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See detailEvidence for a Modulatory Role of Ih on the Firing of a Subgroup of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons
Seutin, Vincent ULg; Massotte, Laurent ULg; Renette, M. F. et al

in Neuroreport (2001), 12(2), 255-8

A previous investigation has suggested that the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih does not contribute to the spontaneous firing of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This conclusion was reached ... [more ▼]

A previous investigation has suggested that the hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih does not contribute to the spontaneous firing of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. This conclusion was reached using Cs(-1). We have re-examined this question with extracellular recordings in slices using the more specific blocker ZD7288. In two-thirds of the cells, low concentrations of ZD7288 induced a decrease of the spontaneous firing. The maximal inhibition was about 40% and the mean IC50 was 1.6 microM. This effect was probably direct because it persisted in the presence of antagonists of various receptors. These concentrations of ZD7288 had no effect in the remaining one third of the examined cells. However, the highest concentration of ZD7288 (300 microM) abolished the firing of all dopaminergic neurons, probably by a mechanism unrelated to the blockade of Ih. We conclude that Ih controls to a certain extent the firing of a majority of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzyme Activity Determination on Macromolecular Substrates by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry: Application to Mesophilic and Psychrophilic Chitinases
Lonhienne, T.; Baise, Etienne ULg; Feller, Georges ULg et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2001), 1545(1-2), 349-56

Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the kinetic parameters of chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) by monitoring the heat released during the hydrolysis of chitin glycosidic ... [more ▼]

Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the kinetic parameters of chitinases (EC 3.2.1.14) by monitoring the heat released during the hydrolysis of chitin glycosidic bonds. Experiments were carried out using two different macromolecular substrates: a soluble polymer of N-acetylglucosamine and the insoluble chitin from crab shells. Different experimental temperatures were used in order to compare the thermodependence of the activity of two chitinases from the psychrophile Arthrobacter sp. TAD20 and of chitinase A from the mesophile Serratia marcescens. The method allowed to determine unequivocally the catalytic rate constant k(cat), the activation energy (E(a)) and the thermodynamic activation parameters (DeltaG(#), DeltaH(#), DeltaS(#)) of the chitinolytic reaction on the soluble substrate. The catalytic activity has also been determined on insoluble chitin, which displays an effect of substrate saturation by chitinases. On both substrates, the thermodependence of the activity of the psychrophilic chitinases was lower than that observed with the mesophilic counterpart. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor PAI-1 Controls in Vivo Tumor Vascularization by Interaction with Proteases, Not Vitronectin. Implications for Antiangiogenic Strategies
Bajou, Khalid ULg; Masson, Véronique ULg; Gerard, R. D. et al

in Journal of Cell Biology (2001), 152(4), 777-84

The plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a key role in cancer progression, presumably via mediating extracellular matrix degradation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, urokinase ... [more ▼]

The plasminogen (Plg)/plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a key role in cancer progression, presumably via mediating extracellular matrix degradation and tumor cell migration. Consequently, urokinase-type PA (uPA)/plasmin antagonists are currently being developed for suppression of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Paradoxically, however, high levels of PA inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) are predictive of a poor prognosis for survival of patients with cancer. We demonstrated previously that PAI-1 promoted tumor angiogenesis, but by an unresolved mechanism. We anticipated that PAI-1 facilitated endothelial cell migration via its known interaction with vitronectin (VN) and integrins. However, using adenoviral gene transfer of PAI-1 mutants, we observed that PAI-1 promoted tumor angiogenesis, not by interacting with VN, but rather by inhibiting proteolytic activity, suggesting that excessive plasmin proteolysis prevents assembly of tumor vessels. Single deficiency of uPA, tissue-type PA (tPA), uPA receptor, or VN, as well as combined deficiencies of uPA and tPA did not impair tumor angiogenesis, whereas lack of Plg reduced it. Overall, these data indicate that plasmin proteolysis, even though essential, must be tightly controlled during tumor angiogenesis, probably to allow vessel stabilization and maturation. These data provide insights into the clinical paradox whereby PAI-1 promotes tumor progression and warrant against the uncontrolled use of uPA/plasmin antagonists as tumor angiogenesis inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailLa mobilité, un problème très complexe, transversal et multidisciplinaire – paramètres et moyens pour mesurer la mobilité
Marchal, Jean ULg

in Bulletin de l’URPIC (Union Royale Professionnelle des Ingénieurs Civils belges des Chemins de Fer) (2001), (Focus 40), 4-8

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See detailThe WR content of IC10 - first detection of WC9 stars in a low metallicity environment?
Royer, P.; Smartt, S. J.; Manfroid, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 366

We present deep, narrow-band photometry of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10. Our dedicated photometric system provides detection of 13 new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and allows spectral subtypes to be ... [more ▼]

We present deep, narrow-band photometry of the Local Group starburst galaxy IC 10. Our dedicated photometric system provides detection of 13 new Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars and allows spectral subtypes to be assigned. Three of these new stars appear to be WC9 subtypes. If confirmed, these would be the very first WC9 stars ever detected in a low metallicity environment, hence putting strong new constraints on the formation and evolution models of massive stars. Eight of the new WR stars are of the WC subtype, which does not significantly modify the anomalously high WC/WN ratio in IC 10. However it is likely that a number of Wolf-Rayet stars of the WNE and WC spectral subtypes are still to be discovered in the heart of the galaxy. Based on observations at the William Herschel Telescope on La Palma and at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. [less ▲]

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See detailThe spectral variability of HD 192639 and its implications for the star's wind structure
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Morrison, N. D.; Vreux, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 366

We report the analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic data of the O(f) supergiant HD 192639. A Fourier analysis of our time-series reveals a recurrent variability with a ``period'' of roughly 4.8 ... [more ▼]

We report the analysis of an extensive set of spectroscopic data of the O(f) supergiant HD 192639. A Fourier analysis of our time-series reveals a recurrent variability with a ``period'' of roughly 4.8 days which is most prominent in the absorption components of the He {ii}\ lambda 4686 and Halpha P-Cygni profiles. The same periodicity is also detected in the blue wing of several absorption lines (e.g. Hbeta ). The variations of the absorption components correspond most probably to a cyclical modulation of the amount of stellar wind material along the line of sight towards the star. The 4.8-day period affects also the morphology of the double-peaked He {ii}\ lambda 4686 and Halpha emission components, although these emission components display also variations on other (mainly longer) time scales. The most likely explanation for the 4.8-day modulation is that this cycle reflects the stellar rotational period (or half this period). We find that the most important observational properties can be explained - at least qualitatively - by a corotating interaction region or a tilted confined corotating wind. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute Provence, France and the Ritter Observatory, Toledo, USA. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of the stability constants of uranyl/polymer complexes by differential pulse polarography
Leroy, D.; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer (2001), 42(10), 4589-4596

Differential pulse polarography (DPP) allows for the determination of the stability constants (K) and the stoichiometry (n) for the complexation of the UO22+ ion by various monomers and the parent ... [more ▼]

Differential pulse polarography (DPP) allows for the determination of the stability constants (K) and the stoichiometry (n) for the complexation of the UO22+ ion by various monomers and the parent polymers. The experimental observation is the shift of the totally reversible reduction wave UO22++e- UO2+ toward more cathodic potentials when the complexing monomer or polymer is added to an uranyl nitrate aqueous solution. This shift is, however, much greater when the polymer is used rather than the monomer, in line with a higher stability of the complexes (Kpolymer>>Kmonomer). A theoretical stability scale of the polymers/UO22+ complexes was compared to an experimental one based on dynamic leaching tests. [less ▲]

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See detailAccretion of gas by globular cluster stars
Thoul, Anne ULg; Jorissen, Alain; Goriely, Stéphane et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 383

Some recent observations of the abundances of s-process, r-process, and alpha elements in metal-poor stars have led to a new scenario for their formation. According to this scenario, these stars were born ... [more ▼]

Some recent observations of the abundances of s-process, r-process, and alpha elements in metal-poor stars have led to a new scenario for their formation. According to this scenario, these stars were born in a globular cluster and accreted the s-process enriched gas expelled by cluster stars of higher-mass, thereby modifying their surface abundances. Later on, these polluted stars evaporated from the globular cluster to constitute an important fraction of the current halo population. In addition, there are now many direct observations of abundance anomalies not only in globular cluster giant stars but also in subgiant and main-sequence stars. Accretion again provides a plausible explanation for (at least some of) these peculiarities. Here we investigate further the efficiency of the accretion scenario. We find that in concentrated clusters with large escape velocities, accretion is very efficient and can indeed lead to major modifications of the stellar surface abundances. [less ▲]

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See detailConfirmation of the existence of coherent orientations of quasar polarization vectors on cosmological scales
Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Lamy, H.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 367

In order to verify the existence of coherent orientations of quasars polarization vectors on very large scales, we have obtained new polarization measurements for a sample of quasars located in a given ... [more ▼]

In order to verify the existence of coherent orientations of quasars polarization vectors on very large scales, we have obtained new polarization measurements for a sample of quasars located in a given region of the three-dimensional Universe where the range of polarization position angles was predicted in advance. For this new sample, the hypothesis of uniform distribution of polarization position angles may be rejected at the 1.8% significance level on the basis of a simple binomial test. This result provides an independent confirmation of the existence of alignments of quasar polarization vectors on very large scales. In total, out of 29 polarized quasars located in this region of the sky, 25 have their polarization vectors coherently oriented. This alignment occurs at redshifts z =~ 1-2 suggesting the presence of correlations in objects or fields on Gpc scales. More global statistical tests applied to the whole sample of polarized quasars distributed all over the sky confirm that polarization vectors are coherently oriented in a few groups of 20-30 quasars. Some constraints on the phenomenon are also derived. Considering more particularly the quasars in the selected region of the sky, we found that their polarization vectors are roughly parallel to the plane of the Local Supercluster. But the polarization vectors of objects along the same line of sight at lower redshifts are not accordingly aligned. We also found that the known correlations between quasar intrinsic properties and polarization are not destroyed by the alignment effect. Several possible mechanisms are discussed, but the interpretation of this orientation effect remains puzzling. Based in part on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory (ESO, La Silla). [less ▲]

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See detailLes université francophones et la coopération au développement
Marchal, Jean ULg

in Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer = Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen (2001), (47), 333-342

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See detailIncreased Response of Blood Eosinophils to Various Chemotactic Agents in Quiescent Crohn Disease
Denis, M. A.; Louis, Renaud ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (2001), 36(2), 190-5

BACKGROUND: The number of eosinophils is increased in the mucosae of the digestive and the respiratory tracts in Crohn disease, even clinically quiescent. The mechanisms underlying this panmucosal ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The number of eosinophils is increased in the mucosae of the digestive and the respiratory tracts in Crohn disease, even clinically quiescent. The mechanisms underlying this panmucosal eosinophilia are unknown. METHODS: The response of blood eosinophils to various chemotactic agents was assessed in 15 patients with clinically quiescent Crohn disease. The results were compared with 15 healthy controls. After purification, eosinophils were placed in Boyden microchambers and the chemotactic effect of PAF (10(-7) M), RANTES (50 ng/ml), IL-5 (0-20 ng/ml), IL-8 (0-50 ng/ml), Eotaxin (0-50 ng/ml) was evaluated. The number of eosinophils in induced sputum of these Crohn disease patients and controls was also assessed and the correlation between chemotaxis and eosinophil count in induced sputum was studied. RESULTS: PAF and RANTES induced a chemotactic effect both in Crohn disease patients and controls. The chemotactic index was significantly higher in Crohn than controls for PAF (2.09+/-0.24 versus 1.37+/-0.14; P < 0.05) but not RANTES. With IL-5, IL-8 and Eotaxin, there was no detectable chemotactic effect in controls while in Crohn, we observed a significant dose-dependent chemotactic effect. Furthermore, with Eotaxin 50 ng/ml, the chemotactic index was significantly higher in Crohn disease patients than controls (2.42+/-0.18 versus 1.56+/-0.28; P < 0.05). A significant increase in sputum eosinophil count and a significant decrease in sputum macrophage count in Crohn disease were observed. However, there was no correlation between eosinophil chemotaxis and sputum eosinophil count in individual patients. CONCLUSION: There is an increased response of blood eosinophils to various chemotactic agents, mainly PAF and Eotaxin, in clinically quiescent Crohn disease. This may participate in the mucosal infiltration by eosinophils in this disease. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans.
Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Nieder, Veronika; Gallego, Ricardo Gutiérrez et al

in Biological Chemistry (2001), 382(2), 299-311

The enzymatic access to nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by a glycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation reaction was explored. The nucleotide sugars UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc were tested as acceptor ... [more ▼]

