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See detailEffect of nutrient enrichments on the bacterial assemblage of Antarctic soils contaminated by diesel or crude oil
Delille, Daniel; Pelletier, Emilien; Delille, Bruno ULiege et al

in Polar Record (2003), 39(4), 309-318

There is an urgent need to develop new technologies to address the problem of soil remediation in high-latitude regions. A field study was initiated in January 1997 in two contaminated soils in Terre ... [more ▼]

There is an urgent need to develop new technologies to address the problem of soil remediation in high-latitude regions. A field study was initiated in January 1997 in two contaminated soils in Terre Adélie (Antarctica) with the objective of determining the long-term effectiveness of two bioremediation agents on total and hydrocarbon-degrading microbial assemblages under severe Antarctic conditions. This study was conducted in two steps, from January to July 1997 and from February to November 1999 in the Géologie Archipelago (Terre Adélie, 66°40′S, 140°01′E). Changes in bacterial communities were monitored in situ after crude oil or diesel addition in a series of 600 cm2 soil sectors (20×30 cm). Four contaminated sectors were used for each experiment: diesel oil (10 ml), diesel oil (10 ml) + fertilizer (1 ml), Arabian light crude oil (10 ml), and crude oil (10 ml) + fertilizer (1 ml). Two different bioremediation agents were used: a slow release fertilizer Inipol EAP-22 (Elf Atochem) in 1997 and a fish compost in 1999. Plots were sampled on a regular basis during a three-year period. All samples were analysed for total, saprophytic psychrophilic, and hydrocarbon-utilising bacteria. A one order of magnitude increase of saprophytic and hydrocarbon-utilising micro-organisms occurred during the first month of the experiment in most of the contaminated enclosures, but no clear differences appeared between fertilized and unfertilized plots. Diesel-oil contamination induced a significant increase of all bacterial parameters in all contaminated soils. Crude-oil contamination had no clear effects on microbial assemblages. It was clear that the microbial response could be rapid and efficient in spite of the severe weather conditions. However, microbial growth was not clearly improved in the presence of bioremediation agents. [less ▲]

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See detailSynergistic effects of ion-pairing in the enantiomeric separation of basic compounds with cyclodextrin derivatives in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis
Servais, Anne-Catherine ULiege; Fillet, Marianne ULiege; Abushoffa, Adel M. et al

in Electrophoresis (2003), 24(3), 363-369

The enantiomeric separation of various kinds of basic pharmaceuticals has been investigated in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) systems using an ion-pairing reagent in combination with ... [more ▼]

The enantiomeric separation of various kinds of basic pharmaceuticals has been investigated in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) systems using an ion-pairing reagent in combination with cyclodextrins (CDs). The simultaneous addition to the methanolic background electrolyte (BGE) of (+)-S-camphorsulfonate or alkanesulfonates and an anionic beta-cyclodextrin derivative, heptakis(2,3-dimethyl-6-sulfato)-beta-cyclodextrin (HDMS-beta-CD), led to partial or complete enantioresolution in most cases. In the absence of ion-pairing reagent, the enantiomeric resolution obtained with this CD derivative was most often completely lost or strongly reduced, indicating the important role of ion-pairing in the chiral recognition mechanism in these NACE systems. The influence of the nature and concentration of the counterion and the anionic CD derivative on the enantioseparation of basic compounds was studied. Synergistic effects between these two kinds of charged additives were clearly observed. [less ▲]

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See detailRuthenium catalysts bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in atom transfer radical reactions
Richel, Aurore ULiege; Delfosse, Sébastien ULiege; Cremasco, Cédric et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2003), 44(32), 6011-6015

The catalytic activity of ruthenium-p-cymene complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) or polymerisation (ATRP) strongly depends on the substituents of the ... [more ▼]

The catalytic activity of ruthenium-p-cymene complexes bearing N-heterocyclic carbene ligands in atom transfer radical addition (ATRA) or polymerisation (ATRP) strongly depends on the substituents of the carbene ligand, thereby providing a nice illustration of the importance of organometallic engineering and ligand fine tuning in homogeneous catalysis. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuestions à propos du délit d’obstacle à la surveillance en droit belge
Kefer, Fabienne ULiege

in Revue Trimestrielle des Droits de l'Homme (2003)

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See detailAstronomes célèbres et astronomes moins connus ... (1) William Herschel
Biémont, Emile ULiege

in Galactée (2003), 34

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See detailSurfactant-assisted synthesis of unprecedented hierarchical meso-macrostructured zirconia
Yuan, Z.-Y.; Vantomme, A.; Léonard, Alexandre ULiege et al

in Chemical Communications (2003), 9(13), 1558-1559

A surfactant-assisted one-step synthesis route was developed, leading to the formation of a very high surface area (600 m 2 g -1) of zirconia and unprecedented hierarchical meso-macroporous structure with ... [more ▼]

A surfactant-assisted one-step synthesis route was developed, leading to the formation of a very high surface area (600 m 2 g -1) of zirconia and unprecedented hierarchical meso-macroporous structure with wormhole-like mesoporous walls and a novel, uniform assembly of macropores ranging in size from 300 to 500 nm. [less ▲]

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See detailAdaptive latitudinal trends in the mandible shape of Apodemus wood mice
Renaud, S.; Michaux, Johan ULiege

in Journal of Biogeography (2003), 30(10), 1617-1628

Aim Size and shape of the mandible are investigated across the latitudinal range of the European wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus), in order to address the relative importance of genetic structure ... [more ▼]

Aim Size and shape of the mandible are investigated across the latitudinal range of the European wood mouse ( Apodemus sylvaticus), in order to address the relative importance of genetic structure, insularity, and geographical gradient in patterning morphological variation. Results are compared with those on two Asiatic species of wood mice, A. argenteus and A. speciosus. Location The European wood mouse is sampled by a set of trapping localities including both, islands and mainland populations, as well as the four genetic groups identified in previous studies. The localities cover a latitudinal gradient from 55 degreesN to 36 degreesN. Methods Different Fourier methods are applied to the outlines of mandibles and their results compared in the case of A. sylvaticus. All provide similar results and allow a quantification of the size and shape variations across the geographical range of the European wood mouse. Using the method allowing for the best reduction of the informative data set, a comparison of the European wood mouse with the two Asiatic species was performed. Results Within the European wood mouse A. sylvaticus, a strong latitudinal gradient in mandible shape overrides the influence of insularity and genetic structure. Yet, random morphological divergence in insular conditions can be identified as a secondary process of shape differentiation. Size displays no obvious pattern of variation, neither with insularity or latitude. A comparison with two other species of wood mice suggests that a similar latitudinal gradient in mandible shape exists in different species, mandibles being flatter in the north and wider in the south. Main conclusion The latitudinal gradient in mandible shape observed in the three species of wood mice is interpreted as an intraspecific adaptive response to gradual changes in feeding behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes Export Controls Regimes could Contribute to Counter the Acquisition of WMD by Sub-national ?,
Michel, Quentin ULiege

in Bulletin de l'Académie Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts de Belgique. Sciences (2003)

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See detailAstronomes célèbres et astronomes moins connus ... (3) Hipparque
Biémont, Emile ULiege

in Galactée (2003), 35

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See detailAstronomes célèbres et astronomes moins connus ... (2) Les Cassini
Biémont, Emile ULiege

in Galactée (2003), 35

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See detailEffect of induction of late embryonic mortality on plasma profiles of pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 in heifers
Szenci, Otto; Beckers, Jean-François ULiege; Sulon, Joseph ULiege et al

in Veterinary Journal (2003), 165(3), 307-313

Inoculation with Actinomyces pyogenes and administration of prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha were used to induce late embryonic mortality (LEM) in heifers (n = 8) on Days 30-38 of pregnancy in order to compare ... [more ▼]

Inoculation with Actinomyces pyogenes and administration of prostaglandin (PG) F-2alpha were used to induce late embryonic mortality (LEM) in heifers (n = 8) on Days 30-38 of pregnancy in order to compare the profile for bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein 1 (PAG1), progesterone and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-PGF(2alpha) (PGFM). Two pregnant heifers were used as controls. Inoculation into the uterine body caused LEM, as established by ultrasonography in each heifer within 24 h of treatment. When the inoculum was injected into the first part of the cervix, LEM occurred in one of two heifers (Heifer A) between 48 and 72 h after treatment. Similarly, PGF(2alpha) treatment caused LEM in three of four heifers. In six of eight heifers, PAG1 started to decrease steadily when it was accompanied by the subsequent death of the embryo. Inoculation through the cervix caused luteolysis in three of four heifers within 6-10 days after induction. After induction of LEM, PGFM concentrations showed a two to 3.8 fold increase in three of four heifers during the following six days, and from that time changed within normal ranges. The results of this study indicate that a PAG1 assay may provide an alternative method to ultrasonography for determining LEM in the cow. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Macrolide Antibiotic Azithromycin Interacts With Lipids And Affects Membrane Organization And Fluidity: Studies On Langmuir-Blodgett Monolayers, Liposomes And J774 Macrophages
Tyteca, D.; Schanck, A.; Dufrene, Yf. et al

in Journal of Membrane Biology (2003), 192(3), 203-215

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See detailImplications cliniques de l'association d'un tonus sympathique accru, du syndrome métabolique et de l'hypertension
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Journal de Cardiologie = Tijdschrift voor Cardiologie (2003), 2

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See detailSalmonella contamination of pigs and pork in an integrated pig production system
Korsak Koulagenko, Nicolas ULiege; Jacob, Benoit; Groven, Bénédicte et al

in Journal of Food Protection (2003), 66(7), 1126-1133

This paper describes the monitoring of Salmonella in a closed pig production system in Belgium over a 2-year period. A sampling scheme including animal feeds and carcasses was designed to cover the entire ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the monitoring of Salmonella in a closed pig production system in Belgium over a 2-year period. A sampling scheme including animal feeds and carcasses was designed to cover the entire chain of production from farrow to finishing pigs. Salmonella was detected by a method based on the use of semisolid Rappaport-Vassiliadis as a selective medium. The serotypes of the isolated strains were determined, and the antibiotic resistance of these strains to six antibiotics was also investigated. Feeds were found to be more contaminated than expected (10.2%, 34 of 332 samples). The percentage of positive fecal samples for pregnant sows (8.1%, 11 of 135 samples) was significantly higher than that for young and lactating sows (2.9%, 11 of 378 samples) (P<0.05). The percentage of positive samples for colon contents collected at the slaughterhouse (47.3%, 88 of 186 samples) was significantly higher than that for feces collected during the fattening stage (5.6%, 18 of 320 samples) (P<0.001). For carcass swab samples, the observed prevalence was 11.2% (17 of 152 samples). On farms, Salmonella recovery levels were higher for overshoe samples than for fecal samples, except for pregnant sows. Salmonella Typhimurium was the most frequently isolated serotype (32.2%, 55 of 171 samples), while Salmonella Brandenburg was predominant in the colon contents collected at the abattoir (21.4%, 18 of 84 samples). Feeds harbored a wide diversity of serotypes of minor epidemiological significance. Of 55 isolated strains of Salmonella Typhimurium, 11 (20%) were resistant to tetracycline, ampicillin, choramphenicol, streptomycin, trimethoprim, and nalidixic acid (R Type TeAmCSNa), while 12 (21.8%) were resistant to all of these antibiotics except nalidixic acid (R Type TeAmCS). The majority of Salmonella Typhimurium strains that exhibited resistance to more than four antimicrobial agents were characterized as Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 or as being closely related to Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (7 of 12 isolates). In conclusion, our system of surveillance is effective in identifying most points of contamination in the production chain and will be useful in ongoing efforts to develop a Salmonella-free production system. [less ▲]

