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See detailA multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis.
Pierard, Claudine ULg; Goffin, Véronique ULg; Decroix, Jacques et al

in Skin Pharmacology & Applied Skin Physiology (2002), 15(6), 434-41

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the ... [more ▼]

Ketoconazole (KET) and zinc pyrithione (ZPT) are compounds active against the Malassezia spp. yeasts, which are believed to play a major role in dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. We compared the efficacy and safety of KET 2% and ZPT 1% in shampoo formulations for the alleviation of severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. This open randomized, parallel-group trial began with a 2-week run-in phase during which subjects applied a neutral non-antidandruff shampoo. It was followed by a 4-week randomized treatment phase and a subsequent 4-week follow-up phase without treatment. Shampooing during the treatment period was carried out twice weekly for the KET group and at least twice weekly for the ZPT group in accordance with the label instructions. A total of 343 subjects were recruited to enter the trial. Of the 331 eligible volunteers, 171 were randomized to KET 2% and 160 to ZPT 1%. Clinical assessments were performed. Beneficial effects were evidenced for both medicated shampoos, but the effect was significantly better for KET 2%, which achieved a 73% improvement in the total dandruff severity score compared with 67% for ZPT 1% at week 4 (p < 0.02). The recurrence rate of the disease was also significantly lower following KET 2% treatment than following ZPT 1% treatment. As a consequence, the overall clearing of the skin condition at the end of treatment and follow-up phase was in favor of the KET 2% formulation (p = 0.004). Side effects were minimal. It is concluded that after a 4-week treatment, KET 2% shampoo was significantly superior to ZPT 1% shampoo in the treatment of subjects with severe dandruff or seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. It is our assumption that this difference is noticeable for the patient and as a consequence relevant. Both formulations were well tolerated. [less ▲]

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See detailThe photorefractive effect at large modulation depth in semiconductors with multiple defect levels
Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Schmeits, Marcel ULg

in Applied Physics B : Lasers & Optics (2002), 74

The photorefractive effect in semiconducting mate- rials with multiple defects is studied in the case of modulation depth m = 1. The basic equations are Poisson's equation and the continuity equations for ... [more ▼]

The photorefractive effect in semiconducting mate- rials with multiple defects is studied in the case of modulation depth m = 1. The basic equations are Poisson's equation and the continuity equations for electrons, holes and occupied defect levels. They include all recombination and optical generation mechanisms between the defect levels and valence and conduc- tion bands. Their explicit numerical solution yields microscopic quantities such as space- and time-dependent electrical field profiles, carrier concentrations, as well as generation and re- combination rates. The fundamental Fourier component of the electric field yields the two-wave-mixing gain. Application is made for InP with two levels in the forbidden gap, for which steady-state and transient resulting quantities are shown. The re- sulting features at large modulation depth are of non-sinusoidal shape. Due to the complexity of the system, the final results strongly depend on all parameters intervening in the models used, as is illustrated for several typical cases. [less ▲]

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See detailLes débuts du paléolithique supérieur dans le nord-ouest de l’Europe : le Lincombien-Ranisien-Jerzmanowicien (état de la question)
Flas, Damien ULg

in Anthropologica et Praehistorica : Bulletin de la Société Royale Belge d'Anthropologie et de Préhistoire (2002), 113

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See detailThe novel diazoxide analog 3-isopropylamino-7-methoxy-4H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide is a selective Kir6.2/SUR1 channel opener
Dabrowski, M.; Ashcroft, F. M.; Ashfield, R. et al

in Diabetes (2002), 51

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See detailLa forêt et la protection du sol dans le cadre d'aménagement forestiers intégrés
Huart, O.; Adam, V.; Quevy, B. et al

in Fiche technique (2002), (14),

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See detailOutpatient and home parenteral antibiotic therapy (OHPAT) in low-risk febrile neutropenia: consensus statement of a Belgian panel.
Beguin, Yves ULg; Benoit, Yves; Crokaert, F. et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2002), 57(6), 309-16

Febrile neutropenia requires adequate antibiotic treatment. A subgroup of patients are only at low risk for complications and could be treated at home/as outpatients (OHPAT) after a short initial ... [more ▼]

Febrile neutropenia requires adequate antibiotic treatment. A subgroup of patients are only at low risk for complications and could be treated at home/as outpatients (OHPAT) after a short initial admission for work up. This position paper by a Belgian panel of experts presents criteria defining low-risk in febrile neutropenia, gives an overview of the existing experience and examines the present obstacles to a more widespread use of OHPAT in this country. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonality Of Ecosystem Respiration And Gross Primary Production As Derived From Fluxnet Measurements
Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Tenhunen, J. et al

in Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2002), 113(1-4),

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See detailPrediction of response and other improvements on the limitations of recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in anemic cancer patients.
Beguin, Yves ULg

in Haematologica (2002), 87(11), 1209-21

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of cancer patients suffer from chronic anemia. While recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) offers many of the advantages of blood transfusions, response rates ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The majority of cancer patients suffer from chronic anemia. While recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) offers many of the advantages of blood transfusions, response rates to this treatment are variable and in some trials a large proportion of patients (30 50%) did not respond. This failure may be due to factors related to the underlying disease, the chemotherapy given or functional iron deficiency. An accurate means of predicting response to rHuEPO would be beneficial to both healthcare providers and patients. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: Data were identified by searches of the published literature, including PubMed, references from relevant reviews, and abstracts presented at recent international oncology and hematology meetings. Only papers in English published between 1990 and 2002 were included. References were selected according to direct relevance to the topic discussed and availability. STATE OF THE ART: The best algorithms for predicting response appear to be those combining an assessment of the adequacy of endogenous erythropoietin production together with some early indicators of erythropoietic marrow response. Further characterization of the dose-response relationship of erythropoietic agents may allow better understanding of ways in which response may be enhanced. Adequate iron availability could also contribute to better response rates. PERSPECTIVES: Further characterization of the predictors of response for current and upcoming erythropoietic agents may enhance the management of anemia associated with cancer, and provide more convenient, effective, and flexible therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailPrise en compte du bien-être des animaux dans l’aménagement des porcheries : les aspects réglementaires
Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Laitat, Martine ULg; Vandenheede, Marc ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2002), 146(1), 39-42

A new directive laying down standards for the protection of pigs was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities (directive 2001/88/CE ; OJC 1 Decembre 2001). This directive is amending ... [more ▼]

A new directive laying down standards for the protection of pigs was published in the Official Journal of the European Communities (directive 2001/88/CE ; OJC 1 Decembre 2001). This directive is amending directive 91/630/CEE entered into force in Belgium in 1994. The three main topics refer to : the characteristics of the flooring surfaces, pregnant sows housing and the feeding systems. This paper details and discusses these topics and other points involving modifications of pig housing and management. [less ▲]

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See detailAnxiety and hyperventilation in mild to moderate asthmatics
Delvaux, Muriel ULg; Fontaine, Ovide ULg; Bartsch, Pierre ULg

in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2002), 52(2), 149-160

Studied breathing patterns and hyperventilation symptoms in 80 adolescents and adults (aged 16-60 yrs) with mild to moderate asthma and 40 adolescents and adults (aged 16-60 yrs) with no asthma symptoms ... [more ▼]

Studied breathing patterns and hyperventilation symptoms in 80 adolescents and adults (aged 16-60 yrs) with mild to moderate asthma and 40 adolescents and adults (aged 16-60 yrs) with no asthma symptoms (healthy controls). Data on pulmonary function, ventilation and breathing pattern, and psychological symptoms were obtained by clinical observation and questionnaire. Asthmatic Ss were requested not to take bronchodilatation medications for 24-48 hrs prior to testing. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised (S. Taylor and Cox, 1998), the Self-Consciousness Scale-Revised (A. Fenigwstein et al, 1975), the State-Train Anxiety Inventory, the Nijmegen Questionnaire (P. van Doorn et al, 1982), the Sense of Coherence Scale (A. Antonovsky, 1987), the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (D. Watson et al, 1988), the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Asthma Symptoms Checklist (R. A. Kinsman et al, 1973, revision by Brooks et al, 1989) were used. The results show that the asthmatic subjects have lower PetCO2 than normal subjects and that variables associated with lower PetCO2 include total volume, female gender, and negative affectivity. The results also show that female subjects and asthmatics have similar breathing patterns and compared to male subjects [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence de l'hérédité, du sexe et de la saison sur le type d'épisode dans le trouble bipolaire.
Mortazi, M.; Bertrand, Jean-Marie ULg; Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(3), 171-5

The aim of this work was to investigate if sex, age, family history, season and hypothyroidism have any influence on the type of episodes (manic, depressive, mixed) seen in bipolar patients. This ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to investigate if sex, age, family history, season and hypothyroidism have any influence on the type of episodes (manic, depressive, mixed) seen in bipolar patients. This retrospective study concerns a sample of 208 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder (type I or II), who were admitted in one of two psychiatric centers between July 1996 and June 2000. The sex-ratio was 2.8 females for 1 male. Sex, family history and hypothyroidism were not associated with any type of episode. A higher percentage of depressive episodes was observed in the patients who were older than 50 and the average age of depressive patients was higher than that of other patients. There was no seasonal pattern in this study and the season did not influence the type of episode. The results indicate no influence of sex, season, family history and hypothyroidism on the type of episode presented. On the opposite, age seems to favour depression episode. [less ▲]

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See detailAngot salue Guibert
Demoulin, Laurent ULg

in Critique : Revue Générale des Publications Françaises et Etrangères (2002), 663-664

Le roman L'Inceste de Christine Angot s'ouvre presque sur les mêmes phrases que le roman A l'ami qui ne m'a pas sauvé la vie d'Hervé Guibert. Quelle est la valeur de ce détournement textuel et quel rôle ... [more ▼]

Le roman L'Inceste de Christine Angot s'ouvre presque sur les mêmes phrases que le roman A l'ami qui ne m'a pas sauvé la vie d'Hervé Guibert. Quelle est la valeur de ce détournement textuel et quel rôle joue-t-il dans le roman d'Angot? [less ▲]

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See detailNew record of Encheliophis dubius (Carapidae) off Madagascar ?
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Bailly, Nicolas

in Cybium (2002), 26

When checking the identification of the Carapidae in the MNHN collection (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris) a specimen of Eurypleuron owasianum (Matsubara, 1953) (MNHN 1992-0914) caught off ... [more ▼]

When checking the identification of the Carapidae in the MNHN collection (Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris) a specimen of Eurypleuron owasianum (Matsubara, 1953) (MNHN 1992-0914) caught off Madagascar (20°S, 42°30’E) was found to be incorrectly identified. The specimen is vey close to Carapus dubius (Putnam, 1874), which is known from the Eastern Pacific (Markle and Olney, 1990). [less ▲]

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See detailIn situ dynamic analysis of solid or aqueous solutions undergoing chemical reactions by RBS or PIXE with external beam
Bouquillon, A.; Dran, J*-C; Lagarde, G. et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2002), 188

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See detailTime-resolved laser spectroscopy of multiply ionized atoms: Natural radiative lifetimes in CeIV
Zhang, Z. G.; Svanberg, S.; Quinet, Pascal ULg et al

in Physical Review Letters (2001), 87(27),

Radiative lifetimes have been measured for two excited levels of Ce IV using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. Ce3+ ions were produced in a laser-induced plasma. In the measurements ... [more ▼]

Radiative lifetimes have been measured for two excited levels of Ce IV using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. Ce3+ ions were produced in a laser-induced plasma. In the measurements, a suitable magnetic field was applied to reduce the recombination between electrons and the ions and thus the background light from the recombination, and special care was exercised to avoid flight-out-of-view effects on the lifetime measurements for the high-velocity ions. The experimental lifetime results, tau = 30(2) ns for the level 49 737 cm(-1) and tau = 30(3) ns for the level 52 226 cm(-1), were compared with relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations (tau = 30.5 and 30.0 ns) indicating a particularly excellent agreement. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasurement of radiative lifetimes and determination of transition probabilities of astrophysical interest in HoIII
Biémont, Emile ULg; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, Pascal ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2001), 328(4), 1085-1090

Lifetimes of six levels belonging to the 4f(10)6p configuration of Ho III have been measured for the first time using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence method. They are compared with ... [more ▼]

Lifetimes of six levels belonging to the 4f(10)6p configuration of Ho III have been measured for the first time using the time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence method. They are compared with multiconfigurational pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations. A very good agreement is found. Using the experimental lifetimes and theoretical branching fractions, a first set of transition probabilities of astrophysical interest has been obtained for this ion. [less ▲]

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See detailFacies architecture and diagenesis of Belgian Late Frasnian carbonate mounds
Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Sedimentary Geology (2001), 145(3-4), 269-294

Late Frasnian Petit-Mont Member carbonate mounds occur in the southern pail of the Dinant Synclinorium and in the Philippeville Anticline (SW Belgium). These mounds are 30 to 80 m thick and 100 to 250 m ... [more ▼]

