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See detailL'hormonothérapie de substitution transdermique: une mode ou un avantage?
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Desreux, Joëlle ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(4), 208-11

This review describes the clinical usefulness of transdermal hormone replacement therapy. This route of administration is particularly important in women with hypertriglyceridemia, in hypertensive ... [more ▼]

This review describes the clinical usefulness of transdermal hormone replacement therapy. This route of administration is particularly important in women with hypertriglyceridemia, in hypertensive postmenopausal women, in women who smoke or have an increased risk of biliary or liver disorder, for those who display a reduced glucose tolerance or in women who are at risk of thrombotic disorders. The avoidance of the "first passage effect" is ensured by the transdermal application of estrogen and probably explains the superiority of this route of steroid administration. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Electron Spin Resonance (Esr) Study on the Mechanism of Ascorbyl Radical Production by Metal-Binding Proteins
Mouithys-Mickalad, Ange ULg; Deby, Carol; Dupont, Ginette ULg et al

in Biometals (1998), 11(2), 81-8

The mechanism of ascorbate oxidation by metal-binding proteins (ceruloplasmin, albumin and transferrin) was investigated in vitro and in isolated plasma by the measurement of the ascorbyl free radicals ... [more ▼]

The mechanism of ascorbate oxidation by metal-binding proteins (ceruloplasmin, albumin and transferrin) was investigated in vitro and in isolated plasma by the measurement of the ascorbyl free radicals (AFR) by electron spin resonance (ESR). In plasma of 13 healthy volunteers, a spontaneous and variable production of AFR was detected, which was increased by a 10(-4) M ascorbate overloading; however, this increase was not correlated to the intensity of the spontaneous AFR signal. The addition of Cu2+ and ceruloplasmin to plasma increased the ESR signal, while the addition of transferrin decreased the signal intensity in a dose-dependent manner. In vitro, we demonstrated that ascorbate was oxidized by human serum albumin and by ceruloplasmin, and that this oxidase-like activity was lost by trypsin or heat treatment of these proteins. These two proteins positively interacted in the oxidation of ascorbate, since addition of crude albumin to a solution of ascorbate and ceruloplasmin increased the intensity of ESR signal in a dose-dependent manner. The treatment of albumin by a metal chelator (DDTC) abolished these positive interactions. The respective roles of copper and iron in ascorbate oxidation were studied and showed a dose-dependent effect of these ions on ascorbate oxidation. The role of iron was confirmed by the inhibiting effect of metal-free transferrin on iron-dependent ascorbate oxidation. Concerted actions between iron carrying albumin and copper carrying ceruloplasmin appear responsible for the production of AFR in vitro and in vivo. [less ▲]

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See detailInfo-congrès. Le bisoprolol dans la décompensation cardiaque
Kulbertus, Henri ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(4), 223-4

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See detailDevelopment of a dynamic guidance model for car drivers in the city center of Liège, Belgium.
Marchal, Jean ULg; Ndiaye, Alassane-Ballé ULg

in Proceedings of the INFORMS Montreal Spring meeting 1998 (1998)

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See detailComment j'explore ... évaluation du risque de mort subite dans le syndrome de Wolff-Parkinson-White
Melon, Pierre ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Kulbertus, Henri ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(4), 218-9

The identification of a WPW impose to evaluate the potential risk of sudden cardiac death. The risk depends on the duration of the refractory period of the accessory pathway. If the preexcitation ... [more ▼]

The identification of a WPW impose to evaluate the potential risk of sudden cardiac death. The risk depends on the duration of the refractory period of the accessory pathway. If the preexcitation disappears when the patient is stressed on a treadmill, there is no risk of sudden death. If it does not, an electrophysiological study will have to be performed to measure the refractory period of the accessory pathway. If a risk of sudden death is present (refractory period < 220 ms), the accessory pathway has to be ablated using radiofrequency. [less ▲]

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See detailRing-opening polymerization of 1,4,8-trioxaspiro-[4.6]-9-undecanone: a route to novel molecular architectures for biodegradable aliphatic polyesters
Tian, Dong; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Symposia (1998), 130

The ring-opening polymerization of 1,4,8-trioxaspiro-[4,6]-9-undecanone (TOSUO) initiated by aluminum isopropoxide, Al(OiPr)3, is typically "living" and allows random and block copolyesters of predictable ... [more ▼]

The ring-opening polymerization of 1,4,8-trioxaspiro-[4,6]-9-undecanone (TOSUO) initiated by aluminum isopropoxide, Al(OiPr)3, is typically "living" and allows random and block copolyesters of predictable molecular weight and composition to be prepared. Deacetalization of the polyester chains is complete, and reduction of the accordingly formed ketone groups into hydroxyl groups as well. No chain scission is observed when these two derivatization reactions are carried out. The potential of these novel functional aliphatic polyesters has been discussed as drug colloidal vectors and macroinitiators for the synthesis of biodegradable and biocompatible comb, graft and even hyperbranched polymers. [less ▲]

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See detailCraniometric Measures in Cluster Headache Patients
Afra, J.; Cecchini, A. P.; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (1998), 18(3), 143-5

Blockade of venous drainage in the cavernous sinus, which may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cluster headache (CH), could be triggered by local inflammation. It could also be favored by a ... [more ▼]

Blockade of venous drainage in the cavernous sinus, which may play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of cluster headache (CH), could be triggered by local inflammation. It could also be favored by a constitutional narrowness of the cavernous sinus region. Before exploring the latter with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we determined whether external morphometric skull measures are different among CH patients (n = 25), healthy volunteers (n = 21), and migraine patients (n = 20). All subjects were males of comparable age distribution. Six measures were taken: inion-nasion perimeter, inion-nasion distance over the vertex; distance between the upper ends of tragus; diameter at the level of the temporal fossa; diameter at mid inion-nasion perimeter at ear level; and inion-nasion diameter. CH patients had significantly smaller values than healthy subjects and/or migraine patients in all but one measure (ANOVA and Duncan's post-hoc analysis). This may suggest that they have a narrower anterior/middle cranial fossa, and possibly a narrower cavernous sinus loggia, which needs to be confirmed by a quantitative MRI study. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Role of Stroma in Breast Carcinoma Growth in Vivo
Noël, Agnès ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Journal of Mammary Gland Biology & Neoplasia (1998), 3(2), 215-25

The malignant progression of tumors is thought to be related to the expression of oncogenes and loss of expression of tumor suppressor gene. These factors are intrinsic to the cancer cells themselves ... [more ▼]

The malignant progression of tumors is thought to be related to the expression of oncogenes and loss of expression of tumor suppressor gene. These factors are intrinsic to the cancer cells themselves. However, carcinomas are also infiltrated by host cells (fibroblasts, endothelial cells, inflammatory cells) and surrounded by an extracellular matrix which is extensively remodeled. The extracellular matrix components and infiltrating host cells provide a microenvironment that conditions both tumor progression and the metastatic process. Transplantation of human tumors into athymic nude mice has become an important experimental approach to study the biology of human cancers. The different models developed so far are beginning to elucidate the role of matrix molecules, growth factors and enzymes as well as fibroblasts in tumor progression. These animal models are likely to provide a useful tool to evaluate new antitumor treatments. [less ▲]

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See detailStorm Surge Barrier and Marine Environment
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Rodriguez, S.; Marchal, Jean ULg

in Bulletin de l’Association Internationale Permanente des Congrès de Navigation [Bulletin de l'AIPCN] (1998), (98), 5-14

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See detailComment je traite ... Le cancer colorectal: I. Prévention et traitement adjuvant
Bours, Vincent ULg; Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Fillet, Georges ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(4), 167-70

Colorectal adenocarcinoma is a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in Belgium and in other western countries. Prevention implies a modification of alimentation and maybe a chronic uptake ... [more ▼]

Colorectal adenocarcinoma is a major cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in Belgium and in other western countries. Prevention implies a modification of alimentation and maybe a chronic uptake of acetylsalicylic acid. Treatment of colorectal cancers is based on surgery and the prognosis is determined by the locoregional or metastatic tumor spread. Complete resection of any Astler Coller stage C colorectal malignant tumor has to be followed by a 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy. In these protocols, 5-fluorouracil is administered together with folinic acid or levamisole. The administration of an adjuvant chemotherapy could also be considered for stage BII diseases. As rectal cancers are characterized by high local relapse rates, their treatment should associate radiotherapy, given either post-surgery or preferentially pre-surgery, with resection and chemotherapy. Appropriate treatment of colorectal cancers thus requires a concerted multidisciplinary approach. [less ▲]

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See detailA propos de la prévention du cancer du sein par le tamoxifene
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Colin, Claude ULg; Lifrange, Eric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(4), 225-6

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See detailOrganotypic Culture of HPV-Transformed Keratinocytes: A Model for Testing Lymphocyte Infiltration of (Pre)Neoplastic Lesions of the Uterine Cervix
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Moutschen, Michel P; Franzen-Detrooz, E. et al

in Virchows Archiv : An International Journal of Pathology (1998), 432(4), 323-30

The aim of our study was to establish the relevance of an in vitro model for analysing the ability of human lymphocytes to infiltrate human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated (pre)neoplastic lesions of the ... [more ▼]

The aim of our study was to establish the relevance of an in vitro model for analysing the ability of human lymphocytes to infiltrate human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated (pre)neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. To mimic these lesions, we have used the organotypic raft culture of HPV-transformed keratinocytes (SiHa). The SiHa organotypic raft culture was co-cultured with resting or prestimulated (IL-2 or IL-2+anti-CD3 mAb) allogeneic peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for 24 and 72 h. The majority of infiltrating cells were T lymphocytes. Occasional NK cells were also identified. The stimulation with IL-2+anti-CD3 mAb induced the highest number of infiltrating cells, with the maximum lymphocyte infiltration observed after 24 h of co-culture. The lymphocyte infiltration was associated with an increased number of apoptotic cells in the organotypic cultures. The ability of PBMC and purified T cell and NK cell populations to lyse HPV-transformed keratinocytes was also investigated on monolayer cultures. As expected in an allogenic model, the highest cytotoxicity was mediated by NK cells activated by IL-2 or IL-2+anti-CD3 mAb. The cytotoxic activity of T cells was weak but, interestingly, increased in the presence of phytohaemagglutinin A (PHA), assuming that T cells were able to kill HPV-infected keratinocytes when a bridge between T cells and keratinocytes was provided. In conclusion, the organotypic culture of HPV-transformed keratinocytes may provide an effective in vitro model for investigating novel T cell-based immunotherapy protocols for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailLes fondements de l'altruisme
Mormont, Christian ULg

in Réflexions (1998), 24(Avril), 8

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See detailThe Folding Process of Hen Lysozyme: A Perspective from the 'New View'
Matagne, André ULg; Dobson, Christopher M.