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See detailIntramyocardial synthesis of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in infants with congenital cardiac defects.
Qing, Ma; Schumacher, Kathrin; Heise, Ruth et al

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2003), 41(12), 2266-74

OBJECTIVES: We sought to test the hypothesis that cytokines would be expressed in the myocardium of infants with congenital cardiac defects and to identify the signaling pathways involved. BACKGROUND ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: We sought to test the hypothesis that cytokines would be expressed in the myocardium of infants with congenital cardiac defects and to identify the signaling pathways involved. BACKGROUND: Mechanical stress upregulates pro-inflammatory cytokines in the myocardium. METHODS: Fifteen infants with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) (n = 7) or with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) (n = 8) were investigated. Concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and/or Western blotting in the right ventricular myocardium taken during cardiac surgery. Activation of the nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-kappa-B) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay with supershift and/or Western blotting, respectively. RESULTS: The pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1-beta, and IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were detected in the myocardium of all patients. Concentrations of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and also of phosphorylated p38 MAPK were higher in patients with TOF than in those with VSD and correlated with the degree of pressure overload of the right ventricle. Levels of phosphorylated I-kappa-B-alpha, iNOS, and IL-10 were similar in patients with TOF and in those with VSD. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show intramyocardial synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines in infants with congenital cardiac defects. This is associated with activation of both the NF-kappa-B and p38 MAPK pathways. The latter could be particularly important for the transduction of mechanical signals in the infant's myocardium. Synthesis of IL-10 indicates an intramyocardial anti-inflammatory potential in this age group. [less ▲]

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See detailEstado, mercado y diversidad cultural
Martiniello, Marco ULiege

in Revista de Occidente (Madrid, Spain : 1923) (2003), 268

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See detailThe thymic insulin-like growth factor axis: Involvement in physiology and disease
Geenen, Vincent ULiege

in Hormone & Metabolic Research (2003), 35(11-12, Nov-Dec), 656-663

A repertoire of neuroendocrine-related genes is transcribed in the non-lymphoid compartment of the thymus, transposing the dual physiological role of this organ at the molecular level in T-cell ... [more ▼]

A repertoire of neuroendocrine-related genes is transcribed in the non-lymphoid compartment of the thymus, transposing the dual physiological role of this organ at the molecular level in T-cell development towards the establishment of central T-cell self-tolerance. The "neuroendocrine self" has been defined as a series of antigen sequences processed from precursors predominantly expressed in the thymus and first encountered by differentiating T-lymphocytes in their early life. All the members of the insulin gene family are expressed in the thymus according to a precise hierarchy and cellular topography, whereby IGF-II (epithelium of the subcapsular cortex and medulla) exceeds IGF-I (macrophages), which in turn far exceeds INS (rare subsets of medullary epithelial cells). This hierarchy in the degree of their respective thymic expression explains why IGF-II is more tolerated than IGF-I, and much more so than insulin. Evidence has been found for significant regulatory/tolerogenic properties in the IGF-II B:11-25 sequence after analysis of the cytokine secretion profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from ten DQ8+ type 1 diabetic adolescents. In the thymus, IGF ligands and receptors also intervene in the control of T-cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we also discuss how a disturbance in the intrathymic IGF-mediated signaling could contribute to the pathogenesis of T-cell leukemia. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet de la géométrie et de la disposition des mobiles d'agitation sur la formation de mousse en cuve agitée
Delvigne, Frank ULiege; Bruxelmane, Marc; Thonart, Philippe ULiege

in Tribune de l'Eau (La) (2003), 622(2), 65-70

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See detailKeys to promote Good Practices in ODL by a TECC Approach (Training Embedded Coached Course Construction): Illustrations through a Postgraduate Degree and an Annual Competitive Call
Poumay, Marianne ULiege

in Educational Media International (2003), 40(3-4), 229-237

The article presents two parallel initiatives contributing to an open and distance learning (ODL) deployment, comparing them using the LabSET Keys to implement a Training Embedded Coached Course ... [more ▼]

The article presents two parallel initiatives contributing to an open and distance learning (ODL) deployment, comparing them using the LabSET Keys to implement a Training Embedded Coached Course Construction (TECCC) approach. The article examines some of the challenges faced by the support to trainers using the Web as an instructional tool to facilitate learner-centered practices. It includes a definition of "quality courses". [less ▲]

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See detailHistory of solid organ transplantation at the University of Liege
Lejeune, Georges ULiege; Limet, Raymond ULiege; Meurisse, Michel ULiege et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2003), 103(3 Sp. Iss. SI), 32-36

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See detailBibliographie matérielle et critique textuelle. À propos de l'édition de 1751 des Pensées philosophiques de Diderot
Droixhe, Daniel ULiege

in Recherches sur Diderot et l'Encyclopédie (2003), 34

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See detailObservations sous Mons, 25 mars 2002
Leleu, Yves-Henri ULiege

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2003)

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See detailUltrastructural Changes Associated With Cryopreservation Of Banana (Musa Spp.) Highly Proliferating Meristems
Helliot, B.; Swennen, R.; Poumay, Y. et al

in Plant Cell Reports (2003), 21(7), 690-698

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See detailSubocclusion colique precoce apres traitement d'une maladie de Crohn refractaire active par infliximab.
Belaiche, Jacques ULiege; Louis, Edouard ULiege

in Gastroentérologie Clinique et Biologique (2003), 27(11), 1045-7

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See detailCutaneous psammomatous melanotic schwannoma: non-recurrence with surgical excision.
Claessens, Nadine; Heymans, Olivier; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULiege et al

in American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2003), 4(11), 799-802

BACKGROUND: Melanotic schwannoma is a pigmented nerve tumor that may be located in the skin and express local aggressivity. This tumor may occur singly. It may also be part of the Carney complex which ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Melanotic schwannoma is a pigmented nerve tumor that may be located in the skin and express local aggressivity. This tumor may occur singly. It may also be part of the Carney complex which consists of various, but specific, tumors. OBJECTIVE: We report two cases of subcutaneous melanotic schwannoma localized on the trunk in two men aged 37 and 45 years. METHODS: Conventional histology and immunohistochemistry were performed. RESULTS: One melanotic schwannoma was associated with a cutaneous atypical myxoma and multiple melanocytic lesions, all being part of the Carney complex. The other case had no associated signs. In both cases, the melanotic schwannoma was completely excised and did not recur. CONCLUSION: Melanotic schwannoma is rare and curable by surgery. It must not be confused with malignant melanoma and other pigmented neoplasms. The Carney complex should be carefully ruled out. [less ▲]

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See detailL’anabaptisme au Pays de Liège (1533-1593)
Donneau, Olivier ULiege

in Annuaire d'Histoire Liégeoise (2003), 32

Study of the spread of the anabaptists movements in the ecclesiastical principality of Liège during the 16th Century.

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See detailEffets fonctionnels respiratoires induits par l'inhalation de glycopyrrolate chez le cheval poussif en crise
Art, Tatiana ULiege; De Moffarts, Brieuc; Van Erck, Emmanuelle et al

in Pratique Vétérinaire Equine (2003), 35(139), 23-29

An acute respiratory attack with bronchospasm is associated with excessive stimulation of the parasympathic nervous system. It may be reduced by administration of anticholinergic agents. Atropine and ... [more ▼]

An acute respiratory attack with bronchospasm is associated with excessive stimulation of the parasympathic nervous system. It may be reduced by administration of anticholinergic agents. Atropine and ipratropium bromide have been tested. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of the synthetic antimuscarinic compound glycopyrrolate as a bronchodilator in horses. Respiratory crisis was induced in seven allergic horses by exposure to natural allergens. Prior to the study, it was established that the attack could be stopped using intravenous atropine sulphate. Pulmonary function tests (ventilation and arterial blood gas analysis) were performed on the horses before and then after aerosol administration of 1500 µg of glycopyrrolate (Robinul®). The attack was characterised by an increase in total pulmonary resis¬tance and maximum pleural pressure variation and by decreased compliance. This study demonstrates that glycopyrrolate exhibits affects that are just as rapid and effective as intravenous atropine or aerosol administration of 1200 µg dry powder Ipratropium. In addi¬tion the treatment was well tolerated and no side-effects were observed in contrast to those seen with intravenous administration of atro¬pine. Therefore this drug has an important role to play among the therapeutics available to practitioners for acute respiratory attacks in horses [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon and nitrogen isotopic ratios of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica: Depth-related variations
Lepoint, Gilles ULiege; Dauby, Patrick ULiege; Fontaine, Michael ULiege et al

in Botanica Marina (2003), 46(6), 555-561

Nitrogen (delta(15)N) and carbon (delta(13)C) isotopic compositions of Posidonia oceanica were determined during three seasons along a bathymetric gradient (438 m depth).The delta(15)N values are low (2.2 ... [more ▼]

Nitrogen (delta(15)N) and carbon (delta(13)C) isotopic compositions of Posidonia oceanica were determined during three seasons along a bathymetric gradient (438 m depth).The delta(15)N values are low (2.2+/-0.9%) and variable.They do not show any relation to depth or sampling dates. There is a significant difference between the delta(15)N values of the youngest and the oldest leaves, probably as a result of N resorption and senescing during leaf ageing. The delta(13)C values of young Posidonia leaves vary with depth, showing the relationship between delta(13)C values and primary productivity rate, and the use of a bicarbonate/CO2 mixture as an inorganic carbon source. The delta(13)C values of the oldest P. oceanica leaves are depleted in C-13 compared to those of young leaves. This modification of the C-13 signatures in relation to leaf age is particularly important between 20 and 29 m depth. This modification could be related to photosynthetic rate change during ageing, but also to change in carbohydrate composition and content. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Iterating Linear Transformations over Recognizable Sets of Integers
Boigelot, Bernard ULiege

in Theoretical Computer Science (2003), 309(1-3), 413-468

It has been known for a long time that the sets of integer vectors that are recognizable by finite-state automata are those that can be defined in an extension of Presburger arithmetic. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

It has been known for a long time that the sets of integer vectors that are recognizable by finite-state automata are those that can be defined in an extension of Presburger arithmetic. In this paper, we address the problem of deciding whether the closure of a linear transformation preserves the recognizable nature of sets of integer vectors. We solve this problem by introducing an original extension of the concept of recognizability to sets of vectors with complex components. This generalization allows to obtain a simple necessary and sufficient condition over linear transformations, in terms of the eigenvalues of the transformation matrix. We then show that these eigenvalues do not need to be computed explicitly in order to evaluate the condition, and we give a full decision procedure based on simple integer arithmetic. The proof of this result is constructive, and can be turned into an algorithm for applying the closure of a linear transformation that satisfies the condition to a finite-state representation of a set. Finally, we show that the necessary and sufficient condition that we have obtained can straightforwardly be turned into a sufficient condition for linear transformations with linear guards. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je previens ... les maladies cardio-vasculaires par une approche pharmacologique combinee: y a-t-il place pour une polypill"?"
Scheen, André ULiege; Lefebvre, Pierre ULiege; Kulbertus, Henri ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 527-33

