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See detailPoxviruses as vaccine vectors
Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULiege; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULiege

in Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (2003), 26

The discovery of Jenner in 1798 founded the science of immunology and eventually led to smallpox eradication from the earth in 1980 after a world-wide vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus (another ... [more ▼]

The discovery of Jenner in 1798 founded the science of immunology and eventually led to smallpox eradication from the earth in 1980 after a world-wide vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus (another poxvirus) and paradoxically, despite the eradication of smallpox, there has been an explosion of interest in vaccinia virus in the eighties. This interest has stemmed in part from the application of molecular genetics to clone and express foreign genes from recombinant vaccinia viruses. Vaccinia is also gaining renewed interest due to bioterrorism.These recombinant viruses have multiple applications in research and vaccinology and led to the development of vectored vaccines, such as the recombinant vaccinia rabies vaccine used to eliminate rabies in Western Europe and, more recently, in the United States. Secondly, alternative poxvirus vectors, such as avipox viruses, were proved to be even safer and efficacious non-replicating vectors (suiciole vectors) when used in non-avian species. [less ▲]

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See detailThe contribution of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory : A study of the effects of test format and aging
Bastin, Christine ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege

in Neuropsychology (2003), 17(1), 14-24

Whether the format of a recognition memory task influences the contribution of recollection and familiarity to performance is a matter of debate. The authors investigated this issue by comparing the ... [more ▼]

Whether the format of a recognition memory task influences the contribution of recollection and familiarity to performance is a matter of debate. The authors investigated this issue by comparing the performance of 64 young (mean age = 21.7 years; mean education = 14.5 years) and 62 older participants (mean age = 64.4 years; mean education = 14.2 years) on a yes–no and a forced-choice recognition task for unfamiliar faces using the remember– know–guess procedure. Familiarity contributed more to forced-choice than to yes–no performance. Moreover, older participants, who showed a decrease in recollection together with an increase in familiarity, performed better on the forced-choice task than on the yes–no task, whereas younger participants showed the opposite pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailModeling lactation curves and estimation of genetic parameters for first lactation test-day records of French Holstein cows.
Druet, Tom ULiege; Jaffrezic, F.; Boichard, D. et al

in Journal of Dairy Science (2003), 86(7), 2480-90

Several functions were used to model the fixed part of the lactation curve and genetic parameters of milk test-day records to estimate using French Holstein data. Parametric curves (Legendre polynomials ... [more ▼]

Several functions were used to model the fixed part of the lactation curve and genetic parameters of milk test-day records to estimate using French Holstein data. Parametric curves (Legendre polynomials, Ali-Schaeffer curve, Wilmink curve), fixed classes curves (5-d classes), and regression splines were tested. The latter were appealing because they adjusted the data well, were relatively insensitive to outliers, were flexible, and resulted in smooth curves without requiring the estimation of a large number of parameters. Genetic parameters were estimated with an Average Information REML algorithm where the average information matrix and the first derivatives of the likelihood functions were pooled over 10 samples. This approach made it possible to handle larger data sets. The residual variance was modeled as a quadratic function of days in milk. Quartic Legendre polynomials were used to estimate (co)variances of random effects. The estimates were within the range of most other studies. The greatest genetic variance was in the middle of the lactation while residual and permanent environmental variances mostly decreased during the lactation. The resulting heritability ranged from 0.15 to 0.40. The genetic correlation between the extreme parts of the lactation was 0.35 but genetic correlations were higher than 0.90 for a large part of the lactation. The use of the pooling approach resulted in smaller standard errors for the genetic parameters when compared to those obtained with a single sample. [less ▲]

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See detailLeclercq Suzanne.
Streel, Maurice ULiege; Fairon-Demaret, M

in Académie Royale des sciences lettres et beaux arts de Belgique/ Nouvelle biographie nationale (2003), 7

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See detailFluorescent Pseudomonas mainly produce the dihydro form of pyoverdine at low specific growth rate.
Jacques, Philippe ULiege; Ongena, MARC ULiege; Bernard, F. et al

in Letters in Applied Microbiology (2003), 36(5), 259-62

AIMS: To analyse the influence of cell growth rate and iron concentration on the production of pyoverdines (PVDs) and of their reduced dihydro forms by three fluorescent Pseudomonas strains (P. putida ... [more ▼]

AIMS: To analyse the influence of cell growth rate and iron concentration on the production of pyoverdines (PVDs) and of their reduced dihydro forms by three fluorescent Pseudomonas strains (P. putida BTP16, P. fluorescens BTP7 and P. aeruginosa 7NSK2). METHODS: PVD and dihydropyoverdine (DHPVD) productions were determined by LC ESI-MS and spectrophotometry during batch and chemostat culture at different dilution rates. SIGNIFICANCE: The relatively high PVD-to-DHPVD ratio (0.57) observed in pH-controlled batch cultures suggested that a base-catalysed chemical oxidation of the dihydroform is not the prime mechanism involved in generating PVDs. Interestingly, in chemostat cultures the PVD-to-DHPVD ratio was significantly reduced at low specific growth rate. Our results suggest that the oxidation of DHPVD to PVD is catalysed by an iron-dependent enzymatic reaction rather than a chemical oxidation. [less ▲]

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See detailOccurrence of sulphides on the bornite-idaite join from Vielsalm, Stavelot Massif, Belgium
Hatert, Frédéric ULiege

in European Journal of Mineralogy (2003), 15(6, NOV-DEC), 1063-1068

Sulphides with chemical compositions between idaite and bornite have been identified from several quartz veins crosscutting Ordovician schists in Vielsalm, Belgium. Idaite is an oxidation product of ... [more ▼]

Sulphides with chemical compositions between idaite and bornite have been identified from several quartz veins crosscutting Ordovician schists in Vielsalm, Belgium. Idaite is an oxidation product of bornite, and occurs in the more oxidised parts of the quartz veins. The alteration sequence bomite --> "anomalous bornite" --> idaite is observed, associated with the growth of chalcopyrite lamellae parallel to the {100} and {111} directions of precursor bornite. Electron microprobe analyses indicate a chemical composition significantly enriched in Cu, when compared with the ideal composition of idaite, Cu3FeS4, as well as a progressive compositional evolution from bomite to idaite. The X-ray powder pattern is indexed in the space group I (4) over bar 2m, similar to that of stannite, and gives the unit-cell parameters a = 5.279(4) and c = 10.47(2) Angstrom. [less ▲]

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See detailAn approach for dividing models of biological reaction networks into functional units
Ederer, Michael; Sauter, Thomas; Bullinger, Eric ULiege et al

in Simulation: Trans. Society for Modeling and Simulation International (2003), 79(12), 703-716

Biological reaction networks consist of many substances and reactions between them. Like many other biological systems, they have a modular structure. Therefore, a division of a biological reaction ... [more ▼]

Biological reaction networks consist of many substances and reactions between them. Like many other biological systems, they have a modular structure. Therefore, a division of a biological reaction network into smaller units highly facilitates its investigation. The authors propose an algorithm to divide an ordinary differential equation (ODE) model of a biological reaction network hierarchically into functional units. For every compound, an activity function dependent on concentration or concentration change rate is defined. After performing suitable simulations, distances between the compounds are computed by comparing the activities along the trajectories of the simulation. The distance information is used to generate a dendrogram revealing the internal structure of the reaction network. The algorithm identifies functional units in two models of different networks: catabolite repression in Escherichia coli and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signal transduction in mammalian cells. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of heterologous multicopy suppressors of the yeast msb3msb4 double mutation.
Delroisse, Jean-Marc; Breban, Martine; Burny, Arsène et al

in Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie (2003), 184

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See detailImmunocytochemical detection of DNA and RNA in endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids.
Motta, Maria Cristina M; de Souza, Wanderley; Thiry, Marc ULiege

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (2003), 221(1), 17-23

Research about the kinetoplast of trypanosomatids has yielded valuable information about the organization of extranuclear structure. However, the ultrastructural localization of nucleic acids within these ... [more ▼]

Research about the kinetoplast of trypanosomatids has yielded valuable information about the organization of extranuclear structure. However, the ultrastructural localization of nucleic acids within these protozoa remains uncertain. We have applied cytochemical and immunocytochemical approaches to precisely identify DNA and RNA in lower endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids. Using the Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase (TdT) immunogold technique, we showed that nuclear DNA is seen associated with the nuclear envelope during the trypanosomatid cell cycle. By combining the TdT technique with the acetylation method, which improves the contrast between structures containing fibrils and granules, we have demonstrated that the nucleolus of endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids is composed of two constituents: a granular component and a DNA-positive fibrillar zone. Moreover, we revealed that DNA of endosymbiotic bacteria consisted of electron-dense filaments which are usually in close contact with the prokaryote envelope. Using a Lowicryl post-embedding immunogold labeling procedure with anti-RNA antibodies, we showed the presence of RNA not only over the cytoplasm, the interchromatin spaces and the nucleolus, but also over the kinetoplast and virus-like particles present in Crithidia desouzai. [less ▲]

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See detailSpontaneous zygogenesis in Escherichia coli, a form of true sexuality in prokaryotes.
Gratia, Jean*-Pierre; Thiry, Marc ULiege

in Microbiology (2003), 149(Pt 9), 2571-84

A new type of mating, differing from classic conjugation and previously observed in a certain strain of Escherichia coli K-12, has also been found in strains derived from ordinary F- cells of E. coli K-12 ... [more ▼]

A new type of mating, differing from classic conjugation and previously observed in a certain strain of Escherichia coli K-12, has also been found in strains derived from ordinary F- cells of E. coli K-12 exposed to an exogenous factor originating in an E. coli clinical isolate. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy after single and double labelling of DNA were used to produce evidence in favour of a novel mating mechanism by cell contact at the poles of the bacterial rod. These findings are supported by genetic analyses indicating complete genetic mixing. Unstable complementing diploids were formed, which throw off phenotypically haploid cells, of which some showed a parental phenotype and some were true genetic recombinants. Recombination was observed even when one parent was a UV-inactivated F- RecA- strain. The name 'spontaneous zygogenesis' (Z-mating, for short) is proposed for this kind of mating. [less ▲]

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See detailShellfish, a dangerous food?
China, Bernard; de Schaetzen, Marie-Athénaïs ULiege; Daube, Georges ULiege

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147(6, DEC-JAN), 413-422

Sea products are consumed worldwide. Seafood, especially shellfish, is consumed crude or not well cooked therefore they are risky for the development of foodborne diseases. Moreover, these animals filter ... [more ▼]

Sea products are consumed worldwide. Seafood, especially shellfish, is consumed crude or not well cooked therefore they are risky for the development of foodborne diseases. Moreover, these animals filter water and concentrate the microorganisms and the toxins. Risks are multiple : bacteria (Clostridium, Vibrio), viruses (norovirus, hepatitis A) and the biotoxins (paralytic, neurotoxic, diarrhoeic and amnesic) produced by phytoplankton. The European regulation 91/492/EC indicates the microbiological and toxicological criteria for the sale of the shellfish. Nevertheless, in the absence of good diagnosis methods, the viruses were omitted in this regulation. But it is a major cause of toxi-infection due to shellfish consumption. The large number of outbreaks worldwide due to the ingestion of seafood indicates that these ones must be carefully controlled. Therefore, we need powerful diagnosis tools. The aim of this review is to describe the major biological risks (bacteria, viruses, biotoxins) for the human health linked to the consumption of sea food. [less ▲]

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See detailFamilial abdominal aortic aneurysms: collection of 233 multiplex families.
Kuivaniemi, Helena; Shibamura, Hidenori; Arthur, Claudette et al

in Journal of Vascular Surgery (2003), 37(2), 340-5

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a large number of families in which at least two individuals were diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms to identify the relationship of the affected relatives to the ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated a large number of families in which at least two individuals were diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms to identify the relationship of the affected relatives to the proband. Subjects and Methods: Families for the study were recruited through various vascular surgery centers in the United States, Finland, Belgium, Canada, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United Kingdom and through our patient recruitment website (www.genetics.wayne.edu/ags). RESULTS: We identified 233 families with at least two individuals diagnosed with abdominal aortic aneurysms. The families originated from nine different nationalities, but all were white. There were 653 aneurysm patients in these families, with an average of 2.8 cases per family. Most of the families were small, with only two affected individuals. There were, however, six families with six, three with seven, and one with eight affected individuals. Most of the probands (82%) and the affected relatives (77%) were male, and the most common relationship to the proband was brother. Most of the families (72%) appeared to show autosomal recessive inheritance pattern, whereas in 58 families (25%), abdominal aortic aneurysms were inherited in autosomal dominant manner, and in eight families, the familial aggregation could be explained by autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. In the 66 families where abdominal aortic aneurysms were inherited in a dominant manner, 141 transmissions of the disease from one generation to another were identified, and the male-to-male, male-to-female, female-to-male, and female-to-female transmissions occurred in 46%, 11%, 32%, and 11%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study supports previous studies about familial aggregation of abdominal aortic aneurysms and suggests that first-degree family members, male relatives, in particular, are at increased risk. No single inheritance mode could explain the occurrence of abdominal aortic aneurysms in the 233 families studied here, suggesting that abdominal aortic aneursyms are a multifactorial disorder with multiple genetic and environmental risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of sensor arrays for environmental monitoring: interests and limitations
Bourgeois, W.; Romain, Anne-Claude ULiege; Nicolas, Jacques ULiege et al

in J. Environ. Monit. (2003), 5(6), 852-860

Continuous, in situ monitoring of air, water and land quality is fundamental to most environmental applications. Low cost and non-invasive chemical sensor arrays provide a suitable technique for in situ ... [more ▼]