The enzymatic access to nucleotide-activated oligosaccharides by a glycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation reaction was explored. The nucleotide sugars UDP-GlcNAc and UDP-Glc were tested as acceptor substrates for beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans using lactose as donor substrate. The UDP-disaccharides Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) (UDP-LacNAc) and Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) (UDP-Lac) and the UDP-trisaccharides Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP and Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) were formed stereo- and regioselectively. Their chemical structures were characterized by 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The synthesis in frozen solution at -5 degrees C instead of 30 degrees C gave significantly higher product yields with respect to the acceptor substrates. This was due to a remarkably higher product stability in the small liquid phase of the frozen reaction mixture. Under optimized conditions, at -5 degrees C and pH 4.5 with 500 mM lactose and 100 mM UDP-GlcNAc, an overall yield of 8.2% (81.8 micromol, 62.8 mg with 100% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) and 3.6% (36.1 micromol, 35 mg with 96% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc(alpha1-UDP) was obtained. UDP-Glc as acceptor gave an overall yield of 5.0% (41.3 micromol, 32.3 mg with 93% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP) and 1.6% (13.0 micromol, 12.2 mg with 95% purity) for Gal(beta1-4)Gal(beta1-4)Glc(alpha1-UDP). The analysis of other nucleotide sugars revealed UDP-Gal, UDP-GalNAc, UDP-Xyl and dTDP-, CDP-, ADP- and GDP-Glc as further acceptor substrates for beta-galactosidase from Bacillus circulans. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymerization-filling technique: an efficient way to improve the mechanical properties of polyethylene composites
Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Martin, Eric; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Chemistry of Materials (2001), 13(2), 236-237

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See detailMatrix Metalloproteinases and TIMP-1 production by peripheral blood granulocytes from COPD patients and asthmatics
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Allergy (2001), 56(2), 145-51

Both asthmatic and COPD patients were found to have increased amounts of granulocytes and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in their sputum. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the ... [more ▼]

Both asthmatic and COPD patients were found to have increased amounts of granulocytes and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in their sputum. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the elevated amounts of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 found in such patients' airways may be linked to an enhanced secretion by granulocytes. Blood granulocytes from asthmatics (n = 10), COPD patients (n = 11), and healthy controls (n = 11) were isolated and cultured under basal conditions or after stimulation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) or N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (fMLP). MMP-9 activity was detected by zymography while MMP-8 and TIMP-1 levels were measured by ELISA. In zymography, pro- and activated forms of MMP-9 were present in each group (healthy subjects, asthmatics, and COPD patients). Spontaneous release was not different between the three groups. Stimulation by fMLP and PMA increased to a similar extent the release of MMP-9 by granulocytes in all the three groups. TIMP-1 levels were also increased after stimulation by PMA and fMLP only in healthy subjects and COPD patients. MMP-8 levels were barely detectable. We conclude that circulating granulocytes from COPD patients and asthmatics do not display an abnormal secretion of MMP-9, and that granulocytes from asthmatics have an impaired ability to release TIMP-1 upon stimulation. [less ▲]

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See detailMethadone Maintenance Treatment: Is It Possible to Adapt the Daily Doses to the Metabolic Activity of the Patient?
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Dessalles, M. C.; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (2001), 23(1), 1-3

Controversy still exists concerning the proper daily dose of methadone to be used in opiate dependency treatment. Because it is admitted that serum methadone concentration may be significantly correlated ... [more ▼]

Controversy still exists concerning the proper daily dose of methadone to be used in opiate dependency treatment. Because it is admitted that serum methadone concentration may be significantly correlated with the amount of drug available at the receptor level, it could be interesting to predict the methadone daily doses necessary to reach such a serum concentration. The authors have attempted to correlate the serum methadone level with the daily intake, considering the metabolic activity of the patients. A poor correlation was found between methadone doses and methadone serum concentrations (r2 = 0.0409, p = 0.048). The test used to determine the metabolic activity of patients is the 6-OH cortisol/17-OH corticosteroids ratio in urine. This urinary 6-OH cortisol/17-OH corticosteroids ratio was tested because cortisol is metabolized through the same P450 cytochromes as methadone, namely cytochrome P450 3A4. This determination could be of interest because it could be tested before methadone administration to predict optimal doses. But when the authors tried to correlate the methadone serum concentration with the steroid ratio, they failed to find a significant correlation (r2 = 0.0046, N.S.), even when they took into account the daily doses (r2 = 0.0015, N.S.), most probably because of some limitations of the cortisol ratio. [less ▲]

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See detailQuand solaire rime avec scolaire. Une enquete sur les risques de melanome aupres de 3.695 eleves d'ecoles primaires liegeoises
Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 88-92

An epidemiological survey was performed in pupils from primary schools of Liege in order to better identify risk factors for photobiological alterations prone to induce cutaneous melanoma in adult life ... [more ▼]

An epidemiological survey was performed in pupils from primary schools of Liege in order to better identify risk factors for photobiological alterations prone to induce cutaneous melanoma in adult life. Phenotypic and behavioral factors facing up to sun exposure were considered. In a 4-level risk scale, about half of the Liege children showed a high to severe risk at photobiological alterations. Thus melanoma prevention requires a sustained effort in the Mosan region, particularly by health education programs at school. [less ▲]

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See detailPratique d'urgence: principes generaux gouvernant la prise en charge hospitaliere du polytraumatise
Lambert, Jean-Luc; Hartstein, Gary ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 79-87

The management of the trauma victim admitted to the emergency department must be rapid and efficient. Within the first hour, vital functions must be stabilised while a systematic survey of all injuries is ... [more ▼]

The management of the trauma victim admitted to the emergency department must be rapid and efficient. Within the first hour, vital functions must be stabilised while a systematic survey of all injuries is carried out. This survey must be as complete as possible, and depends on the patient's status and response to initial resuscitative measures. The need for urgent surgical intervention, therapeutic radiology, or other treatment modalities must be quickly established. This systematic approach, which follows a seven step sequence, can only be carried out by a well-trained team. Because at this time emergency and SMUR are often staffed with general practitioners, and because the trauma centers do not yet exist in Belgium, the application of the treatment protocol presented in this paper is a pre-requisite to quality of care for these patients. It is the only means to end, once and for all, the improvised or intuitive, and often erroneous, approach to these patients. [less ▲]

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See detailSeuil liminaire de la perception d'un etirement cutane
Martalo, O.; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie (2001), 128(2), 119-22

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous sensorial perception is complex and proves to be difficult to quantify. Skin sensitivity to mechanical distension is largely unexplored. We have developed an original method aimed at ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous sensorial perception is complex and proves to be difficult to quantify. Skin sensitivity to mechanical distension is largely unexplored. We have developed an original method aimed at quantifiying these physiological parameters.VOLUNTEERS AND METHODS: The study was performed on 24 adult volunteers aged 20 to 50 years. A Cutometer SEM 474 equipped with 2 and 4 mm diameter probes was used to exert a progressive or a steep suction on the cheeks. The intensities of both the suction and the skin deformation observed at the earliest moment the traction was perceived by the volunteers were recorded.RESULTS: The liminar sensorial detection under progressive suction force was 1.5 times lower when using the 4 mm probe than the 2 mm probe. Suction necessary for liminar sensation was 7 times lower under steep suction than in response to the progressive mode. The skin deformation corresponding to the liminar sensorial perception was almost constant (C=0.5 p. 100) for each subject. By contrast, a large inter individual heterogeneity unrelated to age was present.COMMENTS: Sensitivity of facial skin to stretching can be explored using a precise suction method. Perception is more related to the rate of traction than to the surface area submitted to suction. Cutaneous deformation, nearly constant for each individual, appears to be the main parameter. Steep and progressive suctions appear to stimulate distinct types of mechanoreceptors. The presently described method can be applied in cosmetology and in functional investigation of various diseases such as diabetes, acromegaly and atopic dermatitis among others. [less ▲]

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See detailBiochemical Study of Collagen in Adult Groin Hernias
Pans, Alain ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg; Lapiere, C. M. et al

in Journal of Surgical Research (2001), 95(2), 107-13

BACKGROUND: Previous works have suggested that a defect in collagen fiber structure may play a role in inguinal hernia formation. These studies focused mainly on the rectus sheath or the skin, while only ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Previous works have suggested that a defect in collagen fiber structure may play a role in inguinal hernia formation. These studies focused mainly on the rectus sheath or the skin, while only few reports dealt with the transversalis fascia. According to these findings and to our previous biomechanical and histological studies suggesting that a connective tissue pathology could play a role in the genesis of groin hernias, we performed a biochemical investigation of the collagen in the transversalis fascia and rectus sheath. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The samples were collected from 40 adult patients with uni- or bilateral hernias and from 20 control subjects without hernia (autopsies and organ donors). A constant area of tissue was taken by using a calibrator. The wet and dry weights per 100 mm(2) were determined and the total collagen concentration as well as its sequential extractibility in NaCl, acetic acid, and pepsin was measured. The ratios of alpha(1)/alpha(2) chains (I) and of type I/III collagen were assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. RESULTS: Samples collected in the control and patient sheaths showed an increased wet weight per 100 mm(2) in the patients. The wet and dry weights per unit area were increased in the patient fascias. The collagen concentration was increased in the indirect hernias. The fascias from the direct hernias (DH) presented a significantly increased collagen extractibility after pepsin digestion (5.6%), when compared to the control fascias (2.6%). The extractibility was 3.4% in the nonherniated (NH) sides. The qualitative study (ratios alpha(1)/alpha(2) (I) and I/III collagen) showed no difference between the fascia groups. CONCLUSIONS: The significant increase of collagen extractibility with pepsin in the DH fascias and at a lesser degree in the NH fascias suggests that molecular alterations of collagen could be involved in the genesis of groin hernias. This connective tissue pathology would express preferentially its effects in the inguinal region, since we have observed no major difference between the rectus sheaths of controls and those of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailCentral and peripheral isosexual precocious puberty
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Current Opinion in Endocrinology & Diabetes (2001), 8(1), 17-22

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See detailPharma clinics. Comment je traite.... L'arthrose. 1ère partie: Rappel physiopathologique et traitement symptomatique
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 63-7

Osteoarthritis is now considered in all developed countries as a major burden for public health. During several years, the pharmacological management of osteoarthritis mainly focused on symptoms relief ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis is now considered in all developed countries as a major burden for public health. During several years, the pharmacological management of osteoarthritis mainly focused on symptoms relief without interaction with the long-term structural progression of this disease. Based on recently published consensus, the present article summarizes the currently available options in the symptom-modifying management of osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailMaximal subalgebras of vector fields for equivariant quantizations
Boniver, Fabien; Mathonet, Pierre ULg

in Journal of Mathematical Physics (2001), 42(2), 582-589

The elaboration of new quantization methods has recently developed the interest in the study of subalgebras of the Lie algebra of polynomial vector fields over a Euclidean space. In this framework, these ... [more ▼]

The elaboration of new quantization methods has recently developed the interest in the study of subalgebras of the Lie algebra of polynomial vector fields over a Euclidean space. In this framework, these subalgebras define maximal equivariance conditions that one can impose on a linear bijection between observables that are polynomial in the momenta and differential operators. Here, we determine which finite dimensional graded Lie subalgebras are maximal. In order to characterize these, we make use of results of Guillemin, Singer, and Sternberg and Kobayashi and Nagano. [less ▲]