In the June 28, 2003 issue of the British Medical Journal, an extensive literature survey based on various large meta-analyses of the efficacy and safety of the reduction of four cardiovascular risk ... [more ▼]

In the June 28, 2003 issue of the British Medical Journal, an extensive literature survey based on various large meta-analyses of the efficacy and safety of the reduction of four cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, arterial blood pressure, platelet aggregation, homocysteine) leads to the conclusion that a combined pharmacological intervention should reduce ischaemic heart disease events by 88% and strokes by 80% in at risk individuals. Therefore, a new paradigm is proposed for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. This new strategy would consist in the systematic prescription to people with a history of heart attack or stroke, those with any form of obliterative atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetes, and everyone aged 55 and older of a fixed combination of 6 pharmacological agents independently of initial risk factor profile.... Such pharmacological formulation, called "polypill", should contain a statin, three blood pressure lowering drugs (each at half standard dose), aspirin (75 mg/day) and folic acid (0.8 mg/day). We discuss the pros and cons of this new paradigm. However, the efficacy of such "polypill" remains to be demonstrated in a large controlled clinical trial as well as its superiority as compared to a classical approach of cardiovascular prevention based upon the individual optimal correction of each risk factor thanks a dose titration of each pharmacological compound. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement de données volumineuses par ensemble d'arbres aléatoires
Geurts, Pierre ULiege

in Revue des nouvelles technologies de l'information, Numéro spécial entreposage et fouille de données (2003), 1

Cet article présente une nouvelle méthode d'apprentissage ba-sée sur un ensemble d'arbres de décision. Par opposition à la méthode traditionnelle d'induction, les arbres de l'ensemble sont construits en ... [more ▼]

Cet article présente une nouvelle méthode d'apprentissage ba-sée sur un ensemble d'arbres de décision. Par opposition à la méthode traditionnelle d'induction, les arbres de l'ensemble sont construits en choisissant les tests durant le développement de manière complètement aléatoire. Cette méthode est comparée aux arbres de décision et au bagging sur plusieurs problèmes de classification. Grâce aux choix aléatoires des tests, les temps de calcul de cet algorithme sont comparables à ceux des arbres traditionnels. Dans le même temps, la méthode se révèle beaucoup plus précise que les arbres et souvent significativement meilleure que le bagging. Ces caractéristiques rendent cette méthode particulièrement adaptée pour le traitement de bases de données volumineuses. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Le vardenafil (Levitra).
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 576-9

Vardenafil (Levitra), recently launched in Belgium by Bayer and Glaxo-SmithKline, is a new drug that potently and selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the cavernosum tissue of the penis ... [more ▼]

Vardenafil (Levitra), recently launched in Belgium by Bayer and Glaxo-SmithKline, is a new drug that potently and selectively inhibits phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) in the cavernosum tissue of the penis. Inhibition of PDE5 blocks the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMPc) and results in increased arterial blood flow leading to enlargement of the corpus cavernosum and resulting in erection. In controlled clinical trials, vardenafil at least doubled the rate of successful erections as compared to placebo, whatever the evaluation parameter considered and the subgroup of patients studied. Vardenafil is thus indicated in the treatment of patients with erectile dysfunction. It is presented as 5, 10 and 20 mg tablets and the usual dose is 10 mg to be ingested 25 to 60 minutes before sexual activity. Vardenafil has a more potent inhibitory activity of PDE5 in vitro than sildenafil or tadalafil while its pharmacokinetics in vivo is somewhat more rapid than that of the two other compounds. The dosage of vardenafil may be reduced to 5 mg (especially in older individuals) to improve tolerance or be increased up to 20 mg (especially in the presence of organic diseases aggravating erectile dysfunction) to improve efficacy. Contra-indications (co-administration with drugs increasing nitric oxide) and side-effects (headache and flushing due to vasodilatation) of vardenafil are similar to those of other PDE5 inhibitors. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude EUROPA: protection cardio-vasculaire avec le perindopril chez les patients avec coronaropathie stable.
Scheen, André ULiege; Legrand, Victor ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(11), 713-6

The multicentre placebo-controlled double-blind "EUropean trial on Reduction Of cardiac events with Perindopril in patients with stable coronary Artery disease" (EUROPA) assessed whether the angiotensin ... [more ▼]

The multicentre placebo-controlled double-blind "EUropean trial on Reduction Of cardiac events with Perindopril in patients with stable coronary Artery disease" (EUROPA) assessed whether the angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor perindopril reduces cardiovascular risk in a population with stable coronary heart disease and no apparent heart failure, whatever the associated cardiovascular risk. Patients were randomly assigned perindopril 8 mg once daily (n = 6110) or matching placebo (n = 6108). After a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, a relative risk reduction of 20% (95% CI 9-29, p = 0.0003) was observed in the combined primary endpoint (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or cardiac arrest) in the group treated with perindopril as compared to placebo. About 50 patients needed to be treated for a period of 4 years to prevent one major cardiovascular event. This benefit was consistent in all predefined subgroups. According to these results, treatment with perindopril, on top of other preventive medications, should be considered in all patients with stable coronary heart disease. [less ▲]

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See detailClass II histone deacetylases: versatile regulators.
Verdin, Eric; Dequiedt, Franck ULiege; Kasler, Herbert G

in Trends in Genetics (2003), 19(5), 286-93

Histone acetylation and deacetylation play essential roles in modifying chromatin structure and regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the deacetylation of lysine ... [more ▼]

Histone acetylation and deacetylation play essential roles in modifying chromatin structure and regulating gene expression in eukaryotes. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze the deacetylation of lysine residues in the histone N-terminal tails and are found in large multiprotein complexes with transcriptional co-repressors. Human HDACs are grouped into three classes based on their similarity to known yeast factors: class I HDACs are similar to the yeast transcriptional repressor yRPD3, class II HDACs to yHDA1 and class III HDACs to ySIR2. In this review, we focus on the biology of class II HDACs. These newly discovered enzymes have been implicated as global regulators of gene expression during cell differentiation and development. We discuss their emerging biological functions and the molecular mechanisms by which they are regulated. [less ▲]

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See detailInterruption prematuree des etudes ASCOT et CARDS de prevention cardio-vasculaire avec l'atorvastatine chez le sujet hypertendu ou diabetique: compromis entre ethique et statistique en medecine factuelle.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 585-90

The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA), performed in hypertensive patients with coronary risk and the Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), performed in ... [more ▼]

The Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA), performed in hypertensive patients with coronary risk and the Collaborative AtoRvastatin Diabetes Study (CARDS), performed in diabetic patients, also at coronary risk, were prematurely stopped, at the special request of the Data Safety Monitoring Board. Indeed, an interim analysis demonstrated the efficacy of atorvastatin, at a daily dosage of 10 mg as compared to placebo, in the prevention of major cardiovascular events, so that it appeared unethical to continue the study until the end. At the glance of these observations, the ethical and statistical aspects of such prevention clinical trials are discussed, in particular when the premature interruption of the ongoing study appears mandatory, with respect of the main rules of evidence-based medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Gliclazide a liberation modifiee (Uni Diamicron).
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(10), 641-5

Gliclazide modified release that has been recently launched by Servier (Uni Diamicron 30 mg) is a new formulation of gliclazide to be given once daily. The original hydrophilic matrix improves the ... [more ▼]

Gliclazide modified release that has been recently launched by Servier (Uni Diamicron 30 mg) is a new formulation of gliclazide to be given once daily. The original hydrophilic matrix improves the biodisponsibility of gliclazide and allows a progressive release of the drug that better parallels the 24-hour glycaemic profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Such characteristics may explain the rather low risk of hypoglycaemic episodes and the morning administration should contribute to improve patient's compliance. As the common formulation of gliclazide, the modified release formulation is indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, in adult subjects, when diet, exercise and weight loss are insufficient to restore an adequate metabolic control. It may be used alone or in combination with metformin, glitazones, acarbose or insulin, with the same general principles of use as for the classical formulation of gliclazide. [less ▲]

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See detailWild edible mushrooms from a Zambezian woodland area (Copperbelt Province, Zambia).
Bourdeaux, Quentin; Buyck, B.; Malaisse, François ULiege et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2003), 27(1-2), 33-44

Dans de nombreux pays d'Afrique tropicale, la consommation de champignons sauvages constitue un appoint alimentaire non négligeable pour les populations locales. La présente étude fut menée dans la ... [more ▼]

Dans de nombreux pays d'Afrique tropicale, la consommation de champignons sauvages constitue un appoint alimentaire non négligeable pour les populations locales. La présente étude fut menée dans la Copperbelt Province( Zambie), un territoire situé en Région zambézienne. La récolte de sporophores et les enquêtes participatives menées auprès des villageois ont permis de dresser une liste de 47 tâxons de champignons comestibles. [less ▲]

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See detailRole specifique du controle glycemique dans la prevention de l'angiopathie du patient diabetique de type 2.
Scheen, André ULiege; Paquot, Nicolas ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(5), 265-70

Even if type 2 diabetes is a complex disease combining hyperglycaemia and various other metabolic abnormalities. Reduction of chronic hyperglycemia, assessed by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), allows the ... [more ▼]

Even if type 2 diabetes is a complex disease combining hyperglycaemia and various other metabolic abnormalities. Reduction of chronic hyperglycemia, assessed by glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), allows the prevention or the delay of vascular complications. Evidence-based medicine already provided numerous data regarding the risk of microangiopathy, especially retinopathy and nephropathy but also neuropathy. The evidence is less obvious as far as macroangiopathy, especially coronary artery disease, is concerned. This observation should encourage a global approach of the type 2 diabetic patient, taking into account all vascular risk factors. It also provides further arguments in favour of alternative therapeutic modalities, such as the use of hypoglycaemic agents that improve postprandial hyperglycaemia and/or insulin resistance. This latter approach appears to be promising in view of the favourable results with metformin in the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study. It should be confirmed in large prospective ongoing clinical trials with new insulin sensitizers like thiazolidinediones. [less ▲]

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See detailLe syndrome metabolique: definitions et donnees epidemiologiques.
Scheen, André ULiege; Luyckx, Françoise ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(7-8), 479-84

The metabolic syndrome is strongly related to visceral obesity and associated with a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Since the original description of Reaven in 1988, several working ... [more ▼]

The metabolic syndrome is strongly related to visceral obesity and associated with a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Since the original description of Reaven in 1988, several working definitions have been proposed, especially by the World Health Organisation in 1998-99, the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-ATP III) Expert Panel in the United States in 2001 and the European Group for the Study of Insulin Resistance (EGIR) in 2002. The present paper attempts at comparing these various definitions and at reporting epidemiological data both in North America and in Europe, especially in Belgium. The prevalence is generally higher in men than in women and strongly increases with age. Overall, one may estimate that around 20% of adults have a metabolic syndrome, which should therefore be considered as an important public health problem. [less ▲]

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See detailAlcool, sensibilite a l'insuline et diabete sucre.
Magis, Delphine ULiege; Jandrain, Bernard ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(7-8), 501-7

