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See detailCentral pontine myelinolysis associated with acquired folate depletion
RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; Reul, J.; Kusenbach, G. et al

in Neuropediatrics (1997), 28(2), 126-30

After long-standing malnutrition a 15-month-old boy with signs of kwashiorkor was admitted in a moribund state with serious hyponatraemic dehydration, hypothermia, somnolence, and signs of a pontine ... [more ▼]

After long-standing malnutrition a 15-month-old boy with signs of kwashiorkor was admitted in a moribund state with serious hyponatraemic dehydration, hypothermia, somnolence, and signs of a pontine disconnection syndrome. Folic acid levels were below the detection level in the presence of normal cobalamin levels. MRI of the brain showed global volume loss and signal abnormalities on the T2-weighted images suggestive for central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Brainstem acoustic evoked responses have remained normal. The serious metabolic and nutritional derangements required substitution of folic acid, vitamins and trace elements as well as slow correction of hyponatraemic dehydration with return of the sodium level over a period of four days. This therapeutic regimen resulted in complete neurological recovery. Follow-up MRI documented normalisation of the initial pathologic findings. The hypothesis was put forward linking the pathogenesis of CPM with the combination of folate depletion and superimposed hyponatraemic dehydration. The previously acquired folate depletion could affect normal appositional function of myelin basic protein molecules due to insufficient methylation of arginine in position 107. The subsequent development of intramyelinic edema and CPM will then be triggered by the superimposed hyponatraemic dehydration. The verification of this hypothesis requires further investigations. [less ▲]

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See detailStereocomplexation of sPMMA-PBD-sPMMA triblock copolymers with isotactic PMMA: 1. Thermal and mechanical properties of stereocomplexes
Yu, Jian Ming; Yu, Yi-Song; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Polymer (1997), 38(9), 2143-2154

A novel thermoplastic elastomer consisting of a triblock copolymer (MBM) with outer syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA) blocks associated to an inner polybutadiene (PBD) block has been modified ... [more ▼]

A novel thermoplastic elastomer consisting of a triblock copolymer (MBM) with outer syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA) blocks associated to an inner polybutadiene (PBD) block has been modified by stereocomplexation with isotactic PMMA (iPMMA). Solution cast films of stereocomplexes have been analysed by thermal analysis as a function of the iPMMA/sPMMA (i/s) mixing ratio and the solvent used for the film casting. Although self-aggregation of iPMMA is currently observed, this phenomenon does not occur in solvent cast films of iPMMA with the MBM copolymers. Extent of complexation depends on the i/s mixing ratio and the casting solvent. At a constant i/s ratio, molecular weight of iPMMA has no significant effect on the extent of stereocomplexation. Thermal stability of the stereocomplexes is only affected by the casting solvent, in contrast to tensile strength which is greatly influenced by the mixing ratio of the two PMMA stereoisomers. Tensile strength is increased when increasing amounts of iPMMA are blended with a triblock copolymer of low PMMA content (e.g. 12%). In case of triblocks of high PMMA content (ca. 30% or higher), a low i/s ratio (<l/4) increases the tensile strength, whereas a high i/s mixing ratio (1/2) results in decreasing tensile strength. The same trend is observed for blends of sPMMA-polystyrene (PS)-PBD-PS-sPMMA (MSBSM) pentablock copolymers with iPMMA. [less ▲]

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See detailProcessus expansifs non-adénomateux intra-sellaires
Rohmer, V.; Chanson, Philippe; Dupas, B. et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (1997), 58(1), 11-19

More than thirty types of tumors in the sellar region can mimic pituitary adenoma on, magnetic resonance imaging. When they exist, clinical manifestations are not necessarily highly contributive to ... [more ▼]

More than thirty types of tumors in the sellar region can mimic pituitary adenoma on, magnetic resonance imaging. When they exist, clinical manifestations are not necessarily highly contributive to diagnosis. Headache, visual impairment, signs of antepituitary insufficiency or possible dysmenorrhea with galactorrhea attributed to hyperprolactinemia due to compression of the dopaminergic axis are not specific and may be misleading. Clinical signs of diabetes insipidis and polyphagia are however suggestive of non-pituitary tumors. Consequently, high-resolution imaging (MRI) and sometimes particular diagnostic circumstances (post partum for hypophysitis for example, or breast cancer for metastasis) orient the diagnosis. More rarely tumor enlargement, for example in certain germ cell tumors, provides a clue. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... L'ostéoporose sénile
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(4), 267-9

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See detailRole of Interleukin-1 Beta, Interleukin-6, and Tnf-Alpha in Intestinal Maturation Induced by Dietary Spermine in Rats
Kaouass, M.; Deloyer, Patricia; Gouders, Isabelle et al

in Endocrine (1997), 6(2), 187-94

In the present investigation, the authors aimed to evaluate the role of cytokines in intestinal postnatal maturation induced by dietary polyamines. Neonatal rats were administered either saline (8 mumol ... [more ▼]

In the present investigation, the authors aimed to evaluate the role of cytokines in intestinal postnatal maturation induced by dietary polyamines. Neonatal rats were administered either saline (8 mumol) orally. Spermine increased interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and TNF-alpha plasma concentration. The maximum concentrations of IL-1 beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha were, respectively, observed at 4, 4, and 8 h posttreatment. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of IL-1 beta increased the specific activity of sucrase in whole small intestine, whereas the specific activities of maltase and lactase were significantly enhanced only in the jejunum. IL-6 elicited sucrase and increased maltase specific activity in the whole small intestine, but lactase specific activity was not affected. TNF-alpha had no effect on sucrase and maltase specific activity, but a slight augmentation of lactase specific activity was detected in the jejunum. Spermine and spermidine content in the intestine was increased by i.p. injection of IL-1 beta and IL-6. Corticosterone secretion was elevated by single i.p. injection of IL-1 beta, IL-6, or TNF-alpha. These findings suggest that spermine could induce postnatal intestinal development and corticosterone secretion through a cytokine-dependent mechanism. [less ▲]

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See detailAromatase Inhibition Blocks the Activation and Sexual Differentiation of Appetitive Male Sexual Behavior in Japanese Quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Castagna, C.; Ball, G. F.

