude increased with red glasses compared to without glasses (P = .05) or with green glasses (P = .03). In patients with migraine with aura, no significant difference was detected using colored glasses. Our findings in healthy volunteers are in line with earlier reports of increased excitability of the human visual cortex when exposed to red light. The lack of such a pattern in patients with migraine with aura suggests that the visual cortex is interictally hypoexcitable rather than hyperexcitable, which is consistent with studies of transcranial magnetic stimulation. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmentally based maternal effect on reproduction of Adalia bipunctata : impact of aphid prey species.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Defrance, Thibault; Haubruge, Eric ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2000), 65(2), 303-310

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See detailConsidérations sur l'action en opposabilité d'un jugement étranger
Boularbah, Hakim ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2000)

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See detailHarcèlement moral au travail. Etat des lieux et pistes de développement.
Faulx, Daniel ULg; Geuzaine, Caroline

in Médecine du Travail & Ergonomie= Arbeidsgezondheidszorg & Ergonomie (2000), 37(3), 135-147

Revue théorique critique et analyse de littérature sur le harcèlement moral

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See detailA further locality with foliicolous lichens in Italy, with taxonomical and ecological data on foliicolous lichens in Western Europe
Puntillo, Domenico; Bricaud, Olivier; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in Cryptogamie. Mycologie (2000), 21

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See detailSynthesis and biological effects of new 3-alkylamino-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides on insulin-secreting cells
Somers, F.; De Tullio, Pascal ULg; Boverie, S. et al

in Pharmacy and Pharmacology Communications (2000), 6

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See detailCyanures et thiocyanates en toxicologie hospitalière
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Gougnard, Th; Lamiable, D. et al

in Annales de Toxicologie Analytique (2000), XII(2), 131-136

Cyanide is a highly toxic poison, able to very rapidly induce the death. Thiocyanate anion (SCN-) is a metabolic product of cyanide and cyano-containing organic substances, produced by two major enzymes ... [more ▼]

Cyanide is a highly toxic poison, able to very rapidly induce the death. Thiocyanate anion (SCN-) is a metabolic product of cyanide and cyano-containing organic substances, produced by two major enzymes : thiosulfate sulfure transferase and β mercaptopyruvate transsulfurase. Determinations of blood cyanide is important to confirm the diagnostic of intoxication. A survey of methods for the quantitative determination of cyanide and thiocyanate in biological matrices is presented. Particular attention is paid to the rapidity and to the sensitivity of the method. [less ▲]

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See detailOsteoporose bij de bejaarde
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Taquet, AN; Fraikin, G

in Medi-Sfeer (2000), 103

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See detailL'analyse de la variance multivariée et l'analyse canonique discriminante : principes et applications
Palm, Rodolphe ULg

in Notes de Statistique et d'Informatique (2000), (1), 40

This note describes the principles of multivariate analysis of variance and of canonical discriminant analysis. The methods are illustrated by two examples.

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See detailEffects of 3-alkylamino-7-chloro-4H-pyrido[2,3-e]-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxides on smooth muscle contractile activity
Ouedraogo, R.; Fontaine, J.; Antoine, M.-H. et al

in Pharmacy and Pharmacology Communications (2000), 6

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See detailSimenon critique de Simenon. Éléments pour une reconstitution de l'espace des possibles romanesques simenoniens (1938-1948)
Denis, Benoît ULg

in Traces. Travaux du Centre d'Études Georges Simenon (2000), (12), 27-46

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See detailPsychiatrie en osteoporose
Halkin, V; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Agenda Psychiatrie (L') (2000), 14

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See detailHeart Graft Monitoring by the Ventricular Evoked Response
Mahaux, V.; Demoulin, J.C.; BIESSAUX, Yves ULg et al

in Pacing & Clinical Electrophysiology (2000), 23(11, Pt 2), 2003-5

Monitoring of the negative slew rate of the evoked T wave has been proposed as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to follow heart transplant recipients. The clinical contribution of this measurement on ... [more ▼]