The relationship between alcohol consumption and insulin resistance shows a U-shaped curve: insulin resistance is minimal in individuals with regular mild to moderate alcohol consumption and increases in ... [more ▼]

The relationship between alcohol consumption and insulin resistance shows a U-shaped curve: insulin resistance is minimal in individuals with regular mild to moderate alcohol consumption and increases in both heavy drinkers and subjects without any alcohol consumption. These favourable metabolic effects on insulin sensitivity of moderate alcohol consumption may explain the significant reduction in the development of type 2 diabetes and the risk of cardiovascular complications reported in numerous epidemiological studies. This latter effect has also reported in patients with diabetes mellitus, although this observation remains controversial. However, alcohol consumption could increase the global risk of hypoglycaemia, both in the fasting state and after a meal (reactive hypoglycaemia) in both diabetic and nondiabetic subjects. These latter effects may result from a direct inhibition of gluconeogenesis, from a reduced secretion of counterregulatory hormones and/or from an alcohol-induced inappropriate behaviour. [less ▲]

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See detailEmissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in the raising of weaned pigs on straw-based and sawdust-based deep litters
Nicks, Baudouin ULiege; Laitat, Martine ULiege; Vandenheede, Marc ULiege et al

in Animal Research (2003), 52(3, MAY-JUN), 299-308

Five successive batches of 40 weaned pigs were raised on deep litter of sawdust or straw without changing the litter in between batches. The quantity of litter dry matter utilized in the two cases was 5 ... [more ▼]

Five successive batches of 40 weaned pigs were raised on deep litter of sawdust or straw without changing the litter in between batches. The quantity of litter dry matter utilized in the two cases was 5 kg per pig. The concentrations of gases were measured 8 times, at about one-month intervals, for 6 consecutive days and the ventilation flow was recorded continuously. Pig raising on saw-dust-based litter differed from that with straw by an emission of 2.6 times less ammonia (0.46 vs. 1.21 g per pig per day), 2.1 times less methane (0.77 vs. 1.58 g per pig per day), 3.9 times more N2O (1.39 vs. 0.36 g per pig per day), 4% more CO2 (481 vs. 463 g per pig per day) and 21% more H2O (1126 vs. 933 g per pig per day). All differences were significant. About 58% of the nitrogen excreted by the pigs was recovered in the gas form and for the two litters, about 79% in the form of N-2. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and evaluation of an automated atlas-based image analysis method for microPET studies of the rat brain.
Rubins, Daniel J.; Melega, William P.; Lacan, Goran et al

in NeuroImage (2003), 20(4), 2100-18

An automated method for placement of 3D rat brain atlas-derived volumes of interest (VOIs) onto PET studies has been designed and evaluated. VOIs representing major structures of the rat brain were ... [more ▼]

An automated method for placement of 3D rat brain atlas-derived volumes of interest (VOIs) onto PET studies has been designed and evaluated. VOIs representing major structures of the rat brain were defined on a set of digitized cryosectioned images of the rat brain. For VOI placement, each PET study was registered with a synthetic PET target constructed from the VOI template. Registration was accomplished with an automated algorithm that maximized the mutual information content of the image volumes. The accuracy and precision of this method for VOI placement was determined using datasets from PET studies of the striatal dopamine and hippocampal serotonin systems. Each evaluated PET study could be registered to at least one synthetic PET target without obvious failure. Registration was critically dependent upon the initial position of the PET study relative to the synthetic PET target, but not dependent on the amount of synthetic PET target smoothing. An evaluation algorithm showed that resultant radioactivity concentration measurements of selected brain structures had errors=2% due to misalignment with the corresponding VOI. Further, radioligand binding values calculated from these measurements were found to be more precise than those calculated from measurements obtained with manually drawn regions of interest (ROIs). Overall, evaluation results demonstrated that this atlas-derived VOI method can be used to obtain unbiased measurements of radioactivity concentration from PET studies. Its automated features, and applicability to different radioligands and brain regions, will facilitate quantitative rat brain PET assessment procedures. [less ▲]

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See detailLe medicament du mois. Glucovance dans le diabete de type 2, une association fixe metformine-glibenclamide pour faciliter le traitement d'une maladie bipolaire.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(6), 448-52

Glucovance, recently launched by Merck-Lipha (Glucovance 500 mg/2.5 mg and Glucovance 500 mg/5 mg), is a fixed combined therapy of a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide 2.5 or 5 mg) and a biguanide (metformin ... [more ▼]

Glucovance, recently launched by Merck-Lipha (Glucovance 500 mg/2.5 mg and Glucovance 500 mg/5 mg), is a fixed combined therapy of a sulphonylurea (glibenclamide 2.5 or 5 mg) and a biguanide (metformin 500 mg), indicated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in adult patients. The only current official indication in Belgium is the substitution of a dual therapy with metformin and glibenclamide in patients with a stable and adequate metabolic control. The fixed combination aims at simplifying patient's treatment in order to improve compliance despite polymedication. In addition, it allows targeting synergistically the two main abnormalities of type 2 diabetes, i.e. the insulin secretory defect and the insulin resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailNumeros a theme et numero d'ete.
Kulbertus, Henri ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(7-8), 453-4

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See detailPrevention cardio-vasculaire chez le patient diabetique de type 2.
Paquot, Nicolas ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(5), 271-4

It is estimated that 80% of individuals with type 2 diabetes die of cardiovascular diseases. Several factors account for the accelerated atherosclerosis present in diabetic patients. These include ... [more ▼]

It is estimated that 80% of individuals with type 2 diabetes die of cardiovascular diseases. Several factors account for the accelerated atherosclerosis present in diabetic patients. These include hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and prothrombotic state. Hypoglycaemic agents, statin or fibrates that improve dyslipidaemia, anti-hypertensive agents, aspirin and healthy lifestyle can modify these factors and have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality caused by coronary heart disease in diabetic patients. It was recently demonstrated that a multifactorial intervention on modifiable risk factors of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetic patients dramatically reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events. Thus, an intensified intervention aimed at multiple risk factors should be recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention de la nephropathie diabetique: de la microalbuminurie a l'insuffisance renale terminale.
Weekers, Laurent ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege; Rorive, Georges ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(5), 297-306

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure in western countries. This disease develops over several years. Early stages, if they are detected in time, can lead to ... [more ▼]

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal failure in western countries. This disease develops over several years. Early stages, if they are detected in time, can lead to preventive treatment at a moment when the disease is still reversible. This paper reviews the main primary and secondary preventive measures that have been proven efficacious. Those are essentially the optimal treatment of hyperglycaemia and hypertension, and probably the use of agents that specifically block the renin-angiotensin axis. We briefly discuss the results of the main studies that have led to those conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention des hypoglycemies chez le patient diabetique de type 1.
Radermecker, Régis ULiege; Jandrain, Bernard ULiege; Paquot, Nicolas ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(6), 361-8

Hypoglycaemia is the most common metabolic disorder in type 1 diabetic patients. It is rarely dangerous, but significantly alters the quality of life and hinders the achievement of "normoglycaemia". Even ... [more ▼]

Hypoglycaemia is the most common metabolic disorder in type 1 diabetic patients. It is rarely dangerous, but significantly alters the quality of life and hinders the achievement of "normoglycaemia". Even if hypoglycaemia is impossible to be avoided, both its frequency and severity may be reduced if patients follow several practical recommendations. After having defined hypoglycaemia, we shall briefly describe its pathophysiology and its main causes in type 1 diabetic patients. Afterwards, the different approaches of prevention of hypoglycaemia will be discussed. We will particularly stress the need to revise the glycaemic target in high-risk patients, the role of optimising insulin therapy, the valuable help of blood glucose monitoring, the critical support of diet adjustments, and the appropriate management in case of physical activity. There is no doubt that patient's education plays a crucial role in such a strategy that aims at preventing severe hypoglycaemia in type 1 diabetic individuals. [less ▲]

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See detailDeep infection by Trichophyton rubrum in an immunocompromised patient.
Nir-Paz, Ran; Elinav, Hila; Pierard, Gérald ULiege et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2003), 41(11), 5298-301

Dermatophytes are common pathogens of skin but rarely cause invasive disease. We present a case of deep infection by Trichophyton rubrum in an immunocompromised patient. T. rubrum was identified by ... [more ▼]

Dermatophytes are common pathogens of skin but rarely cause invasive disease. We present a case of deep infection by Trichophyton rubrum in an immunocompromised patient. T. rubrum was identified by morphological characteristics and confirmed by PCR. Invasiveness was apparent by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The patient was treated successfully with itraconazole. [less ▲]

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See detailL'idiologue à raison : A propos du P. Cattaoui, recto, col. V = M. Chr. 372, col. VI
Straus, Jean ULiege

in Chronique d'Egypte : Bulletin Périodique de la Fondation Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth (2003), LXXVIII(155-156), 217-220

Examination of the minutes of a hearing before the idios logos (M. Chr. 372; 22 November A.D. 136) in which the ownership of slaves left by a deceased soldier without heirs poses problems. The solution ... [more ▼]

Examination of the minutes of a hearing before the idios logos (M. Chr. 372; 22 November A.D. 136) in which the ownership of slaves left by a deceased soldier without heirs poses problems. The solution chosen by the idios logos rests on a sound logic and a fair application of the law.. [less ▲]

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See detailGlycoprotein G isoforms from some alphaherpesviruses function as broad-spectrum chemokine binding proteins
Bryant, N. A.; Davis-Poynter, N.; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULiege et al

in EMBO Journal (2003), 22

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See detailLa résolution de problèmes : un processus complexe de 'modélisation mathématique'
Fagnant, Annick ULiege; Demonty, Isabelle ULiege; Lejong, Michèle ULiege

in Informations pédagogiques (2003), 54

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See detailIdentification On Commercialized Products Of Aflp Markers Able To Discriminate Slow- From Fast-Growing Chicken Strains
Fumiere, Olivier; Dubois, Marc; Gregoire, Dimitrie et al

in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2003), 51(5), 1115-1119

The European chicken meat market is characterized by numerous quality marks: “Label de Qualité Wallon” in Belgium, “Label Rouge” in France, denominations of geographical origin, organic agriculture, etc ... [more ▼]

The European chicken meat market is characterized by numerous quality marks: “Label de Qualité Wallon” in Belgium, “Label Rouge” in France, denominations of geographical origin, organic agriculture, etc. Most of those certified productions have specifications requiring the use of slow-growing chicken strains. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique has been used to search molecular markers able to discriminate slow-growing chicken strains from fast-growing ones and to authenticate certified products. Two pairs of restriction enzymes (EcoRI/MseI and EcoRI/TaqI) and 121 selective primer combinations were tested on individual DNA samples from chicken products essentially in carcass form that were ascribed as belonging to either slow- or fast-growing strains. Within the resulting fingerprints, two fragments were identified as type−strains specific markers. One primer combination gives a band (333 bp) that is specific for slow-growing chickens, and another primer pair generates a band (372 bp) that was found to be characteristic of fast-growing chickens. The two markers were isolated, cloned, and sequenced. The effectiveness and the specificity of the two interesting determinants were assessed on individuals of two well-known strains (ISA 657 and Cobb 500) and on commercialized products coming from various origins. [less ▲]