Continuous, in situ monitoring of air, water and land quality is fundamental to most environmental applications. Low cost and non-invasive chemical sensor arrays provide a suitable technique for in situ monitoring. Their ability and performance under realistic conditions is discussed in this paper. Published studies report promising results despite a number of limitations that are associated with both the technology itself and its application in ever changing ambient conditions. Early investigations include the analysis of single substances as well as odour and wastewater organic load monitoring. Reported applications typically highlight the sensitivity of the currently available sensors to changes in temperature, humidity and flow rate. Two types of approaches are recommended to deal with these effects: either working under fixed experimental conditions or measuring the external parameters to numerically compensate for their change. The main challenge associated with the use of non-specific sensor arrays lies in establishing a relationship between the measured multivariate signals and the standards metrics that are traditionally used for quality assessment of gas mixtures. For instance, odour monitoring requires calibration against olfactometric measurements while investigations of wastewater samples still need to be correlated with organic pollution parameters such as BOD, COD or TOC. On the other hand, results obtained in the field have demonstrated how sensor arrays can be readily used as simple alarm devices or as early warning systems based on a general air/water quality index. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Portugal coastal counter current off NW Spain: new insights on its biogeochemical variability
Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Figueiras, F. G.; Perez, F. F. et al

in Progress in Oceanography (2003), 56(2), 281-321

Time series of wind-stress data, AVHRR and SeaWiFS satellite images, and in situ data from seven cruises are used to assemble a coherent picture of the hydrographic variability of the seas off the ... [more ▼]

Time series of wind-stress data, AVHRR and SeaWiFS satellite images, and in situ data from seven cruises are used to assemble a coherent picture of the hydrographic variability of the seas off the Northwest Iberian Peninsula from the onset (September-October) to the cessation (February-May) of the Portugal coastal counter current (PCCC). During this period the chemistry and the biology of the shelf, slope and ocean waters between 40degrees and 43degreesN have previously been undersampled. Novel information extracted from these observations relate to: 1. The most frequent modes of variability of the alongshore coastal winds, covering event, seasonal and long-term scales; 2. The conspicuous cycling between stratification and homogenisation observed in PCCC waters, which has key implications for the chemistry and biology of these waters; 3. The seasonal evolution of nitrite profiles in PCCC waters in relation to the stratification cycle; 4. The Redfield stoichiometry of the remineralisation of organic matter in Eastern North Atlantic Central Water (ENACW)-the water mass being transported by the PCCC; 5. The separation of coastal (mesotrophic) from PCCC (oligotrophic) planktonic populations by a downwelling front along the shelf, which oscillates to and fro across the shelf as a function of coastal wind intensity and continental runoff; and 6. The photosynthetic responses of the PCCC and coastal plankton populations to the changing stratification and light conditions from the onset to the cessation of the PCCC. [less ▲]

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See detailConsequences of imperfect insulation - Numerical Modelling
Franssen, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Journal of Fire Protection Engineering (2003), 18

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See detail50-60 Hz electric and magnetic field effects on cognitive function in humans: A review
Crasson, Marion ULiege

in Radiation Protection Dosimetry (2003), 106(4), 333-340

This paper reviews the effect of 50-60 Hz weak electric, magnetic and combined electric and magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions such as memory, attention, information processing and time ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews the effect of 50-60 Hz weak electric, magnetic and combined electric and magnetic field exposure on cognitive functions such as memory, attention, information processing and time perception, as determined by electroencephalographic methods and performance measures. Overall, laboratory studies that have investigated the acute effects of power frequency fields on cognitive functioning in humans are heterogeneous, in terms of both electric and magnetic field (EMF) exposure and the experimental design and measures used. Results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret with regard to functional relevance for possible health risks. Statistically significant differences between field and control exposure, when they are found, are small, subtle, transitory, without any clear dose-response relationship and difficult to reproduce. The human performance or event related potentials (ERPs) measures that might specifically be affected by EMF exposure, as well as a possible cerebral structure or function that could be more sensitive to EMF, cannot be better determined. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of response factors on determining equilibrium association constants of non-covalent complexes by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry
Gabelica, Valérie ULiege; Galic, Nives; Rosu, Frédéric ULiege et al

in Journal of Mass Spectrometry [=JMS] (2003), 38(5), 491-501

A method for determining the equilibrium association constant of a complexation reaction A + B <=> AB by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is described. The method consists in measuring the ... [more ▼]

A method for determining the equilibrium association constant of a complexation reaction A + B <=> AB by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is described. The method consists in measuring the relative intensities of the peaks corresponding to A and to AB in equimolar A–B solutions at different concentrations C0. The results are fitted by a non-linear least-squares procedure, with the two variable parameters being the equilibrium association constant Ka and a factor R, defined by I(AB)/I.A/ = R× [AB]/[A]. The factor R is the ratio between the response factors of AB and A, and corrects for the relative electrospray responses of the complex and the free substrate A, mass discrimination of instrumental origin and/or moderate in-source dissociation. The method is illustrated with the following two systems: complexes between a double-stranded 12-base pair oligonucleotide and minor groove binders, and cyclodextrin complexeswith a,!-dicarboxylic acids. For the oligonucleotide complexes, it is found that the response of the complex is not dramatically different to the response of the free oligonucleotide duplex, as the double helix conformation is disturbed by the drug only to a minor extent. In the case of cyclodextrin complexes, these complexes were found to have a much higher response than free cyclodextrin. This may be due to the fact that cyclodextrin is neutral in solution, whereas the complex is charged, but it can also stem from the fact that a significant proportion of the complex is in a non-inclusion geometry. The present method requires the exact determination of the concentrations of the reactants and is applicable to 1 : 1 complexes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois Le voriconazole (Vfend).
Pierard, Gérald ULiege; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULiege; Quatresooz, Pascale ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(5), 351-5

Invasive fungal infections are a rare but important cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with severely compromised host defenses. Despite considerable advances in antifungal therapies over the ... [more ▼]

Invasive fungal infections are a rare but important cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with severely compromised host defenses. Despite considerable advances in antifungal therapies over the past years, invasive mycoses remain a stubborn and dramatic problem. Voriconazole is a new triazole antifungal agent which confers a relative survival benefit in fluconazole-resistant invasive candidiasis, and in invasive aspergillosis, fusariosis and Scedosporium infections as well. [less ▲]

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See detailRecherche et dosage des résidus de DDT dans le sérum
Charlier, Corinne ULiege

in Immuno-Analyse & Biologie Spécialisée [=IBS] (2003), 18

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See detailEvaluation of thyroid function in obese dogs and in dogs undergoing a weight loss protocol
Daminet, Sylvie; Jeusette, Isabelle; Duchateau, L. et al

in Journal of Veterinary Medicine. A, Physiology, Pathology, Clinical Medicine (2003), 50(4), 213-218

Obesity and weight loss have been shown to alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. In dogs, obesity is the most common nutritional problem encountered and weight loss is the cornerstone of its ... [more ▼]

Obesity and weight loss have been shown to alter thyroid hormone homeostasis in humans. In dogs, obesity is the most common nutritional problem encountered and weight loss is the cornerstone of its treatment. Therefore, it is important to clarify how obesity and weight loss can affect thyroid function test results in that species. The objectives of this study were to compare thyroid function in obese dogs and in lean dogs and to explore the effects of caloric restriction and weight loss on thyroid hormone serum concentrations in obese dogs. In the first experiment, 12 healthy lean beagles and 12 obese beagles were compared. Thyroid function was evaluated by measuring serum concentrations of total thyroxine (TT4), free thyroxine (FT4), total triiodothyronine (TT3), thyrotropin (TSH), and reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) as well as a TSH stimulation test using 75 mu g IV of recombinant human TSH. In the second experiment, eight obese beagles were fed an energy-restricted diet [average 63% maintenance energy requirement (MER)] until optimal weight was obtained. Blood samples for determination of TT4, FT4, TT3, TSH and rT3, were taken at the start and then weekly during weight loss. Only TT3 and TT4 serum concentrations were significantly higher in obese dogs as compared to lean dogs. In the second experiment, weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in TT3 and TSH serum concentrations. Thus obesity and energy restriction significantly alter thyroid homeostasis in dogs, but the observed changes are unlikely to affect interpretation of thyroid function test results in clinics. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Lowette, un contraceptif pour traiter l'acne de la jeune femme.
Goffin, Véronique ULiege; Pierard, Claudine ULiege; Pierard, Gérald ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(4), 261-3

Acne is a multifactorial disorder affecting the vast majority of adolescents and young adults. Among the therapeutic armamentum, estroprogestative contraception can be offered to young women. The choice ... [more ▼]

Acne is a multifactorial disorder affecting the vast majority of adolescents and young adults. Among the therapeutic armamentum, estroprogestative contraception can be offered to young women. The choice must, however, be carefully targeted because the estroprogestative associations do not show similar anti-acne efficacy. A new contraceptive associating 20 micrograms of ethinyl estradiol and 100 micrograms of levonorgestrel (Lowette) has proven its clinical efficacy in this indication. [less ▲]

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See detailA taxonomic reassessment of the Vittiaceae (Hypnales, Bryopsida):evidence from phylogenetic analyses of combined chloroplast and nuclear sequence data
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULiege; Goffinet, B.; Hedenäs, L. et al

in Plant Systematics & Evolution (2003), 241

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See detailFunctional identification of epithelial and smooth muscle histamine-dependent relaxing mechanisms in the bovine trachea, but not in bronchi
Jolly, Sandra ULiege; Desmecht, Daniel ULiege

in Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part C : Toxicology & Pharmacology (2003), 134(1), 91-100

Theoretically, the overall effect of histamine on respiratory smooth muscle is the result of a subtle balance of contraction and relaxation. The aim of the study was to identify histamine type 2 (H2) and ... [more ▼]

Theoretically, the overall effect of histamine on respiratory smooth muscle is the result of a subtle balance of contraction and relaxation. The aim of the study was to identify histamine type 2 (H2) and 3 (H3) receptor-dependent relaxing mechanisms in the contractile elements of the bovine tracheobronchial tree. In bronchial preparations, histamine induced very weak contractions, which were not exacerbated with the H2-antagonist cimetidine. Moreover, precontracted bronchial rings never relaxed in response to cumulative doses of histamine or amthamine (H2-agonist). In intact tracheal preparations, histamine induced strong contractions that were exacerbated by cimetidine (E-max : + 17.2 +/- 6.6%) but not by thioperamide (H3-antagonist). Precontracted tracheal bundles did not relax in response to cumulative doses of the H3-agonist R-alpha-methylhistamine. The tracheal contractile response was higher in denuded compared to intact preparations (11.0+/-1.2 vs. 6.0+/-1.7 g). Cimetidine effect was dramatically potentiated in denuded tracheal strips (+40.0+/-11.7%). It is concluded that the weak response. of bovine bronchi to histamine is due to a relative scarcity of H1 receptors on bronchial smooth muscle rather than to H2- or H3-dependent relaxation. In the bovine trachea, the smooth muscle possesses relaxing H2 but no H3 receptors. The epithelium exercises a relaxation, which is independent from H2 and H3 receptors. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLe trésor de reliques du Neufmoustier près de Huy. Une part de Terre sainte en pays mosan
George, Philippe ULiege

in Bulletin de la Commission Royale d'Histoire (2003)

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See detailUpdate on GPIIb/IIIa antagonists
Hanson, Julien ULiege; De Leval, X.; Kolh, Philippe ULiege et al

in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents (2003), 13

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See detailnote sous arrêt du 23 octobre 2003, Van den Bergh Foods contre Commission
Petit, Nicolas ULiege

in Revue du Droit de l'Union Européenne (2003)

résumé et analyse de l'affaire Volkswagen AG contre Commission, affaire C-338/00

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See detailResponse of coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi to elevated partial pressure of CO2 under nitrogen limitation
Sciandra, A.; Harlay, Jérôme ULiege; Lefevre, D. et al

in Marine Ecology. Progress Series (2003), 261

Precipitation of calcium carbonate by phytoplankton in the photic oceanic layer is an important process regulating the carbon cycling and the exchange Of CO2 at the ocean-atmosphere interface. Previous ... [more ▼]