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See detailAge- and Body Mass Index-Related Changes in Cutaneous Shear Wave Velocity
Hermanns-Le, Trinh ULg; Jonlet, F.; Scheen, André ULg et al

in Experimental Gerontology (2001), 36(2), 363-72

BACKGROUND: The in vivo visco-elastic characteristics of skin depend on a series of physiopathological parameters. Among them, the age-related intrinsic tensile properties and the preconditioning of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The in vivo visco-elastic characteristics of skin depend on a series of physiopathological parameters. Among them, the age-related intrinsic tensile properties and the preconditioning of the tissues set under tension by the hypodermal volume might be of importance. AIMS: To revisit the influence of age and body mass on the firmness and mechanical anisotropy of the skin as determined by the velocity of the shear wave propagation. METHOD: Resonance running time measurements (RRTM) were performed on the mid volar forearm in 110 adults of both sexes. In each subject 16 RRTM were collected at four different precise angles with regard to the limb axis. We recorded the lowest, the highest and the mean multidirectional RRTM as well as the coefficient of variation (CV) of the latter value. In addition, the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. RESULTS: Age and BMI did not influence the minimum RRTM. In contrast, the maximum RRTM as well as the mean and CV of the multidirectional RRTM, significantly rose in a progressively increasing proportion of the subjects older than 60 years. These changes were only encountered in subjects with a normal BMI ranging from 18 to 25. Sex-related differences were not disclosed. CONCLUSIONS: The intrinsic skin tension lines identified by the minimum RRTM are not significantly altered with age and BMI variations. In contrast, skin laxity identified by larger maximum and mean multidirectional RRTM may increase after 60 years of age in subjects with a normal BMI. This is accompanied by increased skin mechanical anisotropy identified by CV values of the multidirectional RRTM over 40%. [less ▲]

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See detailLes hypernatremies en pathologie neurochirurgicale
Hans, Pol ULg; BONHOMME, Vincent ULg; Damas, François ULg

in Annales Françaises d'Anesthésie et de Réanimation (2001), 20(2), 213-8

Hypernatraemia is defined as an increase in extracellular sodium concentration, associated with plasma hyperosmolality and cellular dehydration. It can result from excessive water loss, from an increase ... [more ▼]

Hypernatraemia is defined as an increase in extracellular sodium concentration, associated with plasma hyperosmolality and cellular dehydration. It can result from excessive water loss, from an increase in the total sodium content or from both mechanisms. As far as neurosurgical pathology is concerned, hypernatraemia due to excessive water loss may be observed in patients who do not sense thirst or are unable to ingest water. Urinary water loss is seen in diabetes insipidus and osmotic diuresis. Extrarenal water losses from pulmonary origin may be observed in intubated or tracheotomized patients. Hypernatraemia with sodium and water retention may be encountered in patients suffering from Cushing diseases or syndromes, or more frequently in those who are given excessive amounts of sodium (hypertonic saline, sodium salts). Clinical manifestations of hypernatraemia consist of neurologic symptoms related to cellular dehydration; their severity is correlated with the rapidity of the onset of the electrolytic disorder. Depending on the pathophysiological mechanism, treatment of hypernatraemia involves stopping sodium intake, restoring normovolaemia and administering hypotonic fluids. Treatment of diabetes insipidus relies on the administration of the antidiuretic hormone and of drugs that increase its secretion rate or its responsiveness in the kidneys. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... le risque metastatique du melanome
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Arrese, J. E.; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 120-3

The development of new therapeutic protocols for malignant melanoma calls for an upgraded assessment of the individual risk to develop metastases. The predictive sentinel lymph node method is best ... [more ▼]

The development of new therapeutic protocols for malignant melanoma calls for an upgraded assessment of the individual risk to develop metastases. The predictive sentinel lymph node method is best practiced in a multidisciplinary approach. The selective lymphadenectomy of the first draining lymph node is followed by minutely detailed histologic examination combined with immunohistochemistry. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute encephalopathy despite early therapy in a patient with homozygosity for E365K in the glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene
Kölker, S.; Ramaekers, Vincent ULg; Zschocke, J. et al

in Journal of Pediatrics (2001), 138(2), 277-279

A patient with glutaric aciduria type I had an acute encephalopathic crisis despite early treatment. This report indicates that current therapeutic strategies may be insufficient for some high-risk ... [more ▼]

A patient with glutaric aciduria type I had an acute encephalopathic crisis despite early treatment. This report indicates that current therapeutic strategies may be insufficient for some high-risk patients and stresses the demand for new approaches in glutaric aciduria type I. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Analytic Pricing of Asymmetric Defaultable Swaps
Hübner, Georges ULg

in Journal of Banking and Finance (2001), 25(2), 295-316

Swaps where both parties are exposed to credit risk still lack convincing pricing mechanisms. This article presents a reduced-form model where the event of default is related to structural characteristics ... [more ▼]

Swaps where both parties are exposed to credit risk still lack convincing pricing mechanisms. This article presents a reduced-form model where the event of default is related to structural characteristics of each party. The cash flows submitted to credit risk are identified before the swap is priced. Analytical pricing formulas for interest rate and currency swaps are computed using a Gaussian model for risky bonds. Currency swaps exhibit additional correlation risk. The benefits from netting depend on the balance between exposures and market conditions in valuation. We show that sources of credit risk asymmetries are also likely to impact on credit spreads. [less ▲]

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See detailLe syndrome du defile cervico-thoracique
Dubuisson, Annie ULg; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULg; Cohnen, Anne ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 97-105

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is due to compression/irritation of brachial plexus elements ("neurogenic TOS") and/or subclavian vessels ("vascular TOS") in their passage from the cervical area toward the ... [more ▼]

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is due to compression/irritation of brachial plexus elements ("neurogenic TOS") and/or subclavian vessels ("vascular TOS") in their passage from the cervical area toward the axilla. The usual site of entrapment is the interscalenic triangle. TOS is a highly controversial subject in regard to its incidence, diagnostic criteria and optimal treatment. Constitutional factors--osseous or more often fibromuscular--and external factors such as trauma predispose to the development of TOS. Various clinical pictures include pain in the cervical region and arm, paresthesias, aggravated by overhead positions of the arms, hand intrinsic muscle deficit/atrophy, easy fatiguability, paleness, coldness of hand. The clinical examination may be entirely normal or show cervical and scapular muscle spasm, tenderness of supraclavicular area, radial pulse attenuation upon positional maneuvers, sensory and/or motor deficit, usually of C8/T1 distribution. The diagnosis is based on clinical evaluation and absence of other relevant pathology. Sometimes TOS can enhance symptoms consecutive to cervical or supraclavicular lesions. Cervical spine and distal peripheral nerves are investigated by radiological and electrophysiological studies. Unless there is significant motor deficit or subclavian artery compression, the treatment should be kept conservative as long as possible, by adapted physical therapy. In case of neurological deficit or symptoms unresponsive to medical treatment, the patients will--like in other nerve entrapment syndromes--be helped by decompressive surgery, nowadays preferably performed via an anterior supraclavicular approach. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Une thrombose veineuse cerebrale
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Sadzot, Bernard ULg; Flandroy, Pierre et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(2), 61-2

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See detailInfluence of Daily Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation on Parathyroid Hormone Secretion
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Zegels, Brigitte ULg; Lejeune, Emmanuelle ULg et al

in Gynecological Endocrinology : The Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology (2001), 15(1), 56-62

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation have been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in age-related osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and vitamin D ... [more ▼]

Calcium and vitamin D supplementation have been shown to reduce secondary hyperparathyroidism and play a role in age-related osteoporosis. In order to define the optimal regimen of calcium and vitamin D supplementation to produce the maximal inhibition of parathyroid hormone secretion, we compared the administration of a calcium-vitamin D supplement as a single morning dose with the administration of two divided doses at 6-hour intervals. Twelve healthy male volunteers were assigned to three investigational procedures, which were alternated at weekly intervals. After a 'blank' control procedure, when they were not exposed to any supplements, they received one of two calcium-vitamin D supplement regimens: either two doses of Orocal D3 (500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D3) with a 6-hour interval between doses, or one water-soluble effervescent powder pack of Cacit vitamin D3, taken in the morning (1000 mg calcium and 880 IU vitamin D3). During the three procedures (control and the two calcium-vitamin D supplementation protocols), veinous blood was drawn every 60 minutes for up to 9 hours, for serum calcium and parathyroid hormone measurements. The order of administration of the two calcium and vitamin D supplementation regimens was allocated by randomization. No significant changes in serum calcium were observed during the study. During the first 6 hours following calcium-vitamin D supplementation, a statistically significant decrease in serum parathyroid hormone was observed with both regimens, compared with baseline and the control procedure. During this first period, no differences were observed between the two treatment regimens. However, between the 6th and the 9th hour, serum parathyroid hormone levels remained significantly decreased compared to baseline with the twice-daily Orocal D3 administration, while they returned to baseline values with the once-daily Cacit D3 preparation. During this period, the percentage decrease in serum parathyroid hormone relative to baseline was significantly greater with Orocal D3 than Cacit D3 (p = 0.0021). We therefore conclude that the twice-daily administration of 500 mg calcium and 400 IU vitamin D3 at 6-hour intervals provides a more prolonged decrease in serum parathyroid hormone levels than the administration of the same total amount of calcium and vitamin D, as a single morning dose in young healthy. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the 585 Nm Flashlamp-Pumped Pulsed Dye Laser for the Treatment of Keloids
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Hermanns, Jean-François ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Dermatologic Surgery (2001), 27(2), 171-4

BACKGROUND: Due to its potential effects on skin microcirculation and collagen metabolism, the 585 nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser has been proposed for treating abnormal scars. Indeed, one of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Due to its potential effects on skin microcirculation and collagen metabolism, the 585 nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser has been proposed for treating abnormal scars. Indeed, one of the main problems with keloidal scars is their disfiguring erythematous color. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of the 585 nm pulsed dye laser on the appearance of keloids. METHODS: Eleven patients with skin phototypes II-IV and keloids were treated with the 585 nm pulsed dye laser. After one to three treatment sessions, clinical assessments of the scars were performed in combination with remittance spectroscopy measurements of the redness and melanin pigmentation. A group of nine keloids covered by silicone gel sheeting served as controls. Data were compared statistically. RESULTS: During laser treatments, a discrete decrease in redness of the scars was clinically reported. However, this improvement was not confirmed by the objective spectrophotometric data. No side effects, especially hyperpigmentation, were disclosed. The keloids redness was not improved in the control group. CONCLUSION: The 585 nm pulsed dye laser yields only minimal effects, if any, on the erythema of keloids. Similarly silicone gel sheeting does not modify the keloids redness. [less ▲]

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See detailDisruption of CIC-3, a chloride channel expressed on synaptic vesicles, leads to a loss of the hippocampus
Stobrawa, SM; Breiderhoff, T; Takamori, S et al

in Neuron (2001), 29(1), 185-96

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See detailInstallations fixes soumises à permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2001), 1

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See detailCross-Sectional Study of the Association between Pathological Conditions and Myxoma-Virus Seroprevalence in Intensive Rabbit Farms in Europe
Marlier, Didier ULg; Herbots, J.; Detilleux, Johann ULg et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2001), 48(1), 55-64

Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily ... [more ▼]

Myxomatosis is a major viral disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Two forms of the disease (nodular and amyxomatous) exist. The clinical diagnosis of the nodular form is easily performed on the basis of typical skin lesions whereas that of amyxomatous forms must be based on virus isolation or detection of specific antibodies to myxoma virus (MV). The seroprevalence of MV was studied between March 1998 and February 1999 in 16 farms from three European countries considered free of myxomatosis on the basis of the absence of typical clinical signs. MV antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (sensitivity 100%, specificity 90%) in all 16 farms; the seroprevalences corrected for test inaccuracy (95% confidence interval) were 55+/-7.7% and 37+/-6.1% for does and broilers, respectively. The association between herd sizes, types of rabbitries, and presence of recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles and seroprevalence of MV antibodies was tested in logistic multiple regressions. In all models, the seroprevalence of MV antibodies was significantly higher in herds (does and broilers) with recurrent respiratory or digestive troubles than in herds without these problems. The seroprevalence was also higher in herds (does and broilers) where animals were housed totally or partially in outdoors rabbitries than in totally enclosed rabbitries. The effect of herd sizes on the presence of MV antibodies was the same in does and broilers; intermediate sizes were at lower risk than the smaller and larger ones. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly (ε-caprolactone-b-glycolide) and Poly(D,L-lactide-b-glycolide) diblock copolyesters: controlled synthesis, characterization, and colloidal dispersions
Barakat, Ibrahim; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Grandfils, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2001), 39(2), 294-306

