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See detailThe holodisc distance transform and its applications in image analysis
Pirard, Eric ULg

in Microscopy, Microanalysis, Microstructures (1996), 7

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See detailLe Rohypnol, une drogue dure amnésiante : résultats d'une recherche en médecine de famille
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in Psychotropes : Revue Internationale des Toxicomanies et des Addictions (1996), 2(2), 53-66

Objectifs : Etudier le profil de l'usage de médicaments chez les toxicomanes à l'héroïne Sujets et méthodes : 89 héroïnomanes, enrôlés dans un programme de maintenance par la méthadone en médecine de ... [more ▼]

Objectifs : Etudier le profil de l'usage de médicaments chez les toxicomanes à l'héroïne Sujets et méthodes : 89 héroïnomanes, enrôlés dans un programme de maintenance par la méthadone en médecine de famille, ont fait l'objet d'une enquête. Les patients pharmacophiles et leurs préférences ont été identifiés par questionnaire. L'enregistrement d'interviews face à face semistructurés a permis de mettre en évidence le profil de 56 patients ainsi que le tableau clinique résultant de l'abus de médicament. Une revue bibliographique et une investigations auprès de praticiens de différents pays renforcent l'étude. Résultats : 60%(53/89) des consultants ont abusé de médicaments au moins une fois. Le Rohypnol™ (Flunitrazépam), un hypnotique puissant, est placé en premier choix comme succédané de l'héroïne par 66% de ces utilisateurs abusifs. " Etre en Roche " est une expression utilisée par les toxicomanes euxmêmes pour désigner le tableau clinique consécutif à la prise diurne d'un ou plusieurs (jusqu'à 30 c à 2mg par jour) comprimés de Rohypnol™, associé ou non à l'alcool. Un comprimé de Rohypnol™est appelé un " Roche " et un utilisateur compulsif un " Rocheman ". Le tableau clinique est caractérisé par un état d'obnubilation ( « Etre ravagé, pété, mort »), une dysarthrie, une sensation d'invincibilité, une perte d'inhibition avec possible passage à l'acte et agression suivis d'endormissement et d'amnésie antérograde totale. L'information concernant la dangerosité de ce produit n'a pas été diffusée . Le Rohypnol™ est une drogue de rue dans tous les pays étudiés. Conclusions : Le Rohypnol™ est une drogue dure, succédané de l'héroïne et un amnésiant puissant. Ce produit est dangereux par son pouvoir amnésiant et désinhibant. Ce produit n'a plus de place en thérapeutique. [less ▲]

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See detailActualités thérapeutiques dans la thrombocytémie essentielle
Hermanne, J.-P.; Tassin, F.; Beguin, Yves ULg et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (1996), 54

Essential thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disorder affecting megakaryocyte and is characterized by frequent thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications. In young patients, the optimal management of ... [more ▼]

Essential thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disorder affecting megakaryocyte and is characterized by frequent thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications. In young patients, the optimal management of thrombocythaemia is controversial. Since th relationship of thrombosis and hemorrhage to platelet counts is not demonstrated, ther is no clear inidcation for using drugs capable of lowering platelet counts in young asymptomatic subjects. However, treatment should be offered to patients with a definite high risk of major or life-threatening hemostatic complications. The present paper reviews the incidence and risk factors for thrombotic complications and the use of medications inhibiting platelet production. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in gene expression in the leaf of Lolium temulentum L. Ceres during the photoperiodic induction of flowering
Périlleux, Claire ULg; Ongena, Philippe; Bernier, Georges ULg

in Planta (1996), 200(1), 32-40

Unifoliated plants of Lolium temulentum L. Ceres were induced to flower by a unique 24-h long day (LD) consisting of the extension of the regular 8-h short day (SD) (400 µmol photons·m-2·s-1, fluorescence ... [more ▼]

Unifoliated plants of Lolium temulentum L. Ceres were induced to flower by a unique 24-h long day (LD) consisting of the extension of the regular 8-h short day (SD) (400 µmol photons·m-2·s-1, fluorescence + incandescence) with incandescence at 10–15 µmol photonsm -2·s-1. The polyadenylated-RNA complement of leaf blade tissues was analysed at 4-h intervals during the photoperiod extension in LD vs. SD, by using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to resolve in-vitro-translated products. Of the 991 spots that were analysed, none appeared or disappeared during the inductive cycle, i.e. no qualitative effect of floral induction was detected, at any time. Sixty-eight spots were found whose intensity was influenced by lengthening of the photoperiod; 50 of them, i.e. ca. 5 of the population analysed, were affected before the end of the extension period and were thus potentially related to floral induction. Many of these RNAs were not quantitatively constant during a 24-h cycle in SD. Seven of them oscillated according to the ‘light-on’ and the ‘light-off’ signals, among which three seemed to be controlled by phytochrome since their relative amount increased under the standard light conditions but decreased under incandescence even faster than in darkness. The large majority of other RNAs varied with a timing that was not clearly driven by the alternation of light and darkness, indicating that genes related to the biological clock may be especially sensitive to the lengthening of the photoperiod. Furthermore, seven spots were observed that underwent a phase-shift in LD, which consisted, for six of them, of a phase advance of 4–8 h. The steady-state level of CAB mRNA was analysed because the CAB gene family (encoding the chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins of the light-harvesting complexes) is known to be controlled both by the biological clock and phytochrome. In SD, the level was high in the light and low in darkness; the fluctuation was conducted by a circadian rhythm. When plants were exposed to the inductive LD, the peak of mRNA accumulation that was expected according to the endogenous rhythmicity was abolished, possibly because of the change in light quality during the LD extension. [less ▲]

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See detailPrognostic Significance of bcl-2 Protein Expression in Aggressive Non-Hodkin's Lymphoma
Hermine, Olivier; Haioun, Corinne; Lepage, Eric et al

in Blood (1996)

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See detailLes infections utérines dans l’espèce bovine : 2. Thérapeutiques anti-infectieuses et hormonales
Hanzen, Christian ULg; Houtain, J. Y.; Laurent, Y.

in Point Vétérinaire (1996), 28(numéro spécial), 1019-1025

The choice of an antibiotic or antiseptic treatment must take into account, the administrative route, the individual factors (nature of symptoms, stage postpartum, stage in the cycle) and the agents used ... [more ▼]

The choice of an antibiotic or antiseptic treatment must take into account, the administrative route, the individual factors (nature of symptoms, stage postpartum, stage in the cycle) and the agents used (nature of germs, minimal inhibiting concentration, pharmacological properties, milk residue). Hormonal treatment is an interesting alternative, which must be considered on an individual basis rather than systematically at herd level. For prevention, it should only be used on animals presenting a high risk factor of infection [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la fiabilité d'un nouvel analyseur de lactate portable chez le cheval
Meynie, J.; Art, Tatiana ULg; Olaerts, J. et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (1996), 28(1), 37-40

A new portable lactate analyzer has been tested for its accuracy and reproducibility. Venous blood has been sampled on 12 horses while they were performing a treadmill exercise. A total of 134 samples ... [more ▼]

A new portable lactate analyzer has been tested for its accuracy and reproducibility. Venous blood has been sampled on 12 horses while they were performing a treadmill exercise. A total of 134 samples were obtained and analyzed either with the portable analyzer or with a reference method. The packed cell volume has been also determined for each sample. The results obtained with both methods were compared : the correlation between the two sets of data was satisfactory ((R2 = 0,86) but higher when the PCV was lower or equal to 55 % (R2 = 0,88). It was concluded that the portable analyzer is reliable for lactate determination in horses [less ▲]

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See detailA simple technique to relieve Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Acarophenax tribolii (Acarina: Pyemotidae).
Arnaud, Ludovic; Mignon, Jacques ULg; Gilson, Jean-Claude et al

in Tribolium Information Bulletin (1996), 36

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See detailSeasonal temperature and salinity fields in the Mediterranean Sea: Climatological analyses of a historical data set
Brasseur, P.; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Brankart, J. M. et al

in Deep-Sea Research Part I, Oceanographic Research Papers (1996), 43(2), 159-192

Climatological analyses of a historical data base have been carried out with the aim of reconstructing the three-dimensional temperature and salinity fields in the Mediterranean Sea. Seasonal and monthly ... [more ▼]

Climatological analyses of a historical data base have been carried out with the aim of reconstructing the three-dimensional temperature and salinity fields in the Mediterranean Sea. Seasonal and monthly distributions of hydrographic properties have been computed by a variational inverse method as an alternate to the standard Gandin (1969; Objective analysis of meterological fields, Israeli Program for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem) procedure. The spline solutions of the minimization problem are demonstrated to be numerically and theoretically equivalent to field estimates obtained by conventional objective analysis. The application of a finite-element technique allows analysis to be performed in the model space rather than in the observational space, which substantially improves the numerical efficiency of the procedure. The parameters of the scheme are adjusted according to the statistics of the climatological data. The results,realized as gridded data sets (horizontal resolution of 0.25 degrees), show some trends in seasonal variability affecting the properties of water masses. As expected, the upper layer is subject to a well-defined seasonal signal affecting both the temperature and salinity fields. Error maps, reflecting the degree of uncertainty in the analyses, have been systematically produced. The present work is conceived as a basic support to more advanced studies such as diagnostic calculations, initialization of dynamical models, assimilation of hydrological data into primitive equation models, or planning of experimental surveys. New versions of the climatological fields will be released as data are added to the historical data base. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailChromosomal location of fifteen unique mouse KRAB-containing zinc finger loci
Marine, J. C.; Gilbert, D. J.; Bellefroid, Eric J. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1996), 7(6), 413-6

The mammalian genome contains hundreds if not thousands of zinc finger protein (Zfp) genes. While the function of most of these genes remains to be determined, it is clear that a few of them play ... [more ▼]

The mammalian genome contains hundreds if not thousands of zinc finger protein (Zfp) genes. While the function of most of these genes remains to be determined, it is clear that a few of them play important roles in gene regulation and development. In studies described here, we have used an interspecific mouse backcross mapping panel to determine the chromosomal location of 15 KRAB-containing zinc finger loci. These loci map to nine different mouse autosomes and the X Chromosome (Chr). Two Chrs, 7 and 9, contain cosegregating pairs of KRAB-containing Zfp genes, indicating that the KRAB-containing Zfp genes have evolved through processes involving regional as well as genome-wide duplication events. [less ▲]

