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See detailLa loi du 22 août 2002 relative aux droits du patient
Leleu, Yves-Henri ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2002)

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See detailExistence de karsts en roches cristallines silicatées non carbonatées en Afrique sahélienne et équatoriale, implications hydrogéologiques
Willems, Luc ULg; Pouclet, André; Vicat, Jean-Paul

in Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France (2002), 173(4), 337-345

Various cavities studied in western Niger and South Cameroon show the existence of important karstic phenomena into metagabbros and gneisses. These large-sized eaves resulted from generalized dissolution ... [more ▼]

Various cavities studied in western Niger and South Cameroon show the existence of important karstic phenomena into metagabbros and gneisses. These large-sized eaves resulted from generalized dissolution of silicate formations in spite of their low solubility. Karstification is produced by deep hydrous transfer along lithological discontinuities and fracture net works. The existence of such caves has major implications in geomorphology, under either Sahelian and Equatorial climate, and in hydrogeology and water supply, particularly in the Sahel area. [less ▲]

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See detailStress écologique et chronobiologique de la dérive géoclimatique.
Pierard, Sébastien ULg; Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Verviétoise d'Histoire Naturelle (2002), 59

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See detailIntravascular malignant lymphomatosis: report of 2 neurological cases
Vandenheede, Michel; Dioh, Alioune ULg; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(2), 76-81

We report two cases of intravascular malignant lymphomatosis (IML) with a clinical expression limited to the central nervous system. The first patient presented with signs of cerebral, cerebellar and ... [more ▼]

We report two cases of intravascular malignant lymphomatosis (IML) with a clinical expression limited to the central nervous system. The first patient presented with signs of cerebral, cerebellar and spinal cord involvement. The second had an isolated involvement of the spinal cord. In both cases the diagnosis was made at post-mortem examination; pre-mortem examination of biopsy tissue from peripheral nerve and muscle in the first case, spleen and liver in the second were unhelpful for the diagnosis of lymphoma. We review the published literature on IML, its ante-mortem diagnosis and treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailWhite-sided dolphin metallothioneins: purification, characterisation and potential role
Das, Krishna ULg; Jacob, Valérie; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie ULg

in Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part C : Toxicology & Pharmacology (2002), 131(3),

Metallothioneins (MTs) were characterised in the kidneys of a white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus stranded along the Belgian coast, displaying high levels of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in liver ... [more ▼]

Metallothioneins (MTs) were characterised in the kidneys of a white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus stranded along the Belgian coast, displaying high levels of cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg) in liver and kidney. The protein has two isoforms: MT-1 and MT-2. MT-1 binds Cu, Zn, Hg and Cd, while MT-2 only binds Zn, Hg and Cd. This suggests different metabolic functions for the two isoforms: MT-1 is mainly involved in Cu homeostasis; MT-2, which was fourfold more abundant than MT-1, detoxifies most of the accumulated cadmium. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzymatically prepared n-alkyl esters of glucuronic acid: The effect of hydrophobic chain length on surface properties
Blecker, Christophe ULg; Piccicuto, S.; Lognay, Georges ULg et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2002), 247(2), 424-428

The effect of hydrophobic chain length on surface properties of enzymatically prepared n-alkyl esters of glucuronic acid are examined. Dynamic parameters from Hua and Rosen's mathematical model and ... [more ▼]

The effect of hydrophobic chain length on surface properties of enzymatically prepared n-alkyl esters of glucuronic acid are examined. Dynamic parameters from Hua and Rosen's mathematical model and equilibrium surface tension are presented for esters with octyl, decyl, dodecyl, and tetradecyl alkyl segments. Increasing the alkyl chain length has a significant influence on the surface activity. Decyl and dodecyl glucuronate exhibit an interesting adsorption speed associated with foaming capacity. Octyl glucuronate exhibits a micellar organization as its bulk concentration is over 10.68 mM. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailWalloon Region: An agro-forestry landscape without farmers?
Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Dela (2002), 17

Great landscape diversity of Walloon region, actions for a rural renewal, migratory flows back to rural areas and new challenges of Wallon rural area are presented

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See detailPerceptions sensorielles extéroceptives: de la microscopie à la biométrologie.
Claes, G.; Martalo, Oriane; Henry, Frédérique ULg et al

in Dermatologie Actualité (2002), 65

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See detailClassical and Bayesian inference in neuroimaging : Theory
Friston, Karl J; Penny, W.; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Neuroimage (2002), 16(2), 465-483

This paper reviews hierarchical observation models, used in functional neuroimaging, in a Bayesian light. It emphasizes the common ground shared by classical and Bayesian methods to show that conventional ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews hierarchical observation models, used in functional neuroimaging, in a Bayesian light. It emphasizes the common ground shared by classical and Bayesian methods to show that conventional analyses of neuroimaging data can be usefully extended within an empirical Bayesian framework. In particular we formulate the procedures used in conventional data analysis in terms of hierarchical linear models and establish a connection between classical inference and parametric empirical Bayes (PEB) through covariance component estimation. This estimation is based on an expectation maximization or EM algorithm. The key point is that hierarchical models not only provide for appropriate inference at the highest level but that one can revisit lower levels suitably equipped to make Bayesian inferences. Bayesian inferences eschew many of the difficulties encountered with classical inference and characterize brain responses in a way that is more directly predicated on what one is interested in. The motivation for Bayesian approaches is reviewed and the theoretical background is presented in a way that relates to conventional methods, in particular restricted maximum likelihood (ReML). This paper is a technical and theoretical prelude to subsequent papers that deal with applications of the theory to a range of important issues in neuroimaging. These issues include; (i) Estimating nonsphericity or variance components in fMRI time-series that can arise from serial correlations within subject, or are induced by multisubject (i.e., hierarchical) studies. (ii) Spatiotemporal Bayesian models for imaging data, in which voxels-specific effects are constrained by responses in other voxels. (iii) Bayesian estimation of nonlinear models of hemodynamic responses and (iv) principled ways of mixing structural and functional priors in EEG source reconstruction. Although diverse, all these estimation problems are accommodated by the PEB framework described in this paper. [less ▲]

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See detailPseudomonas aeruginosa displays an epidemic population structure.
Pirnay, Jean-Paul; De Vos, Daniel; Cochez, Christel et al

in Environmental microbiology (2002), 4(12), 898-911

Bacteria can have population structures ranging from the fully sexual to the highly clonal. Despite numerous studies, the population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is still somewhat contentious. We ... [more ▼]

Bacteria can have population structures ranging from the fully sexual to the highly clonal. Despite numerous studies, the population structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is still somewhat contentious. We used a polyphasic approach in order to shed new light on this issue. A data set consisting of three outer membrane (lipo)protein gene sequences (oprI, oprL and oprD), a DNA-based fingerprint (amplified fragment length polymorphism), serotype and pyoverdine type of 73 P. aeruginosa clinical and environmental isolates, collected across the world, was analysed using biological data analysis software. We observed a clear mosaicism in the results, non-congruence between results of different typing methods and a microscale mosaic structure in the oprD gene. Hence, in this network, we also observed some clonal complexes characterized by an almost identical data set. The most recent clones exhibited serotypes O1, 6, 11 and 12. No obvious correlation was observed between these dominant clones and habitat or, with the exception of some recent clones, geographical origin. Our results are consistent with, and even clarify, some seemingly contradictory results in earlier epidemiological studies. Therefore, we suggest an epidemic population structure for P. aeruginosa, comparable with that of Neisseria meningitidis, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. [less ▲]

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See detailPositron emission tomography in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL): relationship between tracer uptake and pathological findings, including preliminary experience in the staging of low-grade NHL.
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Clinical Lymphoma (2002), 3(1), 56-61

Advances in imaging techniques have allowed more precise staging and better evaluation of the effect of new treatment modalities. The limitations of conventional morphologic imaging techniques are well ... [more ▼]

Advances in imaging techniques have allowed more precise staging and better evaluation of the effect of new treatment modalities. The limitations of conventional morphologic imaging techniques are well known. Positron emission tomography (PET) using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose is now routinely used for initial staging and re-evaluation during or after treatment of Hodgkin's disease and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but not in low-grade NHL. In the first part of this review, the relationship between glucose metabolism as measured by PET, pathological findings including histological grade and proliferative activity, and prognosis are analyzed. In the second part, the potential role of PET in the staging and follow-up of low-grade NHL is discussed. Published data indicate that PET may contribute to the management of low-grade follicular NHL. [less ▲]

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See detailLa guerre et la médecine d'une culture de paix. 3. Synopsis des armes chimiques.
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(1), 49-52

A variety of chemical components can be used as warfare threats directly targeting humans. They can be classified according to their main biological effects as nerve agents, vesicants, lung damaging ... [more ▼]

A variety of chemical components can be used as warfare threats directly targeting humans. They can be classified according to their main biological effects as nerve agents, vesicants, lung damaging agents, cyanogen agents and incapacitants. Other chemical agents are water and food contaminants. Still other less aggressive compounds are mainly used to control riots. Smokes, flame materials and herbicides belong to other classes of chemical agents of the warlike armamentum exhibiting a direct effect on man. [less ▲]

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See detailLa rente et la galette : à propos du remboursement anticipé d’un crédit
Vanbrabant, Bernard ULg

in Revue du Notariat Belge (2002)

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See detailPetite réflexion sur la qualité du bois d'épicéa
Hebert, Jacques ULg; Herman, Marc; Jourez, Benoît ULg

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), (60), 24-25

En termes de qualité du bois, l'influence du sylviculteur est déterminante. En effet, dès la décision de plantation, et ensuite, par le jeu des soins culturaux et des éclaircies, il va façonner, compte ... [more ▼]

