References of "Article"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 36301 to 36400 of 53350     359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369     B2 agonists cross the bovine placentaBoutet, Philippe ; Uysterpruyst, C. H.; Degand, Guy et alin Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2001), 442(R41), Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Modelling migration from high-density polyethylene containers into concentrated solutions used as food flavouringsFauconnier, Marie-Laure ; Panhaleux, V.; Vanzeveren, E. et alin Food Additives & Contaminants (2001), 18(11), 1040-1045Migration from high-density polyethylene into different liquids (hexane, ethanol, lemon terpenes and their emulsions) was modelled using the response surfaces method. Polynomial equations (z = A + Bx + Cy ... [more ▼]Migration from high-density polyethylene into different liquids (hexane, ethanol, lemon terpenes and their emulsions) was modelled using the response surfaces method. Polynomial equations (z = A + Bx + Cy + Dx(2) + Ey(2) + Fxy) were established and parameters determined for each compound. Correlation coefficients were generally > 90%. Analysis indicated that 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol, probably due to the degradation of the antioxidant additive tris(2,4- bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl) phosphite, migrated into each liquid tested, whatever the temperature. Oligomers (10-30 carbons) terminated by a vinyl group were also detected. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 88 (17 ULg) Intégration régionale et démocratie. Quelques réflexions à partir de la pensée d'Alexis de TocquevilleCarlier, Jean-Yves in Revue Burkinabè du droit (2001), (39-40), 9-20Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) The effect of food on growth and metamorphosis of paedomorphs in Triturus alpestris apuanusDenoël, Mathieu ; Poncin, Pascal in Archiv für Hydrobiologie (2001), 152(4), 661-670The effect of food level on growth and metamorphosis of paedomorphs was examined in an experimental replicated design in Triturus alpestris apuanus. Paedomorphosis concerns the retention of larval ... [more ▼]The effect of food level on growth and metamorphosis of paedomorphs was examined in an experimental replicated design in Triturus alpestris apuanus. Paedomorphosis concerns the retention of larval characteristics in adult individuals. Newts that forgo metamorphosis and then retain gill and gill slits in the adult stage maintain an aquatic life but keep potential for undergoing metamorphosis. Paedomorphs metamorphosed later in treatments with food as a non-limiting factor than in stressful treatments where food was limited. Timing of metamorphosis did not differ between males and females. Food level greatly affected growth rates. These results confirm and extend optimality models that predict paedomorphosis under advantageous aquatic conditions (paedomorph advantage hypothesis) and metamorphosis in stressful aquatic habitats. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 259 (14 ULg) Mons/Maisières : le site de plein air de Maisières-CanalMiller, Rebecca ; Otte, Marcel ; Haesaerts, Paulin Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne (2001), 9Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULg) Venlafaxine induced hair lossPITCHOT, William ; ANSSEAU, Marc in American Journal of Psychiatry (The) (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg) All detectable high-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins are modified in a high-level beta-lactam-resistant clinical isolate of Streptococcus mitis.Amoroso, Ana Maria ; Demares, D.; Mollerach, M. et alin Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2001), 45(7), 2075-81All detectable high-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (HMM PBPs) are altered in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mitis for which the beta-lactam MICs are increased from those previously ... [more ▼]All detectable high-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (HMM PBPs) are altered in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mitis for which the beta-lactam MICs are increased from those previously reported in our region (cefotaxime MIC, 64 microg/ml). These proteins were hardly detected at concentrations that saturate all PBPs in clinical isolates and showed, after densitometric analysis, 50-fold-lower radiotracer binding. Resistance was related to mosaic structure in all HMM PBP-coding genes, where critical region replacement was complemented not only by substitutions already reported for the closely related Streptococcus pneumoniae but also by other specific replacements that are presumably close to the active-site serine. Mosaic structure was also presumed in a pbp1a-sensitive strain used for comparison, confirming that these structures do not unambiguously imply, by themselves, detectable critical changes in the kinetic properties of these proteins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Effect of parathyroid hormone (1-34) on fractures and bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis.Neer, R M; Arnaud, C D; Zanchetta, J R et alin New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2001), 344(19), 1434-41BACKGROUND: Once-daily injections of parathyroid hormone or its amino-terminal fragments increase bone formation and bone mass without causing hypercalcemia, but their effects on fractures are unknown ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Once-daily injections of parathyroid hormone or its amino-terminal fragments increase bone formation and bone mass without causing hypercalcemia, but their effects on fractures are unknown. METHODS: We randomly assigned 1637 postmenopausal women with prior vertebral fractures to receive 20 or 40 microg of parathyroid hormone (1-34) or placebo, administered subcutaneously by the women daily. We obtained vertebral radiographs at base line and at the end of the study (median duration of observation, 21 months) and performed serial measurements of bone mass by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: New vertebral fractures occurred in 14 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 5 percent and 4 percent, respectively, of the women in the 20-microg and 40-microg parathyroid hormone groups; the respective relative risks of fracture in the 20-microg and 40-microg groups, as compared with the placebo group, were 0.35 and 0.31 (95 percent confidence intervals, 0.22 to 0.55 and 0.19 to 0.50). New nonvertebral fragility fractures occurred in 6 percent of the women in the placebo group and in 3 percent of those in each parathyroid hormone group (relative risk, 0.47 and 0.46, respectively [95 percent confidence intervals, 0.25 to 0.88 and 0.25 to 0.861). As compared with placebo, the 20-microg and 40-microg doses of parathyroid hormone increased bone mineral density by 9 and 13 more percentage points in the lumbar spine and by 3 and 6 more percentage points in the femoral neck; the 40-microg dose decreased bone mineral density at the shaft of the radius by 2 more percentage points. Both doses increased total-body bone mineral by 2 to 4 more percentage points than did placebo. Parathyroid hormone had only minor side effects (occasional nausea and headache). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with parathyroid hormone (1-34) decreases the risk of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures; increases vertebral, femoral, and total-body bone mineral density; and is well tolerated. The 40-microg dose increased bone mineral density more than the 20-microg dose but had similar effects on the risk of fracture and was more likely to have side effects. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg) Mechanisms of unconsciousness during general anaesthesiaBONHOMME, Vincent ; Hans, Polin Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care (2001), (12), 109-113Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg) Genotypical and phenotypical characterization of potential virulence of intestinal avian Escherichia coli strains isolated in AlgeriaMellata, M.; Bakour, R.; Jacquemin, E. et alin Avian Diseases (2001), 45In order to characterize potential pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic hens and chickens originating from intensive battery rearing in North Algeria, the presence of a large range ... [more ▼]In order to characterize potential pathogenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from diarrheic hens and chickens originating from intensive battery rearing in North Algeria, the presence of a large range of virulence factors and markers was studied in 50 strains by DNA-DNA hybridization on colonies and phenotypic tests. The sequences we focused on were those coding for adhesins F5, F41, F17, Pap, Afa, and Sfa; intimin Eae; and toxins STa, STb, LT1, Stx1, Stx2, CNF1, and CNF2. The phenotypes explored were the colicins, aerobactin, hemolysins, and hemagglutinin production and serum resistance. The genotypic and phenotypic tests enabled us to categorize the isolates into two distinct groups: those with a potential to invade the host (27 strains were serum resistant and/or produced aerobactin), among which three strains were also potentially diarrheagenic, one strain was LT1 + F17+ Afa+ Pap+ (enterotoxigenic E. coli) and the two others were Stx1 (verotoxigenic E. coli). Twenty-three strains were colicinogenic, including 19 strains producing colicin V. This latter factor was also detected in isolates negative for the other virulence factors. On the basis of the type of erythrocytes agglutinated, we established 14 mannose-resistant hemagglutination patterns among the 37 strains tested, including 22 serum-resistant and/or aerobactin producing strains and 15 strains negative for these two characters. None of the strains produced alpha hemolysin, whereas two strains produced beta hemolysin and enterohemolysin, respectively. Congo red fixation was observed in 25 strains. No relationship could be detected between Congo red fixation and the presence of other virulence markers, such as serum resistance and aerobactin production. This study shows that among isolates originating from the feces of diarrheic chickens, the proportion of potentially diarrheagenic E. coli strains is low. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg) Role of β-Oxidation Enzymes in γ-Decalactone Production by the Yeast Yarrowia lipolyticaWaché, Y.; Aguedo, Mario ; Choquet, A. et alin Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2001), 67(12), 5700-5704Some microorganisms can transform methyl ricinoleate into γ-decalactone, a valuable aroma compound, but yields of the bioconversion are low due to (i) incomplete conversion of ricinoleate (C18) to the C10 ... [more ▼]Some microorganisms can transform methyl ricinoleate into γ-decalactone, a valuable aroma compound, but yields of the bioconversion are low due to (i) incomplete conversion of ricinoleate (C18) to the C10 precursor of γ-decalactone, (ii) accumulation of other lactones (3-hydroxy-γ-decalactone and 2- and 3-decen-4-olide), and (iii) γ-decalactone reconsumption. We evaluated acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) oxidase activity (encoded by the POX1 through POX5 genes) in Yarrowia lipolytica in lactone accumulation and γ-decalactone reconsumption in POX mutants. Mutants with no acyl-CoA oxidase activity could not reconsume γ-decalactone, and mutants with a disruption of pox3, which encodes the short-chain acyl-CoA oxidase, reconsumed it more slowly. 3-Hydroxy-γ-decalactone accumulation during transformation of methyl ricinoleate suggests that, in wild-type strains, β-oxidation is controlled by 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase. In mutants with low acyl-CoA oxidase activity, however, the acyl-CoA oxidase controls the β-oxidation flux. We also identified mutant strains that produced 26 times more γ-decalactone than the wild-type parents. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg) A control strategy for controllable series capacitor in electric power systemsGhandhari, Mehrdad; Andersson, Goran; Pavella, Mania et alin Automatica (2001), 37It has been veri"ed that a controllable series capacitor with a suitable control scheme can improve transient stability and help to damp electromechanical oscillations. A question of great importance is ... [more ▼]It has been veri"ed that a controllable series capacitor with a suitable control scheme can improve transient stability and help to damp electromechanical oscillations. A question of great importance is the selection of the input signals and a control strategy for this device in order to damp power oscillations in an e!ective and robust manner. Based on Lyapunov theory a control strategy for damping of electromechanical power oscillations in a multi-machine power system is derived. Lyapunov theory deals with dynamical systems without inputs. For this reason, it has traditionally been applied only to closed-loop control systems, that is, systems for which the input has been eliminated through the substitution of a predetermined feedback control. However, in this paper, we use Lyapunov function candidates in feedback design itself by making the Lyapunov derivative negative when choosing the control. This control strategy is called control Lyapunov function for systems with control inputs. Also, two input signals for this control strategy are used. The "rst one is based on local information and the second one on remote information derived by the single machine equivalent method. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 85 (2 ULg) L'azathioprine dans la maladie de Crohn : un traitement toujours d'actualitéBelaiche, Jacques ; Louis, Edouard in Hépato-Gastro (2001), 8Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg) Définition, critères de qualité et évaluation d'un programme de type école du dos. Recommandations de la Société belge des écoles du dosHenrotin, Yves ; Vanderthommen, Marc ; Fauconnier, C. et alin Revue du Rhumatisme (2001), 68Detailed reference viewed: 114 (3 ULg) Associations between casein haplotypes and first lactation milk production traits in Finnish Ayrshire cowsIkonen, T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Ojala, M. et alin Journal of Dairy Science (2001), 84(2), 507-514The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of ß--casein (CN) haplotypes on first-lactation milk production traits. The ß--CN haplotypes were deduced using information on ß- and -CN genotypes ... [more ▼]The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of ß--casein (CN) haplotypes on first-lactation milk production traits. The ß--CN haplotypes were deduced using information on ß- and -CN genotypes of cows and their sires for 16,973 Finnish Ayrshire cows that had at least nine paternal half sibs. Effects of CN haplotypes on milk production traits were estimated for one haplotype at a time using an animal model, which included the fixed effects for calving year and month, age at calving, days open, ß-lactoglobulin, and a ß--CN haplotype. Differences in milk production traits were also estimated between haplotype combinations A1A+A2B and A1B+A2A within ß--CN genotype A1A2AB and between combinations A1E+A2A and A1A+A2E within genotype A1A2AE. The ß--CN haplotypes A2A and A2B were associated with high milk and protein yields and low fat content, and those that included the ß-CN A1 allele were associated with low yields and high fat content. Protein content was affected by the -CN locus; haplotype A1B was associated with high protein content and A1E was with low protein content. The haplotype combination A1A+A2B was associated with 140 kg more milk yield (P = 0.045) and 0.03 percentage units less protein content (P = 0.055) than combination A1B+A2A, and combination A1A+A2E showed 0.02 percentage units greater protein content (P = 0.098) than A1E+A2A. These results indicate that genes linked to the CN loci contribute to the variation in milk yield and protein content. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) MigraineSandor, Peter S.; Agosti, Reto; Schoenen, Jean in Pain Clinical Updates (2001), 9Detailed reference viewed: 26 (4 ULg) «Lo sconosciuto Panegirico in lode di Carlo II di Gregorio Leti (ms. Liège, Université, W. 77)»Moreno, Paola in Studi e Problemi di Critica Testuale (2001), LXIDetailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg) Experimental and theoretical investigations of the electrical properties of undoped and magnesium-doped GaN layersNguyen, Ngoc Duy ; Germain, Marianne; Schmeits, Marcel et alin Journal of Crystal Growth (2001), 230The ac characteristics of GaN : Mg and undoped GaN layers, grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates, are measured for a wide range of temperature and bias conditions, in order to investigate the effect of ... [more ▼]The ac characteristics of GaN : Mg and undoped GaN layers, grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates, are measured for a wide range of temperature and bias conditions, in order to investigate the effect of the magnesium-related level on the transport properties. Two peaks, whose height and position depend on the measurement temperature, are observed in the admittance curves (G/ω versus frequency) of the Mg-doped samples, whereas only one peak appears in undoped samples. The study of the frequency dependence of the impedance, with a model including the two metallic Au/GaN junctions, the GaN layer itself, shows that, besides the effect of the differential resistance of the layer which plays a role in both sample types, the presence of a Mg-related deep level contributes to the observed variations of the peaks in the admittance curves of the p-doped samples. Results of a theoretical steady-state and small-signal analysis based on numerical modelling of the Au/GaN/Au heterostructure complete our analysis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (3 ULg) Quasiparticle contribution to heat carriers relaxation time in DyBa2Cu3O7-x from heat diffusivity measurementsDorbolo, Stéphane ; Ausloos, Marcel in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2001), 64Detailed reference viewed: 13 (4 ULg) Purification and characterization of a 43.5 kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease from Microsporum canis.Brouta, F.; Descamps, F.; Fett, Thomas et alin Medical Mycology (2001), 39(3), 269-275A keratinolytic protease secreted by a feline clinical isolate of Microsporum canis cultivated in a broth containing feline keratin as the sole nitrogen source was purified from the culture filtrate by ... [more ▼]A keratinolytic protease secreted by a feline clinical isolate of Microsporum canis cultivated in a broth containing feline keratin as the sole nitrogen source was purified from the culture filtrate by affinity chromatography on bacitracin-agarose and by hydrophobic chromatography on octyl-agarose. The enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 43.5 kDa and the pI was 7.7. It had a significant activity against keratin azure, elastin-Congo red and denatured type I collagen (azocoll). Using the latter substrate, the optimum pH was around 8 and the apparent optimum temperature around 50 degrees C. The protease was strongly inhibited by 1,10-phenanthroline, phosphoramidon and EDTA. The first 13 N-terminal amino acid sequence showed a 61% homology with that of the extracellular metalloprotease of Aspergillus fumigatus and with the neutral protease I of A. oryzae, confirming that this 43.5 kDa keratinase is a metalloprotease. This keratinolytic metalloprotease could be a virulence-related factor involved in pathophysiological mechanisms of M. canis dermatophytosis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (12 ULg) Gene structure and promoter function of a teleost ribosomal protein: a tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) L18 geneMolina, Alfredo; Iyengar, Arati; Marins, Luis F. et alin Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2001), 1520(3), 195-202We have cloned and characterized a tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) L18 ribosomal protein gene, including the complete transcribed region and 488 bp of upstream regulatory sequences. We have also ... [more ▼]We have cloned and characterized a tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) L18 ribosomal protein gene, including the complete transcribed region and 488 bp of upstream regulatory sequences. We have also isolated two L18 cDNAs from another tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with a few conservative nucleotide differences. Our results suggest the presence of two genes in both species. Reporter constructs were tested for transient expression in CV1 cells and in microinjected zebrafish and tilapia embryos. The tilapia L18 promoter was able to drive expression of the reporter gene in all three experiments, with no apparent preference for a particular tissue. The tilapia L18 promoter is therefore likely to be a powerful tool to drive tissue-independent gene expression in fish. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (6 ULg) In vitro effects of aceclofenac and its metabolites on the production by chondrocytes of inflammatory mediators.Henrotin, Yves ; de Leval, X.; Mathy, Marianne et alin Inflammation Research (2001), 50(8), 391-9OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory action of aceclofenac in vivo, we studied in vitro the effect of aceclofenac and its main metabolite, 4 ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVES: To investigate the mechanisms of action underlying the anti-inflammatory action of aceclofenac in vivo, we studied in vitro the effect of aceclofenac and its main metabolite, 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac, in comparison with diclofenac, another metabolite, on cyclooxygenases activity as well as interleukin-1beta, -6 and -8, nitric oxide, and prostaglandin E2 production by human osteoarthritic and normal articular chondrocytes. METHODS: Enzymatically isolated human chondrocytes were cultured for 72 h in the absence or presence of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) or lipopolysacharride (LPS) and with or without increased amounts (1 to 30 microM) of aceclofenac or metabolites. The production of different cytokines was measured by Enzyme Amplified Sensitivity Immunoassays (EASIA). Prostaglandin E2 was quantified by a specific radioimmunoassay. Nitrite and nitrate concentrations in the culture supernatants were determined by spectrophotometric method based upon the Griess reaction. Cyclooxygenase-2, inducible NO synthase and IL-1beta gene expression were quantified by reverse transcription of mRNA followed by real time and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Finally, cyclooxygenase inhibitory potency of the drugs was also tested in both a cell-free system using purified ovine cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 (COX-1 and COX-2) and at a cellular level using human whole blood assay. RESULTS: We have demonstrated that aceclofenac, 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac and diclofenac significantly decreased interleukin-6 production at concentrations ranged among 1 to 30 microM and fully blocked prostaglandin E2 synthesis by IL-1beta- or LPS-stimulated human chondrocytes. Aceclofenac and diclofenac had no effect on interleukin-8 production while 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac slightly decreased this parameter at the highest dose (30 microM). Aceclofenac was without effect on IL-1beta- or LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production. At 30 microM, 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac inhibited both IL-1beta or LPS-stimulated nitric oxide production while diclofenac inhibited only the LPS-stimulated production. Finally, at 30 microM, the three drugs significantly decreased IL-1beta mRNA. In the whole blood test, aceclofenac and 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac weakly inhibited COX-1 with IC50 values superior to 100 microM, but decreased by 50% COX-2 activity at the concentration of 0.77 and 36 microM, respectively. Diclofenac strongly inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2 with IC50 values of 0.6 and 0.04 microM, respectively. On the other hand, aceclofenac and diclofenac weakly inhibited purified ovine cyclooxygenases with IC50 values superior to 100 microM, whereas 4'-hydroxyaceclofenac was without effect. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that aceclofenac actions are multifactorial and that metabolites could contribute to its anti-inflammatory actions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 104 (9 ULg) Facial mimicry and emotional contagion to dynamic emotional facial expression and their influence on decoding accuracyHess, U; Blairy, Sylvie in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2001), 40Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 ULg) Quelle réparation de l'accident de travail mortel est-elle réservée au concubin? Une réponse attendue de la Cour d'Arbitrage.Michiels, Olivier ; Joskin, Véroniquein Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001)Cette note aborde la quesiton suivante : L'article 12 de la loi du 12 avril 1971 relative aux accidents du travail viole-t-il les articles 10 et 11 de la Constitution en ce qu'il réserve le bénéfice d'une ... [more ▼]Cette note aborde la quesiton suivante : L'article 12 de la loi du 12 avril 1971 relative aux accidents du travail viole-t-il les articles 10 et 11 de la Constitution en ce qu'il réserve le bénéfice d'une rente viagère au conjoint ni divorcé, ni séparé de corps ainsi qu'au conjoint divorcé ou séparé de corps qui bénéficiait d'une pension alimentaire à charge de la victime ? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 124 (7 ULg) N N scattering phase shifts in a chiral constituent quark modelBartz, Daniel ; Stancu, Floarea in Nuclear Physics A (2001), A688We study the nucleon-nucleon interaction within a chiral constituent quark model which reproduces succesfully the baryon spectra. We calculate the $^3S_1$ and $^1S_0$ phase shifts by using the resonating ... [more ▼]We study the nucleon-nucleon interaction within a chiral constituent quark model which reproduces succesfully the baryon spectra. We calculate the $^3S_1$ and $^1S_0$ phase shifts by using the resonating group method. They clearly indicate the presence of a strong repulsive interaction at short distance, due to the spin-flavour symmetry of the quark-quark interaction and of the quark interchange between the two interacting nucleons. A $\sigma$-meson exchange quark-quark interaction, providing a medium-range attraction, helps to get closer to the experimental phase shifts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) Role Of The Proline-Rich Motif Of Bovine Leukemia Virus Transmembrane Protein Gp30 In Viral Load And Pathogenicity In SheepReichert, M.; Winnicka, A.; Willems, Luc et alin Journal of Virology (2001), 75(17), Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) Moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces myocardial cell damage and myocardial cell death related to cardiac surgery.Vazquez-Jimenez, J. F.; Qing, M.; Hermanns, B. et alin Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2001), 38(4), 1216-23OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. BACKGROUND: Moderate hypothermia during experimental CPB stimulates production of interleukin-10 (IL10) and blunts release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). METHODS: Twelve young pigs were assigned to a temperature (T degrees ) regimen during CPB: moderate hypothermia (T degrees : 28 degrees C; n = 6) and normothermia (T degrees : 37 degrees C; n = 6). Intra-myocardial TNFalpha- and IL10-messenger RNA were detected by competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and quantification of cytokine synthesis by Western blot. Levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in cardiac lymph and in arterial and coronary venous blood were examined during and after CPB. Myocardial cell damage was assessed by histologic and ultrastructural anomalies of tissue probes taken 6 h after CPB. RESULTS: Synthesis of IL10 was significantly higher, while that of TNFalpha was significantly lower, in pigs that were in moderate hypothermia during surgery than in the others. In contrast with normothermia, moderate hypothermia was also associated with significantly lower cumulative cardiac lymphatic flow during and after CPB, significantly lower lymphatic cTnI concentrations after CPB, significantly lower percentages of myocardial cell necrosis and a significantly lower score of ultrastructural anomalies of myocardial cells. While the percentage of apoptotic cells was not different between groups, the apoptosis/necrosis ratio tended to be higher in animals that were in moderate hypothermia during surgery. In all animals, TNFalpha synthesis correlated positively while IL10 production correlated negatively with necrosis and total cell death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that moderate hypothermia during CPB provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 ULg) Palaeogeographic and palaeoenvironmental characteristics of major marine incursions in northwestern Europe during the Westphalian C (Bolsovian).Dusar, M; Paproth, E; Streel, Maurice et alin Geologica Belgica (2001), (2000)3(3-4), 331-347Detailed reference viewed: 36 (2 ULg) Le portage asymptomatique de Microsporum canis chez le chatMignon, Bernard ; Brouta, F.; Descamps, F. et alin Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) Immunisation against East Coast fever by the infection and treatment method: evaluation of the use of ice baths for field delivery and appraisal of an acid formulation of long-acting tetracycline.Marcotty, T.; Billiouw, M.; Chaka, G. et alin Veterinary Parasitology (2001), 99(3), 175-87Immunisation by the infection and treatment method using the Katete strain is currently the most efficient prophylactic technique to control East Coast fever (ECF) in the endemic areas of the Eastern ... [more ▼]Immunisation by the infection and treatment method using the Katete strain is currently the most efficient prophylactic technique to control East Coast fever (ECF) in the endemic areas of the Eastern Province of Zambia. The maintenance of the cold chain in liquid nitrogen up to the time of inoculation and the cost of the reference long-acting oxytetracycline (Terramycin LA, Pfizer) are the main drawbacks of the method. The work presented in this paper aims at reducing the cost of immunisation against ECF by using an ice bath for the field delivery and a cheaper long-acting oxytetracycline formulation as chemotherapeutic agent. In experimental conditions, the results from 40 calves immunised after various periods of storage on ice ranging from 4 to 32 h indicate that deferred immunisation performed with a stabilate kept on ice for up to 6h after thawing has an efficiency of 90%. Moreover, sporozoites kept on ice were still surviving 32 h after thawing. In a field trial, 91 calves were inoculated with a stabilate kept for 3.5-5.5 h after thawing and dilution whereas 86 calves were immunised using the standard method. Clinical and parasitological reactions to immunisation were monitored as well as the seroconversion. In the field trial, the deferred immunisation was more efficient than the standard method. The acid formulation of oxytetracycline that was tested was found as suitable as the reference alkaline formulation for the chemotherapeutic control of the Katete strain in ECF immunisation. One indoor trial was carried out on 10 animals and a field trial involved 93 calves. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg) Die endoluminale, kardiovaskuläre Radiotherapie:ein neuer StandardCoucke, Philippe ; Ciernik, I-Fin Praxis (2001), 90The treatment for cardiovascular disease, especially the treatment of coronary stenosis, has been continously improving during the last decades. Routine use of angioplasty was improved by the use of ... [more ▼]The treatment for cardiovascular disease, especially the treatment of coronary stenosis, has been continously improving during the last decades. Routine use of angioplasty was improved by the use of coronary stenting further reducing cardiac morbidity. However, the incidence of restenosis after cardiovascular angioplasty remains high. The restenosis process is mainly explained by neo-intimal proliferation. Therefore, the utility of ionizing radiation has been systematically investigated in order to reduce proliferation of the neointimal tissue. Radiation therapy turns out to be a very efficient approach in reducing the rate of both de novo lesions as well as of instant restenosis. Recent clinical data from randomized trials confirm the utility of intracoronary radiation therapy and change the treatment standards in interventional cardiology. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Monitoring biologique des greffes de cellules souches hématopoïétiquesGOTHOT, André in Focus Diagnostica (2001), 9Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) The 'Aesthetics of Personalism' in Caryl Phillips's Writing: Complexity as a New Brand of HumanismLedent, Bénédicte in World Literature Written in English (2001), 39(1), 75-85This paper attempts to underline the epistemological implications of Phillips's handling of diasporic history through a focus on individual lives in Cambridge (1991) and The Nature of Blood (1997). His ... [more ▼]This paper attempts to underline the epistemological implications of Phillips's handling of diasporic history through a focus on individual lives in Cambridge (1991) and The Nature of Blood (1997). His confessional first-person narratives highlight the intricacies inherent in human nature, thereby resisting the globalizing discourse of liberal humanism. Even more importantly, his fictions seem to illustrate a new, more understanding approach to this often hackneyed term, for they give voice to individuals whose multiple differences are, paradoxically, part proof of a common humanity, viewed here as an inclusive rather than exclusive concept. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 108 (9 ULg) Liquid holdup distribution in a corrugated sheet structured packing measured by X-ray tomographyToye, Dominique ; Marchot, Pierre ; Crine, Michel et alin Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2001), 73Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Des gribouillis aux premières lettres : le développement précoce de l’écrit.Maillart, Christelle ; Schelstrate, Marie-Annein Langage et l'Homme (Le) : Recherches Pluridisciplinaires sur le Langage (2001), 34(2), 103-120Detailed reference viewed: 78 (3 ULg) Subclinical cerebellar impairment in the common types of migraine: a three-dimensional analysis of reaching movements.Sandor, P. S.; Mascia, A.; Seidel, L. et alin Annals of Neurology (2001), 49(5), 668-72Mutations in the CACNA1A gene can cause familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and/or cerebellar ataxia CACNA1A codes for the alpha1 subunit of P/Q-Ca2+ channels and is highly expressed in the cerebellum ... [more ▼]Mutations in the CACNA1A gene can cause familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and/or cerebellar ataxia CACNA1A codes for the alpha1 subunit of P/Q-Ca2+ channels and is highly expressed in the cerebellum. Using a pointing paradigm and infrared optoelectronic tracking system, we found subclinical hypermetria and other subtle cerebellar signs in the common forms of migraine. These were more pronounced in migraine with than without aura. Whether this reflects involvement of Ca2+ channel genes in the common types of migraine needs to be investigated by genetic analyses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg) An algorithm and a method to search bifurcation points in non-linear problemsChambon, René; Crochepeyre, Stéphane; Charlier, Robert in International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering (2001), 51(3), 315-332This paper is devoted to a numerical method able to help the determination of the bifurcation threshold in non-linear time-independent continuum mechanic problems. First, some theoretical results about ... [more ▼]This paper is devoted to a numerical method able to help the determination of the bifurcation threshold in non-linear time-independent continuum mechanic problems. First, some theoretical results about uniqueness are recalled. In the framework of the large-strain assumption, the differences between the classical finite-step problem and the rate problem are presented. An iterative algorithm able to solve the rate problem is given. Using different initializations, it is seen in some numerical experiments that it is