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See detailBiogeography and taxonomy of Apodemus sylvaticus (the woodmouse) in the Tyrrhenian region: Enzymatic variations and mitochondrial DNA restriction pattern analysis
Michaux, Johan ULg; Filippucci, M. G.; Libois, Roland ULg et al

in Heredity (1996), 76(Part 3), 267-277

In the western Mediterranean area, the taxonomic status of the various forms of Apodemus sylvaticus is quite unclear. Moreover, though anthropogenic, the origins of the island populations remain unknown ... [more ▼]

In the western Mediterranean area, the taxonomic status of the various forms of Apodemus sylvaticus is quite unclear. Moreover, though anthropogenic, the origins of the island populations remain unknown in geographical terms. In order to examine the level of genetic relatedness of insular and continental woodmice, 258 animals were caught in 24 localities distributed in Belgium, France, mainland Italy, Sardinia, Corsica and Elba. Electrophoresis of 33 allozymes and mtDNA restriction fragments were performed and a UPGMA dendrogram built from the indices of genetic divergence. The dendrogram based on restriction patterns shows two main groups: 'Tyrrhenian', comprising all the Italian and Corsican animals and 'North-western', corresponding to all the other mice trapped from the Pyrenees to Belgium. Since all the Tyrrhenian mice are similar and well isolated from their relatives living on the western edge of the Alpine chain, they must share a common origin. The insular populations are consequently derived from peninsular Italian ones. From a taxonomic point of view and taking the priority rules into account, we have to invalidate A. s. clanceyi Harrison, 1948 and to consider the Tyrrhenian woodmice as belonging to A. s. milleri de Beaux, 1926, whereas the North-western ones must be referred to as the nominal subspecies. As far as the Elban woodmouse is concerned, at the moment we prefer to keep its present subspecific status because we only studied one animal. [less ▲]

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See detailDissociation of increases in plasma insulin-like growth factor I and testosterone during the onset of puberty in bulls
Renaville, Robert ULg; Massart, Serge; Sneyers, M. et al

in Journal of Reproduction and Fertility (1996), 106(1), 79-86

The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between plasma concentrations of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) during puberty, in male ... [more ▼]

The present study was conducted to examine the relationship between plasma concentrations of testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) during puberty, in male calves treated with GnRH or testosterone propionate. Twelve male Holstein calves (10 weeks old) were assigned to the control group (n = 6), the GnRH-treated group (n = 3) or the testosterone-treated group (n = 3). For 8 weeks, the GnRH-treated group received a single i.v. injection of GnRH (0.5 mu g kg(-1) body mass) each day while the testosterone-treated group received an i.m. injection of testosterone propionate (0.5 mg kg(-1) body mass) twice a day. The calves were studied until they were 200 days old. Hormone treatments were stopped one month after puberty was reached in the control group. Blood samples were collected every 30 min for 8 h every third day. Hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Western ligand blotting and immunoblotting, using monoclonal antibodies against IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3, were used to characterize the IGF-binding proteins. In the control group, puberty occurred at about 120 days of age and was associated with an increase in concentrations of testosterone, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and a decrease in concentration of IGFBP-2. In the GnRH-treated group, plasma testosterone remained low until 8 weeks after establishment of puberty in the control group (4 weeks after the end of treatment). In the testosterone-treated group, testosterone was high during the treatment period and then decreased to prepubertal values when treatment was stopped. Testosterone values increased again to reach postpubertal values 5 weeks after the end of hormone treatment. Nevertheless, independent of testosterone status, the profile of IGF-I and the IGFBPs in the GnRH- and testosterone-treated groups were parallel to that reported for the control group with the transition from prepubertal to adult values at about 120 days of age. In conclusion, concentrations of testosterone, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 increase together, but probably independently, during the onset of puberty in male calves. [less ▲]

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See detailL’éducation géographique. Pour une vision citoyenne du monde
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Géographes Associés (1996), (19), 65-69

Brief reflection on the place of the teaching of geography in education for citizenship

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See detailOn the helminthofauna of wild mammals (Rodentia, Insectivora ans Lagomorpha) in Azores archipelago (Portugal)
Casanova, J. C.; Miquel, Jordi; Fons, Roger et al

in Vie et milieu (1996), 46(3-4), 253-259

The faunistic and ecological study of the helminthfaunas of mammals in Azorean islands is considered. 103 rodents (Rattus rattus L., 1758 and Mus musculus L., 1758) 9 insectivores (Erinaceus europaeus L ... [more ▼]

The faunistic and ecological study of the helminthfaunas of mammals in Azorean islands is considered. 103 rodents (Rattus rattus L., 1758 and Mus musculus L., 1758) 9 insectivores (Erinaceus europaeus L., 1758) and 19 lagomorphs (Oryctolagus cuniculus L., 1758) were analysed. The hosts been captured in several biotopes of thre islands (São Miguel, Terceira and Flores). 27 helminth species were detected (3 Digenea Trematoda, 5 Cestoda, 18 Nematoda and 1 Acantocephala). All hosts species show high prevalences and no significant differences were found between different islands. The helminthfaunas show typical features of a young island parasitofaunas. [less ▲]

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See detailCase management voor psychogeriatrishe patiënten: gezondheidstoestand van deze ouderen en de zorgbelasting van hun centrale verzorgers
Milisen, K.; Borgermans, L.; Dejace, Alain ULg et al

in Acta Hospitalia (1996), 4

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See detailMarginalia Vergiliana
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (1996), 114

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See detailFalls among the elderly: a community problem
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Gosset, Christiane ULg; Reginster-Haneuse, G.

in Archives of Public Health (1996), 54

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See detailEnzymes from psychrophilic organisms
Feller, Georges ULg; Narinx, E.; Arpigny, J. L. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Reviews (1996), 18(2-3), 189-202

Psychrophilic organisms such as micro-organisms and other ectothermic species living in polar, deep- sea or any constantly low temperature environments, produce enzymes adapted to function at low ... [more ▼]

Psychrophilic organisms such as micro-organisms and other ectothermic species living in polar, deep- sea or any constantly low temperature environments, produce enzymes adapted to function at low temperature. These enzymes are characterized by a high catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures but are rather thermolabile. Due to their high specific activity and their rapid inactivation at temperatures as low as 30 degrees C, they offer, along with the producing micro-organisms, a great potential in biotechnology. The molecular basis of the adaptation of cold cu-amylase, subtilisin, triose phosphate isomerase from Antarctic bacteria and of trypsin from fish living in North Atlantic and in Antarctic sea waters have been studied. The comparison of the 3D structures obtained either by protein modelling or by X-ray crystallography (North Atlantic trypsin) with those of their mesophilic counterparts indicates that the molecular changes tend to increase the flexibility of the structure by a weakening of the intramolecular interactions and by an increase of the interactions with the solvent. For each enzyme, the most appropriate strategy enabling it to accommodate the substrate at a low energy cost is selected. There is a price to pay in terms of thermosensibility because the selective pressure is essentially oriented towards the harmonization of the specific activity with ambient thermal conditions. However, as demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis experiments carried out on the Antarctic subtilisin, the possibility remains to stabilize the structure of these enzymes without affecting their high catalytic efficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailPratiques d'auto-formation : une enquête en communauté française de Belgique
Denis, Brigitte ULg

in Cahiers d'Etudes du C U E E P (1996), 32-33

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See detailDivorce et annulation du mariage simulé
Paris, Catherine ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (1996)

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See detailObesity in children. Environmental and genetic Aspects
Guillaume, Michèle ULg; Bjorntorp, P.

in Hormone and Metabolic Research. Supplement Series (1996), 28

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See detailRelationship between structural properties and affinity for herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase of bromine substituted 5-heteroaromatic 2'-deoxyuridines
Creuven, Isabelle; Evrard, Christine ULg; Olivier, Anne et al

in Antiviral Research (1996), 30

The crystal structures of 5-(5-furan-2-yl)-2'-deoxyuridine (II), 5-(5-bromofuran-2-yl)-2' deoxyuridine (IV) and 5-(3-bromothien-2-yl)-2'-deoxyuridine (V) have been studied in order to explain the ... [more ▼]

The crystal structures of 5-(5-furan-2-yl)-2'-deoxyuridine (II), 5-(5-bromofuran-2-yl)-2' deoxyuridine (IV) and 5-(3-bromothien-2-yl)-2'-deoxyuridine (V) have been studied in order to explain the different affinity of the compounds for the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) thymidine kinase. These compounds present a variable affinity according to the position of the heteroatom substituting the five-membered ring. An unfavourable substitution in the five-membered ring for interaction with the HSV-1 thymidine kinase has been identified. [less ▲]

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See detail"Le plus subtil ouvrir de monde" Godefroid de Huy,orfèvre mosan
George, Philippe ULg

in Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale (1996), XXXIX

http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/article/ccmed_0007-9731_1996_num_39_156_2659

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See detailA. Kastler (1902-1984)
Biémont, Emile ULg; Glansdorff, P.

in Bulletin de la Classe des Sciences. Académie Royale de Belgique (1996), 6e série(VII), 131-149

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See detailTheory of the thermal conductivity of metallic localized spin compounds in a magnetic field
Rassili, Ahmed ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Journal of Magnetism & Magnetic Materials (1996), 163(1-2), 153-163

We calculated the influence of a de magnetic field on the thermal conductivity of localized spin metallic systems as a function of temperature. A variational method was used. The influence of the joint ... [more ▼]

We calculated the influence of a de magnetic field on the thermal conductivity of localized spin metallic systems as a function of temperature. A variational method was used. The influence of the joint impurity and phonon scattering processes together with the localized spin influence is shown. Remarkable features are found at low temperature and near the critical transition. An increase of conductivity with field near T-C is discussed. It is also argued that a coherent effect due to the field is the cause of the thermal conductivity enhancement at low temperature. The magneto-thermal conductivity is shown at different temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dérivée schwarzienne
Bair, Jacques ULg; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

in Mathématique et Pédagogie (1996), 108

Dans cette note est introduit le concept de dérivée schwarzienne pour une fonction réelle univariée. Diverses propriétés et applications sont également proposées.

