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See detailLe coup de la fourchette
Boxho, Philippe ULg

in Journal de Médecine Légale, Droit Médical (2000), 43(2), 121-125

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See detailIdentification of the Origin of Catecholaminergic Inputs to Hvc in Canaries by Retrograde Tract Tracing Combined with Tyrosine Hydroxylase Immunocytochemistry
Appeltants, D.; Absil, Philippe ULg; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2000), 18(3), 117-33

The telencephalic nucleus HVc (sometimes referred to as the high vocal center) plays a key role in the production and perception of birdsong. Although many afferent and efferent connections to this ... [more ▼]

The telencephalic nucleus HVc (sometimes referred to as the high vocal center) plays a key role in the production and perception of birdsong. Although many afferent and efferent connections to this nucleus have been described, it has been clear for many years, based on chemical neuroanatomical criteria, that there are projections to this nucleus that remain undescribed. A variety of methods including high performance liquid chromatography, immunohistochemistry and receptor autoradiography have identified high levels of catecholamine transmitters, the presence of enzymes involved in the synthesis of catecholamines such as tyrosine hydroxylase and a variety of catecholamine receptor sub-types in the HVc of several songbird species. However, no definitive projections to HVc have been described from cells groups known to synthesize catecholamines. These projections were analyzed in the present study by retrograde tract tracing combined with immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase. The origin of the catecholaminergic inputs to HVc were determined based exclusively on birds in which injections of the retrograde tracer (latex fluospheres) were confined within the cytoarchitectonic boundaries of the nucleus. Retrogradely transported latex fluospheres were found mainly in cells of two dopaminergic nuclei, the mesencephalic central gray (A11) and, to a lesser extend, the area ventralis of Tsai (A10; homologous to the ventral tegmental area of mammals). A few retrogradely-labelled cells were also found in the noradrenergic nucleus subceruleus (A6). Most of these retrogradely-labelled cells were also tyrosine hydroxylase-positive. Other catecholaminergic nuclei were devoid of retrograde label. These data converge with others studies to indicate that HVc receives discrete dopaminergic and noradrenergic inputs. These inputs may influence the steroid regulation of HVc, attentional processes related to song and modulate sensory inputs to the song system. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Folie Mallarmé
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Courrier du Centre International d'Etudes Poétiques (2000), 225

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See detailInvolvement of Insulin-Like Growth Factors in Early T Cell Development: A Study Using Fetal Thymic Organ Cultures
Kecha, O.; Brilot, F.; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in Endocrinology (2000), 141(3), 1209-17

The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF receptor genes was investigated by RT-PCR during ontogeny of the murine thymus. IGF-1, IGF-1R, M6P/IGF-2R genes are expressed in the thymus both ... [more ▼]

The expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and IGF receptor genes was investigated by RT-PCR during ontogeny of the murine thymus. IGF-1, IGF-1R, M6P/IGF-2R genes are expressed in the thymus both in fetal and postnatal life, whereas IGF-2 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) decline after birth but are still detectable on the seventh week. By in situ hybridization, IGF-2 transcripts were located in the outer cortex and medulla of the postnatal thymus, and on the whole surface ofthe epithelial-like network in the fetal thymus. The effects of anti-IGFs and IGF-receptors neutralizing Abs on the generation of pre-T cell subpopulations were then investigated using fetal thymic organ cultures (FTOC). FTOC treatment with an anti-IGF-2 mAb, an anti-IGF-1R mAb, or an anti-M6P/IGF-2R polyclonal Ab induced a blockade of T cell differentiation at the CD4-CD8- stage, as shown by a significant increase in the percentage of CD4-CD8- cells and a decrease in the percentage of CD4+CD8+ cells. Moreover, anti-IGF-2 Ab treatment induced an increase in CD8+ cells suggesting that thymic IGF-2 might have a role in determining differentiation into the CD4 or CD8 lineage. Anti-IGF-1 Ab treatment decreased the proportion in CD4-CD8- cells and increased the frequency in CD4+CD8+. FTOC treatment with anti-(pro)insulin did not exert any significant effect on T cell development. These data indicate that the intrathymic IGF-mediated signaling plays an active role in the early steps of T cell differentiation during fetal development. [less ▲]

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See detailTarget-Controlled Infusion of Propofol and Remifentanil Combined with Bispectral Index Monitoring for Awake Craniotomy
Hans, Pol ULg; Bonhomme, Vincent ULg; Born, J. D. et al

in Anaesthesia (2000), 55(3), 255-9

We describe the target-controlled administration of propofol and remifentanil, combined with monitoring of the bispectral index, during an awake craniotomy for removal of a left temporo-parietal tumour ... [more ▼]

We describe the target-controlled administration of propofol and remifentanil, combined with monitoring of the bispectral index, during an awake craniotomy for removal of a left temporo-parietal tumour near the motor speech centre. Target concentrations of the two drugs were adjusted according to the patient's responses to painful stimuli and surgical events, and the need for speech testing. Allowing the effect-site concentrations of propofol and remifentanil to decrease during surgery allowed the performance of cortical speech mapping and the testing of the patient's ability to speak. Although the bispectral index was not used as a guide for the administration of the drugs, its value correlated better with the patient's responsiveness than did the predicted effect-site concentrations of propofol. Side-effects, comprising hypotension, respiratory depression and airway obstruction, were related to rapid increases in drug infusion rates and were easily managed. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblocks and their potential as thermoplastic elastomers
Tong, J. D.; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2000), 41(7), 2499-2510

A series of well defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MnBM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate ... [more ▼]

A series of well defined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate) (PnBA)-b-PMMA triblock copolymers (MnBM) has been synthesized by transalcoholysis of PMMA-b-poly(tert-butylacrylate) (PtBA)-b-PMMA precursors (MTM) by n-butanol. Phase separation is observed for all the investigated triblock copolymers, which contain PMMA outer blocks in the 5000-50 000 molecular weight (MW) range and PnBA inner blocks with MW in the 100 000-200 000 range. Although the ultimate tensile properties of these MnBM triblock copolymers are poor compared to traditional diene-based TPEs (SBS and SIS), they are much better than those ones reported for PMMA-b-poly(isooctyl acrylate) (PIOA)-b-PMMA triblocks (MIM). A reasonable explanation for this observation is found in the average molecular weight between chain entanglements (Me) that has been estimated to be 28 000 for the central PnBA rubbery block, which is consistently much smaller than for PIOA (59 000) and substantially higher than Me for polybutadiene (1700) and polyisoprene (6100). The tensile behavior of MnBM copolymers cannot be fitted by either a simple elastomer model free from chain entanglements (suitable to MIM) or by a "filler" modified rubber model (suitable for diene-based TPEs), supporting the hypothesis that the mechanical properties of the investigated (meth)acrylate thermoplastic elastomers are significantly affected by any change in Me of the central acrylate block. Viscoelastic analysis shows that MnBM triblocks are of higher complex viscosity than the SBS and SIS analogs, leading to a shift in the order-disorder transition temperature to much higher temperature, unless the outer PMMA blocks are of very low molecular weight (5000). [less ▲]

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See detailAdenocarcinome pancreatique: role de l'anatomie pathologique
Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Quatresooz, Pascale ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 135-40

Duct cell adenocarcinoma is by far the most frequent neoplasm of the pancreas, accounting for about 80% of malignant tumors. In this report, we describe the main diagnostic pitfalls of this cancer in ... [more ▼]

Duct cell adenocarcinoma is by far the most frequent neoplasm of the pancreas, accounting for about 80% of malignant tumors. In this report, we describe the main diagnostic pitfalls of this cancer in routine or frozen sections, as well as the help of immunohistology to make the differential diagnosis. We also discuss the potential interest of tumor markers for evaluating the prognosis of these tumors and provide information about the creation of a Web site (URL: http://www.ebm.lib.ulg.ac.be/index.htm) created to help clinicians exploit the laboratory results. [less ▲]

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See detailLes traitements post-menopause a revoir? Une polemique nouvelle!
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Desreux, Joëlle ULg; Pintiaux, Axelle ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 156-60

The study by Schairer et al. aims to determine whether increases in risk of breast cancer associated with the estrogen-progestin regimen are greater than those associated with estrogen alone. This study ... [more ▼]

The study by Schairer et al. aims to determine whether increases in risk of breast cancer associated with the estrogen-progestin regimen are greater than those associated with estrogen alone. This study is a cohort of follow-up data for 1980-1995 from the Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project, a nationwide breast cancer screening program that involved 29 screening centers throughout the United States. A total of 46,355 postmenopausal women were followed. During follow up, 2,082 cases of breast cancer were identified. Increases in risk with estrogen only and estrogen-progestin only were restricted to use within the previous 4 years. The relative risk increased by 0.01 with each year of estrogen-only use and by 0.08 with each year of estrogen-progestin-only use among recent users. Among women with a Body Mass Index of 24.4 kg/m2 or less, increases in relative risk with each year of estrogen-only use and estrogen-progestin-only use among recent users were 0.03 and 0.12, respectively. The authors conclude that the estrogen-progestin regimen increases breast cancer risk beyond that associated with estrogen alone. This study was largely commented in the lay media. Unfortunately the Belgian media introduced the confusion between the relative risk and the risk attributable to estrogen and estrogen-progestin. The aim of this manuscript is to precisely inform our colleagues, to analyze the Schairer study and to present the actual figures of risk associated with the use of estrogen and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy. Finally, we formulate some suggestions for the physician to whom the patient declares: "Did you read the negative effects of hormones?". What should we advice? [less ▲]

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See detailRing opening copolymerization of ε-caprolactone, γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone and γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactonelactone: a route to hetero-graft copolyesters
Stassin, Fabrice; Halleux, Olivier; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (2000), 153

ε-Caprolactone (ε-CL) has been copolymerized with two precursors of γ-hydroxy-ε-CL, i.e., γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactone (TOSUO) and γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone (TeSCL). The triethylsilyloxy ... [more ▼]

ε-Caprolactone (ε-CL) has been copolymerized with two precursors of γ-hydroxy-ε-CL, i.e., γ-ethylene ketal-ε-caprolactone (TOSUO) and γ-(triethylsilyloxy)-ε-caprolactone (TeSCL). The triethylsilyloxy pendant groups can be selectively deprotected into hydroxyl groups followed by the deprotection of the acetal substituents. Each series of hydroxyl groups can be used to initiate the polymerization of cyclic monomers so leading to hetero-graft copolyesters with, for instance, poly-ε-CL and polylactide grafts. [less ▲]

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See detailRing-opening polymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone : Novel biodegradable copolymers containing allyl pendent groups
Mecerreyes, David; Miller, Robert D.; Hedrick, James L. et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2000), 38(5), 870-875

This article reports the synthesis and copolymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone. The ring-opening polymerization of this lactone-type monomer bearing a pendant allyl group led to new ... [more ▼]

This article reports the synthesis and copolymerization of 6-hydroxynon-8-enoic acid lactone. The ring-opening polymerization of this lactone-type monomer bearing a pendant allyl group led to new homopolymers and random copolymers with -caprolactone and L,L-lactide. The copolymerizations were carried out at 110 °C with Sn(Oct)2 as a catalyst. The introduction of unsaturations into the aliphatic polyester permitted us to carry out different chemical transformations on this family of polymers. For example, this article reports the bromination, epoxidation, and hydrosylilation of the allyl group in the new polyester copolymers. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxidant Status after Cold Ischemia of Rabbit Lung
Pincemail, Joël ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2000), 32(2), 484-5

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See detailCold-Adapted Enzymes: From Fundamentals to Biotechnology
Gerday, Charles ULg; Aittaleb, Mohamed; Bentahir, Mostafa et al

in Trends in Biotechnology (2000), 18(3), 103-7

Psychrophilic enzymes produced by cold-adapted microorganisms display a high catalytic efficiency and are most often, if not always, associated with high thermosensitivity. Using X-ray crystallography ... [more ▼]

Psychrophilic enzymes produced by cold-adapted microorganisms display a high catalytic efficiency and are most often, if not always, associated with high thermosensitivity. Using X-ray crystallography, these properties are beginning to become understood, and the rules governing their adaptation to cold appear to be relatively diverse. The application of these enzymes offers considerable potential to the biotechnology industry, for example, in the detergent and food industries, for the production of fine chemicals and in bioremediation processes. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Additional Aromatic Interaction Improves the Thermostability and Thermophilicity of a Mesophilic Family 11 Xylanase: Structural Basis and Molecular Study
Georis, J.; De Lemos Esteves, Frédéric ULg; Lamotte-Brasseur, J. et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2000), 9(3), 466-75

In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca ... [more ▼]