possible with this algorithm to get different solutions when the underlying mathematical problem solved does not enjoy a uniqueness property. The constitutive equations used have been chosen to be simple enough to deduce some theoretical knowledge about the corresponding uniqueness problems. Finally, a method is given which is able in some case to give an upper bound of the bifurcation threshold. Copyright (C) 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 173 (5 ULg) Des escargots et des champignons à la rescousse du développement durableLibois, Roland ; Codjia, J.T.C.in Parcs & Réserves (2001), 56(4), 46-49Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg) Heterogeneity of (co)variance components for Jersey type traitsGengler, Nicolas ; Dusseldorf, T.; Wiggans, G. R. et alin Journal of Dairy Science (2001), 84Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Value of high-dose cytarabine during interval therapy of a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster-based protocol in increased-risk children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma: results of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 58881 randomized phase III trial.Millot, F; Suciu, S; Philippe, N et alin Journal of Clinical Oncology (2001), 19PURPOSE: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 58881 study was designed to test in a prospective multicentric randomized trial the value of high-dose (HD) intravenous (IV ... [more ▼]PURPOSE: The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer 58881 study was designed to test in a prospective multicentric randomized trial the value of high-dose (HD) intravenous (IV) cytarabine (Ara-C) added to HD IV methotrexate (MTX) to reduce the incidence of CNS and systemic relapses in children with increased-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or stage III and IV lymphoblastic lymphoma treated with a Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM)-based regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After completion of induction-consolidation phase, children with increased-risk (risk factor > 0.8 or T-lineage) ALL or stage III and IV lymphoblastic lymphoma were randomized to receive four courses of HD MTX (5 g/m(2) over 24 hours every 2 weeks) and four intrathecal administrations of MTX (Arm A) or the same treatment schedule with additional HD IV Ara-C (1 g/m(2) in bolus injection 12 and 24 hours after the start of each MTX infusion) (Arm B). RESULTS: Between January 1990 and January 1996, 653 patients with ALL (593 patients) or lymphoblastic lymphoma (60 patients) were randomized: 323 were assigned to Arm A (without Ara-C) and 330 to Arm B (with Ara-C). A total of 190 events (177 relapses and 13 deaths without relapse) were reported, and the median follow up was 6.5 years (range, 2 to 10 years). The incidence rates of CNS relapse were similar in both arms whether isolated (5.6% and 3.3%, respectively) or combined (5.3% and 4.6%, respectively). The estimated 6-year disease-free survival (DFS) rate was similar (log-rank P =.67) in the two treatment groups: 70.4% (SE = 2.6%) in Arm A and 71.0% (SE = 2.5%) in Arm B. The 6-year DFS rate was similar for ALL and LL patients: 70.2% (SE = 1.9%) versus 76.3% (SE = 5.6%). CONCLUSION: Prevention of CNS relapse was satisfactorily achieved with HD IV MTX and intrathecal injections of MTX in children with increased-risk ALL or stage III and IV lymphoblastic lymphoma treated with our BFM-based treatment protocol in which cranial irradiation was omitted. Disappointingly, with the dose schedule used in this protocol, HD Ara-C added to HD MTX, although well tolerated, failed to further decrease the incidence of CNS relapse or to improve the overall DFS. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (3 ULg) L'activité physique de jeunes adolescents en Communauté française de BelgiquePiéron, Maurice; Cloes, Marc in Revue de l'Education Physique (2001), 41(1), 42-48La santé figure dans la plupart des préoccupations des théoriciens et des praticiens de l'éducation physique. Les effets de santé associés à la pratique régulière d'activités physiques suscitent un ... [more ▼]La santé figure dans la plupart des préoccupations des théoriciens et des praticiens de l'éducation physique. Les effets de santé associés à la pratique régulière d'activités physiques suscitent un intérêt fondamental chez de nombreux chercheurs. En effet, à deux reprises, un groupe de consensus s'est réuni pour établir un bilan des certitudes et des doutes en matière de relations entre l'activité physique et la santé. ... [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 77 (2 ULg) La distribution des industries dans une région : des images multiplesMerenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ; Devillet, Guénaël in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001), 40How to apprehend the industrial distribution in a region ? How to analyse their pattern ? Such are the two main questions discussed in this paper which tries to give an answer by a progress in five steps ... [more ▼]How to apprehend the industrial distribution in a region ? How to analyse their pattern ? Such are the two main questions discussed in this paper which tries to give an answer by a progress in five steps : thinking about the choice of indicators, thinking about the choice of the spatial scale, making or not a distinction between industrial hranchs or types, integreting or not the temporal changes, testing a typology. Through all the images that have been produced, the relativity of the points of view as well as their partial approach of the studying phenomenon are showed, which indicates that both « prudence » and « modesty » are necessary in all researchs trying to analyse the structures of the territories. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (17 ULg) Chronic rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm manifesting as crural neuropathy.Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ; SakalihasanN, Natzi ; LAVIGNE, Jean-Paul et alin Annals of Vascular Surgery (2001), 15(3), 405-11Chronic rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) resulting in unusual clinical manifestations can occur if the resistance of structures surrounding the aorta is sufficient to contain hemorrhage. In this ... [more ▼]Chronic rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) resulting in unusual clinical manifestations can occur if the resistance of structures surrounding the aorta is sufficient to contain hemorrhage. In this report, we describe five cases of chronic ruptured AAA in which the presenting feature was crural neuropathy. All patients were male with a mean age of 74 +/- 1.8 years. At the time of presentation, crural neuropathy had been ongoing for 3 to 9 weeks. In three cases, AAA was not initially suspected because an inadequate clinical examination was performed (not in the vascular surgery department) and because of the small diameter of the aorta in relation to the patient's morphology. Two patients had one episode of hypotension that was wrongly attributed to vagal attack. Abdominal CT scanning was always diagnostic of chronic rupture. In two cases, rupture was associated with erosion of the body of one or more vertebrae and laboratory evidence of inflammation, i.e., increase in sedimentation rate and fibrinogen level. The mean diameter of the AAA was 7.1 +/- 0.9 cm (range 5-10 cm). All patients underwent midline laparotomy, which was performed under emergency conditions in two cases, under semi-emergency conditions in one case, and electively in two cases. Perforation was consistently located on the posterolateral wall of the aorta and varied from 1 to 3 cm in length. Repair was performed using an aortobifemoral prosthesis in four cases, and a straight tube in one case. The patient who underwent emergency surgery died 4 days after the procedure. The remaining four patients recovered uneventfully and were discharged after 10 days. In the elderly, ruptured AAA should be included in the differential diagnosis of crural neuropathy. An episode of hypotension, regardless of its duration, in an elderly patient should be given serious consideration as a possible sign of ruptured AAA with ongoing retroperitoneal hemorrhage. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (2 ULg) La mobilité d'après Leroi-Gourhan et la kinesthésie chez Husserl. Des éclairages complémentaires sur une dynamique pulsionnelle spécifiquement humainede Villers Grand Champs, Bénédicte in Alter : Revue de Phénoménologie (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg) Horace, lecteur du livre V de Lucrèce (Satires, I, 3, 99-112)Rochette, Bruno in Latomus : Revue d'Etudes Latines (2001), 60(1), 16-20Detailed reference viewed: 68 (5 ULg) Microtubule-associated protein 1B: a neuronal binding partner for myelin-associated glycoprotein.Franzen, Rachelle ; Tanner, Sandy; Dashiell, Suzanne et alin Journal of Cell Biology (2001), 155Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Presence of Oestrogen Receptor Type Beta in Human RetinaMunaut, Carine ; Lambert, Vincent ; Noël, Agnès et alin British Journal of Ophthalmology (2001), 85(7), 877-82BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ORalpha) and beta (ORbeta) with significant differences of expression among organs. Since ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ORalpha) and beta (ORbeta) with significant differences of expression among organs. Since important pathologies of human eye could be linked to hormonal status, the expression of ORbeta in ocular posterior segment was sought. METHODS: Immunohistochemical localisation of ORbeta and ORalpha protein and detection of OR mRNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed in macular and extramacular regions of the retina and in the choroid on male and female donors eyes. RESULTS: ORbeta protein was localised in the ganglion cell layer and in the choroid. At the transcriptional level, mRNA for ORbeta and for ORalpha were both present. Local differences in the expression level were observed, however, suggesting the possibility of variation in the ratio of ORalpha v ORbeta. CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes in the human ocular posterior segment raises acute questions about their potential physiological role, but offers a perspective for preferential targeting of a specific receptor subtype. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 102 (40 ULg) Microwave Corneosurfametry and the Short-Duration Dansyl Chloride Extraction Test for Rating Concentrated Irritant SurfactantsGoffin, Véronique ; Pierard, Gérald in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2001), 202(1), 46-8BACKGROUND: There are ethical concerns to conduct in vivo tests in the animal and human to provide evidence that cosmetics and other topical products are safe. OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods, namely ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: There are ethical concerns to conduct in vivo tests in the animal and human to provide evidence that cosmetics and other topical products are safe. OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods, namely the short-duration dansyl chloride extraction test and the microwave corneosurfametry bioassay, to test the irritation potential of concentrated surfactant systems. METHODS: Five surfactants and water were tested using the in vivo test and the bioassay. RESULTS: A significant linear correlation was found between data yielded by the two procedures. CONCLUSION: The short-duration dansyl chloride extraction test and the microwave corneosurfametry bioassay provide similar information. The latter has the advantage of being safe. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) The effect of risedronate on hip fracture risk in elderly women with osteoporosisBensen, W; Eastell, R; Reginster, Jean-Yves et alin Journal of Rheumatology (2001), 28(S63), 24Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg) Insecticide resistance gene transmission by insecticide-susceptible insectsArnaud, Ludovic; Callaghan, Amanda; Haubruge, Eric in Functional Ecology (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Comparison of basic density and longitudinal shrinkage in tension wood and opposite wood in young stems of Poplar (P. euramericana cv “ Ghoy ”) when subjected to a gravitational stimulusJourez, Benoît ; Riboux, Alain; Leclercq, Andréin Canadian Journal of Forest Research = Journal Canadien de la Recherche Forestière (2001), 31(10), 1676-1683In a green house, under controlled conditions, young shoots, taken from poplar cuttings (P. euramericana cv “ Ghoy ”), were artificially inclined in order to quantify the modifications of physical ... [more ▼]In a green house, under controlled conditions, young shoots, taken from poplar cuttings (P. euramericana cv “ Ghoy ”), were artificially inclined in order to quantify the modifications of physical properties induced by a gravitational stimulus. At the end of the growing season, basic density and longitudinal shrinkage were measured on very small samples taken from pure tension wood tissue observed on the upper face of the inclined axis and compared with opposite wood tissue, free of gelatinous fibers, developed on the opposite lower face. In a second step, shoots bend at two different lean intensities were analyzed. On young poplar wood, gravitational stimulus was found to have a significant effect on physical properties. Relations between basic density and longitudinal shrinkage are different depending on the types of wood considered. Shrinkage appears more sensitive to lean intensity in the range considered here [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (2 ULg) Secondary fabrics revealed by remanence anisotropy: methodological study and examples from plutonic rocksTrindade, Ricardo I.F.; Bouchez, Jean-Luc; Bolle, Olivier et alin Geophysical Journal International (2001), 147(2), 310-318Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) The short-range baryon baryon interaction in a chiral constituent quark modelStancu, Floarea ; Glozman, Ya. L.in Nuclear Physics A (2001), A683The previous analysis of the short-range $NN$ repulsion originating from the Goldstone boson exchange hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks is revisited. We study in which respects the ... [more ▼]The previous analysis of the short-range $NN$ repulsion originating from the Goldstone boson exchange hyperfine interaction between constituent quarks is revisited. We study in which respects the repulsion depends on the radial form of the spin-spin quark-quark force. We show that while the radial form affects the structure of the 6Q wave function, the short-range repulsion in the $NN$ system persists in any case. We extend our analysis to other $YN$ and $YY$ (flavor octet-octet) systems and demonstrate that the flavor-spin hyperfine interaction implies a short-range repulsion in these B=2 systems as well. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (3 ULg) Module checkingKupferman, Orna; Vardi, Moshe Y; Wolper, Pierre in Information & Computation (2001), 164(2), 322-344In computer system design, we distinguish between closed and open systems. A closed system is a system whose behavior is completely determined by the state of the system. An open system is a system that ... [more ▼]In computer system design, we distinguish between closed and open systems. A closed system is a system whose behavior is completely determined by the state of the system. An open system is a system that interacts with its environment and whose behavior depends on this interaction. The ability of temporal logics to describe an ongoing interaction of a reactive program with its environment makes them particularly appropriate for the specification of open systems. Nevertheless, model-checking algorithms used for the verification of closed systems are not appropriate for the verification of open systems. Correct model checking of open systems should check the system with respect to arbitrary environments and should take into account uncertainty regarding the environment. This is not the case with current model-checking algorithms and tools. In this paper we introduce and examine the problem of model checking of open systems (module checking, for short). We show that while module checking and model checking coincide for the linear-time paradigm, module checking is much harder than model checking for the branching-time paradigm. We prove that the problem of module checking is EXPTIME-complete for specifications in CTL and 2EXPTIME-complete for specifications in CTL*. This bad news is also carried over when we consider the program-complexity of module checking. As good news, we show that for the commonly-used fragment of CTL (universal, possibly, and always possibly properties), current model-checking tools do work correctly, or can be easily adjusted to work correctly, with respect to both closed and open systems. (C) 2001 Academic Press. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (9 ULg) Les devoirs : un canal de communication entre l’école et la famille ?Poncelet, Débora; Schillings, Patricia ; Hindryckx, Geneviève et alin Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2001), 20Detailed reference viewed: 20 (2 ULg) A comparison of blade tip timing data analysis methodsCarrington, Ian B; Wright, Jan Robert; Cooper, Jonathan E et alin Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers - Part G - Journal of Aerospace Engineering (2001), 215(6), 301-312The experimental determination of the vibration characteristics of rotating engine blades is very important for fatigue failure considerations. One of the most promising techniques for measuring the ... [more ▼]The experimental determination of the vibration characteristics of rotating engine blades is very important for fatigue failure considerations. One of the most promising techniques for measuring the frequency of blade vibrations is blade tip timing. In this paper, three vibration analysis methods were specifically formulated and applied to the tip timing problem for the first time, using data obtained from a simple mathematical blade tip timing simulation. The results from the methods were compared statistically in order to determine which of the techniques is more suitable. One of the methods, the global autoregressive instrumental variables approach, produced satisfactory results at realistic noise levels. However, all of the techniques produced biased results under certain circumstances. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 144 (2 ULg) Analysis Of The Chromosome Sequence Of The Legume Symbiont Sinorhizobium Meliloti Strain 1021Capela, Delphine; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Gouzy, Jérôme et alin Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2001), 98(17), Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg) La lecture littéraire : le pour et le contreDumortier, Jean-Louis in Education-Formation (2001), 262Detailed reference viewed: 32 (1 ULg) Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group.McClung, M R; Geusens, P; Miller, P D et alin New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2001), 344(5), 333-40BACKGROUND: Risedronate increases bone mineral density in elderly women, but whether it prevents hip fracture is not known. METHODS: We studied 5445 women 70 to 79 years old who had osteoporosis ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Risedronate increases bone mineral density in elderly women, but whether it prevents hip fracture is not known. METHODS: We studied 5445 women 70 to 79 years old who had osteoporosis (indicated by a T score for bone mineral density at the femoral neck that was more than 4 SD below the mean peak value in young adults [-4] or lower than -3 plus a nonskeletal risk factor for hip fracture, such as poor gait or a propensity to fall) and 3886 women at least 80 years old who had at least one nonskeletal risk factor for hip fracture or low bone mineral density at the femoral neck (T score, lower than -4 or lower than -3 plus a hip-axis length of 11.1 cm or greater). The women were randomly assigned to receive treatment with oral risedronate (2.5 or 5.0 mg daily) or placebo for three years. The primary end point was the occurrence of hip fracture. RESULTS: Overall, the incidence of hip fracture among all the women assigned to risedronate was 2.8 percent, as compared with 3.9 percent among those assigned to placebo (relative risk, 0.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 0.9; P=0.02). In the group of women with osteoporosis (those 70 to 79 years old), the incidence of hip fracture among those assigned to risedronate was 1.9 percent, as compared with 3.2 percent among those assigned to placebo (relative risk, 0.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.009). In the group of women selected primarily on the basis of nonskeletal risk factors (those at least 80 years of age), the incidence of hip fracture was 4.2 percent among those assigned to risedronate and 5.1 percent among those assigned to placebo (P=0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Risedronate significantly reduces the risk of hip fracture among elderly women with confirmed osteoporosis but not among elderly women selected primarily on the basis of risk factors other than low bone mineral density. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (18 ULg) Genetic markers of osteoarticular disorders: facts and hopes.Brandi, M L; Gennari, L; Cerinic, M M et alin Arthritis Research (2001), 3(5), 270-80Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are the two most common age-related chronic disorders of articular joints and skeleton, representing a major public health problem in most developed countries. Apart from ... [more ▼]Osteoarthritis and osteoporosis are the two most common age-related chronic disorders of articular joints and skeleton, representing a major public health problem in most developed countries. Apart from being influenced by environmental factors, both disorders have a strong genetic component, and there is now considerable evidence from large population studies that these two disorders are inversely related. Thus, an accurate analysis of the genetic component of one of these two multifactorial diseases may provide data of interest for the other. However, the existence of confounding factors must always be borne in mind in interpreting the genetic analysis. In addition, each patient must be given an accurate clinical evaluation, including family history, history of drug treatments, lifestyle, and environment, in order to reduce the background bias. Here, we review the impact of recent work in molecular genetics suggesting that powerful molecular biology techniques will soon make possible both a rapid accumulation of data on the genetics of both disorders and the development of novel diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 7 (2 ULg) Le transsexualisme et l'anorexie mentale : emprise et tyrannie de la subjectivité : approches méthodologiquesMormont, Christian ; Frankignoul, A.; Michel, Audein Pratiques psychologiques (2001), (3), 25-36Detailed reference viewed: 86 (4 ULg) Évolution des accessibilités et des mobilités des localisations commercialesMerenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette in Travaux de l’Institut de Géographie de Reims (2001), 27(107-108), 7-23In order to be able to study the links between the evolution of accessibilities and mobilities and the dynamics of the commercial localizations, the article has been organized in three parts : firstly ... [more ▼]In order to be able to study the links between the evolution of accessibilities and mobilities and the dynamics of the commercial localizations, the article has been organized in three parts : firstly, the definition of the concepts of accessibility and mobility as well as the distance; secondly, analysis of the role of these two concepts in the commercial field and the their most evident recent evolutions; lastly, research into corresponding links. On the basis of this work, everything indicates the priority of mobility over accessibility as well as very close relations between the mutations of urbanized territories and the installation of the new commercial framework, which is strongly governed by car mobility. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 207 (3 ULg) Intracellular pH-dependent efflux of the fluorescent probe pyranine in the yeast Yarrowia lipolyticaAguedo, Mario ; Waché, Y.; Belin, J.