Monitoring of the negative slew rate of the evoked T wave has been proposed as a noninvasive diagnostic tool to follow heart transplant recipients. The clinical contribution of this measurement on telemetrically recorded, paced unipolar ventricular electrograms was evaluated in the detection of grade 3 acute allograft rejection. Thirteen patients undergoing heart transplantation received a DDD pacemaker connected to two epimyocardial leads. Electrograms were recorded and digitized after each endomyocardial biopsy (EMB). The maximum slew rate of the descending slope of the repolarization phase (RSP) was extracted and normalized. A 20% downward shift of RSP from the reference value was considered abnormal. Results of signal processing were blinded during the first 6 months. Eleven patients completed the 6 months blinded period and two patients died. A total of 101 EMB were graded according to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation classification. Grade 3 was assigned to 9 EMB. A significant difference was found between RSP values measured during grade 3 rejection episodes and other RSP values (P < 0.001). A diagnostic model consisting of a single threshold test confirmed the ability of RSP to predict significant signs of rejection on EMB (P < 0.0001). The sensitivity of RSP in detecting grade 3 rejections was 100%, specificity was 81%, negative predictive value 100%, and positive predictive value 35%. The use of RSP as a noninvasive monitoring tool to pose the indication for a biopsy would avoid 73% of EMB. Monitoring of transplanted hearts based on the analysis of the ventricular evoked response is promising and may markedly reduce the number of EMB. [less ▲]

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See detailHeparin-coated Wiktor stents in human coronary arteries (MENTOR trial). MENTOR Trial Investigators.
Vrolix, M. C.; Legrand, Victor ULg; Reiber, J. H. et al

in The American journal of cardiology (2000), 86(4), 385-9

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of elective stenting with heparin-coated Wiktor stents in patients with coronary artery disease. In experimental studies ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of elective stenting with heparin-coated Wiktor stents in patients with coronary artery disease. In experimental studies, heparin coating has been shown to prevent subacute thrombosis and restenosis. Recently, a new method of heparin coating was developed, resulting in a more stable and predictable heparin layer on stent devices. This trial constitutes the first in-human use of this coating procedure, applied on the well-known Wiktor stent device. Heparin-coated Wiktor stent implantation was performed in 132 consecutive patients (132 lesions) in a multicenter international trial from September 1996 to February 1997. Forty-three percent of patients had unstable angina, 33% had previous myocardial infarction, and 10% had diabetes mellitus. Patients were followed for 12 months for occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events, and 96% of the eligible patients underwent quantitative angiographic control at 6 months. Stent deployment was successful in 95.5% of lesions. Minimal lumen diameter increased by 1.67 +/- 0.48 mm (from 1.02 +/- 0.38 mm before to 2.69 +/- 0.37 mm after the stent implantation). Mean percent diameter stenosis decreased from 67.4 +/- 11.3% before to 18.9 +/- 7.7% after the intervention. A successful intervention (<50% diameter stenosis and no major adverse cardiac events within 30 days) occurred in 97% of the patients. The subacute thrombosis rate was 0.8%, which compares favorably with historical controls of this stent, and a low incidence of postprocedural increase in creatine kinase-MB was noted. At 6 months, event-free survival was 85% and angiographic restenosis rate was 22% with late loss of 0.78 +/- 0.69 mm and a loss index of 0.48 +/- 0.44. Heparin-coated Wiktor stents appeared to be an efficacious device to treat Benestent-like lesions, yielding angiographic and clinical results comparable to a heparin-coated Palmaz-Schatz stent. Despite its use in more complex lesions, the incidence of subacute thrombosis appeared to be lower than historical controls with a similar noncoated stent. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical and para-clinical tests in the routine examination of headache patients.
Friberg, L.; Sandrini, G.; Janig, W. et al

in Functional Neurology (2000), 15 Suppl 3

Para-clinical examinations in the diagnosis and treatment control of headache patients vary considerably between clinics and headache centers. Among the neurological societies in Europe there has been a ... [more ▼]

Para-clinical examinations in the diagnosis and treatment control of headache patients vary considerably between clinics and headache centers. Among the neurological societies in Europe there has been a consensus that some common procedures and recommendations should be created. In the Fall of 1998, the European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) commissioned a Task Force on Neurophysiological Tests and Imaging Procedures in Headache Patients. Members of the Task Force are the present authors and we have reviewed the literature on 1) neurophysiological tests (EEG and evoked potentials), 2) autonomic nervous system and clinical tests and 3) imaging and cerebrovascular tests (X-ray, CT, MR, fMRI, PET, SPECT and transcranial Doppler). The literature was carefully evaluated with respect to validity and strength of the data. The task was to reach conclusions about each technique in the form of guidelines for clinical use. Finally, selected areas for future research will be outlined. The extensive review and the guidelines will be published by the EFNS during 2000. [less ▲]

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See detailConception actuelle du traitement de l’arthrose
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Revue de la Médecine Générale [=RMG] (2000), 177