In a general approach to the understanding of protein adaptation to high temperature, molecular models of the closely related mesophilic Streptomyces sp. S38 Xyl1 and thermophilic Thermomonospora fusca TfxA family 11 xylanases were built and compared with the three-dimensional (3D) structures of homologous enzymes. Some of the structural features identified as potential contributors to the higher thermostability of TfxA were introduced in Xyl1 by site-directed mutagenesis in an attempt to improve its thermostability and thermophilicity. A new Y11-Y16 aromatic interaction, similar to that present in TfxA and created in Xyl1 by the T11Y mutation, improved both the thermophilicity and thermostability. Indeed, the optimum activity temperature (70 vs. 60 degrees C) and the apparent Tm were increased by about 9 degrees C, and the mutant was sixfold more stable at 57 degrees C. The combined mutations A82R/F168H/N169D/delta170 potentially creating a R82-D169 salt bridge homologous to that present in TfxA improved the thermostability but not the thermophilicity. Mutations R82/D170 and S33P seemed to be slightly destabilizing and devoid of influence on the optimal activity temperature of Xyl1. Structural analysis revealed that residues Y11 and Y16 were located on beta-strands B1 and B2, respectively. This interaction should increase the stability of the N-terminal part of Xyl1. Moreover, Y11 and Y16 seem to form an aromatic continuum with five other residues forming putative subsites involved in the binding of xylan (+3, +2, +1, -1, -2). Y11 and Y16 might represent two additional binding subsites (-3, -4) and the T11Y mutation could thus improve substrate binding to the enzyme at higher temperature and thus the thermophilicity of Xyl1. [less ▲]

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See detailProgression in MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Tumorigenicity: Compared Effect of FGF-3 and FGF-4.
Hajitou, A.; Deroanne, Christophe ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment (2000), 60(1), 15-28

The transforming properties of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF-3) were investigated in MCF7 breast cancer cells and compared to those of FGF-4, a known oncogenic product. The short form of fgf-3 and the ... [more ▼]

The transforming properties of fibroblast growth factor 3 (FGF-3) were investigated in MCF7 breast cancer cells and compared to those of FGF-4, a known oncogenic product. The short form of fgf-3 and the fgf-4 sequences were each introduced with retroviral vectors and the proteins were only detected in the cytoplasm of the infected cells, as expected. In vitro, cells producing FGF-3 (MCF7.fgf-3) and FGF-4 (MCF7.fgf-4) displayed an amount of estrogen receptors decreased to around 45% of the control value. However, MCF7.fgf-3 cell proliferation remained responsive to estradiol supply. The sensitivity of the MCF7.fgf-4 cells, if existant, was masked by the important mitogenic action exerted by FGF-4. In vivo, the MCF7.fgf-3 and MCF7.fgf-4 cells gave rise to tumors under conditions in which the control cells were not tumorigenic. Supplementing the mice with estrogen had the paradoxical effect of totally suppressing the start of the FGF-3 as well as the FGF-4 tumors. Tumorigenicity in the presence of matrigel was similar for MCF7.fgf-3 and control cells and was increased by estrogen supplementation. Once started, the MCF7.fgf-4 tumors grew with a characteristic high rate. Remarkably, FGF-4 but not FGF-3, stimulated the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) without altering the steady-state level of its mRNA, suggesting a possible regulation of VEGF synthesis at the translational level in MCF7 cells. The increased VEGF secretion is probably involved in the more aggressive phenotype of the MCF7.fgf-4 cells while a decreased dependence upon micro-environmental factors might be part of the increased tumorigenic potential of the MCF7.fgf-3 cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSlow Peaking and Low-Gain Designs for Global Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems
Sepulchre, Rodolphe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control (2000), 45(3), 453-461

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See detailEpidermal Growth Factor Upregulates Production of Supernumerary Hair Cells in Neonatal Rat Organ of Corti Explants
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Acta Oto-Laryngologica (2000), 120(2), 142-5

The organ of Corti is highly ordered, with a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells. The number of hair cells produced was thought to be limited by the time of their terminal ... [more ▼]

The organ of Corti is highly ordered, with a single row of inner hair cells and three rows of outer hair cells. The number of hair cells produced was thought to be limited by the time of their terminal mitosis (i.e. E14 in the mouse). However, exogenous application of retinoic acid has been shown to stimulate the formation of supernumerary hair cells in organ of Corti explants from E13 to E16 mouse embryos. Using late embryonic and neonatal rat organ of Corti explants, we investigated the potential for production of supernumerary hair cells in more mature auditory sensory epithelia. When newborn rat organ of Corti explants were cultured under control conditions, an area of supernumerary hair cells was observed in a segment of organ of Corti that was at the junction between the basal and middle turns. In these areas of supernumerary hair cells the number of hair cells increased per unit of length, but remained constant per surface unit, further demonstrating the supernumerary character of this phenomenon. Organ of Corti explants treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) showed a 50% increase in the length of the organ of Corti segment containing supernumerary hair cells. Upregulation of supernumerary hair cell formation by EGF was found to start and be maximal at birth (P0) and to disappear by 2 days after birth (P2). Treatment of EGF stimulated P0 explants with an antimitotic drug, cytosine arabinoside (ARAc), demonstrated that the production of supernumerary hair cells occurred independently of cell division. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Aortic Compliance Maintains Left Ventricular Performance at Lower Energetic Cost
Kolh, Philippe ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; Lambermont, Bernard ULg et al

in European Journal of Cardio - Thoracic Surgery (2000), 17(3), 272-8

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular contractility and energetic cost of cardiac ejection under conditions of acute increase in aortic compliance. METHODS: In six ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate left ventricular contractility and energetic cost of cardiac ejection under conditions of acute increase in aortic compliance. METHODS: In six anaesthetized pigs, ascending aortic compliance was increased by adding a volume chamber in parallel to the ascending aorta. Systemic vascular parameters, including characteristic impedance, peripheral resistance, total vascular compliance, and inertance, were estimated with a four-element windkessel model. Arterial elastance was derived from these parameters. Left ventricular systolic function was assessed by end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (end-systolic elastance), and stroke work. Pressure-volume area was used as a measure of myocardial oxygen consumption. Heart rate remained constant during the experimentation. RESULTS: Adding the aortic volume chamber significantly increased vascular compliance from 0. 95+/-0.08 to 1.17+/-0.06 ml/mmHg (P<0.01), while inductance, characteristic impedance, peripheral resistance, and arterial elastance remained statistically at basal values, respectively 0. 0020+/-0.0003 mmHg.s(2)/ml, 0.105+/-0.009 mmHg.s/ml, 1.27+/-0.12 mmHg.s/ml, and 2.43+/-0.21 mmHg/ml. During the same interval, stroke work and pressure-volume area decreased respectively from 2700+/-242 to 2256+/-75 mmHg.ml (P<0.01), and from 3806+/-427 to 3179+/-167 mmHg.ml (P<0.01). Stroke work and pressure-volume area decreased at matched end-diastolic volumes. In contrast, end-systolic elastance, ejection fraction, and stroke volume remained statistically unchanged, respectively at 2.29+/-0.14 mmHg/ml, 48.1+/-2.1 %, and 32. 4+/-1.7 ml. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that, when facing an increased aortic compliance, the left ventricle displays unchanged contractility, but the energetic cost of cardiac ejection is significantly decreased. These data may be of clinical importance when choosing an artificial prosthesis for ascending aortic replacement. [less ▲]

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See detailCell-Mediated Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle, and Challenge Infections with Fasciola Hepatica
Bossaert, K.; Jacquinet, E.; Saunders, J. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2000), 88(1-2), 17-34

A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related ... [more ▼]

A peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation assay was used to study the cell-mediated immune response in eight calves experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica. Hypersensitivity-related eosinophil and mast-cell responses were also assessed. The primary infection of 500 metacercariae was administered either as a single-dose or as a trickle infection over a 4-week period. Calves were challenge-infected 4 months later with 100 metacercariae and slaughtered 24 weeks postprimary infection. Skin eosinophil counts (SEC) were determined prior to infection on the basis of the intradermal reaction (IDR) to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). These counts correlated negatively with the mean fluke length but not with the fluke burden found at necropsy. At the end of the experiment, non-specific (PHA) and specific (excretory-secretory parasite, products, FhESAg, and whole-worm extract, FhSomAg) immediate type hypersensitivity IDR were elicited in contrast to delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses. The SEC correlated with blood eosinophilia but not with parasite parameters. These findings suggest that the eosinophil response does not correlate clearly with the development of resistance to F. hepatica infection in cattle. A specific mononuclear cell response to FhSomAg was detectable as early as 7 days after infection in both infected groups, being significantly higher during the very early migratory phase of the juveniles in the single-dose infected calves than in the trickle infected calves. This response remained significantly higher in infected groups than in the control group throughout the experiment. Challenge elicited a significant proliferative response, less pronounced than after primary infection. No production of gamma-interferon (INF-gamma) was recorded 3 weeks after challenge. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was similar in both infected groups, suggesting that the rate at which the infection is administrated has no effect on protective immunity. Hepatic lesions, similar in both infected groups, were characterised by marked eosinophil and mast-cell infiltration. Liver biopsies were performed and their diagnostic value is discussed. All results suggest that F. hepatica infection predominantly induces a Type-2 response in cattle, and that this response has little protective effect. [less ▲]

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See detailEnantiomeric Separation of Clenbuterol by Transient Isotachophoresis-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Uv Detection New Optimization Technique for Transient Isotachophoresis
Toussaint, B.; Hubert, Philippe ULg; Tjaden, U. R. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2000), 871(1-2), 173-80

A method for the in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol by transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection (transient ITP-CZE-UV) has been ... [more ▼]

A method for the in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol by transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis-UV absorbance detection (transient ITP-CZE-UV) has been developed. It implies the use of dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin as chiral selector and the application of a hydrodynamic counterflow during the ITP step. ITP is used to focus the sample constituents prior to CE whereas a counterpressure counterbalances the electrophoretic migration of the compounds. The sample is then focused and kept stationary in the proximity of the capillary inlet before CZE separation, leading to an extended-volume ITP-CZE system. A new strategy for the fast optimization of the counterpressure has been developed which implies the measurement of the hydrodynamic and electrophoretic velocities of the analyte during ITP. The in-line preconcentration and enantioseparation of clenbuterol selected as model compound was optimized using this method. Salbutamol was chosen as internal reference in order to check the reproducibility of the method. A 173-nl volume of aqueous ample solution was injected which implies an improvement of the injection volume of about 16 and a resolution of 4.8 was obtained for the clenbuterol enantiomers. A concentration detection limit of 10(-6) mol/l was readily achieved for clenbuterol and salbutamol using only 3 min ITP preconcentration in in-line counterflow transient ITP-CZE-UV. Thanks to its fast optimization, the method is applicable to any enantioseparation by means of only five very short preliminary measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Autoantibodies against Oxidized Ldl and Antioxidant Status in Top Soccer and Basketball Players after 4 Months of Competition
Pincemail, Joël ULg; Lecomte, J.; Castiau, J. et al

in Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2000), 28(4), 559-65

Antioxidant status and titers of autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL-Ab) were investigated in top soccer (S; n = 21, age 24.6 +/- 4.3 years) and basketball (B; n 3,000 mIU/ml ... [more ▼]

Antioxidant status and titers of autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL-Ab) were investigated in top soccer (S; n = 21, age 24.6 +/- 4.3 years) and basketball (B; n 3,000 mIU/ml) in ox-LDL-Ab were found in half the players (12S and 4B) with a maximum reaching 6000 mIU/ml (normal range: 200-600 mIU/ml), showing an in vivo LDL oxidation. There was no correlation between ox-LDL-Ab titers and chlolesterol, LDL cholesterol, or antioxidant levels. Nevertheless, plasma vitamin C concentration was lower in athletes having high levels of ox-LDL-Ab when compared with those with normal levels (8.49 +/- 3.14 mirogram/ml vs. 10.39 +/- 2.55 microgram/ml), but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, our data suggest that potential atherogenic and cardiovascular risks as reflected by high titers in ox-LDL-Ab may exist in some top athletes despite a nonaltered antioxidant status. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of Albendazole and Its Main Metabolites in Ovine Plasma by Liquid Chromatography with Dialysis as an Integrated Sample Preparation Technique
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Bimazubute, M. A. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2000), 870(1-2), 121-34

Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad-spectrum activity against human and animal helminth parasites. In order to determine the main pharmacokinetic parameters in sheep after oral and ... [more ▼]