in Behavioral Neuroscience (1997), 111(2), 381-97

Two experiments investigated the role of estrogens in the activation and sexual differentiation of appetitive sexual behavior (ASB) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as measured by a learned social ... [more ▼]

Two experiments investigated the role of estrogens in the activation and sexual differentiation of appetitive sexual behavior (ASB) in Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) as measured by a learned social proximity response. Injection of the aromatase inhibitor R767 13 in castrated, testosterone (T)-treated male quail completely suppressed ASB, confirming that, like consummatory sexual behavior, ASB is mediated by T aromatization. ASB is not observed in female quail, even if they are treated with T as adults. The role of embryonic estrogens in the sexual differentiation of ASB was tested by blocking estrogen synthesis in ovo. Control male and T-treated female quail deprived of estrogens during embryonic life learned the social proximity response used to assess ASB, whereas control female quail did not, despite the presence of high T. Thus, ASB is demasculinized by the action of embryonic estrogens during ontogeny as is consummatory behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailInvolvement of Pa/Plasmin System in the Processing of Pro-Mmp-9 and in the Second Step of Pro-Mmp-2 Activation
Baramova, E. N.; Bajou, Khalid ULg; Remacle, A. et al

in FEBS Letters (1997), 405(2), 157-62

Pro-MMP2 activation is a two-step process resulting in (1) an intermediate 64 kDa form generated by the MT1-MMP activity, and (2) a mature 62 kDa form. Addition of plasminogen to HT1080 cells cultured ... [more ▼]

Pro-MMP2 activation is a two-step process resulting in (1) an intermediate 64 kDa form generated by the MT1-MMP activity, and (2) a mature 62 kDa form. Addition of plasminogen to HT1080 cells cultured under various conditions, or to their membrane preparation, induced a complete conversion of the intermediate MMP-2 form to the mature one, and processing of pro-MMP-9. The pro-MMP-2 activation was inhibited by plasmin inhibitors and anti-uPA antibody. These results provide evidence for involvement of the PA/plasmin system in the second step of MMP-2 activation. [less ▲]

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See detailLithium diisopropylamide as initiator for the anionic polymerization of methacrylates
Antoun, Sayed; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(6), 1556-1561

The anionic polymerization of a series of methacrylates, i.e. methyl methacrylate (MMA), tert-butyl methacrylate (tBuMA), (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), has ... [more ▼]

The anionic polymerization of a series of methacrylates, i.e. methyl methacrylate (MMA), tert-butyl methacrylate (tBuMA), (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), has been investigated in THF at −78 °C, by using both lithium diisopropylamide (LDA) and α-lithioethyl isobutyrate (Li-EIB) complexed with LiCl as initiators. Compared to ligated Li-EIB, which is a model for the propagating enolate in the methacrylate anionic polymerization, ligated LDA has quite a comparable initiation efficiency (>90%) and gives rise to polymers with a predictable molecular weight and a narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD < 1.1). The effect of LiCl on the MWD of poly-GMA is less pronounced compared to the other polymethacrylates. An already narrow MWD in the absence of LiCl might be accounted for by an intramolecular coordination of the ion pair by the oxirane group of the (ante)penultimate unit(s) of growing poly GMA. As a direct consequence of the well-controlled anionic polymerization of these methacrylates, pairs of them have been polymerized in a sequential way with formation of well-defined block copolymers. Actually, there is no restriction on the addition order of the comonomers, so that both types of triblocks (ABA and BAB) can be successfully synthesized. Size exclusion chromatography supports that block copolymers are not contaminated by homopolymers, at least in detectable amounts. [less ▲]

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See detailHR 7674: a low-amplitude cepheid?
Manfroid, Jean ULg; Renson, Pierre ULg; Burnet, M.

in Information Bulletin on Variable Stars (1997), 4453

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See detailOptical observations of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) at large heliocentric distances before perihelion.
Rauer, H.; Arpigny, Claude ULg; Boehnhardt, H. et al

in Science (1997), 275

The activity of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) was monitored monthly by optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy of its dust and gas distribution over heliocentric distances of 4.6 to 2.9 AU. The observed ... [more ▼]

The activity of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) was monitored monthly by optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy of its dust and gas distribution over heliocentric distances of 4.6 to 2.9 AU. The observed band intensities of the NH[SUB]2[/SUB] radical and the H[SUB]2[/SUB]O[SUP]+[/SUP] ion cannot be explained by existing models of fluorescence excitation, warranting a reexamination of the corresponding production rates, at least at large heliocentric distances. Comparing the production rate of the CN radical to its proposed parent, HCN, shows no evidence for the need of a major additional source for CN in Hale-Bopp at large heliocentric distances. The dust and CN production rates are consistent with a significant amount of sublimation occurring from icy dust grains surrounding Hale-Bopp. [less ▲]

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See detailCorrelation between Bronchoalveolar Lavage (Bal) Fluid Cell Lysate Histamine Content and Bal Fluid Eosinophil Count in Atopic and Nonatopic Asthmatics
Louis, Renaud ULg; Van Tulder, L.; Poncelet, M. et al

in International Archives of Allergy & Immunology (1997), 112(3), 309-12

We have compared the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellular composition and the BAL cell lysate histamine content (fluorometric assay) in 28 stable mild to moderate asthmatics (atopic n = 18 and ... [more ▼]

We have compared the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) cellular composition and the BAL cell lysate histamine content (fluorometric assay) in 28 stable mild to moderate asthmatics (atopic n = 18 and intrinsic n = 10) and 11 control subjects. When compared to control subjects, the whole group of asthmatics had a higher proportion of BAL eosinophils (p < 0.01) and metachromatic cells (p < 0.05). The BAL cell lysate histamine was increased in atopic (p < 0.05) and intrinsic asthmatics (p < 0.05) in comparison with control subjects. In the whole group of asthmatics, the BAL cell lysate histamine content correlated with the percentage of BAL eosinophils (r = 0.58, p < 0.01). This relationship was significant in both atopic (r = 0.48, p < 0.05) and intrinsic (r = 0.70, p < 0.05) asthmatics. For the whole group of asthmatics, both the BAL cell lysate histamine and the percentage of BAL eosinophils inversely correlated with the percent predicted FEV1 (r = -0.42, p < 0.05; r = -0.51, p < 0.05). We conclude that an increased BAL cell lysate histamine content correlates with airway eosinophilic infiltration and lung function impairment in mild to moderate atopic and intrinsic asthmatics. This suggests that BAL mast cells play a key role in recruiting eosinophils in the airways of asthmatics irrespective of the presence of an atopic status. [less ▲]