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See detailBelgium's immigration Policy
Martiniello, Marco ULiege

in International Migration Review (2003), 37(1), 225-232

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See detailPrevention du diabete de type 2: style de vie ou medicaments?
Scheen, André ULiege; Letiexhe, Michel ULiege; Ernest, Philippe ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(4), 206-10

The World Health Organisation strongly recommends strategies for the prevention of type 2 diabetes, knowing the epidemics of the disease and its strong association with that of obesity. Several ... [more ▼]

The World Health Organisation strongly recommends strategies for the prevention of type 2 diabetes, knowing the epidemics of the disease and its strong association with that of obesity. Several intervention studies, in China ("Da-Qing Study"), in Europe ("Malmo study", "Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study") and in the United States ("Diabetes Prevention Program"), showed that lifestyle change are able to reduce by around 50% the incidence of type 2 diabetes in at risk individuals. Various pharmacological approaches have also proven their efficacy in preventing type 2 diabetes, but in most cases with less impressive reductions, between 25% and 35%. It is the case for metformin, acarbose, orlistat or various inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system. After the report of promising results with troglitazone, large prospective studies are ongoing to test the efficacy of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in such an indication, two insulinsensitizers of the thiazolidinedione family. We will briefly described the main results of intervention studies to prevent type 2 diabetes in at risk subjects, because of the presence of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and/or arterial hypertension. [less ▲]

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See detailStrategies de prevention du diabete de type 1: le point en 2003.
Philips, Jean-Christophe ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(4), 211-9

Type 1 diabetes is caused by a progressive autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing B cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The autoimmune process begins years before the B-cell destruction ... [more ▼]

Type 1 diabetes is caused by a progressive autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing B cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. The autoimmune process begins years before the B-cell destruction becomes complete, thereby providing an opportunity for early intervention. Genetic susceptibility markers have been identified and autoantibody assays make possible the identification of individuals at high risk of the disease. Prevention strategies could be implemented in first-degree relatives of type 1 diabetic patients at high risk of developing the disease because of the presence of several autoantibodies. Alternatively, they may also be considered at time of clinical diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus in order to maintain residual endogenous insulin secretion that markedly contributes to long-term better glycaemic stability. Thus, the goals of prevention are to preserve B cells during the preclinical period and/or after early diagnosis by modifying immunological pathogenic processes. Several molecules have been administered or are currently investigated to achieve this protection. This article summarizes the hopes and deceptions of previous clinical trials and describes the rationale and protocols of ongoing trials dealing with the prevention of type 1 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailPrevention cardio-vasculaire par les statines: faut-il encore doser le cholesterol?
Scheen, André ULiege; Kulbertus, Henri ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(4), 191-7

Statins, the most popular lipid-lowering agents, have proven their efficacy in preventing cardiovascular events in subjects with lower and lower initial plasma cholesterol levels. Besides, the protective ... [more ▼]

Statins, the most popular lipid-lowering agents, have proven their efficacy in preventing cardiovascular events in subjects with lower and lower initial plasma cholesterol levels. Besides, the protective effect does not seem to be directly related neither to the degree of the cholesterol reduction nor to the final level of plasma cholesterol level reached under treatment. Such observations suggest that statins may exert vascular protective effects, at least in part, independently of their specific cholesterol-lowering effect (so-called pleiotropic effects). The present paper will discuss the arguments pro and contra the dosage of cholesterolaemia before initiating a therapy with statin and during treatment follow up, both in subjects with previous cardiovascular events (secondary prevention) and in subjects with a high cardiovascular absolute risk but without previous clinical expression of atherosclerosis (primary prevention). [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of plasma urea-N concentration on fertility in a Holstein-Friesian dairy herd
Szenci, Otto; Simonsen, I.; Bajcsy, C. A. et al

in Magyar Allatorvosok Lapja = Hungarian Veterinary Journal (2003), 125(8), 458-464

The objectives of this study were to relate the concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (UN) to pregnancy rate in dairy cows. The cows were grouped, according to their production level and feed rations ... [more ▼]

The objectives of this study were to relate the concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (UN) to pregnancy rate in dairy cows. The cows were grouped, according to their production level and feed rations according to the NRC recommendations for essential nutrients, Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=103), randomly selected, were inseminated between Days 39 and 410 after calving. The cows were separated into two groups, where Group 1, was treated with GnRH i.m. injection on Day 12 after At. Group 2, was not treated and served as a control group. Heparinized blood samples were taken from the tall vein, immediately taken after artificial insemination (Day 0) and subsequently on Days 12, 21, 32 and 55 after Al, respectively. Diagnosis of pregnancy and late embryonic mortality was made by ultrasonography and the measurement of pregnancy proteins (PAG) between Days 32 and 55 after Al. Changes in plasma UN concentrations were studied using multivariate repeated ANOVA procedures. Three cows in each group were insemineted in the lutheal phase therefore their data were not used in the calculation. There were no significant differences between the UN concentrations of the pregnant and non-pregnant cows within the groups. However, the time of sampling had a significant effect on the UN concentrations in both the control and the treated groups. The UN concentrations, in pregnant and non pregnant cows of both groups, were significantly decreasing from Day 0 to Day 32. Concentrations of UN (on Day 0) less than 5,8 mmol/l were associated with increased pregnancy rates (53.6%). The pregnancy rates for cows with UN concentrations within the ranges of 5,7-6,75 mmol/l and 6,76-7,82 mmol/l were 47.8% and 46.7%, respectively. The rate of late embryonic mortality was similar in the two groups (treated group: n=2, control group: n=3). [less ▲]

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See detailOptimalisation de la prise en charge du patient diabetique de type 2: resultats de l'etude DREAM" en medecine generale."
Scheen, André ULiege; Bruwier, Geneviève ULiege; Schmitt, H.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(3), 139-46

This paper reports the results of the "DREAM" ("Diabetes REinforcement of Adequate Management") study performed among 42 general practitioners. A treatment algorithm was proposed to intensify the ... [more ▼]

This paper reports the results of the "DREAM" ("Diabetes REinforcement of Adequate Management") study performed among 42 general practitioners. A treatment algorithm was proposed to intensify the management of type 2 diabetic patients in case of poor control (HbA1C > 7.5% and fasting blood glucose > 140 mg/dl) before asking for an advice from a diabetologist. A total of 163 patients participated in the study: 84 men and 79 women, 59 +/- 10 years old; 5.2 +/- 6.1 years of known duration of diabetes; BMI: 30.7 +/- 5.8 kg/m2. Almost two thirds of patients received an antihypertensive agent, one third a lipid-lowering drug, and three quarters at least one antidiabetic agent: 22% a sulfonylurea, 18% metformin, 25% a combined oral therapy, 10% insulin (alone or in combination). At baseline, mean HbA1C averaged 7.1 +/- 2.2% (N: 4-6%), and 34% of patients had HbA1C > 7.5%. From these 163 patients, 100 were evaluated after 12 months, 57% being well controlled vs 36% at baseline. Among the 32 patients whose hypoglycaemic treatment was intensified, HbA1C level significantly decreased by almost 0.8% (p < 0.05). Despite precise guidelines, 55% of patients with HbA1C > 7.5% had no treatment adjustment, essentially in the group already on oral bitherapy or on insulin. Among the 65 patients evaluated after 24 months, the percentage of well controlled patients decreased to 44% (vs 51% after 12 months). The decision of switching to insulin was often delayed (no patient after 1 year and 2 patients only after 2 years). In conclusion, the "DREAM" study demonstrates the feasibility, but also the difficulty, of optimising the management of type 2 diabetic patients in general practice. [less ▲]

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See detailStatistical models for the analysis of controlled trials on acute migraine
Vandenhende, François; Lambert, Philippe ULiege

in Pharmaceutical Statistics (2003), 2

pecific efficacy criteria were defined by the International Headache Society for controlled clinical trials on acute migraine. They are derived from the pain profile and the timing of rescue medication ... [more ▼]

pecific efficacy criteria were defined by the International Headache Society for controlled clinical trials on acute migraine. They are derived from the pain profile and the timing of rescue medication intake. We present a methodology to improve the analysis of such trials. Instead of analysing each endpoint separately, we model the joint distribution and derive success rates in any criteria as predictions. We use cumulative regression models for each response at a time and a multivariate normal copula to model the dependence between responses. Parameters are estimated using maximum likelihood. Benefits of the method include a reduction in the number of tests performed and an increase in their power. The method is well suited to dose-response trials from which predictions can be used to select doses and optimize the design of subsequent trials. More generally, our method permits a very flexible modelling of longitudinal series of ordinal data. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... les secrets d'une meta-analyse.
Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(1), 41-6

Meta-analysis is becoming a key partner of Evidence-Based Medicine. This statistical tool is currently used in most systematic reviews and allows to quantitatively synthesize the results of several ... [more ▼]

Meta-analysis is becoming a key partner of Evidence-Based Medicine. This statistical tool is currently used in most systematic reviews and allows to quantitatively synthesize the results of several studies by a single weighted average whose precision is indicated by the confidence interval. A standardized graphical representation allows, at first glance, to derive a lot of useful information, especially the number of studies taken into account for the analysis, the mean effect observed in each study with its confidence interval, the relative size (number of subjects) of each study, the homogeneity/heterogeneity of between-study results, finally the overall mean effects with its confidence interval. The meta-analysis plays a key-role in epidemiology, for the evaluation of a risk or a protective factor, and in therapeutics, for summarizing the results of numerous clinical trials with a specific drug or a pharmacological class in a given disease. [less ▲]

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See detailLa medecine preventive dans tous ses etats.
Kulbertus, Henri ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(4), 173-4

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See detailComedolysis by a lipohydroxyacid formulation in acne-prone subjects.
Uhoda, Emmanuelle ULiege; Pierard, Claudine ULiege; Pierard, Gérald ULiege

in European Journal of Dermatology (2003), 13(1), 65-8

Post-summertime exacerbation of acne is not a rare event. This study was conducted to assess the preventive effect of a proprietary formulation containing 2-hydroxy-5-octanoyl benzoic acid on this ... [more ▼]

Post-summertime exacerbation of acne is not a rare event. This study was conducted to assess the preventive effect of a proprietary formulation containing 2-hydroxy-5-octanoyl benzoic acid on this environmental related disease. This compound is commonly called beta-lipohydroxyacid (LHA). Among a randomized group of 14 acne-prone women, 12 who developed cornified follicular plugs the end of summertime were treated by the LHA formulation twice daily for 2 weeks. Ten of 14 other women who presented the same skin condition remained untreated as controls. The comedolytic effect was assessed using non-invasive ultraviolet-light video recording combined with computerized image analysis. The cornified follicular plugs were progressively cleared in 10/12 LHA-treated women and in 3/10 untreated volunteers. Analytical assessments showed a significant decrease in both the number and total size of microcomedones in the LHA-treated women. By contrast, no quantitative change was disclosed in the untreated group. It is concluded that the tested LHA formulation exerts comedolytic properties that might help in preventing post-summertime acne exacerbations. [less ▲]

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See detailLa guerre et la médecine d'une culture de paix. 3- Synopsis des armes chimiques.
Pierard, Gérald ULiege

in FALCO (2003), Janvier

A variety of chemical components can be used as warfare threats directly targeting humans. They can be classified according to their main biological effects as nerve agents, vesicants, lung damaging ... [more ▼]