Albendazole is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad-spectrum activity against human and animal helminth parasites. In order to determine the main pharmacokinetic parameters in sheep after oral and intravenous administration of a new formulation of albendazole (an aqueous solution), a fully automated method was developed for the determination of this drug and its main metabolites, albendazole sulfoxide (active metabolite) and sulfone in ovine plasma. This method involves dialysis as purification step, followed by enrichment of the dialysate on a precolumn and liquid chromatography (LC). All sample handling operations were executed automatically by means of an ASTED XL system. After conditioning of the trace enrichment column (TEC) packed with octadecyl silica with pH 6.0 phosphate buffer containing sodium azide, the plasma sample, in which a protein releasing reagent (1 M HCl) containing Triton X-100 was automatically added, was loaded in the donor channel and dialysed on a cellulose acetate membrane in the static-pulsed mode. The dialysis liquid consisted of pH 2.5 phosphate buffer. By rotation of a switching valve, the analytes were eluted from the TEC in the back-flush mode by the LC mobile phase and transferred to the analytical column, packed with octyl silica. The chromatographic separation was performed at 35 degrees C and the analytes were monitored photometrically at 295 nm. Due to the differences in hydrophobic character between albendazole and its metabolites, a gradient elution was applied. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile and pH 6.0 phosphate buffer. The proportion of organic modifier was increased from 10.0 to 50.1% in 12.30 min, then from 50.1 to 66.9% in 1.70 min. First, the gradient conditions and the temperature were optimised for the LC separation using the DryLab software. Then, the influence of some parameters of the dialysis process on analyte recovery was investigated. Finally, the method developed was validated. The mean recoveries for albendazole and its metabolites were about 70 and 65%, respectively. The limits of quantification for albendazole and its metabolites were 10 and 7.5 ng/ml, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomated Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Atenolol in Plasma Using Dialysis and Trace Enrichment on a Cation-Exchange Precolumn for Sample Handling
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Buraglia, B. M.; Ceccato, Attilio ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Biomedical Sciences and Applications (2000), 739(1), 205-17

A fully automated method involving dialysis combined with trace enrichment was developed for the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, in human plasma ... [more ▼]

A fully automated method involving dialysis combined with trace enrichment was developed for the liquid chromatographic (LC) determination of atenolol, a hydrophilic beta-blocking agent, in human plasma. The plasma samples were dialysed on a cellulose acetate membrane and the dialysate was reconcentrated on a short trace enrichment column (TEC) packed with a strong cation-exchange material. All sample handling operations can be executed automatically by a sample processor (ASTED system). After TEC conditioning, the plasma sample, to which the internal standard (sotalol, another hydrophilic beta-blocker) was automatically added, was introduced in the donor channel and dialysed in the static/pulsed mode. The dialysis liquid consisted of 4.3 mM phosphoric acid. When the dialysis process was discontinued, the analytes were eluted from the TEC in the back-flush mode by the LC mobile phase and transferred to the analytical column, packed with octyl silica. The LC mobile phase consisted of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0-methanol (81:19; v/v) with 1-octanesulfonate. Atenolol and the internal standard were monitored photometrically at 225 nm. The different parameters influencing the dialysis and trace enrichment processes were optimised with respect to analyte recovery. The influence of two different kinds of cation-exchange material on analyte recovery and peak efficiency was also studied. The method was then validated in the concentration range 25-1000 ng/ml. The mean recovery for atenolol was 65% and the limit of quantitation was 25 ng/ml. [less ▲]

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See detailA Method for Spatial Deconvolution of Spectra
Courbin, F.; Magain, Pierre ULg; Kirkove, Murielle ULg et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2000), 529

A method for spatial deconvolution of spectra is presented. It follows the same fundamental principles as the ``MCS image deconvolution algorithm'' recently developed by Magain, Courbin, & Sohy and uses ... [more ▼]

A method for spatial deconvolution of spectra is presented. It follows the same fundamental principles as the ``MCS image deconvolution algorithm'' recently developed by Magain, Courbin, & Sohy and uses information contained in the spectrum of a reference point-spread function to spatially deconvolve spectra of very blended sources. An improved resolution rather than an infinite one is aimed at, overcoming the well-known problem of ``deconvolution artifacts.'' As in the MCS algorithm, the data are decomposed into a sum of analytical point sources and a numerically deconvolved background so that the spectrum of extended sources in the immediate vicinity of bright point sources may be accurately extracted and sharpened. The algorithm has been tested on simulated data including seeing variation as a function of wavelength and atmospheric refraction. It is shown that the spectra of severely blended point sources can be resolved while fully preserving the spectrophotometric properties of the data. Extended objects ``hidden'' by bright point sources (up to 4-5 mag brighter) can be accurately recovered as well, provided the data have a sufficiently high total signal-to-noise ratio (200-300 per spectral resolution element). Such spectra are relatively easy to obtain, even down to faint magnitudes, within a few hours of integration time with 10 m class telescopes. [less ▲]

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See detailTomographie a emission de positons au 18FDG et adenocarcinome pancreatique
Daenen, Frédéric ULg; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Belhocine, Tarik et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(2), 89-94

FDG-PET imaging non invasively studies the glucose metabolism which is usually increased in malignant lesions. We evaluated the clinical performance of PET for detecting pancreatic cancer and its ... [more ▼]

FDG-PET imaging non invasively studies the glucose metabolism which is usually increased in malignant lesions. We evaluated the clinical performance of PET for detecting pancreatic cancer and its recurrence. In our series of 24 studies, PET appears to complement other imaging modalities. As compared to CT, in particular, it demonstrated fewer false positive results in the pancreas and it was also more sensitive. Moreover, whole-body FDG-PET allows for the entire staging of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPart 8: Steady-state creep and creep recovery for service and accident conditions
Schneider, Ulrich; Schwesinger, P.; Debicki, Gérard et al

in Materials and Structures (2000), 33

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See detailIn-Line Concentration and Enantioseparation of Clenbuterol by Transient Isotachophoresis-Capillary Zone Electrophoresis-Uv Detection
Toussaint, B.; Gysler, J.; Hubert, Philippe ULg et al

in Biomedical Chromatography : BMC (2000), 14(1), 32-3

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See detailResocialiser l'économie?
Defourny, Jacques ULg

in Revue Internationale de l'Economie Sociale : Recma, Revue des Etudes Coopératives, Mutualistes et Associatives (2000), 275-276

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See detailLes insulinomes dans les néoplasies endocriniennes multiples de type 1 (NEM1) : A propos d'une série de 44 cas du Groupe d'Etude des Néoplasies Endocriniennes Multiples (GENEM)
Cougard, P.; Goudet, P.; Peix, J. L. et al

in Annales de Chirurgie (2000), 125(2), 118-123

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See detailCriteria for cure of acromegaly : a consensus statement
Giustina, A.; Barkan, A.; Casanueva, F. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2000), 85(2), 526-529

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See detailAre Milk Polyamines Preventive Agents against Food Allergy?
Dandrifosse, Guy ULg; Peulen, Olivier ULg; El Khefif, N. et al

in Proceedings of the Nutrition Society (2000), 59(1), 81-6

Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In ... [more ▼]

Insufficient polyamine intake could play a role in the induction of sensitization to dietary allergens. This proposal is based essentially on investigations made in sucking rats and in children. In sucking rats it has been established that oral administration of spermine can induce all the modifications occurring in the digestive tract at weaning. In the intestine events occur in two phases. The early event consists of desquamation of the epithelium resulting from an activation of apoptosis. The late event appears to involve an hormonal cascade in which adrenocorticotropic hormone, cytokines, bombesin and corticosterone are included. Observations in human subjects show that: (1) the spermine and spermidine concentrations are generally lower in infant formulas than in human breast milk. Mothers seem consistently to have relatively high or relatively low concentrations of spermine and spermidine in their milk. These individual variations may be due to diet, lifestyle or genetic background; (2) the probability of developing allergy can reach 80 % if the mean spermine concentration in the milk is lower than 2 nmol/ml milk. It is approximately 0 % if the mean spermine concentration is higher than 13 nmol/ml milk; (3) preliminary results show that the intestinal permeability to macromolecules differs in premature babies when they are fed on breast milk compared with infant formulas (J Senterre, J Rigo, G Forget, G Dandrifosse and N Romain, unpublished results). This difference does not seem to be present when powdered milk is supplemented with polyamines at the concentration found in breast milk; (4) spermine increases proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes isolated from the tonsils of children. [less ▲]

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See detailVoltage Instability: Phenomena, Countermeasures, and Analysis Methods
Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in Proceedings of the IEEE (2000), 88(2), 208-227

A power system may be subject to (rotor) angle, frequency or voltage instability. Voltage instability takes on the form of a dramatic drop of transmission system voltages, which may lead to system ... [more ▼]

A power system may be subject to (rotor) angle, frequency or voltage instability. Voltage instability takes on the form of a dramatic drop of transmission system voltages, which may lead to system disruption. During the past two dàcades it has become a major threat for the operation of many systems and, in the prevailing open access erwironment, it is a factor leading to limit power transfers. The objective of this paper is to describe voltage instability phenomena, to enumerate preventive and curative countermeasures, and to present in a unified and coherent way various computer analysis methods used or proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailStenosis of a Mechanical Mitral Prosthetic Valve in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Hoffer, E.; Itoua, M.; Radermecker, Maurice ULg et al

in Acta Cardiologica (2000), 55(1), 49-51

A young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed progressive heart failure several years after mitral valve replacement with a Bjork-Shiley prosthesis for treating mitral stenosis due to ... [more ▼]

A young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed progressive heart failure several years after mitral valve replacement with a Bjork-Shiley prosthesis for treating mitral stenosis due to Libman-Sacks endocarditis. She was admitted to the hospital with pulmonary oedema. Transoesophageal echocardiography revealed stenosis of the mitral prosthesis, which was covered by fibrous tissue. Replacement of the prosthesis was done but the patient died from cerebral haemorrhage three days later. Although three cases of prosthetic valve dysfunction in SLE have been documented so far, this is to our knowledge the first report of a SLE recurrence on a tilting disc mechanical valve. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite Elements for the Lubricated Contact Between Solids in Metal Forming Processes
Boman, Romain ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Acta Metallurgica Sinica (English Letters) (2000), 13(1), 319-327

In this paper, the lubrication problem in numerical simulation of forming processes is considered. After enumerating the difficulties encountered when trying to solve such a problem with the finite ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the lubrication problem in numerical simulation of forming processes is considered. After enumerating the difficulties encountered when trying to solve such a problem with the finite element method, a generalization of the formulation of Liu for the thin film hydrodynamic lubrication regime is presented. This method is then applied to a strip rolling simulation, using the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formalism. [less ▲]

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See detailExtensive Genome-Wide Linkage Disequilibrium in Cattle
Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Arranz, J. J. et al

in Genome Research (2000), 10(2), 220-7

A genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) map was generated using microsatellite genotypes (284 autosomal microsatellite loci) of 581 gametes sampled from the dutch black-and-white dairy cattle population ... [more ▼]

A genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) map was generated using microsatellite genotypes (284 autosomal microsatellite loci) of 581 gametes sampled from the dutch black-and-white dairy cattle population. LD was measured between all marker pairs, both syntenic and nonsyntenic. Analysis of syntenic pairs revealed surprisingly high levels of LD that, although more pronounced for closely linked marker pairs, extended over several tens of centimorgan. In addition, significant gametic associations were also shown to be very common between nonsyntenic loci. Simulations using the known genealogies of the studied sample indicate that random drift alone is likely to account for most of the observed disequilibrium. No clear evidence was obtained for a direct effect of selection ("Bulmer effect"). The observation of long range disequilibrium between syntenic loci using low-density marker maps indicates that LD mapping has the potential to be very effective in livestock populations. The frequent occurrence of gametic associations between nonsyntenic loci, however, encourages the combined use of linkage and linkage disequilibrium methods to avoid false positive results when mapping genes in livestock. [less ▲]

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See detailLe logement social
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg; Malherbe, Alain

in Cahiers de l'Urbanisme (Les) (2000)

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See detailSynthesis, morphology, and mechanical properties of poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly (methyl methacrylate) triblocks. Ligated anionic polymerization vs atom transfer radical polymerization
Tong, Jiang-Dong; Moineau, Georges; Leclère, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(2), 470-479

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers have been prepared by ligated anionic polymerization (LAP; 8K-50K-8K) and atom transfer radical ... [more ▼]

Poly(methyl methacrylate)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate)-b-poly(methyl methacrylate) triblock copolymers have been prepared by ligated anionic polymerization (LAP; 8K-50K-8K) and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP; 9K-51K-9K). Size exclusion chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance, and differential scanning calorimetry have confirmed that the molecular structure of the two triblock copolymers is essentially identical. However, important differences are found in dynamic mechanical properties, viscoelastic properties, and stress−strain behavior. Indeed, the ATRP copolymer has low storage modulus, high complex viscosity, high order−disorder transition temperature, and poor ultimate tensile strength and elongation at break, compared to those of the LAP analogue. Marked differences also observed by tapping mode atomic force microscopy in the microscopic morphology of thin films of these copolymers. All these observations can be explained by the slow initiation of MMA by the poly(n-butyl acrylate) macroinitiator used in ATRP in contrast to what happens when MMA is added to living poly(tert-butyl acrylate) anions. As a result, the polydispersity of the short poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) outer blocks is much broader in the ATRP copolymer, although the polydispersity index of the triblock is only 1.15. This heterogeneous structure of the ATRP triblock is also supported by the comparison of homo-PMMAs prepared by LAP and ATRP. [less ▲]

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See detailDispense de permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne (IV)
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2000), 1

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See detailRing-Opening Polymerization of γ-bromo-ε-caprolactone : A novel route to functionalized aliphatic polyesters
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Mazza, Michaël; Halleux, Olivier et al

in Macromolecules (2000), 33(1), 14-18

The synthesis, characterization, and polymerization of a new cyclic ester, gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone (gamma-BrCL), are reported. The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of this new monomer initiated ... [more ▼]