Precipitation of calcium carbonate by phytoplankton in the photic oceanic layer is an important process regulating the carbon cycling and the exchange Of CO2 at the ocean-atmosphere interface. Previous experiments have demonstrated that, under nutrient-sufficient conditions, doubling the partial pressure Of CO2 (pCO(2)) in seawater-a likely scenario for the end of the century-can significantly decrease both the rate of calcification by coccolithophorids and the ratio of inorganic to organic carbon production. The present work investigates the effects of high pCO(2) on calcification by the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (Strain TW1) grown under nitrogen-limiting conditions, a situation that can also prevail in the ocean. Nitrogen limitation was achieved in NO3-limited continuous cultures renewed at the rate of 0.5 d(-1) and exposed to a saturating light level. pCO(2) was increased from 400 to 700 ppm and controlled by bubbling CO2-rich or CO2-free air into the cultures. The pCO(2) shift has a rapid effect on cell physiology that occurs within 2 cell divisions subsequent to the perturbation. Net calcification rate (C) decreased by 25% and, in contrast to previous studies with N-replete cultures, gross community production (GCP) and dark community respiration (DCR) also decreased. These results suggest that increasing pCO(2) has no noticeable effect on the calcification/photosynthesis ratio (C/P) when cells of E. huxleyi are NO3-limited. [less ▲]

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See detailToward tissue-selective pancreatic B-cells KATP channel openers belonging to 3-alkylamino-7-halo-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxides
De Tullio, Pascal ULiege; Becker, B.; Boverie, S. et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2003), 46

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See detailSong activation by testosterone is associated with an increased catecholaminergic innervation of the song control system in female canaries
Appeltants, D.; Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULiege

in Neuroscience (2003), 121(3), 801-814

In canaries, singing and a large number of morphological features of the neural system that mediates the learning, perception and production of song exhibit marked sex differences. Although these ... [more ▼]

In canaries, singing and a large number of morphological features of the neural system that mediates the learning, perception and production of song exhibit marked sex differences. Although these differences have been mainly attributed to sex-specific patterns of the action of testosterone and its metabolites, the mechanisms by which sex steroids regulate brain and behavior are far from being completely understood. Given that the density of immunoreactive catecholaminergic fibers that innervate telencephalic song nuclei in canaries is higher in males, which sing, than in females, which usually do not sing, we hypothesized that some of the effects induced by testosterone on song behavior are mediated through the action of the steroid on the catecholaminergic neurons which innervate the song control nuclei. Therefore, we investigated in female canaries the effects of a treatment with exogenous testosterone on song production, on the volume of song control nuclei, and on the catecholaminergic innervation of these nuclei as assessed by immunocytochemical visualization of tyrosine hydroxylase. Testosterone induced male-like singing in all females and increased by about 80% the volume of two telencephalic song control nuclei, the high vocal center (HVC) and the nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA). Testosterone also significantly increased the fractional area covered by tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive structures (fibers and varicosities) in most telencephalic song control nuclei (HVC, the lateral and medial parts of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum, the nucleus interfacialis, and to a lesser extent RA). By contrast, testosterone did not affect the catecholaminergic innervation of the telencephalic areas adjacent to HVC and RA. Together these data demonstrate that, in parallel to its effects on song behavior and on the morphology of the song control system, testosterone also regulates the catecholaminergic innervation of most telencephalic song control nuclei in canaries. The endocrine regulation of singing may thus involve the neuromodulatory action of specialized dopaminergic and/or noradrenergic projections onto several key parts of the song control system. (C) 2003 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailA general method for the chemical synthesis of gamma-P-32-labeled or unlabeled nucleoside 5 '-triphosphates and thiamine triphosphate
Bettendorff, Lucien ULiege; Nghiem, Hoang O; Wins, Pierre et al

in Analytical Biochemistry (2003), 322(2), 190-197

Several methods for the chemical synthesis of gamma-P-32-labeled and unlabeled nucleoside 5'-triphosphates and thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) have been described. They often proved unsatisfactory because of ... [more ▼]

Several methods for the chemical synthesis of gamma-P-32-labeled and unlabeled nucleoside 5'-triphosphates and thiamine triphosphate (ThTP) have been described. They often proved unsatisfactory because of low yield, requirement for anhydrous solvents, procedures involving several steps or insufficient specific radioactivity of the labeled triphosphate. In the method described here, all these drawbacks are avoided. The synthesis of [gamma-P-32]TbTP was carried out in one step, using 1,3-dicyclohexyl carbodiimide as condensing agent for thiamine diphosphate and phosphoric acid in a dimethyl sulfoxide/pyridine solvent mixture. Anhydrous solvents were not required and the yield reached 90%. After purification, [gamma-P-32]ThTP had a specific radioactivity of 11 Ci/mmol and was suitable for protein phosphorylation. The method can also be used for the synthesis Of [gamma-P-32]ATP of the desired specific radioactivity. It can easily be applied to the synthesis of unlabeled ThTP or ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside 5'-triphosphates. In the latter case, inexpensive 5'-monophosphate precursors can be used as reactants in a 20-fold excess of phosphoric acid. Deoxyribonucleoside 5'-triphosphates were obtained in 6 h with a yield of at least 70%. After purification, the nucleotides were found to be suitable substrates for Taq polymerase during polymerase chain reaction cycling. Our method can easily be scaled up for industrial synthesis of a variety of labeled and unlabeled triphosphoric derivatives from their mono- or diphosphate precursors. (C) 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of trans-activation function for Maedi Visna virus and Caprine arthritis encephalitis virus Tat proteins
Villet, S.; Faure, C.; Bouzar, Amel ULiege et al

in Virology (2003)

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See detailCalculation of bovine haemoglobin oxygen saturation by algorithms integrating age, haemoglobin content, blood pH, partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood, and temperature.
Detry, Benoit; Cambier, Carole ULiege; Frans, A. et al

in Veterinary Journal (2003), 165(3), 258-265

In human and veterinary medicine, arterial and venous haemoglobin oxygen saturations are often used to estimate the severity of a disease and to guide therapeutic decisions. In veterinary medicine ... [more ▼]

In human and veterinary medicine, arterial and venous haemoglobin oxygen saturations are often used to estimate the severity of a disease and to guide therapeutic decisions. In veterinary medicine, haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO(2)) is usually calculated using a blood gas analyser and algorithms developed for humans. It is possible, therefore, that the values obtained in animals may be distorted, particularly in animals with a high haemoglobin oxygen affinity, like young calves. In order to verify this hypothesis, we compared the arterial (SaO(2)) and venous (SvO(2)) haemoglobin oxygen saturations calculated using three different algorithms, and the oxygen exchange fraction (OEF) at the tissue level, which is the degree of haemoglobin desaturation between arterial and venous blood (SaO(2)-SvO(2)), with the values obtained from the whole bovine oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) determined by a reference method. The blood gas analysers underestimated SvO(2) values; consequently, the OEF was overestimated (by about 10%). Two methods of reducing these errors were assessed. As the haemoglobin oxygen affinity decreases during the first month of life in calves a relationship between PO(2) at 50% haemoglobin saturation (P50) and age was established in order to correct the calculated values of venous and arterial SO(2), taking into account the estimated position of the OEC. This method markedly reduced the error for SvO(2) and OEF. Secondly, the SO(2) was calculated using a mathematical model taking into account the age of the animal and the specific effects of pH, PCO(2), and temperature on the bovine OEC. Using this method, the mean difference between the OEF values calculated using the mathematical model and those calculated by the reference method was close to zero. The errors produced by blood gas analysers can thus be minimised in two ways: firstly, by simply introducing a P50 estimated from the age of the calf into the analyser before the measurement; and secondly, by calculating the SO(2) using a mathematical model applied to the bovine OEC. [less ▲]

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See detailPion and rho meson observables in a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model including a tensor interaction
Jaminon, Martine ULiege; Ruivo, M. C.; De Sousa, C. A.

in International Journal of Modern Physics A (2002), 17(32), 4903-4925

We calculate the low energy pipi scattering lengths a(0)(0), a(0)(2), b(0)(0), b(0)(2) and a(1)(1), the coupling of the rho to the pion g(rhopipi), the total width of the rho, the low q(2) behavior of the ... [more ▼]

We calculate the low energy pipi scattering lengths a(0)(0), a(0)(2), b(0)(0), b(0)(2) and a(1)(1), the coupling of the rho to the pion g(rhopipi), the total width of the rho, the low q(2) behavior of the pion electromagnetic form factor, and the pion scalar form factor within a chiral SU(2)(f) NJL-type Lagrangian where the spin 1 rho meson is generated from a four-quark tensor interaction. Such a simple model avoids the mathematical complication related to pi - a(1) mixing. Two types of regularization are discussed, mainly affecting the values of a(0)(0) and b(0)(0). We find rather good agreement with data. The p meson described in this way does not account for the meson vector dominance model: it does not contribute to the a(0)(0), a(0)(2) scattering lengths, and the charge radius of the pion is mainly ascribed to the bare photon quark coupling. Even if the shape of the electromagnetic form factor is well reproduced, the strong increase near the rho pole does not account for the p --> pipi decay but only reflects the q (q) over bar structure of the rho. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieval and characterization of ozone profiles from solar infrared spectra at the Jungfraujoch
Barret, B.; De Maziere, M.; Demoulin, Philippe ULiege

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2002), 107(D24),

[1] Vertical distributions of ozone from June 1996 to November 2000 have been retrieved from high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra recorded at the primary Network for ... [more ▼]

[1] Vertical distributions of ozone from June 1996 to November 2000 have been retrieved from high-resolution Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) solar absorption spectra recorded at the primary Network for Detection of Stratospheric Change station of the Jungfraujoch in the Swiss Alps (46.5degreesN, 8degreesE, 3580 m above sea level (asl). The retrievals were performed using the Optimal Estimation Method (OEM), both in a narrow spectral interval (1002.567-1003.2 cm(-1)) and in a broad spectral interval (1000.0-1005.0 cm(-1)) in the O-3 9.6-mum band. A thorough characterization of the retrievals has been performed following the lines of OEM, including an information content analysis, a study of the correlations between retrieved instrumental parameters and retrieved ozone concentrations, and an evaluation of the O-3 profile error budget. It is demonstrated that the information content is significantly higher for spectra in the broad microwindow, resulting in higher vertical resolutions, on the order of 8 km, of the retrieved profiles extending up to 40 km, and less correlations between retrieved parameters. An independent statistical verification of the retrieval results and their characterization has been performed by comparison of the FTIR ozone profiles with independent measurements. These are the ozone profile measurements from balloon soundings at Payerne, from the microwave radiometer at Bern and the lidar at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), and the total column data from the Dobson spectrophotometer at Arosa. Applying the optimum retrieval procedure in the broad spectral interval, an excellent agreement has been found between the FTIR O-3 profile data and the correlative data. The largest offset of the FTIR data in comparison with the correlative data is found with respect to the lidar data in the 24- to 40-km layer, and is on the order of 5%. No systematic biases have been found in the troposphere, neither in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS) up to 18 km. The dispersion of the relative differences between the data sets, if any, is never larger than half of the natural ozone variability. [less ▲]

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See detailThe BIA++: Extending the BIA+ to a dynamical distributed connectionist framework: Comment
Jacquet, Maud ULiege; French, R.

in Bilingualism: Language and Cognition (2002), 5(3), 202-205

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See detailThe breakdown behavior of the maximum likelihood estimator in the logistic regression model
Croux, C.; Flandre, C.; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULiege

in Statistics & Probability Letters (2002), 60(4), 377-386

In this note we discuss the breakdown behavior of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator in the logistic regression model. We formally prove that the ML-estimator never explodes to infinity, but rather ... [more ▼]

In this note we discuss the breakdown behavior of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator in the logistic regression model. We formally prove that the ML-estimator never explodes to infinity, but rather breaks down to zero when adding severe outliers to a data set. An example confirms this behavior. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailOral bioavailability in sheep of albendazole from a suspension and from a solution containing hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin
Evrard, Brigitte ULiege; Chiap, Patrice ULiege; De Tullio, Pascal ULiege et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2002), 85(1-3), 45-50

Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthe parasites. ABZ has a very poor aqueous solubility. This study shows that hydroxypropyl ... [more ▼]

Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole derivative with a broad spectrum of activity against human and animal helminthe parasites. ABZ has a very poor aqueous solubility. This study shows that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) is able to form inclusion complexes with ABZ and that is able to increase its aqueous solubility. A synergistic effect exists between HP-beta-CD and citric acid. The combination of HP-beta-CD (200 mM) and citric acid (50 mM) allows dissolution of more than 1.5 mg of ABZ per ml. The aim of this study is the in vivo evaluation in sheep of a solution of the inclusion complex of ABZ with HP-beta-CD in comparison with a suspension of the same drug. A significant (P<0.05) increase in the relative bioavailability is obtained with the solution containing the ABZ-HP-beta-CD complex as measured by ABZSO plasma levels. The area under the curve (AUC(0--> proportional, variant )) of the solution is 37% higher than that obtained with the suspension. Likewise the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) is twice that of the solution while the time to reach C(max) (T(max)) is reduced. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunisation against Theileria parva in eastern Zambia: influence of maternal antibodies and demonstration of the carrier status
Marcotty, T.; Brandt, J.; Billiouw, M. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2002), 110(1-2), 45-56

Immunisation of calves by the infection and treatment method (I

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See detailStatistical derivation of the evolution equation of liquid water path fluctuations in clouds
Ivanova, K.; Ausloos, Marcel ULiege