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See detailPrediction of Bone Loss Rate in Healthy Postmenopausal Women
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Deroisy, Rita ULg; Collette, Julien ULg et al

in Calcified Tissue International (1997), 60(3), 261-4

Prevention of fractures is the only way to drastically reduce osteoporosis-related health expenditures. In order to optimize the cost/benefit ratio of a strategy of prevention, it is essential to identify ... [more ▼]

Prevention of fractures is the only way to drastically reduce osteoporosis-related health expenditures. In order to optimize the cost/benefit ratio of a strategy of prevention, it is essential to identify, as early as possible, women who will develop fractures later in their life. Therefore, and since postmenopausal bone loss is an asymptomatic process, screening procedures should detect, at the time of the menopause, women whose postmenopausal bone loss is higher than the mean, and will, a couple of years later, exhibit a low mineral content and a subsequent high risk for fractures. For 3 years we have followed a cohort of 92 healthy women who had undergone menopause less than 36 months previously. By a multivariate discriminant analysis based on the differences in lumbar bone density, assessed by dual photon absorptiometry, and in a few routine biochemical parameters (serum phosphorus, estrone, androstenedione, and urine calcium) observed during the first 6 months of the study, we have been able to correctly predict the rate of spinal bone loss, observed at the end of the 3 years, in 76% of the subjects. All of the women who presented a bone loss higher than 10% over the 3 years were correctly isolated by our discriminant functions after 6 months of follow-up. We conclude that a measurement of lumbar bone mineral density coupled with a few routine biochemical determinations, repeated twice at a 6-month interval in healthy postmenopausal women, can isolate 100% of postmenopausal "fast bone losers" with an overall specificity of 76%. [less ▲]

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See detailSequential successful surgical management of extracranial internal carotid stenosis and ipsilateral intracranial aneurysm. Case reports.
Detry, Olivier ULg; Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Desiron, Quentin ULg et al

in Vascular Surgery (1997), 31

The coexistence of extracranial internal carotid stenosis and ipsilateral intracranial aneurysm is a rare event whose management is controversial. Theoretically, the correction of a significant stenosis ... [more ▼]

The coexistence of extracranial internal carotid stenosis and ipsilateral intracranial aneurysm is a rare event whose management is controversial. Theoretically, the correction of a significant stenosis of the extracranial internal carotid may lead to an increase in the downstream pressure in the intracranial carotid, and may consequently increase the risk of rupture of the ipsilateral aneurysm. Moreover, dramatic increase of blood pressure is not uncommon after carotid endarterectomy, and may promote aneurysmal rupture. Intracranial surgical correction of a hypoperfused aneurysm down to extracranial carotid stenosis should carry an increased risk of inadequate cerebral flow during procedure, and unspecific postoperative stimulation of platelets aggregation and coagulation may complete obstruction of a subtotal carotid stenosis. We report the cases of two patients successfully treated by a two-stage surgical procedure. In a first step, the intracerebral aneurysms were controlled and electively excluded by clipping. In a second step, carotid endarteriectomies were performed some days later without any neurological complications. Postoperative recoveries were uneventful and six months after these surgical procedures, clinical examination of both patients did not reveal any worsening of the preoperative neurological status. [less ▲]

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See detailLe transsexualisme : considérations générales et prise en charge
Michel, Aude; Mormont, Christian ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(3), 163-168

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See detailRILEM Recommendations : Part 6 – Thermal Strain
Schneider, Ulrich; Schwesinger, P.; Debicki, Gérard et al

in Materials and Structures (1997)

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See detailA novel biodegradable and biocompatible ceramer prepared by the sol-gel process
Tian, Dong; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Grandfils, Christian ULg et al

in Chemistry of Materials (1997), 9(4), 871-874

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See detailSepsis and Serum Cytokine Concentrations
Damas, Pierre ULg; Canivet, Jean-Luc ULg; de Groote, Donat et al

in Critical Care Medicine (1997), 25(3), 405-12

OBJECTIVE: To look for relationships between the classification of sepsis and plasma cytokine concentrations. DESIGN: Prospective, consecutive entry study of patients meeting severe sepsis criteria and ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To look for relationships between the classification of sepsis and plasma cytokine concentrations. DESIGN: Prospective, consecutive entry study of patients meeting severe sepsis criteria and having bacteriologically documented infections. SETTING: University hospital, surgical intensive care unit. PATIENTS: Fifty consecutive patients developing severe sepsis or septic shock between December 1991 and December 1993. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and leukemia inhibitory factor were measured by immunoradiometric assay in the plasma of patients as soon as they developed severe sepsis or septic shock. Septic shock patients were divided into three groups in a blinded fashion (i.e., without knowing the results of the concentrations of cytokines), according to the presence of sustained hyperlactacidemia and to the rapidity of the onset of sepsis. Peak concentrations of all cytokines were statistically different between severe sepsis and septic shock patients. This finding was almost exclusively due to the data from patients with rapid onset of septic shock, who demonstrated very high but transient cytokine concentrations. Septic shock patients may thus have different profiles in the time course of their cytokine concentrations. The transient, high peak concentrations of cytokines were also related to transient leukopenia. Among the cytokines measured, IL-8 appeared to be the one that correlated best with lactacidemia, the presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation, severe hypoxemia, the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: According to the profiles of the cytokines, septic shock patients do not represent a homogeneous population. These profiles should be described in order to distinguish between patients, and the profiles may be useful to identify those patients susceptible to new therapies. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Age and Breed on the Binding of Oxygen to Red Blood Cells of Bovine Calves
Gustin, Pascal ULg; Detry, B.; Robert, Alain ULg et al

in Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985) (1997), 82(3), 784-90

The influence of somatic growth and genetic selection on the whole blood oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured under standard conditions in double-muscled and dairy calves during their first 3 mo of ... [more ▼]