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See detail"Parce que je ne connais pas bien le grec..." (P. Col. Zen. II 66)
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Chronique d'Egypte : Bulletin Périodique de la Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth (1996), 71(142), 311-316

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See detailCharacterisation of structural determinants and molecular mechanisms involved in Stromelysin-3 activation by 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate and furin-type convertases.
Santavicca, M.; Noël, Agnès ULg; Stoll, I. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1996), 315

Stromelysin-3 (ST3) is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which has been implicated in cancer progression and in a number of conditions involving tissue remodelling. In contrast to other MMPs which are ... [more ▼]

Stromelysin-3 (ST3) is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) which has been implicated in cancer progression and in a number of conditions involving tissue remodelling. In contrast to other MMPs which are secreted as zymogens requiring extracellular activation, ST3 is found in the extracellular space as a potentially active mature form, suggesting that the activation of the ST3 proform differs from that of other MMPs. We show in the present study that the ST3 proform is not autocatalytically processed in the presence of 4-aminophenylmercuric acetate (APMA). By using ST3/ST2 chimeras, we demonstrate that resistance to APMA is due to properties associated with both the ST3 pro- and catalytic domains. In agreement with the observation made by Pei and Weiss [Pei and Weiss (1995) Nature (London) 375, 244-247], we find that the requirement for activation of the ST3 proform by the furin convertase is entirely contained within a stretch of 10 amino acids located at the junction between the ST3 pro- and catalytic domains. Furin cleaves human and mouse ST3 equally well. However, PACE-4, a furin-like convertase, is much more efficient on the mouse enzyme, suggesting that ST3 protein determinants other than the conserved Ala-Arg-Asn-Arg-Gln-Lys-Arg sequence preceding the furin cleavage site are implicated in PACE-4 action. Finally, we show that processing of the ST3 proform is inhibited by a furin inhibitor in human MCF7 breast cancer cells stably transfected to constitutively express a full-length human ST3 cDNA. Using brefeldin A, we demonstrate that, in these MCF7 cells, the 56 kDa precursor form of ST3 is post-translationally modified in the cis- or media-Golgi into a 62 kDa proform. Thereafter, its processing into the 47 kDa mature form occurs in the trans-Golgi network and is followed by secretion into the extracellular space. [less ▲]

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See detailLa négation bn ... iwnA en néo-égyptien
Winand, Jean ULg

in Lingua Aegyptia [= LingAeg] (1996), 5

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See detailLe diabete non insulinodependant: de la physiopathologie au traitement.
Scheen, André ULg; Lefebvre, Pierre ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1996), 151(7-9), 395-402402-5

Non-insulin-dependent (or type 2) diabetes mellitus is a common, underdiagnosed and growing disease in our society. It is responsible for increased morbidity and mortality and represents an important ... [more ▼]

Non-insulin-dependent (or type 2) diabetes mellitus is a common, underdiagnosed and growing disease in our society. It is responsible for increased morbidity and mortality and represents an important public health problem. This polygenic disease is often expressed late in life and its evolution is accelerated by environmental factors leading to obesity. It combines defects in both insulin secretion and insulin action, and such defects are present in various proportions according to the type of patient and the stage of the disease. Diet and physical activity recommendations are the basis of the treatment. Current pharmacological approaches aim at improving insulin secretion and/or insulin cellular action. After secondary failure to oral drugs, insulin therapy should be initiated, the patient becoming "insulin-requiring". A synergy should be searched in the combination of various therapeutic modalities in order to improve the glycaemic control. [less ▲]

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See detailModélisation en hydrogéologie - De modelisatie in de hydrogeologie
Dassargues, Alain ULg; Vander Velpen, B.; Vercruysse, J.

in BLUG Tijdschrift - Revue de l'UBLG (1996)

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See detailStromelysin-3 expression promotes tumor take in nude mice
Noël, Agnès ULg; Lefebvre, O.; Maquoi, Erik ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Investigation (1996), 97

Stromelysin-3 (ST3) is a matrix metalloproteinase expressed in human carcinomas in ways suggesting that it may play a role in tumor progression. To test this possibility, we have performed gene transfer ... [more ▼]

Stromelysin-3 (ST3) is a matrix metalloproteinase expressed in human carcinomas in ways suggesting that it may play a role in tumor progression. To test this possibility, we have performed gene transfer experiments using both anti-sense and sense ST3 expression vectors, and malignant cells either expressing (NIH 3T3 fibroblasts) or not (MCF7 epithelial cells) endogenous ST3. We have compared the ability of parental and transfected cells to cause subcutaneous tumor development in nude mice. 3T3 cells expressing anti-sense ST3 RNA showed reduced tumorigenicity, and MCF7 cells expressing mouse or human ST3 were associated with reduced tumor-free period leading to a significant increased tumor incidence(P<10(-4)). However, once established, the ST3 expressing tumors did not grow faster than those obtained with the parental MCF7 cell line. In addition, tumors obtained after sub-cutaneous injection of ST3-expressing or nonexpressing cells did not exhibit obvious histological differences, and careful examination did not reveal any local invasive tissue areas nor systemic metastases. These in vivo observations were in agreement with those obtained in vitro showing that ST3 expression did not modify proliferative nor invasive properties of transfected cells. Altogether, these results indicate that ST3 expression promotes tumor take in nude mice, presumably by favoring cancer cell survival in a tissue environment initially not permissive for tumor growth. These findings represent the first experimental evidence showing that ST3 can modulate cancer progression. [less ▲]

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See detailHacia una cartografía del boom. Una polémica en Zona Franca (ag.-dic.1972).
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in América. Cahiers du CRICCAL (1996), 15/16

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See detailAstroglia-released factor with negative allosteric modulatory properties at the GABA A receptor.
Rigo, Jean-Michel; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Coucke, Paul et al

in Biochemical Pharmacology (1996), 52(3), 465-473

We have previously shown, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, that astrocytes release a negative allosteric modulator of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA receptor) with beta ... [more ▼]

We have previously shown, using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques, that astrocytes release a negative allosteric modulator of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABAA receptor) with beta-carboline-like properties, thus, likely to act at the benzodiazepine site. Here, using patch-clamp and binding techniques, we confirm that the low-molecular-weight fraction of astroglia-conditioned medium (ACM lmf) contains a factor(s) that negatively modulates GABAA-receptor function. This factor, like beta-carbolines, enhances the specific binding of [35S]t-butyl bicyclophosphorothionate (TBPS) to adult rat cortical membranes in the presence of GABA. However, it fails to interact with various ligands of the benzodiazepine (BZD) site of the GABAA receptor ([3H]flunitrazepam, [3H]Ro 15-1788 and [3H]Ro 15-4513). The question of the actual binding site of the astroglia-derived factor on the GABAA receptor, thus, remains open and can be addressed only after the purification of the active molecule(s) of ACM Imf has been completed, and a labeled form of the endogenous ligand becomes available. Taken together, however, the data suggest that type 1 astrocytes are able to modulate the effects of the main inhibitory neurotransmission in the central nervous system. [less ▲]

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See detailAlpha-MSH stimulates neurite outgrowth of neonatal rat corticospinal neurons in vitro.
Joosten, E. A.; Verhaagh, S.; Martin, Didier ULg et al

in Brain Research (1996), 736(1-2), 91-8

Peptides related to melanocortin (alpha MSH) and corticotropin (ACTH), collectively termed melanocortins, exert trophic effects on the outgrowth of neurites from peripheral and central nervous system in ... [more ▼]

Peptides related to melanocortin (alpha MSH) and corticotropin (ACTH), collectively termed melanocortins, exert trophic effects on the outgrowth of neurites from peripheral and central nervous system in vitro. Here we study the neurite outgrowth promoting effect of alpha-MSH on corticospinal (CS) neurons in vitro. Corticospinal neurons were identified in cell culture of neonatal rat cortex by immunostaining of cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), retrogradely transported from the cervical parts of the spinal cord. The CTB-immunoreactive neurons represent a small percentage (3-5%) of the total cell population after 72 h in vitro. The axons or dendrites of cortical and CTB-labelled layer V neurons were visualized using antibodies against axon- or dendrite-specific markers and measured using a semi-automatic quantification device. Here we report that alpha-MSH stimulates axonal as well as dendrite outgrowth from both total and CTB-labelled neurons with a bell-shape response curve. Axonal outgrowth of CTB-labelled neurons was dose-dependently stimulated with a maximal effect of 50% at 10(-10) M alpha-MSH. The maximal effect for stimulation of axon outgrowth for the total cortex population was observed at 10(-8) M alpha-MSH. In addition dendrite outgrowth of both total and CTB-labelled neurons is stimulated in a dose-dependent manner with maximal effects (varying between 46 and 48%) at 10(-8) M alpha-MSH. Explanations in the shift for the optimal alpha-MSH concentration for stimulation of axonal outgrowth of CTB-labelled layer V neurons as compared to total cortex neurons are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPersistency of lactation yields: A review
Gengler, Nicolas ULg

in Interbull Bulletin (1996), 12

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See detailAutologous stem cell transplantations in elderly AML patients
Archimbaud, E.; Jehn, U.; De Cataldo, F. et al

in Trends in Onco-Hematology (1996), 4(2), 28-29

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See detailOdours identification in the environment by means of mathematical methods
Maternova, Jidrinska; Nicolas, Jacques ULg; Andre, Philippe ULg et al

in Odours & VOC's journal (1996), 1

The aim of the present paper is to test and compare some mathematical discrimination or pattern recognition methods in order to identify one among three air pollution sources.The basic material in this ... [more ▼]