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2002), 107(D23),

[1] How to distinguish and quantify deterministic and random influences on the statistics of turbulence data in meteorology cases is discussed from first principles. Liquid water path (LWP) changes in ... [more ▼]

[1] How to distinguish and quantify deterministic and random influences on the statistics of turbulence data in meteorology cases is discussed from first principles. Liquid water path (LWP) changes in clouds, as retrieved from radio signals, upon different delay times, can be regarded as a stochastic Markov process. A detrended fluctuation analysis method indicates the existence of long range time correlations. The Fokker-Planck equation which models very precisely the LWP fluctuation empirical probability distributions, in particular, their non-Gaussian heavy tails is explicitly derived and written in terms of a drift and a diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, Kramers-Moyal coefficients, as estimated from the empirical data, are found to be in good agreement with their first principle derivation. Finally, the equivalent Langevin equation is written for the LWP increments themselves. Thus rather than the existence of hierarchical structures, like an energy cascade process, strong correlations on different timescales, from small to large ones, are considered to be proven as intrinsic ingredients of such cloud evolutions. [less ▲]

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See detailResolution of the Photosystem I and Photosystem II contributions to chlorophyll fluorescence of intact leaves at room temperature
Franck, Fabrice ULiege; Juneau, P.; Popovic, R.

in Biochimica & Biophysica Acta (2002), 1556(2-3), 239-246

Green leaves illuminated with photosynthetically active light emit red fluorescence, whose time-dependent intensity variations reflect photosynthetic electron transport (the Kautsky effect). Usually ... [more ▼]

Green leaves illuminated with photosynthetically active light emit red fluorescence, whose time-dependent intensity variations reflect photosynthetic electron transport (the Kautsky effect). Usually, fluorescence variations are discussed by considering only the contribution of PSII-associated chlorophyll a, although it is known that the fluorescence of PSI-associated chlorophyll a also contributes to the total fluorescence [Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 22 (1995) 13 1]. Because the fluorescence emitted by each photosystem cannot be measured separately by selecting the emission wavelength in in vivo conditions, the contribution of PSI to total fluorescence at room temperature is still in ambiguity. By using a diode array detector, we measured fluorescence emission spectra corresponding to the minimal (F-O) and maximal (F-M) fluorescence states. We showed that the different shapes of these spectra were mainly due to a higher contribution of PSI chlorophylls in the F-O spectrum. By exciting PSI preferentially, we recorded a reference PSI emission spectrum in the near far-red region. From the F-O and F-M spectra and from this PSI reference spectrum, we derived specific PSI and PSII emission spectra in both the F-O and F-M states. This enables to estimate true value of the relative variable fluorescence of PSII, which was underestimated in previous works. Accurate separation of PSI-PSII fluorescence emission spectra will also enable further investigations of the distribution of excitation energy between PSI and PSII under in vivo conditions. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMAGRITTE / SPECTRE : the Solar Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory
Rochus, Pierre ULiege; Defise, Jean-Marc ULiege; Halain, Jean-Philippe ULiege et al

in AGU Fall Meeting Abstracts (2002), 21

The Solar Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory will characterize the dynamical evolution of the solar plasma from the chromosphere to the corona, and will follow the ... [more ▼]

The Solar Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory will characterize the dynamical evolution of the solar plasma from the chromosphere to the corona, and will follow the connection of plasma dynamics with magnetic activity throughout the solar atmosphere. The AIA consists of 7 high resolution imaging telescopes in the following spectral bandpasses: 1215 \x8F Ly-a, 304 \x8F He II, 629 \x8F OV, 465 \x8F Ne VII, 195 \x8F Fe XII (includes Fe XXIV), 284 \x8F Fe XV, and 335 \x8F Fe XVI. The telescopes are grouped by instrumental approach: the Magritte Filtergraphs (R. Magritte, famous 20th Century Belgian Surrealistic Artist), five multilayer EUV channels with bandpasses ranging from 195 to 1216 \x8F, and the SPECTRE Spectroheliograph with one soft-EUV channel at OV 629 \x8F. They will be simultaneously operated with a 10-second imaging cadence. These two instruments, the electronic boxes and two redundant Guide Telescopes (GT) constitute the AIA suite. They will be mounted and coaligned on a dedicated common optical bench. The GTs will provide pointing jitter information to the whole SHARPP assembly. This poster presents the selected technologies, the different challenges, the trade-offs to be made in phase A, and the model philosophy. From a scientific viewpoint, the unique combination high temporal and spatial resolutions with the simultaneous multi-channel capability will allow Magritte/SPECTRE to explore new domains in the dynamics of the solar atmosphere, in particular the fast small-scale phenomena. We show how the spectral channels of the different instruments were derived to fulfill the AIA scientific objectives, and we outline how this imager array will address key science issues, like the transition region and coronal waves or flare precursors, in coordination with other SDO experiments. We finally describe the real-time solar monitoring products that will be made available for space-weather forecasting applications. [less ▲]

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See detailNear- and mid-infrared colours of star-forming galaxies in European Large Area ISO Survey fields
Vaisanen, Petri; Morel, Thierry ULiege; Rowan-Robinson, M. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2002), 337

We present J- and K-band near-infrared (near-IR) photometry of a sample of mid-infrared (mid-IR) sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) as part of the European Large Area ISO Survey ... [more ▼]

We present J- and K-band near-infrared (near-IR) photometry of a sample of mid-infrared (mid-IR) sources detected by the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) as part of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS) and study their classification and star-forming properties. We have used the Preliminary ELAIS Catalogue for the 6.7-μm (LW2) and 15-μm (LW3) fluxes. All of the high-reliability LW2 sources and 80 per cent of the LW3 sources are identified in the near-IR survey reaching K~ 17.5 mag. The near-IR/mid-IR flux ratios can effectively be used to separate stars from galaxies in mid-IR surveys. The stars detected in our survey region are used to derive a new accurate calibration for the ELAIS ISOCAM data in both the LW2 and LW3 filters. We show that near- to mid-IR colour-colour diagrams can be used to classify galaxies further, as well as to study star formation. The ELAIS ISOCAM survey is found mostly to detect strongly star-forming late-type galaxies, possibly starburst-powered galaxies, and it also picks out obscured active galactic nuclei. The ELAIS galaxies yield an average mid-IR flux ratio LW2/LW3 = 0.67 +/- 0.27. We discuss the f[SUB]ν[/SUB](6.7 μ m)/f[SUB]ν[/SUB](15 μ m) ratio as a star formation tracer using ISO and IRAS data of a local comparison sample. We find that the f[SUB]ν[/SUB](2.2 μ m)/f[SUB]ν[/SUB](15 μ m) ratio is also a good indicator of activity level in galaxies and conclude that the drop in the f[SUB]ν[/SUB](6.7 μ m)/f[SUB]ν[/SUB](15 μ m) ratio seen in strongly star-forming galaxies is a result of both an increase of 15-μm emission and an apparent depletion of 6.7-μm emission. Near-IR together with the mid-IR data make it possible to estimate the relative amount of interstellar matter in the galaxies. [less ▲]

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See detailEquivariant symbol calculus for differential operators acting on forms
Boniver, Fabien; Hansoul, Sarah ULiege; Mathonet, Pierre ULiege et al

in Letters in Mathematical Physics (2002), 62(3), 219-232

We prove the existence and uniqueness of a projectively equivariant symbol map (in the sense of Lecomte and Ovsienko) for the spaces D_p of differential operators transforming p-forms into functions, over ... [more ▼]

We prove the existence and uniqueness of a projectively equivariant symbol map (in the sense of Lecomte and Ovsienko) for the spaces D_p of differential operators transforming p-forms into functions, over R^n. As an application, we classify the Vect(M)-equivariant maps from D_p to D_q over a smooth manifold M, recovering and improving earlier results of N. Poncin. This provides the complete answer to a question raised by P. Lecomte about the extension of a certain intrinsic homotopy operator. [less ▲]

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See detailSite effect analysis around the seismically induced Ananevo, Rockslide, Kyrgyzstan
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULiege; Jongmans, D.; Faccioli, E. et al

in Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America (2002), 92(8), 3190-3209

In 1911, the surface-wave magnitude 8.2 Kemin earthquake hit northeastern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan), close to the cities of Bishkek and Almaty, the capitals of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, respectively ... [more ▼]

In 1911, the surface-wave magnitude 8.2 Kemin earthquake hit northeastern Tien Shan (Kyrgyzstan), close to the cities of Bishkek and Almaty, the capitals of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, respectively. Several hundreds of people were killed by the earthquake, some by indirect effects such as landslides and mudflows. A particular but nonfatal landslide triggered by the Kemin event was a rockslide in the vicinity of Ananevo, north of lake Issyk Kul (Kyrgyzstan) rockslide located above the fault zone activated in 1911. In the summer of 1999, a geophysical-seismological field trip was organized to study geology and to record seismic ground motions on and around the Ananevo rockslide. The work was part of project assessing seismogenic landslide hazard in northern Kyrgyzstan, based on various case studies of slope failures in connection with site-specific ground-motion dynamics. The geophysical investigations consisted of seismic refraction tests processed as 2D seismic tomographies and surface-wave inversion, which were combined to build a 3D geophysical model of the landslide site. Ground motions from small earthquakes were analyzed using several techniques to define site effects over the mountain massif. Both H/V and standard spectral ratios indicated lower dominant frequencies with stronger amplification in the crest region with respect to the mountain slope. These effects could be partially simulated by I D, 2D, and 3D finite-element modeling. By comparing the numerical results with the experimental data, the presence of a surficial low-velocity layer of varying thickness appeared to be the key factor controlling the ground motion around the rockslide. [less ▲]

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See detailMotor and phosphene thresholds to transcranial magnetic stimuli: a reproducibility study
Fumal, Arnaud ULiege; Bohotin, V.; Vandenheede, Michel et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 171-175

OBJECTIVES: As repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is often applied on different days, it is of interest to know whether motor (MT) and phosphene (PT) thresholds are reproducible across ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: As repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is often applied on different days, it is of interest to know whether motor (MT) and phosphene (PT) thresholds are reproducible across time and whether the intensity determined on the first day can be used in subsequent sessions. METHODS: We studied MT and PT over 5 separate recordings in 10 healthy volunteers using a focal coil and a Magstim(Rapid stimulator. After the initial recording (session 1), the others (2 to 5) were performed respectively after 1 day, 7 days, 1 month and 4 months. RESULTS: Mean MT at rest were 65.30 +/- 5.54%, 65.7 +/- 7.18%, 60.4 +/- 4.27%, 61.8 +/- 4.34%, and 63 +/- 9.1% at sessions 1 to 5. Mean PT were 71.43 +/- 6.68%, 66.29 +/- 10.67%, 60.71 +/- 8.64%, 60.57 +/- 8.08%, and 68.71 +/- 15.48% at sessions 1 to 5. MT and PT were reproducible (ANOVA analysis), however, as shown by coefficients of variation, variability between the first 3 sessions exceeded 10% for MT in 3 subjects and in 4 subjects for PT. CONCLUSIONS: It seems preferable to determine thresholds and adapt output intensity of the stimulator at each rTMS session. [less ▲]

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See detailVenlafaxine: the relationship between dose, plasma concentration and clinical response in depressive patients
Charlier, Corinne ULiege; Pinto, Emmanuel ULiege; Ansseau, Marc ULiege et al

in Journal of Psychopharmacology (2002), 16(4), 369-372

The relationship between plasma drug level of venlafaxine and daily intake was studied in 89 major depressive inpatients. In addition, changes over time in severity were assessed weekly in a subgroup of ... [more ▼]

The relationship between plasma drug level of venlafaxine and daily intake was studied in 89 major depressive inpatients. In addition, changes over time in severity were assessed weekly in a subgroup of 22 depressed patients using the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impression improvement scale. The results indicate a moderate correlation between daily doses and plasma concentrations, together with a higher relationship between improvement on the MADRS scale and concentration. Moreover, plasma concentrations (for venlafaxine and its predominant metabolite, O-desmethylvenlafaxine) up to 400 microg/l can be considered as effective, as already suggested in a previous study. No case of venlafaxine discontinuation occurred during the longitudinal study, and the incidence of adverse event, as estimated by the Target Emergent Symptoms and Side-effects scale, was low, suggesting that the drug is well tolerated for such plasma concentrations. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Decouverte fortuite d'une fistule coronarienne
Gach, Olivier ULiege; Legrand, Victor ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 757-9

We report the case of a 54 year old man presenting atypical chest pain. The echocardiogram showed a dilatation of the coronary sinus. Subsequently the angiographic evaluation with cardiac catheterization ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a 54 year old man presenting atypical chest pain. The echocardiogram showed a dilatation of the coronary sinus. Subsequently the angiographic evaluation with cardiac catheterization demonstrated a coronary artery fistula between the circumflex artery and the coronary sinus and between a megaanevrysmal right coronary artery and the coronary sinus. No significant left to right shunt was discovered, however. [less ▲]