The influence of somatic growth and genetic selection on the whole blood oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured under standard conditions in double-muscled and dairy calves during their first 3 mo of life. Crossbreed animals were also investigated. Hemoglobin, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG), Cl, and Pi concentrations were also measured. The percentage of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) was determined. The influence of exogenous Cl, Pi, and pH on the OEC was also assessed. The PO2 at 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50) increased during somatic growth, probably because of the increase in DPG recorded in double-muscled neonates and to the progressive disappearance of HbF in both breeds. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%) was used to assess the combined influence of the OEC shift and OEC shape changes on blood oxygen desaturation under standard conditions, when the PO2 decreases within a physiological range. The OEF% showed an increase during the first month, then a stabilization. The effects of Cl, Pi, and pH in Friesian calves were similar as in adult cattle. Double-muscled neonates had a lower P50, OEF% values, and DPG concentrations and higher hemoglobin and Cl concentrations than Friesian neonates. The Pi concentration and the percentage of HbF were similar in both breeds. The pH and the Cl concentration had significantly less effect on the OEC in double-muscled than in Friesian calves. Crossbreed animals exhibited intermediate parameter values, between those recorded for double-muscled and Friesian calves. All differences between breeds progressively disappeared during the first month. These data show that blood function changes markedly in calves during the first month of life and that genetic selection can alter blood function. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of the 67 Kd Laminin Receptor in Human Cervical Preneoplastic and Neoplastic Squamous Epithelial Lesions: An Immunohistochemical Study
al-Saleh, W.; Delvenne, Philippe ULg; van den Brule, F. A. et al

in Journal of Pathology (The) (1997), 181(3), 287-93

Interactions of cancer cells with laminin play a critical role during the progression of solid malignant tumours. Increased expression of the 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR), one of the several laminin ... [more ▼]

Interactions of cancer cells with laminin play a critical role during the progression of solid malignant tumours. Increased expression of the 67 kD laminin receptor (67LR), one of the several laminin binding proteins, is associated with the invasive and metastatic capacity of various types of cancer, including breast, colon, ovary, lung, and endometrial carcinoma. In this study, 67LR expression was analysed in a series of cervical biopsy specimens including 16 normal cervical tissues, 36 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs), 24 high-grade SILs, and 11 invasive carcinomas. Detection of the 67LR was performed using immunoperoxidase staining and the monoclonal antibody MLuC5 which specifically recognizes the 67LR. Immunostaining of the 67LR was correlated with human papillomavirus (HPV) type detected by in situ hybridization and with proliferative activity of the lesion determined by immunohistochemistry with the MIB-1 monoclonal antibody, specific for the Ki67 antigen. Increased expression of the 67LR was correlated with the histological severity of the lesions, with the strongest immunoreactivity being found in invasive carcinomas. Significant differences in 67LR expression were found between normal cervical epithelium and high-grade SILs (P < 0.05, non-parametric Mann-Whitney test) or invasive carcinomas (P < 0.001), as well as between low- or high-grade SILs and invasive carcinoma (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Ki67 antigen expression also increased with the severity of the lesions. There was a positive correlation for each type of lesion between expression of the 67LR and of the Ki67 antigen. No specific relationship was found between 67LR or Ki67 antigen immunostaining and HPV type detected in SILs, segregated into low-grade and high-grade lesions. These data add weight to the evidence that increased expression of the 67LR is a consistent, but not sufficient feature of the invasive and metastatic phenotype and suggest that high expression of the 67LR might be associated with both more proliferative and more aggressive cervical (pre)neoplastic lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating Systematic Risk in the Presence of Thin Trading and Conditional Heteroscedasticity
Corhay, Albert ULg; Tourani Rad, Alireza; Urbain, Jean-Pierre

in In The Money (1997), 2

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See detailVentilatory Effects of the Single-Breath Co2 Test, Compared with Eructation, in Cattle
Rollin, Frédéric ULg; Desmecht, Daniel ULg; Genicot, B. et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1997), 58(3), 310-6

OBJECTIVE: To assess the peripheral chemoreceptor-induced ventilatory response to single tidal-breath CO2 (SB CO2) tests, compared with eructations, in 2 breeds of calves. ANIMALS: 13 conscious unsedated ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To assess the peripheral chemoreceptor-induced ventilatory response to single tidal-breath CO2 (SB CO2) tests, compared with eructations, in 2 breeds of calves. ANIMALS: 13 conscious unsedated Holstein-Friesian and 8 Belgian White and Blue hypermuscled calves. PROCEDURE: An SB of +/- 50% CO2 in equal parts of O2 and N2 was inhaled. Ventilatory response was determined from the increase in ventilation (delta Ve) during the first 20 seconds after the test breath or eructation and from the difference in end-tidal PCO2 between the stimulus and preceding control breaths. RESULTS: Because no difference was found between the 2 breeds of calves, all data were pooled. The increase in Ve peaked during the fifth breath after the SB CO2 test on average, corresponding to a delay of 12.4 seconds. The SB CO2 responses ranged from 0.037 to 0.151 L/min.mm of Hg.m2, with a mean +/- SD of 0.082 +/- 0.032 L/min.mm of Hg.m2 for all calves. The SB CO2 tests, similar to eructations, modified the breathing pattern significantly and in the same direction, by principally shortening expiratory time and increasing mean inspiratory flow. After eructations, Ve peak increase was more important for lower difference in end-tidal PCO2 between the stimulus and preceding control breaths and took place more rapidly than after SB CO2 tests. Accordingly, eructation responses were more marked than SB CO2 responses and averaged 0.925 +/- 0.276 L/min.mm of Hg.m2. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: In cattle, the pattern of breathing and ventilation under basal conditions is characterized by a cyclic variability coupled to eructation. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Percutaneous Oestradiol Gels in Postmenopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy on Clinical Symptoms and Endometrium
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg; Beliard, Aude ULg; Hedon, B. et al

in British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology (1997), 104(3), 305-10