En termes de qualité du bois, l'influence du sylviculteur est déterminante. En effet, dès la décision de plantation, et ensuite, par le jeu des soins culturaux et des éclaircies, il va façonner, compte tenu des conditions environnementales, les caractéristiques de la matière première qui en définiront les aptitudes technologiques. [less ▲]

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See detailSingle step synthesis of metal catalysts supported on porous carbon with controlled texture
Job, Nathalie ULg; Ferauche, fabrice; Pirard, René ULg et al

in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis (2002), 143

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See detailDetection of illegal growth promoters in biological samples using receptor binding assays
Scippo, Marie-Louise ULg; Van de Weerdt, Cécile ULg; Willemsen, Philippe et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2002), 473(1-2), 135-141

In the European Union (EU), the use of growth-promoting substances in meat production is banned. The control of growth promoters, especially steroid hormones, is presently based on expensive and time ... [more ▼]

In the European Union (EU), the use of growth-promoting substances in meat production is banned. The control of growth promoters, especially steroid hormones, is presently based on expensive and time-consuming chromatographic methods of analysis or, sometimes, for screening purposes, on radio- or enzyme-immunoassays, all of which are often too specific to allow effective multi-analyte control. In order to develop rapid and inexpensive multi-analyte detection tests, we proposed the use of hormonal receptors as detection tools. The system described here (radio-receptor assays) is based on a direct bindin g assay of steroid hormones to their respective receptors. Human receptors to estrogens (hERalpha), androgens (hAR), progestagens (hPR) and glucocorticoids (hGR) have been produced by genetic engineering in bacteria or in eucaryotic cells. Binding analyses revealed that the obtained receptor proteins retained a high affinity for their corresponding native ligand. In addition, competition studies continued that each of the four receptors displays a specificity profile for a series of analogs in agreement with the literature. Finally, the stability of these recombinant receptors is sufficient to allow their use in test kits. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailErratum to: “Perturbative evolution and Regge behaviour”: [Phys. Lett. B 448 (1999) 281]
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Donnachie, A.; Landshoff, P.

in Physics Letters B (2002), 528

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See detailPredicting transpiration from forest stands in Belgium for the 21st century
Misson, Laurent; Rasse, Daniel; Vincke, Caroline et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2002), 111(4), 265-282

Canopy transpiration is a major element of the hydrological cycle of temperate forests. Levels of water stress during the 21st century will be largely controlled by the response of canopy transpiration to ... [more ▼]

Canopy transpiration is a major element of the hydrological cycle of temperate forests. Levels of water stress during the 21st century will be largely controlled by the response of canopy transpiration to changing environmental conditions. One year of transpiration measurement in two stands (Quercus robur L. and Fagus sylvatica L.) was used to calibrate the ASPECTS model on a(1) and D-0, two parameters of a modified version of Leuning's equation of stomatal conductance. A second year of data was used to validate the model. The results indicate a higher sensitivity of g(sc), to vapour pressure deficit (DS) in oak than in beech (D-0 (oak) < D-0 (beech)). To simulate future forest transpiration, site specific weather data sets were constructed from GCM outputs, spatially and temporally downscaled with local climatic data. Temperature increase between the end of the 20th and 21st centuries was predicted to be 2.8 degreesC in the beech stand and 3.1 degreesC in the oak stand. Based solely on temperature change, ASPECTS predicted an increase in transpiration of 17% in the beech and 6% in the oak stand, the difference being due to variation in local climate and the sensitivity of both species to D-s. Based solely on increased atmospheric CO2 (355 ppm in 1990 to 700 ppm in 2100), ASPECTS predicted that transpiration would decrease by 22% in beech and 19% in oak. With the combined scenarios of climatic change and increased atmospheric CO2, ASPECTS showed a decrease of 7% in transpired water in the oak stand and only 4% in the beech stand, which are not significant differences from zero. Consequently, water stress should not increase in either stand during the 21st century. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailApproche diagnostique d'une élévation des transaminases
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Delfosse, V.; Detry, Olivier ULg

in Patient Care (2002), 18(2), 10-16

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude LIFE: protection cardio-vasculaire du patient hypertendu par le losartan.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(4), 240-4

The LIFE study ("Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study") demonstrated a significant cardiovascular protection by an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, in ... [more ▼]

The LIFE study ("Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study") demonstrated a significant cardiovascular protection by an angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, losartan, in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy. At similar blood pressure control, losartan, as compared to atenolol, reduced the relative risk of primary cardiovascular event (death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) by 13% (p = 0.021) in the whole cohort of 9.193 patients after a mean follow-up of 4.7 years. In a subgroup of 1.195 diabetic patients, the protection was even more marked with a reduction of the combined risk of 24% (p = 0.031) and a fall of the mortality of 39% (p = 0.002). In conclusion, losartan prevents cardiovascular morbidity and death more effectively than atenolol, and seems to confer benefits beyond reduction in blood pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy and inflammatory bowel disease
Louis, Edouard ULg; Belaiche, Jacques ULg

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2002), 65(4, Oct-Dec), 230-232

Overall, around 25% of women with inflammatory bowel disease will conceive during their disease. Most of the women with inflammatory bowel disease will have a normal pregnancy and healthy children ... [more ▼]

Overall, around 25% of women with inflammatory bowel disease will conceive during their disease. Most of the women with inflammatory bowel disease will have a normal pregnancy and healthy children. However, specific problems may arise related to these pregnancies. This paper reviews what is known on fertility, risk of disease transmission, effect of the disease on the pregnancy and the reverse, delivery, medical follow up and treatment as well as breastfeeding in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease. [less ▲]

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See detailLa prescription des pensions alimentaires: fin d'une controverse. Note sous Cass., 8 décembre 2000
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2002)

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See detailLa reconnaissance et le financement de la laïcité organisée (I)
Sägesser, Caroline; Husson, Jean-François ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2002), (1756), 3-43

This publication details the political process having led to the official recognition of the free thinkers organisations on a footing quite silmilar to religious denominations.

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See detailUse of a serum-free medium to produce in vitro Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites on Vero cells
De Meerschman, F.; Rettigner, C.; Focant, Charles ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2002), 33(2, Mar-Apr), 159-168

Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are cyst-forming coccidian parasites of human and veterinary clinical relevance. In vitro cultivation of the protozoans using Vero cells is usually performed in ... [more ▼]

Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are cyst-forming coccidian parasites of human and veterinary clinical relevance. In vitro cultivation of the protozoans using Vero cells is usually performed in order to produce antigenic materials. Quantitative and qualitative comparisons of Vero cells grown in RPMI medium supplemented either with foetal calf serum (FCS), horse serum (HS) or a specific serum-free additive (DefCell) were performed. A serum-free cell culture system used to propagate N. caninum (NC-1 isolate) and T. gondii tachyzoites (Rh stain) were compared with the other two cell culture systems. FCS supplemented media was found to be more effective than the others in promoting Vero cells and N. caninum tachyzoites. However, it was found unable to support adequate T. gondii tachyzoite proliferation. Vero cells, T. gondii and N. caninum tachyzoite production gave similar growth patterns with either HS or DefCell supplemented media. Defcell was considered as a good alternative to supplement culture medium. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Etat social face aux nouvelles attentes compassionnelles. Le cas de la Belgique
Vrancken, Didier ULg

in Nouvelles Pratiques Sociales (2002), 15(2), 53-65

S’intéressant aux grandes mobilisations émotionnelles de ces dernières années en Europe et plus particulièrement en Belgique, cet article propose d’envisager leurs effets sur la structuration de l’Etat ... [more ▼]

S’intéressant aux grandes mobilisations émotionnelles de ces dernières années en Europe et plus particulièrement en Belgique, cet article propose d’envisager leurs effets sur la structuration de l’Etat social. A partir de l’expérience belge, il montre que celles-ci n’ont pas contribué à un renouvellement des formes de participation politique mais se sont plutôt inscrites dans un profond mouvement de moralisation de l’action publique annonçant de nouveaux modes de prise en charge des citoyens davantage ancrés sur des notions telles que la procéduralisation, le territoire, l’accompagnement, la subjectivation et l’aide aux personnes [less ▲]

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See detailEuropean guidelines for the management of low back pain
Van Tulder, M.; Kovacs, F.; Müller, G. et al

in Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica. Supplement (2002), 73((Suppl 305)), 20-25

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See detailEchographie de l’appareil podotrochléaire : étude in vitro sur 30 membres isolés de cheval
Busoni, Valeria ULg; Méan, Marie-Noël; Brignone, Luca et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(3), 181-187

Thirty equine isolated limbs have been examined by ultrasonography (7.5 MHz probes) using the frog as acoustic window. The aims of the study were to establish the ultrasonographic anatomy of the distal ... [more ▼]

Thirty equine isolated limbs have been examined by ultrasonography (7.5 MHz probes) using the frog as acoustic window. The aims of the study were to establish the ultrasonographic anatomy of the distal portion of the deep digital flexor tendon, to determine the capability to visualize podotrochlear bursa and flexor surface fibrocartilage by ultrasound and to evaluate the sensitivity of ultrasonography for the assessment of flexor surface abnormalities. Because of the relative orientation of the ultrasound beam and the deep digital flexor tendon fibers, this tendon always appears hypoechogenic on transcuneal ultrasonographic images. The flexor surface fibrocartilage is difficult to see if the podotrochlear bursa is not injected. The thickness of the normal bursa is negligible at the palmar aspect of the distal sesamoid bone. Sensitivity of ultrasonography for the detection of flexor surface irregularities was high (90,91%), sensitivity was 84,21%. Ultrasonography using the transcuneal approach could be an useful adjunct to routine radiographic examination of the foot in the assessment of flexor surface irregularities. [less ▲]