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (1998), 54(4), 363-71

How a conformationally disordered polypeptide chain rapidly and efficiently achieves its well-defined native structure is still a major question in modern structural biology. Although much progress has ... [more ▼]

How a conformationally disordered polypeptide chain rapidly and efficiently achieves its well-defined native structure is still a major question in modern structural biology. Although much progress has been made towards rationalizing the principles of protein structure and dynamics, the mechanism of the folding process and the determinants of the final fold are not yet known in any detail. One protein for which folding has been studied in great detail by a combination of diverse techniques is hen lysozyme. In this article we review the present state of our knowledge of the folding process of this enzyme and focus in particular on recent experiments to probe some of its specific features. These results are then discussed in the context of the 'new view' of protein folding based on energy surfaces and landscapes. It is shown that a schematic energy surface for lysozyme folding, which is broadly consistent with our experimental data, begins to provide a unified model for protein folding through which experimental and theoretical ideas can be brought together. [less ▲]

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See detailThe optical EHD method applied to the study of ageing of biodegradable oils
Cloesen, C.; Kabuya, A.; Bozet, Jean-Luc ULg

in Journal of Synthetic Lubrication (1998), 15(1), 1-12

In the present study, modifications of the lubricating properties of vegetable oils, which had undergone accelerated ageing, were quantified, using the optical EHD method. Each oil sample was examined in ... [more ▼]

In the present study, modifications of the lubricating properties of vegetable oils, which had undergone accelerated ageing, were quantified, using the optical EHD method. Each oil sample was examined in an optical viscometer in order to measure film thickness vs. contact speed. From these results the pressure—viscosity coefficient was calculated, by adjusting theoretical values. The modifications were related to molecular changes, which were observed with various tools of chemical analysis, including gel permeation chromatography (GPC). [less ▲]

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See detailFocalized external radiotherapy for resected solitary brain metastasis: does the dogma stand?
Coucke, Philippe ULg; Zouhair, Abderrahim; Ozsahin, Mahmut et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (1998), 47(1), 99-101

To investigate whether whole brain irradiation might be replaced by focalized irradiation after resection of a single brain metastasis in patients where extracranial tumor control is deemed to be obtained ... [more ▼]

To investigate whether whole brain irradiation might be replaced by focalized irradiation after resection of a single brain metastasis in patients where extracranial tumor control is deemed to be obtained. Patients and methods: Twelve patients were introduced in a phase I/II prospective study of conformal postoperative external irradiation after resection of a solitary brain metastasis. The radiation treatment consisted of 50.4 Gy (1.8 Gy per fraction, five fractions per week). The planning target volume consisted of the tumor bed and a 2 cm safety margin. All treatments were optimized with head immobilization, dedicated tomodensitometry and computer assisted three-dimensional treatment planning. Results: The median survival was 7.2 months (range 2.4–50.4 months). Eleven of the 12 patients died. Eight of the 12 patients presented intracranial recurrence and seven died as a consequence of intracranial tumor progression. Conclusions: Focalized external irradiation cannot serve as a reasonable alternative to whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) even for patients with apparently one single resected brain metastasis. The dogma of ‘one metastasis=multiple metastases' seems to be confirmed. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and electrooptic properties of a new chromophore dispersed or grafted in a carbazolyl methacrylate matrix
Maertens, Christophe; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Dubois, Philippe et al

in Chemistry of Materials (1998), 10

A copolymer of [11-(N-carbazolyl)undecyl methacrylate] and ethyl (E)-2-cyano-3[5-(5-(4-methacryloyloxy)piperidino-2-thienylcarbonyl)-2-thienyl]-2-propenoate has been prepared. The photoconductivity and ... [more ▼]

A copolymer of [11-(N-carbazolyl)undecyl methacrylate] and ethyl (E)-2-cyano-3[5-(5-(4-methacryloyloxy)piperidino-2-thienylcarbonyl)-2-thienyl]-2-propenoate has been prepared. The photoconductivity and the electrooptic properties of a hot-pressed thin film of this copolymer have been measured and compared with the properties of the dispersion of ethyl (E)-2-cyano-3[5-(5-piperidino-2-thienylcarbonyl)-2-thienyl]-2-propenoate within a poly[11-(N-carbazolyl)undecyl methacrylate] matrix. The electrooptic coefficient has been measured by both interferometric and polarimetric techniques. The interferometric technique was not appropriated because the strong electric field applied to the electrodes changes the film thickness of these low Tg materials. A value of up to 5 pm/V for the figure of merit n3(r13 − r33) has been reported for the dispersed material, which is 10 times higher than the corresponding grafted material, and a linear relationship between the poling intensity and the electrooptic coefficient has been observed for the two materials. [less ▲]

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See detailLa chirurgie du cancer oesophagien à Liège. I. Etude de mortalité et de morbidité périopératoires
Kolh, Philippe ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg; Gielen, J. L. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(4), 187-92

BACKGROUND: To assess surgical outcome after oesophagectomy, we reviewed operative techniques and postoperative course among 90 patients who underwent oesophageal resection for malignancies from January ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: To assess surgical outcome after oesophagectomy, we reviewed operative techniques and postoperative course among 90 patients who underwent oesophageal resection for malignancies from January 1989 to December 1995. METHODS: There were 73 males and 17 females; mean age was 64.2 years. Indications were squamous cell carcinoma in 49 patients and adenocarcinoma in 41. Preoperatively 7 patients had chemotherapy and 18 benefited from radiochemotherapy. There were 56 total thoracic oesophagectomies, with anastomosis in the neck in 34 patients and at the thoracic inlet in 22. In 34 cases operation was limited to distal oesophageal resections. Digestive continuity was restored with the stomach in 62 patients, with the colon in 24, and with a jejunal loop in 4. A feeding jejunostomy was constructed in 48 patients with a gastric transplant. RESULTS: Mortality was 10% (9 patients), decreasing from 18.5% (before 1993) to 3.8% (since 1993). One patient died in the colonic graft group and 8 in the gastric pull-up group. Postoperative complications occurred in 9 patients after colonic interposition and in 23 after gastric pull-up; they consisted in pulmonary infection or insufficiency in 26 patients, cerebrovascular accident in one, renal insufficiency in 2, recurrent nerve palsy in 4, and anastomotic leakage in 6. Transhiatal approach was not associated with a decreased incidence of postoperative deaths or complications. Eighteen patients (72%) developed postoperative pulmonary complications after preoperative chemotherapy. CONCLUSION: Oesophagectomy can be performed with low mortality. A colonic graft is not associated with an increased incidence of perioperative deaths or complications and is the substitute of choice when there is any question regarding gastric vascularization, or in young patients with long life expectancy. Preoperative neoadjuvant treatment significantly increases postoperative pulmonary complications. [less ▲]

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See detailShifts modeling of Cargo traffic on multi-modal network
Marchal, Jean ULg; Zhang, Z. M.

in Nectar (Network on European Communications and Transport Activities Research) Proceedings of Conference in Israel, Session H - Transport Networks B (1998)

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See detailBiodegradable and biocompatible inorganic-organic hybrid materials. 3. A valuable route to the control of the silica porosity
Tian, Dong; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Langmuir (1998), 14(7), 1905-1910

Porous silica has been successfully prepared from poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-silica hybrid materials on the basis of the template approach. The final texture of the porous silica has been analyzed by the ... [more ▼]

Porous silica has been successfully prepared from poly(epsilon-caprolactone)-silica hybrid materials on the basis of the template approach. The final texture of the porous silica has been analyzed by the nitrogen adsorption-desorption technique and by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The porosity of silica can be tailored by the poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) template, particularly molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, content, and type and number of reactive groups per chain. Increasing the molecular weight, content, and chain polydispersity of the PCL template and decreasing the reactivity and number of reactive groups per PCL chain result in a more heterogeneous microporosity and, as a rule, in larger pores, a broader pore size distribution, a larger specific surface area, and a larger total and microporous volume. [less ▲]

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See detailDroit de l'aménagement du territoire, de l'urbanisme et questions diverses du droit administratif notarial
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Chronique de droit à l'usage du notariat, Vol.XXVII (1998)

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See detailInhibition of Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 Maturation and Ht1080 Invasiveness by a Synthetic Furin Inhibitor
Maquoi, Erik ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Frankenne, F. et al

in FEBS Letters (1998), 424(3), 262-6

The close correlation observed between matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activation and metastatic progression in various tumors suggests that MMP-2 is a 'master switch' triggering tumor spread. Recently ... [more ▼]

The close correlation observed between matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) activation and metastatic progression in various tumors suggests that MMP-2 is a 'master switch' triggering tumor spread. Recently, membrane type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP) was identified as a potential physiological activator of MMP-2. Like all other MMPs, MT1-MMP possesses a pro-domain which must be removed for the enzyme to acquire its catalytic potential. The presence of a typical recognition motif (RXKR) for the furin-like convertases at the end of its pro-domain suggests a potential role for these proteinases in MT1-MMP processing. In order to evaluate the implication of furin in pro-MT1-MMP processing, we treated HT1080 cells with a synthetic furin inhibitor and monitored their ability to activate pro-MMP-2 as well as their invasive potential. Our results demonstrated that the furin inhibitor decreased pro-MT1-MMP processing as well as pro-MMP-2 activation and cell invasiveness. Therefore, our data bring further evidence that furin is a key factor in the maturation of MMPs associated with the invasive and metastatic potential of tumor cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLe nouveau CWATUP
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1998), 5(n° spécial),

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See detailNuclear Factor - Kappab-Dependent Regulation of P53 Gene Expression Induced by Daunomycin Genotoxic Drug
Hellin, Anne-Cécile; Calmant, Philippe ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg et al

in Oncogene (1998), 16(9), 1187-95

Anthracycline drugs are widely used for the treatment of solid tumors and leukemia, but the molecular basis of their biological effect is still poorly understood. In the HCT116 colon carcinoma cell line ... [more ▼]

Anthracycline drugs are widely used for the treatment of solid tumors and leukemia, but the molecular basis of their biological effect is still poorly understood. In the HCT116 colon carcinoma cell line, which retains a wild-type inducible p53 gene, we show that the anthracycline daunomycin is a potent inducer of p53 and NF-kappaB transcription factors. Nuclear accumulation of p53 protein occurred because of increased protein stability and enhanced gene expression. In addition, daunomycin induced the p53 promoter through the binding of p50/p65 NF-kappaB heterodimers to the kappaB site in the p53 promoter. Under our conditions, the free radical scavengers NAC and PDTC were not able to block NF-kappaB activation or p53 induction, indicating that reactive oxygen intermediates were not involved in the cellular response to daunomycin stimulation. Overexpression of a stable unresponsive IkappaBalpha mutant in HCT116 cells resulted in a complete inhibition of the NF-kappaB activation but only a partial impairment of the p53 protein accumulation induced by daunomycin. We conclude that the p53-activating signal generated by daunomycin is partially regulated by NF-kappaB. [less ▲]

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See detailA comprehensive variability study of the enigmatic WN8 stars - Final results
Marchenko, S. V.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Eversberg, T. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (1998), 294

As a conclusion of our all-sky variability survey of the 'enigmatic' variable WN8 stars, we have carried out coordinated multisite photometric and spectroscopic observations of WN8 stars in 1989 and 1994 ... [more ▼]

As a conclusion of our all-sky variability survey of the 'enigmatic' variable WN8 stars, we have carried out coordinated multisite photometric and spectroscopic observations of WN8 stars in 1989 and 1994-1995. We confirm the leading role of the stellar core in restructuring the whole wind. This emerges as a statistical trend: the higher the level of the continuum (i.e., core) light variations, the higher the variability of the P Cygni edges of the optical emission lines. However, the form of the correlation between the light and profile variations is generally different for each individual star. The high level of activity of WN8 stars may be supported/induced by pulsational instability. [less ▲]

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See detailCatalytic Properties of Class a Beta-Lactamases: Efficiency and Diversity
Matagne, André ULg; Lamotte-Brasseur, Josette; Frère, Jean-Marie ULg

in Biochemical Journal (1998), 330((Pt 2)), 581-98

beta-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and related beta-lactam compounds. These enzymes inactivate the antibiotics by hydrolysing the amide bond of the ... [more ▼]

beta-Lactamases are the main cause of bacterial resistance to penicillins, cephalosporins and related beta-lactam compounds. These enzymes inactivate the antibiotics by hydrolysing the amide bond of the beta-lactam ring. Class A beta-lactamases are the most widespread enzymes and are responsible for numerous failures in the treatment of infectious diseases. The introduction of new beta-lactam compounds, which are meant to be 'beta-lactamase-stable' or beta-lactamase inhibitors, is thus continuously challenged either by point mutations in the ubiquitous TEM and SHV plasmid-borne beta-lactamase genes or by the acquisition of new genes coding for beta-lactamases with different catalytic properties. On the basis of the X-ray crystallography structures of several class A beta-lactamases, including that of the clinically relevant TEM-1 enzyme, it has become possible to analyse how particular structural changes in the enzyme structures might modify their catalytic properties. However, despite the many available kinetic, structural and mutagenesis data, the factors explaining the diversity of the specificity profiles of class A beta-lactamases and their amazing catalytic efficiency have not been thoroughly elucidated. The detailed understanding of these phenomena constitutes the cornerstone for the design of future generations of antibiotics. [less ▲]

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See detailLes constellations et la mythologie - I.
Renson, Pierre ULg

in Ciel (Le) (1998), 60

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See detailThe Intrathymic Expression of Insulin-Related Genes: Implications for Pathophysiology and Prevention of Type 1 Diabetes
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Lefebvre, P. J.

in Diabetes/Metabolism Reviews (1998), 14(1), 95-103

Recent experimental work has challenged and shattered the old concept of a sequestration of pancreatic islet antigens from developing T-cells within the thymic environment. There is now compelling ... [more ▼]