A variety of chemical components can be used as warfare threats directly targeting humans. They can be classified according to their main biological effects as nerve agents, vesicants, lung damaging agents, cyanogen agents and incapacitants. Other chemical agents are water and food contaminants. Sill other less aggressive compounds are mainly used to control riots. Smokes, flame materials and herbicides belong to other classes of chemical agents of the warlike armamentum exhibiting a direct effect on man. [less ▲]

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See detailRéactions cutanées indésirables aux antidépresseurs.
Braham, C.; Paquet, Philippe ULiege; Pitchot, William ULiege et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(1), 22-4

Due to the widespread usage of antidepressants by the population, they represent a class of drugs which is at high risk for cutaneous side effects. The diversity in the clinical presentations is large ... [more ▼]

Due to the widespread usage of antidepressants by the population, they represent a class of drugs which is at high risk for cutaneous side effects. The diversity in the clinical presentations is large. The variability in their severity is large as well. Morbidity may be quite severe, but the vital prognosis is rarely affected. [less ▲]

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See detailRegional variability in mottled subclinical melanoderma in the elderly.
Petit, Ludivine; Fogouang, L.; Uhoda, Isabelle et al

in Experimental Gerontology (2003), 38(3), 327-31

The density in melanin chromatophores becomes heterogeneous in the epidermis during the early events of photoaging. Little is known about the regional variability in the resulting mottled skin appearance ... [more ▼]

The density in melanin chromatophores becomes heterogeneous in the epidermis during the early events of photoaging. Little is known about the regional variability in the resulting mottled skin appearance on the sun-exposed parts of the body in the elderly. The relationship between these features and the dermal atrophy related to aging is also an area ripe for study. The aim of the present study was to objectively assess and compare such aspects of photoaging in older subjects. A computer-assisted video camera equipped with an internal ultraviolet-emitting unit (Visioscan) was used in combination with image analysis to quantify the infraclinical mottling of the skin on the forehead, neck and dorsal forearm. A Densi Score device served to assess the dermal atrophy by rating the skin folding capacity. A mottled subclinical melanoderma was disclosed on the three evaluation sites in all subjects irrespective of their phototypes. Three main patterns were identified corresponding to regular perifollicular dots, streaky macules along shallow wrinkles and unevenly shaped macules in the interfollicular area. The extent in melanoderma was larger on the forehead than on the neck and forearm. The age after 60 years did not influence the severity of mottled melanoderma, but clearly altered the skin folding capacity. The greatest inter-individual differences in mottled melanoderma were found in phototype II subjects. In conclusion, infraclinical mottled melanoderma is present in all individuals after 60 years of age. This type of epidermal photoaging does not appear to be influenced in older ages. By contrast, skin laxity due to dermal aging continues to progress beyond the age of 60 years. [less ▲]

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See detailThe eyelids and metastatic breast carcinoma.
Claessens, Nadine; Pierard, Gérald ULiege

in Dermatology : International Journal for Clinical & Investigative Dermatology (2003), 206(2), 181-2

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See detailComment je traite ... une dermatite seborrhéique.
Pierard, Claudine ULiege; Arrese Estrada, Jorge ULiege; Pierard, Gérald ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(2), 67-9

Seborrhoeic dermatitis results from a peculiar inflammatory reaction directed to yeasts of the genus Malassezia which are present at the skin surface. The current therapeutic strategies to control ... [more ▼]

Seborrhoeic dermatitis results from a peculiar inflammatory reaction directed to yeasts of the genus Malassezia which are present at the skin surface. The current therapeutic strategies to control episodes of the dermatitis target the yeasts, the host reaction or both. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois Quel antihypertenseur en premiere intention? Resultats de l'etude ALLHAT.
Scheen, André ULiege; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(1), 47-52

Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first-step therapy is still controversial. The "Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering ... [more ▼]

Antihypertensive therapy is well established to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality, but the optimal first-step therapy is still controversial. The "Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial" (ALLHAT) should give such an answer. It is a randomised, double-blind, trial designed to determine whether treatment with either a calcium channel blocker or an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor lowers the incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) or other cardiovascular disease (CVD) events vs treatment with a diuretic. A total of 33,357 participants aged 55 years or older with mild to moderate hypertension and at least 1 other CHD risk factor were randomly assigned to receive chlorthalidone (12.5 to 25 mg/day; n = 15,255), amlodipine (2.5 to 10 mg/day; n = 9,048) or lisinopril (10 to 40 mg; n = 9,054). The primary outcome combined both fatal CHD and non-fatal myocardial infarction, analyzed by intent-to-treat. Secondary outcomes were all-causes mortality, stroke, combined CHD (primary outcome, coronary revascularization, or angina with hospitalization), and combined CVD (combined CHD, stroke, treated angina without hospitalization, heart failure and peripheral arterial disease). Chlorthalidone was slightly more effective in reducing systolic pressure while amlodipine reduced slightly more effectively diastolic blood pressure. After a mean follow up of 4.9 years, no differences were observed between the three treatments regarding both the primary outcome and the total mortality. Secondary outcomes were similar when comparing amlodipine vs chlorthalidone. A moderately higher 6-year incidence rate of clinically detected heart failure was observed with amlodipine, but without significant influence on mortality. For lisinopril vs chlorthalidone, lisinopril had slightly higher 6-year rates of combined CVD, stroke and heart failure. In conclusion, thiazide-type diuretics are superior in preventing one or more major forms of CVD and offer the advantage to be cheaper. They should be preferred for first-step antihypertensive therapy. However, to reach the recommended blood pressure target, most patients should receive a combination of antihypertensive compounds. Such a combination should always comprise a diuretic agent, in absence of contra-indications. [less ▲]

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See detailLipid storage metabolism is limited by the prevailing low oxygen concentrations within developing seeds of oilseed rape.
Vigeolas, Hélène ULiege; van Dongen, Joost T; Waldeck, Peter et al

in Plant Physiology (2003), 133(4), 2048-60

The aim of this study was to investigate whether endogenous restrictions in oxygen supply are limiting for storage metabolism in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Siliques were studied 30 d ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to investigate whether endogenous restrictions in oxygen supply are limiting for storage metabolism in developing oilseed rape (Brassica napus) seeds. Siliques were studied 30 d after flowering, when rapid lipid accumulation is occurring in the seeds. (a). By using microsensors, oxygen concentrations were measured within seeds and in the silique space between seeds. At ambient external oxygen (21% [v/v]) in the light, oxygen fell to 17% (v/v) between and 0.8% (v/v) within seeds. A step-wise reduction of the external oxygen concentration led within 2 h to a further decrease of internal oxygen concentrations, and a step-wise increase of the external oxygen concentration up to 60% (v/v) resulted in an increase in internal oxygen that rose to 30% (v/v) between and 8% (v/v) within seeds. (b). The increase in oxygen levels in the seeds was accompanied by a progressive increase in the levels of ATP, UTP, and the ATP to ADP and UTP to UDP ratios over the entire range from 0% to 60% (v/v) external oxygen. (c). To investigate metabolic fluxes in planta, 14C-sucrose was injected into seeds, which remained otherwise intact within their siliques. The increase in oxygen in the seeds was accompanied by a progressive increase in the rate of lipid (including triacylglycerol), protein and cell wall synthesis, and an increase in glycolytic flux over a range from sub- to superambient oxygen concentrations. In contrast to lipid synthesis, starch synthesis was not significantly increased at superambient oxygen levels. The levels of fermentation products such as lactate and glycerol-3P increased only at very low (0%-4% [v/v]) external oxygen concentrations. (d). When 14C-acetate or 14C-acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) was injected into seeds, label incorporation into triacylglycerol progressively increased over the whole range of external oxygen concentrations from 0% to 60% (v/v). (e). Stimulation of lipid synthesis was accompanied by an increase in sugar levels and a decrease in the levels of hexose-phosphates and acetyl-CoA, indicating sucrose unloading and the use of acetyl-CoA as possible regulatory sites. (f). Increased lipid synthesis was also accompanied by an increase in the maximal activities of invertase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase. (g). The developmental shift from starch to lipid storage between 15 and 45 d after flowering was accompanied by an increase in the seed energy state. (h). The results show that at ambient oxygen levels, the oxygen supply is strongly limiting for energy metabolism and biosynthetic fluxes in growing rape seeds, affecting lipid synthesis more strongly than starch synthesis. The underlying mechanisms and implications for strategies to increase yield and storage product composition in oilseed crops are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... une hypoglycemie grave chez un patient diabetique.
Radermecker, Régis ULiege; Philips, Jean-Christophe ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(3), 119-22

Severe hypoglycaemic episodes are defined as need of assistance and may progress to profound coma. They can occur in patients treated with insulin, generally for type 1 diabetes, or in patients receiving ... [more ▼]

Severe hypoglycaemic episodes are defined as need of assistance and may progress to profound coma. They can occur in patients treated with insulin, generally for type 1 diabetes, or in patients receiving sulphonylureas, for type 2 diabetes. Diagnosis is usually obvious, at least in insulin-treated patients, and requires an urgent intervention from the entourage. Such an intervention should comprise the oral administration of carbohydrates with high-glycaemic index if consciousness allows it or, if not, the injection of glucagon. When necessary, people should ask the help of a physician who will inject hypertonic glucose intravenously. Hypoglycaemic coma related to an absolute or relative excess of insulin should, in most cases, be treated at home. In contrast, a hypoglycaemic coma due to a too high dosage of sulphonylurea always requests a hospitalisation in order to carefully supervise the patient and to provide a prolonged intravenous infusion of glucose. It is mandatory that family or entourage members of any diabetic patient at risk to develop severe hypoglycaemia receive a specific education in order to promptly apply the best treatment capable of a rapid and safe recovery from hypoglycaemic coma. [less ▲]

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See detailL'adiponectine: une nouvelle adipocytokine.
Lebas, Eglantine ULiege; Paquot, Nicolas ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(9), 554-8

Adipose tissue is not simply a store of excess energy, but also secretes a variety of proteins into circulating blood that influence systemic metabolism. These include tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha ... [more ▼]

Adipose tissue is not simply a store of excess energy, but also secretes a variety of proteins into circulating blood that influence systemic metabolism. These include tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), leptin, resistine and adiponectin. These are collectively known as adipocytokines. Adiponectin (also referred to as AdipoQ, Acrp 30, apM1 or GBP28) is a novel adipose-specific protein. A recent genome study mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome on chromosome 3q27, where the adiponectin gene is located. Adiponectin is a peculiar adipocytokine because in contrast to the markedly increased levels of many others, as leptin or TNF-alpha, its level is reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes. The administration of thiazolidinediones, which are synthetic PPARs-gamma ligands, significantly increases the plasma adiponectin concentrations, an effect that could improve insulin sensitivity. Thus, the administration of adiponectin may provide a novel treatment modality for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude Steno-2: plaidoyer pour une prise en charge globale et intensive du patient diabetique de type 2.
Scheen, André ULiege; Estrella, F.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(2), 109-11

Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with type 2 diabetes. The Steno-2 Study compared the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention (n = 80) with that of a ... [more ▼]