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See detailMacrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) expression in human glioblastomas correlates with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression
Munaut, Carine ULiege; Boniver, Jacques ULiege; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULiege et al

in Neuropathology & Applied Neurobiology (2002), 28(6), 452-460

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a peptide released upon hypothalamo-pituitary stimulation that acts as a potent endogenous antagonist of the glucocorticoid inhibition of acute inflammatory ... [more ▼]

Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a peptide released upon hypothalamo-pituitary stimulation that acts as a potent endogenous antagonist of the glucocorticoid inhibition of acute inflammatory response and subsequent antigen-specific response. MIF also sustains tumour growth as it promotes angiogenesis, overcomes p53-mediated cell growth arrest and inhibits tumour-specific immune responses. Using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, we studied MIF expression in 35 human glioblastomas and two normal brains. We compared these results with the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the most potent angiogenic factor in glioblastomas. We detected MIF in normal cortical neurons and glial cells. All glioblastomas were positive for MIF mRNA with expression levels similar to or higher than those of normal brain. MIF immunoreactivity was seen mainly in tumour cells and less frequently in hyperplastic endothelial cells. The expressions of MIF and VEGF mRNA were strongly correlated (P < 0.0001). Our results demonstrate the expression of MIF in human glioblastomas, and indicate a close relationship with VEGF expression. This is of particular interest given the potential modulation of MIF by glucocorticosteroids. [less ▲]

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See detailLe TVT: traitement revolutionnaire de l'incontinence urinaire
Sanjurjo, Sylvia ULiege; Ben Younes, A.; Bonnet, Pierre ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 765-70

Stress urinary incontinence represents an important, often unknown and, yet, certainly most unpleasant pathology. Over years, several different surgical techniques have been proposed and reported to have ... [more ▼]

Stress urinary incontinence represents an important, often unknown and, yet, certainly most unpleasant pathology. Over years, several different surgical techniques have been proposed and reported to have variable success. TVT, a simple and reproducible technique, aims at stabilizing mid-urethra, and not bladder-neck. Our own clinical experience amounts to 139 cases. All these patients were evaluated by clinical examination and, subjectively, by a questionnaire. 89.2% were cured and 6.5% improved. The most frequent complication was bladder perforation (6.5%), but it had no incidence on the final results. Morbidity was low. This revolutionary technique is very promising and our own results are similar to those reported by others. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention of early postmenopausal bone loss by strontium ranelate: The randomized, two-year, double-masked, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled PREVOS trial
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULiege; Deroisy, Rita ULiege; Dougados, M. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002), 13(12), 925-931

Early postmenopausal women (n = 160) were randomised to receive placebo or strontium ranelate (SR) 125 mg/day, 500 mg/day or 1 g/day for 2 years (40 participants per group). All participants received ... [more ▼]

Early postmenopausal women (n = 160) were randomised to receive placebo or strontium ranelate (SR) 125 mg/day, 500 mg/day or 1 g/day for 2 years (40 participants per group). All participants received calcium 500 mg/day. The primary efficacy parameter was the percent variation in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary efficacy criteria included hip BMD and biochemical markers of bone turnover. At month 24, SR I g/day significantly increased lumbar BMD compared with placebo [mean (SD) +5.53% (5.12); p < 0.001] for measured values and [mean (SD) + 1.41% (5.33%); p < 0.05] for values adjusted for bone strontium content. The annual increase for adjusted values was +0.66% compared with -0.5% with placebo, with an overall beneficial effect after 2 years of about 2.4% with SR I g/day relative to placebo. There were no other significant between-group differences in adjusted lumbar BMD. Femoral neck and total hip BMD were also significantly increased at month 24 with SR I g/day compared with placebo [mean (SD): +2.46% (4.78) and +3.21% (4.68), respectively; both p < 0.001)]. SR 1 g/day significantly increased bone alkaline phosphatase at all time points (p < 0.05) compared with baseline and between-group analysis showed a significant increase, compared with placebo, at month 18 (p = 0.048). No effect on markers of bone resorption was observed. SR was as well tolerated as placebo. The minimum does at which SR is effective in preventing bone loss in early postmenopausal non-osteoporotic women is therefore 1 g/day. [less ▲]

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See detailDiel activity of Sarpa salpa (Sparidae) by ultrasonic telemetry in a Posidonia oceanica meadow of Corsica (Mediterranean Sea)
Jadot, Catherine; Ovidio, Michaël ULiege; Voss, Jacques ULiege

in Aquatic Living Resources (2002), 15(6), 343-350

In the Mediterranean Sea, the fish Sarpa salpa (Sparidae) is the only vertebrate grazer of Posidonia oceanica meadows. In order to gain knowledge about the behaviour of S. salpa and a better understanding ... [more ▼]

In the Mediterranean Sea, the fish Sarpa salpa (Sparidae) is the only vertebrate grazer of Posidonia oceanica meadows. In order to gain knowledge about the behaviour of S. salpa and a better understanding of the meadow's primary production recycling, an original study was designed using ultrasonic telemetry to investigate activity patterns and space utilisation in the field. During June-September 2000, we compared diel movements of, six adult S. salpa (249-317 nim FL and 313-633 g) in the Bay of Calvi. These fish were tagged by intraperitoneal insertion of ultrasonic transmitters. Their positions were recorded with a directional hydrophone from a small boat with an accuracy between 10 and 50 m, depending on the local environment. The tracking duration ranged from 3 to 22 days (average 11.8 +/- 7.3). Locations were performed from at least dawn to dusk or early night, and one fish was tracked during the entire 24-h cycle. Fish were more mobile during the twilight periods, but statistical analysis indicated individual differences for the precise period of mobility. Two major behavioural patterns were observed: first, the fish remained in close vicinity of the harbour during the day and moved away to the north or the south at dusk to access nocturnal sites, occupying a home range of about 4.3 ha. The second behavioural pattern involved persistent occupation of the same sites during day and night within a relatively restricted home range (about 0.8 ha). Great variation in mobility was found and the same individual fish could show both kinds of behaviour. (C) 2002 Ifremer/CNRS/Inra/IRD/Cemagref/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel bioresorbable and bioactive composites based on bioactive glass and polylactide foams for bone tissue engineering
Roether, J. A.; Gough, J. E.; Boccaccini, Aldo R. et al

in Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine (2002), 13(12), 1207-1214

Bioresorbable and bioactive tissue engineering scaffolds based on bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass®) particles and macroporous poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) foams were fabricated. A slurry dipping technique in ... [more ▼]

Bioresorbable and bioactive tissue engineering scaffolds based on bioactive glass (45S5 Bioglass®) particles and macroporous poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) foams were fabricated. A slurry dipping technique in conjunction with pretreatment in ethanol was used to achieve reproducible and well adhering bioactive glass coatings of uniform thickness on the internal and external surfaces of the foams. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) demonstrated rapid hydroxyapatite (HA) formation on the surface of the composites, indicating their bioactivity. For comparison, composite foams containing Bioglass® particles as filler for the polymer matrix (in concentration of up to 40 wt%) were prepared by freeze-drying, enabling homogenous glass particle distribution in the polymer matrix. The formation of HA on the composite surfaces after immersion in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was investigated to confirm the bioactivity of the composites. Human osteoblasts (HOBs) were seeded onto as-fabricated PDLLA foams and onto PDLLA foams coated with Bioglass® particles to determine early cell attachment and spreading. Cells were observed to attach and spread on all surfaces after the first 90 min in culture. The results of this study indicate that the fabricated composite materials have potential as scaffolds for guided bone regeneration. (C) 2002 Kluwer Academic Publishers. [less ▲]

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See detailAlkali cation attachment to derivatized fullerenes studied by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization
Fati, D.; Leeman, V.; Vasil'ev, Y. V. et al

in Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry (2002), 13(12), 1448-1458

The complexation of alkali metal ions with amphiphilic fullerene derivatives has been investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The ... [more ▼]

The complexation of alkali metal ions with amphiphilic fullerene derivatives has been investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry. The formation of analyte ions occurs via two competing mechanisms including electron transfer from matrix-derived ions and metal ion attachment. The interplay of these processes has been examined by laser fluence dependent sample activation and by variation of the target composition. The attachment of metal ions has been established as the gentler and thus more efficient route towards the formation of intact analyte ions. Investigations into the metal ion complexation have been conducted to reveal the reactivity order of the alkali metals in these reactions and to elucidate the influence of structural differences of the analytes, as well as to unravel effects caused by the anionic counter ion of the metal. The experimental data have been derived by two complementary approaches. Competing reactants were either studied simultaneously, so that the product distribution would provide direct insight into the reactivity pattern, and/or product distributions were obtained in a large variety of separate experiments and normalized for reliable comparison. It has been found that the extent to which complexation is observed follows the charge density order of the alkali metal ions. The structural features of the fullerene-attached ligands were of profound influence on the attachment of the metal ion, inducing enhanced selectivity for the complexation with less reactive metals. The metal ion attachment is reduced with the use of smaller anionic counter ions. Rationalization of these findings is provided within the framework of the mechanisms of ion formation in MALDI. [less ▲]

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See detailIntermittent Versus Continuous Total Androgen Blockade in the Treatment of Patients with Advanced Hormone-Naive Prostate Cancer: Results of a Prospective Randomized Multicenter Trial
De Leval, Jean ULiege; Boca, Philippe; Yousef, Enis et al

in Clinical Prostate Cancer (2002), 1(3), 163-71

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of total intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) versus total continuous androgen deprivation (CAD) for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer in ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of total intermittent androgen deprivation (IAD) versus total continuous androgen deprivation (CAD) for treating patients with advanced prostate cancer in a phase III randomized trial. A total of 68 evaluable patients with hormone-naive advanced or relapsing prostate cancer were randomized to receive combined androgen blockade according to a continuous (n = 33) or intermittent (n = 35) regimen. Therapeutic monitoring was assessed by use of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurements. Patients in the CAD and IAD groups were equally stratified for age, biopsy Gleason score, and baseline serum PSA levels. The outcome variable was time to androgen-independence of the tumor, which was defined as increasing serum PSA levels despite androgen blockade. Mean follow-up was 30.8 months. The 35 IAD-treated patients completed 91 cycles, and 19 of them (54.3%) completed > or = 3 cycles. Median cycle length and percentage of time off therapy were 9.0 months and 59.5, respectively. The estimated 3-year progression rate was significantly lower in the IAD group (7.0% +/- 4.8%) than in the CAD group (38.9% +/- 11.2%, P = 0.0052). Our data suggest that IAD treatment may maintain the androgen-dependent state of advanced human prostate cancer, as assessed by PSA measurements, at least as long as CAD treatment. Further studies with longer follow-up times and larger patient cohorts are needed to determine the comparative impacts of CAD and IAD on survival. [less ▲]

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See detailBronchoalveolar lavage fluids of patients with lung injury activate the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa beta in an alveolar cell line
Nys, Monique ULiege; Deby-Dupont, G.; Habraken, Yvette ULiege et al

in Clinical Science (2002), 103(6), 577-585

In bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from ventilated patients, cytotoxic oxidant activity is correlated with neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that BAL ... [more ▼]

In bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from ventilated patients, cytotoxic oxidant activity is correlated with neutrophil activation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypothesis that BAL fluid induces activation of the transcription nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in human alveolar cells, in correlation with inflammatory mediators. We measured endotoxin, inflammatory cytokines [Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-8], nitrated proteins and the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in BAL fluid from ventilated patients developing bronchopneumonia (n = 19 samples) or with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (n = 14), and from ARDS/infection-free patients (n = 11). We also exposed alveolar cells to the BAL fluid or to human MPO, H2O2 or HOCl, and tested nuclear extracts for the activation of NF-kappaB. IL-1beta, IL-8, nitrated protein, MPO and endotoxin levels were significantly higher in BAL fluid from patients with bronchopneumonia than in that from the ARDS and ARDS/infection-free groups. A correlation was observed between IL-8 and MPO values (r = 0.82). The level of NF-kappaB activity induced by the BAL fluid was correlated with levels of IL-1beta (P < 0.001), IL-8 (P < 0.005) and MPO (P < 0.002), and with the neutrophil count (P < 0.002), and was higher for BAL fluid from the bronchopneumonia group. NF-kappaB activation by MPO was also demonstrated. The activation of NF-kappaB by BAL fluid, especially that from bronchopneumonia patients, suggests that a similar phenomenon may occur in vivo, leading to potential amplification of the inflammatory reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of color centers induced by PIXE irradiation
Absil, J.; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULiege; Strivay, David ULiege et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2002), 198(1-2), 90-97

The particle induced X-ray emission method is perfectly adapted to the study, by external beam, of art objects (like paintings) and allows non-destructive analysis of the atomic composition of the target ... [more ▼]

The particle induced X-ray emission method is perfectly adapted to the study, by external beam, of art objects (like paintings) and allows non-destructive analysis of the atomic composition of the target. However, a strange phenomenon occurs during irradiation on some pigments: dark brownish stains appear, and this could be due to the formation of color centers. In fact, these darkening spots progressively fade out and disappear after a few weeks. Heat and UV light accelerate the decreasing process. The aim of this study is to understand the physical processes of the stain creation and to find a way to make stains disappear, avoiding any damage for the painting. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailActive-site mutants of class B beta-lactamases: substrate binding and mechanistic study
Prosperi-Meys, C.; De Seny, Dominique ULiege; Llabres, Gabriel ULiege et al

in Cellular & Molecular Life Sciences (2002), 59(12), 2136-2143

Increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is mainly due to beta-lactamases. X-ray structures of zinc beta-lactamases unraveled the coordination of the metal ions, but their mode of action remains ... [more ▼]