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See detailAnxiety and hyperventilation in mild to moderate asthmatics
Delvaux, Muriel ULg; Fontaine, Ovide ULg; Bartsch, Pierre ULg

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2002), 52(2), 149-160

Studied breathing patterns and hyperventilation symptoms in 80 adolescents and adults (aged 16-60 yrs) with mild to moderate asthma and 40 adolescents and adults (aged 16-60 yrs) with no asthma symptoms ... [more ▼]

Studied breathing patterns and hyperventilation symptoms in 80 adolescents and adults (aged 16-60 yrs) with mild to moderate asthma and 40 adolescents and adults (aged 16-60 yrs) with no asthma symptoms (healthy controls). Data on pulmonary function, ventilation and breathing pattern, and psychological symptoms were obtained by clinical observation and questionnaire. Asthmatic Ss were requested not to take bronchodilatation medications for 24-48 hrs prior to testing. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (S. Taylor and Cox, 1998), the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised (A. Fenigwstein et al, 1975), the State-Train Anxiety Inventory, the Nijmegen Questionnaire (P. van Doorn et al, 1982), the Sense of Coherence Scale (A. Antonovsky, 1987), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (D. Watson et al, 1988), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Asthma Symptoms Checklist (R. A. Kinsman et al, 1973, revision by Brooks et al, 1989) were used. The results show that the asthmatic subjects have lower PetCO2 than normal subjects and that variables associated with lower PetCO2 include total volume, female gender, and negative affectivity. The results also show that female subjects and asthmatics have similar breathing patterns and compared to male subjects [less ▲]

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See detailRecommendations for a standardized report for adult transthoracic echocardiography: a report from the American Society of Echocardiography's Nomenclature and Standards Committee and Task Force for a Standardized Echocardiography Report.
Gardin, Julius M.; Adams, David B.; Douglas, Pamela S. et al

in Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography (2002), 15(3), 275-90

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See detailHormonal measurements in late pregnancy and parturition in dairy cows - possible tools to monitor foetal well being
Kornmatitsuk, B.; Veronesi, M. C.; Madej, A. et al

in Animal Reproduction Science (2002), 72(3-4), 153-164

Three dairy heifers (A, B and C) were induced to parturition with two prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha injections on day 268 and 269 of pregnancy. Signs of approaching parturition were carefully observed. The ... [more ▼]

Three dairy heifers (A, B and C) were induced to parturition with two prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha injections on day 268 and 269 of pregnancy. Signs of approaching parturition were carefully observed. The following parameters were registered: degrees of calving difficulty, date and time of parturition, calf's birth weight and calf's sex. Body temperature was measured and blood samples were taken every 3 h 3 days before the first PGF(2alpha) injection until 3 days after parturition. The plasma concentrations of the PGF2a metabolite, progesterone, cortisol, oestrone sulphate and pregnancy associated glycoproteins (PAGs) were analysed. Heifers A, B and C delivered 48, 51 and 57 h after the first PGF(2alpha) injection, respectively. Heifer A delivered without any signs of calving difficulty, whereas, the parturition was considered to be slight and moderate difficulty occurred in the delivery of heifers B and C, respectively. The calf of heifer C, without any abnormal gross-evidences, was stillborn. All animals had retained foetal membranes. A slight increase of the PGF(2alpha) metabolite at the time of parturition was found only in heifer C, whereas the levels dramatically increased in all animals 15-24 h after parturition. At the same time, progesterone levels decreased within 3 h after the first PGF(2alpha) injection (P < 0.05) and reached 0.8, 2.7 and 12.4 nmol/l at the time of parturition in heifers A, B and C, respectively. High release of cortisol at the time of parturition was seen in heifer C. Rising levels of oestrone sulphate around the time of parturition were recorded in all heifers, whereas, increasing levels of PAGs were recorded only in heifer A. In conclusion, the patterns of the PGF(2alpha) metabolite, cortisol, progesterone and PAGs were changed in the cases of calving difficulty and stillbirth after PGF(2alpha)-induction of parturition. However, the relationship between oestrone sulphate and PAGs and the status of foetal well being prior to parturition require further elucidation. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of a coalescence parameter from batch-settling experiments
Henschke, M; Schlieper, L; Pfennig, Andreas ULg

in Chemical Engineering Journal (2002), 85((2-3)), 369-378

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See detailPharmacologic treatment of inner ear: from basic science to the patient.
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Staecker, H.; Van de Water, T. et al

in Acta Oto-Rhino-Laryngologica Belgica (2002), 56(1), 45-9

Most of the deafness are of sensorineural origin and are characterized by a loss of hair cells and of spiral ganglion neurons. At the present time, hearing aids are the only treatment. However, in some ... [more ▼]

Most of the deafness are of sensorineural origin and are characterized by a loss of hair cells and of spiral ganglion neurons. At the present time, hearing aids are the only treatment. However, in some diseases of the inner ear, pharmacological treatment have been proposed and used successfully. In this paper, we will review some basic science aspects of the biology of the neurosensory structures of the inner ear, in particular of the auditory neurons, that lead to the rationale of some treatments for the inner ear diseases. Developmental studies, neuronal cell culture experiments, and analyses of gene knockout animals reveal a number of growth factors which are important for the rescue and repair of injured auditory neurons in the inner ear. These factors rescue the injured auditory neurons in vivo. Furthermore, perfusion of antioxydant to the cochlea prevented the hearing loss induced by cisplatin. These in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that it is possible to manipulate the neurosensory structures of the inner ear and provide an effective treatment to prevent the degeneration of the neurons. The molecules or drugs can be administered locally to the inner ear through a direct perilymphatic perfusion or through the round window membrane. As an example, we will discuss the treatment of patients suffering from idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss which can be treated successfully by a perfusion through the round window membrane, improving their hearing threshold and their speech discrimination. [less ▲]

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See detailA role for the Clostridium perfringens beta 2 toxin in bovine enterotoxaemia?
Manteca, Christophe; Daube, Georges ULg; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 86(3), 191-202

Non-enterotoxigenic type A Clostridium perfringens are associated with bovine enterotoxaemia, but the alpha toxin is not regarded as responsible for the production of typical lesions of necrotic and ... [more ▼]

Non-enterotoxigenic type A Clostridium perfringens are associated with bovine enterotoxaemia, but the alpha toxin is not regarded as responsible for the production of typical lesions of necrotic and haemorrhagic enteritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the putative role of the more recently described beta2 toxin. Seven hundred and fourteen non-enterotoxigenic type A C. perfringens isolated from 133 calves with lesions of enterotoxaemia and high clostridial cell counts (study population) and 386 isolated from a control population of 87 calves were tested by a colony hybridisation assay for the beta2 toxin. Two hundred and eighteen (31%) C perfringens isolated from 83 calves (62%) of the study population and 113 (29%) C. perfringens isolated from 51 calves (59%) of the control population tested positive with the beta2 probe. Pure and mixed cultures of four C perfringens (one alpha+beta2+, one alpha+enterotoxin-1 and two alpha+) were tested in the ligated loop assay in one calf. Macroscopic haemorrhages of the intestinal wall, necrosis and haemorrhages of the intestinal content, and microscopic lesions of necrosis and polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cell infiltration of the intestinal villi were more pronounced in loops inoculated with the a and beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens isolate. These results suggest in vivo synergistic role of the alpha and beta2 toxins in the production of necrotic and haemorrhagic lesions of the small intestine in cases of bovine enterotoxaemia. However, isolation of beta2-toxigenic C. perfringens does not confirm the clinical diagnosis of bovine enterotoxaemia and a clostridial cell counts must still be performed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPhénomènes karstiques fossiles et actuels au sein des formations métamorphiques silico-alumineuses de la nappe pan-africaine de Yaoundé (Sud-Cameroun)
Vicat, Jean-Paul; Mvondoc, Henri; Willems, Luc ULg et al

in Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences. Série II, Mécanique, Physique, Chimie, Sciences de l'Univers, Sciences de la Terre (2002), 334

Fossil and present-time karstic phenomena in silico-aluminous metamorphic formations of the Pan-African nappe of Yaoundé (South-Cameroon). Numerous karstic features have been recognised in the non ... [more ▼]

Fossil and present-time karstic phenomena in silico-aluminous metamorphic formations of the Pan-African nappe of Yaoundé (South-Cameroon). Numerous karstic features have been recognised in the non-carbonaceous micaschists and gneisses of the Yaoundé Pan-African nappe, south of Cameroon. It is shown that their formation was controlled by the structural features of the rocks. The wells and the pipes in the bedrock outcrops point out a current karstification process, resulting from the plagioclase dissolution by the acid rain waters. Hill wall alveoli and caves, of pre-Miocene age, are exhumed features that were done by dissolution in the aquiferous underground. [less ▲]

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See detailEvidence for a persistent and extensive greening trend in Eurasia inferred from satellite vegetation index data.
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Zhou, L; Tucker, C J et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2002), 107(D11),

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See detailGlobal democratic consensus on neuropathological disease criteria.
Achim, Cristian; Auer, Roland; Bergeron, Catherine et al

in Lancet Neurology (2002), 1(6), 340

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See detailPhytoremediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, anilines and phenols
Harvey, P. J.; Campanella, Bruno ULg; Castro, P. et al

in Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2002), 9

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See detailElectronic structure of thallium filled skutterudites studied by x-ray absorption and Mossbauer spectroscopy
Long, G. J.; Mahieu, B.; Sales, B. C. et al

in Journal of Applied Physics (2002), 92(12), 7236-7241

Thallium L-III-edge x-ray absorption and iron-57 and tin-119 Mossbauer spectral measurements have been carried out to probe the electronic structure of the three sites in the filled skutterudite TlxCo4 ... [more ▼]