Cardiovascular morbidity is a major burden in patients with type 2 diabetes. The Steno-2 Study compared the effect of a targeted, intensified, multifactorial intervention (n = 80) with that of a conventional treatment (n = 80) on modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. After a mean follow-up of 7.8 years, the risk of cardiovascular events was reduced by 53% in the intensive group, and the risk of microvascular events (nephropathy, retinopathy, autonomic neuropathy) by 58-63%. Thus, a target-driven, long-term, intensified intervention aimed at multiple risk factors should be recommended in patients with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: transobturator vaginal tape inside-out.
de Leval, Jean ULiege

in European Urology (2003), 44(6), 724-30

OBJECTIVES: To describe a new, simple surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to evaluate its feasibility. METHODS: We have developed a novel surgical ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To describe a new, simple surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and to evaluate its feasibility. METHODS: We have developed a novel surgical treatment of SUI, the transobturator inside-out tension-free urethral suspension, which uses specifically designed surgical tools, and in which a synthetic tape is passed from underneath the urethra, through the obturator foramens, towards the thigh folds, without entering the pelvic region at any time during the procedure. The tape is positioned without tension under the junction between mid and distal urethra. RESULTS: The procedure was carried out in 107 consecutive patients (mean age: 62 years) using the same operative protocol in all case subjects, independently of the patient's size and weight. Mean operative time was 14 min (range: 7-20) in case of isolated SUI treatment. No bladder or urethral injuries and no vascular (hematoma or bleeding) or neurological complications were encountered. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that our novel transobturator inside-out surgical technique for treating SUI is feasible, accurate, and quick. This technique avoids damage to the urethra and bladder and, therefore, makes cystoscopy not necessary. Further prospective studies are currently ongoing to determine the efficacy of our new surgical approach for treating SUI. [less ▲]

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See detailL'etude clinique du mois. L'etude ALLHAT-LLT.
Kulbertus, Henri ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(1), 53-8

ALLHAT-LLT was part of the ALLHAT study. The purpose was to determine whether pravastatin compared with usual care reduces all-cause mortality in older, moderately hypercholesterolaemic, hypertensive ... [more ▼]

ALLHAT-LLT was part of the ALLHAT study. The purpose was to determine whether pravastatin compared with usual care reduces all-cause mortality in older, moderately hypercholesterolaemic, hypertensive patients with at least one additional coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. 10,355 ambulatory patients, aged 55 years or more, with LDL cholesterol of 120-189 mg/dl (or, 100-129 mg/dl if known CHD) and triglycerides < 350 mg/dl, were randomised to pravastatin (40 mg/d; n = 5,170), or usual care (n = 5,185). Mean age was 66 years; 49% were women; 38% were black and 23% hispanic; 14% had a history of CHD and 35%, type 2 diabetes. Baseline mean total cholesterol was 224 mg/dl; LDL-C, 146 mg/dl; HDL-C, 48 mg/dl, and triglycerides, 152 mg/dl. Mean follow-up was 4.8 years. Among usual care patients, 32% of those with known CHD and 29% of those without CHD started taking lipid-lowering drugs. At year 4, total cholesterol was reduced by 17.2% with pravastatin and by 7.6% with usual care. A random sample had their LDL-C levels assessed: there was a reduction of 28% with pravastatin and of 11% with usual care. All-cause mortality was similar in the two groups (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.89-1.11; p = 0.88), with 6-year mortality rates of 14.9% (pravastatin) and 15.3% (usual care). CHD event-rates were not different between the two groups (RR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.79-1.04; p = 0.16); 6-year CHD event rates were 9.3% (pravastatin) and 10.4% (usual care), respectively. These results are likely due to the small differential in total cholesterol (9.6%) and LDL-C (16.7%) between pravastatin and usual care, compared with prior statin trials. Such an unusual differential essentially results from the open table of the study and from the possibility of prescribing a statin in the usual care group. [less ▲]

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See detailLa transplantation d'ilots de Langerhans ou de cellules B: un pas vers la guerison du diabete?
Philips, Jean-Christophe ULiege; Radermecker, Régis ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(2), 83-7

Diabetes mellitus places an enormous burden on patients, their relatives and the society. Current therapies do not provide sufficiently tight control of blood glucose to avoid diabetic complications. Some ... [more ▼]

Diabetes mellitus places an enormous burden on patients, their relatives and the society. Current therapies do not provide sufficiently tight control of blood glucose to avoid diabetic complications. Some recent developments try to restore normal glucose homeostasis. Research is islet and stem cell transplantation is developing rapidly and this article summarizes the new approaches that could cure and not simply treat diabetes in the future. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiothérapie métabolique des douleurs osseuses d'origine métastatique : nouveaux traitements, nouvelles pratiques
Hustinx, Roland ULiege; Paulus, Patrick

in Annales de l'Association Belge de Radioprotection = Annalen van de Belgische Vereniging voor Stralingsbescherming (2003), 28

Le traitement palliatif des douleurs osseuses liées à la dissémination métastatique s'est récemment enrichi d'une molécule, le 153Sm-EDTMP (Quadramet). Le traitement classique faisait appel au Strontium ... [more ▼]

Le traitement palliatif des douleurs osseuses liées à la dissémination métastatique s'est récemment enrichi d'une molécule, le 153Sm-EDTMP (Quadramet). Le traitement classique faisait appel au Strontium-89 (Métastron). Alors que ce dernier est un émetteur bêta pur, de longue demi-vie (50,5 jours), le 153Sm émet également un rayonnement gamma de 103 keV, et sa période physique est de 1,95 jours. Dans cet exposé nous envisagerons, du point de vue de la radioprotectio, les propriétés pharmacocinétiques du radiopharmaceutique et les caractéristiques physiques du 153Sm. Nous relaterons également l'expérience acquise dans notre centre avec le 186Re-HEDP. [less ▲]

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See detailDelayed onset muscle soreness induced by eccentric isokinetic exercise
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULiege; Camus, Gérard; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULiege et al

in Isokinetics & Exercise Science (2003), 11(1), 21-29

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) follows unaccustomed muscular exercise, most notably in the eccentric mode. That concept refers to a dull ache combined with tenderness, stiffness and weakness of the ... [more ▼]

Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) follows unaccustomed muscular exercise, most notably in the eccentric mode. That concept refers to a dull ache combined with tenderness, stiffness and weakness of the previously active muscles. lsokinetic device constitutes a specific model in generating and investigating DOMS. Respective effects of concentric and eccentric actions have been compared, emphasizing on the variability in the response (serum activity of CK for instance). The particular sensitivity of the hamstrings was underlined although causes remained unexplained. Some treatment have been proposed in the management of DOMS. Several studies reported that anti-inflammatory agents fail to alleviate pain and discomfort even if other authors indicated a relative effectiveness. Based on the repeated-bout effect, submaximal eccentric exercise currently represent the most useful preventive strategy. [less ▲]

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See detailLésions dentaires cervicales non carieuses - Deuxième partie
Gueders, Audrey ULiege

in Actualités Dentaires de l'Université de Liège (2003)

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See detailRole of ERK and calcium in the hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1.
Mottet, Denis ULiege; Michel, Gaetan; Renard, Patricia et al

in Journal of Cellular Physiology (2003), 194(1), 30-44

Oxygen-dependent regulation of HIF-1 activity occurs at multiple levels in vivo. The mechanisms regulating HIF-1alpha protein expression have been most extensively analyzed but the ones modulating HIF-1 ... [more ▼]

Oxygen-dependent regulation of HIF-1 activity occurs at multiple levels in vivo. The mechanisms regulating HIF-1alpha protein expression have been most extensively analyzed but the ones modulating HIF-1 transcriptional activity remain unclear. Changes in the phosphorylation and/or redox status of HIF-1alpha certainly play a role. Here, we show that ionomycin could activate HIF-1 transcriptional activity in a way that was additive to the effect of hypoxia without affecting HIF-1alpha protein level. In addition, a calmodulin dominant negative mutant and W7, a calmodulin antagonist, as well as BAPTA, an intracellular calcium chelator, inhibited the hypoxia-induced HIF-1 activation. These results indicate that elevated calcium in hypoxia could participate in HIF-1 activation. Furthermore, ERK but not JNK phosphorylation was evidenced in both conditions, ionomycin and hypoxia. PD98059, an inhibitor of the ERK pathway as well as a ERK1 dominant negative mutant also blocked HIF-1 activation by hypoxia and by ionomycin. A MEKK1 (a kinase upstream of JNK) dominant negative mutant had no effect. In addition, BAPTA, calmidazolium, a calmodulin antagonist and PD98059 inhibited VEGF secretion by hypoxic HepG2. All together, these results suggest that calcium and calmodulin would act upstream of ERK in the hypoxia signal transduction pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... la controverse a propos de la place de l'hyperglycemie provoquee par voie orale en clinique.
Luyckx, Françoise ULiege; Scheen, André ULiege

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2003), 58(11), 701-5

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been widely used for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. However, since 1997, OGTT is not considered anymore ... [more ▼]

The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) has been widely used for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance. However, since 1997, OGTT is not considered anymore as the first choice test for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance, being replaced by fasting glycaemia. Numerous studies, however, stressed the discrepancies between these two diagnostic approaches, so that OGTT still has defenders as a useful tool to diagnose diabetes. Besides, emphasis has been recently put on both postprandial hyperglycaemia, considered as a major cardiovascular risk factor, and impaired glucose tolerance as a predictor of progression toward overt type 2 diabetes, two parameters well addressed by the OGTT. Thus, even if the place to be reserved to the OGTT is controversial, in our opinion, this test still has a place in clinical biology. [less ▲]

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See detailCollinear helium under periodic driving: Stabilization of the asymmetric stretch orbit
Schlagheck, Peter ULiege; Pingel, D.; Schmelcher, P.

in Physical Review. A (2003), 68(5), 053410

The collinear eZe configuration of helium, with the electrons on opposite sides of the nucleus, is studied in the presence of an external electromagnetic (laser or microwave) field. We show that the ... [more ▼]

The collinear eZe configuration of helium, with the electrons on opposite sides of the nucleus, is studied in the presence of an external electromagnetic (laser or microwave) field. We show that the classically unstable "asymmetric stretch" orbit, on which doubly excited intrashell states of helium with maximum interelectronic angle are anchored, can be stabilized by means of a resonant driving where the frequency of the electromagnetic field equals the frequency of Kepler-like oscillations along the orbit. A static magnetic field, oriented parallel to the oscillating electric field of the driving, can be used to enforce the stability of the configuration with respect to deviations from collinearity. Quantum Floquet calculations within a collinear model of the driven two-electron atom reveal the existence of nondispersive wave packets localized on the stabilized asymmetric stretch orbit, for double excitations corresponding to principal quantum numbers of the order of Ngreater than or similar to10. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo distinct myosin light chain structures are induced by specific variations within the bound IQ motifs-functional implications
Terrak, Mohammed ULiege; Wu, G.; Stafford, W. F. et al

in EMBO Journal (2003), 22(3), 362-71

IQ motifs are widespread in nature. Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like myosin light chain that binds to IQ motifs of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and an IQGAP-related protein, Iqg1p, playing a role in polarized ... [more ▼]