The synthesis, characterization, and polymerization of a new cyclic ester, gamma-bromo-epsilon-caprolactone (gamma-BrCL), are reported. The ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of this new monomer initiated from Al((OPr)-Pr-i)(3) as initiator in toluene at 0 degrees C was found to be living and proceeds by a coordination-insertion mechanism. Random and block copolymerizations of this gamma-BrCL with epsilon-caprolactone (epsilon-CL) were also found to be living as evidenced by the experimental molecular weight which is consistent with that expected from the monomer to initiator molar ratio, the narrow polydispersity, and the good agreement between the comonomers molar fraction in the comonomer feed and the copolymer. The thermal transitions (Tg and Tm) in the epsilon-CL/gamma-Br-CL random copolymers depend strongly on the gamma-BrCL content. Increasing the gamma BrCL content in the copolymer [F(BrCL)] increased the Tg of the copolymer from -61 degrees C for poly(epsilon-caprolactone) to -16.5 degrees C for the poly( gamma-BrCL) homopolymer but decreased the Tm of the PCL to contents of similar to 30 mol % of gamma BrCL [F(BrCL) =0.3]Beyond this value, the copolymers were found to be amorphous and exist as viscous liquids. [less ▲]

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See detailCell Type-Specific Role for Reactive Oxygen Species in Nuclear Factor-Kappab Activation by Interleukin-1
Bonizzi, G.; Piette, Jacques ULg; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (2000), 59(1), 7-11

The role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation remains a matter of controversy. We have studied whether ROIs played any role in NF-kappaB induction by ... [more ▼]

The role of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs) in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation remains a matter of controversy. We have studied whether ROIs played any role in NF-kappaB induction by interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in different cell types. Our studies indicated three different pathways. IL-1beta stimulation of lymphoid cells generates ROIs, which are required for IkappaB-alpha degradation and NF-kappaB activation. The source of these ROIs is the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) enzyme. In monocytic cells, ROIs are also produced in response to IL-1beta and necessary for NF-kappaB induction, but their source appears to be the NADPH oxidase complex. Finally, epithelial cells do not generate ROIs after IL-1beta stimulation, but do rapidly activate NF-kappaB. Interestingly, transfection of epithelial cells with the 5-LOX and 5-LOX activating protein expression vectors restored ROI production and ROI-dependent NF-kappaB activation in response to IL-1beta. Our data thus indicate that ROIs are cell type-specific second messengers for NF-kappaB induction by IL-1beta. [less ▲]

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See detailFar ultraviolet imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. 1. System design
Mende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2000), 91

Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft will be supplemented by observation of the global aurora, the footprint of magnetospheric regions. To assure the simultaneity of these ... [more ▼]

Direct imaging of the magnetosphere by the IMAGE spacecraft will be supplemented by observation of the global aurora, the footprint of magnetospheric regions. To assure the simultaneity of these observations and the measurement of the magnetospheric background neutral gas density, the IMAGE satellite instrument complement includes three Far Ultraviolet (FUV) instruments. In the wavelength region 120-190 nm, a downward-viewing auroral imager is only minimally contaminated by sunlight, scattered from clouds and ground, and radiance of the aurora observed in a nadir viewing geometry can be observed in the presence of the high-latitude dayglow. The Wideband Imaging Camera (WIC) will provide broad band ultraviolet images of the aurora for maximum spatial and temporal resolution by imaging the LBH N_2 bands of the aurora. The Spectrographic Imager (SI), a monochromatic imager, will image different types of aurora, filtered by wavelength. By measuring the Doppler-shifted Ly-alpha, the proton-induced component of the aurora will be imaged separately. Finally, the GEO instrument will observe the distribution of the geocoronal emission, which is a measure of the neutral background density source for charge exchange in the magnetosphere. The FUV instrument complement looks radially outward from the rotating IMAGE satellite and, therefore, it spends only a short time observing the aurora and the Earth during each spin. Detailed descriptions of the WIC, SI, GEO, and their individual performance validations are discussed in companion papers. This paper summarizes the system requirements and system design approach taken to satisfy the science requirements. One primary requirement is to maximize photon collection efficiency and use efficiently the short time available for exposures. The FUV auroral imagers WIC and SI both have wide fields of view and take data continuously as the auroral region proceeds through the field of view. To minimize data volume, multiple images are taken and electronically co-added by suitably shifting each image to compensate for the spacecraft rotation. In order to minimize resolution loss, the images have to be distortion-corrected in real time for both WIC and SI prior to co-adding. The distortion correction is accomplished using high speed look up tables that are pre-generated by least square fitting to polynomial functions by the on-orbit processor. The instruments were calibrated individually while on stationery platforms, mostly in vacuum chambers as described in the companion papers. Extensive ground-based testing was performed with visible and near UV simulators mounted on a rotating platform to estimate their on-orbit performance. The predicted instrument system performance is summarized and some of the preliminary data formats are shown. [less ▲]

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See detailFar ultraviolet imaging from the IMAGE spacecraft. 3. Spectral imaging of Lyman-alpha and OI 135.6 nm
Mende, S. B.; Heetderks, H.; Frey, H. U. et al

in Space Science Reviews (2000), 91

Two FUV Spectral imaging instruments, the Spectrographic Imager (SI) and the Geocorona Photometer (GEO) provide IMAGE with simultaneous global maps of the hydrogen (121.8 nm) and oxygen 135.6 nm ... [more ▼]

Two FUV Spectral imaging instruments, the Spectrographic Imager (SI) and the Geocorona Photometer (GEO) provide IMAGE with simultaneous global maps of the hydrogen (121.8 nm) and oxygen 135.6 nm components of the terrestrial aurora and with observations of the three dimensional distribution of neutral hydrogen in the magnetosphere (121.6 nm). The SI is a novel instrument type, in which spectral separation and imaging functions are independent of each other. In this instrument, two-dimensional images are produced on two detectors, and the images are spectrally filtered by a spectrograph part of the instrument. One of the two detectors images the Doppler-shifted Lyman-alpha while rejecting the geocoronal `cold' Ly-alpha, and another detector images the OI 135.6 nm emission. The spectrograph is an all-reflective Wadsworth configuration in which a grill arrangement is used to block most of the cold, un-Doppler-shifted geocoronal emission at 121.567 nm. The SI calibration established that the upper limit of transmission at cold geocoronal Ly-alpha is less than 2%. The measured light collecting efficiency was 0.01 and 0.008 cm^2 at 121.8 and at 135.6 nm, respectively. This is consistent with the size of the input aperture, the optical transmission, and the photocathode efficiency. The expected sensitivity is 1.8x10^-2 and 1.3x10^-2 counts per Rayleigh per pixel for each 5 s viewing exposure per satellite revolution (120 s). The measured spatial resolution is better than the 128x128 pixel matrix over the 15 degx15 deg field of view in both wavelength channels. The SI detectors are photon counting devices using the cross delay line principle. In each detector a triple stack microchannel plate (MCP) amplifies the photo-electronic charge which is then deposited on a specially configured anode array. The position of the photon event is measured by digitizing the time delay between the pulses detected at each end of the anode structures. This scheme is intrinsically faster than systems that use charge division and it has a further advantage that it saturates more gradually at high count rates. The geocoronal Ly-alpha is measured by a three-channel photometer system (GEO) which is a separate instrument. Each photometer has a built in MgF_2 lens to restrict the field of view to one degree and a ceramic electron multiplier with a KBr photocathode. One of the tubes is pointing radially outward perpendicular to the axis of satellite rotation. The optic of the other two subtend 60 deg with the rotation axis. These instruments take data continuously at 3 samples per second and rely on the combination of satellite rotation and orbital motion to scan the hydrogen cloud surrounding the earth. The detective efficiencies (effective quantum efficiency including windows) of the three tubes at Ly-alpha are between 6 and 10%. [less ▲]

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See detailPOX 186: the ultracompact blue compact dwarf galaxy reveals its nature
Doublier, V.; Kunth, D.; Courbin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2000), 353

High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new ... [more ▼]

High resolution, ground based R and I band observations of the ultra compact dwarf galaxy POX 186 are presented. The data, obtained with the ESO New Technology Telescope (NTT), are analyzed using a new deconvolution algorithm which allows one to resolve the innermost regions of this stellar-like object into three Super-Star Clusters (SSC). Upper limits to both masses (M ~ 10[SUP]5[/SUP] M[SUB]sun[/SUB]) and physical sizes (<=60pc) of the SSCs are set. In addition, and maybe most importantly, extended light emission underlying the compact star-forming region is clearly detected in both bands. The R-I color rules out nebular Halpha contamination and is consistent with an old stellar population. This casts doubt on the hypothesis that Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxies (BCDG) are young galaxies. based on observations carried out at NTT in La Silla, operated by the European Southern Observatory, during Director's Discretionary Time. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and polarized light-induced birefringence of new polymethacrylates containing carbazolyl and azobenzene pendant groups
Maertens, Christophe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part B, Polymer Physics (2000), 38(1), 205-213

Low Tg copolymers of [11(N-carbazolyl)undecylmethacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-phenoxyalkylmethacrylate] have been synthesized and the polarized light-induced birefringence of ... [more ▼]

Low Tg copolymers of [11(N-carbazolyl)undecylmethacrylate] and [2,5-dimethylphenyl-[(4-nitrophenyl)azo]-phenoxyalkylmethacrylate] have been synthesized and the polarized light-induced birefringence of thick films (70 m) has been investigated at a constant deducted temperature relative to Tg (T - Tg = 10 °C). The optical properties of these copolymers have been studied in relation to the azo-dye content and the length of the alkyl spacer between the azo-dye and the methacrylic backbone. They have been compared with the dispersion of (4-methoxy-2,5-dimethylphenyl)-(4-nitrophenyl)diazene (DMNPAA) within a poly[11(N-carbazolyl)undecyl-methacrylate] and a poly[N-vinylcarbazole] (PVK) matrix. The experimental curves have been fitted by biexponentials, so emphasizing the effects of the copolymer structure on the kinetics of the writing process. The photoinduced orientation is more than three orders of magnitude higher in a grafted material compared to the dispersion version. The azo-dye concentration also has an important role in both the amplitude and the dynamics of the photo-orientation. [less ▲]

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See detailBenchmark cases for galloping with results obtained from wind tunnel facilities. Validation of a finite element model.
keutgen, Renaud; Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (2000), 15(N°1), 367-374

Wind tunnel galloping are made available with all data (aerodynamics, amplitudes) to check any model.

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of non-covalent liquid crystalline diblock copolymers
Gohy, Jean-François; Antoun, Sayed; Sobry, Roger ULg et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2000), 201(1), 31-41

Poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)-b-poly(sodium methacrylate) diblocks, (polyDMAEMA-b-polyMA), were synthesized as precursors of liquid crystalline (LC) copolymers. These LC copolymers were prepared by ... [more ▼]

Poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate)-b-poly(sodium methacrylate) diblocks, (polyDMAEMA-b-polyMA), were synthesized as precursors of liquid crystalline (LC) copolymers. These LC copolymers were prepared by pro-ton-transfer between a carboxylic acid-containing meso-gen (A) and the dimethylamino substituent of the poly-DMAEMA block and by electrostatic interactions between the polyMA subunits and an ammonium-contain-ing mesogen (B). When mesogen A is complexed with DMAEMA units, a dramatic enhancement of the meso-phase stability is noted. The mesogenic properties of these LC copolymers were compared to those ones of the parent LC homopolymers, in relation to the copolymer composi-tion. The supramolecular organization of the LC diblock copolymers was studied by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and smectic mesophases were observed in some LC (co)polymers. For samples containing a major LC block, a smectic mesophase coexists with microphases formed by the second amorphous block. Different organizations, including a body-centered lattice of spheres and a hexagonal array of cylinders, were observed, depending on the investigated copolymers and their composition. When the LC block is the minor component, it forms microdomains too small for a liquid crystalline order to emerge. Moreover, no supramolecular organization of these dispersed microdomains was detected by SAXS. A homogeneous smectic mesophase was observed when the two blocks are bearing liquid crystalline moieties. [less ▲]

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See detailWorking memory, long-term memory and language processing : issues and future directions
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Poncelet, Martine ULg

in Brain & Language (2000), 71(1), 46-51

We examined different views of the relationships between working memory, long-term memory and language processing : working memory considered as a gateway between sensory input and long-term memory or ... [more ▼]

We examined different views of the relationships between working memory, long-term memory and language processing : working memory considered as a gateway between sensory input and long-term memory or rather as a workspace; working memory considered as not strictly tied to any particular cognitive system (and consequently viewed as separated from the language system) or rather as drawing on the operation and storage capacities of a subset of components involved in language processing. It is argued that functional imagery studies (along with neuropsychological researches) could contribute to decide between these conceptions. [less ▲]

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See detailCombined Interferon-Gamma and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Treatment Differentially Affects Adhesion and Migration of Keratinocyte-Derived Cells to Laminin-1
van den Brule, Frédéric A; Clausse, Nathalie; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Cell Adhesion and Communication (2000), 7(4), 321-9

Interactions with the extracellular matrix constitute basic steps in cervix carcinoma cell invasion. In this study, we examined the adhesion and migration profiles of two human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA ... [more ▼]

Interactions with the extracellular matrix constitute basic steps in cervix carcinoma cell invasion. In this study, we examined the adhesion and migration profiles of two human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA-transfected keratinocyte-derived cell lines, EIL8 and 18-11S3, and of the cervix adenocarcinoma SiHa cell line, towards laminin-1, and the selective effect of a 24-72 h treatment of 1000 U/ml interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), a treatment that significantly decreases cervix carcinoma cell proliferation and progression in nude mice, on these parameters. Compared to normal cervix keratinocytes (CK) and two HPV DNA-transfected keratinocyte cell lines, in basal conditions, the SiHa cell line was characterized by increased attachment (SiHa, 48.74 +/- 4.02 vs. normal keratinocytes, 4.32 +/- 0.40, EIL8, 17.80 +/- 3.03 and 18-11S3, 17.82 +/- 1.48% of attached cells after 30 min) and marked directed chemotactic migration towards laminin-1. Interestingly, treatment of the cells with the cytokines (1000 U/ml IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha) did not modulate the adhesion properties of the cells, but chemotactic migration of SiHa cells to laminin-1 was significantly decreased, while migration towards type I collagen was increased. Similar results were obtained with the Ca Ski cervix carcinoma cell line. Our results emphasize the altered pattern of interactions of cervix carcinoma cells with extracellular matrix components such as laminin-1, compared to normal and pre-neoplastic cells, and contributes to the understanding of the effects of cytokine treatment on cervix carcinoma cells. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative Nation
Dejasse, Erwin ULg

in 9e Art : Les Cahiers du Musée de la Bande Dessinée (2000), 5

Short panorama of the evolution of the so called alternative or independant comic in North America in the nineties.