Increased resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics is mainly due to beta-lactamases. X-ray structures of zinc beta-lactamases unraveled the coordination of the metal ions, but their mode of action remains unclear. Recently, enzymes in which one of the zinc ligands was mutated have been characterized and their catalytic activity against several beta-lactam antibiotics measured. A molecular modeling study of these enzymes was performed here to explain the catalytic activity of the mutants. Coordination around the zinc ions influences the way the tetrahedral intermediate is bound; any modification influences the first recognition of the substrate by the enzyme. For all the studied mutants, at least one of the interactions fails, inducing a loss of catalytic efficiency compared to the wild type. The present studies show that the enzyme cavity is a structure of high plasticity both structurally and mechanistically and that local modifications may propagate its effects far from the mutated amino acid. [less ▲]

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See detailHematurie causee par un "nutcracker syndrome" ou "syndrome du casse-noisettes": confirmation peroperatoire de sa realite
Andrianne, Robert ULiege; Limet, Raymond ULiege; Waltregny, David ULiege et al

in Progrès en Urologie (2002), 12(6), 1323-6

Nutcracker syndrome should be considered in the case of left ureteric haematuria based on computed tomography with vascular reconstruction of the hilar region of the kidney. The best confirmation is ... [more ▼]

Nutcracker syndrome should be considered in the case of left ureteric haematuria based on computed tomography with vascular reconstruction of the hilar region of the kidney. The best confirmation is obtained by studying the pressure gradient between the left renal vein and the inferior vena cava during cavography. Various modalities of surgical treatment have been proposed by a few authors, but have been criticised by some authors who question the clinical reality of this syndrome and the efficacy of treatment. The decision to operate may be difficult and other investigations may be useful to confirm the diagnosis. We report the case of a patient in whom the diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome was confirmed intraoperatively by the immediate appearance of massive, reversible haematuria induced by clamping of the renal vein during vein dissection and augmentation plasty. In the light of this original case, we believe that a preoperative percutaneous haematuria provocation test by temporary obstruction of the left renal vein during venography could allow a more formal diagnosis of nutcracker syndrome when this syndrome is highly suspected. [less ▲]

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See detailDependence of the morphology development on the kinetics of reactive melt blending of immiscible polymers
Yin, Zhiyui; Koulic, Christian; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering (2002), 80(6), 1044-1050

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing 50 wt% of anthracene (anth) labeled reactive PMMA chains [thus end-capped by an anhydride (anh) or an isocyanate (NCO)] has been melt blended with polystyrene ... [more ▼]

Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) containing 50 wt% of anthracene (anth) labeled reactive PMMA chains [thus end-capped by an anhydride (anh) or an isocyanate (NCO)] has been melt blended with polystyrene containing 33 wt% of chains end-capped by an aliphatic amine (PS-NH2) at 180degreesC. Conversion of anth-PMMA-anh and anth-PMMA-NCO into PMMA-b-PS copolymers has been determined by SEC with a UV detector. The interfacial reaction mainly occurs in the initial mixing stage (less than or equal to1.0 min), although at a rate which depends on the reactive groups attached to PMMA. Moreover, this interfacial reaction rate controls how the phase morphology is developed. [less ▲]

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See detailStructure and dynamics of candidate O star bubbles in N44
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Chu, Y. H.; Guerrero, M. A. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2002), 124(6), 3325-3335

Dynamical studies of superbubbles and Wolf-Rayet ring nebulae show discrepancies from the standard adiabatic model for windblown bubbles. We therefore study the physical properties and kinematics of three ... [more ▼]

Dynamical studies of superbubbles and Wolf-Rayet ring nebulae show discrepancies from the standard adiabatic model for windblown bubbles. We therefore study the physical properties and kinematics of three candidate bubbles blown by single O stars to evaluate whether these discrepancies are also found in these simpler objects. Our sample candidates are N44 F, N44 J, and N44 M, in the outskirts of the H II complex N44 in the Large Magellanic Cloud. We have obtained ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope emission-line images and high-dispersion echelle spectra for these objects. From the Halpha luminosities and the [ O III]/ Halpha ratios of these nebulae, we estimate the spectral types of the ionizing stars to be O7 V, O9.5 V, and O9.5 V for N44 F, N44 J, and N44 M, respectively. We. find that the observed expansion velocity of 12 km s(-1) for N44 F is consistent with the stellar wind luminosity expected from the central ionizing star, as predicted by the standard bubble model. The observed upper limits for the expansion velocities of N44 J and N44 M are also compatible with the expected values, within the uncertainties. We also report the discovery in N44 F of strongly defined dust columns, similar to those seen in the Eagle Nebula. The photoevaporation of these dense dust features may be kinematically important and may actually govern the evolution of the shell. The inclusion of photoevaporation processes may thus undermine the apparent agreement between the observed bubble dynamics and the simple adiabatic models. [less ▲]

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See detailLes yeux de la nuit : Chats, chouettes, chauve-souris...
Strivay, Lucienne ULiege

in Voir (2002), 24-25

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See detailIncreased expression of the putative axon growth-repulsive extracellular matrix molecule, keratan sulphate proteoglycan, following traumatic injury of the adult rat spinal cord
Krautstrunk, M.; Scholtes, Félix ULiege; Martin, Didier ULiege et al

in Acta Neuropathologica (2002), 104(6), 592-600

Keratan sulphate proteoglycan (KSPG) is a developmentally regulated barrier molecule, directing axonal growth during central nervous system (CNS) formation. The possible re-expression and functional ... [more ▼]

Keratan sulphate proteoglycan (KSPG) is a developmentally regulated barrier molecule, directing axonal growth during central nervous system (CNS) formation. The possible re-expression and functional significance of KSPG in preventing axon regeneration following spinal cord injury (SCI) is poorly understood. In the present investigation, the spatio-temporal expression of KSPG was studied following experimental SCI. There was no indication of sparing of axons at the lesion epicentre following severe compression injury. By 7 days post operation (p.o.) a diffuse increase of KSPG immunoreactivity (KSPG-IR) was observed in the parenchyma surrounding the lesion. This was followed by a delayed (21-28 days p.o.) and largely heterogeneous increase of KSPG-IR in the lesion epicentre, which revealed both cellular and extracellular matrix-like distribution patterns. Although no re-growth of anterogradely labelled corticospinal axons was observed, many 200-kDa neurofilament (NF)-positive axon could be detected growing into the connective tissue scar. This phase of spontaneous axonal re-growth was closely associated with a framework of glial cells (including Schwann cells from damaged local spinal nerve roots) that had migrated into the lesion site. The spontaneous nerve fibre re-growth could be detected in both KSPG-rich and KSPG-poor territories. The present data suggest that the lesion-induced up-regulation of KSPG-IR may have contributed to the lack of corticospinal axon re-growth. However, the lack of any direct spatio-temporal correlation between the distribution of raised KSPG-IR and spontaneous NF-positive axonal regeneration suggests that at least some populations of axons can resist the putative inhibitory effects of this extracellular matrix molecule. [less ▲]

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See detailCytokine production from sputum cells after allergenic challenge in IgE-mediated asthma
Bettiol, Jeanne; Sele, Jocelyne ULiege; Henket, Monique ULiege et al

in Allergy (2002), 57(12), 1145-1150

Background: Th2 cytokine production from airway cells is thought to govern the eosinophilic airways in ammation in allergic asthma. Induced sputum has become a widely used technique to assess airways in ... [more ▼]

Background: Th2 cytokine production from airway cells is thought to govern the eosinophilic airways in ammation in allergic asthma. Induced sputum has become a widely used technique to assess airways in ammation. Methods: By applying the technique of induced sputum to collect airways cells, we have assessed the spontaneous production of a set of cytokines, including interleukin-4, 6, 10, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha 6 h after a bronchial allergenic hallenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt) in 12 sensitized asthmatics and compared the results obtained after inhalation of saline as control. A group of eight healthy non-allergic subjects was enrolled to control for any non-specific effect of Dpt. Cytokines were measured by a dynamic immunoassay during a 24-h sputum cell culture. Results: Allergen challenge in sensitized asthmatics caused an acute and a late bronchospasm together with a rise in sputum eosinophil counts. Afterwards allergen sputum cells from allergic asthmatics displayed a rise in their production of IL-4 (P < 0.01), IL-6 (P < 0.05) and IL- 10 (P < 0.05) when compared to saline. By this time sputum generation of IL- 4 in atopic asthmatics was greater than in healthy subjects (P < 0.001). Furthermore, in allergic asthmatics there was a strong correlation between the rise in interleukin-4 production from sputum cells and the rise in sputum eosinophils (r = 0.87, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Sputum cell culture is a useful model to assess cytokine production in allergic asthmatics who show a marked up-regulation of Th2 cytokines following acute allergen exposure. The rise in sputum eosinophil count following allergen challenge strongly correlates with the rise in IL-4 generation from sputum cells. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemistry and comparative genomics of SxxK superfamily acyltransferases offer a clue to the mycobacterial paradox: Presence of penicillin-susceptible target proteins versus lack of efficiency of penicillin as therapeutic agent
Goffin, Colette ULiege; Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Microbiology & Molecular Biology Reviews (2002), 66(4), 702-738

The bacterial acyltransferases of the SxxK superfamily vary enormously in sequence and function, with conservation of particular amino acid groups and all-alpha and alpha/beta folds. They occur as ... [more ▼]

The bacterial acyltransferases of the SxxK superfamily vary enormously in sequence and function, with conservation of particular amino acid groups and all-alpha and alpha/beta folds. They occur as independent entities (free-standing polypeptides) and as modules linked to other polypeptides (protein fusions). They can be classified into three groups. The group I SxxK D,D-acyltransferases are ubiquitous in the bacterial world. They invariably bear the motifs SxxK, SxN(D), and KT(S)G. Anchored in the plasma membrane with the bulk of the polypeptide chain exposed on the outer face of it, they are implicated in the synthesis of wall peptidoglycans of the most frequently encountered (4-->3) type. They are inactivated by penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics acting as suicide carbonyl donors in the form of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs). They are components of a morphogenetic apparatus which, as a whole, controls multiple parameters such as shape and size and allows the bacterial cells to enlarge and duplicate their particular pattern. Class A PBP fusions comprise a glycosyltransferase module fused to an SxxK acyltransferase of class A. Class B PBP fusions comprise a linker, i.e., protein recognition, module fused to an SxxK acyltransferase of class B. They ensure the remodeling of the (4-->3) peptidoglycans in a cell cycle-dependent manner. The free-standing PBPs hydrolyze D,D peptide bonds. The group II SxxK acyltransferases frequently have a partially modified bar code, but the SxxK motif is invariant. They react with penicillin in various ways and illustrate the great plasticity of the catalytic centers. The secreted free-standing PBPs, the serine beta-lactamases, and the penicillin sensors of several penicillin sensory transducers help the D,D-acyltransferases of group I escape penicillin action. The group III SxxK acyltransferases are indistinguishable from the PBP fusion proteins of group I in motifs and membrane topology, but they resist penicillin. They are referred to as Pen(r) protein fusions. Plausible hypotheses are put forward on the roles that the Pen(r) protein fusions, acting as L,D-acyltransferases, may play in the (3-->3) peptidoglycan-synthesizing molecular machines. Shifting the wall peptidoglycan from the (4-->3) type to the (3-->3) type could help Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae survive by making them penicillin resistant. [less ▲]

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See detailPercutaneous stereotactic en bloc excision of nonpalpable breast carcinoma: a step in the direction of supraconservative surgery
Lifrange, Eric ULiege; Dondelinger, Robert ULiege; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULiege et al

in Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland ) (2002), 11(6), 501-508

Recently, the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system has been introduced as an alternative to conventional breast biopsy techniques. This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the ... [more ▼]

Recently, the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system has been introduced as an alternative to conventional breast biopsy techniques. This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the potential of the ABBI method in locoregional management of a consecutive series of patients with nonpalpable mammographically detected breast carcinomas. Sixty-one consecutive patients underwent an ABBI procedure as a first step before possible surgery for nonpalpable breast lesions that would in any case require complete excision. For the 27 patients in whom the ABBI biopsy revealed malignancy further surgery was recommended, including re-excision of the biopsy site and axillary dissection in cases of infiltrating carcinoma. We calculated the probabilities that the ABBI specimen would have tumor-free margins and that a definitely complete excision had been achieved as a function of the mammographic or pathological diameter of the cancer. For cancer with a pathological diameter less than 10 mm, measured on the ABBI specimen, the probability (92%) of obtaining complete resection was significantly better than for larger lesions (P = 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Although the therapeutic perspectives for the ABBI method are limited at present, we suggest that this approach is a first step in the direction of a surgical strategy that is better adapted to the pathological characteristics peculiar to these small tumors, whose incidence is increasing. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Intérêt herpétologique des gares de triage de l'Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse (Belgique)
Graitson, Eric ULiege

in Natura Mosana (2002), 55(4), 63-69

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See detailLaat herstelrecht zich regelen? Wettelijke aanzetten binnen Europa
Lauwaert, Katrien ULiege; Aertsen, Ivo

in Tijdschrift voor Herstelrecht (2002), (4), 17-28

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See detailLa carcinomatose hepatique du cancer colorectal: actualites therapeutiques
Polus, Marc ULiege; Honore, Pierre ULiege; De Roover, Arnaud ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 771-8