Thallium L-III-edge x-ray absorption and iron-57 and tin-119 Mossbauer spectral measurements have been carried out to probe the electronic structure of the three sites in the filled skutterudite TlxCo4-yFeySb12 and TlxCo4Sb12-zSnz compounds with a range of x, y, and z values. The thallium L-III-edge x-ray absorption spectra are independent of x, y, and z and are well reproduced by full multiple scattering calculations with a cluster with a radius of 8.5 Angstrom centered on thallium. The iron-57 Mossbauer spectra consist of two doublets and the major component is assigned to iron on the cobalt sublattice in view of its hyperfine parameters. The origin of the minor component is uncertain and is tentatively assigned to either iron with thallium vacancies as next nearest neighbors or to iron in the voids. The tin-119 Mossbauer spectral hyperfine parameters clearly indicate that tin substitutes for antimony in the skutterudite structure. Further, the tin electronic configuration is very similar to that of antimony and is insensitive to the thallium content. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics. [less ▲]

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See detailFédéralisme et extrême droite au Royaume-Uni
Jamin, Jérôme ULg

in Fédéralisme - Régionalisme (2002), 2

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See detailThe flowering process: On the track of controlling factors in Sinapis alba
Bernier, Georges ULg; Corbesier, Laurent; Périlleux, Claire ULg

in Russian Journal of Plant Physiology (2002), 49(4, JUL-AUG), 445-450

The major physiological theories of the control of the flowering process are first presented and their inferences tested in the long-day plant Sinapis alba. Then, the genetic analyses of the control of ... [more ▼]

The major physiological theories of the control of the flowering process are first presented and their inferences tested in the long-day plant Sinapis alba. Then, the genetic analyses of the control of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana are also summarized with a brief overview of the several pathways, each including several genes, identified. Clearly, both the experimental data of physiological experiments and the multiplicity of interacting genetic pathways best support the theory of the multifactorial control of flowering. This is further shown by the fact that a critical gene expressed in the shoot meristem at floral transition in S. alba, MADS A (orthologous to A. thaliana SOC1), can be upregulated by a single dose of a cytokinin or a gibberellin, without leading to flowering. This indicates that the floral shift requires upregulation of other genes by other factors. [less ▲]

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See detailPaedomorphosis in the Alpine newt (Triturus alpestris): decoupling behavioural and morphological change
Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology (2002), 52(5), 394-399

Paedomorphosis is a heterochronic pattern leading to morphological change, i.e. retention of larval characters in the adult phenotype. The aim of this study was to find out whether behaviour and ... [more ▼]

Paedomorphosis is a heterochronic pattern leading to morphological change, i.e. retention of larval characters in the adult phenotype. The aim of this study was to find out whether behaviour and morphology are decoupled in heterochronic phenotypes. To this end, I compared qualitative and quantitative aspects of courtship behaviour in syntopic metamorphic and paedomorphic Alpine newts, Triturus alpestris. Morphologically, the two morphs differ considerably (e.g. by the presence of gills only in paedomorphs), but their patterns of sexual behaviours are exhibited at similar frequencies and males use the same alternative reproductive tactics to attract unresponsive females. These results show that morphology and behaviour follow different ontogenetic pathways and are thus decoupled. Decoupling of the two traits offers the possibility of morphological evolution without alteration of sexual patterns. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of pedogenic factors in the spatial distribution of some soils properties in the Belgian Loess Belt: II. Some loess-substratum contacts
Colinet, Gilles ULg; Lacroix, Daniel ULg; Bock, Laurent ULg

in Aardkundige Mededelingen (2002), 12

The geochemical influence of parent material on soil content in some metallic trace elements (MTE) is studied in the Belgian loess belt. The first results show straight sharp Transitions between loess and ... [more ▼]

The geochemical influence of parent material on soil content in some metallic trace elements (MTE) is studied in the Belgian loess belt. The first results show straight sharp Transitions between loess and substratum. This leads to the conclusion that most soils should have the same range of natural values of MTE content. [less ▲]

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See detailEclatement des mobilités d'achats et recomposition des territoires : le cas de l'Ardenne du Nord-Est.
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

in Mosella (2002), 26(3-4), 425-432

Lived world are structured by regular journeys. Many journeys are constrained, other, such as shopping mobilities, present a higher level of freedom. New mobilities and new commercial localisation ... [more ▼]

Lived world are structured by regular journeys. Many journeys are constrained, other, such as shopping mobilities, present a higher level of freedom. New mobilities and new commercial localisation strategies lead to new travels network. The aim of the paper is to study shopping behaviours in North-Eastern Ardennes in order to underline the increasing disparities between shopping mobilities, lived world, homeland and institutional territories. When space behaviours make and remake territorial frames. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication des barycentres en logique floue
Henry, Valérie ULg

in Mathématique et Pédagogie (2002), 139

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See detailLes mutualités professionnelles, un axe majeur de la politique sociale patronale pendant l'Entre-deux-guerres en Belgique ?»,
Geerkens, Eric ULg

in Revue Belge de Philologie et d'Histoire (2002), 80(4), 1275-1349

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See detailFurther evidence on the relationship between dopamine and novelty seeking: a neuroendocrine study
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pinto, Emmanuel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg et al

in Personality & Individual Differences (2002), 33(6), 967-977

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively ... [more ▼]

In the biosocial model of Cloninger, three major personality dimensions, novelty seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD) are dependent on central monoaminergic systems, respectively dopaminergic, serotonergic, and noradrenergic. This study investigated the relationships between these major personality dimensions and growth hormone (GH) responses to both apomorphine and clonidine challenge tests in healthy subjects. GH responses to apomorphine were significantly correlated with NS when peak relative values were considered (r=0.47, P=0.03). HA and RD did not show any relationships with the endocrine responses. In contrast, no significant relationship existed between GH responses to clonidine and any of the three temperament dimensions. These results gave another support of the hypothesized link between NS and dopaminergic central neurotransmission. In contrast, the results did not confirm the association between RD and noradrenergic central neurotransmission, probably because RD is poorly validated. This partial confirmation might suggest that the link between personality traits and neurotransmission systems is probably indirect. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDifferential sensitivity of two insect GABA-gated chloride channels to dieldrin, fipronil and picrotoxinin
Le Corronch, Hervé; Alix, Philippe ULg; Hue, B

in Journal of Insect Physiology (2002), 48

In the central nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates inhibitory neurotransmission is mainly achieved through activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Extensive studies have ... [more ▼]

In the central nervous system of both vertebrates and invertebrates inhibitory neurotransmission is mainly achieved through activation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Extensive studies have established the structural and pharmacological properties of vertebrate GABA receptors. Although the vast majority of insect GABA-sensitive responses share some properties with vertebrate GABAA receptors, peculiar pharmacological properties of these receptors led us to think that several GABA-gated chloride channels are present in insects. We describe here the pharmacological properties of two GABA receptor subtypes coupled to a chloride channel on dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurones of the adult male cockroach. Long applications of GABA induce a large biphasic hyperpolarization, consisting of an initial transient hyperpolarization followed by a slow phase of hyperpolarization that is not quickly desensitized. With GABA, the transient hyperpolarization is sensitive to picrotoxinin, fipronil and dieldrin whereas the slow response is insensitive to these insecticides.When GABA is replaced by muscimol and cis-4-aminocrotonic acid (CACA) a biphasic hyperpolarization consisting of an initial transient hyperpolarization followed by a sustained phase is evoked which is blocked by picrotoxinin and fipronil. Exposure to dieldrin decreases only the early phase of the muscimol and CACA-induced biphasic response, suggesting that two GABA-gated chloride channel receptor subtypes are present in DUM neurones. This study describes, for the first time, a dieldrin resistant component different to the dieldrin- and picrotoxinin-resistant receptor found in several insect species. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperfine structure of neutral vanadium lines and livels
Lefèbvre, P.-H.; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Biémont, Emile ULg

in Physica Scripta (2002), 66

We have recorded hollow-cathode spectra of neutral vanadium by Fourier transform spectroscopy in the near infrared - visible region (9000-17 000 cm-1). 36 transitions showing hyperfine structure have been ... [more ▼]

We have recorded hollow-cathode spectra of neutral vanadium by Fourier transform spectroscopy in the near infrared - visible region (9000-17 000 cm-1). 36 transitions showing hyperfine structure have been analyzed, allowing us to deduce magnetic dipole constants for 27 levels belonging to the 3d44p and 3d34s4p configurations. For 22 of these levels no data were previously available. [less ▲]

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See detailAllergic reactions to decorative skin paintings
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Allergy Review series (2002), 3

Three children presented with contact sensitization to decorative skin paintings applied during their summer holidays. Patch testing revealed severe contact hypersensitivity to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in ... [more ▼]

Three children presented with contact sensitization to decorative skin paintings applied during their summer holidays. Patch testing revealed severe contact hypersensitivity to p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in all patients. The eruptions healed following spontaneous elimination of the dyes and application of topical corticosteroids, but left postinflammatory depigmentation. PPD was the main allergen identified in allergic reactions to decorative skin paintings. [less ▲]

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See detailThe gene INPPL1, encoding the lipid phosphatase SHIP2, is a candidate for type 2 diabetes in rat and man
Marion, Evelyne; Kaisaki, Pamela Jane; Pouillon, Valérie et al

in Diabetes (2002), 51

Genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes involves many genes, most of which are still unknown. The lipid phosphatase SHIP2 is a potent negative regulator of insulin signaling and sensitivity in vivo and ... [more ▼]

Genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes involves many genes, most of which are still unknown. The lipid phosphatase SHIP2 is a potent negative regulator of insulin signaling and sensitivity in vivo and is thus a good candidate gene. Here we report the presence of SHIP2 gene mutations associated with type 2 diabetes in rats and humans. The R1142C mutation specifically identified in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and spontaneously hypertensive rat strains disrupts a potential class II ligand for Src homology (SH)-3 domain and slightly impairs insulin signaling in cell culture. In humans, a deletion identified in the SHIP2 3' untranslated region (UTR) of type 2 diabetic subjects includes a motif implicated in the control of protein synthesis. In cell culture, the deletion results in reporter messenger RNA and protein overexpression. Finally, genotyping of a cohort of type 2 diabetic and control subjects showed a significant association between the deletion and type 2 diabetes. Altogether, our results show that mutations in the SHIP2 gene contribute to the genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in rats and humans [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of organochlorine pesticide residues in the blood of healthy individuals
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2002), 40(4), 361-364

Pesticide use is one of several factors that have permitted maintenance of our supply of food in spite of continuing increase of the population. However, the use of biologically active compounds poses ... [more ▼]

Pesticide use is one of several factors that have permitted maintenance of our supply of food in spite of continuing increase of the population. However, the use of biologically active compounds poses potential problems of toxicity. If the compound is used at any stage of food production, residues or derivatives may persist in food and the entire population may be exposed to the trace amounts of the material. The human body burden associated with long-term exposure may or may not be associated with illness. Persistent environmental contaminants such as pesticide residues have long been suspected to be implicated in cancer etiology. Organochlorine chemicals are persistent, lipophilic compounds commonly present in the environment. Some of them demonstrated carcinogenic activity in laboratory animals. Controversy still exists concerning their carcinogenic potential in humans. To answer this question, clinical toxicology laboratories should propose validated methodologies able to identify and quantify pesticide residues in biological samples. An example of chromatographic method dedicated to organochlorine residues is presented here and illustrated by results obtained in a healthy population (104 men, 147 women). Only 17.9% of the samples were free from detectable amounts of pesticides and p,p’-DDE 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene was the most frequently detected residue (66.5%). Hexachlorobenzene was found at detectable level in 13.5% of the samples. [less ▲]

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See detailCommunication et langage chez les animaux.
Poncin, Pascal ULg; Huynen, Marie-Claude ULg; Ruwet, J.Cl.

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (2002), 4

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See detailPistes de réflexion pour développer, à l’école, les compétences de tous les élèves
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg

in L’École valdôtaine (2002), 55

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See detailWilliam S. Burroughs: Du cut-up au simulacre
Claisse, Frédéric ULg

in Réseaux : Revue Interdisciplinaire de Philosophie Morale et Politique (2002), (94-95-96), 151-174

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See detailBlanche-Neige était-elle transsexuelle ?
Michel, Aude; Mormont, Christian ULg

in Encéphale (L') (2002), 28(1), 59-64

The Rorschach Ink Blot test is considered to be an essential analytical instrument when studying the personalities of individuals presenting gender identity disorders, in particular, in the context of a ... [more ▼]

The Rorschach Ink Blot test is considered to be an essential analytical instrument when studying the personalities of individuals presenting gender identity disorders, in particular, in the context of a sex change request. Nevertheless, there exist less than 20 studies of transsexualism utilising the Rorschach since the creation of this diagnostic category in 1953. This research has mostly concerned itself with relations between psychopathology and transsexualism. Practically non-existent are studies investigating the psychological conditions that permit, shape or induce sex change requests in individuals. Transsexuals request the removal of their genitals through mutilation surgery, which can be seen as subjects literally crying out to be castrated. This request is all the more surprising given that castration, in psychoanalytic terms, is considered to be the most severe punishment that an individual (woman or man) can be threatened with. Therefore, we asked ourselves which psychic conditions could motivate such as request. Based on any earlier study where answers (some explicit, others symbolic) given by sex-change applicants tested on the Rorschach were analysed, results seemed to suggest a counter-phobic attitude underlying sex-reassignment requests (28). According to these hypotheses, the fear of castration (banal as such) can only be overcome through the active search for castration itself. In opting for castration, the transsexual puts an end to the states of anxious waiting that are dominated by feelings of the incertitude and unpredictability of an eventual castration. Once obtained, the threat it constituted disappears, and with it so does the fear. Thus, by taking this active and voluntary step, the subject is no longer exposed to an imminent danger in a passive manner. This in itself creates a great feeling of relief, if not of actual pleasure in the subject (28). In this article, we postulated in a purely speculative manner, the existence of one or several modalities in the transsexual dynamics. Nevertheless, one can ask oneself about the possibility of a request based on a desire rather than on a defense, or even on the existence of a defensive process diametrically opposed to the counter-phobic attitude and which, instead of actively provoking the dreaded reality, would privilege its avoidance and the search of passivity. This latter hypothesis has the advantage of being rather easy to explore with the Rorschach because, according to Exner, the predominance of passive compared to active human movement responses (which he terms the Snow White Syndrome) indicates the propensity to escape into passive fantasies and the tendency to avoid the initiative for behaviour or decision-making, if other people can do it in the subject's place (12). Our results largely confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of an opposite mechanism, as a third of subjects (n = 26) presented Snow White Syndrome. According to Exner, these transsexuals are typically characterized by hiding into a world of make believe, avoiding all responsibility, as well as any decision-making. This passivity in our Snow White Syndrome group was all the more remarkable in that, on the whole, it infiltrated into all the movement responses and seemed to define a rigid style of thinking and mental elaboration, in addition to a suggestive content of passivity. However, this condition cannot be associated with a general lack of dynamism or energy. In fact, the treatment of information, which provides data concerning the motivation to treat a stimulus field of the stimulus--whether this concerns the capture (L) of the stimulus or the elaboration (DQ+) of the response--displayed a sufficient amount of motivation. Furthermore, internal resources (EA) were considerable and were brought into play whenever it was necessary to adopt a behaviour or make a decision. Furthermore, based on these Rorschach findings, we note that in transsexuals with Snow White Syndrome, there is a stereotyped tendency to shy away from difficulties by seeking refuge in realistic representations (but that lack in variety), which could be materialized by actions, but where the initiative is delegated to others. These transsexuals appear to shy away from the difficulties of life by seeking refuge into a world of fantasy, which they fill with the representations borrowed from reality (rather than fantasy) and consequently that are liable to be transposed, if necessary, back into reality. Therefore, one can better understand why they shun away from the deceiving reality that their physical sex represents, into the satisfying dream where they possess the genitals of the opposite sex, that is, a perfectly real organ, no longer the result of the subject's fantasy world. [less ▲]

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See detailClassical and Bayesian inference in neuroimaging: Applications
Friston, Karl J; Glaser, Daniel E; Henson, Richard NA et al

in Neuroimage (2002), 16(2), 484-512

In Friston et al. ((2002) Neuroimage 16: 465-483) we introduced empirical Bayes as a potentially useful way to estimate and make inferences about effects in hierarchical models. In this paper we present a ... [more ▼]

In Friston et al. ((2002) Neuroimage 16: 465-483) we introduced empirical Bayes as a potentially useful way to estimate and make inferences about effects in hierarchical models. In this paper we present a series of models that exemplify the diversity of problems that can be addressed within this framework. In hierarchical linear observation models, both classical and empirical Bayesian approaches can be framed in terms of covariance component estimation (e.g., variance partitioning). To illustrate the use of the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm in covariance component estimation we focus first on two important problems in fMRI: nonsphericity induced by (i) serial or temporal correlations among errors and (ii) variance components caused by the hierarchical nature of multisubject studies. In hierarchical observation models, variance components at higher levels can be used as constraints on the parameter estimates of lower levels. This enables the use of parametric empirical Bayesian (PEB) estimators, as distinct from classical maximum likelihood (ML) estimates. We develop this distinction to address: (i) The difference between response estimates based on ML and the conditional means from a Bayesian approach and the implications for estimates of intersubject variability. (ii) The relationship between fixed- and random-effect analyses. (iii) The specificity and sensitivity of Bayesian inference and, finally, (iv) the relative importance of the number of scans and subjects. The forgoing is concerned with within- and between-subject variability in multisubject hierarchical fMRI studies. In the second half of this paper we turn to Bayesian inference at the first (within-voxel) level, using PET data to show how priors can be derived from the (between-voxel) distribution of activations over the brain. This application uses exactly the same ideas and formalism but, in this instance, the second level is provided by observations over voxels as opposed to subjects. The ensuing posterior probability maps (PPMs) have enhanced anatomical precision and greater face validity, in relation to underlying anatomy. Furthermore, in comparison to conventional SPMs they are not confounded by the multiple comparison problem that, in a classical context, dictates high thresholds and low sensitivity. We conclude with some general comments on Bayesian approaches to image analysis and on some unresolved issues. [less ▲]

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See detailIconographies de saints mosans : Liège, ULG Wittert 82
George, Philippe ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Royale Le Vieux-Liège (2002)

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See detailBudesonide in Collagenous colitis: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial With Histologic Follow-Up
Baert, Filip; Schmit, Alain; D'Haens, Geert et al

in Gastroenterology (2002), 122

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See detailEffects of inhaled ipratropium bromide on breathing mechanics and gas exchange in exercising horses with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Bayly, W. M.; Duvivier, D. H.; Votion, D. et al

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2002), 34(1), 36-43

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their ... [more ▼]