The aim of the present paper is to test and compare some mathematical discrimination or pattern recognition methods in order to identify one among three air pollution sources.The basic material in this work are : - the standard gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis with concentrations values for different chemical compounds observed at about hundred sites in iron and steel industries : either coking plants, or cold rolling mills, or coil-coating plants. - the odours levels, measured by the method of dilution at the threshold. Generally speaking, coil-coating plants emit more chemical compounds than two others, however olfactive threshold is about the same in the three cases. Sums of compounds concentrations for different chemical families (e.g. alkanes, alcohol's, phenols, ...) are calculated and used for the mathematical treatments. Because the frequency histogram of the observed concentrations has a log normal distribution, logarithm of concentration is chosen as operating variable instead of concentration itself. The stepwise multiple linear regression is used in order to express the dilution factor at the olfactory perception threshold as a linear combination of the logarithm of concentrations. Results show that this factor can be estimated quite well on the basis of the concentrations of compounds belonging only to three chemical families. Nevertheless, these families differ following the emission source. To perform the optimal odour description of the three types of industrial plants a larger set of compounds families should be examined in a first step. Factor analysis is used with the aim of regrouping observed variables that are linked together in the plane of the first two factors. The representation of observation points is then superposed on this scheme. Some variable clusters are observed. The method, applied to the whole variables set, classes rather well the observations : the three emissions sources are well discriminated. Cluster analysis, discriminant analysis and neural network have also been used, but only with three variables common to all installations : concentrations of alkylbenzenes, polycyclic aromatics and alkanes. Cluster analysis is not a "supervised method". That means that it is free to create itself some groups showing similar behaviour with regard to the observed variables. Indeed, results show that cluster analysis does not allow to recognise the emission source. In discriminant analysis, target groups membership is provided for each set of variables values : it is a supervised method. The classification functions so deduced allow to discriminate quite well the three industrial plants and to predict the emission origin. A total of 87 % of the observations are correctly on the basis of the classification functions. Neural network approach, with backpropagation algorithm, is a so-called "pattern recognition technique" and is also a supervised method. It provides still better results than statistical ones. After the learning phase, the network is able to identify correctly 99.5 % of observations from 95.5 % the training set.The concentrations of compounds belonging to three chemical families, combined with a pattern recognition technique based either on discriminant analysis, or on neural network, prove to be efficient for recognising the source of odorous gaseous effluents. For the data set considered in this paper, the neural network exhibits better classification performances than discriminant analysis, but its learning phase is slower. However, applying one method or the other for further recognition of unknown patterns is quick and easy. [less ▲]

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See detailA Simple Model for the Fire Resistance of Axially Loaded Members - Comparison with experimental results
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg; schleich, Jean-Baptiste; Cajot, Louis-Guy et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (1996), 37

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See detailAlterations in the ultradian oscillations of insulin secretion and plasma glucose in aging.
Scheen, André ULg; Sturis, J.; Polonsky, K. S. et al

in Diabetologia (1996), 39(5), 564-72

Normal insulin secretion includes oscillations with a period length of 80-150 min which are tightly coupled to glucose oscillations of similar period. To determine whether normal aging is associated with ... [more ▼]

Normal insulin secretion includes oscillations with a period length of 80-150 min which are tightly coupled to glucose oscillations of similar period. To determine whether normal aging is associated with alterations in these ultradian oscillations, eight, modestly overweight, older men (65 +/- 5 years) and eight weight-matched young control subjects (25 +/- 4 years) were studied during 53 h of constant glucose infusion. Blood samples were collected every 20 min and insulin secretion rates were calculated by deconvolution. Ultradian oscillations of glucose and insulin secretion were evident in both groups. Pulse frequency was similar for glucose and insulin secretion, and was not affected by age. The absolute amplitude of the glucose oscillations was similar in both groups but their relative amplitude was slightly dampened in the older adults. Both the absolute and the relative amplitudes of insulin secretory oscillations were markedly reduced in the older subjects. The normal linear increase in the amplitude of insulin oscillations occurring with increasing amplitudes of glucose oscillations was still present in the older adults but analysis of covariance indicated that the slope was significantly lower than in the young control subjects (p < 0.0005), reflecting a decreased responsiveness of the beta cell to glucose changes. The temporal concordance between insulin and glucose oscillations, as estimated by pulse concomitancy and cross-correlation, was also lower in older subjects. The similarities between the alterations in the ultradian oscillations of insulin secretion and glucose in older healthy adults and those occurring in diabetic patients suggest that an impairment of beta-cell function may play a primary role in the deterioration of glucose tolerance in aging. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel family of developmentally regulated mammalian transcription factors containing the TEA/ATTS DNA binding domain
Jacquemin, Patrick; Hwang, Jung-Joo; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1996), 271(36), 21775-85

We describe the molecular cloning of two novel human and murine transcription factors containing the TEA/ATTS DNA binding domain and related to transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1). These factors ... [more ▼]

We describe the molecular cloning of two novel human and murine transcription factors containing the TEA/ATTS DNA binding domain and related to transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1). These factors bind to the consensus TEA/ATTS cognate binding site exemplified by the GT-IIC and Sph enhansons of the SV40 enhancer but differ in their ability to bind cooperatively to tandemly repeated sites. The human TEFs are differentially expressed in cultured cell lines and the mouse (m)TEFs are differentially expressed in embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues in early post-implantation embryos. Strikingly, at later stages of embryogenesis, mTEF-3 is specifically expressed in skeletal muscle precursors, whereas mTEF-1 is expressed not only in developing skeletal muscle but also in the myocardium. Together with previous data, these results point to important, partially redundant, roles for these TEF proteins in myogenesis and cardiogenesis. In addition, mTEF-1 is strongly coexpressed with mTEF-4 in mitotic neuroblasts, while accentuated mTEF-4 expression is also observed in the gut and the nephrogenic region of the kidney. These observations suggest additional roles for the TEF proteins in central nervous system development and organogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailChanges in breath 13CO2/12CO2 during exercise of different intensities.
Gautier, J. F.; Pirnay, Freddy ULg; Lacroix, M. et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1996), 81(3), 1096-102

The measurement of breath 13CO2/12CO2 is commonly used during exercise to evaluate the oxidation rate of exogenous carbohydrates enriched in 13C. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exercise ... [more ▼]

The measurement of breath 13CO2/12CO2 is commonly used during exercise to evaluate the oxidation rate of exogenous carbohydrates enriched in 13C. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exercise itself affects the 13C/12C ratio in expired air CO2 in relation to exercise intensity. The relative abundance of 13C and 12C in expired air CO2 was determined by isotoperatio mass spectrometry and expressed as delta 13C (in %o) by using Craig's formula and calibrated standards. Five healthy young men exercised on a treadmill after an overnight fast during > or = 105 min on four occasions and in a randomized order. Work rates were performed at approximately 30, 45, 60, and 75% of their maximal O2 uptake (VO2max). Delta 13C in expired air CO2 and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were determined every 15 or 30 min during exercise. At 30 and 45% VO2max, a slight and not statistically significant increase in delta 13C was observed at 30 min. In contrast, at 60 75% VO2max, the rise was statistically significant and averaged 0.83 and 0.99%o, respectively. Average delta 13C (between 0 and 105 min) progressively increased with the intensity of exercise. Individual values of delta 13C and RER were positively correlated (r = 0.653, P = 0.002) as were values of delta 13C and endogenous carbohydrates utilized (r = 0.752, P < 0.001). Factitious or "pseudooxidation" of a 13C-enriched exogenous glucose load (indeed noningested) was calculated from the changes in expired air delta 13C. Over the whole period of exercise it was not statistically significant at 30 and 40% VO2max. However, over the first 60 min of exercise, such pseudooxidation of exogenous glucose was significant at 30 and 45% VO2max. In conclusion, by modifying the mix of endogenous substrates oxidized, exercise at 60% VO2max and above significantly increases the 13C/12C ratio in expired air CO2. At these intensities, this could lead to overestimation of the oxidation of 13C-labeled substrates given orally. At lower intensities of exercise, such overestimation is much smaller an affects mainly the values recorded during the initial part of the exercise bout. [less ▲]

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See detailContrefaçons liégeoises et maestrichtoises de Beaumarchais. Un exercice bibliographique
Droixhe, Daniel ULg

in Bulletin de l'Institut Archéologique Liégeois (1996), 107

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See detailHeat shock-induced myocardial protection against ischemic injury: a role for Hsp70?
Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg; Currie, R. W.

in Cell Stress & Chaperones (1996), 1(1), 13-7

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See detailProbabilities for forbidden transitions in atoms and ions: 1989-1995. A commented bibliography
Biémont, Emile ULg; Zeippen, C. J.

in Physica Scripta (1996), T65

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See detailAntimalarial Activity of Cryptolepine and some otrher Anhydronium Bases
Wright, C. W.; Phillipson, J. D.; Awe, S. O. et al

in Phytotherapy Research (1996), 10

Eight naturally occurring anhydronium bases and the synthetic quaternary compound Nb-methylharmalane were tested against Plasmodium falciparun (strain K1) in vitro. Cryptolepine was found to have similar ... [more ▼]

Eight naturally occurring anhydronium bases and the synthetic quaternary compound Nb-methylharmalane were tested against Plasmodium falciparun (strain K1) in vitro. Cryptolepine was found to have similar activity to that of chloroquine but alstonine, 5,6-dihydroflavopereirine, matadine, Nb-methylharmalane, melinonine F, normelinonine F, strychnoxanthine and serpentine were found to have little activity. Cryptolepine, given orally to mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei was found to have moderate antimalarial activity; parasitemia was suppressed by 80% at 50 mg/kg/day. [less ▲]

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See detailThe frequency of cutaneous vasculitis is not increased in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate
Kaye, O.; Beckers, C. C.; Paquet, P. et al

in Journal of Rheumatology (1996), 23(2), 253-257

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the frequency, type, and immunohistological features of clinical cutaneous vasculitis developing in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated or not with methotrexate as well ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the frequency, type, and immunohistological features of clinical cutaneous vasculitis developing in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated or not with methotrexate as well as their demographic, clinical and biological characteristics. METHODS: Ninety-one patients with RA receiving 9.5 mg/wk of methotrexate (MTX) were compared for an average observation time of 18 months to 130 matched patients with RA treated with various drugs excluding MTX. RESULTS: Whether receiving MTX or not, 5.4% of patients with RA developed a clinical cutaneous vasculitis. There were significant differences between both groups for 2 variables only: a higher percentage of polyneuropathies and a higher level of immune complex-plasma levels in non-MTX patients. The immunohistological analysis did not differentiate both groups. CONCLUSION: The percentage of cutaneous vasculitis that developed under MTX therapy was not different from that occurring as a natural complication of longstanding severe RA. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of insuline-like growth horme-I (IGF-I) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) in pigs
Renaville, Robert ULg; Prandi, Alberto; Claes, Victor et al

in Archivio Veterinario Italiano (1996), 46

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See detailStructure and bonding in liquid tellurium
Bichara, C.; Raty, Jean-Yves ULg; Gaspard, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Physical Review. B, Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (1996), 53(1), 206-211211