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See detailRecent advances in inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibition
De Leval, X.; Delarge, J.; Somers, F. et al

in Current Medicinal Chemistry (2000), 7(10), 1041-1062

Cyclooxygenase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids, biologically active substances that are involved in several physiological processes but also in pathological conditions such as ... [more ▼]

Cyclooxygenase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids, biologically active substances that are involved in several physiological processes but also in pathological conditions such as inflammation. Since ten years now, it is well known that this enzyme exists under two forms: a constitutive (COX-1) and an inducible form (COX-2). Both enzymes are sensitive to inhibition by conventional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Observations that COX-1, involved in several homeostatic processes, played a housekeeping role while COX-2 expression was associated with inflammation and other pathologies such as cancer proliferation have led to the development of COX-2 selective inhibitors in order to reduce the classical side-effects, of which gastric irritation is the most common, associated with the use of conventional NSAIDs. [less ▲]

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See detailApprendre à résoudre des équations
Demonty, Isabelle ULg; Vlassis, Joëlle ULg

in informations pé (2000), 50

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See detailRelationships between cognitive performance and cerebral metabolism in Alzheimer's disease
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Current Psycholology Letters: Brain, Behavior and Cognition (2000), 1(1), 55-69

The presence of correlations between cerebral metabolism and performance on cognitive tasks (digit span, verbal fluency, Hayling inhibition task and the Mattis dementia rating scale) was assessed in AD ... [more ▼]

The presence of correlations between cerebral metabolism and performance on cognitive tasks (digit span, verbal fluency, Hayling inhibition task and the Mattis dementia rating scale) was assessed in AD patients and elderly controls. Results showed that in both groups the cerebral areas where metabolism was correlated to performance were similar to those found in functional activation studies with young healthy subjects. The comparison of cognitivo-metabolic correlations in AD patients and control subjects showed that the single significant difference was a correlation between posterior cingulate metabolism and performance on the Mattis dementia rating scale in AD patients only. These results are consistent with two neurobiological causes of cognitive impairment in AD : a less efficient functioning of some areas involved in specific cognitive tasks and a deficit of integration of information coming from different areas. [less ▲]

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See detailPotato tubers exhibit both homolytic and heterolytic hydroperoxide fatty acid-cleaving activities
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Delcarte, J.; Hoyaux, P. et al

in Biochemical Society Transactions (2000), 28(6), 853-855

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See detailBeyond Prejudice as Antipathy: Hostile and Benevolent Sexism Across Cultures
Glick, Peter; Fiske, Susan T.; Mladinic, Antonio et al

in Journal of Personality & Social Psychology (2000), 79(5), 763-775

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See detailMechanical properties of Al/Al2O3 nanolaminated films: correlation to microstructure
Ben Daia, M.; Aubert, P.; Labdi, S. et al

in Surface & Coatings Technology (2000), 125(1-3), 196-200

Wear resistance and the hardness of Al/Al2O3 nanolaminated films were investigated in this study. Monolithic films and multilayers were deposited on a silicon substrate with two different substrate ... [more ▼]

Wear resistance and the hardness of Al/Al2O3 nanolaminated films were investigated in this study. Monolithic films and multilayers were deposited on a silicon substrate with two different substrate temperatures: T-s= 25 degrees C and T-s= -90 degrees C. The period thickness of multilayers was lowering from 40 to 2 nm. From nanoindentation measurements, it appears that the hardness of multilayers has an intermediate value between those of metal (Al) and ceramic (Al2O3). The tribological test was conducted by the pin-on-disc method. The T-s=25 degrees C deposited multilayers, as well as single films, demonstrated poor wear resistance. The best wear resistance was obtained for multilayers deposited at the lowest substrate temperature (T-s= -90 degrees C). The results are ill good agreement with structural characterization. X-ray reflectometry demonstrated that the multilayer character of Al/Al2O3 is more pronounced for T-s= -90 degrees C. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPomme: maladies de conservation. La lutte biologique au moyen de deux souches de levures.
Jijakli, Mohamed ULg

in Arboriculture Fruitiere (2000), (539), 19-23

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See detailThe cerebral protective effect of anaesthetics
HANS, Pol; BONHOMME, Vincent ULg

in Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care (2000), 11

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See detailAccretion from AGB winds.
Thoul, Anne ULg; Jorissen, A.; Goriely, S. et al

in Memorie della Società Astronomica Italiana : Journal of the Italian Astronomical Society (2000), 71