Recent experimental work has challenged and shattered the old concept of a sequestration of pancreatic islet antigens from developing T-cells within the thymic environment. There is now compelling evidence that the central immunological tolerance of the whole insulin family may be induced during the process of T-cell ontogeny in the thymus. Transcripts of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), IGF-I and insulin genes have been characterized in human, rat and mouse thymuses. At the peptide level, IGF-II was shown to be the dominant polypeptide of the insulin family in the thymus from different species. Data are presented which support a dual role of thymic IGF-II both in T-cell development as well as in T-cell negative selection. Using animal models of autoimmune diabetes, current research is investigating the hypothesis that a defect of thymic T-cell education to the insulin family is implicated in the pathophysiology of human Type 1 diabetes. An efficient and secure prevention of Type 1 diabetes could be designed on the basis of the strong natural tolerogenic properties of the thymus. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation of T-Helper Secretory Differentiation and Types of Antigen-Presenting Cells in Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions of the Uterine Cervix
al-Saleh, W.; Giannini, S. L.; Jacobs, Nathalie ULg et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (1998), 184(3), 283-90

This study addressed the notion that the progression of cervical cancer is associated with a T-helper 2 (TH2) immunodeviation by analysing cytokine expression in 60 cervical biopsy specimens, spanning the ... [more ▼]

This study addressed the notion that the progression of cervical cancer is associated with a T-helper 2 (TH2) immunodeviation by analysing cytokine expression in 60 cervical biopsy specimens, spanning the spectrum from normal cervical tissue to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs). The biopsies were analysed by immunohistochemistry for the expression of TH1 [interleukin-2 (IL2), interferon gamma (IFN gamma)] and of TH2-type cytokines (IL4, IL6). Positive cells were usually observed in the subepithelial connective tissue, where most CD4+ cells were also detected. The density of IL2+ cells was significantly lower in high-grade SILs than in normal tissues taken either from the ectocervix or from the transformation zone. In contrast, significantly higher densities of IL4+ cells and, to a lesser degree, IL6+ cells were found in SIL biopsies compared with histologically normal tissues taken from the adjacent ectocervical region. A significantly higher IL4+/CD4+ cell ratio was also found in high-grade SILs (82 per cent) than in normal cervical biopsies taken from the transformation zone of healthy women showing squamous metaplasia (27 per cent). The elevated density of TH2+ cells in SIL biopsies was associated with both the expression of HLA-DR by keratinocytes and a diminished number of intraepithelial Langerhans' cells (CD1a+). In conclusion, the increased TH2+/CD4+ cell ratio in SIL biopsies suggest the presence, during cervical carcinogenesis, of a TH2 immunodeviation that could participate in the immunoescape of preneoplastic cervical keratinocytes. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic mechanical thermal and infrared analyses of polyacrylonitrile "electrografted" onto a metal
Calberg, Cédric ULg; Mertens, Marc; Baute, Noëlle et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (1998), 36(4), 543-553

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films have been grafted onto copper electrodes by cathodic polarization and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The dynamic mechanical ... [more ▼]

Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) films have been grafted onto copper electrodes by cathodic polarization and analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The dynamic mechanical response shows two or three transitions depending on the film thickness and the potential deposition. The viscoelastic properties of ungrafted PAN films, e.g., solvent cast films of commercially available PAN, are deeply different from those of electrografted films. The experimental data support that ungrafted chains are paracrystalline in contrast to the grafted ones which are essentially amorphous. Moreover, the irreversible transformation of the grafted PAN chains observed beyond 225°C is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis and ascribed to an intramolecular cyclization of PAN into polyimine. This reaction occurs rapidly and at a comparatively low temperature with respect to ungrafted PAN, which suggests that the grafted chain configuration might be predominantly isotactic. The isotacticity and the amorphous structure appear to decrease as the thickness of the PAN film is increased. Literature data and the herein reported observations would suggest a dependence of the amorphous structure of PAN on the chain isotacticity. [less ▲]

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See detailAssay of Matrix Metalloproteinases Types 1, 2, 3 and 9 in Breast Cancer
Remacle, A. G.; Noël, Agnès ULg; Duggan, C. et al

in British Journal of Cancer (1998), 77(6), 926-31

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc dependent endopeptidases implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis. Gelatin zymography was performed on 84 human breast carcinomas and seven normal breast ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are zinc dependent endopeptidases implicated in cancer invasion and metastasis. Gelatin zymography was performed on 84 human breast carcinomas and seven normal breast tissues. The precursor form of MMP-2 (72 kDa) was found in 11 (12%) samples, while its two activated forms, i.e. 62 kDa and 59 kDa, were found in three (6%) and 34 (40%) samples respectively. In contrast to MMP-2, most of the samples (52%) contained MMP-9 in its precursor form. Using ELISA, MMP-1 levels were found in 12% of the samples while MMP-3 levels were found in only 2% of the samples. Levels of MMP-2, -3 and -9 correlated inversely with numbers of nodal metastases. Neither MMP-2 nor -9 levels were significantly related to patient outcome. However, patients with high levels of a 50-kDa gelatinase band after zymography had a significantly better survival than patients with low levels. This species was never observed in normal breast tissue. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gene Encoding the Low-Affinity Penicillin-Binding Protein 3r in Enterococcus Hirae S185r Is Borne on a Plasmid Carrying Other Antibiotic Resistance Determinants
Raze, Dominique; Dardenne, Olivier ULg; Hallut, Séverine et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1998), 42(3), 534-539

Two plasmid-derived NcoI DNA fragments of 14 and 4.5 kb, respectively, have been isolated from the multidrug-resistant strain Enterococcus hirae S185R and analyzed. The 14-kb fragment contains two ... [more ▼]

Two plasmid-derived NcoI DNA fragments of 14 and 4.5 kb, respectively, have been isolated from the multidrug-resistant strain Enterococcus hirae S185R and analyzed. The 14-kb fragment contains two inverted (L and R) IS1216 insertion modules of the ISS1 family. These modules define a Tn5466 transposon-like structure that contains one copy of the methylase-encoding ermAM conferring erythromycin resistance and one copy of the adenylyl-transferase-encoding aadE conferring streptomycin resistance. Immediately on the left side of IS1216L there occurs a copy of pbp3r encoding the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein (PBP) PBP3r, itself preceded by a psr-like gene (psr3r) that controls the synthesis of PBP3r. ermAM, aadE, and the transposase gene (tnp) of IS1216R have the same polarities, and these are opposite those of psr3r, pbp3r, and the tnp gene of IS1216L. The 4.5-kb fragment is a copy of the 4.5-kb sequence at the 5' end of the 14-kb fragment, although it is not a restriction product of the 14-kb fragment. It contains three genes with the same polarity: psr3r, pbp3r, and tnp in an IS1216 element. Because of the very high degree of identity (99%) with the chromosomal psrfm and pbp5fm genes of Enterococcus faecium D63R, it is proposed that both the psr3r and pbp3r genes were transferred from an E.faecium strain and inserted in a plasmid of E. hirae. E. hirae is the first known bacterial species in which a low-affinity PBP-encoding gene has been found to be plasmid borne. [less ▲]

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See detailMedian root prior and ordered subsets in Bayesian image reconstruction of single-photon emission tomography
Seret, Alain ULg

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (1998), 25(3), 215-219

Median root prior allows Bayesian image reconstruction without any a priori knowledge of the final solution. It limits the noise generated by maximum likelihood-expectation maximization, including when ... [more ▼]

Median root prior allows Bayesian image reconstruction without any a priori knowledge of the final solution. It limits the noise generated by maximum likelihood-expectation maximization, including when the ordered subsets accelerating procedure is used. Therefore the number of iterations can be optimized to obtain the best resolution for cold lesions. Moreover, the higher the number of subsets, the better the contrast, with optimal results for subsets containing between four and eight projections. [less ▲]

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See detailAnneaux, cibles ou cocardes
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(3), 117-118

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See detailDescriptiveness and proper name retrieval
Brédart, Serge ULg; Valentine, T.

in Memory (1998), 6(2), 199-206

Cohen (1990) hypothesised that the retrieval of proper names is particularly difficult because proper names convey little information about their bearers' attributes. In the present study, this hypothesis ... [more ▼]

Cohen (1990) hypothesised that the retrieval of proper names is particularly difficult because proper names convey little information about their bearers' attributes. In the present study, this hypothesis was evaluated by using a face naming task. Faces were those of cartoon and comic-strip characters bearing either arbitrary names or descriptive names. Results unequivocally showed that retrieval blocks occurred more often in naming characters bearing arbitrary names than in naming characters bearing descriptive names. Moreover, retrieving arbitrary names that were also common names was as difficult as retrieving arbitrary names that were not common names. These results support Cohen's claim that arbitrariness plays a significant role in the relative vulnerability of proper name retrieval. [less ▲]

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See detailSur l'évaluation des défauts de forme à partir de mesures tridimensionnelles
Debongnie, Jean-François ULg; Masset, Luc ULg

in European Journal of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering (1998), 43(1), 13-21

Owing to the fact that a correct evaluation of form errors is particularly difficult by the classical ways, it seems more efficient to develop numerical algorithms from 3D measures. Several methods are ... [more ▼]

Owing to the fact that a correct evaluation of form errors is particularly difficult by the classical ways, it seems more efficient to develop numerical algorithms from 3D measures. Several methods are described, including direct and iterative ones. A new method is proposed, which is based on Lp-norms and a specialized algorithm. It proved to be the most effective and robust one in every studied application. Another problem which is seldom studied, concerns the sensibility of form errors to measure errors. A theory is presented which leads to a very simple result. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironnement psychosocial et naissance prématurée
Nondonfaz, N.; Thoumsin, H.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(3), 131-7

For about twenty years, prematurity has been the subject of many preventive actions. In spite of the elaboration of different screening programmes, preterm deliveries rate doesn't decrease. Some somatic ... [more ▼]

For about twenty years, prematurity has been the subject of many preventive actions. In spite of the elaboration of different screening programmes, preterm deliveries rate doesn't decrease. Some somatic risk factors are now known and are the subject of an unconditional screening in prenatal consultation. However we consider that the etiology of many preterm deliveries remain unknown and 55% of preterm cases could be idiopathic without any explanation of pathological order. The clinical observation suggests the existence of a link between preterm delivery and the psychosocial environment of the pregnant woman. According to that suggestion, they are now making a study in the university obstetrical service of the CHR Citadelle (Liege). The first part of the research has enabled to identify different risk factors such as: illegitimate pregnancy, future mother living alone, unemployed husband, no wage, stress, earlier miscarriage, social isolation, less than 2 years between 2 babies, bad satisfying pregnancy on a psychological and/or physical point of view. According to the study and literature results, a psychosocial risk screening overview has been elaborated. It would permit to identify the cases leading surely to a preterm delivery. That study is financed by a convention between the "Ministere de la Culture et des Affaires sociales de la Communaute francaise". [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... un phénomène de Raynaud
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(3), 119-20

Raynaud's phenomenon is a paroxysmal vasospasm affecting the extremities, particularly the fingers. The idiopathic type is the most frequently encountered and the secondary types have multiple origins ... [more ▼]

Raynaud's phenomenon is a paroxysmal vasospasm affecting the extremities, particularly the fingers. The idiopathic type is the most frequently encountered and the secondary types have multiple origins. The mainstay of treatment relies on hygieno-dietetic measures. When they fail, calcium antagonists, sustained-release transdermal glyceryl trinitrate and a few other vasoactive drugs may prove to be effective. However, side effects may limit their prescription. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of Spinal Cord Evoked Injury Potential by Use of Computer Modeling and in Dogs with Naturally Acquired Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord Compression
Poncelet, Luc; Michaux, Charles ULg; Grauwels, Magda ULg