The atomic structure and bonding mechanism in liquid tellurium have been investigated by a tight-binding Monte Carlo simulation. On melting, the chain structure of the crystal is preserved in spite of ... [more ▼]

The atomic structure and bonding mechanism in liquid tellurium have been investigated by a tight-binding Monte Carlo simulation. On melting, the chain structure of the crystal is preserved in spite of some significant changes in the local atomic environment. A third covalent bond appears with a bond length (widely distributed around 3.15 Aring) intermediate between those characteristic of the crystal. A short-long alternation of the bonds takes place within the chains, in agreement with the most recent extended X-ray-absorption fine structure measurements. In addition, the bond angle within the chains is reduced. Our calculations clearly prove that these effects are due to the electronic interaction between the lone pair orbitals. The subsequent broadening of the lone pair band is responsible for the semiconductor to metal transition that takes place upon melting. [less ▲]

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See detail"Vielen Dank und auf Wiedersehen" : Mitteilungen an das Publikum in den Kinoprogrammen der Frühzeit
Belloi, Livio ULg

in KINtop : Jahrbuch zur Erforschung des frühen Films (1996), 5

Etude des vues d'annonce au public telles que la firme Lumière en a très tôt l'intuition, mais qui se développent surtout à partir de 1906, en conjonction avec l'émergence progressive des salles fixes et ... [more ▼]

Etude des vues d'annonce au public telles que la firme Lumière en a très tôt l'intuition, mais qui se développent surtout à partir de 1906, en conjonction avec l'émergence progressive des salles fixes et spécialisées, c'est-à-dire en même temps que l'apparition de cette instance historiquement constituée qu'est le spectateur de cinéma. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of exogenous IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, IL-6, IL-8 and LIF on cytokine production by human articular chondrocytes.
Henrotin, Yves ULg; De Groote, D. D.; Labasse, A. H. et al

in Osteoarthritis and Cartilage (1996), 4(3), 163-73

Cytokines are potent regulators of the chondrocyte functions. Some of them are produced by chondrocytes and interact to regulate cartilage metabolism. In this study, we investigated the production of ... [more ▼]

Cytokines are potent regulators of the chondrocyte functions. Some of them are produced by chondrocytes and interact to regulate cartilage metabolism. In this study, we investigated the production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, IL-8 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) by human chondrocytes and examined the modulation of their secretion by exogenous cytokines. Human articular chondrocytes were isolated from their extracellular matrix by a triple successive enzymatic digestion of the cartilage. Subsequently, chondrocytes were stimulated by increased amounts of human recombinant cytokines [IL-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha), IL-8, LIF, IL-6]. IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and LIF were assayed into culture media and inside cell extracts by specific enzyme amplified sensitivity immunoassays (EASIAs). Under these experimental conditions, we have identified various interactions between cytokines. IL-beta and TNF alpha highly stimulated IL-6, LIF and IL-8 productions. IL-6 decreased IL-8 synthesis and increased LIF production. IL-8 slightly enhanced IL-6 production. Finally, LIF stimulated IL-1 beta, IL-6 and IL-8 productions. Using neutralizing antibodies against IL-1, we demonstrated that the effects of LIF were secondary to the stimulation by LIF of IL-1 beta production by the chondrocytes. In conclusion, chondrocytes secrete a variety of immunocompetent cytokines including IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-8 and LIF that can interact to regulate chondrocytes metabolism. These results also define new biological activities of LIF and IL-6, and raise questions concerning their role in the pathogenesis of joint diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailComplete Nucleotide Sequence Of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Chromosome X
Galibert, F.; Alexandraki, D.; Baur, A. et al

in Embo Journal (1996), 15(9),

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See detailImprint and Brush Cytology in the Diagnosis of Canine Intranasal Tumours
Clercx, Cécile ULg; Wallon, J.; Gilbert, S. et al

in Journal of Small Animal Practice (1996), 37(9), 423-7

Fifty-four dogs with nasal tumours were included in this study. Based on histopathology 52 tumours were malignant (36 epithelial and 16 mesenchymal) and two were benign (one oncocytoma and one ... [more ▼]

Fifty-four dogs with nasal tumours were included in this study. Based on histopathology 52 tumours were malignant (36 epithelial and 16 mesenchymal) and two were benign (one oncocytoma and one pleiomorphic adenoma). Malignancy was significantly more frequently diagnosed by imprint cytology (81 per cent of the cases) than by brush cytology (56 per cent). Brush cytology was a significantly more sensitive technique in epithelial than in mesenchymal tumours, while the sensitivity of imprint cytology was not affected by the histological type. Brush cytology determined an epithelial origin in 88 per cent of epithelial tumours, and imprint cytology in 90 per cent. In mesenchymal tumours, the scores were significantly lower, the histological type being determined in only 20 per cent and 50 per cent, using brush and imprint cytology, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination Of The Taxonomic Position And Characterization Of Yam Mosaic Virus Isolates Based On Sequence Data Of The 5'-Terminal Part Of The Coat Protein Cistron
Duterme, Olivier; Colinet, Dominique; Kummert, Jean et al

in Archives of Virology (1996), 141(6), 1067-1075

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See detailEffect of some organophosphate insecticides on acetylcholinesterase of adult Coccinella septempunctata (Coccinellidae)
Bozsik, Andras; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles

in Journal of Environmental Science & Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, & Agricultural Wastes (1996)

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See detailDu Dictionnaire général de la langue wallonne à l'Atlas linguistique de la Wallonie
Boutier, Marie-Guy ULg

in Dialectes de Wallonie (1996), 23-24

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See detailVers une perspective transactionnelle du stress au travail : pistes d'évaluations méthodologiques
De Keyser, Véronique ULg; Hansez, Isabelle ULg

in Cahiers de Médecine du Travail (1996), 33(3), 133-144

L'objectif principal de cet article est d'élaborer des pistes d'évaluations méthodologiques pour les études sur le stress au travail. L'approche se base sur une définition du stress axée sur le contrôle ... [more ▼]

L'objectif principal de cet article est d'élaborer des pistes d'évaluations méthodologiques pour les études sur le stress au travail. L'approche se base sur une définition du stress axée sur le contrôle de la situation et adopte une conception transactionnelle du stress psychologique au travail insistant sur l'importance de l'évaluation de la situation par l'individu et les processus de coping, dans une perspective diachronique (Mackay et Cooper, 1987). Cet article synthétise les indices utilisés généralement dans les recherches sur le stress au travail et discute leurs limites. Les problèmes méthodologiques envisagés sont les suivants: la difficulté d'établir des relations causales, les problèmes de validité discriminante et convergente, la mise en évidence des effets de chronicité, la fidélité des mesures. Des suggestions sont alors proposées, basées principalement sur une démarche combinant comparaisons intra et inter-individuelles, la méthode des «critical job events» ou approche épidémiologique, les stratégies de triangulation, le tout dans une perspective longitudinale. Pour terminer, des exemples en milieu hospitalier illustrent les démarches proposées. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition of Paf-Induced Platelet Aggregation by Web 2086 'in-Vitro', an Antagonist to the Receptor for Platelet-Activating Factor, in Bovine
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Herion, Francine ULg; Raskinet, Renée ULg et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (1996), 43(7), 399-413

The sensitivity of bovine platelet aggregation in response to PAF stimulation and the ability of WEB 2086 (a thieno-triazolodiazepine) to inhibit response to PAF-induced platelet aggregation were ... [more ▼]

The sensitivity of bovine platelet aggregation in response to PAF stimulation and the ability of WEB 2086 (a thieno-triazolodiazepine) to inhibit response to PAF-induced platelet aggregation were investigated in the blood from five healthy male Belgian Blue calves. The recorded response to PAF showed a plateau which was dependent on the PAF concentration. Platelet aggregation induced by PAF consists of two mechanisms: reversible and irreversible aggregations which are accompanied by the release of platelet granule contents. Reversible aggregation occurred above (2 . 10(-9) mol/l) PAF, and irreversible aggregation occurred above (2 . 10(-7) mol/l) PAF. Addition of WEB 2086 to bovine platelets in vitro induced a rightward shift in the dose-response curve to PAF. WEB 2086 inhibited PAF-induced aggregation in a competitive reversible manner (pA2 = 7.61). The results of our study show that PAF induces platelet aggregation in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and that addition of WEB 2086 to bovine platelets in vitro inhibits PAF-induced Platelet Aggregation. [less ▲]

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See detailLes champs électromagnétiques de faible intensité produisent une vague calcique dans les fibroblastes
Bomans, J.; Lambert, C. A.; Scarpa, B. et al

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1996), 151(3-4), 243-9250-2

Human fibroblasts display a Ca2+ wave after irradiation with an electromagnetic field (EMF) of low intensity (100 to 900 microT) as seen by LASER confocal microscopy and excitation of Fluo 3. The number ... [more ▼]

Human fibroblasts display a Ca2+ wave after irradiation with an electromagnetic field (EMF) of low intensity (100 to 900 microT) as seen by LASER confocal microscopy and excitation of Fluo 3. The number of excited cells is proportional to the intensity of EMF between 100 and 900 microT. Cellular activation by a dialysable serum factor is required to induce the Ca2+ wave. It also depends on extracellular Ca2+ and active tyrosine kinases and phospholipase C gamma. [less ▲]

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See detailSerum erythropoietin in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia.
Beguin, Yves ULg; Lampertz, S.; Bron, D. et al

in British Journal of Haematology (1996), 93(1), 154-6

Anaemia is a frequent complication of advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and several cytokines known to inhibit erythropoietin (Epo) formation are produced by CLL B cells. Therefore we measured ... [more ▼]