Living -aluminum alkoxide poly--caprolactone and poly-D,L-lactide chains were synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of -caprolactone (-CL) and D,L-lactide (D,L-LA), respectively, and were used as ... [more ▼]

Living -aluminum alkoxide poly--caprolactone and poly-D,L-lactide chains were synthesized by the ring-opening polymerization of -caprolactone (-CL) and D,L-lactide (D,L-LA), respectively, and were used as macroinitiators for glycolide (GA) polymerization in tetrahydrofuran at 40 °C. The P(CL-b-GA) and P(LA-b-GA) diblock copolymers that formed were fractionated by the use of a selective solvent for each block and were characterized by 1H NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The livingness of the operative coordination-insertion mechanism is responsible for the control of the copolyester composition, the length of the blocks, and, ultimately, the thermal behavior. Because of the inherent insolubility of the polyglycolide blocks, microphase separation occurs during the course of the sequential polymerization, resulting in a stable, colloidal, nonaqueous copolymer dispersion, as confirmed by photon correlation spectroscopy. [less ▲]

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See detailAvalanches of Popping Bubbles in Collapsing Foams
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Lentz, J. F.; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2001), 86(1), 179-82

We report acoustic measurements of popping bubbles during the collapsing of aqueous foams. The sound pattern is analyzed using classical methods of statistical physics. It is found that membrane rupture ... [more ▼]

We report acoustic measurements of popping bubbles during the collapsing of aqueous foams. The sound pattern is analyzed using classical methods of statistical physics. It is found that membrane rupture concerns a wide variety of situations: small and large membranes at the air/foam interface. Avalanches of popping bubbles are put into evidence. Time durations in between successive pops seem to be distributed on a universal power law. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical variability of the B-type star HD 105382: Pulsation or rotation?
Briquet, Maryline ULg; Aerts, C.; De Cat, P.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001)

We present ground-based multi-colour Geneva photometry and high-resolution high S/N spectra of the variable B-type star HD 105382. We provide evidence that this star is not a Be star, as indicated in the ... [more ▼]

We present ground-based multi-colour Geneva photometry and high-resolution high S/N spectra of the variable B-type star HD 105382. We provide evidence that this star is not a Be star, as indicated in the literature. The monoperiodic variability found in the Hipparcos data is confirmed in our ground-based follow-up observations. All existing data give rise to the detection of the period of 1.295 days. We try to interpret the variability of the star in terms of a non-radial g-mode pulsation model and of a rotational modulation model. None of these two is able to explain the observed line-profile variations in full detail. Based on observations obtained with the Swiss photometric telescope and ESO's CAT/CES telescope, both situated at La Silla, Chile. [less ▲]

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See detailNonradial nonadiabatic stellar pulsations: A numerical method and its application to a beta Cephei model
Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 366

A new general method for the computation of nonradial nonadiabatic oscillations of a given stellar model is presented for a linear approximation. A simple and useful modelling of the atmosphere is ... [more ▼]

A new general method for the computation of nonradial nonadiabatic oscillations of a given stellar model is presented for a linear approximation. A simple and useful modelling of the atmosphere is included, allowing to obtain credible values for the eigenfunctions in the atmosphere. Some of the results obtained for a 10 M[SUB]sun[/SUB] model are shown as an illustration. Our study opens the way to different applications. Better theoretical line-profile variations could be obtained from our method, allowing a more detailed comparison with observations. More generally, our study is relevant for asteroseismology, giving a way for a better knowledge of stellar interiors. [less ▲]

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See detailOngles sales et mycotoxines
Arrese, J. E.; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 38-40

Some mycotoxins are among the most toxic natural products. They are metabolites produced by food-borne and feed-borne moulds. Dirty and soiled nails, and contaminated or infected onyxis by these specific ... [more ▼]

Some mycotoxins are among the most toxic natural products. They are metabolites produced by food-borne and feed-borne moulds. Dirty and soiled nails, and contaminated or infected onyxis by these specific moulds can be the origin of oral contamination and mycotoxicosis. Hence, nail cleaning, correct hygiene and treatment of mould onychomycosis have a potentially great impact on health. [less ▲]

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See detailMajor Decrease in the Incidence of Trisomy 21 at Birth in South Belgium: Mass Impact of Triple Test?
Verloes, Alain ULg; Gillerot, Y.; Van Maldergem, Lionel ULg et al

in European Journal of Human Genetics (2001), 9(1), 1-4

In South Belgium (Wallonia), the 'triple test' was introduced in 1990-1991, and is nowadays a widely accepted screening method for assessment of trisomy 21 risk in pregnancy. The 'triple test' is not ... [more ▼]

In South Belgium (Wallonia), the 'triple test' was introduced in 1990-1991, and is nowadays a widely accepted screening method for assessment of trisomy 21 risk in pregnancy. The 'triple test' is not regulated and can be freely performed by any biomedical lab, making epidemiological data unavailable. By contrast, cytogenetic investigations are limited to a few genetic centres, and accurate statistics can be easily built from their files. During the period 1984-1989, a total of 244 trisomy 21 (1/876 pregnancies) were diagnosed in the Genetic Centres of Liege and Loverval, 42 (17%) of them prenatally. During the period 1993-1998, 294 trisomy 21 (1/704 pregnancies) were observed, 165 (56%) of which prenatally, and more than 90% of affected pregnancies were terminated. Even after correction for late foetal loss of trisomic foetuses, the difference is highly significant, and corresponds to a theoretical shift in the incidence of trisomy 21 at birth from 1/794 to 1/1606. As no remarkable progress occurred in other non-invasive prenatal screening procedures or general health care policies in Belgium, the most reasonable explanation is the use on a large scale of triple test by pregnant women, and the election of termination for most affected pregnancies. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging in Vivo Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene Transfer to Tumour-Bearing Rodents Using Positron Emission Tomography And
Hustinx, Roland ULg; Shiue, C. Y.; Alavi, A. et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2001), 28(1), 5-12

Radiolabelled ganciclovir analogues have shown promise as imaging agents to detect herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) expression. This study evaluated the use of positron emission tomography ... [more ▼]

Radiolabelled ganciclovir analogues have shown promise as imaging agents to detect herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSVtk) expression. This study evaluated the use of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG) to assess gene transfer into tumours. HSVtk-positive and HSVtk-negative cell lines were first treated in vitro with [18F]FHPG. To assess the efficacy of PET in detecting HSVtk expression following in vivo gene transfer, mice were injected intravenously with an adenovirus encoding HSVtk (Ad.HSVtk), a control vector (Ad.Bgl2) or saline. Subcutaneous human glioma xenografts were grown in mice and treated by direct injection of Ad.HSVtk or Ad.Bgl2. Imaging was performed 48 h after transduction. Similar experiments were performed using Fischer rats implanted with syngeneic tumours. The presence of the HSVtk protein was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Biodistribution studies were also obtained in 14 naive mice. In vitro studies showed high and specific uptake of [18F]FHPG in HSVtk-positive cell lines, with an uptake ratio of up to 27:1. PET imaging and direct counting of major organs demonstrated HSVtk-specific tracer retention. In mice, HSVtk-positive tumours retained 3.4% dose/gram as compared to 0.6% for control tumours (P=0.03). They were clearly seen on the PET images as early as 100 min post injection. Similar results were obtained with syngeneic rat tumours. Biodistribution studies demonstrated the rapid distribution and clearance of the tracer in all major organs. Our results demonstrate that PET imaging of HSVtk gene transfer to tumours is feasible and is highly specific for HSVtk expression. [less ▲]

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See detailLe système du juge unique pour le règlement d’un problème multiple : l’encombrement de la Cour de Justice des Communautés européennes et du Tribunal de Première Instance
Munoz, Rodolphe ULg

in Revue du Marché Commun et de l'Union Européenne (2001), 444

La première partie de l’article examine la décision du Conseil du 26 avril 1999 donnant au Tribunal de Première Instance (TPI) la possibilité de siéger avec un juge unique: cette décision précise les ... [more ▼]

La première partie de l’article examine la décision du Conseil du 26 avril 1999 donnant au Tribunal de Première Instance (TPI) la possibilité de siéger avec un juge unique: cette décision précise les conditions de nomination et les pouvoirs de ce juge unique, les conditions d’application du système, et les cas où l’établissement d’un juge unique serait interdit. La seconde partie de l’analyse montre que l’effet concret du système sera limité en raison des limitations inscrites dans le texte même, et que le pouvoir procédural des Etats membres se trouve une nouvelle fois renforcé. Par ailleurs, l’analyse met en évidence les problèmes de fond soulevés par la fin du principe de collégialité et par la définition d’affaire ʺd’importance limitéeı Une dernière partie présente des propositions alternatives et cumulatives pour réformer le règlement de la procédure du TPI et de la Cour de Justice sans réformer l’ensemble du système juridictionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailMulticriteria and Multiple Actors Tool Aiding to Optimise Building Envelope at the Architectural Sketch Design
Hauglustaine, Jean-Marie ULg; Azar, Sleiman

in Informatica (2001), 12(1), 3-24

The PC software AMCE is proposing building actors (owner, project authors… ) a Multiple Criteria Decision Aid procedure (MCDA) to optimise the building envelope about cost and energy performances, during ... [more ▼]

The PC software AMCE is proposing building actors (owner, project authors… ) a Multiple Criteria Decision Aid procedure (MCDA) to optimise the building envelope about cost and energy performances, during the sketch design. Two main modules are linked, where the user interactively goes: - the first one managers parameters describing the project requirements; - the graphic pen-based module allows to draw the sketch; it calculates geometric parameter values and put them back in the first module. Permanently informed on foreseeable performances, the user can any time search for optimal scenario giving best satisfaction (manoactor optimisation) or most preferred compromise (multiactors optimisation). [less ▲]

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See detailStrychnogucines a and B, Two New Antiplasmodial Bisindole Alkaloids from Strychnos Icaja
Frederich, Michel ULg; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Prosperi, Christelle ULg et al

in Journal of Natural Products (2001), 64(1), 12-16

A reinvestigation of Strychnos icaja roots has resulted in the isolation of two tertiary quasi-symmetric bisindole alkaloids named strychnogucines A (1) and B (2). Their structures were identified by ... [more ▼]

A reinvestigation of Strychnos icaja roots has resulted in the isolation of two tertiary quasi-symmetric bisindole alkaloids named strychnogucines A (1) and B (2). Their structures were identified by means of spectroscopic data interpretation. Compound 2 was highly active in vitro and compound 1 moderately active against four strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Strychnogucine B (2) was more active against a chloroquine-resistant strain than against a chloroquine-sensitive one (best CI(50), 80 nM against the W2 strain). In addition, this compound showed a selective antiplasmodial activity with 25-180 times greater toxicity toward P. falciparum, relative to cultured human cancer cells (KB) or human fibroblasts (WI38). [less ▲]

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See detailLa contribution des pouvoirs locaux à la réalisation des objectifs du Traité de Maastricht
Husson, Jean-François ULg

in Bulletin de Documentation du Ministère des Finances (2001), (1), 15-54

Due to is public finance position in the early 1990's, matching the deficit and debt criteria set by the Maastricht Treaty was not an easy task for Belgium. Efforts from all components of the public ... [more ▼]

Due to is public finance position in the early 1990's, matching the deficit and debt criteria set by the Maastricht Treaty was not an easy task for Belgium. Efforts from all components of the public sector were required and local government delivered important efforts on both deficit and debt, despite the fact that local government supervision is not a federal but well a regional task. This article explains how local government is articulated with other components of general government, details its achievments and provide some light on the political process. [less ▲]