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1998), 59(3), 300-6

OBJECTIVE: To add objective measurements of the characteristics of evoked injury potentials (EIP) and their relations to clinical severity in dogs with thoracolumbar spinal cord damage. ANIMALS: 25 dogs ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To add objective measurements of the characteristics of evoked injury potentials (EIP) and their relations to clinical severity in dogs with thoracolumbar spinal cord damage. ANIMALS: 25 dogs with naturally acquired spinal cord compression attributable to disk extrusion or vertebral fracture at the level of the thoracolumbar junction and with various degrees of paresis/paralysis. PROCEDURE: Spinal cord potentials evoked by tibial nerve stimulation were recorded every 5 to 10 mm at the lamina level in the vicinity of the cord compression. This allowed an EIP to be recorded even in the least handicapped dogs. A computer model yielded information about the waveform changes of the EIP in the vicinity of conduction blocks. RESULTS: The EIP waveform changed from biphasic to monophasic a short distance caudad to the location of spinal cord compression. Location of a maximal conduction block was measured in relation to position of the electrodes recording this waveform change. The distance between the assumed conduction block and the actual spinal cord compression was larger in the most affected dogs. The amplitude of the EIP was not related to severity of the clinical picture; however, the proximity of the recording electrode to the spine influenced the amplitude and the waveform of the EIP. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Change in the EIP waveform from biphasic to monophasic makes it possible to estimate the conduction block location along the spinal cord. A large distance between the assumed conduction block and site of actual cord compression could be an objective argument to confirm severity of a lesion. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of Psychrophilic Genes in Mesophilic Hosts: Assessment of the Folding State of a Recombinant Alpha-Amylase
Feller, Georges ULg; Le Bussy, O.; Gerday, Charles ULg

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (1998), 64(3), 1163-5

Alpha-Amylase from the antarctic psychrophile Altermonas haloplanktis is synthesized at 0 +/- 2 degrees C by the wild strain. This heat-labile alpha-amylase folds correctly when overexpressed in ... [more ▼]

Alpha-Amylase from the antarctic psychrophile Altermonas haloplanktis is synthesized at 0 +/- 2 degrees C by the wild strain. This heat-labile alpha-amylase folds correctly when overexpressed in Escherichia coli, providing the culture temperature is sufficiently low to avoid irreversible denaturation. In the described expression system, a compromise between enzyme stability and E. coli growth rate is reached at 18 degrees C. [less ▲]

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See detailRadioimmunoassay of Substance P in Lung Perfusate
Nemmar, A.; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Delaunois, Annie ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmacological & Toxicological Methods (1998), 39(2), 109-115

A radioimmunoassay of the undecapeptide substance P (SP) and its application in rabbit lung superfusate has been developed. The assay was based on the use of a radioactive tracer, 125I-SP-Tyr8, which ... [more ▼]

A radioimmunoassay of the undecapeptide substance P (SP) and its application in rabbit lung superfusate has been developed. The assay was based on the use of a radioactive tracer, 125I-SP-Tyr8, which showed, with an excess of antibodies, a specific binding greater than 90% and a nonspecific binding lower than 2%. This tracer was stable for 4 weeks at -20 degrees C. Its specific radioactivity was 384 Ci/mmol. The assay's lower limit of detection was 10 pg/ml (0.7 fmol). The determination of SP in rabbit lung perfusate required extraction and concentration using octadecylsilane cartridges. Under these conditions, the recovery of SP from experiments on lung perfusates (n=4) was 75.0+/-4.5%, and the intraassay and interassay coefficients of variation were 7.3+/-1.9% and 10.7+/-1.3%, respectively. Amounts of SP released in rabbit lung perfusates were determined following stimulation of pulmonary C fibers with capsaicin (10(-4) M). During the stimulation period, the values of SP from lung perfusates (n=6) increased significantly when compared with baseline values. [less ▲]

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See detailMoyens de contestation et expropriation
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1998), 3

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See detailExternal Quality Assessment (Eqa) of Belgian Clinical Laboratories. The Telematics Paradigm
Albert, Adelin ULg; De Moor, G.; Libeer, J. C.

in Clinica Chimica Acta (1998), 270(1), 43-54

Technology that enables communication between information systems has recently become cheaper and more powerful. It is therefore timely to consider the effects of the introduction of such techniques in ... [more ▼]

Technology that enables communication between information systems has recently become cheaper and more powerful. It is therefore timely to consider the effects of the introduction of such techniques in external quality assessment (EQA) schemes on both users and organizers. Traditionally, results are returned to EQA organizers as hand-written numbers on structured forms. These data are then manually entered into a computer. The process is time-consuming, slow (as it depends on the postal service), prone to error at every transcription stage, and expensive, as clerical staff must be employed to input the data. Computer-to-computer communication allows this process to be improved. A telematics system for electronic data interchange has been developed for the Belgian EQA programme and it offers several advantages, such as the use of standardized semantics, expression of results in laboratory familiar units, possible interface with the Laboratory Information System, faster data analysis, shorter report time and long-term performance evaluation. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(2-oxepane-1,5-dione) : a highly crystalline modified poly (epsilon-caprolactone) of a high melting temperature
Tian, Dong; Halleux, Olivier; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1998), 31(3), 924-927

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See detailCloning of the Rat Brain Cdna Encoding for the Slc-1 G Protein-Coupled Receptor Reveals the Presence of an Intron in the Gene
Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Minet, Arlette ULg; Zorzi, Willy ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1998), 1401(2), 216-20

In order to isolate new G protein-coupled receptors expressed in the cerebral cortex, a set of degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to the third and seventh transmembrane segment were synthetized ... [more ▼]

In order to isolate new G protein-coupled receptors expressed in the cerebral cortex, a set of degenerate oligonucleotides corresponding to the third and seventh transmembrane segment were synthetized. Their use in PCR on rat brain cortex mRNA amplified several cDNA fragments. One of them, a 526 bp sequence, encoded for what was at that time an unknown G protein-coupled receptor. An oligonucleotide derived from the sequence was then used as a probe to isolate the receptor cDNA from a rat brain cDNA library. It encodes for a 353aa protein with seven transmembrane segments, three consensus N-glycosylation sites at the amino terminus and several potential phosphorylation sites in the intracellular loops. This protein shares 91% overall identity with a recently cloned human somatostatin-like receptor of 402aa named SLC-1. This suggests that we have cloned the rat orthologue of the human SLC-1. However, the extracellular N-terminus of the human receptor is 49 amino acids longer and shows 50% identity with the rat one. Because the human sequence was deduced from genomic DNA, we suspected the presence of an intron in the gene. This was confirmed by PCR using primers spanning the intron. On the basis of the sequence of a 128 kb fragment of chromosome 22 encompassing the SLC-1 gene, we were able to deduce a corrected amino acids sequence for the human receptor. So both rat and human SLC-1 receptors are 353aa long, with three consensus N-glycosylation sites. They share 96% identity at the amino acid level and are encoded by a gene containing one intron in the coding sequence. [less ▲]

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See detailAnatomical Relationships between Aromatase and Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Quail Brain: Double-Label Immunocytochemical Studies
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg; Baillien, M. et al

in Journal of Comparative Neurology (The) (1998), 391(2), 214-26

The activation of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) requires the transformation of testosterone to 17beta-estradiol by the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthetase). There are ... [more ▼]

The activation of male sexual behavior in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) requires the transformation of testosterone to 17beta-estradiol by the enzyme aromatase (estrogen synthetase). There are prominent sex differences in aromatase activity that may be regulated in part by sex differences in catecholaminergic activity. In this study, we investigate, with double-label immunocytochemistry methods, the anatomical relationship between the catecholamine synthesizing enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and aromatase (ARO) in the quail brain. The immunoreactivity observed for each antigen generally matched the previously described distribution. One exception is the observation that cells weakly labeled for aromatase were found widely distributed throughout the telencephalon. The presence of telencephalic aromatase was confirmed independently by radioenzymatic assays. There was an extensive overlap between the distribution of the two antigens in many brain areas. In all densely labeled aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) cell groups, including the preoptic medial nucleus, nucleus of the stria terminalis, mediobasal hypothalamus, and paleostriatum ventrale, ARO-ir cells were found in close association with TH-ir fibers. These TH-ir fibers often converged on an ARO-ir cell, and one or more TH-ir punctate structure(s) were found in close contact with nearly every densely labeled ARO-ir cell. In the telencephalon (mostly the neostriatum), all TH-ir fibers were found to be part of fiber groups that surrounded weakly immunoreactive aromatase cells. The few cells exhibiting an intracellular colocalization were detected in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that catecholaminergic inputs regulate brain aromatase. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of poly((dimethylamino)alkyl methacrylate-block-sodium metha-crylate) micelles. Influence of hydrophobicity and molecular architecture on the exchange rate of copolymer molecules
Creutz, Serge; Van Stam, Jan; De Schrijver, Frans C et al

in Macromolecules (1998), 31(3), 681-689

The dynamic stability of the micellar aggregates formed by amphiphilic block copolymers, i.e., poly((dimethylamino)alkyl methacrylate-b-sodium methacrylate), has been investigated by steady-state ... [more ▼]

The dynamic stability of the micellar aggregates formed by amphiphilic block copolymers, i.e., poly((dimethylamino)alkyl methacrylate-b-sodium methacrylate), has been investigated by steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. The dynamics of exchange of block copolymer molecules between the micelles, formed in aqueous solution, depend on a manifold of factors, e.g., alkyl substituent in the hydrophobic block, the relation between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic blocks, and the architecture of the block copolymer. All copolymers investigated show a slow unimer exchange with an exchange rate constant on the order of 10-3 s-1, with a difference of a factor of 20 between the fastest and the slowest exchange. It is possible to tune the exchange rate in a controlled way; for instance, an extension or branching of the alkyl chain slows down the exchange rate. The same effect is observed when the hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance of these copolymers is increased or when either the hydrophilic or the hydrophobic moiety of diblocks is divided into two external blocks, leading to a triblock copolymer. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of the lensing galaxy in HE 1104-1805
Courbin, F.; Lidman, C.; Magain, Pierre ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1998), 330

We report on deep IR imaging of the double quasar HE 1104-1805. A new image deconvolution technique has been applied to the data in order to optimally combine the numerous frames obtained. The resulting J ... [more ▼]

We report on deep IR imaging of the double quasar HE 1104-1805. A new image deconvolution technique has been applied to the data in order to optimally combine the numerous frames obtained. The resulting J and K' images allow us to detect and study the lensing galaxy between the two lensed QSO images. The near infrared images not only confirm the lensed nature of this double quasar, but also support the previous redshift estimate of z=1.66 for the lensing galaxy. No obvious overdensity of galaxies is detected in the immediate region surrounding the lens, down to limiting magnitudes of J=22 and K=20. The geometry of the system, together with the time delays expected for this lensed quasar, make HE 1104-1805 a remarkable target for future photometric monitoring programs, for the study of microlensing and for the determination of the cosmological parameters in the IR and optical domains. Based on observations obtained at ESO, La Silla, Chile [less ▲]

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See detailField halo stars: the globular cluster connection
Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Magain, Pierre ULg; Neuforge, Corinne et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1998), 330

High resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of about 20 metal-poor stars have been analysed. The correlations between the relative abundances of 16 elements have been studied, with a special emphasis ... [more ▼]

High resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of about 20 metal-poor stars have been analysed. The correlations between the relative abundances of 16 elements have been studied, with a special emphasis on the neutron-capture ones. This analysis reveals the existence of two subpopulations of field halo stars, namely Pop IIa and Pop IIb. They differ by the behaviour of the s-process elements versus the alpha and r-process elements. A scenario for the formation of these stars is presented, which closely relates the origin of field halo stars to the evolution of globular clusters. According to this scenario, the two sub-populations originate from two different stages in the globular cluster's chemical evolution. Based on observations carried out at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla, Chile) [less ▲]

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See detailDeconvolution with Correct Sampling
Magain, Pierre ULg; Courbin, F.; Sohy, Sandrine ULg

in Astrophysical Journal (1998), 494

A new method for improving the resolution of astronomical images is presented. It is based on the principle that sampled data cannot be fully deconvolved without violating the sampling theorem. Thus, the ... [more ▼]

A new method for improving the resolution of astronomical images is presented. It is based on the principle that sampled data cannot be fully deconvolved without violating the sampling theorem. Thus, the sampled image should be deconvolved not by the total point-spread function but by a narrower function chosen so that the resolution of the deconvolved image is compatible with the adopted sampling. Our deconvolution method gives results that are, in at least some cases, superior to those of other commonly used techniques: in particular, it does not produce ringing around point sources superposed on a smooth background. Moreover, it allows researchers to perform accurate astrometry and photometry of crowded fields. These improvements are a consequence of both the correct treatment of sampling and the recognition that the most probable astronomical image is not a flat one. The method is also well adapted to the optimal combination of different images of the same object, as can be obtained, e.g., from infrared observations or via adaptive optics techniques. [less ▲]