Important progress has been made in the treatment of liver metastases of advanced colorectal cancer. Surgery with curative intent, when possible, shows evidence of prolonged survival. Response rate and ... [more ▼]

Important progress has been made in the treatment of liver metastases of advanced colorectal cancer. Surgery with curative intent, when possible, shows evidence of prolonged survival. Response rate and overall survival can be improved with modern polychemotherapy. Cytotoxic drug combinations and sequential treatments sometimes make surgery possible for initially non resectable lesions. Impact of loco-regional treatment such as hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy must be defined in randomised trials. Radiofrequency ablation is also currently evaluated in clinical trials. In this review the benefit of each treatment is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperpaysages - Sensibiliser à l'aménagement du territoire par les nouvelles technologies
Partoune, Christine ULiege; Pirenne, Marie; Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULiege

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2002)

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See detailComment je traite ... par hormonotherapie des patientes developpant des complications thrombo-emboliques lors du traitement d'un cancer du sein par tamoxifene
Pelerin, D.; Silvestre, R. M.; Jerusalem, Guy ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 755-6

Thromboembolic complications are well known side effects of treatment with tamoxifen in patients with breast cancer. The authors review the pathophysiology and the risk factors that increase the ... [more ▼]

Thromboembolic complications are well known side effects of treatment with tamoxifen in patients with breast cancer. The authors review the pathophysiology and the risk factors that increase the probability to develop these complications. The most appropriate treatment is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailBrain function in the vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULiege; Antoine, S.; Boly, Mélanie ULiege et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(4), 177-185

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques represent a useful tool to better understand the residual brain function in vegetative state patients. It has been shown that overall cerebral metabolic rates for glucose are massively reduced in this condition. However, the recovery of consciousness from vegetative state is not always associated with substantial changes in global metabolism. This finding led us to hypothesize that some vegetative patients are unconscious not just because of a global loss of neuronal function, but rather due to an altered activity in some critical brain regions and to the abolished functional connections between them. We used voxel-based Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) approaches to characterize the functional neuroanatomy of the vegetative state. The most dysfunctional brain regions were bilateral frontal and parieto-temporal associative cortices. Despite the metabolic impairment, external stimulation still induced a significant neuronal activation (i.e., change in blood flow) in vegetative patients as shown by both auditory click stimuli and noxious somatosensory stimuli. However this activation was limited to primary cortices and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices, thought to be necessary for conscious perception. Finally, we demonstrated that vegetative patients have impaired functional connections between distant cortical areas and between the thalami and the cortex and, more importantly, that recovery of consciousness is paralleled by a restoration of this cortico-thalamo-cortical interaction. [less ▲]

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See detailDo Bovine Lymphocytes Express a Peculiar Prion Protein?
Mélot, France ULiege; Thielen, Caroline ULiege; Labiet, T. et al

in Developmental Immunology (2002), 9(4), 245-52

The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycolipid-anchored cell surface protein that usually exhibits three glycosylation states. Its post-translationally modified isoform, PrPsc, is involved in the ... [more ▼]

The cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a glycolipid-anchored cell surface protein that usually exhibits three glycosylation states. Its post-translationally modified isoform, PrPsc, is involved in the pathogenesis of various transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). In bovine species, BSE infectivity appears to be restricted to the central nervous system; few or no detectable infectivity is found in lymphoid tissues in contrast to scrapie or variant CJD. Since expression of PrPc is a prerequisite for prion replication, we have investigated PrPc expression by bovine immune cells. Lymphocytes from blood and five different lymph organs were isolated from the same animal to assess intra- and interindividual variability of PrPc expression, considering six individuals. As shown by flow cytometry, this expression is absent or weak on granulocytes but is measurable on monocytes, B and T cells from blood and lymph organs. The activation of the bovine cells produces an upregulation of PrPc. The results of our in vitro study of PrPc biosynthesis are consistent with previous studies in other species. Interestingly, western blotting experiments showed only one form of the protein, the diglycosylated band. We propose that the glycosylation state could explain the lack of infectivity of the bovine immune cells. [less ▲]

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See detailFun stories about Brucella: the "furtive nasty bug".
Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Lestrate, Pascal; Delrue, Rose-May et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2002), 90(1-4), 317-28

Although Brucella is responsible for one of the major worldwide zoonosis, our understanding of its pathogenesis remains in its infancy. In this paper, we summarize some of the research in progress in our ... [more ▼]

Although Brucella is responsible for one of the major worldwide zoonosis, our understanding of its pathogenesis remains in its infancy. In this paper, we summarize some of the research in progress in our laboratory that we think could contribute to a better understanding of the Brucella molecular virulence mechanisms and their regulation. [less ▲]

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See detailImages de la nuit. Photographie de l'altérité et altérité de la photographie
Havelange, Carl ULiege

in VOIR (barré) (2002), 24-25

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See detailPsychomotor retardation, spastic paraplegia, cerebellar ataxia and dyskinesia associated with low 5-methyltetrahydrofolate in cerebrospinal fluid: A novel neurometabolic condition responding to folinic acid substitution
Ramaekers, Vincent ULiege; Häusler, M.; Opladen, T. et al

in Neuropediatrics (2002), 33(6), 301-308

Introduction: Normal brain development and function depend on the active transport of folates across the blood-brain barrier. The folate receptor-1 (FR1) protein is localized at the basolateral surface of ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Normal brain development and function depend on the active transport of folates across the blood-brain barrier. The folate receptor-1 (FR1) protein is localized at the basolateral surface of the choroid plexus, which is characterized by a high binding affinity for circulating 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5- MTHF). Patients and Methods: We report on the clinical and metabolic findings among five children with normal neurodevelopmental progress during the first four to six months followed by the acquisition of a neurological condition which includes marked irritability, decelerating head growth, psychomotor retardation, cerebellar ataxia, dyskinesias (choreoathetosis, ballism), pyramidal signs in the lower limbs and occasional seizures. After the age of six years the two oldest patients also manifested a central visual disorder. Known disorders have been ruled out by extensive investigations. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis included determination of biogenic monoamines, pterins and 5-MTHF. Results: Despite normal folate levels in serum and red blood cells with normal homocysteine, analysis of CSF revealed a decline towards very low values for 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF), which suggested disturbed transport of folates across the blood-brain barrier. Genetic analysis of the FR1 gene revealed normal coding sequences. Oral treatment with doses of the stable compound folinic acid (0.5-1 mg/kg/day Leucovorin®) resulted in clinical amelioration and normalization of 5-MTHF values in CSF. Conclusion: Our findings identified a new condition manifesting after the age of 6 months which was accompanied by low 5-MTHF in cerebrospinal fluid and responded to oral supplements with folinic acid. However, the cause of disturbed folate transfer across the blood-brain barrier remains unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailMise au point et traitement des traumatismes pancreatiques chez l'enfant
Devoitille, A.; Dominé, Françoise; De Roover, Arnaud ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 760-4

Pancreatic injury after trauma can occur in the child as an isolated lesion after a minor injury. The consequences can be severe in the absence of prompt diagnosis and treatment. Determination of ... [more ▼]

Pancreatic injury after trauma can occur in the child as an isolated lesion after a minor injury. The consequences can be severe in the absence of prompt diagnosis and treatment. Determination of mechanism of injury, clinical examination, blood amylase levels and abdominal CT-scan are first line steps for the evaluation of the injury. ERCP and MRI can be useful tools to further document injury to the pancreatic duct. In the absence of duct injury, conservative treatment can be applied. For the other cases, the treatment is surgical although newer techniques may be applied in selected cases. [less ▲]

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See detailLe FLES à l'aube d'une ère nouvelle ? Ebauche d'un bilan des formations en didactique du français langue étrangère et seconde en Communauté française
Defays, Jean-Marc ULiege

in Français 2000, Bulletin de la Société Belge des Professeurs de Français (2002), 181-182

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See detailOptimization of the separation of beta-blockers by ion-pair capillary electrophoresis in non-aqueous media using univariate and multivariate approaches
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Fillet, Marianne ULiege; Chiap, Patrice ULiege et al

in Journal of Separation Science (2002), 25(15-17), 1087-1095

The separation of four beta-blocking drug substances (atenolol, sotalol, betaxolol, and metoprolol) selected as model basic analytes has been investigated in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE ... [more ▼]

The separation of four beta-blocking drug substances (atenolol, sotalol, betaxolol, and metoprolol) selected as model basic analytes has been investigated in non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) using the principle of ion-pair formation. Camphorsulphonate was selected as the counter-ion in a background electrolyte (BGE) made up of formate buffer in a mixture of acetonitrile/methanol or acetonitrile/ethanol. The influence on resolution of the concentration of the counter-ion, the nature and proportion of the organic solvents, as well as the concentration of the ionic components of the BGE was first studied by a univariate approach. An experimental design was then applied to estimate possible quadratic effects and first-order interactions. To identify the most important factors affecting the separation of the four beta-blockers, a two-level fractional factorial design with 16 experimental points was applied as a screening test. A three factor Box-Behnken design with 12 experimental points was used to predict and optimize the selectivity. Finally the optimal conditions obtained by the univariate and the multivariate, approaches were compared. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Révision avant sa révision : réflexions sur une nouvelle formulation de l'article 195 de la Constitution belge
Behrendt, Christian ULiege

in Actualités du Droit (2002)

This article studies the current debate on whether a change of the amendment procedure of the Belgian Constution ought to be envisaged.

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See detailChanges in the arginine-vasopressin immunoreactive systems in male mice lacking a functional aromatase gene
Plumari, L.; Viglietti-Panzica, C.; Allieri, F. et al

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2002), 14(12), 971-978

In male rodents, the arginine-vasopressin-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) neurones of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala are controlled by plasma testosterone levels (decreased ... [more ▼]

In male rodents, the arginine-vasopressin-immunoreactive (AVP-ir) neurones of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala are controlled by plasma testosterone levels (decreased after castration and restored by exogenous testosterone). AVP transcription in these nuclei is increased in adulthood by a synergistic action of the androgenic and oestrogenic metabolites of testosterone and, accordingly, androgen and oestrogen receptors are present in both BNST and medial amygdala. We used knockout mice lacking a functional aromatase enzyme (ArKO) to investigate the effects of a chronic depletion of oestrogens on the sexually dimorphic AVP system. Wild-type (WT) and ArKO male mice were perfused 48 h after an i.c.v. colchicine injection and brain sections were then processed for AVP immunocytochemistry. A prominent decrease (but not a complete suppression) of AVP-ir structures was observed in the BNST and medial amygdala of ArKO mice by comparison with the WT. Similarly, AVP-ir fibres were reduced in the lateral septum of ArKO mice and but not in the medial preoptic area, a region where the AVP system is not sexually dimorphic in rats. No change was detected in the supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei. However, a decrease in AVP-ir cell numbers was however, detected in one subregion of the paraventricular nucleus. These data support the hypothesis that the steroid-sensitive sexually dimorphic AVP system of the mouse forebrain is mainly under the control of aromatized metabolites of testosterone. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of Supercritical carbon dioxide for the preparation of drug-cyclodextrin inclusion compounds
Van Hees, Thierry ULiege; Barillaro, Valery; Piel, Géraldine ULiege et al

in Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry (2002), 44(1-4), 271-274

Inclusion complexes of drugs into cyclodextrins (CDs) can be obtained at the solid state by means of supercritical dioxide (SCCO2). A successful inclusion with a yield >98.5% has been achieved with ... [more ▼]

Inclusion complexes of drugs into cyclodextrins (CDs) can be obtained at the solid state by means of supercritical dioxide (SCCO2). A successful inclusion with a yield >98.5% has been achieved with piroxicam and beta-CD. The temperature and the time of exposure to SCCO2 have a significant effect on the inclusion yield while the pressure has a negative effect. However, there is a strong interaction between temperature and pressure and this interaction has a positive influence. The molar ratio piroxicam-beta-CD and the addition of ternary alkaline agents were also found to be significant factors. The dissolution rate of the complexes formed using SCCO2 was found to be significantly higher than that of the physical mixture. Inclusion complexes have also been obtained with miconazole treating mixtures of miconazole, CDs and citric acid by SCCO2. This new technique of inclusion of poorly soluble drugs into CDs allows the preparation of solid complexes without using organic solvents and thus without residues. [less ▲]