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See detailA Fictional and Cultural Labyrinth: Caryl Phillips's The Nature of Blood
Ledent, Bénédicte ULg

in Ariel : A Review of International English Literature (2001), 32(1), 185-195

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See detailEffect of High Doses of Oral Risedronate (20 Mg/Day) on Serum Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Urinary Collagen Cross-Link Excretion in Postmenopausal Women with Spinal Osteoporosis
Zegels, Brigitte ULg; Eastell, R.; Russell, R. G. et al

in BONE (2001), 28(1), 108-12

The present study describes the biological effects of risedronate, a pyridinyl bisphosphonate, on bone and assesses the safety and tolerability of risedronate when given at high doses, with or without ... [more ▼]

The present study describes the biological effects of risedronate, a pyridinyl bisphosphonate, on bone and assesses the safety and tolerability of risedronate when given at high doses, with or without calcium, to postmenopausal women with spinal osteoporosis. This single-center descriptive, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel group study included 32 postmenopausal white women with at least one radiographically confirmed vertebral compression fracture. Patients were randomized to one of four different dose regimen groups: (i) R-P, risedronate 20 mg/day for 14 days, followed by placebo for 42 days; (ii) R-CP-P, risedronate 20 mg/day for 14 days, followed by elemental calcium 1000 mg/day and placebo for 14 days, then by placebo for 28 days; (iii) R-CP-R-CP, risedronate 20 mg/day for 7 days, followed by elemental calcium 1000 mg/day and placebo for 21 days, then risedronate 20 mg/day for 7 days, and finally elemental calcium 1000 mg/day and placebo for 21 days; and (iv) P, placebo for 56 days. The biological response was investigated by measuring serum calcium, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and 2 h urinary pyridinoline/creatinine (Pyr/Cr) and deoxypyridinoline/creatinine (DPyr/Cr) ratios at baseline and at days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56, and 84. Overall, there were no consistent trends observed between the active group and placebo for serum calcium. In groups R-P, R-CP-P, and R-CP-R-CP, mean serum PTH levels were elevated above baseline values for the entire 56 day treatment period and remained elevated, although to a lesser extent, at the day 84 follow-up visit. The effect of calcium supplementation on PTH was variable. Urinary Pyr/Cr and DPyr/Cr ratios were decreased from baseline over the entire study period in all groups receiving risedronate. The maximum observed percent decreases from baseline for Pyr/Cr and DPyr/Cr were -46.9% and -58.8%, respectively, at day 49 in the R-CP-R-CP group. In conclusion, risedronate given orally at a dose of 20 mg/day, continuously for 7 or 14 days, resulted in the expected biological response in osteoporotic women. The time course of changes in PTH levels following cessation of dosing was unaffected by calcium supplementation. There was no evidence of a PTH-mediated rebound in bone resorption following cessation of therapy. Furthermore, based on collagen cross-link data, patients did not show an excessive reduction in bone turnover. [less ▲]

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See detailRapid and Reversible Inhibition of Brain Aromatase Activity
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Baillien, M.; Ball, G. F.

in Journal of Neuroendocrinology (2001), 13(1), 63-73

Many actions of androgens require their conversion via the enzyme aromatase into oestrogens. Changes in brain aromatase activity are thought to take place via changes in enzyme concentration mediated by ... [more ▼]

Many actions of androgens require their conversion via the enzyme aromatase into oestrogens. Changes in brain aromatase activity are thought to take place via changes in enzyme concentration mediated by effects of sex steroids on aromatase transcription. These changes are relatively slow which fits in well with the fact that oestrogens are generally viewed as slow-acting messengers that act via changes in gene transcription. More recently, fast actions of oestrogens, presumably at the level of the cell membrane, have been described both in the female brain and in the male brain after the conversion of testosterone to oestradiol. It is difficult to reconcile the slow regulation of oestrogen synthesis (that occurs via changes in aromatase concentration) with a rapid action at the membrane level. Even if fast transduction mechanisms are available, this will not result in rapid changes in brain function if the availability of the ligand does not also change rapidly. Here, we report that aromatase activity in neural tissue of male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) is rapidly downregulated in the presence of Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and ATP in hypothalamic homogenates and in brain explants exposed to high Ca(2+) levels following a K(+)-induced depolarization or the stimulation of glutamate receptors. The K(+)-induced inhibition of aromatase activity is observed within minutes and reversible. Given that aromatase is present in presynaptic boutons, it is possible that rapidly changing levels of locally produced oestrogen are available for nongenomic regulation of neuronal physiology in a manner more akin to the action of a neuropeptide than previously hypothesized. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Deroisy, Rita ULg; Rovati, Lucio C et al

in Lancet (2001), 357

BACKGROUND: Treatment of osteoarthritis is usually limited to short-term symptom control. We assessed the effects of the specific drug glucosamine sulphate on the long-term progression of osteoarthritis ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Treatment of osteoarthritis is usually limited to short-term symptom control. We assessed the effects of the specific drug glucosamine sulphate on the long-term progression of osteoarthritis joint structure changes and symptoms. METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind placebo controlled trial, in which 212 patients with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned 1500 mg sulphate oral glucosamine or placebo once daily for 3 years. Weightbearing, anteroposterior radiographs of each knee in full extension were taken at enrolment and after 1 and 3 years. Mean joint-space width of the medial compartment of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by digital image analysis, whereas minimum joint-space width--ie, at the narrowest point--was measured by visual inspection with a magnifying lens. Symptoms were scored by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) osteoarthritis index. FINDINGS: The 106 patients on placebo had a progressive joint-space narrowing, with a mean joint-space loss after 3 years of -0.31 mm (95% CI -0.48 to -0.13). There was no significant joint-space loss in the 106 patients on glucosamine sulphate: -0.06 mm (-0.22 to 0.09). Similar results were reported with minimum joint-space narrowing. As assessed by WOMAC scores, symptoms worsened slightly in patients on placebo compared with the improvement observed after treatment with glucosamine sulphate. There were no differences in safety or reasons for early withdrawal between the treatment and placebo groups. INTERPRETATION: The long-term combined structure-modifying and symptom-modifying effects of gluosamine sulphate suggest that it could be a disease modifying agent in osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailDermatite actinique chronique severe traitee par ciclosporine: 2 cas
Paquet, Philippe ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie (2001), 128(1), 42-5

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of the severe forms of photodermatoses often requires potent systemic immunosuppressive drugs. We report two patients suffering from severe photodermatitis successfully treated ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: The treatment of the severe forms of photodermatoses often requires potent systemic immunosuppressive drugs. We report two patients suffering from severe photodermatitis successfully treated with oral cyclosporine. CASES REPORT: A 58-year-old man developed severe pruritic eczematous reactions for several years on light-exposed and light-protected skin following each sun exposure. A 66-year-old man showed similar lesions restricted to the head and neck. The clinical presentation and evolution as well as histologic, immunohistologic, allergologic and photobiologic assessments suggested the diagnosis of actinic reticuloid and persistent light reactivity, respectively. The lesions of both patients did not respond to a high dose regimen of systemic corticosteroids (methylprednisolone 1 mg/kg/day) for several weeks. The severity of cutaneous lesions and pruritus required another potent immunosuppressive treatment. Oral cyclosporine at the maximum daily dose of 4 mg/kg was given for three months. A rapid improvement of the pruritus and skin lesions occurred in the two patients, without significant side-effect. The first patient experienced recurrent lesions after termination of cyclosporine treatment during summer time. The other patient did not develop new skin eruption for 3 years after stopping the initial treatment with cyclosporine. DISCUSSION: Low-dose oral cyclosporine is a quick-acting and well tolerated symptomatic treatment of severe photodermatoses resistant to other systemic immunosuppressive drugs. However, therapeutic results do not consistently exhibit long-standing remanent effect. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-Gaussian electrical fluctuations in a quasi-2d packing of metallic beads
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Lenaerts, Cedric ULg; Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (2001), 53(2), 197-201

The electrical properties of a two-dimensional packing of metallic beads are studied. Small mechanical perturbations of the packing lead to giant voltage fluctuations. Fluctuations are found to be non ... [more ▼]

The electrical properties of a two-dimensional packing of metallic beads are studied. Small mechanical perturbations of the packing lead to giant voltage fluctuations. Fluctuations are found to be non-Gaussian and seem to belong to Levy stable distributions. Anticorrelations have been also found for the sign of these fluctuations. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Expression of Galectin-1 in Carcinoma-Associated Stroma Predicts Poor Outcome in Prostate Carcinoma Patients
van den Brule, Frederic; Waltregny, David ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Journal of Pathology (The) (2001), 193(1), 80-7

Galectin-1, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding galectin family, is a pleiotropic dimeric protein participating in a variety of normal and pathological processes, including cancer progression ... [more ▼]

Galectin-1, a member of the beta-galactoside-binding galectin family, is a pleiotropic dimeric protein participating in a variety of normal and pathological processes, including cancer progression. Modulation of the interactions with the basement membrane glycoprotein laminin and induction of apoptosis in activated T lymphocytes are well-known functions of this galectin. In this study, the expression of galectin-1 was examined in 148 human primary prostate carcinoma samples. Immunohistochemical staining of paraffin sections of prostate tissues revealed that galectin-1 was not detected in normal, PIN (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) or carcinoma cells, but accumulated in the stroma and associated fibroblasts. Galectin-1 expression was significantly increased in the tumour-associated stroma compared with the non-neoplastic gland-associated stroma in 21.3% of the cases (Mantel-Haenszel test, p=0.001; Wilcoxon signed rank test, p<0.0001). Increased galectin-1 expression in the cancer-associated stroma compared to the normal gland-associated stroma (p=0.03) was identified by multivariate analysis as a strong independent predictor of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) recurrence, just after the pathological stage (p<0.0001). The association between accumulation of galectin-1 in the stroma of the malignant tissue and aggressiveness of the tumour adds weight to the body of evidence that identifies a role for galectin-1 in the acquisition of the invasive phenotype. In addition to modulating cancer cell interactions with laminin, galectin-1 accumulated around the cancer cells may act as an immunological shield by inducing activated T-cell apoptosis. This exciting hypothesis warrants further investigation. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of Difficult Intubation
Janssens, Marc ULg; Hartstein, Gary ULg

in European Journal of Anaesthesiology (2001), 18(1), 3-12

Appropriate airway management is an essential part of the anaesthetist's role. Difficult intubation, which can now be quantified using the 'Intubation Difficulty Scale', should be anticipated whenever ... [more ▼]

Appropriate airway management is an essential part of the anaesthetist's role. Difficult intubation, which can now be quantified using the 'Intubation Difficulty Scale', should be anticipated whenever possible. A strategy needs to be developed in order to anticipate problems. The first part of this paper reviews the different factors that contribute to make intubation and/or ventilation difficult. Problems with intubation (or ventilation of the lungs) can be caused by abnormal laryngeal structures (e.g. tumour, stenosis), or by difficulty in seeing the glottis. The clinical history will usually help identify the former problem, while physical examination of the airway is required to reveal either disproportion between the various structures of the airway (e.g. tongue, larynx), and/or difficulties in aligning the oral, pharyngeal, and laryngeal axes. The different techniques used to diagnose these problems are described. The second part of this paper summarizes the algorithms used by the anaesthetist when management of the airway is found difficult. Three situations are considered: (a) anticipated difficult intubation, for which awake fibreoptic intubation would appear to be the technique of choice in the majority of cases, (b) unforeseen difficult intubation in a patient whose lungs can be ventilated; here, various techniques for control of the airway will be briefly described, and (c) both tracheal intubation and lung ventilation are impossible; this is a life-threatening emergency, for which three solutions are proposed. These include use of the laryngeal mask airway, the Combitube, or transtracheal ventilation. These situations will be analysed with the aim of proposing management strategies that always guarantee the safety of the patient. [less ▲]