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See detailHumoral Immune Response in Calves to Single-Dose, Trickle and Challenge Infections with Fasciola Hepatica
Bossaert, K.; Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Leclipteux, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2000), 87(2-3), 103-23

In cattle experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica, parasite specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses were studied. Additionally parasite specific IgE production was assessed by the Passive Cutaneous ... [more ▼]

In cattle experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica, parasite specific IgG1 and IgG2 responses were studied. Additionally parasite specific IgE production was assessed by the Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis reaction. The primary infection was administered either as a single-dose or as a trickle infection over a 4-week period. Animals were challenged 4 months later. Titres of IgG1 and IgG2 against excretory-secretory parasite products (FhESAg), and against a whole-worm extract (FhSomAg) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in relation to weight gain, serum hepatic enzyme levels, and fluke infection rate. At necropsy, the mean number of flukes recovered was similar in both infected groups. The two ELISAs specific for bovine IgG1 showed analogous sensitivity and specificity (92% and 94%). Cross-reactivity was observed towards Echinococcus granulosus, Cysticercus tenuicollis, and C. ovis but not towards C. bovis, Cooperia spp., and Ostertagia spp. FhESAg gave rise to apparently more stable specific IgG1 titres as compared to FhSomAg. Mean IgG1 titres were significantly higher in the single-dose-infected group than in the trickle-infected group during the early migratory phase of the infection (week 2 to week 4 (FhSomAg) or week 6 (FhESAg)). IgG2 values were consistently lower than IgG1 levels. The kinetic response of both isotypes yielded a similar pattern. Specific IgE antibodies were detected in cattle of both infected groups from week 2 post-primary infection (PPI) onwards. The mean serum glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activities were significantly higher in the single-dose-infected group for 3 weeks around peak levels (12-14 weeks PPI and 14-16 weeks PPI for GLDH and gammaGT respectively). Western blotting revealed a major antigenic fraction in FhESAg (26-30 kDa) recognized specifically by sera from F. hepatica infected calves as early as 6-8 weeks PPI. Experimental challenge caused no statistically significant modification of any parameter (IgG1 and IgG2 titres, enzymatic activities, immunoblotting) used to monitor the course of the infection. No correlation was found between fluke size and number, and antibody titres, suggesting that IgG1 production has little protective effect against F. hepatica infection. [less ▲]

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See detailSpacer Compression for a tripple conductor bundle
Lilien, Jean-Louis ULg; Hansenne, Eric; Papailiou, Konstantin et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery (2000), 15(N°1), 236-241

Spacer compression analysis based on tests and proposed simple method

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See detailProphylactic Treatment of Migraine with Beta-Blockers and Riboflavin: Differential Effects on the Intensity Dependence of Auditory Evoked Cortical Potentials
Sandor, P. S.; Afra, J.; Ambrosini, A. et al

in Headache (2000), 40(1), 30-5

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of different pharmacological treatments on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials in migraineurs. BACKGROUND: Between attacks, patients ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of different pharmacological treatments on the intensity dependence of auditory evoked cortical potentials in migraineurs. BACKGROUND: Between attacks, patients with migraine show abnormalities in cortical information processing and decreased brain mitochondrial energy reserve. Both are most probably relevant for migraine pathogenesis, and they could be differentially modified by prophylactic drug therapy. Design.-The intensity dependence of the auditory evoked cortical potentials is, on average, increased in migraine. We have studied this intensity dependence in 26 patients before and after a 4-month period of prophylaxis with beta-blockers (n = 11, all migraine without aura; metoprolol or bisoprolol) or riboflavin (n = 15, migraine without aura: 13, migraine with aura: 2). Recordings were performed at least 3 days before or after an attack. RESULTS: After the treatment with beta-blockers, the intensity dependence of the auditory evoked cortical potentials was significantly decreased (before: 1.66+/-1.02 microV/10 dB; after: 0.79+/-1.06 microV/10 dB, P=.02). The decrease in intensity dependence was correlated significantly with clinical improvement (r = .69, P = .02). There was no change in intensity dependence after riboflavin treatment (before: 1.80+/-0.81 microV/10 dB; after: 1.56+/-0.83 microV/10 dB, P = .39), although the majority of patients showed improvement. CONCLUSIONS: These results confirm that beta-blockers and riboflavin act on two distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Combining both treatments might enhance their efficacy without increasing central nervous system side effects. [less ▲]

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See detailTnp-470, a Potent Angiogenesis Inhibitor, Amplifies Human T Lymphocyte Activation through an Induction of Nuclear Factor-Kappab, Nuclear Factor-at, and Activation Protein-1 Transcription Factors
Locigno, Roberto; Antoine, Nadine ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg et al

in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (2000), 80(1), 13-21

TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor derived from fumagillin, is foreseen as a promising anti-cancer drug. Its effectiveness to restrain tumor growth and its lack of major side effects have been ... [more ▼]

TNP-470, an angiogenesis inhibitor derived from fumagillin, is foreseen as a promising anti-cancer drug. Its effectiveness to restrain tumor growth and its lack of major side effects have been demonstrated in several animal models and have led the drug to reach phase III clinical trials. Beside its antiangiogenesis activities, TNP-470 exhibits several effects on the immune system. We had shown previously that TNP-470 stimulated B lymphocyte proliferation through an action on T cells. In this study, we examined the cellular and molecular modifications induced by TNP-470 in normal human T lymphocytes. Transmission electron microscopic examination of PHA/TNP-470-treated T cells revealed significant morphologic modifications when compared with PHA-treated control T cells. TNP-470 induced indeed an important and significant increase of the nuclear size as well as major nuclear chromatin decondensation. This observation indicated that TNP-470 amplified T-cell activation and led us to investigate its effects on the activation of transcription factors involved in T-cell activation. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we have demonstrated that TNP-470 amplifies and extends the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-AT, nuclear factor-KB, and activation protein-1 in T cells. Furthermore, the angioinhibin significantly increased the secretion of IL-2 and IL-4. Our data demonstrate that TNP-470 amplifies the activation of T cells. This effect, whose molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated, has to be taken into account in the assessment of the antitumor effect of the drug. [less ▲]

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See detailCalcium Release from Internal Stores Is Required for the Generation of Spontaneous Hyperpolarizations in Dopaminergic Neurons of Neonatal Rats
Seutin, Vincent ULg; Mkahli, F.; Massotte, Laurent ULg et al

in Journal of Neurophysiology (2000), 83(1), 192-7

We recently have demonstrated the existence of spontaneous hyperpolarizations in midbrain dopaminergic neurons of neonatal but not adult rats. These events are mediated by the opening of apamin-sensitive ... [more ▼]

We recently have demonstrated the existence of spontaneous hyperpolarizations in midbrain dopaminergic neurons of neonatal but not adult rats. These events are mediated by the opening of apamin-sensitive K(+) channels after a rise in the intracellular concentration of Ca(2+). They are resistant to tetrodotoxin in most cases and are probably endogenous (i.e., not synaptically activated). Here their mechanism was investigated. Cyclopiazonic acid (10 microM), a specific inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases, reversibly abolished the events. Caffeine, which promotes Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores, had concentration-dependent effects. At 1 mM, it markedly and steadily increased the frequency and the amplitude of the hyperpolarizations. At 10 mM, it induced a transient increase in their frequency followed by their cessation. All these effects were quickly reversible. Ryanodine (10 microM), which decreases the conductance of Ca(2+) release channels, irreversibly blocked the spontaneous hyperpolarizations. Dantrolene (100 microM), a blocker of Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of striated muscle, did not affect the events. On the other hand, Cd(2+) (100-300 microM), a broad antagonist of membrane voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, significantly reduced the amplitude and the frequency of the hyperpolarizations. However, when the frequency of the events was increased by 1 mM caffeine, Cd(2+) affected them to a smaller extent, whereas cyclopiazonic acid still abolished them. We conclude that internal stores are the major source of Ca(2+) ions that induce the K(+) channel openings underlying the spontaneous hyperpolarizations of these neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailCytosine Deaminase Suicide Gene Therapy for Peritoneal Carcinomatosis
Bentires-Alj, M.; Hellin, A. C.; Lechanteur, Chantal ULg et al

in Cancer Gene Therapy (2000), 7(1), 20-6

Gene therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that might soon improve the prognosis of some cancers. We investigated the feasibility of cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene therapy in a model of peritoneal ... [more ▼]

Gene therapy is a novel therapeutic approach that might soon improve the prognosis of some cancers. We investigated the feasibility of cytosine deaminase (CD) suicide gene therapy in a model of peritoneal carcinomatosis. DHD/K12 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells transfected in vitro with the CD gene were highly sensitive to 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), and a bystander effect could also be observed. Treating CD+ cells with 5-FC resulted in apoptosis as detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling. In vitro, several human cell lines derived from ovarian or colorectal carcinomas, as well as the rat glioblastoma 9 L cell line, responded to CD/5-FC and showed a very strong bystander effect. 5-FC treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis generated in syngeneic BDIX rats by CD-expressing DHD/K12 cells led to a complete and prolonged response and to prolonged survival. Our study thus demonstrated the efficacy of CD suicide gene therapy for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis. [less ▲]

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See detailVerification of two versions of the challenge handshake authentication protocol (CHAP)
Leduc, Guy ULg

in Annales des Télécommunications = Annals of Telecommunications (2000), 55(1-2), 20-30

The challenge handshake authentication protocol, CHAP, is an authentication protocol intended for use primarily by hosts and routers that connect to a network server I in switched circuits or dial-up ... [more ▼]

The challenge handshake authentication protocol, CHAP, is an authentication protocol intended for use primarily by hosts and routers that connect to a network server I in switched circuits or dial-up lines. but might be applied to dedicated links as well. In this paper; we specify two versions of the protocol, using the formal language Lotos, and apply the Eucalyptus model-based verification tools to prove that the first version has a flaw: whereas the second one is robust to passive and active attacks. The paper is written bl a tutorial fashion with a strong emphasis oil the methodology used. The relative simplicity of the CHAP protocol allows one to include complete Lotos specifications and definitions of properties, so that the experiment can be reproduced easily. [less ▲]

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See detailParametric Study for the Creation of the Interface between Concrete and Repair Products
Courard, Luc ULg

in Materials and Structures (2000), 33

An analysis as large as possible presents factors acting when a repair system comes into contact with a concrete support. The appetency of the first one for the second is defined from the properties of ... [more ▼]

An analysis as large as possible presents factors acting when a repair system comes into contact with a concrete support. The appetency of the first one for the second is defined from the properties of the support and the new layer – essentially in its liquid phase – as well as from the environmental conditions. These properties are cited or explained for each material: roughness, porosity, superficial cohesion and interstitial water into concrete, nature and concentration of the binder, rigidity modulus, capillary succion for repair systems. The thermodynamic properties of the materials as well as transport mechanisms – diffusion, capillary succion – at the interface and roughness of the concrete support are particularly developed. A sequential flow sheet related to the parameters influencing the creation of the interface is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive compatibilization of SAN/EPR blends: Effect of kinetics of the compatibilization reaction on the interfacial adhesion
Pagnoulle, Christophe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecular Symposia (2000), 149

The very poor adhesion between films of styrene and acrylonitrile random copolymer (SAN) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) can be dramatically improved by an intermediate thin layer of ... [more ▼]