Six Warmblood horses suffering an acute exacerbation of COPD were tested to investigate whether inhalation of ipratropium bromide (IB) dry powder (2,400 microg) 30 min preexercise would improve their exercise capacity. A cross-over protocol with an inert powder placebo (P) was used. Mechanics of breathing and arterial blood gases were determined before treatment, after treatment but pre-exercise, and during an incremental exercise test. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was also measured before and during exercise, and the time to fatigue recorded. Inhalation of IB reduced total pulmonary resistance (RL) and maximum intrapleural pressure changes (deltaPpl(max)) and increased dynamic compliance before exercise. The onset of exercise was associated with a marked decrease in RL in P-treated horses but not those receiving IB, so that RL during exercise was not affected by treatment. Although deltaPpl(max) was lower at 8,9 and 10 m/s with IB, there were no treatment-related changes in VO2, blood gases, time to fatigue or any other measurement of breathing mechanics. Therefore, although inhalation of IB prior to exercise may have improved deltaPpl(max), it had no apparent impact on the horses' capacity for exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailTreatment of mucocutaneous presentations of herpes simplex virus infections.
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2002), 3(7), 475-87

Infections by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types I and II are diverse and quite frequent. After primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sensory ganglia and recrudescences may ... [more ▼]

Infections by herpes simplex virus (HSV) types I and II are diverse and quite frequent. After primary infection, the virus establishes a life-long latency in the sensory ganglia and recrudescences may occur at an unpredictable rate. Recurrent labial and genital herpes infections represent the majority of clinical manifestations of HSV infections. Their management is currently well established using evidence-based medicine data. Primary labial herpes is generally not treated with antivirals in otherwise healthy children, although intravenous aciclovir may be offered in severe primary infections, particularly in the immunocompromised patient. The decision whether or not to treat recurrent labial herpes should be evaluated individually and depends on the frequency and severity of relapses, the impairment of the quality of life, and the cost of therapy. Patients with mild disease may benefit from topical therapy, and those with severe and frequent recurrences may be considered for intermittent or long-term oral antiviral therapy. Primary genital herpes is treated with oral or intravenous antivirals, depending on the severity of the infection and associated symptoms. Recurrent genital herpes can be managed with episodic short courses of oral antivirals in patients whose recurrences are moderate to severe and rare, and have a clear prodrome. Patients with >5 episodes/year, severe recurrences or unrecognisable prodromes may be best managed with long-term suppressive antiviral prophylaxis. HSV is also responsible for a variety of other clinical manifestations, including herpetic whitlow, neonatal infection, disseminated and atypical cutaneous infections, traumatic herpes, eczema herpeticum, and HSV-associated erythema multiforme. HSV infection may also represent a complication following cosmetic procedures of the oro-facial region, surgical and dental interventions, sun exposure and burns. Precise treatment guidelines for these HSV infections are not firmly established. [less ▲]

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See detailLa critique historique: méthode ou théorie de l'histoire? Libres propos en faveur du constructivisme
Havelange, Carl ULg

in Réseaux : Revue Interdisciplinaire de Philosophie Morale et Politique (2002), 94-95-96

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See detailL'exclusion de la réassurance des règles européennes de conflits de juridictions en matière de contrats d'assurance
Boularbah, Hakim ULg

in Bulletin des Assurances = Tijdschrift voor Verzekeringen (2002)

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See detailLong-pulsed ruby laser-assisted hair removal in male-to-female transsexuals.
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Fumal, I.; Pierard, Claudine ULg et al

in Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology (2002), 1(1), 8-12

BACKGROUND: Unwanted male-pattern pilosity is a heavy psychological burden and can cause distress for male-to-female transsexuals. Orchidectomy and oestrogen supplementation combined with antiandrogens ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Unwanted male-pattern pilosity is a heavy psychological burden and can cause distress for male-to-female transsexuals. Orchidectomy and oestrogen supplementation combined with antiandrogens fail to make hair disappear. AIMS: To study the effect of long-pulsed ruby laser treatment. RESULTS: Hair density was successfully abated on the beard and chest of three male-to-female transsexuals. A lingering effect over 6 months with a 50-90% hair density reduction was obtained. CONCLUSION: Photothermolysis using the long-pulsed ruby laser is a promising, well-tolerated method of hair removal in male-to-female transsexuals under oestrogen supplementation and antiandrogens. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Une tumeur du cuir chevelu révélatrice d'une naevomatose basocellulaire.
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(4), 185-6

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See detailLa reconnaissance et le financement de la laïcité (II)
Husson, Jean-François ULg; Sägesser, Caroline

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2002), (1760), 3-52

This paper details the administrative organisation and financial support for the various organisations and services from the Belgian free thinkers, after an official recognition on a footing quite similar ... [more ▼]

This paper details the administrative organisation and financial support for the various organisations and services from the Belgian free thinkers, after an official recognition on a footing quite similar to the one of religious denominations. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurements Of The Horizontal Sprayer Boom Movements By Sensor Data Fusion
Ooms, David ULg; Lebeau, Frédéric ULg; Ruter, R. et al

in Computers and Electronics In Agriculture (2002), 33(2),

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See detailA multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Decroix, Jacques et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2002), 15(6), 434-41

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the ... [more ▼]

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the efficacy and safety of KET 2% and ZPT 1% in shampoo formulations for the alleviation of severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. This open randomized, parallel-group trial began with a 2-week run-in phase during which subjects applied a neutral non-antidandruff shampoo. It was followed by a 4-week randomized treatment phase and a subsequent 4-week follow-up phase without treatment. Shampooing during the treatment period was carried out twice weekly for the KET group and at least twice weekly for the ZPT group in accordance with the label instructions. A total of 343 subjects were recruited to enter the trial. Of the 331 eligible volunteers, 171 were randomized to KET 2% and 160 to ZPT 1%. Clinical assessments were performed. Beneficial effects were evidenced for both medicated shampoos, but the effect was significantly better for KET 2%, which achieved a 73% improvement in the total dandruff severity score compared with 67% for ZPT 1% at week 4 (p < 0.02). The recurrence rate of the disease was also significantly lower following KET 2% treatment than following ZPT 1% treatment. As a consequence, the overall clearing of the skin condition at the end of treatment and follow-up phase was in favor of the KET 2% formulation (p = 0.004). Side effects were minimal. It is concluded that after a 4-week treatment, KET 2% shampoo was significantly superior to ZPT 1% shampoo in the treatment of subjects with severe dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. It is our assumption that this difference is noticeable for the patient and as a consequence relevant. Both formulations were well tolerated. [less ▲]

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See detailRate coefficient determination in charge transfer reactions
Vaeck, Nathalie; Baloïtcha, Ezinvy; Desouter, Michèle ULg et al

in International Journal of Molecular Sciences (2002), 3

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See detailMechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves
Cambier, Carole ULg; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (2002), 33

The study was carried out on healthy Friesian calves (n = 10) aged between 10 and 30 days. Hypochloremia and alkalosis were induced by intravenous administration of furosemide and isotonic sodium ... [more ▼]

The study was carried out on healthy Friesian calves (n = 10) aged between 10 and 30 days. Hypochloremia and alkalosis were induced by intravenous administration of furosemide and isotonic sodium bicarbonate. The venous and arterial blood samples were collected repeatedly. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), hemoglobin and plasmatic chloride concentrations were determined. The red blood cell chloride concentration was also calculated. pH, PCO2 and PO2 were measured in arterial and mixed venous blood. The oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured in standard conditions. The correspondence of the OEC to the arterial and mixed venous compartments was calculated, taking blood temperature, pH and PCO2 values into account. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), corresponding to the degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and mixed venous compartments and the amount of oxygen released at the tissue level by 100 mL of blood (OEF Vol%) were calculated from the arterial and mixed venous OEC, combined with PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. Oxygen delivery (DO2) was calculated using the arterial oxygen content, the cardiac output measured by thermodilution, and the body weight of the animal. The oxygen consumption (VO2) was derived from the cardiac output, OEF Vol% and body weight values. Despite the plasma hypochloremia, the erythrocyte chloride concentration was not influenced by furosemide and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Due to the alkalosis-induced increase in the 2,3-DPG, the standard OEC was shifted to the right, allowing oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin more rapidly. These changes opposed the increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen induced by alkalosis. Moreover, respiratory acidosis, hemoconcentration, and the slight decrease in the partial oxygen pressure in mixed venous blood (Pvo(2)) tended to improve the OEF Vol% and maintain the oxygen consumption in a physiological range while the cardiac output, and the oxygen delivery were significantly decreased. It may be concluded that, despite reduced oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption is maintained during experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in healthy 10-30 day old calves [less ▲]

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See detailCollision-induced dissociation of 16-mer DNA duplexes with various sequences: evidence for conservation of the double helix conformation in the gas phase
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in International Journal of Mass Spectrometry (2002), 219(1), 151-159

The MS/MS of 11 different 16-mer non-self-complementary DNA duplexes with various sequences has been under-taken with a quadrupole-TOF hybrid instrument, The comparison of the dissociation yields for ... [more ▼]

The MS/MS of 11 different 16-mer non-self-complementary DNA duplexes with various sequences has been under-taken with a quadrupole-TOF hybrid instrument, The comparison of the dissociation yields for complexes having different amounts of GC base pairs, though complicated by side-reactions like single-strand fragmentation, confirms the effect of the number of GC base pairs. More importantly, for complexes containing the same fraction of GC and different base sequences, the fragmentation yield remarkably parallels the DeltaH(diss) in solution calculated by a nearest-neighbor model for B-DNA. In addition to specific hydrogen bonding interactions, base stacking interactions also seem to survive in the gas phase and the conformation is conserved in the gas phase. Moreover, we have studied the uneven partition of the negative charges between the single strands, which was found to be directed by the nature of the terminal bases exclusively, and correlated with the gas-phase acidities of the (sugar-phosphate-sugar-base) species. [less ▲]