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See detailTherapeutic Drug Monitoring of Azathioprine and 6-Mercaptopurine Metabolites in Crohn Disease
Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Desager, J. P.; Horsmans, Y. et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (2001), 36(1), 71-6

BACKGROUND: 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its prodrug azathioprine (AZA) have proven efficacy in the treatment of Crohn disease (CD). The immunosuppressive properties of AZA/6-MP are mediated by the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its prodrug azathioprine (AZA) have proven efficacy in the treatment of Crohn disease (CD). The immunosuppressive properties of AZA/6-MP are mediated by the intracellular metabolism of 6-MP into its active metabolites, 6-thioguanine nucleotides (6TGN) and 6methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). Preliminary studies have suggested that the red blood cell concentration of 6TGN (RBC 6TGN) is a potential guide to therapy. The aims of the study were to evaluate the RBC 6TGN concentrations in adult patients with CD under long-term AZA/6-MP therapy and to correlate it with response to treatment and haematological parameters. METHODS: Twenty-eight CD patients treated for at least 3 months with AZA/6-MP were prospectively studied. Patients were separated into three main groups: group 1 (n = 19), corresponding to quiescent CD receiving AZA (dose: 2.05 +/- 0.4 mg/kg/day for a mean of 28.6 +/- 25 months) or 6-MP (dose: 1.4 +/- 01 mg/kg/day for a mean of 7.5 +/- 3.5 months) alone; group 2 (n = 6), corresponding to quiescent CD treated by AZA (dose: 2.14 +/- 0.5 mg/kg/day for a mean of 29.5 +/- 22 months) with oral steroids; and group 3 (n = 3), corresponding to active CD on AZA (dose: 1.94 +/- 0.6 mg/kg/day for a mean of 31.3 +/- 35 months) as the only treatment. An assessment was also made by merging groups 1 and 2 forming a larger group of patients (n = 25) defined by clinical remission and groups 2 and 3 forming a larger group of patients (n = 9), non-complete responders with AZA/6-MP alone. Crohn disease index activity (CDAI), blood samples for full blood count and differential white cell count and measurement of RBC 6TGN and 6-MMP concentrations were evaluated at inclusion and at 6 months (n = 17). RBC 6TGN were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on heparinized blood. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the three groups of patients were similar. There was no significant difference among the three groups of patients regarding the dose and the duration of immunosuppressive treatment. There was no significant difference between groups according to various parameters tested. Particularly, the median RBC 6TGN concentration at inclusion was similar in the three groups of patients (166 (105-688), 183 (90-261) and 160 (52-194) pmol/8 x 10(8) RBC, respectively). The majority of patients had no detectable level of 6-MMP metabolite, except for 3 patients. There was also no difference between merging groups. Furthermore, there was no significant correlation between RBC 6TGN concentrations and the various biological parameters tested except for the mean erythrocyte volume. At 6 months, all patients of group 1 remained in remission and median RBC 6TGN concentration remained stable. No side effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS: There is, contrary to preliminary studies, a broad overlap in RBC 6TGN levels as well as for haematological parameters in patients in remission or not and responders or not to AZA/6-MP therapy. This suggests, beside a variability in the metabolism of these drugs, the existence of complex mechanisms of action. Nevertheless, beside the use of RBC 6TGN determination to confirm compliance to therapy, this dosage could be useful in non-responding patients, allowing, in absence of leukopenia, to increase the dose of AZA/6-MP safely. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Intoxication aigue au methanol
Brasseur, Edmond ULg; Lemineur, T.; Leonard, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 7-10

We report a fatal methanol intoxication and discuss its physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment.

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See detailFractionated irradiation combined with carbogen breathing and nicotinamide of two human glioblastomas grafted in nude mice
SUN, Lin-Quan; BUCHEGGER, Franz; COUCKE, Philippe ULg et al

in Radiation Research (2001), 155(1),

This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions ... [more ▼]

This study addressed the potential radiosensitizing effect of nicotinamide and/or carbogen on human glioblastoma xenografts in nude mice. U-87MG and LN-Z308 tumors were irradiated with either 20 fractions over 12 days or 5 fractions over 5 days in air-breathing mice, mice injected with nicotinamide, mice breathing carbogen, or mice receiving nicotinamide plus carbogen. The responses to treatment were assessed using local control and moist desquamation. In U-87MG tumors, the enhancement ratios (ERs) at the radiation dose required to produce local tumor control in 50% of the treated mice (TCD50) with nicotinamide and/or carbogen ranged from 1.13 to 1.24 for irradiation in 20 fractions over 12 days. In LN-Z308 tumors, the ERs at the TCD50 with nicotinamide and/or carbogen ranged from 1.22 to 1.40 for irradiation in 5 fractions over 5 days and from 1.11 to 1.30 in 20 fractions over 12 days, respectively. Skin injury was slightly enhanced, with ERs ranged from 1.06 to 1.15 when radiation was combined with carbogen and/or nicotinamide. Thus carbogen and nicotinamide can slightly improve the radiation response of human glioblastoma xenografts. [less ▲]

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See detailUn Centre de Jour pour une prise en charge de patients Alzheimer à un stade débutant
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(1), 31-37

Alzheimer's disease represents an important problem for our societies, both in social and economical dimensions. Built in July 1997, the day care center of Liege aims at practicing strategic cognitive ... [more ▼]

Alzheimer's disease represents an important problem for our societies, both in social and economical dimensions. Built in July 1997, the day care center of Liege aims at practicing strategic cognitive interventions in early Alzheimer patients or when pathological memory impairments occur. By means of an interdisciplinary work (by neuropsychologists and occupational therapists), the ultimate goal of the interventions is to facilitate the patient's autonomy in activities of daily living. Because of the variability of clinical symptoms of the disease, the goal of these cognitive interventions is to optimize the performance of each patient by making the most of its preserved abilities. Moreover, another goal of the day care center is also to support the caregivers, by giving them advices in order to adequately face with difficulties presented by the patient. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic time stepping algorithms for implicit numerical simulations of blade/casing interactions
Noels, Ludovic ULg; Stainier, Laurent ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg et al

in International Journal of Crashworthiness (2001), 6(3), 351-362

An automatic time stepping algorithm for non-linear problems, solved by implicit schemes, is presented. The time step computation is based on the estimation of an integration error calculated from the ... [more ▼]

An automatic time stepping algorithm for non-linear problems, solved by implicit schemes, is presented. The time step computation is based on the estimation of an integration error calculated from the acceleration difference. It is normalised according to the size of the problem and the integration parameters. This time step control algorithm modifies the time step size only if the problem has a long time physical change. Additionally, the Hessian matrix can be kept constant for several iterations, even though the problem is non-linear. A criterion selecting if the Hessian matrix must be calculated or not is developed. Finally, a criterion of iterations divergence is also proposed. It avoids the determination, by the user, of a maximal iteration number. This minimises the total number of iterations, and thus the computation cost. Industrial numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the performances (precision and computational cost) of the algorithms. [less ▲]

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See detailAnaesthesia for laparoscopic surgery
Kaba, Abdourahmane ULg; Joris, Jean ULg

in Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care (2001), 12

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See detailEffet of dietary fat levels on growth, feed efficiency and biochemical compositions of Eurasian perch Perca fluviatilis
Xu; Fontaine, P.; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquaculture International (2001), 9

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See detailInteraction Between The N-Terminal Domain Of Gastric H,K-Atpase And The Spectrin Binding Domain Of Ankyrin Iii
Festy, F.; Robert, Jocelyne ULg; Brasseur, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(11), 7721-6

We screened a cDNA bank of rabbit gastric fundic mucosa by two-hybrid assays looking for binding partners of the N-terminal domain of the rabbit gastric H,K-ATPase. We extracted five clones sharing more ... [more ▼]

We screened a cDNA bank of rabbit gastric fundic mucosa by two-hybrid assays looking for binding partners of the N-terminal domain of the rabbit gastric H,K-ATPase. We extracted five clones sharing more than 90% sequence identity. The longest clone codes for a protein sharing a high identity (96 and 96.8%, respectively) with a fragment of the membrane domain, from Arg-835 to Ser-873, plus the major part of the "spectrin binding domain" going from Glu-874 to Leu-1455 of human and mouse ankyrin III. We conclude that the membrane and spectrin binding domains of the rabbit ankyrin III are candidates for the binding partner of the N-terminal domain of the rabbit gastric H,K-ATPase. To validate the ankyrin-ATPase interaction and to test its specificity, we produced both domains in yeast and bacteria, coimmunoprecipitated them with an anti-ATPase antibody, and copurified them by affinity chromatography. The sequence of rabbit ankyrin III was not known, and this is the first report demonstrating that the ankyrin III and the H,K-ATPase interact with no intermediate. The interaction involves the N-terminal domain of the ATPase on one hand and the spectrin binding domain of the ankyrin on the other. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical Recognition of Antioxidants and UV-light Stabilizers on the Surface of Polypropylene : Atomic Force Microscopy with Chemically Modified Tips
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Poleunis, Claude; Bertrand, Patrick et al

in Langmuir (2001), 17

We show in this paper that it is possible to locally detect additives on the surface of polypropylene with chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips. Gold-coated AFM tips modified with methyl ... [more ▼]

We show in this paper that it is possible to locally detect additives on the surface of polypropylene with chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips. Gold-coated AFM tips modified with methyl and hydroxyl terminated self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers were used to measure adhesion forces on a process-stabilizing agent (Irgafos 168), an antioxidant (Irganox 1010), and UV-light stabilizers (Tinuvin 770, Dastib 845, Chimassorb 944, and Hostavin N30). Pull-off force measurements carried out on these pure additive films have shown that it is possible to discriminate between antioxidants and UV-light stabilizers. We have evidenced a characteristic fingerprint for each additive, according to the functionality of the tip used and themediumwherein the force measurements are realized (water or nitrogen atmosphere). Similarly we have measured pull-off forces on a melt-pressed polypropylene sample stabilized with Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, and Tinuvin 770. These adhesion force measurements show that the extreme surface of the polymer is mainly made of a layer of Tinuvin 770. These results have been compared to those obtained from time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements [less ▲]

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See detailTremblement essentiel: diagnostic différentiel et traitement
DELVAUX, Valérie ULg; MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg

in Médecine et Hygiène (2001), 59

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See detailContinuité de l'information, discontinuités sociales: NTIC, nouvelles formes d'organisation et dialogue social
Schoenaers, Frédéric ULg; Zune, Marc

in Revue de Gestion des Ressources Humaines (2001), 42

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See detailInulin: its physicochemical properties and technological functionality.
Blecker, Christophe ULg; Chevalier, J. P.; Herck, J C van et al

in Recent Research Developments in Agricultural & Food Chemistry (2001), 5

This review examines the present state of knowledge on the physicochemical properties and technological functionality of inulin. First, structure and conformation are described. Secondly, solubility and ... [more ▼]

This review examines the present state of knowledge on the physicochemical properties and technological functionality of inulin. First, structure and conformation are described. Secondly, solubility and gelation are precisely detailed. Finally, the numerous advantages offered by this functional food are described. [less ▲]

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See detailIleo-caecal actinomycosis: Report of a case simulating complicated inflammatory bowel disease
Postal, Alain; Detry, Olivier ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2001), 64(4, Oct-Dec), 318-320

Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces israelii, a gram-positive anaerobic saprophyte germ that is a normal inhabitant of the upper intestinal tract in humans ... [more ▼]

Abdominal actinomycosis is a rare infectious disease caused by Actinomyces israelii, a gram-positive anaerobic saprophyte germ that is a normal inhabitant of the upper intestinal tract in humans. Actinomyces israelii rarely cause abdominal infections or actinomycosis. Abdominal actinomysosis is characterised by fistulae and abscesses and may mimic cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. Abdominal actinomycosis is difficult to diagnose preoperatively, and often require surgical removal of the diseased tissue, allowing pathologists for giving the definitive diagnosis, revealed by characteristic "sulfur granules". The authors report herein the case of a 47-year-old man who presented with diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography evoked complicated inflammatory bowel disease and surgical procedure was decided. Laparoscopic exploration did not provide further significant information, and laparotomy with diseased bowel resection was performed. Pathology demonstrated "sulfur granules" and allowed the diagnosis of abdominal actinomycosis. This case demonstrated that abdominal actinomycosis should be included in the differential diagnosis when computed tomography shows an infiltrative and inflammatory mass. [less ▲]