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See detailStructural effects of the active site mutation cysteine to serine in Bacillus cereus zinc-beta-lactamase.
Chantalat, L.; Duee, E.; Galleni, Moreno ULg et al

in Protein science : a publication of the Protein Society (2000), 9(7), 1402-6

Beta-lactamases are involved in bacterial resistance. Members of the metallo-enzyme class are now found in many pathogenic bacteria and are becoming thus of major clinical importance. Despite the ... [more ▼]

Beta-lactamases are involved in bacterial resistance. Members of the metallo-enzyme class are now found in many pathogenic bacteria and are becoming thus of major clinical importance. Despite the availability of Zn-beta-lactamase X-ray structures their mechanism of action is still unclear. One puzzling observation is the presence of one or two zincs in the active site. To aid in assessing the role of zinc content in beta-lactam hydrolysis, the replacement by Ser of the zinc-liganding residue Cys168 in the Zn-beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus strain 569/H/9 was carried out: the mutant enzyme (C168S) is inactive in the mono-Zn form, but active in the di-Zn form. The structure of the mono-Zn form of the C168S mutant has been determined at 1.85 A resolution. Ser168 occupies the same position as Cys168 in the wild-type enzyme. The protein residues mostly affected by the mutation are Asp90-Arg91 and His210. A critical factor for the activity of the mono-Zn species is the distance between Asp90 and the Zn ion, which is controlled by Arg91: a slight movement of Asp90 impairs catalysis. The evolution of a large superfamily including Zn-beta-lactamases suggests that they may not all share the same mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation of the proposed Conodont based Upper Devonian substages boundary levels into the neritic and terrestrial Miospore zonation
Streel, Maurice ULg; Loboziak

in Newsletter. Subcommission on Devonian Stratigraphy (2000), 17

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See detailMajor histocompatibility complex class II expression by activated microglia caudal to lesions of descending tracts in the human spinal cord is not associated with a T cell response.
Schmitt, A. B.; Buss, A.; Breuer, S. et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2000), 100(5), 528-36

Lesion-induced microglial/macrophage responses were investigated in post-mortem human spinal cord tissue of 20 patients who had died at a range of survival times after spinal trauma or brain infarction ... [more ▼]

Lesion-induced microglial/macrophage responses were investigated in post-mortem human spinal cord tissue of 20 patients who had died at a range of survival times after spinal trauma or brain infarction. Caudal to the spinal cord injury or brain infarction, a strong increase in the number of activated microglial cells was observed within the denervated intermediate grey matter and ventral horn of patients who died shortly after the insult (4-14 days). These cells were positive for the leucocyte common antigen (LCA) and for the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen (MHC II), with only a small proportion staining for the CD68 antigen. After longer survival times (1-4 months), MHC II-immunoreactivity (MHC II-IR) was clearly reduced in the grey matter but abundant in the white matter, specifically within the degenerating corticospinal tract, co-localising with CD68. In this fibre tract, elevated MHC II-IR and CD68-IR were still detectable 1 year after trauma or stroke. It is likely that the subsequent expression of CD68 on MHC II-positive microglia reflects the conversion to a macrophage phenotype, when cells are phagocytosing degenerating presynaptic terminals in grey matter target regions at early survival times and removing axonal and myelin debris in descending tracts at later survival times. No T or B cell invasion or involvement of co-stimulatory B7 molecules (CD80 and CD86) was observed. It is possible that the up-regulation of MHC II on microglia that lack the expression of B7 molecules may be responsible for the prevention of a T cell response, thus protecting the spinal cord from secondary tissue damage. [less ▲]

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See detailPulmonary perfusion redistribution in exercises horses
Votion, Dominique ULg; Harmegnies, N. F.; Duvivier, D. H. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2000), 41

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See detailCharacterization of two Acacia gums and their fractions using a Langmuir film balance
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Blecker, Christophe ULg; Groyne, J. et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2000), 48(7), 2709-2712

The mechanical properties of monolayers from two Acacia gums [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del.] and their three fractions isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography were studied ... [more ▼]

The mechanical properties of monolayers from two Acacia gums [Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. and Acacia seyal Del.] and their three fractions isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography were studied with a Langmuir film balance to obtain a more complete understanding of their action mode. The analysis of compression isotherms revealed that A. senegal gums globally exhibit better interfacial properties than A. seyal ones. The behavior of the whole gums appeared to be strongly influenced by their arabinogalactan-protein complex. [less ▲]

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See detailLe capital osseux : une épargne qui débute au berceau
Halkin, V; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in L'agenda Pédiatrie (2000), 22