Late Frasnian Petit-Mont Member carbonate mounds occur in the southern pail of the Dinant Synclinorium and in the Philippeville Anticline (SW Belgium). These mounds are 30 to 80 m thick and 100 to 250 m in diameter. They are embedded in shale, nodular shale and argillaceous limestone. Based on facies mapping of 14 buildups and related off-mound sediments, these mounds typically started from below the photic and storm wave base zones and builtup into shallow water environments. Above an argillaceous limestone substrate, the first carbonate mound facies consists of spiculitic wackestone with stromatactis (PM1), which becomes progressively enriched in crinoids and corals (PM2), then in peloids, stromatoporoids and cyanobacteria (PM3). PM4 consists of algal-coral-peloid wackestone and packstone with green algae and thick algal coatings, A core of algal and microbial bindstone (PM5) sporadically occurs within large mounds. The uppermost part of these mounds may show a recurrence of facies PM2 and PM1. PM1 to PM3 are coloured red by hematite derived from microaerophilic iron bacteria; PM4 and PM5 are grey. The transition from the aphotic to the cyanobacterial photic zone is recorded in the succession PM2-PM3; the transition from the cyanobacterial to the green algal photic zone is recorded by PM3-PM5. Storm wave base was reached within PM3 and fair-weather wave base within PM5. This paleobathymetric interpretation suggests a depth of 100-150 in during initial establishment of PM1. Three types of mounds can be distinguished on the basis of geometry and facies architecture: (1) "Les Bulants"-type mounds display a continuous vertical facies succession (PM2-3-4-5) and low relief, (2) although exhibiting the same facies succession as "Les Bulants", "Les Wayons"-type mounds show a distinct relief with steep flanks and bioclastic talus; (3) "St.-Remy" mounds consist exclusively of PM1 and PM2, bioclastic flank deposits are not observed. From (1) to (3), these mound types represent successive deepening down a ramp. Biostratigraphic correlation on a regional scale provides good evidence that relative sea-level changes largely controlled lateral and vertical transitions of facies. Beyond that, hypoxic conditions are indicated by the sponge and iron-bacteria consortium in lower parts of the mounds. This is in agreement with the general assumption of stratified water masses during Late Frasnian, preceding the prominent Lower Kellwasser crisis. Cementation began with a radiaxial synsedimentary cement. A fringe of meteoric phreatic cement, initially nonluminescent, then with a bright orange luminescence, occurs in all mounds. It is contemporaneous with a nonluminescent pervasive cement of grainstones deposited in littoral areas. Differentiation between the (reducing) mounds and the (oxidizing) littoral area resulted from better aquifer circulation in sedimentary bodies close to the recharge area. Late burial cements occlude all the remaining porosity and are contemporaneous with the opening of the Variscan fracture system. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailComparative effect of hormone replacement therapy on bone mass density and skin tensile properties
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Vanderplaetsen, S.; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg

in Maturitas (2001), 40(3), 221-227

Objectives: connective tissues constitutive of skin and bones are affected during the climacteric. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can help mitigate their atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare ... [more ▼]

Objectives: connective tissues constitutive of skin and bones are affected during the climacteric. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can help mitigate their atrophy. The aim of this study was to compare the HRT effect on the skin tensile properties and bone mass density. Methods: a total of 120 postmenopausal women (60 untreated, 60 receiving HRT) were enrolled in the study. Skin tensile properties were assessed on the volar forearm using a computerized suction device. A 500 mbar suction was applied through a 4-mm diameter hollow probe. Two operating modes were applied using a steep and a progressive Suction, respectively. BMD was measured on the hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Results: in both groups of women skin elasticity was correlated with BMD. HRT significantly reduced the climacteric-associated decline in skin elasticity. A trend in better preserved BMD was also found in these women without, however, reaching significance. Conclusions: it is concluded that measures of the skin tensile properties can be sensitive enough to disclose HRT efficacy upon connective tissue atrophy. Any decrease in skin elasticity during the climacteric should prompt to perform a BMD assessment. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailObservation of the proton aurora with IMAGE FUV imager and simultaneous ion flux in situ measurements
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Hubert, Benoît ULg; Meurant, M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2001), 106(A12), 28939-28948

The far ultraviolet cameras on board the IMAGE satellite images the aurora in three different spectral regions. One of the channels of the spectrographic imager SI12 observes the Doppler-shifted Lyman ... [more ▼]

The far ultraviolet cameras on board the IMAGE satellite images the aurora in three different spectral regions. One of the channels of the spectrographic imager SI12 observes the Doppler-shifted Lyman alpha emission of precipitating protons. It makes it possible to spectrally discriminate between the proton and electron FUV aurora and to globally map the energetic protons. Its response depends on the auroral Lyman alpha. line shape which reflects the characteristics of the proton pitch angle and energy distributions. We illustrate the dependence of the SI12 count rate on the characteristic energy of the proton precipitation and the viewing geometry. Simultaneous in situ observations of the precipitated protons have been collected during a FAST satellite pass when IMAGE was observing the global north polar region. The premidnight region located at the equatorward boundary of the oval is dominated by proton precipitation with a mean energy E = 7 keV which is separated from the electron component. The prenoon crossing exhibits a softer proton energy spectrum with E = 0.9 keV. The measured proton energy distribution is used as an input to a Monte Carlo model to calculate the expected SI12 signal along the magnetic footprint of the satellite orbit. If the different spatial resolution of the two types of measurements is accounted for, a good quantitative agreement is found with the IMAGE observations. Similarly, ion flux measurements collected on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program F15 satellite during an overflight in the postmidnight sector provide good agreement with the SI12 observations at the footprint aurora. The comparisons confirm the reliability of the FUV IMAGE cameras to remotely discriminate between the electron and the proton precipitations. The vertical emission rate profiles of the N-2 Lyman-Birge-Hopfield and O I (1356 Angstrom) emissions are calculated in the proton-dominated premidnight region. It is shown that the protons and the electrons produce FUV emissions with contributions peaking at different altitudes. Excitation by secondary electrons dominates the production of both emissions. [less ▲]

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See detailSpectroscopic monitoring of 10 new northern slowly pulsating B star candidates discovered from the HIPPARCOS mission
Mathias, P.; Aerts, C.; Briquet, Maryline ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 379

A one-year follow-up campaign of high-resolution, high-signal-to-noise spectroscopy for 10 candidate slowly pulsating B stars, which were discovered from the HIPPARCOS astrometric mission, shows that all ... [more ▼]

A one-year follow-up campaign of high-resolution, high-signal-to-noise spectroscopy for 10 candidate slowly pulsating B stars, which were discovered from the HIPPARCOS astrometric mission, shows that all stars exhibit line-profile variability. From our data, and from the HIPPARCOS photometry, we conclude that all but one of the targets provide evidence of multiperiodicity, with periods of the order of days, confirming their pulsational nature. Thus they are confirmed slowly pulsating B stars. We summarize the pulsation periods and Q-values and select the most interesting targets for very-long-term follow-up observations with the goal of performing asteroseismology. Based on observations obtained at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel approach for extracting time-delays from lightcurves of lensed quasar images
Burud, I.; Magain, Pierre ULg; Sohy, Sandrine ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 380

We present a new method to estimate time delays from light curves of lensed quasars. The method is based on chi [SUP]2[/SUP] minimization between the data and a numerical model light curve. A linear ... [more ▼]

We present a new method to estimate time delays from light curves of lensed quasars. The method is based on chi [SUP]2[/SUP] minimization between the data and a numerical model light curve. A linear variation can be included in order to correct for slow long-term microlensing effects in one of the lensed images. An iterative version of the method can be applied in order to correct for higher-order microlensing effects. The method is tested on simulated light curves. When higher-order microlensing effects are present, the time delay is best constrained with the iterative method. Analysis of a published data set for the lensed double Q 0957+561 yields results in agreement with other published estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailThe B-type variable HD 131120 modelled by rotational modulation
Briquet, Maryline ULg; De Cat, P.; Aerts, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 380

We present ground-based multi-colour Geneva photometry and high-resolution spectra of the variable B-type star HD 131120. All sets of data reveal a monoperiodic star with a period of 1.569 days. We ... [more ▼]

We present ground-based multi-colour Geneva photometry and high-resolution spectra of the variable B-type star HD 131120. All sets of data reveal a monoperiodic star with a period of 1.569 days. We compare the variability of the star with a non-radial g-mode pulsation model and with a rotational modulation model. The latter model appears to be the best explanation for the observed line-profile variations of the star. Moreover, contrary to the pulsational model, it is able to reproduce the behaviour of the first three moments of the Si and He lines as well as the large variability of their equivalent width. We therefore remove the star from the list of new Slowly Pulsating B stars found from Hipparcos data. Based on observations obtained with the Swiss photometric telescope and ESO's CAT/CES telescope, both situated at La Silla, Chile. [less ▲]

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See detailGuidelines for brain radionuclide imaging - Perfusion Single Photon Computed Tomography (SPECT) using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose
Vander Borght, T.; Laloux, P.; Maes, A. et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(4), 196-209

The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m ... [more ▼]

The purpose of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine practitioners in recommending, performing, interpreting, and reporting the results of brain perfusion SPECT studies using Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals and brain metabolism PET studies using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). These guidelines have been adapted and extended from those produced by the Society, of Nuclear Medicine (Juni et al., 1998) and the European Association of Nuclear Medicine by, a Belgian group of experts in the field trained in neurology and/or nuclear medicine. Some indications are not universally approved (e.g. brain death), but largely, supported by the literature. They, have been included in these guidelines in order to provide recommendations and a standardised protocol [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Age, Sex and Body Condition on Zinc, Copper, Cadmium and Metallothioneins in Common Guillemots (Uria aalge) Stranded at the Belgian Coast.
Debacker, Virginie ULg; Schiettecatte, Laure-Sophie; Jauniaux, Thierry ULg et al

in Marine Environmental Research (2001), 52(5), 427-444

The common guillemots, Uria aalge, found stranded at the Belgian coast, display high levels of Cu in both liver and kidneys. The condition index of the animals, defined as the ratio of liver to kidneys ... [more ▼]

The common guillemots, Uria aalge, found stranded at the Belgian coast, display high levels of Cu in both liver and kidneys. The condition index of the animals, defined as the ratio of liver to kidneys mass (Wenzel & Adelung, 1996), influences both the metal concentration and its binding to metallothioneins (MT): the lower the condition index, the more emaciated the animals, and the higher the total Cu concentration and the concentration of Cu bound to MT. In less robust individuals, our results suggest that Cu could displaces Zn from MT rendering the Zn ions available to induce a new MT synthesis. Sex related effects also emerged as significantly higher hepatic MT as well as Cu- and Zn-MT concentrations were found in emaciated male guillemots compared to females. In both organs, Cd concentrations remained low and typically demonstrated an age-dependent renal accumulation, with no noticeable effect of the condition index. As a whole, these results suggest that, for guillemots found stranded at the Belgian coast, Cu binding to hepatic and renal MT could function as a protective mechanism, rendering the metal ions unavailable to exert any cytotoxic activity. [less ▲]

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See detailL'accident sur le chemin du travail. Les interruptions et les détours
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Lexius Actua (2001), 10

L'article s'attache à la notion d'accident sur le chemin du travail et sur les détours et les interruptions lors de la réalisation de ce trajet.

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See detailLe syndrome du marteau
Denoel, C.; Collignon, L.; Dardenne, C. B. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 830-4

The hypothenar hammer syndrome is an uncommon but underestimated lesion of the cubital artery caused by repetitive trauma at the level of the hamate bone. It characteristically occurs in patients with a ... [more ▼]

The hypothenar hammer syndrome is an uncommon but underestimated lesion of the cubital artery caused by repetitive trauma at the level of the hamate bone. It characteristically occurs in patients with a history of manual work as metal workers, carpenters and motor mechanics. We present a case of a patient who developed this syndrome following intensive use of a dig. Clinical finding, diagnosis and treatment are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailImportance of soft solution processing for advanced BaZrO3 materials
Robertz, B.; Boschini, Frédéric ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg et al

in International Journal of Inorganic Materials (2001), 3(8), 1185-1187

Barium zirconate is an interesting material for refractory applications as well as a good substrate for the manufacturing of high temperature superconductors. However, its solid state synthesis requires ... [more ▼]

Barium zirconate is an interesting material for refractory applications as well as a good substrate for the manufacturing of high temperature superconductors. However, its solid state synthesis requires high temperature and provides inhomogeneous powder with a broad particle size distribution. In order to avoid these disadvantages, soft solution routes are of growing importance in the ceramic powder synthesis. Precipitation. decomposition of precursors, combustion techniques offer alternative ways to the solid state method. Advantages of these are a lower calcination temperature, production of homogeneous and fine monodisperse powders. The obtained powders have been characterised by XRD, IR, SEM and DTA/TG analysis. The influence of the synthesis conditions on the properties of BaZrO3 has been studied. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFonctionnement et performances des couloirs oscillants à glissement
Debongnie, Jean-François ULg; Masset, Luc ULg

in European Journal of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering (2001), 46(4), 243-254

This paper is devoted to the study of the efficiency of an oscillating trough for any value of the frequency. It is found that pure slipping or mixed cycles may occur, the latter comprising sticking ... [more ▼]

This paper is devoted to the study of the efficiency of an oscillating trough for any value of the frequency. It is found that pure slipping or mixed cycles may occur, the latter comprising sticking periods. The results of the present analysis concern the cyclic displacement, the mean velocity and the dissipated power. [less ▲]

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See detailAutonomous Reflectors over Active Networks: Towards Seamless Group Communication
Yamamoto, Lidia; Leduc, Guy ULg

in The Interdisciplinary Journal of Artificial Intelligence & the Simulation of Behavious (AISBJ) (2001), 1(1), 125-146