Anaemia is a frequent complication of advanced chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and several cytokines known to inhibit erythropoietin (Epo) formation are produced by CLL B cells. Therefore we measured serum Epo levels in 47 CLL patients to determine whether Epo was a significant factor in the development of their anaemia. Epo levels were increased compared to normal individuals and this elevation appeared adequate for the degree of anaemia. The slope of the regression of Epo versus haemoglobin (Hb) was similar to that of a reference group. Serum transferrin receptor (sTfR) levels were also appropriately elevated for the degree of anaemia and correlated with serum Epo. Advanced stage was not associated with reduction of Epo production but diminished erythropoietic activity was observed in several patients. The results indicate that anaemia in CLL is not characterized by inadequate Epo production. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the North Sea hydrodynamics in a management perspective
Djenidi, Salim ULg; Delhez, Eric ULg; Martin, Géraldine ULg et al

in Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège (1996), 65

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See detailErythropoietin and the anemia of cancer.
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1996), 51(1), 36-52

The pathogenesis of the anemia of cancer involves the combination of a shortened erythrocyte survival in circulation with the failure of bone marrow to increase red cell production in compensation ... [more ▼]

The pathogenesis of the anemia of cancer involves the combination of a shortened erythrocyte survival in circulation with the failure of bone marrow to increase red cell production in compensation. Inappropriate red cell production is itself related to a conjunction of factors, including impaired availability of reticuloendothelial storage iron, inadequate erythropoietin (Epo) response to anemia, and overproduction of cytokines which are capable of inhibiting erythropoiesis. Many of these cytokines may interfere with erythropoietin production by the kidney. Consequently inadequate serum erythropoietin levels are often encountered in cancer patients, though more frequently in those with solid tumors or multiple myeloma than in those with other hematologic malignancies. There is little evidence supporting a negative impact of chemotherapy, including cisplatin, on erythropoietin production. Rather, chemotherapy usually causes a transient elevation of serum Epo. Red cell transfusions are often administered to cancer patients, possibly resulting, among other deleterious effects, in enhancement of tumor growth. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) has thus been proposed as an alternative. RHuEpo has been shown to be safe and effective in correcting the anemia of cancer and reducing the need for transfusions. The response rate is as good in hematologic malignancies as in solid tumors, but it is extremely poor in those with myelodysplastic syndromes. The effect of rHuEpo does not differ among patients receiving or not receiving chemotherapy, including cisplatin. The probability of response is also similar in patients with adequate or inappropriate erythropoietin production before therapy, although the doses used are usually 2 to 3 times higher than in renal failure patients. [less ▲]

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See detailDecrease in systemic tolerance to fed ovalbumin in indomethacin-treated mice.
Louis, Edouard ULg; Franchimont, D.; Deprez, Manuel ULg et al

in International Archives of Allergy & Immunology (1996), 109(1), 21-6

The oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) to animals induces a quick increase in intestinal permeability and secondary inflammatory lesions of the intestine. The mechanisms ... [more ▼]

The oral administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) to animals induces a quick increase in intestinal permeability and secondary inflammatory lesions of the intestine. The mechanisms leading to the inflammatory lesions are hypothetical. The increased intestinal permeability could allow a greater mucosal and systemic penetration of fed antigens and bacterial products leading to an abnormal mucosal and systemic immune and inflammatory response toward these materials. We examined the effect of oral dosing with indomethacin on ovalbumin serum levels and the systemic immune response to ovalbumin in mice fed with ovalbumin. The ovalbumin serum level was higher in indomethacin-treated mice and the increase was proportional to the dose of indomethacin. It was associated with epithelial and subepithelial lesions. Moreover, the systemic humoral and, to a lesser extent, the cellular tolerance were partially abrogated in the treated mice. These findings suggest that the oral administration of indomethacin in mice induces an increased passage of fed antigen through the intestinal epithelium associated with a decrease in systemic tolerance to this antigen. The reason for this decrease remains unclear. Besides a disequilibrium between systemic and mucosal immune responses, a loss of integrity of the intestinal epithelial cells and a direct immunomodulating effect of indomethacin may also be involved. This decrease in systemic tolerance to luminal antigen could be involved in the development of NSAID enteropathy. [less ▲]

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See detailPharmacology Of The Hypoglycaemic Sulphonylurea Gliquidone .3. Conformational Analysis
Lins, Laurence ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg; Malaisse, Wj.

in Pharmacological Research (1996), 34(1-2), 9-10

The hypoglycaemic sulphonylurea gliquidone was found, by conformation analysis, to display a U-shaped configuration, with hydrophobic cycles placed at the extremity of each branch and a peptidic bond ... [more ▼]

The hypoglycaemic sulphonylurea gliquidone was found, by conformation analysis, to display a U-shaped configuration, with hydrophobic cycles placed at the extremity of each branch and a peptidic bond placed at the bottom of the U. This configuration is similar to that recently observed with the hypoglycaemic sulphonylureas glimepiride and glibenclamide and non-sulphonylurea hypoglycaemic agents of the meglitinide family, such as S3075, repaglinide, A-4166 and KAD-1229. The identification of a conformation common to these various hypoglycaemic drugs may provide an imprint of their binding site at the level of the B-cell sulphonylurea receptor. [less ▲]

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See detailDeposition in the Distal Parts of the Bovine Respiratory Tract: Assessment of Equipment Suitable for Drug Inhalation
Genicot, Bruno; Votion, Dominique ULg; Munsters, K. et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (1996), 138(13), 302-304

The efficiency of equipment suitable for the inhalation of drugs by calves was assessed in six animals which inhaled radioisotopically labelled particles while suffering from reversible diffuse ... [more ▼]

The efficiency of equipment suitable for the inhalation of drugs by calves was assessed in six animals which inhaled radioisotopically labelled particles while suffering from reversible diffuse bronchoconstriction induced experimentally with 5-hydroxytryptamine and while they were breathing normally. Respiratory rates and data from pulmonary function tests and scintiscans were recorded during both investigations. After the first investigation, a mean (se) wash-out period of 9.8 (3.2) days was allowed. Under diffuse bronchoconstriction, the respiratory rate, the oscillatory resistance and the compliance of the respiratory system reached 282.1 (22.0), 161.1 (10.8) and 68.8 (2.7) per cent of their respective baseline values. When the calves were breathing normally these parameters did not change over time. The ratios (Cp/Ct) of the counts of gamma-disintegrations in the peripheral part (Cp) of the lungs and in the total lung area (Ct) were not significantly different when comparing the results from the two investigations. The ratios of Cp/Ct in the left lungs did not differ significantly from those in the right lungs. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative genome organization of vertebrates. The First International Workshop on Comparative Genome Organization.
Andersson, L.; Archibald, A.; Ashburner, M. et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (1996), 7(10), 717-34

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See detailHeparin-binding domain, type 1 and type 2 repeats of thrombospondin mediate its interaction with human breast cancer cells.
Incardona, F.; Lawler, J.; Cataldo, Didier ULg et al

in Journal of Cellular Biochemistry (1996), 62(4), 431-42

Thrombospondin is an adhesive glycoprotein that promotes breast cancer cell adhesion to human vascular endothelial cells (Incardona et al., 1995). In this study, we have identified the molecular domains ... [more ▼]

Thrombospondin is an adhesive glycoprotein that promotes breast cancer cell adhesion to human vascular endothelial cells (Incardona et al., 1995). In this study, we have identified the molecular domains of thrombospondin that mediate its binding to specific receptors on the human breast adenocarcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231. Two recombinant fragments from the amino-terminus (TSPN18 and TSPN28), and the fusion proteins of the type 1 and type 2 repeats of human thrombospondin, inhibited binding of radiolabeled thrombospondin to MDA-MB-231 cells in suspension by 40-60% at 50 micrograms/ml whereas the type 3 repeat, carboxy-terminus and unfused glutathione-S-transferase as well as the synthetic peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (500 micrograms/ml) had little or no effect. Heparin and various glycosaminoglycans as heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfates A, B or C, and fucoidan inhibited thrombospondin binding to MDA-MB-231 cells by more than 60% whereas dextran sulfate had only little effect. Treatment of cells with heparitinase, chondroitinase ABC, and hyaluronidase, but not with neuraminidase, induced 30-50% inhibition of thrombospondin binding suggesting the participation of both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate cell surface-associated molecules. Inhibition of proteoglycan sulfation by chlorate or inhibition of glycosaminoglycan chain formation by two beta-D-xylosides also led to a substantial inhibition of thrombospondin binding. Our results indicate that several domains within the thrombospondin molecule, namely the amino-terminus, type 1 and type 2 repeats, participate in its binding to specific receptors bearing sulfated glycosaminoglycans on MDA-MB-231 cells. Biological assays have indicated that, in addition to these domains, the peptide Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser inhibited MDA-MB-231 cell attachment to thrombospondin suggesting that the last type 3 repeat of the molecule may also contribute to its cell adhesive activity. [less ▲]

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See detailSera from patients with anti-GBM nephritis including goodpasture syndrome show heterogenous reactivity to recombinant NC1 domain of type IV collagen alpha chains.
Dehan, Pierre ULg; Weber, M.; Zhang, X. et al

in Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation (1996), 11(11), 2215-22

BACKGROUND: Goodpasture (GP) syndrome is defined by the clinical association of pulmonary haemorrhage with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The disease is caused by pathogenic autoantibodies ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Goodpasture (GP) syndrome is defined by the clinical association of pulmonary haemorrhage with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. The disease is caused by pathogenic autoantibodies directed against type IV collagen, which is a major structural component of glomerular basement membranes (GBM). METHODS: The non-collagenous domains (NC1) of all six human type IV collagen alpha chains was produced in E. coli as recombinant fusion proteins with glutathione-S transferase. Sera from 10 patients with different types of anti-GBM nephritis, including GP syndrome, were tested for reactivity with the six proteins using immunoblotting of denatured and reduced proteins and ELISA without reduction. RESULTS: All 10 sera reacted with the alpha 3 (IV) collagen chain by immunoblotting and ELISA. One serum also recognized the alpha 2(IV), alpha 4(IV), alpha 5(IV) and alpha 6(IV) chains by immunoblotting. ELISA measurements revealed reactivity of several other sera with alpha 2(IV), alpha 4(IV) or alpha 6(IV) but not with alpha 5(IV) collagen chains. No reactivity was observed with the alpha 1(IV) chain. CONCLUSION: Autoantibodies in anti-GBM nephritis may not be directed only against the alpha 3(IV) collagen chain and they frequently recognize conformational epitopes. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of repeated series of count data measured at unequally spaced times
Lambert, Philippe ULg

in Journal of the Royal Statistical Society : Series C (Applied Statistics) (1996), 45

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See detailSemantic memory and amnesia: A case study
Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Brédart, Serge ULg; Depoorter, N. et al

in Cognitive Neuropsychology (1996), 13(3), 391-413

The performance of a severe amnesic patient (AC) was explored across two tasks designed to assess his public and personal semantic knowledge before and after the onset of his amnesia.