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on endometrium, climacteric symptoms and the menstrual cycle, and the clinical and biological tolerance of two percutaneous oestradiol gels used as hormone replacement ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects on endometrium, climacteric symptoms and the menstrual cycle, and the clinical and biological tolerance of two percutaneous oestradiol gels used as hormone replacement therapy. DESIGN: A large open randomised multicentre study. SETTING: France and Belgium. PARTICIPANTS: Two-hundred and fifty-four women with an intact uterus and who had experienced a natural menopause received either Oestrogel (n = 126) or Estreva, a new formulation of oestradiol gel (n = 128), (1.5 mg of oestradiol/day) for the 24 first days of each calendar month during six consecutive months. Nomegestrol acetate (Lutenyl), a norprogesterone derivative, was administered (5 mg/day) from day 11 to day 24 of each oestradiol cycle. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Examination of endometrial biopsies taken before treatment and between days 18 and 24 of the last treatment cycle, climacteric symptoms assessed using a modified Kupperman index, control of menstrual cycle evaluated by diary cards, and clinical and biological tolerance. RESULTS: Both treatments lowered the frequency and intensity of hot flushes and the global Kupperman index. 96% of the cycles were followed by withdrawal bleeding. Breakthrough bleeding or spotting resulted in premature discontinuation of treatment in one volunteer. Mastodynia occurred in 20 women and contributed to the premature termination of treatment in three of them. Endometrial biopsies taken at the end of treatment showed identical histologies in both groups, with a secretory pattern in the majority of women, and absence of hyperplasia. CONCLUSIONS: This trial confirmed that, when the two oestradiol gels tested were administered cyclically with nomegestrol acetate to postmenopausal women, they were well tolerated, effective and suitable for the treatment of oestrogen deficiency syndrome. [less ▲]

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See detailQoS specification of ODP binding objects
Février, Arnaud; Najm, Elie; Leduc, Guy ULg et al

in Telektronikk (1997), 93(1), 42-49

We present a QoS oriented notation suitable for the ODP framework. In particular, we focus on a computational view of objects: we consider systems described as configurations of interacting objects and we ... [more ▼]

We present a QoS oriented notation suitable for the ODP framework. In particular, we focus on a computational view of objects: we consider systems described as configurations of interacting objects and we deal with two types of communications: message passing and flows. In message passing, signals (from one object to another) are conveyed through the (implicit) underlying infrastructure. This form of interaction is suitable for client/server applications where no strong real time or ordering constraints are needed from the communication infrastructure. In contract, in a flow type of communication, signals are conveyed through third party (binding) objects that may be explicitly called for in order to ensure specific QoS requirements needed by specific applications. A building blocks approach for the formal specification of binding objects in the ODP computational model is presented. The formal notation that is used is based on LOTOS extended with two features - real time and gate passing. These features are among the extensions that are currently studied in the ISO standardisation Formal Description Techniques group. We apply our building blocks approach to the specification of a multicast, multimedia binding object. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Ostéoporose et beta-thalassémie
Halkin, V.; Francotte-Lempereur, N.; Debrun, A. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(3), 138-41

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See detailComment j'explore ... Sur le plan coronarien, un patient avant chirurgie non cardiaque
Hoffer, E.; Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(3), 178-82

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See detailLa famille des peptides natriurétiques
Damas, Jacques ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(3), 169-73

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See detailTraitement chirurgical de l'insuffisance tricuspide. L'annuloplastie de Carpentier
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(3), 159-62

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See detailAttitudes obstétricales: Consensus de Département ULg. Document des cours de troisième cycle, octobre 96
Biquet, G.; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Dewandre, Pierre-Yves et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(3), 142-8

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See detailPhysicochemical causes for the microstructure of melt-textured YBa2Cu3O7-delta/Y2BaCuO5 composites
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Cloots, Rudi ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Superconductor Science and Technology (1997), 10(3), 123-133

We report semiquantitative results for a physicochemical model intended to describe the multigrain growth of YBa2Cu3O7-deltaN2BaCuO5 (123/211) composites under isothermal undercooling. This model takes ... [more ▼]

We report semiquantitative results for a physicochemical model intended to describe the multigrain growth of YBa2Cu3O7-deltaN2BaCuO5 (123/211) composites under isothermal undercooling. This model takes into account various ingredients supposed to be controlling the growth of such superconducting compounds, i.e. the presence of secondary phases. Moreover, a possible dynamical interaction between the growing 123 grains and the 211 solid particles is also included. The numerical investigations were performed for a model bivariate-like 211 particle distribution. The complete chemical dissolution of the small particles is allowed but the large ones are only partially dissolved in the first step which can be followed when chemically possible by a complete dissolution. The model is restricted to a two-dimensional square lattice. Various microstructural morphologies are obtained as a function of the initial composition of the melt and the initial size distributions of the 211 particles. Results are in quite good agreement with experimental observations. The quantity of 123 phase is predicted depending on the initial conditions. The optimal situation when a minimum fraction of liquid phase segregates at the gain boundaries is found to occur for 20 % excess of 211 phase in the initial melt. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Accords de Coopération en matière d’objectifs budgétaires
Husson, Jean-François ULg

in Bulletin de documentation du Ministère des Finances (1997), (2), 183-214

This articles reviews the mechanisms of budgetary agreements between federal and federated entities in Belgium, in the context of the measures taken to reach the "Maastricht-criteria" and the ensuing ... [more ▼]

This articles reviews the mechanisms of budgetary agreements between federal and federated entities in Belgium, in the context of the measures taken to reach the "Maastricht-criteria" and the ensuing targets set at the European level. [less ▲]

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See detailAt Least Three Subdomains of V-Erba Are Involved in Its Silencing Function
Busch, Kerstin; Martin, Bernd; Baniahmad, Aria et al

in Molecular Endocrinology (1997), 11(3), 379-89

Several members of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family are able to switch from a transcriptional repressor to a transcriptional activator upon binding of their ligand. The oncogene v-erbA is a ... [more ▼]

Several members of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family are able to switch from a transcriptional repressor to a transcriptional activator upon binding of their ligand. The oncogene v-erbA is a variant form of the TR unable to bind hormone and thus acts as a constitutive repressor. We demonstrate, using fusion proteins between the DNA-binding domain of the yeast factor GAL4 and the silencing domains of v-erbA and TR beta, that point mutations in three different regions severely affect their repression function. Furthermore, the three regions, each as an inactive fusion protein with the GAL4 DNA-binding domain, restore silencing activity when assembled on the same promoter. These observations define at least three silencing subdomains, SSD1-SSD3, which are involved in the silencing function of v-erbA. We propose a model in which full silencing activity is brought about by the combined interaction of each silencing subdomain with corepressors and/or basal transcription factors. [less ▲]