We present a reflector service that seeks to maintain application-level connectivity in the presence of network-level multicast failures. The service is based on the dynamic deployment of autonomous ... [more ▼]

We present a reflector service that seeks to maintain application-level connectivity in the presence of network-level multicast failures. The service is based on the dynamic deployment of autonomous reflectors modelled as mobile agents on top of an active network infrastructure. It is able to repair multicast tree failures by building a self-organising tree of reflectors, which will be connected to each other via unicast. The scheme is decentralised and takes into account node and link resources to find agent locations that lead to low cost tree configurations. We focus on the basic decision mechanisms related to code mobility during the tree construction and destruction phases, namely: cloning, migration, merging and termination. We show some preliminary simulation results that confirm the viability of the approach and settle directions for further research. [less ▲]

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See detailPyelonephrite xanthogranulomateuse pseudotumorale: diagnostic par la biopsie percutanee et succes du traitement conservateur
Reul, Olivier ULg; Waltregny, David ULg; Boverie, Jacques ULg et al

in Progrès en Urologie (2001), 11(6), 1274-6

Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an unusual form of chronic renal infection that is difficult to diagnose prior to surgery. We report on a 19-year-old woman who presented with a renal mass that ... [more ▼]

Focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an unusual form of chronic renal infection that is difficult to diagnose prior to surgery. We report on a 19-year-old woman who presented with a renal mass that mimicked malignancy. The diagnosis of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis was first suspected by radiological findings and further confirmed by histopathologic examination of percutaneous biopsy specimens of the lesion. Successful treatment of the patient was achieved with antibiotic therapy alone. Maximal efforts, including percutaneous renal biopsy, should be made to establish the diagnosis of focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis before a therapeutic decision is reached. We recommend the use of antibiotics as a first-line treatment for patients with focal xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. [less ▲]

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See detail180 degrees Pinhole SPET with a tilted detector and OS-EM reconstruction: phantom studies and potential clinical applications
Seret, Alain ULg; Defrise, Michel ULg; Blocklet, Didier

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine (2001), 28(12), 1836-1841

This study investigated the feasibility of ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OS-EM) reconstruction of pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquired with a tilted detector head and a ... [more ▼]

This study investigated the feasibility of ordered subsets expectation maximisation (OS-EM) reconstruction of pinhole single-photon emission tomography (SPET) acquired with a tilted detector head and a 180 degrees orbit. Phantom and patient data were recorded using a standard single-head camera. Reconstructions were performed using a dedicated OS-EM algorithm. Reconstructed images of line, uniformity and Picker's thyroid phantoms showed that the geometry, physical size and uniformity of the radioactive objects were preserved. For the range of radius corresponding to the patient studies, the measured full-widths at half-maximum lay between 4.90+/-0.25 mm and 6.05+/-0.25 mm. Finally, the gain in resolution associated with the use of the pinhole collimator instead of a parallel-hole collimator was highlighted in a parathyroid exploration and in a shoulder bone study. [less ▲]

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See detailAffections bénignes et radiothérapie : une enquête de la pratique en Belgique. Peer review de radiothérapie de BelgiqueBenign disease in radiation therapy: a survey in Belgium.
Vanderick, JEAN ULg; Baudouin; Deneufbourg, Jean-Marie ULg et al

in Cancer Radiotherapie (2001), 5(6), 766-9

n 1996 and 2000, a survey of radiation practice in Belgium was performed by sending a questionnaire to the different centers asking their opinion and number of patients treated. There was a great ... [more ▼]

n 1996 and 2000, a survey of radiation practice in Belgium was performed by sending a questionnaire to the different centers asking their opinion and number of patients treated. There was a great similarity between the two surveys both for indications and total number of patients irradiated. For the most common indications (prevention of cheloids, heterotopic bone formation, hyperthyroidy ophtalmopathy), there was a trend to use similar radiation technique following recent publications. In contrast, if the number of cases of macular degeneration is declining, the prevention of vessels restenosis is becoming more and more an indication. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling of speleothems failure in the Hotton cave (Belgium). Is the failure earthquake induced?
Cadorin, Jean-François; Jongmans, Denis; Camelbeeck, Thierry et al

in Netherlands Journal of Geosciences - Geologie en Mijnbouw (2001), 80(3-4), 315-321

To provide quantitative information on the ground acceleration necessary to break speleothems, laboratory measurements on samples of stalagmite have been performed to study their failure in bending. Due ... [more ▼]

To provide quantitative information on the ground acceleration necessary to break speleothems, laboratory measurements on samples of stalagmite have been performed to study their failure in bending. Due to their high natural frequencies, speleothems can be considered as rigid bodies to seismic strong ground motion. Using this simple hypothesis and the determined mechanical properties (a minimum value of 0.4 MPa for the tensile failure stress has been considered), modelling indicates that horizontal acceleration ranging from 0.3 m/s(2) to 100 m/s(2) (0.03 to 10g) are necessary to break 35 broken speleothems of the Hotton cave for which the geometrical parameters have been determined. Thus, at the present time, a strong discrepancy exists between the peak accelerations observed during earthquakes and most of the calculated values necessary to break speleothems. One of the future research efforts will be to understand the reasons of the defined behaviour. It appears fundamental to perform measurements on in situ speleothems. [less ▲]

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See detailSpa, ensemble architectural du parc de Sept-Heures [...]
Heins, Pascal ULg

in Histoire et Archéologie spadoises (2001), 108(32), 176-184

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See detailMetal biogeochemistry in the Tinto-Odiel rivers (Southern Spain) and in the Gulf of Cadiz: a synthesis of the results of TOROS project
Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Braungardt, Chantal; Achterberg, Eric et al

in Continental Shelf Research (2001), 21(18-19), 1961-1973

TOROS (Tinto-Odiel-River-Ocean Study) has been studying the biogeochemical processes which control metals and nutrients cycling in the mixing zone of the Tinto and Odiel rivers (SW Spain) and has ... [more ▼]

TOROS (Tinto-Odiel-River-Ocean Study) has been studying the biogeochemical processes which control metals and nutrients cycling in the mixing zone of the Tinto and Odiel rivers (SW Spain) and has established the fate of metals in the Gulf of Cadiz in relation to hydrodynamics and biological activity. The Tinto and Odiel rivers are small, with a combined mean discharge of 18 m(3)/s. They drain the largest sulphide mineralisation in the world. Predominantly, Zn-Cu-Pb mineralisation has been worked since 2500 yr BC. The estuarine zone includes both an extensive area of salt marsh and an intensively industrialised urban area. As a consequence of pyrite oxidation, the Tinto and Odiel rivers are strongly acidic (pH < 3) with extremely high and variable metal concentrations. Transition metals are poorly removed from the water column in the mixing zone. Moreover, drainage from large phosphogypsum waste deposits contributes to As, Hg, U and phosphate contamination of the estuary. The collapse of the tailing reservoir at los Frailes in 1998 had not impacted the chemistry of the coastal waters up to 6 months later. A large plume of metal-rich waters due to the Tinto arid Odiel discharges occurs along the coast of the Gulf of Cadiz. This plume affects seasonally the Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar. The dispersion of the metal discharges has been simulated by injection of a tracer in the 3-D hydrodynamical model. Both model and field study clearly show the inflow of metal contaminated Spanish Shelf Water through the Strait of Gibraltar. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonographic abnormalities of the palmar aspect of the fetlock and pastern
Busoni, Valeria ULg

in Ippologia (2001), 12(4), 5-11

Ultrasonography is necessary to diagnose and differentiate soft tissues injuries of the palmar aspect of fetlock and pastern and completes the examination in cases with radiographic abnormalities on the ... [more ▼]

Ultrasonography is necessary to diagnose and differentiate soft tissues injuries of the palmar aspect of fetlock and pastern and completes the examination in cases with radiographic abnormalities on the proximal sesamoid bones. This paper reviews some of the injuries which can involve the anatomical structures of the palmar fetlock and pastern regions. [less ▲]

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See detailCloning and expression of the TALE superclass homeobox Meis2 gene during zebrafish embryonic development
Biemar, Frédéric; Devos, Nathalie; Martial, Joseph ULg et al

in Mechanisms of Development (2001), 109(2), 427-431

Meis and Prep/Pknox (MEINOX family) proteins, together with Pbx (PBC family) proteins, belong to the TALE superfamily characterized by an atypical homeodomain containing three additional amino acids ... [more ▼]

Meis and Prep/Pknox (MEINOX family) proteins, together with Pbx (PBC family) proteins, belong to the TALE superfamily characterized by an atypical homeodomain containing three additional amino acids between helix 1 and helix 2. Members of the MEINOX and PBC families have been isolated in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, Xenopus, chick, mouse and human. and play crucial roles in many aspects of embryogenesis. Here, we report the isolation of meis2 in zebrafish. Expression of meis2 is first detected at the beginning of gastrulation. Later during embryogenesis. meis2 transcripts are found in distinct domains of the central nervous system with the strongest expression in the hindbrain, Expression was also detected in the isthmus. along the spinal cord and in the lateral mesoderm, As development proceeds, meis2 is also expressed in the developing retina, pharyngeal arches, and in the vicinity of the gut tube. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailGIS-based hydrogeological databases and groundwater modelling
Gogu, Radu Constantin; Carabin, Guy; Hallet, Vincent et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2001), 9(6), 555-569

Reliability and validity of groundwater analysis strongly depend on the availability of large volumes of high-quality data. Putting all data into a coherent and logical structure supported by a computing ... [more ▼]

Reliability and validity of groundwater analysis strongly depend on the availability of large volumes of high-quality data. Putting all data into a coherent and logical structure supported by a computing environment helps ensure validity and availability and provides a powerful tool for hydrogeological studies. A hydrogeological geographic information system (GIS) database that offers facilities for groundwater-vulnerability analysis and hydrogeological modelling has been designed in Belgium for the Walloon region. Data from five river basins, chosen for their contrasting hydrogeological characteristics, have been included in the database, and a set of applications that have been developed now allow further advances. Interest is growing in the potential for integrating GIS technology and groundwater simulation models. A "loose-coupling" tool was created between the spatial-database scheme and the groundwater numerical model interface GMS (Groundwater Modelling System). Following time and spatial queries, the hydrogeological data stored in the database can be easily used within different groundwater numerical models. [less ▲]

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See detailTHE SUNFLOWER RIVER BLUES & GOSPEL FESTIVAL
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (2001), (165), 38-39

C.R. du Sunflower River Blues & Gospel Festival , Clarksdale, MS , 9-11 août 2001 Photo: Lonnie SHIELDS

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See detailCommunication interventriculaire et infarctus récent du myocarde
Delanaye, Pierre ULg; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Moonen, Martial et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 823-829

Rupture of the interventricular septum is a classical complication of acute myocardial infarction. The diagnosis should be evoked when the patient's hemodynamic condition deteriorates in the presence of a ... [more ▼]

Rupture of the interventricular septum is a classical complication of acute myocardial infarction. The diagnosis should be evoked when the patient's hemodynamic condition deteriorates in the presence of a new systolic murmur. A transthoracic or, preferably, transesophageal echocardiography confirms the diagnosis. Early surgical correction constitutes the best treatment. Despite recent progresses, mortality remains high but long term results are encouraging. The risk factors conditioning prognosis, the surgical options and the question of simultaneous coronary bypass will be discussed after a thorough review of the literature. [less ▲]

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See detailPsychological distress of surgical patients after orthotopic heart transplantation
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Transplant International (2001), 14(6), 391-395

Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychological problems after OHT have been described in many studies. Little is known, however, about ... [more ▼]

Orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) is a major surgical intervention inducing distress and anxiety. Psychological problems after OHT have been described in many studies. Little is known, however, about the relationship between the psychological state of the patient and time after surgery. The present study involved 41 consecutive OHT patients that underwent transplantation from January 1991 to December 1992, with a retrospective review of pretransplant psychiatric evaluations to define a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edn., revised (DSM III-R) Axis I diagnosis. Patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-13), Spielberger's State Trait-Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) between 1 and 41 months after transplantation. For comparison, 29 presumably healthy volunteers were given the same questionnaires. The study confirms the occurrence of abnormal psychological scores in the OHT group as compared to the reference population. Psychological scores, however, do not appear to be related to the time they were recorded after surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailLa guerre et la medecine d'une culture de paix. 2. Synopsis des armes biologiques
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 850-4

Biological warfare has a long history. Despite the 1972 international convention and several attempts at biological weapon eradication, some countries and non governmental groups still retain some of ... [more ▼]

Biological warfare has a long history. Despite the 1972 international convention and several attempts at biological weapon eradication, some countries and non governmental groups still retain some of these agents. According to their potential use, they belong to bioterrorism or to massive destruction weapons. Any biological warfare put the civilian medical and paramedical assets at the frontline and at high risk for being rapidly contaminated. The prompt recognition of a bioterrorist attack and the swift identification of the agent can lead to implementation of vaccines, chemoprophylaxis, appropriate treatment and sanitary measures. [less ▲]