IQ motifs are widespread in nature. Mlc1p is a calmodulin-like myosin light chain that binds to IQ motifs of a class V myosin, Myo2p, and an IQGAP-related protein, Iqg1p, playing a role in polarized growth and cytokinesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The crystal structures of Mlc1p bound to IQ2 and IQ4 of Myo2p differ dramatically. When bound to IQ2, Mlc1p adopts a compact conformation in which both the N- and C-lobes interact with the IQ motif. However, in the complex with IQ4, the N-lobe no longer interacts with the IQ motif, resulting in an extended conformation of Mlc1p. The two light chain structures relate to two distinct subfamilies of IQ motifs, one of which does not interact with the N-lobes of calmodulin-like light chains. The correlation between light chain structure and IQ sequence is demonstrated further by sedimentation velocity analysis of complexes of Mlc1p with IQ motifs from Myo2p and Iqg1p. The resulting 'free' N-lobes of myosin light chains in the extended conformation could mediate the formation of ternary complexes during protein localization and/or partner recruitment. [less ▲]

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See detailNondispersive two-electron wave packets in driven helium
Schlagheck, Peter ULiege; Buchleitner, A.

in European Physical Journal D -- Atoms, Molecules, Clusters & Optical Physics (2003), 22(3), 401-415

We provide a detailed quantum treatment of the spectral characteristics and of the dynamics of nondispersive two-electron wave packets along the periodically driven, collinear frozen planet configuration ... [more ▼]

We provide a detailed quantum treatment of the spectral characteristics and of the dynamics of nondispersive two-electron wave packets along the periodically driven, collinear frozen planet configuration of helium. These highly correlated, long-lived wave packets arise as a quantum manifestation of regular islands in a mixed classical phase space, which are induced by nonlinear resonances between the external driving and the unperturbed dynamics of the frozen-planet configuration. Particular emphasis is given to the dependence of the ionization rates of the wave packet states on the driving field parameters and on the quantum mechanical phase space resolution, preceded by a comparison of 1D and 3D life times of the unperturbed frozen planet. Furthermore, we study the effect of a superimposed static electric field component, which, on the grounds of classical considerations, is expected to stabilize the real 3D dynamics against large (and possibly ionizing) deviations from collinearity. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of polystyrene particles on lung mirovascular permeability in isolated perfused rabbit lungs : role of size and surface proporties
Hamoir, J.; Nemmar, A.; Halloy, D. et al

in Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology (2003), 190

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See detailDifferent modes of food restriction and compensatory growth in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls: plasma metabolites and hormones
Cabaraux, Jean-François ULiege; Kerrour, M.; Van Eenaeme, Christian ULiege et al

in Animal Science (2003), 77

The effects of different sequences of food restriction and fattening have been studied on plasma metabolites and hormones in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls. Twenty animals were divided into five groups ... [more ▼]

The effects of different sequences of food restriction and fattening have been studied on plasma metabolites and hormones in double-muscled Belgian Blue bulls. Twenty animals were divided into five groups. The first group (control, CG) was given, ad libitum, a fattening diet based on sugar-beet pulp. In G2 and G3, fattening was interrupted after 103 and 187 days, respectively, by a period of food restriction lasting about 2 months during which the animals received a maintenance ration. They were finished with the same diet as CG. The last two groups, G4 and G5, received a limited amount of the restriction diet to support 0.5 and 0 kg gain per day, respectively, for 4 months, before being fattened as CG. Plasma glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen, non-esterified fatty acids, urea, creatinine, thyroxine (T4), 3, 3', 5'-tri-iodothyroxine (T3), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were measured in blood samples taken every 2 weeks. Plasma GH and insulin profiles were measured in serial blood samples obtained at three different times during growth. Animals that showed compensatory growth had lower plasma urea, associated with high levels of T3, T4 and IGF-1. Animals from G2 and G3 failed to show compensatory growth. In Belgian Blue bulls, compensatory growth is markedly affected when food restriction is severe or fattening interrupted. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention tertiaire de l'insuffisance rénale chronique chez l'adulte
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege; Rorive, Georges ULiege

in Médi-Sphère (2003), 197

L'insutfisance rénale chronique est une maladie méconnue, insidieuse, qui présente souvent peu je symptômes au début. Cet article veut insister sur les règles de bonne pratique pour freiner ou mieux ... [more ▼]

L'insutfisance rénale chronique est une maladie méconnue, insidieuse, qui présente souvent peu je symptômes au début. Cet article veut insister sur les règles de bonne pratique pour freiner ou mieux prévenir les complications de l'urémie et préparer si nécessaire le malade au traitement de suppléance. [less ▲]

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See detailClonal chromosome aberrations in Philadelphia-negative cells from chronic myelocytic leukemia patients treated with imatinib mesylate: report of two cases.
Herens, Christian ULiege; Baron, Frédéric ULiege; Croisiau, Christiane et al

in Cancer Genetics & Cytogenetics (2003), 147(1), 78-80

Imatinib mesylate (tested as STI571), an abl kinase inhibitor, induces sustained, complete hematologic and cytogenetic responses in chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) patients; however, emergence of clonal ... [more ▼]

Imatinib mesylate (tested as STI571), an abl kinase inhibitor, induces sustained, complete hematologic and cytogenetic responses in chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) patients; however, emergence of clonal chromosomal aberrations in Philadelphia-negative (Ph-) cells during treatment has been reported. We describe two CML patients in chronic phase who presented with complete cytogenetic responses during imatinib mesylate therapy but developed new clonal chromosomal rearrangements in Ph- cells. The first patient presented with a duplication of chromosome 1, dup(1)(q21q42), and the second showed two new clonal aberrations consisting of inv(1)(q12q32) and del(7)(q22) in the same clone. [less ▲]

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See detailPET scan imaging in oncology.
Jerusalem, Guy ULiege; Hustinx, Roland ULiege; Beguin, Yves ULiege et al

in European Journal of Cancer (2003), 39(11), 1525-34

With the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) from research laboratories into routine clinical use, it is important to redefine the most appropriate use of each imaging technique. The aim of ... [more ▼]

With the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) from research laboratories into routine clinical use, it is important to redefine the most appropriate use of each imaging technique. The aim of this review article is to show the potential of PET in oncology. We discuss the most promising indications and the perspectives for the future. We will also point out the shortcomings and the important questions to be answered before fully considering PET as a necessary tool in the day-to-day practice of oncology. Although many studies have documented the high accuracy of 18F-FDG PET for the detection and staging of malignant tumours and for the monitoring of therapy results in these patients, it is very important to assess the impact of the technique on patient outcome and to show cost-effectiveness from the societal viewpoint. [less ▲]

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See detailPrévention primaire des maladies rénales et secondaire de l'insuffisance rénale
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULiege; Rorive, Georges ULiege

in Médi-Sphère (2003), 192

Il est apparu important de rèsumer les points capitaux à respecter lors de tout contact avec un patient, d'une part pour le proteger du développement de la maladie rénale (si possible) et pour freiner l ... [more ▼]

Il est apparu important de rèsumer les points capitaux à respecter lors de tout contact avec un patient, d'une part pour le proteger du développement de la maladie rénale (si possible) et pour freiner l'évolution de celle-ci une fois constituée d'autre part, l'objectif étant alors d'éviter l'insuffisance rénale sévère, stade où l'intervention du médecin n'est plus que symptomatique. Généralement fortuite, l'insuffisance rénale gagne à être diagnostiquée précocement. L'intervention du néphrologue sera également d'autant plus efficace que rapide. [less ▲]

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See detailVitamine E : état des connaissances chez les carnivores domestiques.I. Chimie, sources alimentaires et dosage
Cuvelier, Christine ULiege; Dotreppe, Olivier ULiege; Diez, Marianne ULiege et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2003), 147

Vitamin E is a part of the defence mechanism for the inactivation of free radicals and is therefore implicated in the oxidative stress. Chemistry of vitamin E is relatively complex. Vitamin E includes 2 ... [more ▼]

Vitamin E is a part of the defence mechanism for the inactivation of free radicals and is therefore implicated in the oxidative stress. Chemistry of vitamin E is relatively complex. Vitamin E includes 2 large groups of molecules, tocopherols and tocotrienols, each including 32 stereoisomers. Vitamin E is synthesized in plants, algae, and moulds but not in animals. The greatest quantities of vitamin E are found in cereals and vegetable oils. Vitamin E analyses are difficult to perform. After treatment of a sample with an organic solvent such as ethanol, vitamin E is usually extracted into hexane. Identification and quantification are carried out mainly by chromatography such as normal-phase liquid chromatography and reversed-phase liquid chromatography. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Umsetzung der Kaufrechtsrichtlinie (1999/44/EG) in Belgien
Gerkens, Jean-François ULiege; Pirson, Valérie

in Martin Schermaier (Hrsg.) Verbraucherkauf in Europa (2003)

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See detailEthique de la régulation, régulation par l'éthique
Geuens, Geoffrey ULiege

in Réseaux : Revue Interdisciplinaire de Philosophie Morale et Politique (2003), 97-98-99 ("Éthique et pouvoir des médias")

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See detailIntegrated detection and correction of outliers in a random regression test-day model
Mayeres, Patrick; Gillon, Alain ULiege; Gengler, Nicolas ULiege

in INTERBULL Bulletin (2003), 31

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See detailPoxviruses as vaccine vectors
Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULiege; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULiege

in Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (2003), 26

The discovery of Jenner in 1798 founded the science of immunology and eventually led to smallpox eradication from the earth in 1980 after a world-wide vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus (another ... [more ▼]

The discovery of Jenner in 1798 founded the science of immunology and eventually led to smallpox eradication from the earth in 1980 after a world-wide vaccination campaign with vaccinia virus (another poxvirus) and paradoxically, despite the eradication of smallpox, there has been an explosion of interest in vaccinia virus in the eighties. This interest has stemmed in part from the application of molecular genetics to clone and express foreign genes from recombinant vaccinia viruses. Vaccinia is also gaining renewed interest due to bioterrorism.These recombinant viruses have multiple applications in research and vaccinology and led to the development of vectored vaccines, such as the recombinant vaccinia rabies vaccine used to eliminate rabies in Western Europe and, more recently, in the United States. Secondly, alternative poxvirus vectors, such as avipox viruses, were proved to be even safer and efficacious non-replicating vectors (suiciole vectors) when used in non-avian species. [less ▲]

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See detailThe contribution of recollection and familiarity to recognition memory : A study of the effects of test format and aging
Bastin, Christine ULiege; Van der Linden, Martial ULiege

in Neuropsychology (2003), 17(1), 14-24

Whether the format of a recognition memory task influences the contribution of recollection and familiarity to performance is a matter of debate. The authors investigated this issue by comparing the ... [more ▼]

Whether the format of a recognition memory task influences the contribution of recollection and familiarity to performance is a matter of debate. The authors investigated this issue by comparing the performance of 64 young (mean age = 21.7 years; mean education = 14.5 years) and 62 older participants (mean age = 64.4 years; mean education = 14.2 years) on a yes–no and a forced-choice recognition task for unfamiliar faces using the remember– know–guess procedure. Familiarity contributed more to forced-choice than to yes–no performance. Moreover, older participants, who showed a decrease in recollection together with an increase in familiarity, performed better on the forced-choice task than on the yes–no task, whereas younger participants showed the opposite pattern. [less ▲]

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