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See detailLawrence Scott's Caribbeanness: A personal reading of Witchbroom and Aelred's Sin
Maes-Jelinek, Hena ULg

in Literary Criterion (The) (2000), 35(1-2), 116-141

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See detailPersistent tumor 18F-FDG uptake after a few cycles of polychemotherapy is predictive of treatment failure in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg; Fassotte, Marie-France ULg et al

in Haematologica (2000), 85(6), 613-8

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of the ineffectiveness of chemotherapy could result in lower cumulative drug toxicity and tumor burden at the start of salvage therapy, which might improve ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early recognition of the ineffectiveness of chemotherapy could result in lower cumulative drug toxicity and tumor burden at the start of salvage therapy, which might improve clinical outcome. Therefore, we studied the value of (18)F-FDG PET for early evaluation of response in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied 28 patients by (18)F-FDG PET after a median of 3 cycles of polychemotherapy. The presence or absence of abnormal (18)F-FDG uptake was correlated to clinical outcome (median follow-up: 17.5 months, range 4-47 months). RESULTS: Five of 28 patients still had increased (18)F-FDG uptake in one or more sites previously shown to be involved by lymphoma at baseline evaluation. Only one of these five patients entered complete remission (CR), whereas among the 23 patients with negative (18)F-FDG PET studies, two died of toxicity during chemotherapy and all the others entered clinical CR (p<0.00001). All five patients with and 7/21 patients without residual abnormal (18)F-FDG uptake relapsed or reprogressed (positive predictive value for relapse: 100%, negative predictive value: 67%). By Kaplan-Meier analysis, progression-free survival (PFS) at 1 and 2 years was respectively 20+/-18% and 0% for (18)F-FDG PET positive patients and 81+/-9% and 62+/-12% for (18)F-FDG PET negative patients (p=0.0001). Overall survival (OS) at 1 and 2 years was respectively 20+/-18% and 0% for (18)F-FDG PET positive and 87+/-7% and 68+/-11% for (18)F-FDG PET negative patients (p<0.0001). INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Persistent tumoral (18)F-FDG uptake after a few cycles of polychemotherapy is predictive of CR, PFS and OS in NHL. Further studies are warranted to determine whether (18)F-FDG PET has a predictive value independent from conventional prognostic factors. However, the sensitivity of qualitative (18)F-FDG PET imaging in identifying patients with a poor outcome was insufficient. Earlier evaluation after only one cycle of chemotherapy and quantitative analysis might increase the sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET is predicting treatment failure. [less ▲]

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See detailFormes et formalités. Remarques sur la poétique du nom chez Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Formules (2000), 4

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See detailIdentification Of Key Residues For Interaction Of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide With Human Vpac(1) And Vpac(2) Receptors And Development Of A Highly Selective Vpac(1) Receptor Agonist - Alanine Scanning And Molecular Modeling Of The Peptide
Nicole, P.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Rouyer-Fessard, C. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2000), 275(31), 24003-12

The widespread neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has two receptors VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Solid-phase syntheses of VIP analogs in which each amino acid has been changed to alanine (Ala scan ... [more ▼]

The widespread neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has two receptors VPAC(1) and VPAC(2). Solid-phase syntheses of VIP analogs in which each amino acid has been changed to alanine (Ala scan) or glycine was achieved and each analog was tested for: (i) three-dimensional structure by ab initio molecular modeling; (ii) ability to inhibit (125)I-VIP binding (K(i)) and to stimulate adenylyl cyclase activity (EC(50)) in membranes from cell clones stably expressing human recombinant VPAC(1) or VPAC(2) receptor. The data show that substituting residues at 14 positions out of 28 in VIP resulted in a >10-fold increase of K(i) or EC(50) at the VPAC(1) receptor. Modeling of the three-dimensional structure of native VIP (central alpha-helice from Val(5) to Asn(24) with random coiled N and C terminus) and analogs shows that substitutions of His(1), Val(5), Arg(14), Lys(15), Lys(21), Leu(23), and Ile(26) decreased biological activity without altering the predicted structure, supporting that those residues directly interact with VPAC(1) receptor. The interaction of the analogs with human VPAC(2) receptor is similar to that observed with VPAC(1) receptor, with three remarkable exceptions: substitution of Thr(11) and Asn(28) by alanine increased K(i) for binding to VPAC(2) receptor; substitution of Tyr(22) by alanine increased EC(50) for stimulating adenylyl cyclase activity through interaction with the VPAC(2) receptor. By combining 3 mutations at positions 11, 22, and 28, we developed the [Ala(11,22,28)]VIP analog which constitutes the first highly selective (>1,000-fold) human VPAC(1) receptor agonist derived from VIP ever described. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical study of the uranium exchange by polypyrrole-based resins
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Applied Polymer Science (1999), 74(14), 3473-3484