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See detailEU-MERCOSUR interregionalism: Facing Up to the South American Crisis and the Free Trade Area of the Americas
Santander, Sébastian ULiege

in European Foreign Affairs Review (2002), 7

As part of their plans to diversify and globalize their foreign relations, the EU and MERCOSUR have been working to establish closer links. They have a project to create an interregional Association based ... [more ▼]

As part of their plans to diversify and globalize their foreign relations, the EU and MERCOSUR have been working to establish closer links. They have a project to create an interregional Association based on political dialogue, cooperation and trade issues. To understand the evolution of this interregional relationship, it is also important to take into account the USAs’ project, which seeks to create a hemispheric market for 2005 and in which MERCOSUR is participating. There is competition between Europe and the USA in the Southern Cone. While the EU has often provided support for institution building in MERCOSUR, the latter has frequently been destabilized by US regionalist strategy. The USA has often taken advantage of its special relationship with Argentina. However, the open crises that Argentina has faced since December 2001, and the US attitude towards the crises, appear to have affected the Buenos Aires foreign policy alignment with Washington. What geopolitical consequences could this have for the area? And what is the US position on this development? Has the EU taken advantage of the situation to reinforce its interregional partnership with MERCOSUR and to counteract US influence in the region? [less ▲]

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See detailThe in situ formation of a new initiator system for the syndiotactic anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate in toluene at 0°C
Zundel, Thomas; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULiege

in Polymer (2002), 43(25), 7191-7193

This paper reports on an efficient 'in-situ' one pot synthesis of an initiatior/ligand adduct, which can be used to initiate the anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate in toluene at 0 °C ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on an efficient 'in-situ' one pot synthesis of an initiatior/ligand adduct, which can be used to initiate the anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate in toluene at 0 °C. Predominantly syndiotactic PMMA is formed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe north-eastern Polish anorthosite massifs: petrological, geochemical and isotopic evidence for a crustal derivation
Wiszniewska, Janina; Claesson, Stefan; Stein, Holly et al

in Terra Nova (2002), 14(6), 451-460

Deeply buried 1.5 Ga Polish anorthosites, accessible only by bore holes, reveal diagnostic features of some massif-type anorthosites (polybarism, jotunitic parent magma), diapirically emplaced in the mid ... [more ▼]

Deeply buried 1.5 Ga Polish anorthosites, accessible only by bore holes, reveal diagnostic features of some massif-type anorthosites (polybarism, jotunitic parent magma), diapirically emplaced in the mid crust together with the rapakivi granites of the EW-trending Mazury complex, intruded along a major crustal discontinuity. Geochemical modelling and isotope data corroborate recent experimental work on the basaltic system in dry conditions: the source rock of the parental magma is a gabbronorite, necessarily lying in the lower crust. Since no Archaean crust is known in the region, high initial Os-188/Os-187 ratios for sulphide-oxide isochrons and negative epsilon(Nd) values are best accounted for by melting a similar to 2.0 Ga mafic crust. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of CMR manganate compounds: the consequences of the choice of a precursor method
Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULiege; Rulmont, André ULiege; Cloots, Rudi ULiege et al

in Materials Letters (2002), 57(3), 598-603

We have studied the electrical transport properties of manganate samples synthesized by different precursor methods. Differences in the synthesis process of the materials can result in samples with ... [more ▼]

We have studied the electrical transport properties of manganate samples synthesized by different precursor methods. Differences in the synthesis process of the materials can result in samples with similar grain size but very different physical properties, contrary to what happens in samples prepared by the same method. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the effect of action familiarity on SPTs recall performance in Alzheimer's disease
Lekeu, Françoise ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege; Moonen, Gustave ULiege et al

in Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology (2002), 24(8), 1057-1069

This study examined the performance of normal controls (NC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on free recall, semantic cued recall and object cued recall of both subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and ... [more ▼]

This study examined the performance of normal controls (NC) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients on free recall, semantic cued recall and object cued recall of both subject-performed tasks (SPTs) and verbal descriptions of actions, by controlling familiarity of actions associated to objects. The results showed that both groups performed better after SPT encoding than after verbal encoding. in all three types of recall. In addition, this SPT advantage was greater for AD patients than for NC in the object cued recall test, emphasizing AD patients' sensibility to the congruence of cues between encoding and retrieval conditions. Following verbal encoding. NC showed a better recall for less familiar actions than for highly familiar actions, whereas AD patients exhibited the opposite pattern. These results reflect that AD patients did not benefit from a distinctiveness effect at encoding for improving subsequent retrieval of verbal information, probably due to a reduced level of elaboration during encoding. However, there was no effect of action familiarity on recall performance by both groups following SPT encoding. These results suggest that memory for verbal actions and SPTs is governed by different principles. In addition. they demonstrate the robustness of the SPT effect in AD patients, who were able to improve memory performance in the SPT condition not only with highly familiar actions but also with less familiar actions. [less ▲]

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See detailAsthénie et troubles visuels chez un peintre de 48 ans
Pirenne, Danièle ULiege; Mairiaux, Philippe ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(12), 785-8

Tiredness is a common complaint which may have multiple causes, sometimes difficult to ascertain. As occupational activities can play a major role in the incidence of various diseases, failure to ... [more ▼]

Tiredness is a common complaint which may have multiple causes, sometimes difficult to ascertain. As occupational activities can play a major role in the incidence of various diseases, failure to investigate the patient's work history may hinder an adequate patient care. In the clinical case described hereafter, the patient symptoms could eventually be ascribed to a psycho-organic syndrome (POS) caused by the chronic exposure to organic solvents in the painting material used. This syndrome is non specific, evolves with time in an insidious manner, and, in its last stages, may cause non reversible brain damages. When facing non typical neurological symptoms in a working age adult, one has thus to consider the possibility of this diagnosis since the workers populations exposed to solvents are large in several occupations, and because the recent legal recognition in Belgium of this syndrome as an occupational disease does provide some interesting means for a better follow-up and protection of the patients concerned. [less ▲]

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See detailDual effects of an extra disulfide bond on the activity and stability of a cold-adapted alpha-amylase
D'Amico, Salvino ULiege; Gerday, Charles ULiege; Feller, Georges ULiege

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(48), 46110-46115

Chloride-dependent alpha-amylases constitute a well conserved family of enzymes thereby allowing investigation of the characteristics of each member to understand, for example, relevant properties ... [more ▼]

Chloride-dependent alpha-amylases constitute a well conserved family of enzymes thereby allowing investigation of the characteristics of each member to understand, for example, relevant properties required for environmental adaptation. In this context, we have constructed a double mutant (Q58C/A99C) of the cold-active and heat-labile alpha-amylase from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis, defined on the basis of its strong similarity with the mesophilic enzyme from pig pancreas. This mutant was characterized to understand the role of an extra disulfide bond specific to warm-blooded animals and located near the entrance of the catalytic cleft. We show that the catalytic parameters of the mutant are drastically modified and similar to those of the mesophilic enzyme. Calorimetric studies demonstrated that the mutant is globally stabilized (DeltaDeltaG = 1.87 kcal/mol at 20 degrees C) when compared with the wild-type enzyme, although the melting point (T-m) was not increased. Moreover, fluorescence quenching experiments indicate a more compact structure for the mutated a-amylase. However, the strain imposed on the active site architecture induces a 2-fold higher thermal inactivation rate at 45 degreesC as well as the appearance of a less stable calorimetric domain. It is concluded that stabilization by the extra disulfide bond arises from an enthalpy-entropy compensation effect favoring the enthalpic contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailLifetime measurements and calculations in singly ionized ytterbium
Biémont, Emile ULiege; Quinet, Pascal ULiege; Dai, Z. W. et al

in Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (2002), 35(22), 4743-4749

New radiative lifetimes, measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, are reported for five Rydberg states of singly ionized ytterbium. Free Yb+ ions were produced in a laser-induced ... [more ▼]

New radiative lifetimes, measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, are reported for five Rydberg states of singly ionized ytterbium. Free Yb+ ions were produced in a laser-induced plasma. The experimental results have been compared with HFR calculations, taking core-polarization effects into account, and a good agreement (within 25%) between theory and experiment is observed for four levels. HFR results are also proposed for np (n less than or equal to 7) and nf (n less than or equal to 8) Rydberg states and compared with available data. [less ▲]

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See detailAn X-ray investigation of the NGC 346 field in the Small Magellanic Cloud - I. The luminous blue variable HD 5980 and the NGC 346 cluster
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Hartwell, J. M.; Stevens, I. R. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2002), 580(Part 1), 225-234

We present results from a Chandra observation of the NGC 346 cluster. This cluster contains numerous massive stars and is responsible for the ionization of N66, the most luminous H II region and the ... [more ▼]

We present results from a Chandra observation of the NGC 346 cluster. This cluster contains numerous massive stars and is responsible for the ionization of N66, the most luminous H II region and the largest star formation region in the SMC. In this first paper we will focus on the characteristics of the main objects of the field. The NGC 346 cluster itself shows only relatively faint X-ray emission (with L-X(unabs) similar to 1.5x10(34) ergs s(-1)), tightly correlated with the core of the cluster. In the field also lies HD 5980, a luminous blue variable star in a binary (or possibly a triple) system that is detected for the first time at X-ray energies. The star is X-ray bright, with an unabsorbed luminosity of L-X(unabs) similar to 1.7x10(34) ergs s(-1), but needs to be monitored further to investigate its X-ray variability over a complete 19 day orbital cycle. The high X-ray luminosity may be associated either with colliding winds in the binary system or with the 1994 eruption. HD 5980 is surrounded by a region of diffuse X-ray emission, which is a supernova remnant. While it may be only a chance alignment with HD 5980, such a spatial coincidence may indicate that the remnant is indeed related to this peculiar massive star. [less ▲]

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See detailAtmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment version 3 data retrievals
Irion, Fredrick W.; Gunson, Michael R.; Toon, Geoff C. et al

in Applied Optics (2002), 41(33), 6968-6979

Version 3 of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment data set for some 30 trace and minor gas profiles is available. From the IR solar-absorption spectra measured during four Space ... [more ▼]

Version 3 of the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment data set for some 30 trace and minor gas profiles is available. From the IR solar-absorption spectra measured during four Space Shuttle missions (in 1985, 1992, 1993, and 1994), profiles from more than 350 occultations were retrieved from the upper troposphere to the lower mesosphere. Previous results were unreliable for tropospheric retrievals, but with a new global-fitting algorithm profiles are reliably returned down to altitudes as low as 6.5 km (clouds permitting) and include notably improved retrievals of H2O, CO, and other species. Results for stratospheric water are more consistent across the ATMOS spectral filters and do not indicate a net consumption of H-2 in the upper stratosphere. A new sulfuric-acid aerosol product is described. An overview of ATMOS Version 3 processing is presented with a discussion of estimated uncertainties. Differences between these Version 3 and previously reported Version 2 ATMOS results are discussed. Retrievals are available at http://atmos.jpl.nasa.gov/atmos. (C) 2002 Optical Society of America. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of molecular weight of the reactive precursors in melt reactive blending
Yin, Zhihui; Koulic, Christian; Jeon, H. K. et al

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(24), 8917-8919

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See detailCutting balloon angioplasty for the prevention of restenosis: Results of the cutting balloon global randomized trial
Mauri, L.; Bonan, R.; Weiner, B. H. et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2002), 90(10), 1079-1083

The cutting balloon (CB) is a specialized device designed to create discrete longitudinal incisions in the atherosclerotic target coronary segment during balloon inflation. Such controlled dilatation ... [more ▼]

The cutting balloon (CB) is a specialized device designed to create discrete longitudinal incisions in the atherosclerotic target coronary segment during balloon inflation. Such controlled dilatation theoretically reduces the force needed to dilate an obstructive lesion compared with standard percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). We report a multicenter, randomized trial comparing the incidence of restenosis after CB angioplasty versus conventional balloon angioplasty in 1,238 patients. Six hundred seventeen patients were randomized to CB treatment, and 621 to PTCA. The mean reference vessel diameter was 2.86 +/- 0.49 mm, mean lesion length 8.9 +/- 4.3 mm, and prevalence of diabetes mellitus in patients was 13%. The primary end point, the 6-month binary angiographic restenosis rate, was 31.4% for CB and 30.4% for PTCA (p = 0.75). Acute procedural success, defined as the attainment of <50% diameter stenosis without in-hospital major adverse cardiac events, was 92.9% for CB and 94.7% for PTCA (p = 0.24). Freedom from target vessel revascularization was slightly higher in the CB arm (88.5% vs 84.6%, log-rank p = 0.04). Five coronary perforations occurred in the CB arm only (0.8% vs 0%, p = 0.03). At 270 days, rates of myocardial infarction, death, and total major adverse cardiac events for CB and PTCA were 4.7% versus 2.4% (p = 0.03), 1.3% versus 0.3% (p = 0.06), and 13.6% versus 15.1% (p = 0.34), respectively. In summary, the proposed mechanism of controlled dilatation did not reduce the rate of angiographic restenosis for the CB compared with conventional balloon angioplasty. CB angioplasty should be reserved for difficult lesions in which controlled dilatation is believed to provide a better acute result compared with balloon angioplasty alone. (C) 2002 by Excerpta Medica, Inc. [less ▲]

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