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See detailStructure-activity relationships in platelet-activating factor (PAF).7. Tetrahydrofuran derivatives as dual PAF antagonists and acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Synthesis and PAF-antagonist activity
Le Texier, Laurence; Favre, Edith; Redeuilh, Catherine et al

in Journal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signalling (1996), 13

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See detailRelationships of polymorphisms for growth hormone and growth hormone receptor genes with milk production traits for Italian Holstein-Friesian bulls
Falaki, M.; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Sneyers, M. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (1996), 79(8), 1446-1453

Allelic variation in the structural or regulatory sequences of growth hormone and its receptor genes might directly or indirectly affect milk traits. This possibility prompted us to investigate the ... [more ▼]

Allelic variation in the structural or regulatory sequences of growth hormone and its receptor genes might directly or indirectly affect milk traits. This possibility prompted us to investigate the eventual relationships of restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the locus of bovine growth hormone (using TagI and MspI restriction enzymes) and its receptor (using TaqI restriction enzyme) production traits of bulls. Holstein-Friesian bulls were used in this experiment, and data were analyzed with a fixed linear model. The restriction fragment length polymorphisms at the growth hormone locus did not affect the milk traits studied. Six restriction enzyme TaqI bands of 7.1, 6.2, 5.7, 5.4, 4.2, and 3.3 kb with nine patterns were observed after hybridization by a cDNA probe containing the coding sequences for the intracellular C-terminal part of the receptor. The effect of this polymorphism on PTA for milk protein percentage was highly significant and was favorable for the rare (6.6%) 5.7- and 5.4-kb pattern. Our results indicate that further study is needed to explain the DNA polymorphism and to obtain more definite conclusions about effects on milk traits. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques documents inédits relatifs à Guillaume Lekeu
Pirenne, Christophe ULg; Dado, Stéphane; Verdebout, Luc

in Revue de la Société liégeoise de Musicologie (1996), 5

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See detailPhase transition and thermodynamics of a hot and dense system in a scaled NJL model
Cugnon, Joseph ULg; Jaminon, Martine ULg; Van den Bossche, Bruno

in Nuclear Physics A (1996), 598

he chiral phase transition of a hot and dense system of quarks is studied within a modified SU(3) NJL Lagrangian that implements the QCD scale anomaly. The u- and s-quark condensates can or can not feel ... [more ▼]

he chiral phase transition of a hot and dense system of quarks is studied within a modified SU(3) NJL Lagrangian that implements the QCD scale anomaly. The u- and s-quark condensates can or can not feel the same chiral restoration depending on the considered region of the three-dimensional space (Tc, muuc, musc). The temperature behaviour of the pressure and the energy and entropy densities of the u- and s-quark system is investigated. At high temperature, the non-vanishing bare s-quark mass only modifies slightly the usual behaviour associated with an ideal quark gas. [less ▲]

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See detailLifetimes of the 3d2D levels in Ca II
Biémont, Emile ULg; Zeippen, C. J.

in Comments on Atomic and Molecular Physics (1996), 33

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See detailFilmer la dissidence. L'écriture documentaire dans l'oeuvre des frères Dardenne
Van Cauwenberge, Geneviève ULg

in La revue belge du cinéma (1996), 41(hiver), 29-33

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See detailDiagnostico del sindrome del canal carpiano en el caballo: 6 casos clinicos
Denoix, Jean-Marie; Romero, Antonio; Vàzquez, Francisco J et al

in Medicina Veterinaria (1996), 13

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See detailTreatment of gypsum waste in a two stage anaerobic reactor
Deswaef, Sophie; Salmon, Thierry ULg; Hiligsmann, Serge ULg et al

in Water Science & Technology (1996), 34(5-6), 367-374

The reduction of high concentrations of gypsum (up to 110 kg/m(3)) is investigated in a two stage immobilised cell bioreactor. The first stage is mainly colonised by a consortium of acidogenic bacteria ... [more ▼]

The reduction of high concentrations of gypsum (up to 110 kg/m(3)) is investigated in a two stage immobilised cell bioreactor. The first stage is mainly colonised by a consortium of acidogenic bacteria and sulphate reducing bacteria oxidising volatile fatty acids with more than 2 carbons (mainly, butyrate and propionate). The gypsum consumption rate is rather high (ii kg/m(3).day). Most of acetate remains unconverted in this first stage. It is partially converted in the second stage (residence time : 12 days) which is predominantly colonised by acetate oxidising bacteria The gypsum consumption rate is much lower than in the first stage : 3 kg/m(3).day. With both stages, it is possible to reach an almost complete conversion of gypsum with an overall capacity of 6.1 kg gypsum/m(3).day. We propose also a very simple model to describe the different transformation rates. It allows us to clearly identify the activity levels of the different types of sulphate reducing bacteria in both stages. Copyright (C) 1996 IAWQ. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical Composition Of Pea Fibre Isolates And Their Effect On The Endogenous Amino Acid Flow At The Ileum Of The Pig
Leterme, Pascal; Thewis, André ULg; Van leeuwen, Piet et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (1996), 72(1), 127-134

Pea starch, hulls and cotyledon inner fibres, isolated from pea seeds, were incorporated in N-free diets, on a NDF-content basis, in order to study their effect on the ileal endogenous amino acid (AA ... [more ▼]

Pea starch, hulls and cotyledon inner fibres, isolated from pea seeds, were incorporated in N-free diets, on a NDF-content basis, in order to study their effect on the ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) excretion in the growing pig. Maize starch and wood cellulose were selected as references. The inner fibrecontaining diet was also supplemented with enzymatically hydrolysed casein (EHC) in order to test the peptide alimentation method on a diet containing a fibre source with a high water-holding capacity (WHC = 10.9 g water g-' DM). The fibres were also analysed by different methods (crude fibre, NDF, ADF, enzymatic-gravimetric method, Englyst method). The fibre content of the inner fibre fraction varied widely from one method to another and ranged from 109 g crude fibre to 480 g AOAC fibre kg-' DM. Compared to the 'maize starch + wood cellulose' diet (11.0 g AA excreted kg-' DM intake), pea starch had no effect on ileal AA losses (9.6 g), whereas pea hulls slightly increased them (14.2 g). The AA excretion dramatically increased with the incorporation of inner fibres (28.0 g), because of their very high WHC. The addition of EHC increased the output (48.0 g) further, at a level that can hardly be explained only by an increase of the endogenous secretions. The results suggest that the NDF content of grain legume products is not indicative of their effect on the ileal endogenous AA losses in pigs and that the physiological effects of fibres along the gastrointestinal tract are due to both their chemical and physical properties. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets de l'interleukine 1 sur les chondrocytes humains cultivés en agrégats
Bassleer, Corinne; Jaspar, Jean-Marie; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg et al

in Revue du Praticien (La) (1996), 46(6 Spec No), 31-34

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See detailInfluence of the production of two lipopeptides, Iturin A and Surfactin S1, on oxygen transfer during Bacillus subtilis fermentation
Hbid, Choukri; Jacques, Philippe; Razafindralambo, Hary ULg et al

in Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (1996), 57-8

Bacillus subtilis produces three types of lipopeptides: Iturins, Fengycins, and Surfactins. These amphiphilic molecules influence the volumetric oxygen transfer (K(L)a) like chemical surfactant. K(L)a ... [more ▼]

Bacillus subtilis produces three types of lipopeptides: Iturins, Fengycins, and Surfactins. These amphiphilic molecules influence the volumetric oxygen transfer (K(L)a) like chemical surfactant. K(L)a values were from two- to fivefold lower when both Iturin A and Surfactin S1 were coproduced, and from 0.57- to 0.8-fold lower when only Iturin A was produced. The addition of an oxygen vector (n-Dodecane) during fermentation increased K(L)a values (7.5-fold) and biomass production (twofold), and decreased Iturin A and Surfactin S1 production. However, at high stirring conditions and in the presence of n-Dodecane, Iturin A production was improved. [less ▲]

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See detailSecretion of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) by human endometrium alone
Plachot, Michèle; Godard, Anne; Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Human Reproduction (1996), 11

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See detailL'échec, un problème de culture pédagogique
Crahay, Marcel ULg

in Journal of Education (1996), Octobre

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See detailThymic insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in man and in an animal model of autoimmune IDDM
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Achour, Imane; Kecha, Ouafae et al

in Diabetologia (1996), 39

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See detailPenicillin and Beyond: Evolution, Protein Fold, Multimodular Polypeptides, and Multiprotein Complexes
Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg; Charlier, Paulette ULg; Coyette, Jacques et al

in Microbial Drug Resistance : Mechanism, Epidemiology, & Disease (1996), 2(2, Summer), 163-175

As the protein sequence and structure databases expand, the relationships between proteins, the notion of protein superfamily, and the driving forces of evolution are better understood. Key steps of the ... [more ▼]

As the protein sequence and structure databases expand, the relationships between proteins, the notion of protein superfamily, and the driving forces of evolution are better understood. Key steps of the synthesis of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan are revisited in light of these advances. The reactions through which the D-alanyl-D-alanine depeptide is formed, utilized, and hydrolyzed and the sites of action of the glycopeptide and beta-lactam antibiotics illustrate the concept according to which new enzyme functions evolve as a result of tinkering of existing proteins. This occurs by the acquisition of local structural changes, the fusion into multimodular polypeptides, and the association into multiprotein complexes. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of thymus autografts under the kidney capsule in the pig: a new 'organ' for xenotransplantation
Lambrigts, Denis; Franssen, Colette ULg; Martens, Henri ULg et al

in Xenotransplantation (1996), 3

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See detailStabilization of human triosephosphate isomerase by improvement of the stability of individual alpha-helices in dimeric as well as monomeric forms of the protein
Mainfroid, Véronique; Mande, Shekhar C; Hol, Wim G J et al

in Biochemistry (1996), 35(13), 4110-7

Human triosephosphate isomerase (hTIM) is a dimeric enzyme of identical subunits, adopting the alpha/beta-barrel fold. In a previous work, a monomeric mutant of hTIM was engineered in which Met14 and ... [more ▼]