The very poor adhesion between films of styrene and acrylonitrile random copolymer (SAN) and maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) can be dramatically improved by an intermediate thin layer of SAN bearing groups reactive toward maleic anhydride. The rate of the interfacial reaction, which is controlled by the reactive groups attached to SAN (amine vs. carbamate) and by the method used to build up the sandwich assembly, has a decisive effect on the capability of the SAN-g-PP graft copolymer formed at the interface to improve the fracture toughness in direct dependence on its molecular architecture. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution for Surgical Repair of Craniosynostosis
Hans, Pol ULg; Collin, Vincent; Bonhomme, Vincent ULg et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (2000), 12(1), 33-6

This clinical report investigated the potential benefit of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) as a blood-saving technique in the surgical repair of craniosynostosis. Over a 4-year period, 34 healthy ... [more ▼]

This clinical report investigated the potential benefit of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) as a blood-saving technique in the surgical repair of craniosynostosis. Over a 4-year period, 34 healthy children undergoing surgical repair of scaphocephaly or pachycephaly were randomly assigned to two groups of 17 patients each. Patients of the first group (ANH group) were submitted to ANH (target Ht: 25%) immediately before surgery and patients of the second group (Control group) were not. During surgery, estimated blood loss was compensated with a 5% albumin solution and no autologous or homologous blood was transfused. At the end of surgery, intraoperative blood loss (mean +/- SD) calculated on the basis of the Ht value and the children weight was 21.3+/-8% of the estimated blood volume (EBV) in the ANH group and 24+/-6.6% in the Control group. Children of the ANH group received their autologous blood (18.9+/-3.3% of EBV) systematically at the end of surgery. In the postoperative period, homologous blood was transfused when the Ht value was equal or less than 21%. Both groups were comparable regarding age, weight, type of craniosynostosis, duration of surgery, EBV, and preoperative Ht value. No difference was observed between ANH and Control groups in the number of patients who received homologous blood (15/17 and 14/17, respectively), in the amount of homologous blood transfused (17+/-4.7% and 19.6+/-6.3% of the EBV, respectively), and in the Ht value before hospital discharge (29.4+/-5.0% and 30.7+/-4.9%, respectively). In conclusion, this report suggests that ANH reduces neither the incidence of homologous transfusion nor the amount of homologous blood transfused in this series of children undergoing surgical repair of craniosynostosis. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... la dissection de l'aorte thoracique
Hubin, L.; Hoffer, E.; Ghaye, Benoît ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(1), 49-56

Thoracic aortic dissection constitutes an acute pathology that requires a rapid, accurate and reliable diagnosis. The authors describe and illustrate the advantages and limitations of imaging modalities ... [more ▼]

Thoracic aortic dissection constitutes an acute pathology that requires a rapid, accurate and reliable diagnosis. The authors describe and illustrate the advantages and limitations of imaging modalities used in this pathology. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical Signs, Reproduction of Attaching/Effacing Lesions, and Enterocyte Invasion after Oral Inoculation of an O118 Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia Coli in Neonatal Calves
Stordeur, P.; China, B.; Charlier, G. et al

in Microbes & Infection (2000), 2(1), 17-24

Attaching and effacing (AE) lesions are produced among others by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which differs from the former by the production of cytotoxins ... [more ▼]

Attaching and effacing (AE) lesions are produced among others by enteropathogenic Escherichia coli and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which differs from the former by the production of cytotoxins active on various cell cultures, the verocytotoxins, or shigacytotoxins. EHEC are associated with diarrhoea and dysentery in humans and in ruminants, mainly calves from two to eight weeks of age. Clinical signs and/or lesions have been reproduced experimentally with EHEC strains belonging to serotypes O5:K4/Nm, O26:K-:H11, O111:Nm, and O157:H7 which are isolated from cattle and/or humans. The purpose of this work was to develop an experimental model of infection in newborn calves with a bovine EHEC strain isolated from a calf which of died of diarrhoea, and belonging to the O118:H16 serotype, which is also common to both cattle and humans. The bovine O118:H16 EHEC strain was able to colonize the gut of three newborn calves, and to induce diarrhoea twenty-four hours after challenge and to produce AE lesions in the small and/or large intestines. AE lesions were detected microscopically and ultrastructurally in the small intestine of one calf and in the whole intestinal track of two calves. Internalization of bacteria and also of pedestal-bacteria complex inside of the enterocyte was observed in two of the three calves. The significance of this stage is unknown but may be related to the invasion of the calf by the bacteria. The challenge strain was isolated from the mesenteric lymph nodes of the same two calves but not from other organs or from heart blood. No blood was observed in the faeces of any of the three calves, nor were any lesions in the internal organs, which may have been related to the production of a verotoxin whose role is still unknown in cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailConcepts délimitant le codage et la structuration de l ’ information clinique en médecine de famille
Jamoulle, Marc ULg; Roland, Michel

in Santé Conjuguée (2000), 11

Cet article tente de cerner de manière compacte les éléments qui entrent en ligne de compte lorsqu’on aborde le traitement de l’information en soins de santé primaires au niveau des médecins de famille ... [more ▼]

Cet article tente de cerner de manière compacte les éléments qui entrent en ligne de compte lorsqu’on aborde le traitement de l’information en soins de santé primaires au niveau des médecins de famille. La complexité du champ conceptuel et du champ opératoire de la médecine de famille, l’inclusion du temps comme élément caractéristique, la terminologie, le codage et le flux de l’information, les notions de problème de santé et d’épisode sont successivement abordés. [less ▲]

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See detailTumour Necrosis Factor (Tnf) Gene Polymorphism in Crohn's Disease (Cd): Influence on Disease Behaviour?
Louis, Edouard ULg; Peeters, Marc; Franchimont, D. et al

in Clinical & Experimental Immunology (2000), 119(1), 64-8

Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease with genetic heterogeneity. TNF-alpha plays a key role in the development of the mucosal lesions. The aim of our work was to study a single base pair ... [more ▼]

Crohn's disease (CD) is a multifactorial disease with genetic heterogeneity. TNF-alpha plays a key role in the development of the mucosal lesions. The aim of our work was to study a single base pair polymorphism located in the promoter region of TNF gene, in a large population of CD patients with well defined phenotypes. One hundred and ninety-three patients with CD and 98 ethnically matched controls were studied. The -308 single base pair polymorphism of TNF gene was studied using an allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. Genotype and allelic frequencies were compared between patients and controls and between subgroups of patients defined by sex, age at diagnosis, familial history, location of disease, type of disease, extra-intestinal manifestations, and response to steroid treatment. In 29 patients a measure of TNF-alpha production by colonic biopsies was performed. The frequency of the allele TNF2 as well as the proportion of carriers of the allele TNF2 were slightly but not significantly lower in CD than in controls (11.9% versus 14.8% and 21.5% versus 27.6%, respectively). A more prominent difference in frequencies of allele TNF2 and in proportions of TNF2 carriers was found when comparing subgroups of patients. The frequency of allele TNF2 was significantly higher in steroid-dependent than in non-steroid-dependent disease (28.1% versus 10.3%; Delta = 17.8%, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.3-29.5%, P = 0.0027) and tended to be higher in colonic than in small bowel disease and in fistulizing than in stricturing disease. Furthermore, TNF2 carriers tended to be more frequent in patients with steroid-dependent than non-steroid-dependent disease (43.8% versus 19.3%; Delta = 24.5%, 95% CI = 3.6-45.4%, P = 0.022), in patients with fistulizing than stricturing disease (26.5% versus 9.6%; Delta = 16.9%, 95% CI = 1. 1-32.6%, P = 0.036), and in patients with colonic than small bowel disease (26.5% versus 11.1%; Delta = 15.4%, 95% CI = -0.8-31.6%, P = 0.063). Finally, patients carrying at least one copy of allele 2 were found to produce slightly more TNF-alpha at the colonic level. The -308 TNF gene polymorphism may have a slight influence on the behaviour of CD. The carriage of allele 2 may favour steroid-dependent disease and to a lesser extent fistulizing and colonic disease, possibly secondary to a more intense TNF-alpha-driven inflammatory reaction at the mucosal level. [less ▲]

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See detailMalignant prolactinoma discovered by D2 receptor imaging.
Petrossians, Patrick ULg; de Herder, W.; Kwekkeboom, D. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2000), 85(1), 398-401

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See detailMise au point d'une hyperparathyroidie primitive: apport de la scintigraphie
Brasseur, Edmond ULg; PHILIPS, Jean-Christophe ULg; BELHOCINE, Tarik et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(1), 39-44

We report a case of hyperparathyroidism whose diagnosis was suspected by a clinical history and confirmed by routine laboratory tests. Scintigraphy has permitted to localize a focalized lesion ... [more ▼]

We report a case of hyperparathyroidism whose diagnosis was suspected by a clinical history and confirmed by routine laboratory tests. Scintigraphy has permitted to localize a focalized lesion corresponding to an adenoma endocrinopathy. The new developments of this imaging technique will be discussed further. Some aspects of physiopathology will be briefly considered and a therapeutic algorithm will be proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le glimepiride (Amarylle).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(3), 184-6

Glimepiride, commercialized in Belgium under the trade name of Amarylle by Aventis, is a new sulphonylurea compound which is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, after diet and exercise failure ... [more ▼]

Glimepiride, commercialized in Belgium under the trade name of Amarylle by Aventis, is a new sulphonylurea compound which is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, after diet and exercise failure. It is available as 2 mg tablets. The initial doses is 1 mg, to be progressively increased up to 4 mg per day, if necessary, with a maximal daily dose of 6 mg. It is recommended to take glimepiride once a day, with the first main meal. Because of a particular binding of this sulphonylurea to the B cells of Langerhans pancreatic islets and, perhaps, of the presence of some extrapancreatic effects, both hypoglycaemic risk and circulating plasma insulin levels are lower with glimepiride than with glibenclamide, the reference sulphonylurea agent used in comparative clinical trials. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the scalar meson exchange in the baryon spectra
Stassart, Pierre ULg; Stancu, Floarea ULg; Richard, J. M. et al

in Journal of Physics : G Nuclear & Particle Physics (2000), G26

We explore the role of a scalar meson exchange interaction between quarks in a semirelativistic constituent quark model where the quarks are also subject to a linear confinement. We study how the spectrum ... [more ▼]

We explore the role of a scalar meson exchange interaction between quarks in a semirelativistic constituent quark model where the quarks are also subject to a linear confinement. We study how the spectrum evolves when the strength of the scalar meson exchange increases. Our results are relevant to the long-standing problem of the relative position of the first positive-parity (Roper resonance) and the first orbitally excited states in the baryon spectrum. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence-Based Medicine: traitement de l'hépatite chronique C. GLEVHE. Groupe Liégeois d'Etude des Virus Hépatotropes.
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Gerard, Christiane ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(5), 337-340

The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people in the world. The major characteristic of virus C is its tendency to chronicity in more than 85% of cases. Generally asymptomatic, HCV ... [more ▼]

The Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects nearly 170 million people in the world. The major characteristic of virus C is its tendency to chronicity in more than 85% of cases. Generally asymptomatic, HCV infection may also evolve with time to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. During the last few years, HCV-related end-stage cirrhosis has become the first cause of liver transplantation. In 10 years only, very significant progress has been made in the knowledge of the virus, not only in the field of diagnosis but also in therapy. Several consensus conferences taking last discoveries into account have been organized in order to promote recommendations useful for the management of hepatitis C patients. The aim of this short overview is to summarize practical recommendations that emerged recently from consensus meetings. [less ▲]

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See detailAquatic bryophyte assemblages along a gradient of regulation in the river Rhine
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Klein, J. P.

in Hydrobiologia (2000), 410

A study of the zonation of the aquatic bryophyte assemblages from the Anterior Rhine to the Middle Rhine is presented. The typology obtained differs from the hydrogeoinorphological classification because ... [more ▼]

A study of the zonation of the aquatic bryophyte assemblages from the Anterior Rhine to the Middle Rhine is presented. The typology obtained differs from the hydrogeoinorphological classification because the correction of the river has led to the homogenization of habitats. Since the straightening of the river in the course of the 19th century, the embankments have created more stable habitats on which mountain species formerly characteristic of the rapids of the High Rhine appeared. During the 20th century, regulation, the construction of hydroelectric powerstations even the canalization of the river in Alsace. have caused a great change in water level. On the Upper Rhine, the rcgularisation of the water level .'allowed the appearance and the spread of strict hydrophytes such as Octodiceras fontanum which is now common between Rastatt and Bonn. Conversely, species characteristic of variable water levels decreased or disappeared. The industrial development along the river has caused water quality to severely decrease downstream of the industrial areas, hence the decrease or the disappearance of their primary flora in favour of pollution-tolerant assemblages. The former side channels of the Upper Rhine in France that have been disconnected from the main river and fed by groundwater since canalization, possess a bryophyte flora very similar to that of good quality waters in the upstream part of the High Rhine or in the Alpine Rhine. This flora is the last regional relic of a flora that has disappeared from the main channel due to water pollution. These refugia should consequently be preserved from the flooding of alluvial forests, part of the flood management program. [less ▲]