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See detailBehaviour of Crohn's Disease According to the Vienna Classification: Changing Pattern over the Course of the Disease
Louis, Edouard ULg; Mathieu, Anne ULg; Oger, A. F. et al

in Gut (2001), 49(6), 777-82

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is a heterogeneous disorder with both a genetic and environmental aetiology. Clinical classifications of the disease, such as the newly proposed Vienna classification, may help ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease is a heterogeneous disorder with both a genetic and environmental aetiology. Clinical classifications of the disease, such as the newly proposed Vienna classification, may help to define subgroups of patients suitable for studying the influence of specific genetic or environmental factors. AIM: To assess the stability over the course of the disease of its location and behaviour, as determined according to the Vienna classification. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The notes of 297 Crohn's disease patients regularly followed up at our institution were carefully reviewed retrospectively. The behaviour and location of the disease according to the Vienna classification were determined at diagnosis and after 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 years of follow up. The proportions of the different behaviours and locations of the disease were calculated at these time points. A statistical analysis of the evolution of these characteristics over 10 years was performed on a subgroup of 125 patients with at least 10 years of follow up. The influence of age at diagnosis on location and behaviour of the disease was assessed as well as the influence of location on the behaviour of the disease. RESULTS: The location of the disease remained relatively stable over the course of the disease. Although the proportion of patients who had a change in disease location became statistically significant after five years (p=0.01), over 10 years only 15.9% of patients had a change in location (p<0.001). We observed a more rapid and prominent change in disease behaviour, which was already statistically significant after one year (p=0.04). Over 10 years, 45.9% of patients had a change in disease behaviour (p<0.0001). The most prominent change was from non-stricturing non-penetrating disease to either stricturing (27.1%; p<0.0001) or penetrating (29.4%; p<0.0001) disease. Age at diagnosis had no influence on either location or behaviour of disease. Ileal Crohn's disease was more often stricturing, and colonic or ileocolonic Crohn's disease was more often penetrating: this was already the case at diagnosis and became more prominent after 10 years (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Location of Crohn's disease, as defined by the Vienna classification, is a relatively stable phenotype which seems suitable for phenotype-genotype analyses. Behaviour of Crohn's disease according to the Vienna classification varies dramatically over the course of the disease and cannot be used in phenotype-genotype analyses. The potential influence of genes on the behaviour of Crohn's disease should be studied in subgroups of patients defined by their disease behaviour after a fixed duration of disease. [less ▲]

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See detailRecommandations pour la redaction de notices d'information pour les patients
Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Bonnet, Pierre ULg; Pasleau, Françoise ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 840-5

With Evidence-Based Medicine, shared decision making is attracting considerable interest as a means by which patient preferences can be incorporated into clinical decisions. Patients cannot express ... [more ▼]

With Evidence-Based Medicine, shared decision making is attracting considerable interest as a means by which patient preferences can be incorporated into clinical decisions. Patients cannot express informed preferences unless they are given sufficient and appropriate information, including a detailed explanation concerning their condition, the different therapeutic options and the likely outcomes with and without treatment. A patient education leaflet is a potentially powerful tool for communicating information to patients, who will be able to participate in the process of decision making. The present article is a review of available guides for the writing of patient information materials. It also includes criteria for evaluating their quality. [less ▲]

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See detailSystemic inflammatory response to cardiac surgery: does female sex really protect?
SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Qing, M.; von Bernuth, G.

in Critical Care (2001), 5(6), 280-2

Sex hormones have important interactions with the immune system and modulate the inflammatory response. In this regard, oestrogen inhibits the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines and confers tissue ... [more ▼]

Sex hormones have important interactions with the immune system and modulate the inflammatory response. In this regard, oestrogen inhibits the transcription of proinflammatory cytokines and confers tissue protection in experimental models. On the basis of this evidence, Trotter et al. in this issue of Critical Care addressed the question of whether, in children, female sex would protect against the deleterious effects of cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass by providing a favourable anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. The observations made in that study suggest sex-related immunomodulation and organ protection during cardiac surgery in the paediatric population. Prospective trials conducted in large series, including sex hormone determination in neonates, infants and children with congenital cardiac defects, are necessary to test this hypothesis. The verification of sex-related intraoperative organ protection would provide new opportunities for preventing the uncontrolled systemic inflammatory response that may occur during cardiac surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailA frequency domain versus a time domain identification technique for nonlinear parameters applied to wire rope isolators
Kerschen, Gaëtan ULg; Lenaerts, Vincent; Marchesiello, Stefano et al

in Journal of Dynamic Systems Measurement and Control-Transactions of the Asme (2001), 123(4), 645-650

The present paper aims to compare two techniques for identification of nonlinear dynamical systems. The Conditioned Reverse Path method, which is a frequency domain technique, is considered together with ... [more ▼]

The present paper aims to compare two techniques for identification of nonlinear dynamical systems. The Conditioned Reverse Path method, which is a frequency domain technique, is considered together with the Restoring Force Surface method, a time domain technique. Both methods are applied for experimental identification of wire rope isolators and the results are compared. Finally, drawbacks and advantages of each technique are underlined. [less ▲]

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See detailObituary : Roebuck "Pops" STAPLES
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (2001), (162), 42

Roebuck "Pops" Staples 1915-2000

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See detailInduced sputum - Comparison between isotonic and hypertonic saline solution inhalation in patients with asthma
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Lau, L. et al

in CHEST (2001), 120(6), 1815-1821

Background: Sputum induction by hypertonic saline solution inhalation is widely used to study airways secretions in patients with asthma. However, hypertonic saline solution is a potent indirect ... [more ▼]

Background: Sputum induction by hypertonic saline solution inhalation is widely used to study airways secretions in patients with asthma. However, hypertonic saline solution is a potent indirect bronchoconstrictor. Study objectives: We studied the validity of isotonic saline solution (0.9%) inhalation as a means to induce sputum by comparing it to hypertonic saline solution (4.5%) inhalation. Patients: Sixteen patients with moderate-to-severe asthma reporting a clinical history of mucus hypersecretion. Methods: Subjects underwent sputum induction twice at 1-week intervals. Saline solution (hypertonic or isotonic) was inhaled For three periods of 5 min. The parameters assessed in sputum samples were cell counts, sodium, eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and albumin concentrations, osmolality, and pro-matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity by zymography. Results: The maximal fall in peak expiratory flow during sputum induction was greater after inhalation of hypertonic saline solution than after inhalation of isotonic saline solution (p < 0.01). Each subject produced analyzable sputum on both visits. There were no statistically significant differences in total and differential sputum cell counts, and the reproducibility coefficients were high for eosinophils and neutrophils when comparing the two methods. Likewise, sputum levels of ECP and albumin as well as sputum pro-MMP-9 activity were not different between the two methods, and were highly reproducible as shown by high intraclass coefficients (Ri) of correlation (0.72, 0.74, and 0.77 for ECP, albumin, and pro-MMP-9, respectively). Sputum sodium concentrations and osmolality were higher after inhalation of hypertonic saline solution (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In patients with moderate-to-severe asthma reporting a clinical history of mucus hypersecretion, inducing sputum by isotonic or hypertonic saline solution inhalation leads to comparable results in eosinophil and neutrophil cell counts and fluid phase mediators/proteins. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of viable myocardium early after acute myocardial infarction using closed-loop arbutamine echocardiography: comparison with positron emission tomography
PIERARD, Luc ULg; MELON, Pierre ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg et al

in Acta Cardiologica (2001), 56(6), 387-394

Objective -This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of arbutamine echocardiography in identifying contractile reserve and predicting functional improvement early after acute myocardial ... [more ▼]

Objective -This study sought to evaluate the safety and efficacy of arbutamine echocardiography in identifying contractile reserve and predicting functional improvement early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods and results - Seventeen patients with first AMI underwent arbutamine echocardiography 48 to 96 hours after AMI. Arbutamine was infused by a closed-loop delivery device. The heart rate slope was 4 beats/min and the heart rate target was 20 beats/min above baseline heart rate. A follow-up echocardiogram was obtained one month later. N- 13 ammonia and F- 18 FDG positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging were performed 6 2 days after AMI, before coronary angiography. Mean duration of arbutamine infusion was 6 2 min. There was no complication and there were no major side effects. Myocardial viability was identified with PET in 15 of the 17 patients. Contractile reserve was observed in 10 patients during arbutamine infusion. Functional recovery was identified in 12 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET and arbutamine echocardiography for predicting functional recovery were 100%, 40%, 76% and 67%, 80%, 84%, respectively. Conclusions - Low-dose arbutamine stress testing is safe early after AMI. Contractile reserve can be rapidly identified by echo cardiography and is specific, but moderately sensitive for predicting reversible dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailAmplitude equations for Rayleigh-Benard convective rolls far from threshold
Dauby, Pierre ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg; Bragard, J. et al

in Physical Review E (2001), 64(6), 66301

An extension of the amplitude method is proposed. An iterative algorithm is developed to build an amplitude equation model that is shown to provide precise quantitative results even far from the linear ... [more ▼]

An extension of the amplitude method is proposed. An iterative algorithm is developed to build an amplitude equation model that is shown to provide precise quantitative results even far from the linear instability threshold. The method is applied to the study of stationary Rayleigh-Benard thermoconvective rolls in the nonlinear regime. In particular, the generation of second and third spatial harmonics is analyzed. Comparison with experimental results and direct numerical calculations is also made and a very good agreement is found. [less ▲]

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See detailLe controle du reseau vasculaire cutane
Damas, Jacques ULg; Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 846-9

In man, three kinds of sympathetic neurons reach the skin. Some cholinergic neurons stimulate the sweat glands, they are excited by temperature-regulating centers. Adrenergic neurons release noradrenaline ... [more ▼]

In man, three kinds of sympathetic neurons reach the skin. Some cholinergic neurons stimulate the sweat glands, they are excited by temperature-regulating centers. Adrenergic neurons release noradrenaline and ATP to reduce cutaneous blood flow while cholinergic neurons release acetylcholine and a co-transmitter to dilate skin blood vessels. The excitation of both latter types of nerve cells depends on influences from temperature-regulating centers, baroreceptors and exercise. Moreover, in cutaneous blood vessels, a synthesis of NO is enhanced by an increase of body temperature and overall by direct heating of the skin. Burns are associated with axon reflexes and release of inflammatory mediators. The involvement of these various influences is described. [less ▲]

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See detailLa demence en Belgique: taux de prevalence chez les sujets ages consultant en medecine generale
Kurz, X.; Scuvee-Moreau, J.; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 835-9

Early detection of dementia is an important element for the efficacy of therapies currently proposed to slow down disease progression. This detection mainly relies on general practitioners. In order to ... [more ▼]

Early detection of dementia is an important element for the efficacy of therapies currently proposed to slow down disease progression. This detection mainly relies on general practitioners. In order to estimate the impact of dementia on health services, we have estimated from the data of the NAtional Dementia Economic Study (NADES) the prevalence rate of dementia in patients aged > or = 65 years living at home and consulting in general practice. The study population was based on the sampling of consecutive patients consulting a general practitioner, irrespective of the reason and location of the consultation. The diagnosis of dementia was based on the CAMDEX performed at home in patients presenting > or = 3 warning signs of dementia. The prevalence rate of dementia among 2.234 registered patients living at home was 14.3% (CI95: 12.6-16.0). In age groups 65-74, 75-84 and > or = 85 years, it was 7.0%, 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively, in men, and 6.1%, 15.8% and 25.2%, respectively, in women. The percentage of demented with mild, mild to moderate, moderate and severe dementia was 35.0%, 38.8%, 13.1% and 13.1%, respectively. After adjusting for the age and sex distribution of the Belgian population, the prevalence rate in patients aged > or = 65 years was estimated at 11.3%. A diagnosis of dementia had already been made by a specialist in 41.5% of patients with dementia, with figures of 19.3%, 34.3%, 41.9% and 60.9% according to the severity of disease (mild, mild to moderate, moderate, severe). The onset of first symptoms had preceded the diagnosis by an average of 1 year. Our results show a high prevalence rate of dementia in the elderly living at home consulting in general practice, and less than half of the patients had previously been diagnosed. It is possible that a systematic detection will not be performed as long as specific treatments are not made widely available. [less ▲]

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See detailApplications en oncologie thoracique de la TEP--18FDG
Bury, Thierry ULg; Daenen, Frédéric ULg; Duysinx, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue des Maladies Respiratoires (2001), 18(6, Pt 1), 623-30

PositIon emission tomography using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is an imaging technique based on metabolic criteria rather than morphological criteria. We discuss the contribution of this technique in ... [more ▼]

PositIon emission tomography using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) is an imaging technique based on metabolic criteria rather than morphological criteria. We discuss the contribution of this technique in the field of pulmonary oncology and we summarize our work which has demonstrated the performance capacity of PET: to discriminate the malignant nature of a solitary pulmonary nodule; to improve sensitivity over CT for mediastinal assessment in non-small cell lung cancer; to seRach for distant metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer; to complement CT imaging to better dissociate tumor residue or recurrence from post-therapeutic sequelae in non-small cell lung cancer. Finally, we present different expected progress for the future. [less ▲]

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See detailPhosphorylation processes mediate rapid changes of brain aromatase activity
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Baillien, M.; Ball, G. F.

in Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (2001), 79(1-5), 261-277

The enzyme aromatase (also called estrogen synthase) that catalyzes the transformation of testosterone (T) into estradiol plays a key limiting role in the action of T on many aspects of reproduction. The ... [more ▼]