Electrochemical control of the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins was studied. The experimental conditions for this binding were optimized with respect to the uranium ions to be ... [more ▼]

Electrochemical control of the binding of uranium ions by redox active polypyrrole resins was studied. The experimental conditions for this binding were optimized with respect to the uranium ions to be fixed, the resin, and the solution. [less ▲]

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See detailDispense de permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne (III)
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1999), 23

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See detailAnti-Inflammatory and Immunological Effects of Centaurea Cyanus Flower-Heads
Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Gloaguen, Vincent; Damas, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Ethnopharmacology (1999), 68(1-3), 235-41

Centaurea cyanus flower-heads are used in European phytotherapy for the treatment of minor ocular inflammations. Different pharmacological experiments (inhibition of carrageenan, zymosan and croton oil ... [more ▼]

Centaurea cyanus flower-heads are used in European phytotherapy for the treatment of minor ocular inflammations. Different pharmacological experiments (inhibition of carrageenan, zymosan and croton oil-induced oedemas, inhibition of plasma haemolytic activity, induction of anaphylatoxin activity) showed that polysaccharides extracted from C. cyanus flower-heads had anti-inflammatory properties and interfered with complement. Moreover, these polysaccharides were found to be mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose and galactose. [less ▲]

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See detailDispense de permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne (II)
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1999), 22

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) copolymers by two-step controlled radical polymerization (ATRP) catalyzed by NiBr2(PPh3)2, 1+
Moineau, Georges; Minet, Michaël; Teyssié, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (1999), 32(25), 8277-8282

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers (MnBM) have been synthesized by the sequential controlled radical polymerization (atom transfer ... [more ▼]

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-block-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers (MnBM) have been synthesized by the sequential controlled radical polymerization (atom transfer radical polymerization, ATRP) of n-butyl acrylate (n-BuA) followed by methyl methacrylate (MMA). The polymerization of n-BuA has been first initiated by the difunctional (diethyl meso-2,5-dibromoadipate) initiator in the presence of the NiBr2(PPh3)2 catalyst. After isolation, the α,ω-dibromo poly(n-butyl acrylate) chains have been used as macroinitiators for the polymerization of either n-BuA or MMA leading to chain extension or to the desired triblock copolymers, respectively. The kinetic study of the two-step process has shown that the initiation of the MMA polymerization by the poly(n-BuA) macroinitiator is slow and leads to PMMA outer blocks of broad polydispersity. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA) have confirmed the two-phase morphology of the triblocks. Finally, DMA and tensile testing of these copolymers have emphasized poor mechanical properties in possible relation to the broad polydispersity of the PMMA outer blocks. [less ▲]

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See detailMaisons de justice
Dantinne, Michaël ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (1999), (5947),

Description de l'institution des maisons de justice en Belgique.

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See detailDeep Imaging of AX J2019+112: The Luminosity of a ``Dark Cluster''
Benítez, Narciso; Broadhurst, Tom; Rosati, Piero et al

in Astrophysical Journal (1999), 527

We detect a distant cluster of galaxies centered on the QSO lens and luminous X-ray source AX J2019+112, a.k.a. the ``Dark Cluster.'' Using deep V and I Keck images and wide-field K[SUB]s[/SUB] imaging ... [more ▼]

We detect a distant cluster of galaxies centered on the QSO lens and luminous X-ray source AX J2019+112, a.k.a. the ``Dark Cluster.'' Using deep V and I Keck images and wide-field K[SUB]s[/SUB] imaging from the New Technology Telescope (NTT), a tight red sequence of galaxies is identified within a radius of 0.2 h[SUP]-1[/SUP] Mpc of the known z=1.01 elliptical lensing galaxy. The sequence, which includes the central elliptical galaxy, has a slope in good agreement with the model predictions of Kodama et al. for z~1. We estimate the integrated rest-frame luminosity of the cluster to be L[SUB]V[/SUB]>=3.2x10[SUP]11[/SUP] h[SUP]-2[/SUP] L[SUB]solar[/SUB] (after accounting for significant extinction at the low latitude of this field), more than an order of magnitude higher than previous estimates. The central region of the cluster is deconvolved using the technique of Magain, Courbin, & Sohy, revealing a thick central arc coincident with an extended radio source. All the observed lensing features are readily explained by differential magnification of a radio-loud active galactic nucleus by a shallow elliptical potential. The QSO must lie just outside the diamond caustic, producing two images; the arc is a highly magnified image formed from a region close to the center of the host galaxy, projecting inside the caustic. The mass-to-light ratio within an aperture of 0.4 h[SUP]-1[/SUP] Mpc is M[SUB]X[/SUB]/L[SUB]V[/SUB]=224[SUP]+112[/SUP][SUB]- 78[/SUB]h(M/L[SUB]V[/SUB])[SUB]solar[/SUB], using the X-ray temperature. The strong lens model yields a compatible value, M/L[SUB]V[/SUB]=372[SUP]+94[/SUP][SUB]- 94[/SUB]h(M/L[SUB]V[/SUB])[SUB]solar[/SUB], whereas an independent weak-lensing analysis sets an upper limit of M/L[SUB]V[/SUB]<520h(M/L[SUB]V[/SUB])[SUB]solar[/SUB], typical of massive clusters. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications of statistical physics - Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop held at Technical University of Budapest Hungary, 19-22 May 1999 - Preface
Gadomski, A.; Kertesz, J.; Stanley, H. E. et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1999), 274(1-2), -