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See detailThe observed periods of Ap and Bp stars
Catalano, F. A.; Renson, Pierre ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (1998), 127

A catalogue of all the periods up to now proposed for the variations of CP2, CP3, and CP4 stars is presented. The main identifiers (HD and HR), the proper name, the variable-star name, and the spectral ... [more ▼]

A catalogue of all the periods up to now proposed for the variations of CP2, CP3, and CP4 stars is presented. The main identifiers (HD and HR), the proper name, the variable-star name, and the spectral type and peculiarity are given for each star as far as the coordinates at 2000.0 and the visual magnitude. The nature of the observed variations (light, spectrum, magnetic field, etc.) is presented in a codified way. The catalogue is arranged in three tables: the bulk of the data, i.e. those referring to CP2, CP3, and CP4 stars, are given in Table 1, while the data concerning He-strong stars are given in Table 2 and those for eclipsing or ellipsoidal variables are collected in Table 3. Notes are also provided at the end of each table, mainly about duplicities. The catalogue contains data on 364 CP stars and is updated to 1996, October 31. This research has made use of the SIMBAD database, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Macrophage Transplantation in the Injured Adult Rat Spinal Cord: A Combined Immunocytochemical and Biochemical Study
Franzen, Rachelle ULg; Schoenen, Jean ULg; Leprince, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (1998), 51(3), 316-27

Early and robust invasion by macrophages may be one of the reasons why axonal regeneration is more effective in the PNS than in the CNS. Therefore, we have grafted autologous peritoneal macrophages ... [more ▼]

Early and robust invasion by macrophages may be one of the reasons why axonal regeneration is more effective in the PNS than in the CNS. Therefore, we have grafted autologous peritoneal macrophages labeled with fluorescent latex microspheres into spinal cord compression lesions. At various survival times, we have studied their effect on the expression of neuronal (neurofilaments [NF], calcitonin gene-related peptide [CGRP], 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) and nonneuronal markers (myelin-associated glycoprotein [MAG], glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAP], laminin) by using semiquantitative Western blot and immunohistochemical techniques. After 1 month, we observed a significant decrease of the expression of MAG as well as an important invasion of the lesion site by neurites, chiefly peptidergic axons of presumed dorsal root origin, in macrophage-grafted animals compared with controls. In addition, angiogenesis and Schwann cell infiltration were more pronounced after macrophage grafts, providing an increase in laminin, a favorable substrate for axonal regrowth. By using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), mRNAs for tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were detected in the transplanted cells, whereas results were negative for nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), or acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Thus, macrophage grafts may represent an interesting strategy to promote axonal regeneration in the CNS. Our study suggests that they may exert their beneficial effects by degrading myelin products, which inhibit axonal regrowth, and by promoting a permissive extracellular matrix containing notably laminin. No evidence for a direct synthesis of neurotrophic factors by the transplanted macrophages was found in this study, but resident glial cells could secrete such factors as a result of stimulation by macrophage-released cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailMalignant Melanoma Staging Using Whole-Body Positron Emission Tomography
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Rigo, Pierre ULg et al

in Melanoma Research (1998), 8(1), 59-62

The correct staging of potentially metastatic melanoma is essential for an appropriate therapeutic attitude. Current methods include computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and ... [more ▼]

The correct staging of potentially metastatic melanoma is essential for an appropriate therapeutic attitude. Current methods include computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and scintigraphy. Another tool is whole-body positron tomography using the radiopharmaceutical 2-fluorine-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose as an emitter because it accumulates inside neoplasms, especially melanoma. We report two cases of malignant melanoma in which computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging suggested visceral metastatic spread. In contrast, whole-body positron emission tomography indicated the absence of metastases, and this was confirmed by histological examination of the organs where metastases were suspected. Whole-body positron emission tomography appears to have high specificity and sensitivity for clinical melanoma staging. [less ▲]

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See detailEtat actuel des transplantations d'organes: place à la xénotransplantation?
Franssen, Colette ULg; Lambrigts, D.; Degesves, S. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(2), 97-102

In the last few years, transplantation was an area of intense research activity. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor organs for clinical transplantations. Currently, interest in ... [more ▼]

In the last few years, transplantation was an area of intense research activity. However, there is a worldwide shortage of donor organs for clinical transplantations. Currently, interest in xenotransplantation research is growing not only because of the increased demand for organs but also because of advances in molecular biology techniques that make possible the genetic or immunological manipulations of the animal donor rather than the human recipient. The better definitions of the mechanisms responsible for xenograft rejection should facilitate appropriate therapeutic strategies for long xenograft survival. [less ▲]

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See detailTyping of Nosocomial Strains of Serratia Marcescens: Comparison of Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis of Macrorestriction Fragments with Biotyping, Esterase Typing and Ribotyping
Chetoui, Hafid; Delhalle, Edmond; Melin, Pierrette ULg et al

in Research in Microbiology (1998), 149(2), 137-43

Fifty nosocomial isolates of Serratia marcescens, collected in six Belgian hospitals between 1986 and 1990, were characterized by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI. The results were ... [more ▼]

Fifty nosocomial isolates of Serratia marcescens, collected in six Belgian hospitals between 1986 and 1990, were characterized by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with XbaI. The results were compared with those previously obtained by three other methods: biotyping, esterase electrophoresis typing and ribotyping with EcoRI and HindIII. Macrorestriction analysis (42 PFGE groups) and esterase typing (42 zymotypes) proved to be the most discriminating, followed by ribotyping (28 ribotypes) and biotyping (10 biochemical profiles). Biotyping would serve as a screen to identify isolates, due to its accessibility. Esterase typing provided a reliable tool to make subdivisions within biotypes because of congruence between biochemical groups and esterase patterns. Additional discrimination was still achieved by ribotyping and PFGE. It is concluded that the combined results of these four markers were useful for distinguishing all epidemic and sporadic isolates. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of High-Dose Riboflavin in Migraine Prophylaxis. A Randomized Controlled Trial
Schoenen, Jean ULg; Jacquy, J.; Lenaerts, M.

in Neurology (1998), 50(2), 466-70

A deficit of mitochondrial energy metabolism may play a role in migraine pathogenesis. We found in a previous open study that high-dose riboflavin was effective in migraine prophylaxis. We now compared ... [more ▼]

A deficit of mitochondrial energy metabolism may play a role in migraine pathogenesis. We found in a previous open study that high-dose riboflavin was effective in migraine prophylaxis. We now compared riboflavin (400 mg) and placebo in 55 patients with migraine in a randomized trial of 3 months duration. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, riboflavin was superior to placebo in reducing attack frequency (p = 0.005) and headache days (p = 0.012). Regarding the latter, the proportion of patients who improved by at least 50%, i.e. "responders," was 15% for placebo and 59% for riboflavin (p = 0.002) and the number-needed-to-treat for effectiveness was 2.3. Three minor adverse events occurred, two in the riboflavin group (diarrhea and polyuria) and one in the placebo group (abdominal cramps). None was serious. Because of its high efficacy, excellent tolerability, and low cost, riboflavin is an interesting option for migraine prophylaxis and a candidate for a comparative trial with an established prophylactic drug. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence That Breast Cancer Associated Microcalcifications Are Mineralized Malignant Cells
Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg; Bellahcene, Akeila ULg

in International Journal of Oncology (1998), 12(2), 305-8

Microcalcifications are often associated with both benign and malignant human breast lesions. Around 40% of mammary carcinoma present such ectopic mineralization and frequently, they are the only ... [more ▼]

Microcalcifications are often associated with both benign and malignant human breast lesions. Around 40% of mammary carcinoma present such ectopic mineralization and frequently, they are the only mammographic feature that indicate the presence of a tumoral lesion. Microcalcifications associated with breast cancer are usually composed of hydroxyapatite, the bone specific mineral. The mechanisms responsible for the formation of such crystals within breast malignant tissue have not been elucidated. A possible clue could be provided by the recent demonstration that breast cancer cells express several bone matrix proteins including osteonectin, osteopontin and bone sialoprotein (BSP). This latter phospho-protein is involved in the initiation of hydroxyapatite crystallisation and its expression in breast cancer has been associated to the presence of hydroxyapatite microcalcifications. We examined 10 human breast cancer lesions which were characterized by the presence of microcalcifications and high expression of BSP. Histological examination of the lesions suggested, in most of the cases, that the microcalcifications were breast cancer cells which became mineralized. Hydroxyapatite stained in blue by hematoxylin appears concentrated around single of associated cancer cells. Staining of these tissue sections with 4',6 diamidino-2-phenylindole which specifically labels DNA led us to demonstrate that the mineralizated structures contain cells. These data are the first direct demonstration that breast microcalcifications are fossils of cancer cells. The mechanisms for such a phenomenon remain to be demonstrated. We speculate that the high expression of BSP could create an appropriate microenvironment for the crystallisation of calcium and phosphate into hydroxyapatite. [less ▲]

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See detailDelayed-onset profound biotnidase deficiency
Wolf, B.; Pomponio, R.; Norrgard, K. et al

in Journal of Pediatrics (1998), 132(2), 362-365

Children with biotinidase deficiency usually exhibit symptoms at several months to years of age. We describe four children who had symptoms later in childhood or during adolescence; they had motor limb ... [more ▼]

Children with biotinidase deficiency usually exhibit symptoms at several months to years of age. We describe four children who had symptoms later in childhood or during adolescence; they had motor limb weakness, spastic paresis, and eye problems, such as loss of visual acuity and scotomata, rather than the more characteristic symptoms observed in young untreated children with the disorder. These older children each have different mutations, but they are the same as those of children who have exhibited symptoms at on early age. Biotinidase deficiency should be considered in older children who suddenly experience limb weakness and/or spastic paresis and eye symptoms. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Nd-123 superconducting system: From single crystal to top-seeded large grain. Physical and chemical parameters influence
Auguste, F.; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg et al

in Applied Superconductivity (1998), 6(2-5), 77-85

Nd-123 signle crystals have been produced via the Aux method in alumina crucibles by controlling the chemical composition of the flux. For so doing, quenched materials have been prepared and analyzed in ... [more ▼]

Nd-123 signle crystals have been produced via the Aux method in alumina crucibles by controlling the chemical composition of the flux. For so doing, quenched materials have been prepared and analyzed in order to get information about the optimum barium: copper ratio for an unchanged neodymium concentration. Non corrosive fluxes with a low viscosity have been put into evidence and can thus be used for single crystal production. Experiments have been performed with three different chemical compositions of the Aux and by considering various amounts of neodymium oxide for each system. The single crystals have been analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and used for the synthesis of large Dy-123 single-domains? [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between the Natural Postnatal Maturation and the Spermine-Induced Maturation of the Rat Intestine
Peulen, Olivier ULg; Pirlet, Christine; Klimek, Monique ULg et al

in Archives of Physiology & Biochemistry (1998), 106(1), 46-55

In the suckling rats, orally provided spermine induced structural and biochemical changes in the intestine, which are characteristics of the postnatal maturation. This induced maturation was compared to ... [more ▼]

In the suckling rats, orally provided spermine induced structural and biochemical changes in the intestine, which are characteristics of the postnatal maturation. This induced maturation was compared to that occurring spontaneously. Eight mumol spermine were administered orally once a day, for one or three days, to suckling rats which were 11 days old at the beginning of the experiment. The animals were killed 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 hours or 3 days after the first treatment. Control rats from the same litter were treated in the same way but received only the vehicle. In order to complete the study of the naturally occurring maturation, another group of rats was killed when they were 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 or 30 days old. Animal and intestine weights were measured. Disaccharidase specific activity, and protein, DNA and RNA contents were estimated in the small intestine. Histological and ultrastructural aspects of the intestinal mucosa were examined. For all these parameters, the maturation induced by spermine ingestion appeared close to that occurring naturally at weaning. Consequently, dietary spermine induces all the morphological and biochemical modifications characterizing the intestinal postnatal maturation in the suckling rat suggesting a role of the polyamines in the naturally occurring processes. [less ▲]

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See detailCabergoline in the treatment of acromegaly: a study in 64 patients.
Abs, Roger; Verhelst, Johan; Maiter, Dominique et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1998), 83(2), 374-8

Cabergoline is a new, long acting, dopamine agonist that is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Because dopamine agonists still have a place in the ... [more ▼]