The enzyme aromatase (also called estrogen synthase) that catalyzes the transformation of testosterone (T) into estradiol plays a key limiting role in the action of T on many aspects of reproduction. The distribution and regulation of aromatase in the quail brain has been studied by radioenzyme assays on microdissected brain areas, immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. High levels of aromatase activity (AA) characterize the sexually dimorphic, steroid-sensitive medial preoptic nucleus (PONI), a critical site of T action and aromatization for the activation of male sexual behavior. The boundaries of the POM are clearly outlined by a dense population of aromatase-containing cells as visualized by both immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization histochemistry. Aromatase synthesis in the POM is controlled by T and its metabolite estradiol, but estradiol receptors alpha (ERalpha) are not normally co-localized with aromatase in this brain area. Estradiol receptor beta (ERbeta) has been recently cloned in quail and localized in POM but we do not yet know whether ERbeta occurs in aromatase cells. It is therefore not known whether estrogens regulate aromatase synthesis directly or by affecting different inputs to aromatase cells as is the case with the gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons. The presence of aromatase in presynaptic boutons suggests that locally formed estrogens may exert part of their effects by non-genomic mechanisms at the membrane level. Rapid effects of estrogens in the brain that presumably take place at the neuronal membrane level have been described in other species. If fast transduction mechanisms for estrogen are available at the membrane level, this will not necessarily result in rapid changes in brain function if the availability of the ligand does not also change rapidly. We demonstrate here that AA in hypothalamic homogenates is rapidly down-regulated by exposure to conditions that enhance protein phosphorylation (addition of Ca2+, Mg2+, ATP). This inhibition is blocked by kinase inhibitors which supports the notion that phosphorylation processes are involved. A rapid (within minutes) and reversible regulation of AA is also observed in hypothalamic explants incubated in vitro and exposed to high Ca2+ levels (K+-induced depolarization, treatment by thapsigargin, by kainate, AMPA or NMDA). The local production and availability of estrogens in the brain can therefore be rapidly changed by Ca2+ based on variation in neurotransmitter activity. Locally-produced estrogens are as a consequence available for non-genomic regulation of neuronal physiology in a manner more akin to the action of a neuropeptide/neurotransmitter than previously thought. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailCoupled capillary and gravity-driven instability in a liquid film overlying a porous layer
Desaive, Thomas ULg; Lebon, Georgy ULg; Hennenberg, M.

in Physical Review E (2001), 64(6, Pt 2), 66304

In this work, we study the problem of onset of thermal convection in a fluid layer overlying a porous layer, the whole system being heated from below. We use Brinkman's model to describe the porous medium ... [more ▼]

In this work, we study the problem of onset of thermal convection in a fluid layer overlying a porous layer, the whole system being heated from below. We use Brinkman's model to describe the porous medium and determine the corresponding linear stability equations. The eigenvalue problem is solved by means of a modified Galerkin method. The behavior of the critical wave number and temperature gradient is discussed in terms of the various parameters of the system. We also emphasize the influence of the boundary conditions at the upper surface of the fluid layer; in particular, we examine the role of a free surface whose surface tension is temperature dependent (Marangoni effect). Comparison with earlier works is also made. [less ▲]

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See detailMetal Ion Binding and Coordination Geometry for Wild Type and Mutants of Metallo-Beta -Lactamase from Bacillus Cereus 569/H/9 (Bcii): A Combined Thermodynamic, Kinetic, and Spectroscopic Approach
De Seny, Dominique ULg; Heinz, U.; Wommer, S. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(48), 45065-78

One high affinity (nm) and one low affinity (microM) macroscopic dissociation constant for the binding of metal ions were found for the wild-type metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus as well as six ... [more ▼]

One high affinity (nm) and one low affinity (microM) macroscopic dissociation constant for the binding of metal ions were found for the wild-type metallo-beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus as well as six single-site mutants in which all ligands in the two metal binding sites were altered. Surprisingly, the mutations did not cause a specific alteration of the affinity of metal ions for the sole modified binding site as determined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and perturbed angular correlation of gamma-rays spectroscopy, respectively. Also UV-visible absorption spectra for the mono-cobalt enzymes clearly contain contributions from both metal sites. The observations of the very similar microscopic dissociation constants of both binding sites in contrast to the significantly differing macroscopic dissociation constants inevitably led to the conclusion that binding to the two metal sites exhibits negative cooperativity. The slow association rates for forming the binuclear enzyme determined by stopped-flow fluorescence measurements suggested that fast metal exchange between the two sites for the mononuclear enzyme hinders the binding of a second metal ion. EXAFS spectroscopy of the mono- and di-zinc wild type enzymes and two di-zinc mutants provide a definition of the metal ion environments, which is compared with the available x-ray crystallographic data. [less ▲]

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See detailOrganisation and in Vitro Expression of Esp Genes of the Lee (Locus of Enterocyte Effacement) of Bovine Enteropathogenic and Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia Coli
Goffaux, Ffédéric; China, Bernard; Mainil, Jacques ULg

in Veterinary Microbiology (2001), 83(3), 275-86

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli infections are characterised by the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. Secretion of ... [more ▼]

Enteropathogenic (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) Escherichia coli infections are characterised by the formation of attaching and effacing (AE) lesions on intestinal epithelial cells. Secretion of extracellular proteins (EspA, EspB, and EspD) via a type III secretion apparatus is necessary for the formation of the AE lesions by human EPEC. In this study, we show that bovine EPEC and EHEC are also able to secrete polypeptides homologous to the already described Esp proteins, most probably via a type III secretion system. Bovine EPEC and EHEC strains present two different secretion profiles of Esp proteins which correlate to the pathotypes of the esp genes as determined by PCR. We also demonstrate that genes encoding secreted proteins, present in the LEE of two bovine strains, are organised in the same way as in the human EPEC strain E2348/69. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Histochemical and Ultrastructural Observations on Normal Bovine Tonsils
Velinova, Maria; Thielen, Caroline ULg; Mélot, France ULg et al

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2001), 149(20), 613-7

Samples of normal bovine palatine tonsils were examined by light and electron microscopy. Like human tonsils, they were composed of crypts, subepithelial areas, follicles, and T-dependent zones, but their ... [more ▼]

Samples of normal bovine palatine tonsils were examined by light and electron microscopy. Like human tonsils, they were composed of crypts, subepithelial areas, follicles, and T-dependent zones, but their well-developed capsule subdivided the lymphoid tissue by connective septa. B cells formed the major lymphoid component. The follicles and T-dependent zones had morphological and histochemical features typical of peripheral lymph organs. Follicular dendritic cells were isolated and shown to be similar to human follicular dendritic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitation of Functional Mitral Regurgitation During Bicycle Exercise in Patients with Heart Failure
Lebrun, F.; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; PIERARD, Luc ULg

in Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2001), 38(6), 1685-92

OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the feasibility and reliability of quantifying mitral regurgitation (MR) during exercise by Doppler echocardiography in patients with heart failure and to assess the ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: We sought to examine the feasibility and reliability of quantifying mitral regurgitation (MR) during exercise by Doppler echocardiography in patients with heart failure and to assess the relationship between dynamic MR and systolic pulmonary artery pressure changes. BACKGROUND: The severity of MR can be quantified by using several echocardiographic methods. Quantitation of MR during dynamic exercise has not yet been performed. METHODS: Symptom-limited, semi-supine two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiograms during bicycle exercise were obtained in 27 consecutive patients with heart failure and functional MR. Regurgitant volume was measured at rest and during exercise by the proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) method and by quantitative Doppler echocardiography. Exercise-induced changes in regurgitant volume were compared with changes in the regurgitant jet area to left atrial area ratio, vena contracta width and trans-tricuspid pressure gradient. RESULTS: The regurgitant volume measured by the PISA method increased from 21 +/- 12 ml (range 5 to 55) at rest to 39 +/- 23 ml (range 8 to 85) during exercise (p < 0.0001). The difference between two observers was low for both rest (2.0 +/- 2.7 ml) and exercise measurements (3.5 +/- 6.2 ml). The regurgitant volume measured by quantitative Doppler echocardiography increased from 29 +/- 13 to 49 +/- 24 ml (p = 0.0001). Excellent correlation between the two methods was obtained with exercise (r = 0.92). Exercise-induced changes in regurgitant volume, as measured by the PISA method, correlated well with regurgitant volume changes measured by quantitative Doppler echocardiography (r = 0.88), changes in vena contracta width (r = 0.82) and changes in trans-tricuspid pressure gradient (r = 0.73), but not with changes in regurgitant jet area to left atrial area ratio (r = 0.29). Seventeen patients stopped exercise because of fatigue and 10 because of dyspnea. These 10 patients exhibited greater increases in regurgitant volume (34 +/- 6 vs. 11 +/- 8 ml), corresponding to a significant elevation of the trans-tricuspid gradient (48 +/- 14 vs. 20 +/- 14 mm Hg). CONCLUSIONS: Quantitation of functional MR during exercise is feasible in patients with heart failure. There is a good correlation between regurgitant volume measured during exercise by the PISA method and that obtained by quantitative Doppler echocardiography, suggesting that the technique is reliable. An increase in mitral regurgitant volume during dynamic exercise correlates well with elevation of systolic pulmonary artery pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypic variation of a novel nonsense mutation in the P0 intracellular domain
Senderek, J.; Ramaekers, Vincent ULg; Zerres, K. et al

in Journal of the Neurological Sciences (2001), 192(1-2), 49-51

Mutations in the gene for the peripheral myelin protein zero (P0, MPZ) cause type 1B of Charcot-Marie-Tooth sensorimotor neuropathy (CMT1B). Here we report a German family with a novel heterozygous P0 ... [more ▼]

Mutations in the gene for the peripheral myelin protein zero (P0, MPZ) cause type 1B of Charcot-Marie-Tooth sensorimotor neuropathy (CMT1B). Here we report a German family with a novel heterozygous P0 nonsense mutation (G206X) that supposedly removes four-fifths of the amino acid residues constituting the P0 intracellular domain. The 12-year-old propositus had childhood-onset CMT1B associated with bilateral pes cavus, moderate lower limb weakness, and mildly reduced sensory qualities in the distal legs. The electrophysiology was consistent with a demyelinating neuropathy. He inherited the mutation from his mother who had no complaints but slight pes cavus deformity and slow nerve conduction velocities (NCV). Conclusively, truncating mutations within the P0 intracellular domain do not necessarily cause a severe phenotype such as Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS) or congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy (CHN), but can result in mild or moderate CMT1B with intrafamilial clinical variability. Copyright © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailSignificance of Dobutamine-Induced Changes in Qt Dispersion Early after Acute Myocardial Infarction
LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Bilge, A. R.; Mipinda, J. B. et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2001), 88(9), 939-43

This study sought to examine the effects of graded dobutamine infusion on QT dispersion early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to investigate the relation of dobutamine-induced changes in QT ... [more ▼]

This study sought to examine the effects of graded dobutamine infusion on QT dispersion early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to investigate the relation of dobutamine-induced changes in QT dispersion to wall motion responses. Seventy-eight patients with a first AMI underwent dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography 5 +/- 2 days after admission. Contractile reserve was identified in 45 patients and ischemic myocardium in 40. Sixteen patients had persistent akinesia. The best cut-off value of QT dispersion on the baseline electrocardiogram for predicting myocardial viability was 65 ms (sensitivity and specificity of 68%). Dobutamine infusion increased QT dispersion only in patients with viable myocardium (61 +/- 18 to 83 +/- 19 ms, p = 0.003) and/or ischemia (72 +/- 16 to 112 +/- 25 ms, p < 0.0001). No change was observed in patients with persistent akinesia (84 +/- 10 to 87 +/- 15 ms, p = NS). QT dispersion increased by 22 +/- 12 ms with administration of low-dose dobutamine in patients who had viable myocardium and by 47 +/- 21 ms with administration of low- to high-dose dobutamine in patients with ischemic myocardium. An increase in QT dispersion of > or = 20 ms from at rest to low-dose dobutamine infusion was associated with myocardial viability with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 79%, whereas an increase in QT dispersion of > or = 10 ms from low- to high-dose dobutamine infusion predicted ischemic myocardium with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 82%. In conclusion, (1) low QT dispersion on the baseline electrocardiogram is determined by the presence of viable myocardium, (2) a dobutamine-induced increase in QT dispersion is associated with viable and jeopardized myocardium, and (3) unchanged QT dispersion during dobutamine stress is a simple marker of extensive necrosis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe European Large Area ISO Survey - VI. Discovery of a new hyperluminous infrared galaxy
Morel, Thierry ULg; Efstathiou, A.; Serjeant, S. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2001), 327

We report the discovery of the first hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HyLIG) in the course of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). This object has been detected by ISO at 6.7, 15 and 90μm, and is ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of the first hyperluminous infrared galaxy (HyLIG) in the course of the European Large Area ISO Survey (ELAIS). This object has been detected by ISO at 6.7, 15 and 90μm, and is found to be a broad-line, radio-quiet quasar at a redshift [formmu4]z=1.099. From a detailed multicomponent model fit of the spectral energy distribution, we derive a total IR luminosity L[SUB]IR[/SUB] [formmu5](1-1000μm)~1.0à 10[SUP]13[/SUP]h65-2L[SUB]solar[/SUB] [formmu6](q[SUB]0[/SUB]=0.5), and discuss the possible existence of a starburst contributing to the far-IR output. Observations to date present no evidence for lens magnification. This galaxy is one of the very few HyLIGs with a X-ray detection. On the basis of its soft X-ray properties, we suggest that this broad-line object may be the face-on analogue of narrow-line, Seyfert-like HyLIGs. [less ▲]