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See detailSimultaneous mining of linkage and linkage disequilibrium to fine map quantitative trait loci in outbred half-sib pedigrees: Revisiting the location of a quantitative trait locus with major effect on milk production on bovine chromosome 14
Farnir, Frédéric ULg; Grisart, B.; Coppieters, Wouter ULg et al

in Genetics (2002), 161(1), 275-287

A maximum-likelihood QTL mapping method that simultaneously exploits linkage and linkage disequilibrium and that is applicable in outbred half-sib pedigrees is described. The method is applied to fine map ... [more ▼]

A maximum-likelihood QTL mapping method that simultaneously exploits linkage and linkage disequilibrium and that is applicable in outbred half-sib pedigrees is described. The method is applied to fine map a QTL with major effect on milk fat content in a 3-cM marker interval on proximal BTA14. This proximal location is confirmed by applying a haplotype-based association method referred to as recombinant ancestral haplotype analysis. The origin of the discrepancy between the QTL position derived in this work and that of a previous analysis is examined and shown to be due to the existence of distinct marker haplotypes associated with QTL alleles having large substitution effects. [less ▲]

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See detailMons/Maisières : nouvelle occupation paléolithique au site de Maisières-Canal
Miller, Rebecca ULg; Guillaume, Alain; Otte, Marcel ULg

in Chronique de l'Archéologie Wallonne (2002), 10

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See detailEffect of prenatal androgen receptor antagonist or aromatase inhibitor on the differentiation of neuronal Fos responses to estrous female pheromones in the rat accessory olfactory system
Dominguez, Emilio; Portillo, Wendy; Baum, Michael J et al

in Physiology & Behavior (2002), 75

Many socially relevant odors are detected in rodent species by the vomeronasal organ and subsequently processed by the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We previously found that gonadectomized male and ... [more ▼]

Many socially relevant odors are detected in rodent species by the vomeronasal organ and subsequently processed by the accessory olfactory system (AOS). We previously found that gonadectomized male and female rats treated in adulthood with testosterone propionate (TP) showed equivalent Fos responses in the AOS to odors derived from estrous females. Likewise, in contrast with numerous other mammalian species, gonadectomized female rats show surprisingly high levels of male-typical mounting behavior in response to adult TP. We tested the hypothesis that prenatal testosterone (T) exposure, acting via androgen receptors (ARs) or via estrogen receptors, masculinizes the AOS in rats of both sexes. Pregnant dams were treated with either the AR blocker, Flutamide, the aromatase inhibitor, 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD), or nothing (control) to assess the role of prenatal androgen and estradiol receptor activation, respectively, in this masculinization. Beginning at birth, male and female offspring were injected subcutaneously (sc) every other day with either ATD (pre- and neonatal ATD group) or oil vehicle (Flutamide and control groups) until postnatal Day 12. Subjects were gonadectomized as adults, hormonally treated and tested for different behaviors before having their AOS Fos responses to estrous female odors assessed. Prenatal treatment with Flutamide (but not ATD) significantly decreased anogenital distance and severely impaired intromissive and ejaculatory behaviors in males tested after TP replacement without disrupting mounting capacity in either sex. Pre- and neonatal treatment with ATD (but not Flutamide) enhanced lordosis responsiveness in males tested after sc injections of estradiol and progesterone, whereas these perinatal treatments had no effect on any aspect of masculine coital performance in either sex. After TP treatment, male and female control subjects preferred to approach a tethered stimulus female as opposed to a male, and prenatal Flutamide or perinatal ATD treatments did not modify this pattern of partner preference. Neuronal Fos responses to estrous odors were (as in previous studies) identical in the AOS of gonadectomized TP-treated control males and females. Prenatal Flutamide or perinatal ATD treatments failed to disrupt consistently this profile of Fos responses to estrous odors in the AOS of rats of either sex. These behavioral and neuroanatomical findings raise the possibility that the similar level of male-typical responsiveness to social odors that occurs in male and female rats after adult TP treatment results from nonsteroid-hormone-dependent, species-specific factors that act perinatally in the brains of rats of both sexes. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil Seed Bank And Seed Dormancy In Wild Populations Of Lima Bean (Fabaceae): Considerations For In Situ And Ex Situ Conservation
Degreef, J.; Rocha, O.; Vanderborght, T. et al

in American Journal of Botany (2002), 89(10), 1644-1650

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See detailEnergy Partitioning Between Latent And Sensible Heat Flux During The Warm Season At Fluxnet Sites
Wilson, Kell B.; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Aubinet, Marc ULg et al

in Water Resources Research (2002), 38(12),

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See detailJuvenile acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance.
Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Hermanns, Jean-François ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Pediatric Dermatology (2002), 19(1), 12-4

Acanthosis nigricans in obese adolescents is frequently associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. We report three cases of this condition. In the early stage the skin lesions appeared to be ... [more ▼]

Acanthosis nigricans in obese adolescents is frequently associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. We report three cases of this condition. In the early stage the skin lesions appeared to be erythematous and pruritic, mimicking an inflammatory dermatitis. Dietary control and oral metformin hydrochloride markedly improved the lesions. Topical calcipotriol may also help to control the skin condition. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms of cell death in the injured auditory system: Otoprotective strategies
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Lallemend, François et al

in Audiology & Neuro-otology (2002), 7(3, May-Jun), 165-170

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells ... [more ▼]

Oxidative stress insults such as neurotrophin withdrawal, sound trauma, hypoxia/ischemia, ototoxic antibiotics, and chemotherapeutic agents have been shown to induce apoptosis of both auditory hair cells and neurons. In this paper, we review some components of the apoptotic pathways leading to the death of hair cells and auditory induced by growth factor withdrawal or cisplatin intoxication: (1) reactive oxygen species and free radicals are formed as by-products of several metabolic pathways and these molecules can themselves cause cell damage by reacting with cellular proteins; (2) activation of caspases, and (3) activation of calpain. These mechanisms have several different points at which inhibitors could be targeted to protect cells from programmed cell death, including the prevention of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and the activation of caspases and calpains. Copyright (C) 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel. [less ▲]

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See detailSulle "mostre" d'organo bergamasche di una grande dinastia di organari del Rinascimento padano: appunti di uno storico dell'arte
Bugini, Mariaelena ULg

in Atti dell'Ateneo di Scienze, Lettere et Arti di Bergamo (2002), a.a 2001/2002

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See detailModellierung von Faserbett-Koaleszenzabscheidern
Speth, H; Pfennig, Andreas ULg; Chatterjee, M et al

in Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2002), 74(3), 266-270

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See detailMembrane Destabilization Induced By Beta-Amyloid Peptide 29-42: Importance Of The Amino-Terminus
Mingeot-Leclercq, Mp.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Bensliman, M. et al

in Chemistry and Physics of Lipids (2002), 120(1-2), 57-74

Increasing evidence implicates interactions between Abeta-peptides and membrane lipids in Alzheimer's disease. To gain insight into the potential role of the free amino group of the N-terminus of Abeta29 ... [more ▼]

Increasing evidence implicates interactions between Abeta-peptides and membrane lipids in Alzheimer's disease. To gain insight into the potential role of the free amino group of the N-terminus of Abeta29-42 fragment in these processes, we have investigated the ability of Abeta29-42 unprotected and Abeta29-42 N-protected to interact with negatively-charged liposomes and have calculated the interaction with membrane lipids by conformational analysis. Using vesicles mimicking the composition of neuronal membranes, we show that both peptides have a similar capacity to induce membrane fusion and permeabilization. The fusogenic effect is related to the appearance of non-bilayer structures where isotropic motions occur as shown by 31P and 2H NMR studies. The molecular modeling calculations confirm the experimental observations and suggest that lipid destabilization could be due to the ability of both peptides to adopt metastable positions in the presence of lipids. In conclusion, the presence of a free or protected (acetylated) amino group in the N-terminus of Abeta29-42 is therefore probably not crucial for destabilizing properties of the C-terminal fragment of Abeta peptides. [less ▲]

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See detailRandomized controlled study of the influence of two low estrogen dose oral contraceptives containing gestodene or desogestrel on carbohydrate metabolism.
Ludicke, Frank; Gaspard, Ulysse ULg; Demeyer, Fabienne ULg et al

in Contraception (2002), 66(6), 411-5

This study compared the impact on carbohydrate metabolism of two combinedoral contraceptives (COCs). This open-label, single-center trial enrolled participants for a total of 15 cycles. Thirty-six women ... [more ▼]

This study compared the impact on carbohydrate metabolism of two combinedoral contraceptives (COCs). This open-label, single-center trial enrolled participants for a total of 15 cycles. Thirty-six women were randomized to receive either 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 75 microg gestodene (GSD) or 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 150 microg desogestrel (DSG) daily for 21 days out of 28. A glucose tolerance test was performed at baseline and cycles 6 and 13. The area under the curve (AUC) for glucose increased in both study groups. The change was statistically significant (p = 0.036) for the 20 EE/75 GSD group at cycle 6 versus baseline. Fasting blood glucose at cycle 13 was significantly (p < 0.01) higher for both treatment groups compared to baseline. No changes were found for fasting insulin and fasting C-peptide levels or for the AUCs of insulin or C-peptide. Both regimens were well tolerated. Gestodene and desogestrel in combination with 20-microg ethinyl estradiol induce similar changes in carbohydrate metabolism which are smaller than those described earlier for COCs containing higher estrogen doses or more androgenic progestins such as levonorgestrel. [less ▲]

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See detailSugli strumenti musicali intagliati ed intarsiati del Rinascimento bresciano: note a margine di uno storico dell'arte
Bugini, Mariaelena ULg

in Saggi e memorie di storia dell'arte. Rivista della Fondazione Giorgio Cini di Venezia (2002)