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See detailMicrocephaly, muscular build, rhizomelia, and cataracts: Description of a possible recessive syndrome and some comments on the use of electronic databases in syndromology
Verloes, Alain ULg; Lesenfants, S.; Misson, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in American Journal of Medical Genetics (1997), 68(4), 455-60461

We report on a 7-year-old boy born of consanguineous parents with severe microcephaly (-5 SD) but borderline intelligence, juvenile cataract, muscular build, rhizomelic shortness of limbs predominantly of ... [more ▼]

We report on a 7-year-old boy born of consanguineous parents with severe microcephaly (-5 SD) but borderline intelligence, juvenile cataract, muscular build, rhizomelic shortness of limbs predominantly of femora, advanced bone age, and micropenis. This combination of signs appears unique and may represent an undescribed, possibly autosomal recessive MCA syndrome. The use of LDDB and POSSUM in the workup of such "new syndromes" is reviewed. Three search strategies are discussed: single rare sign browsing, best combinatory fit using an array of key words, and combined rare signs scan. Pitfalls in the use of such databases and the some problems raised by inconsistent/ incomplete encoding in those two popular, highly useful syndromology retrieval systems are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAbility of PMMA to Improve the PC/PVDF interfacial Adhesion
Moussaif, Noureddine; Maréchal, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(3), 658-659

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See detailRing-Opening Polymerization of 1,4,8-Trioxaspiro[4.6]-9-undecanone: A new Route to Aliphatic Polyesters Bearing Functional Pendent Groups
Tian, Dong; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Grandfils, Christian ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(3), 406-409

A straightforward and very efficient pathway has been reported for the synthesis of a functional derivative of ε-caprolactone, i.e. 5-ethylene ketal ε-caprolactone. This new monomer has been ... [more ▼]

A straightforward and very efficient pathway has been reported for the synthesis of a functional derivative of ε-caprolactone, i.e. 5-ethylene ketal ε-caprolactone. This new monomer has been homopolymerized and copolymerized with ε-caprolactone in a well-controlled manner, strongly suggesting absence of any side reactions. Deacetalization of the polyester chains is complete and reduction of the ketone groups into hydroxyl groups as well. No chain scission is observed to occur in the course of these two derivatization reactions. Thus, aliphatic polyesters bearing either ketone pendent groups or hydroxyl pendent groups can be easily prepared, which raises new application prospects. These materials proved to be easily redispersed in an aqueous medium. They form stable colloidal nanodispersions (e.g. 100 nm). These suspensions are stable more than 48 h at room temperature and may be viewed as potential drug colloidal vectors with a core−shell like structure. Different types of reactive groups on the surface of these nanoparticulate vectors are indeed available to the binding of species selected for molecular recognition and drug targeting. For instance, the well-known reactivity of ketones toward primary amines is a direct route to attach peptides onto biodegradable and biocompatible aliphatic polyesters. Poly(ε-caprolactone) with hydroxyl groups reactive toward triethylaluminum provides a macroinitiator for lactone and lactide polymerization, so that biodegradable and biocompatible functional comb, graft, and dendritic aliphatic polyesters can now be synthesized. [less ▲]

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See detailDiazepam-Insensitive Gabaa Receptors on Postnatal Spiral Ganglion Neurones in Culture
Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Lefebvre, Philippe ULg et al

in Neuroreport (1997), 8(3), 591-6

Using dissociated spiral ganglion cell cultures obtained from 3-day-old rat cochlea, we investigated the response of auditory neurones to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using patch-clamp techniques. In ... [more ▼]

Using dissociated spiral ganglion cell cultures obtained from 3-day-old rat cochlea, we investigated the response of auditory neurones to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) using patch-clamp techniques. In our recording conditions, GABA elicited inward currents in > 95% of the neurones which reversed around 0 mV. Similar inward currents were measured using isoguvacin, a specific agonist of GABAA receptors. GABA-gated currents were reversibly inhibited by the channel blocker picrotoxin and the GABA competitive antagonist bicuculline. These functional GABAA receptors are characterized by an insensitivity to benzodiazepines and a relatively high sensitivity to beta-carbolines and barbiturates. These results show that the GABAA receptor pharmacological properties of spiral ganglion neurones are close to those of cerebellar granule cells. [less ▲]

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See detailEnzymes from Cold-Adapted Microorganisms. The Class C Beta-Lactamase from the Antarctic Psychrophile Psychrobacter Immobilis A5
Feller, Georges ULg; Zekhnini, Z.; Lamotte-Brasseur, J. et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (1997), 244(1), 186-91

A heat-labile beta-lactamase has been purified from culture supernatants of Psychrobacter immobilis A5 grown at 4 degrees C and the corresponding chromosomal ampC gene has been cloned and sequenced. All ... [more ▼]

A heat-labile beta-lactamase has been purified from culture supernatants of Psychrobacter immobilis A5 grown at 4 degrees C and the corresponding chromosomal ampC gene has been cloned and sequenced. All structural and kinetic properties clearly relate this enzyme to class C beta-lactamases. The kinetic parameters of P. immobilis beta-lactamase for the hydrolysis of some beta-lactam antibiotics are in the same range as the values recorded for the highly specialized cephalosporinases from pathogenic mesophilic bacteria. By contrast, the enzyme displays a low apparent optimum temperature of activity and a reduced thermal stability. Structural factors responsible for the latter property were analysed from the three-dimensional structure built by homology modelling. The deletion of proline residues in loops, the low number of arginine-mediated H-bonds and aromatic-aromatic interactions, the lower global hydrophobicity and the improved solvent interactions through additional surface acidic residues appear to be the main determinants of the enzyme flexibility. [less ▲]

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See detailLes constellations (I).
Renson, Pierre ULg

in Ciel et Terre (1997), 113

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See detailSub-arcsecond imaging and spectroscopy of the radio-loud highly polarized quasar PKS 1610-771.
Courbin, F.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg; Meylan, G. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1997), 317

We report on imaging and spectroscopic observations of the radio-loud, highly polarized quasar PKS 1610-771 (z=1.71). Our long-slit spectroscopy of the companion 4.55" NW of the quasar confirms the ... [more ▼]