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See detailObituary : R.H. HARRIS ( Soul Stirrers, ....)
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (2001), (161), 33

Rebert H. HARRIS 1916- 2000 - chanteur lead des Soul Stirrers

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See detailNormal ranges for the variability in heart rate in young infants while sleeping
Massin, M. M.; Withofs, Nadia ULg; Maeyns, K. et al

in Cardiology in the Young (2001), 11(6), 619-625

Objective: Measurements of the variability in heart rate are increasingly used as markers of cardiac autonomic activity. We sought to establish the development this variability in healthy young infants ... [more ▼]

Objective: Measurements of the variability in heart rate are increasingly used as markers of cardiac autonomic activity. We sought to establish the development this variability in healthy young infants while sleeping. Patients: We carried out polygraphic studies with electrocardiographic recording in 587 healthy infants aged from 5 to 26 weeks. Methods: We determined several variables over a period of 400 minutes sleeping: mean RR interval, 5 time-domain (SDNN, SDNNi, SDANNi, RMSSD, and pNN50) and 5 frequency-domain indexes (spectral power over 3 regions of interest, total power and low-to-high frequency ratio). Frequency-domain indexes were also assessed separately for the periods of quiet sleep and those of rapid eye movement sleep. Results: Our data showed a significant correlation between the indexes of heart rate variability and the mean RR interval, the breathing rate, and the corrected age of the infants. We also demonstrated the importance of the maturation of the sleeping patterns. Conclusion: These data in a large cohort of healthy infants confirm a progressive maturation of the autonomic nervous system during sleep, and may be used to examine the influence of physiological and pathophysiological factors on autonomic control during polygraphic studies. [less ▲]

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See detailChiodecton epiphyllum is a lichenicolous fungus on Coenogonium flavicans and belongs in the genus Plectocarpon (Arthoniales : Roccellaceae)
Caceres, M. E. S.; Diederich, P.; Lucking, R. et al

in Lichenologist (2001), 33(Part 6), 503-506

The biological status of Chiodecton epiphyllum (Arthoniales: Roccellaceae), described as a foliicolous lichen from Papua New Guinea, is reassessed, based on additional material from Brazil, Costa Rica ... [more ▼]

The biological status of Chiodecton epiphyllum (Arthoniales: Roccellaceae), described as a foliicolous lichen from Papua New Guinea, is reassessed, based on additional material from Brazil, Costa Rica, and Papua New Guinea. The species is a lichenicolous fungus growing on the foliicolous lichen Coenogonium flavicans (Gyalectales: Gyalectaceae). Furthermore, its ascomatal anatomy and lichenicolous growth habit suggest placement in the related genus Plectocarpon, instead of Chiodecton. We therefore propose the new combination Plectocarpon epiphyllum [Bas.: Chiodecton epiphyllum]. The species is further lectotypified on its ascomata since parts of the original description which denote vegetative characteristics refer to the sterile thallus of the host lichen. (C) 2001 The British Lichen Society. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostisch beleid bij verhoogde transaminasenspiegels
Delwaide, Jean ULg; Delfosse, V.; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Patient Care (Nederlandse Editie) (2001), 28(11), 33-41

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See detailRole of dopamine in non-depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts
Pitchot, William ULg; Adam, Martine ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg

in European Psychiatry (2001), 16(7), 424-427

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the ... [more ▼]

Several data are available about the implication of the dopaminergic system in the control of inward-directed aggression. Previously, we suggested an involvement of D2-dopaminergic function in the expression of suicidal behavior by demonstrating a smaller growth hormone (GH) response to apomorphine, a dopaminergic agonist, in depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts in comparison to non-attempters. In the present study, in order to test this hypothesis, GH responses to intravenous apomorphine were measured in non-depressed patients with a history of suicide attempts. The study was performed in 17 non-depressed male patients with a score less than 12 on the 17-item HAMD. The patients were subgrouped into suicide attempters (N = 7) and non-attempters (N = 10). Mean GH peak responses to apomorphine differed significantly between suicide attempters and non-attempters: (mean +/- SD) for GH peak, 10.4 +/- 8.2 ng/mL vs 27.3 +/- 13.1 ng/ml, F = 9.0, P = 0.009. In conclusion, dopaminergic disturbances seem to play a role in the biology of inward-directed aggression in non-depressed patients. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma-clinics comment je traite ... une infection par le VIH. IV. Les inhibiteurs de protease
Leonard, Philippe ULg; Nkoghe, D.; Moutschen, Michel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 739-44

Protease inhibitors constitute the last class of antiretroviral drugs appeared on the market. They raised an enormous enthusiasm, reinforced by recent studies results. These molecules prevent the ... [more ▼]

Protease inhibitors constitute the last class of antiretroviral drugs appeared on the market. They raised an enormous enthusiasm, reinforced by recent studies results. These molecules prevent the formation of infectious viral particles, while inhibiting a viral enzyme that plays a key role in the cycle of replication of the HIV. Their efficiency, especially in association, is recognized for all stages of the infection and the intervening of a resistance often requires many mutations. However, the unexpected adverse events such as lipodystrophy and some interactions can limit their utilization in first intention. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma profile of pregnancy associated glycoprotein (PAG) in pregnant Alpine goats using two radioimmunoassay (RIA) systems
Batalha, E. S.; Sulon, Joseph ULg; Figueiredo, J. R. et al

in Small Ruminant Research (2001), 42(2), 111-118

This paper evaluates the profiles obtained for caprine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (cPAG) in pregnant multiparous and nulliparous goats using the heterologous-radioimmunoassay (htPAG-RIA) and the ... [more ▼]

This paper evaluates the profiles obtained for caprine pregnancy associated glycoprotein (cPAG) in pregnant multiparous and nulliparous goats using the heterologous-radioimmunoassay (htPAG-RIA) and the homologous-RIA (hmPAG-RIA) systems during the pregnancy and postpartum periods. The results show that the cPAG concentrations detected through the hmPAG-RIA procedure were lower than those found through the htPAG-RIA method. No statistical differences were observed due to the maternal reproductive status (nulliparous or multiparous goats) during pregnancy using either one of the methods. However, pregnant and cyclic goats were distinguished from each other by cPAG concentrations verified through the hmPAG-RIA procedure. The lower cPAG concentrations detected through this method suggest that this system is more specific than the htPAG-RIA procedure to measure cPAG during pregnancy and postpartum period in goats. The homologous system was also an efficient method to predict pregnancies of only 35 days in both nulliparous and multiparous goats. (C) 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailPresentation anatomo-clinique. Terato-carcinome testiculaire avec adenopathies thoraco-abdominales
Dassy, S.; Coibion-Jossa, V.; Demelenne, A. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 777-84

This case report of a young man with a testicular germ cell-teratoma tumor illustrates the necessity of a multidisciplinary sequential approach to ensure chance of cure. The outcome of patients with ... [more ▼]

This case report of a young man with a testicular germ cell-teratoma tumor illustrates the necessity of a multidisciplinary sequential approach to ensure chance of cure. The outcome of patients with advanced germ cell tumor depends on the optimal clinical management. Residual masses are frequent, and their histology can be different than the initial one (i.e., only residual mature teratoma cells or necrosis-fibrosis). Therefore a second surgery on residual masses with curative intent, may be important to optimalize the treatment and follow up. [less ▲]

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See detailLabyrinthine Granular Landscapes
Caps, Hervé ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2001), 64(5, Pt 1), 52301

We have numerically studied a model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by 90 degrees. The occurrence of such structures is ... [more ▼]

We have numerically studied a model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by 90 degrees. The occurrence of such structures is discussed. Moreover, we introduce the density n(k) of "defects" as the dynamic parameter governing the landscape evolution. A power-law behavior of n(k) is found as a function of time. In the case of wind variations, the exponent (drastically) shifts from two to one. The presence of two asymptotic values of n(k) implies the irreversibility of the labyrinthic formation process. [less ▲]

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See detailDobutamine Stress Echocardiography Versus Quantitative Technetium-99m Sestamibi Spect for Detecting Residual Stenosis and Multivessel Disease after Myocardial Infarction
LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Benoit, T.; Rigo, Pierre ULg et al

in Heart (2001), 86(5), 510-5

OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and quantitative technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (mibi SPECT) for detecting ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To compare the relative accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) and quantitative technetium-99m sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (mibi SPECT) for detecting infarct related artery stenosis and multivessel disease early after acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: University hospital. METHODS: 75 patients underwent simultaneous DSE and mibi SPECT at (mean (SD)) 5 (2) days after a first acute myocardial infarct. Quantitative coronary angiography was performed in all patients after imaging studies. RESULTS: Significant stenosis (> 50%) of the infarct related artery was detected in 69 patients. Residual ischaemia was identified by DSE in 55 patients and by quantitative mibi SPECT in 49. The sensitivity of DSE and mibi SPECT for detecting significant infarct related artery stenosis was 78% and 70%, respectively, with a specificity of 83% for both tests. The combination of DSE and mibi SPECT did not change the specificity (83%) but increased the sensitivity to 94%. Mibi SPECT was more sensitive than DSE for detecting mild stenosis (73% v 9%; p = 0.008). The sensitivity of DSE for detecting moderate or severe stenosis was greater than mibi SPECT (97% v 74%; p = 0.007). Wall motion abnormalities with DSE and transient perfusion defects with mibi SPECT outside the infarction zone were sensitive (80% v 67%; NS) and highly specific (95% v 93%; NS) for multivessel disease. CONCLUSIONS: DSE and mibi SPECT have equivalent accuracy for detecting residual infarct related artery stenosis of >/= 50% and multivessel disease early after acute myocardial infarction. DSE is more predictive of moderate or severe infarct related artery stenosis. Combined imaging only improves the detection of mild stenosis. [less ▲]

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See detailLe deficit en alpha-1 antitrypsine. Une indication de transplantation hepatique pediatrique
De Roover, Arnaud ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 753-8

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the most common inborn error of metabolism leading to liver transplantation, and the second cause of liver transplantation in children after biliary atresia. The authors ... [more ▼]

Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is the most common inborn error of metabolism leading to liver transplantation, and the second cause of liver transplantation in children after biliary atresia. The authors report the case of a 6-year-old girl, who was suffering from end-stage liver disease secondary to alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. She was successfully treated by whole liver transplantation, the hepatic graft coming from a 3-year-old donor. Three months later she went back to school. The authors discuss the pathogenesis and the natural history of this frequent cause of liver transplantation in children. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between maternal concentrations of caprine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein in Alpine goats and the number of fetuses using a homologous radioimmunoassay
Batalha, E. S.; Sulon, Joseph ULg; Figueiredo, J. R. et al

in Small Ruminant Research (2001), 42(2), 105-109

The relationship between maternal caprine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (cPAG) concentrations and fetal number was investigated in 21 nulliparous and 17 multiparous goats. Using a homologous ... [more ▼]

The relationship between maternal caprine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (cPAG) concentrations and fetal number was investigated in 21 nulliparous and 17 multiparous goats. Using a homologous radioimmunoassay (hm-RIA) cPAG was detected in plasma of pregnant goats from the 21st day of pregnancy. Statistical differences between goats bearing single and multiple fetuses were observed after 63 days to the end of pregnancy, except on day 133. After 126 days (3rd week pre-partum) cPAG levels began to decrease slowly in both the groups. The hm-RIA was an efficient method to describe the relationship between maternal PAO concentrations and number of fetuses in goats. (C) 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailStress hormone secretion and gut signal transducer (STAT) proteins after burn injury in rats.
Thellin, Olivier ULg; Noel, Greg; Khurana, Sudha et al

in Shock (2001), 16(5), 393-397

A burn injury triggers traumatic reactions characteristic of a stress. Here we investigated the early responses of prolactin (PRL), corticosterone (CS), and signal transducer and activator of ... [more ▼]

A burn injury triggers traumatic reactions characteristic of a stress. Here we investigated the early responses of prolactin (PRL), corticosterone (CS), and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (Stat5) in male Sprague-Dawley rats after burn injury. PRL and CS levels were determined in blood serum. Stat5 and phospho-Stat5 levels were determined in jejunum total protein extracts. The results confirmed an expected increase of CS between 4 and 6 hours following the burn injury. Unexpectedly, PRL secretion was suppressed during the same time frame. These hormone levels returned to normal 6 to 8 hours after burn injury. Stat5 was increased in the jejunum after burn injury, and its phosphorylation was increased between 8 and 11 hours after burn injury. These changes in Stat5 were not temporally correlated with either the hormone changes that we observed, or with previously documented changes of the gut function following burns. [less ▲]

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See detailSteroid-induced plasticity in the sexually dimorphic vasotocinergic innervation of the avian brain: behavioral implications
Panzica, G. C.; Aste, N.; Castagna, C. et al

in Brain Research Reviews (2001), 37(1-mars Sp. Iss. SI), 178-200

Vasotocin (VT, the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. In addition, in male quail and in other oscine and non-oscine ... [more ▼]