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See detailThermal crosslinking of poly(methyl methacrylate) by reaction of methyl ester and quaternary ammonium salt and application to (meth)acrylate-based TPEs
Tong, Jiang-Dong; Goethals, Eric; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1999), 37(23), 4402-4411

Copolymers of N-vinylbenzyl N-methyl pyrrolidinium chloride (VBMPC) and methyl methacrylate, PVBMPC-co-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), were synthesized by free-radical copolymerization and proved to be ... [more ▼]

Copolymers of N-vinylbenzyl N-methyl pyrrolidinium chloride (VBMPC) and methyl methacrylate, PVBMPC-co-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), were synthesized by free-radical copolymerization and proved to be prone to crosslinking as a result of the reaction of methyl ester groups with benzyl methyl pyrrolidinium chloride (BMPC) moieties at temperatures higher than 110 °C. When the VBMPC content was lower than 20 wt %, these copolymers were miscible with homo-PMMA. Blends of homo-PMMA and PVBMPC-co-PMMA fully could be cured above 150 °C, when the molecular weight of PMMA exceeded 10,000 and the VBMPC content of the copolymer was higher than 5 wt %. This reaction was carried out to crosslink selectively the PMMA microdomains of PMMA-b-poly(isooctyl acrylate) (PIOA)-b-PMMA (MIM) triblock copolymers to explain the mechanism for the mechanical failure of fully (meth)acrylic thermoplastic elastomers. Comparison of the ultimate tensile properties of MIM block copolymers, when the dispersed PMMA phases and PIOA matrix were crosslinked, led to the conclusion that the ductile failure of the hard PMMA microdomains rather than the elastic failure of the PIOA matrix was the reason for the mechanical failure of MIM triblocks. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications of statistical physics to economic and financial topics
Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Boveroux, P. et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1999), 274(1-2), 229-240

Problems in economy and finance have started to attract the interest of statistical physicists. Fundamental problems pertain to the existence or not of long-, medium-, short-range power-law correlations ... [more ▼]

Problems in economy and finance have started to attract the interest of statistical physicists. Fundamental problems pertain to the existence or not of long-, medium-, short-range power-law correlations in economic systems as well as to the presence of financial cycles. Methods like the extended detrented fluctuation analysis, and the multi-affine analysis are recalled emphasizing their value in sorting out correlation ranges and predictability. Among spectacular results, the possibility of crash predictions is indicated. The well known financial analyst technique, the so-called moving average, is shown to raise questions about fractional Brownian motion properties. Finally, the (m,k)-Zipf method and the i-variability diagram technique are presented for sorting out short range correlations. Analogies with other fields of modem applied statistical physics are also presented in view of some universal openess. [less ▲]

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See detailThe self-enrichment of galactic halo globular clusters. A clue to their formation?
Parmentier, Geneviève ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1999), 352

We present a model of globular cluster self-enrichment. In the protogalaxy, cold and dense clouds embedded in the hot protogalactic medium are assumed to be the progenitors of galactic halo globular ... [more ▼]