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See detailNeuregulin signaling regulates neural precursor growth and the generation of oligodendrocytes in vitro
Calaora, Viviane; Rogister, Bernard ULg; Bismuth, Karen et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2001), 21

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See detailLes bioindustries fertilisent la valorisation
Thonart, Philippe ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(3), 131-134

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See detailAre hyperhydric shoots of Prunus avium L. energy deficient?
Franck, Thierry ULg; Gaspar, Thomas ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Plant Science (2001), 160(6), 1145-1151

The content of oxidized and reduced pyridine nucleotides and some enzymatic activities of the oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways were compared in normal (NS, growing on agar) and ... [more ▼]

The content of oxidized and reduced pyridine nucleotides and some enzymatic activities of the oxidative pentose phosphate and glycolytic pathways were compared in normal (NS, growing on agar) and hyperhydric (HS, growing on gelrite) shoots of Prunus avium L. after 4 weeks of in vitro culture. The chlorophyll fluorescence from leaves and the redox capacity or the plasma membrane (reduction of exogenously added ferricyanide) of both types of shoots were recorded. The pool of oxidized and reduced pyridine nucleotides was lower in HS th;ln in NS. These results suggested a reduced metabolism of HS in comparison to normal ones. This hypothesis was also supported by other observations. First, chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed a lower chlorophyll content and a slight reduction of the photosynthetic capacity in HS. Second, the low activity of some enzymes of oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPP) and glycolysis indicated a decline of these biochemical pathways in HS with the consequence of a reduced production of chemical energy in the form of NAD(P)H and ATP. Finally, the lower reduction of ferricyanide by I-IS suggested a lower rate of redox reactions at the level of the plasma membrane of these shoots in comparison to NS. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailImmunocytochemistry of the golden hamster pituitary during chronic administration of diethylstilbestrol: a quantitative analysis using laser scanning microscopy
Van Cauwenberge, A.; Nonclercq, D.; Laurent, G. et al

in Histochemistry & Cell Biology (2001), 115

The aim of this study was to examine by immunohistochemistry the morphologic changes affecting pituitary cell populations in male Syrian hamsters undergoing chronic exposure (3 days to 9 months) to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to examine by immunohistochemistry the morphologic changes affecting pituitary cell populations in male Syrian hamsters undergoing chronic exposure (3 days to 9 months) to diethylstilbestrol (DES). Cell proliferation in the hypophysis was monitored by the immunohistochemical demonstration of S-phase cells after pulse labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine. Cell proliferation analysis was combined with the identification of different cell populations by immunostaining with antisera raised against hypophyseal hormones. Sections processed for double-label immunofluorescence were examined by confocal microscopy. In the adenohypophysis, the relative surface occupied by gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs decreased rapidly during the first months of treatment while corticotroph and somatotroph populations remained unaffected. Accordingly, the incidence of S-phase cells in these four cell populations was lower than or similar to control values. In contrast, lactotrophs increased gradually during the first month of exposure to DES to reach a maximum value at 2-4 months. At the beginning, this increase was primarily due to hyperplasia but later on it also involved cellular hypertrophy. Somatomammotrophs did not seem to be involved in this model. In the pars intermedia, the labeling index of melanotrophs rose rapidly to reach values 5-6 times higher than controls. After 4 months, neoplasms originating from the pars intermedia were seen invading both the neuro- and the adenohypophysis. At the end of treatment, the pituitary was markedly enlarged resulting from the development of an adenoma of the pars intermedia [less ▲]

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See detailEffet de l’environnement proche sur la biodiversité entomologique en culture maraîchères de plein champ
Colignon, P.; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Hastir, P. et al

in Parasitica (2001), 56

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See detailPetrology and geochemistry of rapakivi-type granites from the crystalline basement of NE Poland
Baginski, Boguslaw; Duchesne, Jean-Clair ULg; Vander Auwera, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Geological Quarterly (2001), 45(1), 33-52

The collection of 80 rock samples coming from drillcores of 8 localities from the Mazury Complex (Polish part of the crystalline East European Craton) and representing different rock types from ... [more ▼]

The collection of 80 rock samples coming from drillcores of 8 localities from the Mazury Complex (Polish part of the crystalline East European Craton) and representing different rock types from monzodiorites to leucogranites, were studied for major, trace and REE elements by XRF and ICP-MS methods. The range in composition of investigating rocks varies from 46% to 76% SiO2 contents. All of them show similar REE distributions, what suggests that they are genetically linked. They also plot along a major trend with many similarities to the jotunitic liquid line of descent (LLD) defined in AMCG rocks from Rogaland (Norway). Each group of rocks has however its own characteristics considering specific elements, such as REE, Sr or Zr. [less ▲]

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See detailIncrease of Plasma Ecg Binding Rate after Administration of Repeated High Dose of Ecg to Cows
Drion, Pierre ULg; De Roover, R.; Houtain, J. Y. et al

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (2001), 41(3), 207-215

Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) is still used to promote follicular growth in cattle and, more recently with an increased frequency of administration, in ovum pick-up protocols. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) is still used to promote follicular growth in cattle and, more recently with an increased frequency of administration, in ovum pick-up protocols. The aim of this experiment was to verify the possible effect of high frequency of administration on the immune response to eCG. The profiles of eCG binding rate, in the blood of two groups (A, B) of 4 primiparous cross breed beef cows (3-3.5 years old) submitted weekly for 5 to 10 weeks to repeated high doses (1000-2000 IU) of equine chorionic gonadotrophin, are presented in this paper. A sensitive radiometric method was used to detect antibodies in plasma. The profiles clearly indicated a marked increase of eCG binding rate after 3 to 5 injections of the exogenous hormone to the females. The statistical analysis of the results established that treatments induced a significant increase (P < 0.01) in binding rates after 6 and 3 injections in group A and B respectively. These binding rates remained elevated for at least 1 week following the last injection and decreased afterwards. The values of plasma binding rates following repeated eCG administration differed significantly between groups (0.90+/-1.04 and 1.04+/-0.11 for groups A and B before treatment versus 11.77+/-0.92, 6.70+/-0.85 for groups A and B after treatment, P < 0.01) and from one cow to another (P < 0.01) with some cows presenting no significant immune response while others were more reactive against the hormone (at least 3 injections). [less ▲]

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See detailObesity: causes and new treatments.
Lefebvre, Pierre ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Experimental & Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes (2001), 109 Suppl 2

The prevalence of obesity increases rapidly in developed and developing countries. Obesity results from a cumulative positive energy balance and is favoured by both genetic and environmental factors ... [more ▼]

The prevalence of obesity increases rapidly in developed and developing countries. Obesity results from a cumulative positive energy balance and is favoured by both genetic and environmental factors. Preventing obesity requires a major investment in nutritional and lifestyle education, particularly in children and adolescents.--The pharmacological approach to obesity includes drugs that reduce food intake (noradrenergic and serotoninergic agents), drugs that increase energy expenditure and compounds that affect nutrient partitioning. In all instances, the benefit-to-risk ratio needs to be carefully assessed. In some patients (severe obesity or obesity accompanied by serious high-risk comorbid conditions), gastric surgery (gastric restriction or gastric bypass) should be considered. In our own experience, it is safe and effective. [less ▲]

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See detailShort-term variations of the partial pressure of CO2 in surface waters of the Galician upwelling system
Borges, Alberto ULg; Frankignoulle, Michel

in Progress in Oceanography (2001), 50(2-4), 283-302

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and dissolved oxygen saturation level (%O2) were monitored continuously during a cruise in August 1998, which sampled surface waters off the Galician coast. Data are ... [more ▼]

The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and dissolved oxygen saturation level (%O2) were monitored continuously during a cruise in August 1998, which sampled surface waters off the Galician coast. Data are presented from two Lagrangian experiments carried out in an upwelling on the continental shelf and in the core of an offshore filament. The data show that daily variations in surface pCO2 and oxygen (%O2) were controlled by the diurnal cycle of primary production/respiration, temperature variations and air–sea exchange. Data obtained during various cross-shelf and cross-filament transects are also discussed and give an insight into the processes controlling large scale variations of pCO2 and %O2 in the Galician upwelling system. These data suggest that upwelling filaments are an important feature of the inorganic carbon cycle of upwelling systems. However more field data in the various eastern boundary current systems worldwide are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailUne révision critique de la distribution de Tortula inermis en Belgique
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Stieperaere, H.; Sotiaux, André ULg

in Dumortiera (2001), 77

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See detailPraxéologies didactiques et praxéologies mathématiques, à propos d'un enseignement des limites au secondaire.
Schneider, Marguerite ULg

in Recherches en Didactique des Mathématiques (2001), 21(1-2), 7-50

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See detailThe organotypic culture of HPV-transformed keratinocytes: an effective in vitro model for the development of new immunotherapeutic approaches for mucosal (pre)neoplastic lesions.
Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Hubert, Pascale ULg; Jacobs, Nathalie ULg et al

in Vaccine (2001), 19(17-19), 2557-64

The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable in vitro human model to test new immunotherapeutic approaches for squamous cell carcinoma that develop on mucosal surfaces. The organotypic (raft ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable in vitro human model to test new immunotherapeutic approaches for squamous cell carcinoma that develop on mucosal surfaces. The organotypic (raft) culture permits cells to proliferate and differentiate at an air-liquid interface on a dermal equivalent support. Normal keratinocytes stratify and fully differentiate in a manner similar to the normal squamous epithelial tissues, while human papillomavirus-immortalized and established squamous carcinoma cell lines exhibit dysplastic morphologies similar to (pre)neoplastic lesions seen in vivo. We have demonstrated the ability of these organotypic cultures to be manipulated by altering the epithelial stratification with cytokines (interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and by integrating activated lymphocytes or dendritic cells into the in vitro formed epithelial sheet. This model may provide a useful tool to investigate the factors contributing to the presence and function of immunocompetent cells within a neoplastic epithelium that develops on a mucosal surface. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of additives to prepare low-density xerogels
Alié, Christelle ULg; Pirard, René ULg; Lecloux, A. J. et al

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2001), 285

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See detailRadiative lifetime measurements and transition probabilities of astrophysical interest in Er III
Biémont, Emile ULg; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Bastin, Thierry ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2001), 321

Radiative lifetimes of seven excited states of Er III have been measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence following two-photon excitation. Relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations taking core ... [more ▼]

Radiative lifetimes of seven excited states of Er III have been measured using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence following two-photon excitation. Relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations taking core-polarization effects into account are found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental results. A large set of new calculated transition probabilities is presented for many transitions of astrophysical interest. These results will be useful for investigating the composition of chemically peculiar stars. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth abnormalities associated with adrenal disorders and their management.
Savage, M. O.; LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Blair, J. C. et al

in Hormone research (2001), 56 Suppl 1

Linear growth can be disturbed in paediatric adrenal disease associated with endocrine hypo- or hyperfunction. Tall stature is a feature in some patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance ... [more ▼]

Linear growth can be disturbed in paediatric adrenal disease associated with endocrine hypo- or hyperfunction. Tall stature is a feature in some patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndromes and short stature is recognized in the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital anomalies) association. In autoimmune Addison's disease, growth is usually normal. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, height may be compromised by advanced skeletal maturation or by suppressed growth, particularly in the neonatal period due to excess glucocorticoid treatment. In virilizing adrenal tumours, height is increased at diagnosis, but after surgical cure final height is usually in the normal range. In Cushing's disease, height was abnormally short in 50% of patients at presentation. After successful treatment, spontaneous catch-up growth was not seen. This led to a diagnosis of growth hormone (GH) deficiency in 80% of patients. With GH replacement, catch-up growth and long-term benefit occurred. Disturbance of linear growth is an important feature of many patients with adrenal disorders in childhood. Assessment of its pathogenesis and careful management are necessary to ensure optimal final adult height. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential impact of the main benthic amphipods on the eastern Weddell Sea shelf ecosystem (Antarctica)
Dauby, Patrick ULg; Scailteur, Yves; Chapelle, Gauthier et al

in Polar Biology (2001), 24

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See detailA finite element formulation for spectral problems in optical fibers
Guenneau, S.; Nicolet, A.; Zolla, F. et al

in COMPEL (2001), 20(1), 120--131

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Remplacement complet de l'aorte ascendante et de la crosse aortique dans un cas de dissection aortique chronique
DURIEUX, Rodolphe ULg; RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; GRENADE, Thierry ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 140-3