Cabergoline is a new, long acting, dopamine agonist that is more effective and better tolerated than bromocriptine in patients with hyperprolactinemia. Because dopamine agonists still have a place in the medical management of acromegaly, cabergoline might be a useful treatment. We, therefore, evaluated the effect of long term administration of cabergoline in a large group of unselected acromegalic patients. Sixty-four patients were included in a multicenter, prospective, open labeled study. A subgroup of 16 patients had GH-/PRL-cosecreting pituitary adenomas. Cabergoline was started at a dose of 1.0 mg/week and was gradually increased until normalization of plasma insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) levels, occurrence of unacceptable side-effects, or a maximal weekly dose of 3.5 mg (7.0 mg in 1 case) was reached. Treatment with cabergoline suppressed plasma IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L in 39% of cases and between 300-450 micrograms/L in another 28%. With pretreatment plasma IGF-I concentrations less than 750 micrograms/L, a suppression of IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L was obtained in 53% of cases, and a suppression between 300-450 micrograms/L was obtained in another 32%. By contrast, with pretreatment plasma IGF-I concentrations above 750 micrograms/L, only 17% of cases showed a suppression of IGF-I below 300 micrograms/L, and there was IGF-I suppression between 300-450 micrograms/L in another 21%. In GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenomas, 50% of cases suppressed plasma IGF-I levels below 300 micrograms/L, and another 31% did so between 300-450 micrograms/L, in contrast to only 35% and 27%, respectively in GH-secreting adenomas. Similar results were obtained concerning the secretion of GH. Tumor shrinkage was demonstrated in 13 of 21 patients, with a mass reduction by more than half in 5 GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenomas. Except for slight gastrointestinal discomfort and orthostatic hypotension in a few patients at the beginning of therapy, cabergoline treatment was well tolerated. Only 2 patients stopped medication because of nausea. The weekly dose of cabergoline ranged between 1.0-1.75 mg. A further increase in the dose was only effective in 1 GH-/PRL-cosecreting adenoma. The results of this study suggest that cabergoline is an effective, well tolerated therapy that should be considered in the management of acromegaly, especially if the pituitary adenoma cosecretes GH and PRL or if pretreatment plasma IGF-I levels are below 750 micrograms/L. [less ▲]

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See detailSystemic and Intracerebroventricular Injections of Vasotocin Inhibit Appetitive and Consummatory Components of Male Sexual Behavior in Japanese Quail
Castagna, C.; Absil, Philippe ULg; Foidart, Agnès ULg et al

in Behavioral Neuroscience (1998), 112(1), 233-50

The authors investigated the behavioral actions of vasotocin (VT) in castrated testosterone-treated male Japanese quail. The appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior as well as the ... [more ▼]

The authors investigated the behavioral actions of vasotocin (VT) in castrated testosterone-treated male Japanese quail. The appetitive and consummatory components of sexual behavior as well as the occurrence frequency of crows were inhibited, in a dose-dependent manner, by injections of VT. The authors observed opposite effects after injection of the V1 receptor antagonist, dPTyr(Me)AVP. Lower doses of VT were more active after central than after systemic injection, and effects of systemic injections of VT were blocked by a central injection of dPTyr(Me)AVP. The behavioral inhibition was associated with a modified diuresis after systemic but not central injection. These results provide direct evidence that VT affects male sexual behavior in quail by a direct action on the brain independent of its peripheral action on diuresis. [less ▲]

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See detailBiodegradable and biocompatible inorganic-organic hybrid materials. 2. Dynamic mechanical properties, structure and morphology
Tian, Dong; Blacher, Silvia ULg; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Polymer (1998), 39(4), 855-864

Dynamic mechanical properties, structure and morphology of tetraethoxysilane/poly(ε-caprolactone) (TEOS/ PCL) hybrid materials have been analysed by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray ... [more ▼]

Dynamic mechanical properties, structure and morphology of tetraethoxysilane/poly(ε-caprolactone) (TEOS/ PCL) hybrid materials have been analysed by dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and image analysis. The experimental observations agree with a microscopic phase separation of the two constitutive components: the organic polymer and the silica network. The effect of the PCL functional end-groups, the number of functional end-groups per PCL chain, the PCL molecular weight and content, and the curing conditions have been studied on the structure and properties of the hybrid materials. Finally, phase morphology has proved to be co-continuous, at least when the weight composition is close to 50% for each component (SiO2 and PCL), with a characteristic length between the PCL and silica phases of ca. 5 nm, as estimated by image analysis of transmission electron micrographs. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferentiation Among Potyviruses Infecting Sweet Potato Based on Genus- and Virus-Specific Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction
Colinet, Dominique; Nguyen, Minh ULg; Kummert, Jean et al

in Plant Disease (1998), 82(fevrier), 223-229

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See detailBronchial Responsiveness in Active Steelworkers
Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg; Bury, Thierry ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg et al

in European Respiratory Journal (1998), 11(2), 272-7

Coke-oven workers are exposed to dust and irritant gases. Therefore they are at risk of developing lung diseases including chronic bronchitis. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) has been ... [more ▼]

Coke-oven workers are exposed to dust and irritant gases. Therefore they are at risk of developing lung diseases including chronic bronchitis. Nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) has been advocated as a potential risk factor predisposing to the development of chronic bronchitis. In a previous study, we showed that prevalence of BHR was higher in retired coke-oven workers than in retired blast furnace workers. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of BHR in active steelworkers. Thus, 137 coke-oven workers and 150 blast furnace workers underwent clinical examination, a standardized questionnaire for the study of respiratory symptoms, pulmonary function testing and methacholine aerosol challenge. The study demonstrates a higher prevalence and degree of BHR [provocative concentration of methacholine causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (PC20) < or = 8 mg x mL(-1)] in coke-oven workers than in blast furnace workers (31.4 versus 6.7%; p<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of respiratory symptoms and basal bronchial obstruction were greater among coke-oven workers with BHR in nonresponders. The basal maximum expiratory flow from 25-75% of forced vital capacity and the respiratory symptoms were correlated with bronchial responsiveness. The lack of correlation observed between BHR and the intensity of smoking or years spent in coke-oven environment may be explained by the high proportion of smokers, the worker turnover in the steel plant, and the "healthy worker effect". In conclusion, the higher prevalence and degree of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in coke-oven workers suggests that coke-oven pollutants are more intense irritants than those that escape from blast furnaces. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth of pulmonary artery after arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries.
Massin, M. M.; Nitsch, G. B.; Dabritz, S. et al

in European Journal of Pediatrics (1998), 157(2), 95-100

This retrospective study attempts to assess the size and growth pattern of the pulmonary artery about 1 year after neonatal arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries. Sixty ... [more ▼]

This retrospective study attempts to assess the size and growth pattern of the pulmonary artery about 1 year after neonatal arterial switch operation for simple transposition of the great arteries. Sixty-seven patients underwent cardiac catheterization, including catheterization of the right and left pulmonary arteries, and right ventricular angiography an average of 13.9 months after arterial switch operation. In 34 of these patients pre-operative right ventricular angiocardiograms were available. The diameter of the main pulmonary artery and that of its proximal right and left branches were measured. The values were compared to those of normal children matched for body surface area, taken from the literature and, for the branch values, related to the degree of branch stenosis and to the corresponding values, measured on pre-operative angiocardiograms. The cross-section of the main pulmonary artery after arterial switch operation with Lecompte manoeuvre becomes oval. The branches of the pulmonary artery are sometimes underdeveloped and this finding is related to branch stenosis. The ratio of the branch gradients is inversely proportional to the growth ratio of both branches while the pre- and postoperative Nakata indices are identical. CONCLUSION: The Lecompte manoeuvre induces a flattening of the main pulmonary artery with concomitant reduction of its cross-sectional area. There is also frequently trivial or rarely moderate branch pulmonary stenosis which is accompanied by growth retardation of the concerned branch. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. A propos d'un cas de ganglioneurome surrénalien: les incidentalomes
QUATRESOOZ, Pascale ULg; THIRY, Albert ULg; BONIVER, Jacques ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(2), 63-6

We present a case of adrenal ganglioneuroma discovered during a gastric exploration. We review and discuss the recent literature about "incidentaloma". We propose a reflexion about the investigation of ... [more ▼]

We present a case of adrenal ganglioneuroma discovered during a gastric exploration. We review and discuss the recent literature about "incidentaloma". We propose a reflexion about the investigation of these masses. [less ▲]

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See detailCouverture des besoins en proteines et acides amines des vaches laitieres hautes productrices.
Thewis, André ULg

in Elevages Belges (1998), 52(2), 34-37

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See detailExpropriations d'extrême urgence
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immoblier (1998), 2

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See detailComparative Effects of University of Wisconsin and Euro-Collins Solutions on Pulmonary Mitochondrial Function after Ischemia and Reperfusion
Detry, Olivier ULg; Willet, K.; Lambermont, Bernard ULg et al

in Transplantation (1998), 65(2), 161-6

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin solutions on pulmonary mitochondrial function after cold ischemia and subsequent warm reperfusion ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Euro-Collins and University of Wisconsin solutions on pulmonary mitochondrial function after cold ischemia and subsequent warm reperfusion. METHODS: Seventeen pigs underwent lung harvesting after classical lung flush with either University of Wisconsin or Euro-Collins solutions. The mitochondria were isolated from fresh swine lungs, from swine lungs subjected to 24 hr of cold ischemia, and from swine lungs subjected to 24 hr of ischemia followed by 30 min of subsequent ex vivo reperfusion at 37 degrees C with Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution and air ventilation. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation parameters were determined in isolated mitochondria by in vitro measurement of oxygen consumption rates. During reperfusion, the lung function was assessed by the pulmonary aerodynamic parameters and the pulmonary vascular resistance. RESULTS: Relative to controls, mitochondria submitted to cold ischemia showed an alteration in the oxidoreductase activities of the respiratory chain. However, the yield of oxidative phosphorylation was conserved. After reperfusion, pulmonary mitochondria underwent a significant worsening in the oxidoreductase activities of the respiratory chain, and a decrease in the respiratory control and the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. Meanwhile, the reperfused lungs showed evidence of early dysfunction, assessed by the aerodynamic parameters and pulmonary vascular resistance. In this model, there was no advantage of University of Wisconsin solution over Euro-Collins solution. CONCLUSIONS: The mild mitochondrial alterations after cold ischemia were not sufficient to explain the limited tolerance of lung to ischemia. After reperfusion, the mitochondrial damage was more severe and could be involved in the posttransplant lung dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate initiated by an alkyl halide in the presence of the Wilkinson catalyst
Moineau, Georges; Granel, Claude; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1998), 31(2), 542-544

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See detailDual living free radical and ring opening polymerizations from a double-headed initiator
Hawker, Craig J; Hedrick, James L; Malmström, Eva E et al

in Macromolecules (1998), 31(2), 213-219

The concept of performing dual living polymerizations from a single initiating molecule with no intermediate activation, or transformation, steps is presented. The compatibility of “living”, or controlled ... [more ▼]

The concept of performing dual living polymerizations from a single initiating molecule with no intermediate activation, or transformation, steps is presented. The compatibility of “living”, or controlled free radical procedures, either nitroxide mediated or atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), with the living ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, and vice versa, is demonstrated by the synthesis of a variety of well-defined block copolymers. For example, from a hydroxy-functionalized alkoxyamine, either the living ring opening polymerization of ε-caprolactone, or the “living” free radical polymerization of styrene can be performed leading to narrow polydispersity polymeric initiators. These polymeric initiators can then be used to initiate the living polymerization of the other monomer system without the need for intermediate steps. In a similar way, hydroxy-functionalized ATRP initiators can be used as bifunctional initiators for the polymerization of both ε-caprolactone and a variety of other vinyl monomers. The novel block copolymers that are obtained were shown to have low polydispersities and controllable molecular weights for both of the blocks. [less ▲]

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See detailStrychnochrysine, a New Bisindole Alkaloid from the Roots of Strychnos Nux-Vomica
Biala, Rose Gadi; Tits, Monique ULg; Penelle, Jacques et al

in Journal of Natural Products (1998), 61(1), 139-41

The reinvestigation of Strychnos nux-vomica resulted in the isolation of a colored monoquaternary bisindole alkaloid from the roots. The structure of this new orange substance, strychnochrysine (1), was ... [more ▼]

The reinvestigation of Strychnos nux-vomica resulted in the isolation of a colored monoquaternary bisindole alkaloid from the roots. The structure of this new orange substance, strychnochrysine (1), was defined by detailed spectroscopic methods. [less ▲]