We present a model of globular cluster self-enrichment. In the protogalaxy, cold and dense clouds embedded in the hot protogalactic medium are assumed to be the progenitors of galactic halo globular clusters. The massive stars of a first generation of metal-free stars, born in the central areas of the proto-globular cluster clouds, explode as Type II supernovae. The associated blast waves trigger the expansion of a supershell, sweeping all the material of the cloud, and the heavy elements released by these massive stars enrich the supershell. A second generation of stars is born in these compressed and enriched layers of gas. These stars can recollapse and form a globular cluster. This work aims at revising the most often encountered argument against self-enrichment, namely the presumed ability of a small number of supernovae to disrupt a proto-globular cluster cloud. We describe a model of the dynamics of the supershell and of its progressive chemical enrichment. We show that the minimal mass of the primordial cluster cloud required to avoid disruption by several tens of Type II supernovae is compatible with the masses usually assumed for proto-globular cluster clouds. Furthermore, the corresponding self-enrichment level is in agreement with halo globular cluster metallicities. [less ▲]

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See detailLes ingénieurs chimistes et leurs instruments: Le cas de l'analyse polarimétrique dans l'industrie sucrière
Melard, François ULg

in Chimie Nouvelle (1999), 17(68), 3008-3011

This article put forward the complexe relations that exists between chemists ingeneers and the development of the Sugar industry in Belgium (in the 19s century). The argument is that the technical ... [more ▼]

This article put forward the complexe relations that exists between chemists ingeneers and the development of the Sugar industry in Belgium (in the 19s century). The argument is that the technical dimension of the implementation of a new chemical protocol for the delivery of sugar beets may be of some importance in order to understand the sociological dimension of contractual relations between actors and the role of scientific expertise in such a context. [less ▲]

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See detailDes éditeurs sans édition. Genèse et structure de l’espace éditorial en Belgique francophone
Durand, Pascal ULg; Winkin, Yves

in Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales (1999), 130

L'édition n'est pas seulement un objet à étudier; elle est aussi un observatoire des pratiques culturelles. En prenant pour terrain d'analyse le marché de la production du livre en Belgique francophone ... [more ▼]

L'édition n'est pas seulement un objet à étudier; elle est aussi un observatoire des pratiques culturelles. En prenant pour terrain d'analyse le marché de la production du livre en Belgique francophone, on se donne le moyen de saisir au concret le rapport d'implication réciproque entretenu par les œuvres avec les vecteurs de leur production et de leur diffusion. Ce rapport, comme ces vecteurs, ont une histoire, particulièrement déterminante et complexe, mais aussi répétitive, dans les territoires belges. Ainsi, il est frappant de constater l’impossibilité, pour l’édition en Belgique, de lui désigner dans l’histoire un moment de naissance à partir duquel elle se serait continûment déployée. C’est, à différents moments, de naissances à répétition qu’il s’agit plutôt et donc, aussi bien, d’extinctions successives. D'où le fait qu'aucune culture éditoriale, au sens le plus littéraire de l'expression, ne se soit véritablement développée en Belgique francophone. Plantin au XVIe siècle édifie certes, à force d’énergie, d’ambition intellectuelle et d’opportunisme politico-religieux, une maison de rayonnement international, mais fait figure d’isolé, mal relayé de surcroît par ses héritiers. Les imprimeurs liégeois et bruxellois, du XVIIIe siècle aux années 1850, inondent l’Europe d’ouvrages contrefaits : ils bloquent pour longtemps le système éditorial dans des routines de reproduction et s’effondreront sous le coup de la Convention franco-belge de 1852. Au XIXe siècle, Casterman fait tourner ses presses au profit des missels et des ouvrages de dévotion : les convoyeurs de la haute littérature attendront. Dans les années 1890, quelques petits éditeurs parviennent à esquisser les contours d’une édition spécifiquement littéraire : tous font très vite faillite quand ils ne s’écroulent pas sous le poids de la censure. Il faudra attendre le nouveau Casterman et Marabout pour que se déploient en Belgique des maisons de rayonnement international, mais dans des genres dominés tels que la bande dessinée et le livre de poche industriel. Des attitudes toutefois se maintiennent, se transmettent peut-être d'une génération à l'autre. L'hypothèse conductrice de l'article est la suivante : de Plantin aux éditeurs littéraires contemporains se construit en Belgique un habitus techniciste, autrement dit une représentation de l'activité éditoriale comme fabrication de livres plutôt que comme production de biens symboliques aptes à circuler sur le marché littéraire à force égale avec ceux que la France, ayant mieux négocié le passage de l'imprimerie à l'édition, produit de son côté. Cette situation n'est pas sans présenter quelques ressources pour l'avenir. A l'heure des mouvements de concentration internationaux, il se pourrait bien en effet que les éditeurs de Belgique, comme ceux d'autres zones marginales, contribuent, du fait de leur fonctionnement apparemment "archaïque", à maintenir la possibilité d'une édition indépendante. [less ▲]

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