Vasotocin (VT, the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. In addition, in male quail and in other oscine and non-oscine birds, a sexually dimorphic group of VT-immunoreactive (ir) parvocellular neurons is located in a region homologous to the mammalian nucleus of the stria terminalis, pars medialis (BSTm) and in the medial preoptic nucleus (POM). These cells are not visible in females. VT-ir fibers are present in many diencephalic and extradiencephalic locations. Quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrate that, in quail, these elements are expressed in a sexually dimorphic manner (males>females) in regions involved in the control of different aspects of reproduction: i.e., the POM (copulatory behavior), the lateral septum (secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone [GnRH]), the nucleus intercollicularis (control of vocalizations), and the locus coeruleus (the main noradrenergic center of the avian brain). In many of these regions,VT-ir fibers are closely related to aromatase-ir, GnRH-ir, or estrogen receptor-expressing neurons. This dimorphism has an organizational nature: administration of estradiol-benzoate to quail embryos (a treatment that abolishes male sexual behavior) results in a dramatic decrease of the VT-immunoreactivity in all sexually dimorphic regions of the male quail brain. Conversely, the inhibition of estradiol (E,) synthesis during embryonic life (a treatment that stimulates the expression of male copulatory behavior in adult testosterone (T)-treated females) results in a male-like distribution of VT-ir cells and fibers. Castration markedly decreases the immunoreactivity in both the VT-immunopositive elements of the BSTm and the innervation of the SL and POM, whereas T-replacement therapy restores the VT immunoreactivity to a level typical of intact birds. These changes reflect modifications of VT mRNA concentrations (and probably synthesis) as demonstrated by in situ hybridization and they are paralleled by similar changes in male copulatory behavior (absent in castrated male quail, fully expressed in CX+T males). The aromatization of T into estradiol (E-2) also controls VT expression and, in parallel limits the activation of male sexual behavior by T. In castrated male quail, the restoration by T of the VT immunoreactivity in POM, BSTm and lateral septum could be fully mimicked by a treatment with E-2, but the androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) had absolutely no effect on the VT immunoreactivity in these conditions. At the doses used in this study, DHT also did not synergize with E, to enhance the density of VT immunoreactive structures. Systemic or i.c.v. injections of VT markedly inhibit the expression of all aspects of male sexual behavior. VT, presumably, does not simply represent one step in the biochemical cascade of events that is induced by T in the brain and leads to the expression of male sexual behavior. Androgens and estrogens presumably affect reproductive behavior both directly, by acting on steroid-sensitive neurons in the preoptic area, and indirectly, by modulating peptidergic (specifically vasotocinergic) inputs to this and other areas. The respective contribution of these two types of actions and their interaction deserves further analysis. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science BY All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailScantling Optimization Based on Convex Linearizations and a Dual Approach
Rigo, Philippe ULg; Fleury, Claude ULg

in Marine Structures (2001)

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See detailLa guerre et la medecine d'une culture de paix. 1. Quand s'ouvrent les portes du temple de janus
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 785-7

More than 40 major wars took place during the past decade. The origins and the warlike means that were engaged were very different from those of older conflicts. Wars between nations are less numerous ... [more ▼]

More than 40 major wars took place during the past decade. The origins and the warlike means that were engaged were very different from those of older conflicts. Wars between nations are less numerous. They have been replaced by civilian wars that are more rooted on cultural and religious grounds than on economic interests alone. During this short period of time, warfare was responsible for about 2 millions of direct deaths and 20 millions displaced people and refugees. The injured and victims of starvation and epidemics were innumerable and awaited for civilian medical help. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the oxygen budget of the Black Sea waters using a 3D coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical model
Grégoire, Marilaure ULg; Lacroix, Geneviève

in Journal of Marine Systems (2001), 31(1-mars Sp. Iss. SI), 175-202

The ventilation of the Black Sea waters by physical and biogeochemical processes is investigated using the Geohydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER) laboratory 3D coupled hydrodynamical ... [more ▼]

The ventilation of the Black Sea waters by physical and biogeochemical processes is investigated using the Geohydrodynamics and Environment Research (GHER) laboratory 3D coupled hydrodynamical-biogeochemical model. In particular, the penetration at depth of the winter mixing, the generation of unstable motions by frontal instabilities, the exchanges between the north-western shelf and the open sea along the shelf break, the primary production distribution, the generation of detritus and the resulting consumption of oxygen for their recycling are studied. The GHER 3D hydrodynamic model is used to simulate the Black Sea's general circulation and the associated synoptic and mesoscale structures. This model is coupled with a simple ecosystem model defined by a nitrogen cycle which is described by seven state variables: nitrate, ammonium, dissolved oxygen, phytoplankton, zooplankton, pelagic and benthic detritus. The model simulates the space-time variations of the biogeochemical state variables. In particular, the spatial variability of the phytoplankton biomass annual cycle, imparted by the horizontal and vertical variations of the physical and chemical properties of the water column, is clearly illustrated. For instance, on the north-western shelf, the seasonal variability of the circulation and in particular, the reversal of the surface current at the end of spring, has a strong influence on the transport of the rich nutrient Danube waters and, thus, on the repartition of the primary production. Furthermore, the results illustrate the seasonal and vertical variations of the dissolved oxygen concentration resulting (a) from its atmospheric and photosynthetic productions in the surface layer, (b) from its loss to the atmosphere in spring and summer and (c) from its consumption associated with the detritus decomposition, the ammonium oxidation during the nitrification process, as well as the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. The simulated sea surface, phytoplankton fields are compared with satellite estimates of chlorophyll-a fields. Comparisons are made with seasonal mean pictures and snapshot images, illustrating the mesoscale motions of the main coastal current. In the central Black Sea and the Danube delta area, comparisons with available field data are also made. As a general rule, all these comparisons show a quite good qualitative agreement. In particular, at the surface, the simulated phytoplankton space-time distribution is in a good qualitative agreement with satellite observations. However, on a quantitative point of view, the model underestimates the bloom intensity especially in the Danube discharge area. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPreoptic Aromatase Cells Project to the Mesencephalic Central Gray in the Male Japanese Quail (Coturnix Japonica)
Absil, Philippe ULg; Riters, L. V.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Hormones & Behavior (2001), 40(3), 369-83

Previous tract-tracing studies demonstrated the existence of projections from the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) to the mesencephalic central gray (GCt) in quail. GCt contains a significant number of ... [more ▼]

Previous tract-tracing studies demonstrated the existence of projections from the medial preoptic nucleus (POM) to the mesencephalic central gray (GCt) in quail. GCt contains a significant number of aromatase-immunoreactive (ARO-ir) fibers and punctate structures, but no ARO-ir cells are present in this region. The origin of the ARO-ir fibers of the GCt was investigated here by retrograde tract-tracing combined with immunocytochemistry for aromatase. Following injection of fluorescent microspheres in GCt, retrogradely labeled cells were found in a large number of hypothalamic and mesencephalic areas and in particular within the three main groups of ARO-ir cells located in the POM, the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the bed nucleus striae terminalis. Labeling of these cells for aromatase by immunocytochemistry demonstrated, however, that aromatase-positive retrogradely labeled cells are observed almost exclusively within the POM. Double-labeled cells were abundant in both the rostral and caudal parts of the POM and their number was apparently not affected by the location of the injection site within GCt. At both rostro-caudal levels of the POM, ARO-ir retrogradely labeled cells were, however, more frequent in the lateral than in the medial POM. These data indicate that ARO-ir neurons located in the lateral part of the POM may control the premotor aspects of male copulatory behavior through their projection to GCt and suggest that GCt activity could be affected by estrogens released from the terminals of these ARO-ir neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Epidermolyse staphylococcique aigue chez une quinquagenaire
Fumal, I.; Paquet, Philippe ULg; JACOB, ERIC et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 745-747

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a bullous disease induced by bacterial exfoliative exotoxins. Children are most often affected. The prognosis is worse in adults and calls for treatment in an ... [more ▼]

Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a bullous disease induced by bacterial exfoliative exotoxins. Children are most often affected. The prognosis is worse in adults and calls for treatment in an intensive care unit. We report a case in a quinquagenerian woman who suffered from angina a few days before the bullous erythroderma. [less ▲]

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See detailA Module-Oriented Tool for Optimum Design of Stiffened Structures
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Marine Structures (2001)

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See detailL'image du mois. Un melanome masque chez un joueur de tennis
Fraiture, A. L.; Henry, Frédérique ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(11), 737-8

A man presented with a malignant melanoma of the scalp. The lesion reached a large size before being disclosed. Repetitive sunburns during tennis matches could be responsible for this cancer. Indeed, hair ... [more ▼]

A man presented with a malignant melanoma of the scalp. The lesion reached a large size before being disclosed. Repetitive sunburns during tennis matches could be responsible for this cancer. Indeed, hair protects only partially the skin from ultraviolet damages. [less ▲]

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See detailLeast-Cost Structural Optimization Oriented Preliminary Design
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Journal of Ship Production (2001)

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See detailSpermine-Induced Alteration of Small Intestine in Suckling Rat: Involvement of Apoptosis or Zn2+ Enzymes?
Peulen, Olivier ULg; Denis, Ghislaine; Defresne, Marie-Paule ULg et al

in Digestive Diseases & Sciences (2001), 46(11), 2490-8

Polyamines are of great importance in several physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. The ingestion of spermine by suckling rats induces precocious maturation of their ... [more ▼]

Polyamines are of great importance in several physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation. The ingestion of spermine by suckling rats induces precocious maturation of their small intestine. Shortly after ingestion, spermine produces cell elimination at the villous top. The origin of this exfoliation was investigated to determine whether it was due to apoptosis. Wistar rats were orally treated with spermine. Apoptosis was analyzed in their small intestine by Tdt-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labeling reaction, caspase-3-like analysis, and DNA laddering. Polyamine content was measured by HPLC. The intestinal transitory alteration appeared as soon as 2 hr after spermine administration. Apoptosis events increased strongly at the same moment in the small intestine. They were evidenced by Tdt-mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick-end labeling analysis, DNA laddering, and caspase-3-like activity. Changes observed are consistent with apoptosis, but caspase inhibitor did not reduce intestinal alteration, as did Zn2+ chelator. [less ▲]

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See detailAssociation of telechelic ionomers in apolar solvents
Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco; Tassin, Jean-François et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2001), 22

The associative properties of well-defined halatotelechelic ionomers in an apolar solvent were studied by means of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as static and ... [more ▼]

The associative properties of well-defined halatotelechelic ionomers in an apolar solvent were studied by means of dynamic mechanical spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering, as well as static and dynamic light scattering. The effect of end-functionalisation was investigated by comparing results on polystyrene (PS) and polyisoprene (PI) precursors using PS and PI of the same molar mass modified at one or both ends with sulfonate groups. The molar-mass dependence was investigated by comparing difunctionalised samples with different molar masses and the influence of the backbone by comparing polystyrene and polyisoprene. Experimental data suggest a relatively simple model for the association of this material. At low concentrations, the polymer chains organise themselves into well-defined reversed micelles, so-called flowers. Above a certain concentration C+, the flowers associate into larger aggregates according to an open association mechanism. At a critical concentration Cgel, the aggregates fill the whole space and a transient network is formed most likely by a percolation process. A semi-quantitative description of the associating process can be obtained by considering an open association mechanism properly combined with inter-particle interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailDispenses de permis d'urbanisme en Région wallonne
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2001), 18

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See detailpH-dependent micellization of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly((dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers
Gohy, Jean-François; Antoun, Sayed; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(21), 7435-7440

A series of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers (P2VP-b-PDMAEMA) have been synthesized by living anionic polymerization of the comonomers. Dynamic light ... [more ▼]

A series of poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers (P2VP-b-PDMAEMA) have been synthesized by living anionic polymerization of the comonomers. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) has been used to study the associative behavior of these copolymers in water as a function of copolymer composition, pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Three association regimes are observed. At low pH, loose aggregates are formed, although both the P2VP and PDMAEMA blocks are protonated. At intermediate pH, micelles are observed that consist of an uncharged hydrophobic P2VP core surrounded by a protonated PDMAEMA corona. At higher pH, the PDMAEMA corona is essentially uncharged and collapses at temperatures higher than 40 °C, which results in unstable micelles. The micelles observed by transmission electron microscopy are spherical. [less ▲]

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See detailNeural and cognitive bases of upper limb apraxia in corticobasal degeneration
Peigneux, Philippe ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Garraux, Gaëtan ULg et al

in Neurology (2001), 57(7), 1259-1268

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural and cognitive bases of upper limb apraxia in corticobasal degeneration (CBD). METHODS: Eighteen patients with CBD underwent a cognitive neuropsychological assessment ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the neural and cognitive bases of upper limb apraxia in corticobasal degeneration (CBD). METHODS: Eighteen patients with CBD underwent a cognitive neuropsychological assessment of apraxia and resting [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET scanning. Two complementary measures of apraxia were computed for each modality of gesture production. First, a performance score measured error frequency during gesture execution. Second, as a more stringent test of the integrity of the praxis system, the correction score measured the patient's ability to correct his or her errors on a second attempt. For each measure type, a cut-off score for the presence of apraxia was defined with regard to healthy controls. Using each cut-off score, the regional cerebral glucose metabolism of patients with CBD with apraxia (i.e., performing below cut-off score) was compared with that of patients with CBD without apraxia. RESULTS: Mean performance scores were below normal values in all modalities. Anterior cingulate hypometabolism predominated in patients with CBD who performed below the cut-off performance score. At variance, mean correction scores were below normal values for gesture imitation only. Hypometabolism in superior parietal lobule and supplementary motor area characterized patients with CBD who were unable to correct their errors at the same rate as control subjects did. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct neural networks underlie distinct aspects of the upper limb apraxic deficits in CBD. Extending previous findings of gesture production deficits in CBD, the use of complementary measures of apraxic behavior discloses a visuoimitative upper limb apraxia in CBD, underlain by a metabolic decrease in a parietofrontal neural network. [less ▲]