We report on imaging and spectroscopic observations of the radio-loud, highly polarized quasar PKS 1610-771 (z=1.71). Our long-slit spectroscopy of the companion 4.55" NW of the quasar confirms the stellar nature of this object, so ruling out the previously suspected gravitationally lensed nature of this system. PKS 1610-771 looks fuzzy on our sub-arcsecond R and I images and appears located in a rich environment of faint galaxies. Possible magnification, without image splitting of the quasar itself, by some of these maybe foreground galaxies cannot be excluded. The continuum fuzz (made of the closest two objects, viz. A and D) is elongated in a direction orthogonal to the E vector of the optical polarization, as in high-redshift radio-galaxies. The spectrum of PKS 1610-771 appears strongly curved, in a convex way, with a maximum of intensity at ~7,600Å (2,800AÅ rest frame), possibly indicating a strong ultraviolet absorption by dust. [less ▲]

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See detailLa dépense énergétique chez l'homme
Bustin, F.; Pestieau, S. R.; Paquot, Nicolas ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(2), 101-4

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See detailVers une chirurgie "supraconservatrice" des lésions mammaires infracliniques?
Lifrange, Eric ULg; Colin, Claude ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(2), 72-6

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See detail"Pont a la transplantation" par ventricules pulsatiles de Pierce-Donachy (Thoratec)
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; DETRY, Olivier ULg; Chevolet, C. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(2), 110-5

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See detailCardiac Risk Assessment before Vascular Surgery: A Prospective Study Comparing Clinical Evaluation, Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography, and Dobutamine Tc-99m Sestamibi Tomoscintigraphy
VAN DAMME, Hendrik ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg; Gillain, Daniel ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Surgery (1997), 5(1), 54-64

Preoperative evaluation for cardiac risk assessment before peripheral vascular surgery remains controversial. Between January and June 1994, a prospective open study was carried out in 156 patients ... [more ▼]

Preoperative evaluation for cardiac risk assessment before peripheral vascular surgery remains controversial. Between January and June 1994, a prospective open study was carried out in 156 patients scheduled for elective vascular procedures (63 carotid endarterectomies, 34 abdominal aortic aneurysms, 29 aortoiliac and 30 infrainguinal reconstructions) to compare the ability of clinical data, dobutamine stress echocardiography, and dobutamine Tc-99m sestamibi tomoscintigraphy to predict postoperative cardiac events. Pharmacological stress testing consisted of incremental dobutamine infusion (+/-1 mg atropine to achieve 85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate, with continuous echocardiographic monitoring, and injection of Tc-99m sestamibi after dobutamine infusion). Dobutamine echocardiography was abnormal in 36 patients (worsening resting wall motion abnormality in 11; new induced wall motion abnormality in 25). Dobutamine Tc-99m sestamibi tomoscintigraphy revealed a reversible perfusion defect in 34 patients, indicating the presence of myocardial ischaemia. As a result, eight patients underwent myocardial revascularization (n = 5) or the proposed operation was cancelled (n = 3). In the remaining 142 vascular procedures, there were eight (5.6%) adverse cardiac events: three myocardial infarctions (two fatal), three prolonged myocardial ischaemia, one acute congestive heart failure and one sustained ventricular arrhythmia in the post operative period. Univariate analysis selected unstable angina (relative risk (RR) 11.6), previous congestive heart failure (RR 6.4), Detsky's score of > or = 15 (RR 3.0), positive dobutamine stress echocardiography (RR 3.7), and positive dobutamine tomoscintigraphy (RR 7.4) as significant predictors of postoperative cardiac events. In patients without clinical markers of coronary artery disease (n = 66), non-invasive cardiac testing did not predict cardiac complications (n = 2; one prolonged myocardial ischaemia; one infarction). In the subset of 76 patients with definite clinical or electrocardiographic evidence of ischaemic heart disease, dobutamine stress testing provided additional information, and optimized risk stratification: five of six patients who suffered a cardiac complication had a pathologic dobutamine stress test. Furthermore, a negative dobutamine stress test was characterized by a high negative predictive value (0.96 for echocardiography; 0.97 for tomoscintigraphy). The study further demonstrated that the cardiac response (ischaemic versus non-ischaemic) to dobutamine stress was concordantly classified by echocardiographic and tomoscintigraphic techniques in 96% of cases. It is concluded that complementary non-invasive cardiac stress testing by dobutamine is indicated only in patients with clinically apparent coronary artery disease. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet des protéines et des fibres alimentaires sur les pertes iléales d'acides aminés endogènes chez le porc.
Leterme, Pascal; Rossi, Florence; Thewis, André ULg

in Journées de la Recherche Porcine en France (1997), 29

An N-free diet was supplemented with limited but increasing amounts of proteins (30, 60, 90 g/kg diet from a mixture of casein and egg yolk), in order to measure their effect on the ileal endogenous amino ... [more ▼]

An N-free diet was supplemented with limited but increasing amounts of proteins (30, 60, 90 g/kg diet from a mixture of casein and egg yolk), in order to measure their effect on the ileal endogenous amino acid (AA) losses in pigs. The study was conducted at 2 dietary fibre levels: 20 and 80 g/kg, isolated from pea seeds. Compared to the N-free diet, a supply of 30 g proteins was sufficient to obtain a positive N retention and the following supplies allowed a constant and linear increase (0.88 g N retained/g N intake). The same supply induced an increase in ileal endogenous losses, compared to the control (10.7 vs 7.2 g AA/kg DMi for the low fibre diet) but the difference was not significant because of a high variability between the pigs. The supplies of 60 and 90 g proteins did not modify the level of the losses either: 10.2 and 10.6 g AA/kg DMi, respectively. The same trends were observed for the diets with a high fibre level but, in this case, the losses were significantly higher: respectively 14.9, 16.7, 15.7 and 17 g AA/kg DMi. On the other hand, the fraction of the digesta containing the free AA and the small peptides (< 3 kDa), supposed to be mainly of dietary origin, remained independent of the protein level. This suggests a virtually complete digestibility of the dietary proteins. Thus, pea fibres induce a significant increase of the ileal endogenous losses but without disturbing the protein digestion process, as suggested by the N retention. The protein supply probably increased the digestive secretions but the latter could have been highly reabsorbed, due to a lack in dietary factors susceptible to increase the reabsorption. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic Value of Exercise Electrocardiography and Angina after Coronary Artery Stenting. Benestent Study Group
Legrand, Victor ULg; Raskinet, B.; Laarman, G. et al

in American Heart Journal (1997), 133(2), 240-8

To determine whether metallic stent implantation within a coronary artery modifies the accuracy of angina or exercise test results in predicting stenosis, we studied 172 patients assigned to stent ... [more ▼]