Human triosephosphate isomerase (hTIM) is a dimeric enzyme of identical subunits, adopting the alpha/beta-barrel fold. In a previous work, a monomeric mutant of hTIM was engineered in which Met14 and Arg98, two interface residues, were changed to glutamine. Analysis of equilibrium denaturation of this monomeric mutant, named M14Q/R98Q, revealed that its conformational stability, 2.5kcal/mol, is low as compared to the stability of dimeric hTIM (19.3 kcal/mol). The fact that this value is also lower than the conformational stabilities usually found for monomeric proteins suggests that the hTIM monomers are thermodynamically unstable. In the present work, we attempted to stabilize the M14Q/R98Q mutant by introducing stabilizing mutations in alpha-helices of the protein. Five mutations were proposed, designed to increase alpha-helix propensity by introducing alanines at solvent-exposed sites (Q179A, K193A), to introduce favorable interactions with helix dipoles (Q179D, S105D), or to reduce the conformational entropy of unfolding by introducing proline residues at the "N-cap" position of alpha-helices (A215P). Three replacements (Q179D, K193A, and A215P) were found to increase the stability of the native dimeric hTIM and the monomeric M14Q/R98Q. These results suggest that the monomeric hTIM mutant can be stabilized to a considerable extent by following well-established rules for protein stabilization. A comparison of the stabilizing effect performed by the mutations on the dimeric hTIM and the monomeric M14Q/R98Q allowed us to reinforce a model of equilibrium denaturation proposed for both proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergetic and conformational study of four benzylimidazole compounds with alpha 2 agonist profile: The mivazerol and three methylated derivatives
Vancampenhout, Nathalie; Dive, Georges ULg; Dehareng, Dominique ULg

in International Journal of Quantum Chemistry (1996), 60(4), 911-930

The mivazerol and three of its methylated derivatives are studied at the ab initio SCF level within the MINI-1 and 6-31G basis sets. This study aimed at determining some probable conformations, either ... [more ▼]

The mivazerol and three of its methylated derivatives are studied at the ab initio SCF level within the MINI-1 and 6-31G basis sets. This study aimed at determining some probable conformations, either neutral or protonated, that could interact with the alpha 2 adrenoceptors. The solvent effect was also studied within the Onsager's solvent model at the two dielectric constant (epsilon) values of 4 and 80. The interaction with the environment (either solvent or receptor) is schematically studied by positioning either two water molecules or one formamide or/and one formic add near the amide and the imidazole for few isomers. The medium polarization, through epsilon, and the solvation effect, through the interaction with the solvent molecules or the receptor side chains, stabilize the same isomers. Post-SCF calculations are performed at the CISD level, the first excited singlet and triplet states energies are determined, and the question of the wave-function stability is addressed. The results indicate the probability of a spin-orbit coupling with the first excited triplet state, thus opening the question of such a possibility within an enzyme active site. (C) 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailFormes pharmaceutiques à libération prolongée en médecine vétérinaire : systèmes à rétention dans le réticulo-rumen = Sustained-released veterinary dosage forms : retention devices in the reticulorumen
Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Delattre, Luc ULg

in STP Pharma Pratiques (1996), 6(6), 479-486

L'industrialisation des productions animales a mis en évidence la nécessité d'éviter des administrations réitérées chez des animaux dont la manipulation est difficile, et de développer des formes à ... [more ▼]

L'industrialisation des productions animales a mis en évidence la nécessité d'éviter des administrations réitérées chez des animaux dont la manipulation est difficile, et de développer des formes à libération contrôlée ou du moins fortement prolongée. L'anatomie particulière du tube digestive des ruminants offre en outre des possibilités inédites pour le développement de tels systèmes thérapeutiques, notamment grâce à la rétention dans le réticulo-rumen. De telles formes ont essentiellement été développées pour l'administration de médicaments antiparasitaires et antibactériens, de suppléments nutritionnels et de promoteurs croissance. Cette revue décrit les applications potentielles de la technologie des formes à libération contrôlée et prolongée en médecine vétérinaire et les différents dispositifs à rétention dans le réticulo-rumen décrits dans la littérature, brevetés ou commercialisés. More intensive methods ofanimal husbandry have revealed the necessity of avoiding repeated administration ofmedication to animals which are difficult to handle and of developing controlled and sustained release dosage forms. The physiological characteristics of the digestive tract of ruminants provide unique opportunity for controlled release technology, especially due to the animal's reticulo-rumen retention ability. The majorareas of application of these controlled and sustained release dosage forms include the delivery of antibiotic and antiparasitic agents, trace nutrients and growth promoting agents. This review describes the potential applications of controlled and sustained release technology in veterinary medicine and the various reticulo-rumen retention devices which are patented, marketed or described in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailGenetic aspects of abdominal aortic aneurysm.
VERLOES, Alain ULg; SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg et al

in Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1996), 800

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See detailSuicidal behavior in depressive disorder: an event-related potential study.
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Pitchot, William ULg; Gonzalez Moreno, A. et al

in Biological Psychiatry (1996), 40(2), 116-22

P300 and contingent negative variation (CNV) were recorded in depressive inpatients with and without history of suicide attempt. The results showed a significant reduction of P200, P300, and CNV and a ... [more ▼]

P300 and contingent negative variation (CNV) were recorded in depressive inpatients with and without history of suicide attempt. The results showed a significant reduction of P200, P300, and CNV and a significant increase of postimperative negative variation (PINV) in patients who had attempted suicide compared to patients with a negative history. Moreover, P300 amplitude was negatively related with the Suicidal Risk and the Hopelessness but not with the Hamilton scales. These results stress the need to differentiate clinical subgroups of patients to assess the psychophysiology of depression, and indicate that patients who attempted suicide exhibit lower cortical resources and poorer cortical performance than patients without history of suicide attempt. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurophysins in central diabetes insipidus
Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg; Geenen, Vincent ULg

in Hormone Research (1996), 45

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See detailHydrodynamic simulations of galaxy formation .2. Photoionization and the formation of low-mass galaxies
Thoul, Anne ULg; Weinberg, D. H.

in Astrophysical Journal (1996), 465(2), 608-616

Photoionization by the high-redshift ultraviolet radiation background heats low- density gas before it falls into dark matter potential wells, and it eliminates the neutral hydrogen and singly ionized ... [more ▼]

Photoionization by the high-redshift ultraviolet radiation background heats low- density gas before it falls into dark matter potential wells, and it eliminates the neutral hydrogen and singly ionized helium that dominate cooling of primordial gas at temperatures of 10(4)-10(5) K. We investigate the influence of photoionization on galaxy formation using high-resolution simulations with a one-dimensional, spherically symmetric, Lagrangian hydrodynamics/gravity code. We find that the presence of a photoionizing background suppresses the formation of galaxies with circular velocities v(circ) less than or similar to 30 km s(-1) and substantially reduces the mass of cooled baryons in systems with circular velocities up to v(circ) similar to 50 km s(-1). Above v(circ) similar to 75 km s(-1), photoionization has no significant effect. Photoionization exerts its influence primarily by heating gas before collapse; the elimination of line cooling processes is less important. We discuss the implications of these results for hierarchical theories of galaxy formation. [less ▲]

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See detailStandardisation des mesures en imagerie thermique infrarouge chez les grands animaux domestiques
Ghafir, Y.; Spruyt, P.; Art, Tatiana ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1996), 140

Thermography studies pictures recorded from radiant thermal emissions of a body. This paper analyses several measurement conditions in order to make thermographic unit reliable, ie the effects of distance ... [more ▼]

Thermography studies pictures recorded from radiant thermal emissions of a body. This paper analyses several measurement conditions in order to make thermographic unit reliable, ie the effects of distance and position of the camera, the color, lenght and power. Moreover, the effects of the site on cutaneous temperature measurements were studied in exercising horses. It can be concluded that infrared thermography is a technical to measure skin temperature which requires a few conditions to be respected. Moreover, it is a sure, simple and fast method. The ideal site for measuring skin temperature inexercising horses is the neck because of its vascularisation. [less ▲]

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See detailPerson familiarity and name-retrieval failures: How they are related ?
Brédart, Serge ULg

in Current Psychology of Cognition [=CPC] = Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive [=CPC] (1996), 15(1), 113-119

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See detailStromelysin-3 in the biology of normal and tumoral mammary gland.
Rio, M. C.; Lefebvre, O.; Santavicca, M. et al

in Journal of Mammary Gland Biology & Neoplasia (1996), 1(2), 231-240

Stromelysin-3 (ST3) is an extracellular proteinase predominantly expressed in fibroblasts. The particular structural features andin vitro functions of this molecule suggest it could be the first member of ... [more ▼]

Stromelysin-3 (ST3) is an extracellular proteinase predominantly expressed in fibroblasts. The particular structural features andin vitro functions of this molecule suggest it could be the first member of a new subgroup of the matrix metalloproteinase family. ST3 is transiently expressed during mammary gland post-weaning involution, embryonic implantation, various organogeneses, and during amphibian metamorphosis. Moreover, ST3 is expressed in a panel of human invasive carcinomas including breast, colon, and head and neck carcinomas. Almost all ST3-expressing tissues show intense extracellular matrix remodeling activities including the loss of basement membrane integrity. Thus, either directly, or indirectly in association with other proteinases, ST3 might be involved in tissue remodeling processes occurring in both physiological and pathological processes.In vitro andin vivo studies using malignant cells stably transfected in such a way as to modulate their ST3 expression levels indicate that ST3 modifies neither cell proliferation nor invasive properties, but rather favors tumor cell survival in host tissues. This hypothesis is consistent with clinical data showing that ST3 expression could be predictive of tumor progression leading to metastases. [less ▲]

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