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See detailSolvent effect on the electrografting of acrylonitrile on nickel
Mertens, Marc; Calberg, Cédric ULg; Baute, Noëlle et al

in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (1998), 441(1-2), 237-244

The effect of solvent on the reductive electrografting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel cathodes has been studied in dimethylformamide (DMF), a solvent for polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and in non-solvents ... [more ▼]

The effect of solvent on the reductive electrografting of acrylonitrile (AN) onto nickel cathodes has been studied in dimethylformamide (DMF), a solvent for polyacrylonitrile (PAN), and in non-solvents that include acetonitrile (ACN), propylene carbonate (PC) and pyridine (PY). Electrografting responsible for the cathode inhibition has been observed for the first time in PC and PY. Not only the polymer-solvent interactions but also the intrinsic polarity of the solvent have an effect on the intensity of the inhibition peak which is the signature of the electrografting reaction. Concentration of the monomer in the electrode double layer appears to decrease as the solvent polarity is increased, consistently with a more efficient displacement of the monomer by a more polar compound. That such a competition occurs is also supported by the effect of the nature and concentration of the conducting salt. The best quality films are formed in DMF, which is a solvent for PAN. Quartz microbalance experiments have emphasized the crucial importance of the potential range used for the AN electroreduction, particularly in a solvent of the polymer. [less ▲]

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See detailField Efficacy of Injectable Doramectin against Chorioptes Bovis in Naturally Infected Cattle
Losson, Bertrand ULg; Mignon, Bernard ULg; Bossaert, K. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1998), 142(1), 18-19

A single subcutaneous injection of doramectin at a dose rate of 200 micrograms/kg bodyweight was effective in controlling an infection of Chorioptes bovis mites in naturally infected cattle. From 14 days ... [more ▼]

A single subcutaneous injection of doramectin at a dose rate of 200 micrograms/kg bodyweight was effective in controlling an infection of Chorioptes bovis mites in naturally infected cattle. From 14 days after treatment, the geometric mean number of live mites was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in the doramectin-treated cattle than in the control group at each sampling until day 35. The percentage efficacy (treated versus controls) of doramectin against C bovis at day 35 was 99.9 per cent and the percentage reduction (day 35 versus day 0) in the treated animals was 99.3 per cent. At day 35, all seven controls were still positive for C bovis whereas five of the eight doramectin-treated animals were free of live mites. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Dexamethasone on the Profile of Cytokine Secretion in Human Whole Blood Cell Cultures
Franchimont, Denis; Louis, Edouard ULg; Dewé, Walthère ULg et al

in Regulatory Peptides (1998), 73(1), 59-65

EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES: The interaction between the endocrine and immune systems is a very intriguing area. Endogenous glucocorticoids, as end-effectors of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, inhibit ... [more ▼]

EXPERIMENTAL OBJECTIVES: The interaction between the endocrine and immune systems is a very intriguing area. Endogenous glucocorticoids, as end-effectors of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, inhibit the immune and inflammatory responses and are used as immunosuppressive drugs in many inflammatory, autoimmune and allergic diseases. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of dexamethasone on the profile of cytokine secretion in whole blood cell cultures from healthy subjects and to analyse the gender-related sensitivity to dexamethasone on each cytokine secretion. RESULTS: There was a significant inhibition by dexamethasone (from 1 to 100 nM) on the secretion of monokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF alpha) and lymphokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN gamma), either after LPS or PHA stimulation (P < 0.01). Interleukin 4 and IL-10 were less inhibited than IFN gamma (P < 0.05 at 1 nM, P < 0.01 at 10 nM and P < 0.001 from 100 nM to 10 microM). No gender difference was observed in the rate of inhibition of the secretion of each cytokine. CONCLUSION: This study shows that the inhibition of cytokine secretion by dexamethasone is more marked on Th1-type cytokines than on Th2-type cytokines. These data support the idea that glucocorticoids may induce a shift from the Th1 to Th2 profile of cytokine secretion. [less ▲]

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See detailVariations of Ap stars in the Geneva system
Manfroid, Jean ULg; Burnet, M.; Renson, Pierre ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (1998), 127

The photometric behaviour of 21 Ap stars has been analyzed from observations obtained in the Geneva system. Variability has been detected for 9 Ap stars, as well as for a star which initially was a ... [more ▼]

The photometric behaviour of 21 Ap stars has been analyzed from observations obtained in the Geneva system. Variability has been detected for 9 Ap stars, as well as for a star which initially was a comparison star. Preliminary values for the periods are presented as well as an analytical description of the light curves. based on observations made at the Swiss telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile. Complete Table 4 is available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 or http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html and full figures are accessible on the on-line version of the paper. [less ▲]

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See detailReal-time stroboscopic holographic interferometry using sillenite crystals for the quantitative analysis of vibrations
Georges, Marc ULg; Lemaire, Philippe

in Optics Communications (1998), 145

A breadboard holographic interferometer that uses a photorefractive sillenite crystal under anisotropic diffraction configuration is presented for application of quantitative vibration measurements. After ... [more ▼]

A breadboard holographic interferometer that uses a photorefractive sillenite crystal under anisotropic diffraction configuration is presented for application of quantitative vibration measurements. After the hologram of the object at rest is recorded, a stroboscope is used to observe the stable pattern of the vibrating object and phase-shifting is introduced for quantitative measurements. It is shown that this system can measure modal displacements of objects of typically 23×23 cm2 with high accuracy (λ/40) by using a continuous YAG laser emitting 490 mW at 532 nm. The error sources are investigated and particularly a systematic error arising from the stroboscopic process can be calculated and eliminated. [less ▲]

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See detailLattice gas model of gradual evolution
Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Mroz, I.; Pekalski, A. et al

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1998), 248(1-2), 155-164

A simple dynamical model is presented for describing the gradual evolution of a variable number of species. The system is studied through Monte Carlo simulations using a lattice gas formalism. Each ... [more ▼]

A simple dynamical model is presented for describing the gradual evolution of a variable number of species. The system is studied through Monte Carlo simulations using a lattice gas formalism. Each species is characterized by a single, scalar parameter ("adaptation") which is changed, within limits depending on the adaptation itself, at each time step. There are two independent mechanisms for removing a species from the system and one for creating a new species. We find that, regardless of the initial concentration of species, the system always reaches the same final state, characterized by the same concentration and the same average adaptation. The system is not homogeneous and contains species with different values of adaptation. The better adapted ones are found to form more symmetrical spatial patterns. Behavior similar to the one determined in the present model has been found in the evolving ecological and biological systems. [less ▲]

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See detailAlcool, drogues, médicaments et sécurité routière en Belgique. Belgian Toxicology and Trauma Study Research Group
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(1), 25-8

The BTTS study (Belgian Toxicology and Trauma Study) was performed in Belgium between January 15th 1995 and June 15th 1996. The purpose was to investigate how frequently the drivers involved in road ... [more ▼]

The BTTS study (Belgian Toxicology and Trauma Study) was performed in Belgium between January 15th 1995 and June 15th 1996. The purpose was to investigate how frequently the drivers involved in road accidents were driving under the influence of psychotropic drugs. Two thousand fifty-three blood tests were performed of which 207 in the Liege region. The results obtained at the national level are compared to those obtained at the level of the Liege region. In both cases, the BTTS study allows the conclusion that a considerable proportion of drivers involved in road accidents resulting in significant traumatic consequences were driving under the influence of substances with psychotropic properties. [less ▲]

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See detailInverse Modulation of Il-10 and Il-12 in the Blood of Women with Preneoplastic Lesions of the Uterine Cervix
Jacobs, Nathalie ULg; Giannini, Sandra L; Doyen, Jean ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (1998), 111(1), 219-24

It has been postulated that an impaired immune response may contribute to the progression of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated preneoplastic lesions. Based on this hypothesis, we evaluated the ... [more ▼]

It has been postulated that an impaired immune response may contribute to the progression of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated preneoplastic lesions. Based on this hypothesis, we evaluated the cytokine production in the blood of patients with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) of the uterine cervix. The levels of type-1 (interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-12) and type-2(IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines were measured in whole blood culture supernatants of patients with low- and high-grade SIL and control women. There was no difference in IL-4 and IFN-gamma levels between patients with SIL and the control group. In contrast, the ratio of IL-12/IL-10 levels was significantly lower in patients with SIL compared with the control group. A lower IL-12/IL-10 ratio in women with SIL was also observed when peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture supernatants and plasma samples were analysed. In patients, neither the lower expression of the CD3epsilon chain nor the higher frequency of HLA-DRB1*1501 expression could be correlated with abnormal cytokine production. These results suggest that a part of the cytokine network, namely IL-10 and IL-12, is perturbed in patients with SIL. A better knowledge of the role of these cytokines in regulating the growth of HPV-associated SIL might have practical implications for the development of vaccines or immunomodulatory strategies in the treatment of cervical cancers. [less ▲]

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See detailEndothelial Cell Intracellular Ca2+ Concentration Is Increased Upon Breast Tumor Cell Contact and Mediates Tumor Cell Transendothelial Migration
Lewalle, J. M.; Cataldo, Didier ULg; Bajou, Khalid ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Metastasis (1998), 16(1), 21-9

Tumor cell extravasation is a determinant step in the process of hematogenous metastasis. The signal transduction pathways involved in the interactions between tumor cells and the vascular endothelium ... [more ▼]

Tumor cell extravasation is a determinant step in the process of hematogenous metastasis. The signal transduction pathways involved in the interactions between tumor cells and the vascular endothelium during transendothelial migration are still undefined. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF7) on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). We show that the contact between MCF7 cells and a confluent HUVEC monolayer induces an immediate and transient increase in HUVEC [Ca2+]i. This [Ca2+]i rise could not be elicited by tumor cell-conditioned medium, isolated tumor cell membranes, inert beads or normal breast epithelial cells, demonstrating the involvement of specific recognition mechanisms between MCF7 cells and HUVEC. Depletion of HUVEC intracellular Ca2+ stores by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin as well as the selective depletion of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3)-sensitive Ca2+ stores by prior activation of HUVEC using histamine resulted in a complete inhibition of tumor cell-induced [Ca2+]i elevation. Similar results were obtained when HUVEC monolayers were treated with the tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A, suggesting a role for tyrosine kinase-associated cell surface receptors in tumor cell-endothelial cell interactions. The depletion of HUVEC intracellular Ca2+ stores by thapsigargin was also shown to delay MCF7-induced endothelial cell disjunction, to prevent their spreading on the subendothelial extracellular matrix and transendothelial migration in vitro. These results suggest that transient changes in endothelial [Ca2+]i may govern multiple steps of tumor cell extravasation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa couverture 1998 de la Revue medicale de Liège: histoplasmose chez un sidéen
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(1), 2-3

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See detailPolyimide nanofoams from aliphatic polyester-based copolymers
Hedrick, James L; Carter, K. R.; Richter, R. et al

in Chemistry of Materials (1998), 10(1), 39-49

High-temperature polymeric foams were prepared using compositionally asymmetric microphase-separated block copolymers where the major component is thermally stable and the minor component is thermally ... [more ▼]

High-temperature polymeric foams were prepared using compositionally asymmetric microphase-separated block copolymers where the major component is thermally stable and the minor component is thermally labile. Upon thermal treatment, the dispersed phase undergoes thermolysis leaving pores the size and shape of which are dictated by the initial copolymer morphology. The driving force behind the survey of aliphatic polyesters as possible labile blocks stems from their quantitative degradation into low-boiling, polar degradation products. Poly(lactones), as a general class of materials, degrade by a backbiting process producing, primarily, monomer and cyclic oligomers. A ring-opening synthetic route to poly(lactones) affords oligomers of predictable molecular weight, narrow molecular weight distribution, and controlled end-group functionality. Block copolymers were prepared using monofunctional caprolactone and valerolactone oligomers and a high-Tg polyimide. Microphase separation was observed in all cases, and the lactone blocks did not crystallize. Thermal decomposition of the caprolactone block was accomplished by heating the copolymer to 370 °C for 5 h. Significant density reductions were found with pore sizes in the 60−70 Å range. [less ▲]

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See detailSelf-organized criticality can emerge even if the range of interactions is infinite
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Van Puyvelde, H.; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1998), 57(1), 1167-1170