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See detailTechnical efficiency of European railways: a distance function approach
Coelli, Tim; Perelman, Sergio ULg

in Applied Economics (2000), 32

This study has two principal objectives. The first objective is to measure and compare the performance of European railways. The second objective is to illustrate the usefulness of econometric distance ... [more ▼]

This study has two principal objectives. The first objective is to measure and compare the performance of European railways. The second objective is to illustrate the usefulness of econometric distance functions in the analysis of production in multioutput industries, where behavioural assumptions such as cost minimization or profit maximization, are unlikely to be applicable. Using annual data on 17 railways companies during 1988± 1993, multioutput distance functions are estimated using corrected ordinary least squares (COLS). The resulting technical efficiency estimates range from 0.980 for the Netherlands to 0.784 for Italy, with a mean of 0.863. The distance function results are also compared with those obtained from single-output production functions, where aggregate output measures are formed using either total revenue or a Tornqvist index. The results obtained indicate substantial differences in parameter estimates and technical efficiency rankings, casting significant doubt upon the reliability of these single-output models, particularly when a total revenue measure is used to proxy aggregate output. [less ▲]

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See detailDu chêne au tonneau
Jourez, Benoît ULg; Quin, Jean-Philippe

in Courrier du Bois (2000), 129

La tonnellerie, activité à la fois artisanale et industrielle, tire profit des plus beaux chênes. Si le mode de fabrication traditionnel du tonneau n'a pratiquement pas changé depuis son invention par les ... [more ▼]

La tonnellerie, activité à la fois artisanale et industrielle, tire profit des plus beaux chênes. Si le mode de fabrication traditionnel du tonneau n'a pratiquement pas changé depuis son invention par les Celtes il y a plus de 2000 ans, certains développements technologiques sont venus aider les artisans dans leur travail quotidien. Parallèlement, le progrès des connaissances dans les sciences du bois, de la chimie et de la microbiologie nous ont appris à quel point l'élevage du vin en fûts de chêne reste une étape essentielle dans la maturation de ce liquide sacré. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Ephedrine on the Onset Time of Neuromuscular Block and Intubating Conditions after Cisatracurium: Preliminary Results
Albert, Franz ULg; Hans, Pol ULg; Bitar, Yasser et al

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2000), 51(3), 167-71

We studied the effects of intravenous ephedrine on the onset time and the intubating conditions 2 min after a bolus dose of cisatracurium (0.15 mg kg-1). Thirty patients anaesthetized with sufentanil and ... [more ▼]

We studied the effects of intravenous ephedrine on the onset time and the intubating conditions 2 min after a bolus dose of cisatracurium (0.15 mg kg-1). Thirty patients anaesthetized with sufentanil and propofol were randomly divided in 2 groups to receive either ephedrine (70 micrograms.kg-1) or saline, 5 s before propofol. Cisatracurium was administered after loss of consciousness. Neuromuscular block was assessed at the adductor pollicis using accelography. Tracheal intubation was performed 2 min after cisatracurium injection and rated as excellent, good, poor or bad. At intubation, neuromuscular block (% height of control T1) was greater in patients receiving ephedrine (36.1 +/- 25.8% vs 57.9 +/- 25.1%) (mean +/- SD). The frequency of excellent intubating conditions was higher after ephedrine (86.6%) than after saline (40.0%). The onset time of cisatracurium was shorter after ephedrine (167 +/- 64.8 s vs 234.9 +/- 63.1 s). Thus, a low dose of ephedrine given before induction of anaesthesia improves the intubating conditions 2 min after 0.15 mg kg-1 cisatracurium and this effect likely relates to a quicker onset of neuromuscular block. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical Usefulness of the Mini Nutritional Assessment (Mna) Scale in Geriatric Medicine
Gazzotti, C.; Albert, Adelin ULg; Pepinster, A. et al

in Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging (The) (2000), 4(3), 176-81

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients hospitalized with an acute illness, as well as to assess the clinical usefulness of standardized ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of malnutrition in elderly patients hospitalized with an acute illness, as well as to assess the clinical usefulness of standardized nutritional assessment upon admission by means of the MNA scale. Design: A prospective study. Setting: A large size regional university hospital. Subjects: There were 175 patients (113 women and 62 men) with a mean age of 79.7 + 8.5 years admitted for an acute problem. Death occurred in 11 patients (6.3%). METHODS: Upon admission, demographic (age, gender, origin) and medical (disease, drugs) data were recorded for each patient; the MNA questionnaire (score: 0-30) was administered and Katz score (7-28) calculated. At hospital discharge, data included Katz score, outcome (death/survival), and destination. RESULTS: The mean MNA score was 20.5 + 5.1 and the prevalence of severe malnutrition (MNA <17) was 21.7%. Further, 48.6% of elderly were at risk of malnutrition (MNA between 17 and 24). There was no association between MNA and age or gender, but underweight was a sign of low MNA values (P <.001). MNA scores were inversely related to Katz scores at both admission and hospital discharge (P <.001). Patients originating from nursing homes had a poorer nutritional status than those living at home (MNA: 18.4 against 22.3, P <.001). The number of drugs taken per patient (5.2 + 2.8) was found to be correlated with MNA (P =.049). MNA scores were on average significantly higher (P <.001) in survivors (20.9) than in nonsurvivors (14.1). CONCLUSIONS: The study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of malnutrition and the clinical usefulness of the MNA scale in geriatric medicine. The MNA score upon admission reflects the patient's nutritional condition, degree of autonomy (Katz score), living conditions and current treatment. It is also predictive of patient's outcome (death or survival). [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques considerations generales et rappels historiques a propos de la therapeutique.
Kulbertus, Henri ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(4), 201-5

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See detailRole of Tir and Intimin in the Virulence of Rabbit Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (REPEC) Serotype O103:H2
Marchès, O.; Nougayrede, J. P.; Boullier, S. et al

in Infection and Immunity (2000), 68

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See detailAuditory processing in the vegetative state.
Laureys, Steven ULg; Faymonville, Marie ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Brain : A Journal of Neurology (2000), 123 ( Pt 8)

H(2)(15)O-PET was used to investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow in response to auditory stimulation in patients in the vegetative state. Five patients in a vegetative state of hypoxic origin ... [more ▼]

H(2)(15)O-PET was used to investigate changes in regional cerebral blood flow in response to auditory stimulation in patients in the vegetative state. Five patients in a vegetative state of hypoxic origin were compared with 18 age-matched controls. In addition, the cerebral metabolism of these patients and 53 age-matched controls was studied using [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose. In control subjects, auditory click stimuli activated bilateral auditory cortices [Brodmann areas (BA) 41 and 42] and the contralateral auditory association cortices (BA 22). In the patients, although resting metabolism was decreased to 61% of normal values, bilateral auditory areas 41 and 42 showed activation as seen in the controls, but the temporoparietal junction cortex (BA 22) failed to be activated. Moreover, the auditory association cortex was functionally disconnected from the posterior parietal association area (BA 40), the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24) and the hippocampus, as revealed by psychophysiological interaction analysis. Thus, despite altered resting metabolism, the auditory primary cortices were still activated during external stimulation, whereas hierarchically higher-order multi- modal association areas were not. Such a cascade of functional disconnections along the auditory cortical pathways, from the primary auditory areas to multimodal and limbic areas, suggests that the residual cortical processing observed in the vegetative state cannot lead to the integrative processes that are thought to be necessary for the attainment of the normal level of awareness. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification de cultivars de palmier dattier (Phoenix dactylifera L.) par l'amplification aléatoire d'ADN (RAPD)
Ben Abdallah, Abdallah; Stiti, Kadija; Du Jardin, Patrick ULg et al

in Cahiers Agricultures (2000), 9(2), 103-107

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See detailIschaemic Colitis Following Aortoiliac Surgery
VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; CREEMERS, Etienne ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2000), 100(1), 21-7

Ischaemic colitis following aortoiliac surgery is a feared complication. Its frequency varies from 7% after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to 0.6% after bypass for aortoiliac occlusive ... [more ▼]

Ischaemic colitis following aortoiliac surgery is a feared complication. Its frequency varies from 7% after repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) to 0.6% after bypass for aortoiliac occlusive disease (AOD). In order to analyse predisposing factors and outcome of ischaemic colitis, the authors reviewed their clinical experience from 1988 to 1998. It concerns 28 cases (16 ruptured AAA, 7 elective AAA, 5 OAD) of clinically evident colonic ischaemia. This means an incidence of 7% after repair of ruptured AAA, 0.6% after elective AAA repair, and 0.8% after bypass for AOD. Transmural necrosis (grade 3) was observed in 21 patients, grade 2 ischaemia in 5 patients, and grade 1 ischaemia in 2 patients. Fifteen patients with grade 3 ischaemia underwent colectomy (Hartmann's procedure) with a mortality rate of 66%. All non operated grade 3 patients died. Overall, 16 of the 28 patients died at hospital (57% mortality rate). None of the patients with mild (grade 2 or 1) colonic ischaemia died. Profound hypovolaemic shock and inflammatory AAA were the only significant predisposing factors leading to colonic ischaemia. Associated colon revascularization could not avoid the evolution to colon necrosis in four patients. Reimplantation of a patent inferior mesenteric artery or an internal iliac artery was performed in only 4.8% of all aortoiliac reconstructions, and did not influence the development of ischaemic colitis. The authors conclude that a more liberal use of postoperative sigmoidoscopy could allow detecting colonic ischaemia at an earlier stage and reduce ensuing mortality. A reinforced effort to restore or preserve colonic vascularization could lower the incidence of colonic ischaemia following aortoiliac surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailLa garantie des droits fondamentaux et la convention européenne des droits de l'homme
Carlier, Jean-Yves ULg

in Revue Québecoise de Droit International (2000), 13(1), 37-62

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See detailPharma clinics. Le medicament du mois. La cerivastatine (Lipobay, Cholstat).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(2), 117-20

Cerivastatin, commercialized under the trade names of Lipobay by Bayer and Cholstat by Fournier Pharma, is a new synthetic statin. Because of its high affinity for HMG-CoA reductase enzyme that it ... [more ▼]

Cerivastatin, commercialized under the trade names of Lipobay by Bayer and Cholstat by Fournier Pharma, is a new synthetic statin. Because of its high affinity for HMG-CoA reductase enzyme that it specifically and selectively inhibited in the hepatocytes, cerivastatin exerts its cholesterol-lowering effect at very low doses, between 0.1 and 0.3 mg/day. Cerivastatin is indicated, after diet failure, in the treatment of primary forms of isolated hypercholesterolaemia or combined hyperlipidaemia. It is presented by the two pharmaceutical companies as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg filmed tablets. Usual dose is 0.3 mg, once daily, to be reduced in presence of renal failure. Cerivastatin is metabolised within the liver by two different families of cytochrome P450, which limits the risk of drug interferences. Besides this potential advantage as compared with some other statins, its pharmacodynamic activity and safety profile seem to be similar to those of other agents of the same pharmacological family. [less ▲]

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See detailOsteoporose bij de bejaarde
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Taquet, AN; Fraikin, G

in Medi-Sfeer (2000), 103

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See detailLocalization of Nadph-Protochlorophyllide Reductase in Plastids of Barley at Different Greening Stages
Barthelemy, X.; Bouvier, G.; Radunz, A. et al

in Photosynthesis Research (2000), 64(1), 63-76

The localization of protochorophyllide (Pchlide) and of NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.6.99.1) within (etio)chloroplasts has been investigated at selected stages of greening of barley ... [more ▼]

The localization of protochorophyllide (Pchlide) and of NADPH-protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.6.99.1) within (etio)chloroplasts has been investigated at selected stages of greening of barley seedlings. Pchlide pigment and POR protein contents were evaluated in different plastid membrane fractions by fluorescence spectroscopy and immunoblot analysis using a monospecific polyclonal antibody raised against the purified enzyme. Fluorescence analysis showed the presence of Pchlide in both the envelope and thylakoid membranes. During greening, the Pchlide content, expressed on a total protein basis, decreased in thylakoid membranes, whereas it increased in the envelope membranes. POR proteins were detected mainly in thylakoid membranes at early greening stages. In contrast, the weak amount of POR proteins was associated more specifically with envelope membranes of mature chloroplasts. Whatever the greening stage, thylakoid-bound Pchlide and POR proteins were more abundant in the thylakoid regions which remained unsolubilized after mild Triton treatment used as standard procedure to prepare PS II particles. This suggests the preferential association of Pchlide and POR to the appressed regions of thylakoids. [less ▲]

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See detailKantvilasia (Lecanorales, Ectolechiaceae), a new foliicolous lichen genus from Tasmania
McCarthy, P.M.; Elix, J.A.; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in Lichenologist (2000), 32