We report the case of a patient who developed an evolutive chronic aortic dissection after ascending aorta replacement for acute type A aortic dissection. Owing to the development of severe aortic ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a patient who developed an evolutive chronic aortic dissection after ascending aorta replacement for acute type A aortic dissection. Owing to the development of severe aortic regurgitation, aortic root pseudoaneurysm and aneurysmal dilatation of the arch and descending aorta, reoperation was adviced. Reoperation included Cabrol modification of the Bentall operation and aortic arch replacement with elephant trunk performed under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. The incidence of late aneurysmal formation in type 1 aortic dissection has been reported to be 30%. Close postoperative follow-up of the aortic diameter is necessary to detect a critical dilatation and to permit elective reoperation. [less ▲]

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See detail(R/S)-3-(3-Methyl-2-butylamino)-4H-pyrido[4,3-e]-1,2,4-thiadiazine 1,1-dioxide mono-hydrate
Dupont, L.; De Tullio, Pascal ULg; Tinant, B. et al

in Acta Crystallographica (2001), E57

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See detailGlutathione S-transferases of Aulacorthum solani and Acyrthosiphon pisum: partial purification and characterization.
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part B (2001), 129(1), 165-71

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Brassicaceae plants contain glucosinolates and emit volatile ... [more ▼]

Glutathione S-transferases (GST) play an important role in the detoxification of many substances including allelochemicals from plants. Brassicaceae plants contain glucosinolates and emit volatile isothiocyanates which affect the GST system. A comparison of the GST of two aphid species, the generalist Aulacorthum solani found on Brassicaceae and the Fabaceae specialist Acyrthosiphon pisum, was made to try to explain their respective feeding behaviour. Differences of GST were determined among the two aphid species based on purification by affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE and on kinetic studies. Purification yields using an epoxy-activated Sepharose 6B column were highly different for the two aphid species (18% and 34% for A. solani and A. pisum, respectively). These variations were confirmed by SDS-PAGE. While only a 27-kDa band was observed for A. pisum, two bands of approximately 25-kDa were visualized for the generalist aphid, A. solani. Considering the kinetic results, differences of Km and Vmax were observed following the aphid species when a range of substrates (CDNB and DCNB) and GSH concentrations were tested. Studies on the detoxification enzymes of generalist and specialist herbivores would be undertaken to determine accurately the effect of the host plant on the organisms eating them, particularly in terms of biochemical and ecological advantages. [less ▲]

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See detailA recombinant beta-O-glucosidase from Caldocellum saccharolyticum to hydrolyse desulfo-glucosinolates
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Iori, R.; Leoni, O. et al

in Biotechnology Letters (2001), 23(6), 443-446

Glucosinolates, natural compounds found in Brassicaceae, can easily be transformed into desulfo-glucosinolates by action of Helix pomatia sulfatase. The recombinant beta -O-glucosidase from Caldocellum ... [more ▼]

Glucosinolates, natural compounds found in Brassicaceae, can easily be transformed into desulfo-glucosinolates by action of Helix pomatia sulfatase. The recombinant beta -O-glucosidase from Caldocellum saccharolyticum does not catalyse glucosinolate degradation but can hydrolyse desulfo-glucosinolates (thio-D-glucosidic substrates) to produce the corresponding pure nitriles, including valuable homochiral representatives. [less ▲]

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See detailLes devoirs: Un canal de communication entre l'école et les familles
Poncelet, Débora ULg; Schillings, Patricia ULg; Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg et al

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2001), 20

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See detailApplication of the accelerated shelf life testing method (ASLT) to study the survival rates of freeze-dried Lactococcus starter cultures
Achour, M.; Mtimet, N.; Cornelius, C. et al

in Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2001), 74

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See detailComment je traite une ascite
Gielen, S.; Delwaide, Jean ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 809-815

Ascites is the most common of the major complications of cirrhosis. The initial evaluation of a patient with ascites should include a history, physical evaluation and some investigations. Treatment should ... [more ▼]

Ascites is the most common of the major complications of cirrhosis. The initial evaluation of a patient with ascites should include a history, physical evaluation and some investigations. Treatment should consist of treating the underlying liver disease, sodium restricted diet (2 g of Na+/day) and diuretics. This regimen is effective in 90 % of patients. The treatment options for the diuretic-resistant patients include serial therapeutic paracentesis, peritoneovenous shunting, TIPSand liver transplantation. The treatment and prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis which is a frequent and severe complication in cirrhotic patients with ascites is also important. The differential diagnosis with secondary bacterial peritonitisis is essential because the latter usually does not resolve unless patients are surgically treated. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. Toxicite de l'hyperglycemie en soins intensifs et effets benefiques d'une insulinotherapie optimisee.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 859-61

A large Belgian, prospective, controlled study was performed in 1.548 critically ill patients (83% without history of diabetes) hospitalised in a surgical intensive care unit. On admission, patients were ... [more ▼]

A large Belgian, prospective, controlled study was performed in 1.548 critically ill patients (83% without history of diabetes) hospitalised in a surgical intensive care unit. On admission, patients were randomly assigned to receive intensive intravenous insulin therapy (maintenance of blood glucose at a level between 80 and 110 mg/dl) or conventional treatment (infusion of insulin only if the blood glucose level exceeded 215 mg/dl and maintenance of glucose at a level between 180 and 200 mg/dl). Intensive insulin therapy reduced morbidity and mortality by 40%. These remarkable results should influence further therapeutical attitudes in intensive care units and open new perspectives for the management of critically ill patients. [less ▲]

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See detailA simplified one-pot synthesis of 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine([18F]FHPG) and 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG) for gene therapy.
Shiue, Grace G.; Shiue, Ching-Yann; Lee, Roland L. et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2001), 28(7), 875-83

9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N(2)-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-[[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3-toluenesulfonylox y ... [more ▼]

9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N(2)-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-[[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3-toluenesulfonylox y-2-propoxy]methyl]guanine (1) with potassium [18F]fluoride/Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by deprotection with 1 N HCl and purification with different methods in variable yields. When both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 90 degrees C and the product was purified by HPLC (method A), the yield of compound 2 was 5-10% and the synthesis time was 90 min from EOB. However, if both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 120 degrees C and the product was purified by HPLC, the yield of compound 2 decreased to 2%. When compound 2 was synthesized at 90 degrees C and purified by Silica Sep-Pak (method B), the yield increased to 10-15% and the synthesis time was 60 min from EOB. Similarly, 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG, 4) was synthesized with method A and method B in 9% and 10-15% yield, respectively, in a synthesis time of 90 and 60 min, respectively, from EOB. Compound 2 was relatively unstable in acidic medium at 120 degrees C while compound 4 was stable under the same condition. Both compound 2 and compound 4 had low lipid/water partition coefficient (0.126 +/- 0.022, n=5 and 0.165 +/- 0.023, n=5, respectively). Although it contains non-radioactive ganciclovir ( approximately 5-30 microg) as a chemical by-product, compound 2 synthesized by method B has a similar uptake in 9L glioma cells as that synthesized by method A, and is a potential tracer for imaging herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression in tumors using PET. Similarly, compound 4 synthesized by method B contains approximately 10-25 microg of penciclovir as a chemical by-product. Thus, the simplified one pot synthesis (method B) is a useful method for synthesizing both compound 2 and compound 4 in good yield for routine clinical use, and the method is readily amenable for automation. [less ▲]

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See detailRt-Pcr-Elosa Tests On Pooled Sample Units For The Detection Of Virus Y In Potato Tubers
Chandelier, Anne; Dubois, Nathalie ULg; Baelen, Frédéric et al

in Journal of Virological Methods (2001), 91(2), 99-108

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See detailModified hormonal balance in rooting-recalcitrant rac mutant tobacco shoots
Faivre-Rampant, Odile; Kevers, Claire ULg; Dommes, Jacques ULg et al

in Plant Biosystems (2001), 135(1), 85-93

The rooting-recalcitrant rac tobacco mutant has been multiplied in vitro via outgrowth of axillary buds in parallel to the DS wild-type. The mutant shoots grew at a lower rate and did not root whatever ... [more ▼]

The rooting-recalcitrant rac tobacco mutant has been multiplied in vitro via outgrowth of axillary buds in parallel to the DS wild-type. The mutant shoots grew at a lower rate and did not root whatever the treatments, whereas the wild-type shoots rooted spontaneously during the culture cycle without auxin treatment. The mutant and wild-type shoots showed similar peroxidase variations along the culture cycle (21 days) but with higher levels of activity for the rac mutant: minimum peroxidase activity occurrey at day 14 in whole shoots of both tobacco genotypes, but already at day 7 in the basal parts of the stems (where roots appear) of the wild-type tobacco, while it was delayed in the mutant. Free and conjugated auxin and polyamine levels were also determined in whole shoots and basal parts of the stems. The rac mutant was characterised by higher auxin and polyamine contents. A peak of auxins and polyamines appeared at day 14 in the whole shoots whatever the tobacco genotype. This peak was delayed in the basal parts of the rac stems compared to the wild-type ones. The mutant shoots contained higher levels of benzyladenine and isopentenyladenosine at the end of the culture cycle, whereas zeatin riboside was more abundant in wild-type shoots. In response to increasing concentrations of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), only the wild-type shoots responded by an increase in growth rate followed by inhibition at high concentrations. The rac shoot responses were very low or nonexistent. Peroxidase activity was also measured in E basal parts of tobacco stems grown in the presence of IBA. Results suggest growth inhibition related to auxin accumulation, possibly combined with elevated putrescine content. Second, rooting induction seems to take place in both tobacco genotypes; however, the process of root formation is blocked in the mutant. The lack of initiation and expression phases of rooting in relation to auxin content in the mutant is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Human Vpac(1) Receptor - Three-Dimensional Model And Mutagenesis Of The N-Terminal Domain
Lins, Laurence ULg; Couvineau, A.; Rouyer-Fessard, C. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(13),

The human VPAC(1) receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide belongs to the class II family of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane ... [more ▼]

The human VPAC(1) receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide belongs to the class II family of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane segments. Like for all class II receptors, the extracellular N-terminal domain of the human VPAC(1) receptor plays a predominant role in peptide ligand recognition. To determine the three-dimensional structure of this N-terminal domain (residues 1-144), the Protein Data Bank (PDB) was screened for a homologous protein. A subdomain of yeast lipase B was found to have 27% sequence identity and 50% sequence homology with the N-terminal domain (8) of the VPAC(1) receptor together with a good alignment of the hydrophobic clusters. A model of the N-terminal domain of VPAC(1) receptor was thus constructed by homology. It indicated the presence of a putative signal sequence in the N-terminal extremity. Moreover, residues (Glu(36), Trp(67), Asp(68), Trp(73), and Gly(109)) which were shown to be crucial for VIP binding are gathered around a groove that is essentially negatively charged. New putatively important residues for VIP binding were suggested from the model analysis. Site-directed mutagenesis and stable transfection of mutants in CHO cells indicated that Pro(74), Pro(87), Phe(90), and Trp(110) are indeed important for VIP binding and activation of adenylyl cyclase activation. Combination of molecular modeling and directed mutagenesis provided the first partial three-dimensional structure of a VIP-binding domain, constituted of an electronegative groove with an outspanning tryptophan shell at one end, in the N-terminal extracellular region of the human VPAC(1) receptor. [less ▲]

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