We have investigated a model of tree growth in order to show that self-organized criticality (SOC) can emerge even if perturbations due to long-range interactions are propagating throughout the whole ... [more ▼]

We have investigated a model of tree growth in order to show that self-organized criticality (SOC) can emerge even if perturbations due to long-range interactions are propagating throughout the whole system. The interaction potential is assumed to be a power d(-alpha) of the distance d measured along the tree between branch extremities. A transition occurs for alpha(c)=1 according to simulation results between SOC (alpha>alpha(c) and non-SOC (alpha<alpha(c)) regimes. A theoretical treatment supports the idea that the transition occurs when the exponent a is equivalent to the fractal dimension D-f(S) of the backbone (skeleton) of the tree. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemistry of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone and a non polymerizable analogue
Calberg, Cédric ULg; Kroonen, D.; Mertens, Marc et al

in Polymer (1998), 39(1), 23-29

According to previous studies, the electropolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone fits a cationic mechanism with grafting of the polymer onto the platinum anode. However, this article shows that the ... [more ▼]

According to previous studies, the electropolymerization of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone fits a cationic mechanism with grafting of the polymer onto the platinum anode. However, this article shows that the pyrrolidone substituent of N-VP is also involved in the anodic reaction in addition to the polymerizable vinyl double bond. This additional reaction in the potential range of interest was confirmed by the electrochemical oxidation of a non polymerizable analogue of N-VP, i.e. N-methylpyrrolidone. Therefore, at least two mechanisms can contribute to the electrodeposition of a polymer film in a solvent of poly N-VP: electrografting and polymer branching and/or crosslinking by species stemming from the electrooxidation of the pyrrolidone rings. [less ▲]

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See detailOxidant-Scavenging Activities of Beta-Lactam Agents
Carreer, R.; Deby-Dupont, G.; Deby, C. et al

in European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology (1998), 17(1), 43-6

The relative antioxidant effect of ampicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime on oxygen-reactive species was examined in vitro using stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. There was no ... [more ▼]

The relative antioxidant effect of ampicillin, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, and cefuroxime on oxygen-reactive species was examined in vitro using stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. There was no evidence that any of the beta-lactam agents tested had an effect on superoxide or H2O2 generation. In contrast, all of the beta-lactam agents prevented hypochlorous acid (HOCI) chlorination of 1,1-dimethyl-4-chloro-3,5-cyclo-hexanedione in a cell-free system at concentrations of < 10 microg/ml. Furthermore, all antibiotics provided dose-dependent protection against HOCI cytotoxicity to 16HBE140 bronchial epithelial cells. Taken together, these data indicate a possible therapeutic role for beta-lactam agents in protecting host tissues from HOCI-induced oxidative damage. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. A propos d'une fièvre inexpliquée
Bustin, F.; Kolh, Philippe ULg; Creemers, Etienne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(1), 7-10

An episode of fever of prolonged duration and undetermined origin always remains a difficult clinical problem. Several etiologies can indeed be responsible. If one wishes to obtain a diagnosis of the ... [more ▼]

An episode of fever of prolonged duration and undetermined origin always remains a difficult clinical problem. Several etiologies can indeed be responsible. If one wishes to obtain a diagnosis of the origin of the fever, one should adopt a well-structured strategy in which the various investigations are carried out in a strictly determined hierarchical order. This is badly needed if one wishes to reach a clue to the diagnosis and be able to implement an adequate therapy. In spite of all this, some cases will remain without precise diagnosis. The treatment of those cases will primary be empirical. [less ▲]

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See detailCytological Comparison of Leaves and Stems of Prunus Avium L. Shoots Cultured on a Solid Medium with Agar or Gelrite
Franck, Thierry ULg; Crevecoeur, Michelle; Wuest, J. et al

in Biotechnic & Histochemistry : Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission (1998), 73(1), 32-43

An axillary proliferating clone of Prunus avium L. was subcultured every four weeks on solid MS medium with agar as the gelling agent. Vitrification (hyperhydricity) of shoots was induced in one four week ... [more ▼]

An axillary proliferating clone of Prunus avium L. was subcultured every four weeks on solid MS medium with agar as the gelling agent. Vitrification (hyperhydricity) of shoots was induced in one four week cycle with the same medium except that agar was replaced by gelrite. During culture on the vitrifying medium, the water content of the shoots progressively increased with a parallel decrease in chlorophyll content. Cytological differences between the leaves and stems of the vitrified and normal shoots were detected by light and electron (both transmission and scanning) microscopy. Leaves of vitrified shoots were characterized by lower number of chloroplasts in the palisade parenchyma and by a defective cuticle. The stems of vitrified shoots had a less developed and lignifled xylem tissue, lacked sclerenchymatic areas and showed hypertrophy of the cortical parenchyma. More intense vacuolar activity with evaginations of the chloroplast envelope into the vacuole was noted in cells of vitrified leaves. [less ▲]

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See detailLes affections médicales qui interfèrent avec la grossesse
Thoumsin, H. J.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(1), 1-14

During pregnancy, the future mother can develop several different diseases. Most of them have a benign prognosis. Cyanotic heart disease, at least when it is accompanied by significant pulmonary ... [more ▼]

During pregnancy, the future mother can develop several different diseases. Most of them have a benign prognosis. Cyanotic heart disease, at least when it is accompanied by significant pulmonary hypertension or induces a functional class IV represents a contra-indication to pregnancy. Pregnancy cardiomyopathy generally carries a poor prognosis and may be responsible for the mother's death. Herpes virus pneumopathy can also be extremely dangerous. Lupus erythematosus represents a factor of guarded prognosis for the outcome of pregnancy; discontinuation of the latter should be seriously considered. Hepatic steatosis which is a rare diagnosis must be distinguished from Hellp syndrome in which the maternal prognosis is much better. In this review, we shall briefly discuss various medical diseases which may have a deleterious influence on the evolution of pregnancy or on the foetus. These deleterious influences can be direct, i.e. due to the disease, or indirect, i.e. due to the therapy. We shall successively consider several neurological, cardiological, pulmonary, dermatological and digestive diseases. We shall not take into account viral infections or infections in general, diabetes mellitus or the various vasculo-renal syndromes. [less ▲]

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See detailA new damper to solve galloping on bundled lines. Theoretical background, laboratory and field results.
keutgen, Renaud; Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (1998), 13(N°1), 260-265

A new kind of anti-galloping device for bundled lines is presented.

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See detailThe isothermal melt-texturing of bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x ceramics: from cooking to modelling
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Superconductor Science and Technology (1998), 11(1), 35-43

Various techniques for the synthesis of bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x ceramics are reviewed. The microstructure of melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-x compounds is described. In contrast to the relatively simple processing of ... [more ▼]

Various techniques for the synthesis of bulk YBa2Cu3O7-x ceramics are reviewed. The microstructure of melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-x compounds is described. In contrast to the relatively simple processing of such materials, the complexity of the microstructure at a mesoscopic scale is underlined. A model describing the various features of the microstructure of YBa2Cu3O7-x compounds is described. The obtained results are discussed for various initial conditions and are favourably comparable with experimental findings. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction and kinematics of sodium atoms in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp
Arpigny, Claude ULg; Rauer, H.; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1998), 334(Letters), 53-56

High-resolution spectra of sodium D line emission in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) were obtained at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, on 25-27 March and on 15-17 April, 1997. The observations have ... [more ▼]

High-resolution spectra of sodium D line emission in comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) were obtained at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence, France, on 25-27 March and on 15-17 April, 1997. The observations have been used to measure the velocity of sodium atoms in the coma within 2 10(5) km from the nucleus. A comparison between the March and April data provides an illustration of the influence of the heliocentric radial velocity on the strength of the fluorescence (Swings effect), and on the velocity of Na atoms achieved by solar radiation pressure acceleration. Evidence for the presence of a distributed source in the coma is found from the relatively high tailward velocities on the sunward side of the coma, in addition to the sunward extent of sodium emission up to 1.4 10(5) km in April. Based on observations secured at OHP (France) [less ▲]

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See detailPremière mise en évidence en Belgique de particules ressemblant à des circovirus.
Duchatel, Jean-Pierre ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg; Vandersanden F et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1998), 142

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See detailComparative study of pirlindole, a selective RIMA, and its two enantiomers using biochemical and behavioural techniques.
Bruhwyler, J.; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Gerardy, J. et al

in Behavioural Pharmacology (1998), 9(8), 731-7

The interaction with monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and B has been shown to be sensitive to the absolute configuration of molecules. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of the racemic ... [more ▼]

The interaction with monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and B has been shown to be sensitive to the absolute configuration of molecules. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of the racemic pirlindole (a selective and reversible MAO-A inhibitor) and its two enantiomers using biochemical techniques (in vitro and ex vivo determination of rat brain MAO-A and MAO-B activity) and behavioural models (forced swimming test and reserpine-induced hypothermia and palpebral ptosis test). In vitro, the MAO-A IC50 of (+/-)-pirlindole, R-(-)-pirlindole and S-(+)-pirlindole were 0.24, 0.43 and 0.18 microM, respectively. Ex vivo, their ID50 were 24.4, 37.8 and 18.7 mg/kg i.p. The differences between the three compounds were not significant, with a ratio between the two enantiomers [R-(-)/S-(+)] of 2.2 in vitro and 2.0 ex vivo. MAO-B was only slightly inhibited. In the forced swimming test and the reserpine-induced hypothermia and ptosis model, the three compounds had an antidepressant profile. In the forced swimming test, the minimal effective dose ratio between the R-(-) and the S-(+) was again around 2.0. The behavioural observations were thus clearly in accordance with the biochemical data. [less ▲]

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See detailATMOS/ATLAS 3 infrared profile measurements of trace gases in the November 1994 tropical and subtropical upper troposphere
Rinsland, C. P.; Gunson, M. R.; Wang, P.-H. et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (1998), 60(5), 891-901

Vertical mixing ratio profiles of four relatively long-lives gases, HCN, C2H2, CO, and C2H6, have been retrieved from 0.01 cm(-1) resolution infrared solar occultation spectra recorded between latitudes ... [more ▼]

Vertical mixing ratio profiles of four relatively long-lives gases, HCN, C2H2, CO, and C2H6, have been retrieved from 0.01 cm(-1) resolution infrared solar occultation spectra recorded between latitudes of 5.3 degrees N and 31.4 degrees N. The observations were obtained by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectrometer during the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 3 shuttle flight, 3-12 November 1994. Elevated mixing ratios below the tropopause were measured for these gases during several of the occultations. The positive correlations obtained between the simultaneously measured mixing ratios suggest that the enhancements are likely the result of surface emissions, most likely biomass burning and/or urban industrial activities, followed by common injection via deep convective transport of the gases to the upper troposphere. The elevated levels of HCN may account for at least part of the "missing NOy" in the upper troposphere. Comparisons of the observations with values measured during a recent aircraft campaign are presented. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrophysiological classification of Guillain-Barré Syndrome: clinical associations and outcome
Hadden, R. D. M.; Cornblath, D. R.; Hughes, R. A. C. et al

in Annals of Neurology (1998)

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See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le formoterol (Oxis Turbohaler).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1998), 53(11), 715-8

Formoterol, commercialized by Astra under the trade name Oxis, is a new potent and selective agonist of beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which is used with a specific device (Turbohaler) allowing effective ... [more ▼]

Formoterol, commercialized by Astra under the trade name Oxis, is a new potent and selective agonist of beta-2 adrenergic receptors, which is used with a specific device (Turbohaler) allowing effective inhalation. Bronchodilatation occurs rapidly, within 1-3 minutes after inhalation, and lasts about 12 hours after the administration of a unique dose. Oxis Turbohaler is indicated to reduce symptoms associated with bronchial obstruction in asthmatic patients when the control of asthma is not achieved with inhaled corticoid therapy. It is not indicated for the treatment of acute crisis. It is presented as powder vials for inhalation (4.5 or 9 micrograms per dose). The usual dose in adults is 1-2 inhalations 1-2 times per day, in the morning and/or in the evening (bedtime administration should be recommended in case of nocturnal asthma). There is not enough data for treating children. The lowest dose allowing adequate control of asthma should be selected for chronic treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailObservation de la peau d'un hadrosaure vieux de 75 millions d'années.
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Verviétoise d'Histoire Naturelle (1998), 55

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