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See detailErythropoiesis and renal transplant pregnancy.
Magee, L. A.; von Dadelszen, P.; Darley, J. et al

in Clinical Transplantation (2000), 14(2), 127-35

OBJECTIVE: To examine erythropoiesis in renal transplant pregnancies. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 30 renal transplant cases and 30 age, smoking and parity-matched healthy controls with normal ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To examine erythropoiesis in renal transplant pregnancies. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 30 renal transplant cases and 30 age, smoking and parity-matched healthy controls with normal index pregnancy. Retrospective chart review and assay of frozen antenatal serum (for serum erythropoietin concentration [serum EPO]), transferrin receptor protein [TfR], ferritin, folate and B12) were performed. The linear regression equation for normal pregnancy controls was used to calculate predicted [serum EPO] and the observed/predicted (O/P) log [serum EPO] was plotted. The relationship between [serum EPO] and haemoglobin (Hb) among transplant cases was considered to be different from that among controls if the slope of the O/P log [serum EPO] versus Hb regression was significantly different from zero. RESULTS: The transplant (14 cadaveric) to conception interval was (median [range]) 33.5 [4, 189] months. Immunosuppressants were azathioprine (n = 25), cyclosporine (n = 22) and/or prednisone (n = 25). Cases were more often primiparous (20 vs. 7 [controls]; p = 0.01), had pre-existent hypertension (20 vs. 0 [controls]; p < 0.001), developed new/increased hypertension or pre-eclampsia (28 vs. 0 [controls]; p < 0.001) and an antenatal rise in creatinine (14 vs. 2 [controls]; p < 0.001). In early pregnancy, cases had similar EPO (15.2 [2.6, 84.6] vs. 15.7 [6.4, 41.0] [controls] U/L) but lower Hb (101 [65, 129] vs. 116 [106, 150] g/L; p < 0.001). Twenty-two (73%) cases had Hb < 100 g/L (vs. 4 [controls]; p < 0.0001); Hb was comparable at 6 wk postpartum. With advancing gestational age (GA), Hb remained stable and serum EPO increased in both groups. The slope of the O/P log [serum EPO] versus Hb for transplant cases was significantly different from zero within both the 17-28 wk (slope +/- SEM: 0.010 +/- 0.002; p < 0.0001) and the 29-42 wk GA categories (0.006 +/- 0.003; p = 0.02). Cases showed smaller rises in serum TfR (change 481 [- 1471, 2780]) vs. 1119 [- 698, 4195] [controls] ng/mL; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Anaemia frequently complicates renal transplant pregnancies, in which serum EPO is inappropriately low and the rate of erythropoiesis blunted. [less ▲]

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See detailSynovial fluid matrix metalloproteinase-3 levels are increased in inflammatory arthritides whether erosive or not
Ribbens, Clio ULg; Andre, Béatrice ULg; Kaye, O. et al

in Rheumatology (2000), 39(12), 1357-1365

OBJECTIVE: To study the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in the knee synovial fluid (SF) of inflammatory arthropathies (rheumatoid arthritis whether erosive or not, reactive arthritis, acute ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To study the levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in the knee synovial fluid (SF) of inflammatory arthropathies (rheumatoid arthritis whether erosive or not, reactive arthritis, acute crystal arthritis) and degenerative arthropathies [chronic crystal disease, osteoarthritis and (control) meniscus pathology] and to correlate them with the degree of joint destruction, local inflammatory and immune parameters and systemic markers of inflammation. METHODS: SF levels of MMP-3 (precursor, active and tissue inhibitor of MMP-bound forms), tumour necrosis factor (TNF) alpha, soluble TNF receptors I and II, interleukin (IL)-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor were measured by ELISA in 107 inflammatory and 53 degenerative arthropathies. RESULTS: MMP-3 levels in SF were (i) significantly higher in inflammatory than in degenerative arthropathies; (ii) not related to the degree of joint destruction; (iii) significantly correlated with the levels of all SF markers tested and with erythrocyte sedimentation rate and serum levels of C-reactive protein and fibrinogen. CONCLUSION: Increased MMP-3 levels in SF are found in inflammatory arthropathies and are not specific for erosive joint diseases. MMP-3 in SF is therefore a potential candidate for the assessment of the inflammatory process in joints. However, the exclusive determination of the active form could indicate the degree of joint destruction. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution à la connaissance des Chrysopidae de Belgique : bilan des captures réalisées à Gembloux.
Mignon, Jacques ULg; Bozsik, Andras; Gaspar, Charles

in Notes Fauniques de Gembloux (2000), 41

Douze espèces de Chrysopidae furent identifiées: H. elegans, N. flava, N. pallida, Ch. ciliata, Ch. perla, Ch. pallens, D. flavifrons, D. prasina, D. ventralis, T. gracilis, Ch. carnea et C. albolineata ... [more ▼]

Douze espèces de Chrysopidae furent identifiées: H. elegans, N. flava, N. pallida, Ch. ciliata, Ch. perla, Ch. pallens, D. flavifrons, D. prasina, D. ventralis, T. gracilis, Ch. carnea et C. albolineata. Une espèce, Tjederina ventralis est nouvelle pour la faune belge. [less ▲]

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See detailDescription de cas de chondrodystrophie dans trois exploitations de poulets label
Korsak, Nicolas; Marlier, Didier ULg; Mathieu, F. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2000), 144(6), 415-420

The present paper describes chondrodystrophy (perosis) in three poultry units producing labelled chickens. An unilateral deviation of a hind leg along with a tumefaction of the tarsal joint appeared in 4 ... [more ▼]

The present paper describes chondrodystrophy (perosis) in three poultry units producing labelled chickens. An unilateral deviation of a hind leg along with a tumefaction of the tarsal joint appeared in 4-day- to 4-week-old birds; 5 to 50% of the animals were affected. The growth rate was reduced and cachexia was also observed. There were also breast blisters. Chemical analyses were carried out on the poultry feed in two of the units. The manganese content was below the requirements at about 35 mg/kg; in one unit, the ionic balance (Na+K-Cl) was insufficient along with a too narrow Ca/P. The insufficient supply in manganese was corrected by the addition of manganese sulfate in water at a rate of 120 g/litre of water. Manganese sulfate was also added in the feedstuff at a rate of 120 g/ton. [less ▲]

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See detailMass Transfer Across an Interface Induces Formation of Droplets in Lattice Systems
Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Chemical Engineering Science (2000), 55(22), 5333-5339

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See detailComment j'explore...une mycobactériose cutanée atypique
Henry, Frédérique ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Melin, Pierrette ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2000), 55(12), 1058-1063

Atypical mycobacteriosis affecting the skin are diverse and their treatments are different as well. These diseases show an increasing prevalence. The contamination occurs from the environment while ... [more ▼]

Atypical mycobacteriosis affecting the skin are diverse and their treatments are different as well. These diseases show an increasing prevalence. The contamination occurs from the environment while interhuman transmission does not occur. [less ▲]

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See detailPurification and biochemical characterization of the VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase.
Franceschini, N.; Caravelli, B.; Docquier, J. D. et al

in Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2000), 44(11), 3003-7

VIM-1 is a new group 3 metallo-beta-lactamase recently detected in carbapenem-resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Mediterranean area. In this work, VIM-1 was purified from an ... [more ▼]

VIM-1 is a new group 3 metallo-beta-lactamase recently detected in carbapenem-resistant nosocomial isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the Mediterranean area. In this work, VIM-1 was purified from an Escherichia coli strain carrying the cloned bla(VIM-1) gene by means of an anion-exchange chromatography step followed by a gel permeation chromatography step. The purified enzyme exhibited a molecular mass of 26 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and an acidic pI of 5.1 in analytical isoelectric focusing. Amino-terminal sequencing showed that mature VIM-1 results from the removal of a 26-amino-acid signal peptide from the precursor. VIM-1 hydrolyzes a broad array of beta-lactam compounds, including penicillins, narrow- to expanded-spectrum cephalosporins, carbapenems, and mechanism-based serine-beta-lactamase inactivators. Only monobactams escape hydrolysis. The highest catalytic constant/K(m) ratios (>10(6) M(-1). s(-1)) were observed with carbenicillin, azlocillin, some cephalosporins (cephaloridine, cephalothin, cefuroxime, cefepime, and cefpirome), imipenem, and biapenem. Kinetic parameters showed remarkable variability with different beta-lactams and also within the various penam, cephem, and carbapenem compounds, resulting in no clear preference of the enzyme for any of these beta-lactam subfamilies. Significant differences were observed with some substrates between the kinetic parameters of VIM-1 and those of other metallo-beta-lactamases. Inactivation assays carried out with various chelating agents (EDTA, 1,10-o-phenanthroline, and pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid) indicated that formation of a ternary enzyme-metal-chelator complex precedes metal removal from the zinc center of the protein and revealed notable differences in the inactivation parameters of VIM-1 with different agents. [less ▲]

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See detailSome influences of sediments in aerated lagoons and waste stabilization ponds
Chabir, D.; El Ouarghi, H.; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Water Science & Technology (2000), 42(10), 237-246

Respirometric tests have been undertaken on sediments in aerated lagoons and waste stabilization ponds to quantify their oxygen demand and to determine the main factors governing the process. Factors such ... [more ▼]

Respirometric tests have been undertaken on sediments in aerated lagoons and waste stabilization ponds to quantify their oxygen demand and to determine the main factors governing the process. Factors such as seasonal variations, temperature, substrate, sediment layer thickness, density of macro-invertebrates and suspended sediments were investigated. The results showed that temperature and substrate concentration are the main factors that influence sediment oxygen demand; followed by spatial heterogeneity and resuspension of sediments, whereas the density of macro-invertebrates could have an effect in summer (hot season). Sediment layer thickness had no effect. A model of sediment oxygen demand is developed for the two main factors (temperature and substrate) with an r2 of 0.98. [less ▲]

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See detailConvenient Genotyping of Six Myostatin Mutations Causing Double-Muscling in Cattle Using a Multiplex Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay
Karim, Latifa ULg; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Grobet, Luc ULg et al

in Animal Genetics (2000), 31(6), 396-9

We herein describe a procedure that allows for simultaneous genotyping of six loss-of-function mutations in the bovine myostatin gene associated with the double-muscling phenotype. The proposed method ... [more ▼]

We herein describe a procedure that allows for simultaneous genotyping of six loss-of-function mutations in the bovine myostatin gene associated with the double-muscling phenotype. The proposed method relies on a multiplex oligonucleotide ligation assay and detection of the fluorescently labelled products using automatic sequencers. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between the drift of macroinvertebrates and the activity of brown trout in a small stream
Giroux, F.; Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Philippart, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Fish Biology (2000), 56(5), 1248-1257

Brown trout Saline trutta were most active in a small stream at night. dusk and dawn when drift rate was highest, but correlations between hourly drift rates and the trout's activity varied substantially ... [more ▼]

Brown trout Saline trutta were most active in a small stream at night. dusk and dawn when drift rate was highest, but correlations between hourly drift rates and the trout's activity varied substantially between individuals, between different dates for a single individual, and between different periods of the daily cycle. On some occasions. the trout were responsive to the total drift rate, either at night or during the day, and on others to the largest drifting organisms only (terrestrial organisms, adults of Ephemeroptera, Diptera and Trichoptera). The study supports the idea that trout adapt their activity pattern to the abundance of drifting prey, either as generalists towards any organism, or as specialists towards the largest ones. (C) 2000 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles. [less ▲]

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See detailLes souches pathogènes d'Escherichia coli chez les chiens et chats : II) Données cliniques et bactériologiques sur les souches entéropathogènes
Mainil, Jacques ULg; Janssen, L.; Charlier, G. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2000), 144

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See detailPhylogenetic analysis of the pearlfish Carapini (Ophidiiformes, Carapidae)
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Castillo Cabello, Gabriel ULg; Chardon, Michel ULg et al

in Acta Zoologica (2000), 81

Fishes of the tribe Carapini (Encheliophis and Carapus) share a noteworthy peculiarity: they shelter in holothurian echinoderms or bivalve hosts. Some species are considered parasitic, others commensal ... [more ▼]

Fishes of the tribe Carapini (Encheliophis and Carapus) share a noteworthy peculiarity: they shelter in holothurian echinoderms or bivalve hosts. Some species are considered parasitic, others commensal. This study focuses on the phylogeny of the tribe, using two other Carapidae species as an outgroup (Snyderidia canina and Onuxodon fowleri). Insofar as possible, the selected anatomical and behavioural characters where chosen in an ecomorphological perspective, as features that could be responses to various lifestyle-related constraints. Our character selection also took into account the fact that some features are (presumably) linked. Such features were grouped together as a single trait to avoid their overvaluation. This methodology enabled us to separate commensals from parasites, the former belonging to Carapus and the latter to Encheliophis. Carapus species reflect in their morphology the constraints imposed by a diet of hard, mobile, elusive prey, showing predator-type features: a strong dentition, a wide mouth opening, a robust food intake apparatus. On the other hand, the endoparasitic Encheliophis species show a generally weaker buccal apparatus and narrow mouth opening, in relation to the different constraints of their lifestyle where the diet constraints are less pronounced: they eat body parts of their host. We propose changes in both generic diagnoses and transfer three species from Encheliophis to Carapus. [less ▲]

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