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See detailValeur d'expropriation des sites d'intérêt régional en RW
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2001), 17

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See detailCharacteristics of Necrotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Isolated from Septicemic and Diarrheic Calves between 1958 and 1970
Van Bost, Sigrid; Babe, Marie Hélène; Jacquemin, Etienne et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2001), 82(4), 311-20

A total of 434 Escherichia coli isolated from septicemic calves between 1958 and 1965 and 430 E. coli isolated from diarrheic calves between 1967 and 1970 were studied by colony hybridisation and PCR ... [more ▼]

A total of 434 Escherichia coli isolated from septicemic calves between 1958 and 1965 and 430 E. coli isolated from diarrheic calves between 1967 and 1970 were studied by colony hybridisation and PCR assays for the presence of the cnf1- and the cnf2-like genes. They were also studied for the presence of genes coding for putative virulence factors associated with the CNF toxins including F17-, Pap- and Sfa-fimbrial adhesins and the recently described CDT-III toxin and AfaVIII-afimbrial adhesin. Thirty (7%) of the 434 septicemic strains were positive for CNF by colony hybridisation. Twenty-six were confirmed as necrotoxigenic E. coli type 2 (NTEC2) and four as NTEC1 by PCR. Thirty-five (8%) of the 430 diarrheic strains were positive for CNF by colony hybridisation. Five of them were studied by PCR and confirmed as NTEC1. The 26 septicemic NTEC2 strains and 20 of the 35 diarrheic NTEC including three of the five NTEC1 were positive for CDT-III. All adhesins studied were present in NTEC as well as in non-NTEC. NTEC1 were mainly Pap-, Sfa- and/or Afa8-positive, whereas NTEC2 were mainly F17- and/or Afa8-positive. This study shows that necrotoxigenic E. coli with their associated adhesins and toxins were present in calves as early as 1958, but their prevalence seems to have increased since that time. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly regular polyampholytic structures adsorbed directly from solution
Mahltig, Boris; Müller-Buschbaum, P.; Wolkenhauer, M. et al

in Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (2001), 242(1), 36-43

This article concerns the adsorption of the diblock polyampholyte poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methary-late) (PMAA-b-PDMAEMA) from aqueous solution on silicon substrates. The ... [more ▼]

This article concerns the adsorption of the diblock polyampholyte poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methary-late) (PMAA-b-PDMAEMA) from aqueous solution on silicon substrates. The investigated polyampholyte is characterized by a small molecular weight around 15,000 g/mol and a big positively charged PDMAEMA block. The adsorbed amount determined by ellipsom-etry was str ongly influenced by the pH of the adsorption solution. Using dynamic light scattering polyampholytic structures with diameters around 50 nm were found in aqueous solution. The hy-drodynamic diameter was hardly affected by changing the pH of the polymer solution. Analogous regular structures were also found by scanning force microscopy (SFM) and grazing incidence, small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) at the silicon surface after the adsorption process. While SFM provides a topographical image of a small part of the adsorbed polyampholytic layer; GISAXS was used to get a statistical description of the lateral surface structures. The adsorbed structures were highly regular and their sizes were nearly pH independent over a lar ge pH region. Only directly at the isoelectric point of the polyampholyte larger adsorbed structures were observed. Compared with earlier investigated PMAA-b-PDMAEMA systems we are now able to prepare highly regular polyampholytic structures at silicon surfaces. There are two kinds of interactions for the adsorbed micelles. First, the charged block of the chains is directly attracted to the substrate via electrostatic interactions, while the uncharged part of the chains is only hydrophobically attracted via the hydrophobic core of the adsorbed micelle. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of proton precipitation in the excitation of auroral FUV emissions
Hubert, Benoît ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bisikalo, D. V. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (2001), 106

Far ultraviolet remote sensing from a high-altitude satellite is extensively used to image the global aurora, derive its energetics, and follow its dynamical morphology. It is generally assumed that the ... [more ▼]

Far ultraviolet remote sensing from a high-altitude satellite is extensively used to image the global aurora, derive its energetics, and follow its dynamical morphology. It is generally assumed that the observed emissions are dominated by the interaction of the precipitated electrons with the thermospheric constituents. A model to calculate far ultraviolet emissions excited by auroral electrons and protons and the secondary electrons they generate has been used to calculate the volume excitation rate of the H I Ly-alpha, O I 1304 and 1356 Å, N I 1493 Å multiplets, and the N[SUB]2[/SUB] Lyman-Birge-Hopfield (LBH) bands. The characteristic energy and the energy flux are derived from the observed statistical distribution of precipitated protons and electrons. This model is applied to the midnight aurora, the noon cusp, and a proton-dominated aurora for moderately disturbed conditions. We show that in the first two cases, direct electron impact dominates the vertically integrated emission rate over the proton component, although proton excitation plays an important role at some altitudes in the daytime cusp. In afternoon regions of the auroral zone near the auroral boundary, secondary electrons due to proton ionization are the main source of FUV emissions. The energy dependence of the efficiency of LBH band emission viewed from high altitude is calculated for electron and proton precipitations. Maps of the N[SUB]2[/SUB] LBH emission excited by both components are obtained, and regions of proton-dominated auroral emission are identified. It is found that the distribution of the ratio of proton-induced to electron-induced brightness resembles maps of the ratio of the respective precipitated energy fluxes. Proton-dominated FUV emissions are thus located in a C-shaped sector extending from prenoon to midnight magnetic local times with a maximum proton contribution near the equatorward boundary of the statistical electron oval. The distribution of the Ly-alpha/LBH intensity ratio is found to mimic the ratio of the proton flux/total energy flux, although it is insufficient by itself to accurately determine the relative fraction of auroral energy carried by the protons. [less ▲]

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See detailA first detailed study of the colliding wind WR+O binary WR 30a
Gosset, Eric ULg; Royer, P.; Rauw, Grégor ULg et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2001), 327

We present a detailed, extensive investigation of the photometric and spectroscopic behaviour of WR 30a. This star is definitely a binary system with a period around 4.6d. We propose the value P=4.619d ... [more ▼]

We present a detailed, extensive investigation of the photometric and spectroscopic behaviour of WR 30a. This star is definitely a binary system with a period around 4.6d. We propose the value P=4.619d (sigma=0.002d). The identification of the components as WO4+O5((f)) indicates a massive evolved binary system; the O5 component is a main-sequence or, more likely, a giant star. The radial velocities of the O star yield a circular orbit with an amplitude K[SUB]O[/SUB]=29.9 (sigma=2.1)kms[SUP]-1[/SUP] and a mass function of 0.013 (sigma=0.003)M[SUB]solar[/SUB]. The spectrum of WR 30a exhibits strong profile variations of the broad emission lines that are phase-locked with the orbital period. We report the detection of the orbital motion of the WO component with K[SUB]WO[/SUB]=189kms[SUP]-1[/SUP], but this should be confirmed by further observations. If correct, it implies a mass ratio M[SUB]WO[/SUB] /M[SUB]O[/SUB]=0.16. The star exhibits sinusoidal light variations of amplitude 0.024mag peak-to-peak with the minimum of light occurring slightly after the conjunction with the O star in front. On the basis of the phase-locked profile variations of the Civ lambda4658 blend in the spectrum of the WO, we conclude that a wind-wind collision phenomenon is present in the system. We discuss some possibilities for the geometry of the interaction region. [less ▲]

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See detailFifth supplement to the catalogue of observed periods of Ap stars
Renson, Pierre ULg; Catalano, F. A.

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 378

New data on the periods of Ap stars with references are presented. 161 further stars are introduced for which a periodic variability has recently been discovered or it was known before but it was not ... [more ▼]

New data on the periods of Ap stars with references are presented. 161 further stars are introduced for which a periodic variability has recently been discovered or it was known before but it was not reported in previous issues of this catalogue. For many stars also present in previous issues of the catalogue new determinations of the periods are given. Recently attributed variable star names are also quoted. Tables 1 to 3 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A&A/378/113 [less ▲]

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See detailWhy is stromatactis so rare in Mesozoic carbonate mud mounds?
Neuweiler, F.; Bourque, P. A.; Boulvain, Frédéric ULg

in Terra Nova (2001), 13(5), 338-346

The sedimentary-diagenetic structure stromatactis is wide-spread in Palaeozoic spiculitic carbonate mud mounds, but occurs only sporadically in Mesozoic sponge carbonate mud mounds. Comparative analysis ... [more ▼]

The sedimentary-diagenetic structure stromatactis is wide-spread in Palaeozoic spiculitic carbonate mud mounds, but occurs only sporadically in Mesozoic sponge carbonate mud mounds. Comparative analysis of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic stromatactis limestones suggests that this variation results from the degree of siliceous sponge skeletal rigidity and the amount of internal sediment accumulation in the original cavity network. Partial to entire filling by internal sediment resulted in a continuum, from a small amount of internal sediment and large amount of cement (stromatactis, common in the Palaeozoic), to only internal sediments (aborted stromatactis, common in the Mesozoic). These observations match independent lines of evidence concerning the siliceous sponge evolution and sediment recycling (e.g. bioerosion) across the Palaeozoic to Mesozoic biotic revolution. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Nitrous Oxide on the Bispectral Index and the 95% Spectral Edge Frequency of the Electroencephalogram During Surgery
Hans, Pol ULg; Bonhomme, Vincent ULg; Benmansour, H. et al

in Anaesthesia (2001), 56(10), 999-1002

We studied the effect of nitrous oxide on the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency of the electroencephalogram in 20 patients undergoing lumbar surgery under general anaesthesia combined with ... [more ▼]

We studied the effect of nitrous oxide on the bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency of the electroencephalogram in 20 patients undergoing lumbar surgery under general anaesthesia combined with epidural administration of 5 mg morphine. [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of Bovine Follicular Dendritic Cells Allows the Demonstration of a Particular Cellular Prion Protein
Thielen, Caroline ULg; Mélot, France ULg; Jolois, Olivier ULg et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2001), 306(1), 49-55

As interaction of cellular prion protein (PrPc) and the infectious agent (PrPres) appears to be a crucial pathogenic step promoted by homology, variation in PrPc isoforms on bovine immune cells may ... [more ▼]

As interaction of cellular prion protein (PrPc) and the infectious agent (PrPres) appears to be a crucial pathogenic step promoted by homology, variation in PrPc isoforms on bovine immune cells may explain the absence of infectivity in most bovine lymph organs. In this study, we examined PrPc expression in bovine lymph organs (tonsils and lymph nodes) and on isolated follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). We used a panel of different monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) raised against different epitopes of prion protein. Two MoAbs recognise amino acids 79-92 (SAF 34 and SAF 32 Mo-Abs); the 6H4 antibody reacts with a specific peptide comprising the 144-152 amino acids, and the 12F10 MoAb recognises the sequence 142-160. After immunolabelling of frozen sections of lymph organs with 6H4 or 12F10 MoAbs, we detected cellular prion protein in germinal centres. However, using the SAF 34 or SAF 32 antibodies, PrPc was revealed outside the lymphoid tissues. No PrPc was observed in the germinal centres. Therefore, we adapted the method of FDC isolation, making it suitable for the study of PrPc expression on their surface. Using electron microscopy, the presence of PrPc on the surface of FDCs was demonstrated only with 6H4 MoAb. These results suggest that bovine follicular dendritic cells express a particular form of prion protein. Either the N-terminal part of PrPc is cleaved or the accessibility of the specific epitope (79-92) of SAF 34 MoAb is abolished by interaction with other molecules. This particular isoform of PrPc on bovine FDCs might be related to the apparent absence of infectivity in lymph organs in cattle affected by bovine spongiform encephalopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude clinique du mois. Rôle néphroprotecteur des antagonistes du récepteur de l'angiotensine II (ARA) dans le diabète de type 2: résultats des études IDNT et RENAAL
Weekers, Laurent ULg; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(10), 723-726

Nephropathy associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is a rising cause of end-stage renal disease and is a major public health problem. If blocking of the renin angiotensin system has a well established ... [more ▼]

Nephropathy associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is a rising cause of end-stage renal disease and is a major public health problem. If blocking of the renin angiotensin system has a well established nephroprotective effect in type 1 diabetic nephropathy, this remained to be shown for type 2 diabetes. Two large outcome trials using angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARA's) in proteinuric chronic renal impairment and hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients have now closed this gap: the Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT) and the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) trial. Both trials showed a significant reduction in the primary pre-specified end-point of death, or worsening of renal function (doubling of serum creatinine) or the development of end-stage renal disease. This effect goes beyond the reduction in blood pressure and makes of ARA's one of the important tools in the treatment of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. [less ▲]

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