-M.in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2001), 200(2), 185-1898-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (pyranine) can be used as a vital intracellular pH (pHi) indicator. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, a partial efflux of the probe was detected by using the pH ... [more ▼]8-Hydroxypyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid (pyranine) can be used as a vital intracellular pH (pHi) indicator. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, a partial efflux of the probe was detected by using the pH-independent wavelength of 415 nm. A simplified correction of the fluorescent signals was applied, enabling to show for this species a good near-neutral pHi maintenance capacity in a pH 3.9 medium. Octanoic acid, which is known to have toxic effects on yeast, decreased the pHi and increased the 260-nm-absorbing compounds leakage. However, this acid inhibited the fluorescent probe efflux linearly with its concentration suggesting a pHi-dependent efflux of pyranine from cells. © 2001 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Modelling and design of an electrostatically levitated disc for inertial sensing applicationsKraft, Michael ; Farooqui, Mateen M.; Evans, Alan G. R.in Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering (2001), 11(4), 423--427Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Adaptive significance of facultative paedomorphosis in Triturus alpestris (Amphibia, Caudata): resource partitioning in an alpine lakeDenoël, Mathieu ; Joly, Pierrein Freshwater Biology (2001), 46(10), 1387-13961. Facultative paedomorphosis is a polymorphism that has important evolutionary implications in promoting morphological differentiation and variation in habitat use. It occurs in several urodele species ... [more ▼]1. Facultative paedomorphosis is a polymorphism that has important evolutionary implications in promoting morphological differentiation and variation in habitat use. It occurs in several urodele species throughout the world. Several hypotheses based on life-history theory have been proposed to explain the wide range of habitats in which facultative paedomorphosis occurs, suggesting multifactorial causes. 2. In harsh habitats, such as mountain lakes, paedomorphosis might promote niche partitioning between morphs. This hypothesis was tested by comparing micro-habitat use and diet of two coexisting morphs in an alpine lake. 3. Paedomorphs occupied all microhabitats in the lake while metamorphs occurred only along the shoreline or at the water surface. Paedomorphic newts were frequent in deep water, where they foraged mainly on plankton. Plankton was poorly exploited by metamorphic newts, which fed mainly on terrestrial insects. Difference between morphs in microhabitat use, and consequently in the diet, were consistent in both sexes and in juveniles. 4. In adults, the mass and energy value of stomach contents did not differ between morphs, suggesting a similar food availability in the habitats occupied. 5. This study indicates habitat partitioning between morphs involving dietary differences. Specific benefits and costs of each ontogenetic pathway may allow their coexistence in this deep and fishless lake. Paedomorphosis benefits individual newts by making new food resources available and presumably reducing competition at the shore of the lake. However, the proximate causes of such an ontogenetic switch remain unclear. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 223 (18 ULg) Traçabilité dans la filière viande. I. La traçabilité administrative.Evrard, V.; China, B.; Noirfalise, R. et alin Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145Le secteur de la viande a été secoué ces dernières années par quelques scandales, tels ceux des hormones et de la dioxine, avec pour conséquences une perte de confiance de la part du consommateur et une ... [more ▼]Le secteur de la viande a été secoué ces dernières années par quelques scandales, tels ceux des hormones et de la dioxine, avec pour conséquences une perte de confiance de la part du consommateur et une perturbation du marché de la viande. Pour redresser l’image des produits carnés belges, il est important de pouvoir en déterminer et en garantir l’origine. En Belgique, il existe divers systèmes de traçabilité administrative dont le principal est le système SANITEL qui comprend un système automatisé de traitement de données relatives à l’identification et l’enregistrement des animaux. Au-delà de l’aspect légal et réglementaire, différentes initiatives, visant une amélioration de la qualité, fleurissent : "les labels". Ceux-ci intègrent fréquemment la traçabilité dans leur cahier des charges. La traçabilité administrative n’est pas infaillible, la perte de documents et les fraudes peuvent ternir l’image de celle-ci. C’est pourquoi le système documentaire a été associé aux empreintes génétiques des animaux. 5 [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 122 (3 ULg) An On-line Glossary as a way to foster the construction of a common culture among urban experts, stakeholders and decision-makersTeller, Jacques in Construction Innovation (2001), 1/4Negotiation and public participation are a key aspect of present urban development projects. Argumentation support tools, based on the Toulmin logic, have often been presented as a way to increase the ... [more ▼]Negotiation and public participation are a key aspect of present urban development projects. Argumentation support tools, based on the Toulmin logic, have often been presented as a way to increase the accountability of the debates between the different urban actors. It should still be assumed that any collaborative decision making requires some common culture to make the dialogue possible and constructive. Such a common understanding of basic terms, references and methods is often missing in present-day urban disputes, especially when complex issues like cultural heritage are at stake. The present paper discusses the relevancy of Web Glossaries as a way to build up such a common culture among urban experts, stakeholders and decision-makers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (5 ULg) Le pilotage des systèmes d'enseignementde Landsheere, Gilbert in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (5-6), 115-120Un peu moins de trois ans après le congrès 'La Wallonie au futur. Le défi de l'éducation' (Namur, octobre 1991), Gilbert de Landsheere reprend la parole lors de l'introduction d'une conférence-consensus ... [more ▼]Un peu moins de trois ans après le congrès 'La Wallonie au futur. Le défi de l'éducation' (Namur, octobre 1991), Gilbert de Landsheere reprend la parole lors de l'introduction d'une conférence-consensus (Namur, mars 1994) sur le thème 'Où en est et où va le système éducatif en Wallonie? Comment le savoir ?'. Il y est plus inquiet et en colère que jamais... et il le fait savoir ! Il poursuit la réflexion qu'il avait livrée dans deux des textes que nous publions également dans ces Cahiers ('L'avenir de l'enseignement' et 'Propositions relatives à l'enseignement'). Il expose aussi la substance de l'ouvrage qu'il fera publié chez De Boeck la même année. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 66 (16 ULg) Conflits de lois et de nationalités e matière de vente d'un immeuble appartenant à un mineurBoularbah, Hakim in Journal des Tribunaux (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Ab initio simulations of liquid semiconductors using the pseudopotential-density functional methodChelikowsky, J. R.; Derby, J. J.; Godlevsky, V. V. et alin Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2001), 13(41), 817-854854One of the most difficult problems in condensed matter physics is describing the microscopic nature of the liquid state. Owing to the dynamical nature of the liquid state, it is not possible to discuss a ... [more ▼]One of the most difficult problems in condensed matter physics is describing the microscopic nature of the liquid state. Owing to the dynamical nature of the liquid state, it is not possible to discuss a particular microscopic structure; only ensemble averages can be specified. Such averages can be performed via well crafted molecular dynamics simulations: the length of the simulation, the size of the ensemble and the nature of the interatomic forces must all be carefully analysed. Historically, a problematic issue in doing such simulations is that of how to describe the interatomic forces in the liquid state. This matter is especially challenging for the melt of semiconductors, such as silicon or gallium arsenide, where the chemical bond contains a strong covalent component. It is difficult to use pairwise interatomic potentials in such cases. Although many-body potentials can be utilized for simulations of these materials, one must map quantum phenomena such as hybridization onto classical interatomic potentials. This mapping is complex and difficult. In this review, we illustrate how one can avoid this problem by utilizing quantum forces to simulate liquids. Our focus is on the pseudopotential-density functional method. Within the pseudopotential method, only the valence electrons are explicitly treated and within the density functional theory, exchange and correlation terms are mapped onto an effective one-electron potential [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (1 ULg) Analyse sociologique de la gestion des services de police, pour une compréhension par le jeu autour des règlesSchoenaers, Frédéric in Gestion : Revue Internationale de Gestion (2001), 25(4), 45-55Detailed reference viewed: 43 (5 ULg) Ionic or non-ionic contrast media during coronary intervention: does it make a difference?Legrand, Victor in European heart journal (2001), 22(5), 353-4Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg) Oviposition preferences of Episyrphus balteatus.Vanhaelen, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric ; Gaspar, Charles et alin Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 269-75A crucial aspect of predator oviposition behaviour is host plant choice, especially in hoverflies where the newly hatched offspring are unable to move a great distance to search for the appropriate prey ... [more ▼]A crucial aspect of predator oviposition behaviour is host plant choice, especially in hoverflies where the newly hatched offspring are unable to move a great distance to search for the appropriate prey. Such offspring must generally feed on the host plant aphids previously selected by the mother. Some factors involved in the selection of the oviposition site of Episyrphus balteatus De Geer include aphids associated to chemical stimuli, aphid colony size and host plant characteristics. Here we tested the hypothesis that there will not only be a rank order hierarchy of preference for aphid prey species reared on the same host plant but that a similar hierarchy of different host plant of one aphid species could be established. Therefore we compared the number of eggs laid on different combinations of host plant and aphid species. Vicia faba L., secondary metabolites free, Brassica napus L. and Sinapis alba L., containing low and high levels of glucosinolates respectively were used. The latter compounds are well known allelochemicals from Brassicaceae having a strong influence on specialist and generalist insects from both phytophagous and entomophagous levels. These experiments enhance the importance of tritrophic interactions in biological control of pests by underlining the host plant influence on aphidophagous predators, either directly or through the odours emitted by the phytophagous prey. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 69 (5 ULg) Autoimmune Pancreatitis Mimicking Cancer of the Head of Pancreas: Report of Two CasesServais, Anne-Marie ; Pestieau, Sophie R; Detry, Olivier et alin Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2001), 64(2, Apr-Jun), 227-30Autoimmune pancreatitis has been characterised in 1995, but only a few cases have been published since then, most of them from Japan. This report describes the cases of two Belgian male patients who ... [more ▼]Autoimmune pancreatitis has been characterised in 1995, but only a few cases have been published since then, most of them from Japan. This report describes the cases of two Belgian male patients who presented with isolated obstructive jaundice. Radiological imaging studies were highly suggestive of carcinoma of the head of pancreas and both patients underwent uneventful cephalic pancreaticoduodenectomy with portal vein resection. Pathological analysis of the removed tissues suggested an autoimmune process in both cases. Both patients had hyper-gammaglobulinemia and antinuclear antibodies, but failed to show evidence of any other autoimmune disease or cause of chronic pancreatitis. In both cases final diagnosis was autoimmune pancreatitis. Preoperative clinical suspicion of this diagnosis is mandatory and may avoid unnecessary surgery in future cases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 119 (7 ULg) The Immuno-Inflammatory Reaction in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Characterisation, Genetics and Clinical Application. Focus on Tnf AlphaLouis, Edouard in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2001), 64(1), 1-5Inflammatory bowel diseases are multifactorial polygenic diseases. The author has worked on the characterisation of the mucosal immuno-inflammatory reaction, on genetic predisposition and on potential ... [more ▼]Inflammatory bowel diseases are multifactorial polygenic diseases. The author has worked on the characterisation of the mucosal immuno-inflammatory reaction, on genetic predisposition and on potential clinical application of blood immuno-inflammatory markers in these diseases. This paper summarizes some aspects of this work, focusing on TNF. Following points are developed: production of TNF by inflamed mucosa, genetic control of TNF production, TNF gene polymorphim in inflammatory bowel disease, and evaluation of serum TNF as a marker of disease activity or evolutivity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg) Genesis of clone size heterogeneity in megakaryocytic and other hemopoietic colonies: the stochastic model revisitedPaulus, Jean-Michel ; Levin, Jack; Debili, Najet et alin International Society for Experimental Hematology (2001), 29(nd), 1256-69OBJECTIVE: We previously showed that the distributions of the numbers of doublings (NbD) undergone by individual megakaryocyte progenitors before commitment to polyploidization are markedly skewed and can ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVE: We previously showed that the distributions of the numbers of doublings (NbD) undergone by individual megakaryocyte progenitors before commitment to polyploidization are markedly skewed and can consistently be fitted to straight lines when plotted on semilogarithmic coordinates. The slope of such lines, which yields the probability of polyploidization per doubling, is made less steep by stimulators of megakaryocyte colony formation and is less steep in mixed erythroid-megakaryocyte than in pure megakaryocyte colonies. Therefore, megakaryocytopoiesis provides a unique model for the study of clonal heterogeneity in a hemopoietic lineage, which is the subject of this review. DATA SOURCES: Articles relevant to the interpretation of these data were selected from the authors' and public databases. DATA SYNTHESIS: Exponential NbD distributions were first explained by postulating that following the assembly of thrombopoiesis-specific regulators, megakaryocyte progenitors require only a single random event to arrest proliferation and commit to polyploidization. However, this stochastic model was refuted by data indicating that intrinsic properties of individual progenitors affect the NbD they achieve. We suggest that the unequal repartition of critical compounds (including receptors, signaling molecules, and gene regulators) inherent in the stem cell-progenitor transition causes a heritable heterogeneity in megakaryocyte progenitor responsiveness to polyploidization inducers. This model would be compatible with 1) the evidence for intraclonal synchronization in megakaryocyte and other hemopoietic clones generated by committed progenitors; 2) the low probability of polyploidization of the relatively insensitive bipotent megakaryocyte progenitors; and 3) the thesis that stimulators act in part by recruiting megakaryocyte progenitor cells endowed with lesser responsiveness to polyploidization inducers and higher proliferative potential. CONCLUSION: The responsiveness of individual megakaryocyte progenitors to polyploidization inducers may be a major determinant of the exponential shape of NbD distributions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 29 (6 ULg) Ipriflavone in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.Alexandersen, P; Toussaint, André ; Christiansen, C et alin JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association (2001), 285(11), 1482-8CONTEXT: Data on the efficacy and safety of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal bone loss are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of oral ipriflavone on prevention of ... [more ▼]CONTEXT: Data on the efficacy and safety of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal bone loss are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of oral ipriflavone on prevention of postmenopausal bone loss and to assess the safety profile of long-term treatment with ipriflavone in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-year study conducted in 4 centers in Belgium, Denmark, and Italy from August 1994 to July 1998. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred seventy-four postmenopausal white women, aged 45 to 75 years, with bone mineral densities (BMDs) of less than 0.86 g/cm(2). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ipriflavone, 200 mg 3 times per day (n = 234), or placebo (n = 240); all received 500 mg/d of calcium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy measures included spine, hip, and forearm BMD and biochemical markers of bone resorption (urinary hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine and urinary CrossLaps [Osteometer Biotech, Herlev, Denmark] corrected for creatinine), assessed every 6 months. Laboratory safety measures and adverse events were recorded every 3 months. RESULTS: Based on intent-to-treat analysis, after 36 months of treatment, the annual percentage change from baseline in BMD of the lumbar spine for ipriflavone vs placebo (0.1% [95% confidence interval (CI), -7.9% to 8.1%] vs 0.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to 10.7%]; P =.14), or in any of the other sites measured, did not differ significantly between groups. The response in biochemical markers was also similar between groups (eg, for hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine, 20.13 mg/g [95% CI, 18.85-21.41 mg/g] vs 20.67 mg/g [95% CI, 19.41-21.92 mg/g]; P =.96); urinary CrossLaps corrected for creatinine, 268 mg/mol (95% CI, 249-288 mg/mol) vs 268 mg/mol (95% CI, 254-282 mg/mol); P =.81. The number of women with new vertebral fracture was identical or nearly so in the 2 groups at all time points. Lymphocyte concentrations decreased significantly (500/microL (0.5 x 10(9)/L]) in women treated with ipriflavone. Thirty-one women (13.2%) in the ipriflavone group developed subclinical lymphocytopenia, of whom 29 developed it during ipriflavone treatment. Of these, 15 (52%) of 29 had recovered spontaneously by 1 year and 22 (81%) of 29 by 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that ipriflavone does not prevent bone loss or affect biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Additionally, ipriflavone induces lymphocytopenia in a significant number of women. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) L'intervention volontaire des autorités administratives devant le juge pénal en matière d'infraction d'urbanismeDelnoy, Michel in Aménagement - Environnement (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 48 (2 ULg) Life-cycle modelling of bequests and its implications for annuity valuationJousten, Alain in Journal of Public Economics (2001), 79In this paper we introduce a linear bequest motive into a standard life-cycle model, both allowing for credit and annuity market imperfections. First, we characterize the consumption and wealth processes ... [more ▼]In this paper we introduce a linear bequest motive into a standard life-cycle model, both allowing for credit and annuity market imperfections. First, we characterize the consumption and wealth processes.We find that consumption is non-increasing in the linear bequest parameter for the simplest certainty case, but that the same is not true for life-span uncertainty. Second, we study the issue of annuity valuation. For a sufficiently strong bequest motive, the true value of an annuity is equal to the actuarial value. This invalidates a previous claim that, for imperfect annuity markets, it is close to the simple financial value. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (8 ULg) Properties of ordinary and exotic hadronsStancu, Floarea in Few-Body Systems Supplementum (2001), 13I discuss properties of ordinary and exotic hadrons as described by two distinct constituent quark models. These are the one gluon exchange (OGE) and the Goldstone boson exchange (GBE) models. I also ... [more ▼]I discuss properties of ordinary and exotic hadrons as described by two distinct constituent quark models. These are the one gluon exchange (OGE) and the Goldstone boson exchange (GBE) models. I also discuss the interaction between hadrons starting from their quark structure. The case of the $NN$ is presented in some details. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (6 ULg) Genetics of menopause-associated diseases.Massart, François ; REGINSTER, Jean-Yves ; Brandi, M Lin Maturitas (2001), 40(2), 103-16Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian follicular activity. It is estimated that perhaps 50 million women worldwide will go into menopause annually ... [more ▼]Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from the loss of ovarian follicular activity. It is estimated that perhaps 50 million women worldwide will go into menopause annually. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, osteoporotic fractures and Alzheimer's dementia are common chronic disorders after menopause, representing major health problems in most developed countries. Apart from being influenced by environmental factors, these chronic disorders recognize a strong genetic component, and there are now considerable clinic evidences that these disorders are related to low hormonal milieu of postmenopausal women. Here, we review up-to-date available data suggesting that genetic variation may contribute to higher susceptibility to four sporadic chronic syndromes such as osteoporosis (OP), osteoarthritis (OA), Alzheimer's disease (AD) and coronary artery disease (CAD). For these four syndromes candidate genes that today appear as major loci in genetic susceptibility encode for proteins specific of a given system, as the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene for the skeleton and, therefore, OP or angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) for the cardiovascular system and, therefore, CAD. The investigation of gene polymorphisms in various pathological conditions typical of postmenopause offer an explanation not only of their genetic inheritance but also of their co-segregation in given individuals. In this view, it may be possible to identify a common set of genes whose variants contribute to a common genetic background for these different disorders. Ideal candidates appear genes of the estrogen response cascade [i.e. estrogen receptor (ERs), enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism or co-activators and co-inhibitors]. All together this information may represent the basis both for future recognition of individuals at risk and for the pharmacogenetic driving of drug responsiveness. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg) Suboptimal Enhancer Sequences Are Required For Efficient Bovine Leukemia Virus Propagation In Vivo: Implications For Viral LatencyMerezak, C.; Pierreux, C.; Adam, E. et alin Journal of Virology (2001), 75(15), Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Well-ordered spherical mesoporous materials CMI-1 synthesized via an assembly of decaoxyethylene cetyl ether and TMOSBlin, Jean-Luc; Léonard, Alexandre ; Su, Bao-Lianin Chemistry of Materials (2001), 13(10), 3542-3553Well-ordered spherical CMI-1 mesoporous materials with a hexagonal arrangement of channels, analogous to MCM-41, have been directly synthesized by variation of the weight percentage of decaoxyethylene ... [more ▼]Well-ordered spherical CMI-1 mesoporous materials with a hexagonal arrangement of channels, analogous to MCM-41, have been directly synthesized by variation of the weight percentage of decaoxyethylene cetyl ether [C 16(EO) 10] in aqueous solution. XRD, TEM, SEM, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption results led us to propose two different synthesis pathways for surfactant concentrations higher and lower than 30 wt %, respectively. For samples obtained with an elevated surfactant concentration (>30 wt %), in addition to the possible perturbation induced by methanol released in low amount during the hydrolysis of TMOS, other factors such as the interactions of the silica source with hydrophilic chain heads of surfactant molecules should also disturb the preformed hexagonal micelle array, and disordered wormhole mesostructured materials (DWM), analogous to MSU, are obtained. For the synthesis with a C 16(EO) 10 concentration less than 30 wt %, a cooperative mechanism, which involves the polymerization of silica source and the interface interactions between the hydroxyl groups of silica source produced from the hydrolysis of TMOS and hydrophilic chain heads of surfactant molecules which are present in the single rod micelle form, has been evidenced, leading to well-ordered CMI-1 materials with hexagonal arrangement of their channels. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg) Sexual compatibility between two heterochronic morphs in the Alpine newt, Triturus alpestrisDenoël, Mathieu ; Poncin, Pascal ; Ruwet, Jean-Claudein Animal Behaviour (2001), 62(3), 559-566Paedomorphosis, in which individuals retain ancestral characteristics in the adult stage, is widespread in newts and salamanders and is suspected to play an important role in evolution. In some species ... [more ▼]Paedomorphosis, in which individuals retain ancestral characteristics in the adult stage, is widespread in newts and salamanders and is suspected to play an important role in evolution. In some species, paedomorphosis is facultative with some individuals forgoing metamorphosis. Optimality models have been proposed to explain the maintenance of this polymorphism, but require the integration of reproductive patterns into the models. We investigated the frequencies of inbreeding and outbreeding in two syntopic heterochronic morphs of the Alpine newt. The two morphs are sexually compatible: encounters between and within morphs were equally successful in terms of spermatophore transfer. Behavioural observations were in agreement with the sexual compatibility observed. Nevertheless, paedomorphic males displayed to females less frequently than metamorphic males. The two morphs differ largely on the basis of sexual secondary characteristics, but the majority of these traits did not affect mating success. Because of the large flow of genes between the two heterochronic morphs and because of the absence of spatial and temporal isolation, these results do not support sympatric speciation models, but are in favour of the maintenance of polymorphism in natural populations. (C) 2001 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 156 (20 ULg) Numerical modelling of coupled transient phenomenaCharlier, Robert ; Radu, Jean-Pol ; Collin, Frédéric in Revue Française de Génie Civil (2001), 5(6), 719-743The basic phenomena involved in thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in geomaterials have been described in the 1st chapter. The equations describing these phenomena are non-linear differential equations ... [more ▼]The basic phenomena involved in thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in geomaterials have been described in the 1st chapter. The equations describing these phenomena are non-linear differential equations. Their solution can generally only be approximated thanks to numerical methods. This is the main subject of the present chapter. First the type of problems and the set of equations to be solved will be shortly recalled. Emphasis will be given on the non-linear contributions. In a second section, the mostly developed numerical method, i.e. the finite difference and the finite element methods will be discussed under the light of the problems to be treated. The iterative techniques allowing the solution of non linear equations will be described. A third section will be dedicated to the coupling terms and to their modelling. The question that rises then is How to model efficiently problems, which may differ highly from, the point of view of the time and length scales? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 69 (14 ULg) Liquid distribution images on structured packing by X-ray computed tomographyMarchot, Pierre ; Toye, Dominique ; Pelsser, A. M. et alin AIChE Journal (2001), 47(6), 1471-1476Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULg) Introduction à la programmation avec Matlab sous windowsAkossou, A. Y. J.; Fonton, N. H.; Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques in Notes de Biométrie et d'Informatique (2001), 2This note aims to introduce Matlab software. Through this presentation we show a few advantages of the software. This presentation is then illustrated by a few examples of program with the software.Detailed reference viewed: 70 (2 ULg) Analyse des interactions entre enfants en situation de tutorat portant sur des problèmes mathématiques de type multiplicatifCrahay, Marcel ; Hindryckx, Geneviève ; Lebe, Martinein Revue Française de Pédagogie (2001), 136Detailed reference viewed: 72 (1 ULg) Prognostic value of decremental responses to repetitive nerve stimulation in ALS patients (letter to the Editor)WANG, François-Charles in Neurology (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (7 ULg) Equilibrium basal-plane magnetization of superconductive YNi(2)B(2)C: The influence of nonlocal electrodynamicsThompson, J. R.; Silhanek, Alejandro ; Civale, L. et alin Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2001), 64(2), For a single crystal of YNi(2)B(2)C superconductor, the equilibrium magnetization M in the square basal Plane has been studied experimentally as a function of temperature and magnetic field. While the ... [more ▼]For a single crystal of YNi(2)B(2)C superconductor, the equilibrium magnetization M in the square basal Plane has been studied experimentally as a function of temperature and magnetic field. While the magnetization M(H) deviates from conventional London predictions, a recent extension of London theory (to include effects of nonlocal electrodynamics) describes the experiments accurately. The resulting superconductive parameters are well behaved. These results are compared with corresponding findings for the case with M perpendicular to the basal plane. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg) Location and Phenotype of Proliferating T cells in Secondary Lymph FolliclesHoshi, S.; Bouzahzah, F.; Mancini, I. et alin Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology [=JCEH] (2001), 42Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Plante-t-on l'épicéa n'importe où ? L'apport d'une analyse objective de la pessière wallonne.Claessens, Hugues ; Lecomte, Hugues; Lejeune, Philippe et alin Forêt Wallonne (2001), (49-50), 45-51Depuis son introduction dans la sylviculture belge au milieu du XIXe siècle, l'épicéa s'est progressivement imposé principalement grâce à sa bonne adaptation aux difficiles conditions écologiques de l ... [more ▼]Depuis son introduction dans la sylviculture belge au milieu du XIXe siècle, l'épicéa s'est progressivement imposé principalement grâce à sa bonne adaptation aux difficiles conditions écologiques de l'Ardenne, la facilité de sa culture et sa haute productivité en sols pauvres. Il est devenu la première essence de la forêt wallonne où il représente près de la moitié du volume de bois sur pied. Mais petit à petit, l'impact négatif de sa culture à grande échelle sur l'environnement s'est aussi révélé, notamment lors de son introduction dans des milieux fragiles qu'il a altérés, voire détruits. Ces erreurs ont progressivement amené de plus en plus d'observateurs de notre patrimoine naturel à rejeter globalement l'épicéa et sa culture en Belgique. Ces cas malheureux sur lesquels se sont focalisées l'opinion publique et scientifique sont-ils l'exeption ? Dans quelle mesure l'épicéa a-t-il colonisé à tort certains milieux ? Dans quelles conditions sa culture est-elle acceptable, tolérée ou à exclure ? C'est à ce type de question que la présente étude tente de répondre. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 214 (27 ULg) Quelques réflexions à propos de l'incidence des fixations, remises ou redistributions de la cause sur la qualification d'un jugement ou d'un arrêtBoularbah, Hakim in Revue de Droit Judiciaire et de la Preuve = Tijdschrift voor Procesrecht en Bewijsrecht (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) Quoi de neuf en littératie ? : Regard sur trente ans d'évaluation de la lectureLafontaine, Dominique in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 71-95Detailed reference viewed: 101 (3 ULg) Entre symbolisme et avant-garde : le modernisme de Franz Hellens dans la première série du Disque Vert (1921-1925)Denis, Benoît in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2001), (20), 66-75Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg) Autour d'Henri Bles à LiègeAllart, Dominique ; Fraiture Pascale; Oger, Cécile et alin Feuillets de la Cathédrale de Liège (2001), 46-53Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 ULg) Identification of Brucella spp. genes involved in intracellular trafficking.Delrue, R. M.; Martinez-Lorenzo, M.; Lestrate, P. et alin Cellular Microbiology (2001), 3(7), 487-97After uptake by host cells, the pathogen Brucella transits through early endosomes, evades phago-lysosome fusion and replicates in a compartment associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ... [more ▼]After uptake by host cells, the pathogen Brucella transits through early endosomes, evades phago-lysosome fusion and replicates in a compartment associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are still poorly understood. To identify new bacterial factors involved in these processes, a library of 1800 Brucella melitensis 16M mini-Tn5catkm mutants was screened for intracellular survival and multiplication in HeLa cells and J774A.1 macrophages. Thirteen mutants were identified as defective for their intracellular survival in both cell types. In 12 of them, the transposon had inserted in the virB operon, which encodes a type IV-related secretion system. The preponderance of virB mutants demonstrates the importance of this secretion apparatus in the intracellular multiplication of B. melitensis. We also examined the intracellular fate of three virB mutants (virB2, virB4 and virB9) in HeLa cells by immunofluorescence. The three VirB proteins are not necessary for penetration and the inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion within non-professional phagocytes. Rather, the virB mutants are unable to reach the replicative niche and reside in a membrane-bound vacuole expressing the late endosomal marker, LAMP1, and the sec61beta protein from the ER membrane, proteins that are present in autophagic vesicles originating from the ER. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (0 ULg) An overlay tree building control protocolMathy, Laurent ; Canonico, R.; Hutchison, D.in Networked Group Communication (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Quel aplostome à guidon chromé au fond de la cour ? De la mauvaise influence des thèses logiciennes sur la définition linguistique de l’autonymieBadir, Sémir in Le français moderne (2001), LXIX(1), 49-57Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg) La représentation des travailleurs à l’heure de la flexibilité : conséquences, enjeux et perspectivesAgro, Linda ; Dieu, Anne-Marie; Schoenaers, Frédéric in Revue de Gestion des Ressources Humaines (2001), 39Detailed reference viewed: 62 (22 ULg)