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See detailFirst-principles computation of material properties: the ABINIT software project
Gonze, X.; Beuken, J. M.; Caracas, R. et al

in Computational Materials Science (2002), 25(3), 478-492

The density functional theory (DFT) computation of electronic structure, total energy and other properties of materials, is a field in constant progress. In order to stay at the forefront of knowledge, a ... [more ▼]

The density functional theory (DFT) computation of electronic structure, total energy and other properties of materials, is a field in constant progress. In order to stay at the forefront of knowledge, a DFT software project can benefit enormously from widespread collaboration, if handled properly. Also, modern software engineering concepts can considerably ease its development. The ABINIT project relies upon these ideas: freedom of sources, reliability, portability, and self-documentation are emphasised, in the development of a sophisticated plane-wave pseudopotential code. We describe ABINITv3.0, distributed under the GNU General Public License. The list of ABINITv3.0 capabilities is presented, as well as the different software techniques that have been used until now: PERL scripts and CPP directives treat a unique set of FORTRAN90 source files to generate sequential (or parallel) object code for many different platforms; more than 200 automated tests secure existing capabilities; strict coding rules are followed; the documentation is extensive, including online help files, tutorials, and HTML-formatted sources. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes contes de Grimm: présentation de quelques inconnus en français qui témoignent de l'entrée des Contes de l'Enfance et du Foyer dans la littérature de jeunesse
Delbrassine, Daniel ULg

in Cahiers du CLPCF (2002), 2

Présentation et traduction de contes retranchés dans le recueil des Grimm

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See detailNitrosomonas europaea-like bacteria detected as the dominant beta-subclass Proteobacteria ammonia oxidisers in reference and limed acid forest soils
Carnol, Monique ULg; Kowalchuk, G. A.; De Boer, W.

in Soil Biology & Biochemistry (2002), 34

Net nitrification in intact soil cores and the community of ammonia-oxidising bacteria were studied in acid Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Lieb.)) soils ... [more ▼]

Net nitrification in intact soil cores and the community of ammonia-oxidising bacteria were studied in acid Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt. Lieb.)) soils (Haute Ardenne, east Belgium) 18 months after treatment with 5 t ha(-1) dolomite lime. Liming caused a significant increase in nitrification in the upper soil layers (0.15 m) of both stands. DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) profiling after P-subclass ammonia oxidiser-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), combined with hybridisation and sequencing of excised DGGE bands revealed a dominance of Nitrosomonas europaea-like sequences, independent of soil horizon, tree species and lime treatment. A minority Nitrosospira-like population was detected, which showed affinity to nitrosospiras previously detected in acid soil. These results contrast with several reports suggesting a dominance of Nitrosospira-like organisms among ammonia oxidiser communities in acid soils. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailHepatic insulin resistance in obese non-diabetic subjects and in type 2 diabetic patients.
Paquot, Nicolas ULg; Scheen, André ULg; Dirlewanger, Mirjam et al

in Obesity Research (2002), 10(3), 129-34

OBJECTIVE: Obese non-diabetic patients are characterized by an extra-hepatic insulin resistance. Whether obese patients also have decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity remains controversial. RESEARCH ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Obese non-diabetic patients are characterized by an extra-hepatic insulin resistance. Whether obese patients also have decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity remains controversial. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: To estimate their hepatic insulin sensitivity, we measured the rate of exogenous insulin infusion required to maintain mildly elevated glycemia in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, obese non-diabetic patients, and lean control subjects during constant infusions of somatostatin and physiological low-glucagon replacement infusions. To account for differences in insulin concentrations among the three groups of subjects, an additional protocol was also performed in healthy lean subjects with higher insulin infusion rates and exogenous dextrose infusion. RESULTS: The insulin infusion rate required to maintain glycemia at 8.5 mM was increased 4-fold in obese patients with type 2 diabetes and 1.5-fold in obese non-diabetic patients. The net endogenous glucose production (measured with 6,6-(2)H(2)-glucose) and total glucose output (measured with 2-(2)H(1)-glucose) were approximately 30% lower in the patients than in the lean subjects. Net endogenous glucose production and total glucose output were both markedly increased in both groups of obese patients compared with lean control subjects during hyperinsulinemia. DISCUSSION: Our data indicate that both obese non-diabetic and obese type 2 diabetic patients have a blunted suppressive action of insulin on glucose production, indicating hepatic and renal insulin resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro culture of immature embryos of Phaseolus polyanthus Greenm. and Phaseolus vulgaris L.
Toussaint, André ULg; Clément, F.; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Annual Report of the Bean Improvment Cooperative (2002), 45

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See detailFatty Acid Hydroperoxides Biotransformation By Potato Tuber Cell-Free Extracts
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Delcarte, J.; Jaziri, M. et al

in Journal of Plant Physiology (2002), 159(10),

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See detailChoice of probing site for estimation of carcass lean percentage in Piétrain pig using the real-time ultrasound
Youssao, A. K. L.; Verleyen, Vincent ULg; Michaux, Charles ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(4), 195-200

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See detailMicro-organismes pathogènes et viande : la traçabilité alliée de la sécurité.
Daube, Georges ULg

in Extrait du Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (2002), 1

Meat microbial contamination is frequent in relation to the multiple sources of contamination farm the farm to the fork. These potential hazards must be considered in term of real risk for the consumer ... [more ▼]

Meat microbial contamination is frequent in relation to the multiple sources of contamination farm the farm to the fork. These potential hazards must be considered in term of real risk for the consumer. Thus, each microbiological hazard must be c1assified by scientists by on going probability and by disease gravity. Belgium has developed a high quality surveillance system for the zoonotic agents along the meat production chain. Today, the authorities must make the adequate choices for prevention and communication about these risks. [less ▲]

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See detailA randomized comparison of the value of additional stenting after optimal balloon angioplasty for long coronary lesions: final results of the additional value of NIR stents for treatment of long coronary lesions (ADVANCE) study.
Serruys, Patrick W.; Foley, David P.; Suttorp, Martin Jan et al

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2002), 39(3), 393-9

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the clinical benefit of additional stent implantation after achieving an optimal result of balloon angioplasty (BA) in long coronary lesions (>20 mm). BACKGROUND: Long ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the clinical benefit of additional stent implantation after achieving an optimal result of balloon angioplasty (BA) in long coronary lesions (>20 mm). BACKGROUND: Long coronary lesions are associated with increased early complications and late restenosis after BA. Stenting improves the early outcome, but stent restenosis is also related to both lesion length and stent length. METHODS: A total of 437 patients with a single native lesion 20 to 50 mm in length were included and underwent BA, using long balloons matched to lesion length and vessel diameter (balloon/artery ratio 1.1) to achieve a diameter stenosis (DS) <30% by on-line quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). "Bail-out stenting" was performed for flow-limiting dissections or >50% DS. Patients in whom an optimal BA result was achieved were randomized to additional stenting (using NIR stents) or no stenting. The primary end point was freedom from major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at nine months, and core laboratory QCA was performed on serial angiograms. RESULTS: Bailout stenting was necessary in 149 patients (34%) and was associated with a significantly increased risk of peri-procedural infarction (p < 0.02). Among the 288 randomized patients, the mean lesion length was 27+/-9 mm, and the vessel diameter was 2.78+/-0.52 mm. The procedural success rate was 90% for the 143 patients assigned to BA alone (control group), as compared with 93% in the 145 patients assigned to additional stenting (stent group), which resulted in a superior early minimal lumen diameter (0.54 mm, p < 0.001) and led to reduced angiographic restenosis (27% vs. 42%, p = 0.022). Freedom from MACE at nine months was 77% in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of provisional stenting for long coronary lesions led to bailout stenting in one-third of patients, with a threefold increase in peri-procedural infarction. Additional stenting yielded a lower angiographic restenosis rate, but no reduction in MACE at nine months. [less ▲]

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See detailNeoliberaal literatuuronderzoek. Thomas Vaessens over zijn methode, lecturen en stijl
Spinoy, Erik ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Nederlandse Taal- en Letterkunde (2002), 118(3),

This article is a reaction to Thomans Vaessens defence of his book Circus Dubio & Schroom.

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See detailPositional candidate cloning of a QTL in dairy cattle: Identification of a missense mutation in the bovine DGAT1 gene with major effect on milk yield and composition
Grisart, B.; Coppieters, Wouter ULg; Farnir, Frédéric ULg et al

in Genome Research (2002), 12(2), 222-231

We recently mapped a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with a major effect on milk composition-particularly fat content-to the centromeric end of bovine chromosome 14. We subsequently exploited linkage ... [more ▼]

We recently mapped a quantitative trait locus (QTL) with a major effect on milk composition-particularly fat content-to the centromeric end of bovine chromosome 14. We subsequently exploited linkage disequilibrium to refine the map position of this QTL to a 3-cM chromosome interval bounded by microsatellite markers BULGE13 and BULGE09. We herein report the positional candidate cloning of this QTL, involving (I) the construction of a BAC contig spanning the corresponding marker interval, (2) the demonstration that a very strong candidate gene, acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGATf), maps to that contig, and (3) the identification of a nonconservative K232A substitution in the DGAT1 gene with a major effect on milk fat content and other milk characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailDéminéralisation et ostéoporose: une confusion sémantique
Kaiser, Marie-Joëlle ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 274-279

Osteoporosis is the most frequent demineralizing disease. However, when a demineralized vertebra is identified, other diseases must be ruled out in the course of diagnosis. Through three clinical cases ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis is the most frequent demineralizing disease. However, when a demineralized vertebra is identified, other diseases must be ruled out in the course of diagnosis. Through three clinical cases, we analyze pitfalls that have delayed the diagnosis of one rare, but unfortunately lethal, aetiology: multiple myeloma. [less ▲]

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