To determine whether metallic stent implantation within a coronary artery modifies the accuracy of angina or exercise test results in predicting stenosis, we studied 172 patients assigned to stent implantation and 153 patients assigned to balloon angioplasty enrolled in the Benestent trial comparing de novo stenting with conventional balloon angioplasty. Sensitivity and specificity curves were constructed for the prediction of percentage diameter stenosis and minimal lumen diameter. Receiver-operator curves were constructed for comparison of diagnostic accuracy. Identical exercise load and duration were achieved in the two groups, despite a better angiographic result in patients treated with a stent. Similarly, the diagnostic accuracy of clinical symptoms or exercise test results as a function of the angiographic results were similar in patients with and patients without a stent. The intersection points of the sensitivity and specificity curves for recurrent angina or ST-segment depression were 72% to 77%. The corresponding cut-off points for percentage diameter stenosis were, respectively, 52% and 50% for patients with and without a stent (1.35 and 1.50 mm for minimal lumen diameter). We conclude that the presence of an intracoronary stent does not affect the diagnostic accuracy of recurrent angina or exercise-induced ST depression in predicting residual stenosis. We also conclude that exercise tolerance is similar after balloon angioplasty, with or without stenting, despite a better angiographic outcome in the group receiving a stent, suggesting a minimal threshold beyond which the patient is no longer at risk for ischemia during exercise. [less ▲]

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See detailMitogen-Activated Lymphocytes: A Good Model for Characterising Lung Cyp1a1 Inducibility
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Todaro, Anna ULg; Kremers, Pierre ULg et al

in European Journal of Epidemiology (1997), 13(2), 177-83

The CYP1A1 hyperinducibility phenotype occurring in some 10% of the human population corresponds to a higher risk of developing lung cancer. This study was undertaken to assess whether the inducibility ... [more ▼]

The CYP1A1 hyperinducibility phenotype occurring in some 10% of the human population corresponds to a higher risk of developing lung cancer. This study was undertaken to assess whether the inducibility factor, generally evaluated on mitogen-activated lymphocytes after PAH induction, represents correctly the lung situation. Optimal experimental conditions were determined for evaluating, on both lymphocytes and lung tissue explants, the inducibility factor, defined as the ratio of EROD activity (CYP1A1-specific) to cytochrome c reductase activity (unaffected by PAH induction). Paired results for lymphocytes and lung tissue samples from 10 lung cancer patients were compared. A good correlation was observed between lymphocyte and lung tissue inducibilities (R = 0.809; p = 0.005). In conclusion, mitogen-activated lymphocyte inducibility is indicative of lung tissue inducibility and constitutes a good marker for evaluating individual PAH inducibilities. [less ▲]

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See detailEls problemes de la violència esportiva. 10 anys després de Heysel
Comeron, Manuel ULg; Van Limbergen, Kris

in Revista d’Historia L'Avenç (1997), (211), 25-32

Les conductes violentes desenvolupades pels seguidors de futbol, tradicionalment anomenades hooliganismo, estan profundament arrelades en la historia i tenen una difusio geografica molt amplia, es ... [more ▼]

Les conductes violentes desenvolupades pels seguidors de futbol, tradicionalment anomenades hooliganismo, estan profundament arrelades en la historia i tenen una difusio geografica molt amplia, es relaciona llavors amb comportaments d'agressio fisica i de vandalisme produïts pels espectadors d'una manifestacio esportiva, mes concretament dels partits de futbol. [less ▲]

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See detailLocalization of Laminin, Fibronectin, E-Cadherin, and Integrins in Endometrium and Endometriosis
Beliard, Aude ULg; Donnez, J.; Nisolle, Michelle ULg et al

in Fertility and Sterility (1997), 67(2), 266-72

OBJECTIVE: To compare the localization of adhesion proteins (laminin and fibronectin) and their receptors of the integrin family in endometriosis and endometrium. DESIGN: An immunohistochemical study ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To compare the localization of adhesion proteins (laminin and fibronectin) and their receptors of the integrin family in endometriosis and endometrium. DESIGN: An immunohistochemical study. SETTING: University Hospital, Department of Gynecology and Department of Cell Biology. PATIENT(s): Eighteen endometriosis patients undergoing laparoscopy for pain or infertility and nine control patients undergoing laparoscopy for sterilization or hysterectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(s): The expression of adhesion glycoproteins (laminin and fibronectin), their receptors alpha 1 beta 1, alpha 2 beta 1, alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 5 beta 1, and alpha 6 beta 1, and E-cadherin was determined by immunohistochemistry on frozen sections. RESULT(s): The distribution of both adhesive glycoproteins, laminin and fibronectin, and their receptors was identical in endometriosis and endometrium. Fibronectin receptors (alpha 4 beta 1, alpha 5 beta 1) displayed distinct expression patterns in endometrium and endometriosis. No endometrial glands showed positive staining for the alpha 5 chain, whereas this integrin subunit was detected in almost all endometriotic lesions. The integrin alpha 4 chain was present in all endometriotic glands but was absent from endometrial glands in the proliferative phase of the cycle. CONCLUSION(s): No difference in cell adhesion molecule localization nor receptors was observed between endometriotic and endometrial samples, except for fibronectin receptors. Their expression persisted around endometriotic glands but not in endometrium. These results suggest that fibronectin receptors could play a role in the persistence of endometriotic lesions, despite menstruation in corresponding eutopic endometrium. [less ▲]

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See detailThoracic sequelae after surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants
SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Grabitz, R.; Alzen, G. et al

in Acta Paediatrica (1997), 86(2), 213-6

Thirty-six children (median chronological age 6 years 1 month) who had undergone surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus through a left posterolateral thoracotomy in the neonatal period (median ... [more ▼]

Thirty-six children (median chronological age 6 years 1 month) who had undergone surgical closure of a patent ductus arteriosus through a left posterolateral thoracotomy in the neonatal period (median gestational age 32 weeks) were investigated prospectively with respect to anatomical and functional changes of the chest. At follow-up examination, residual or recurrent patent ductus arteriosus was not observed. Three patients had chronic bronchial obstruction. Two patients showed pathological musculoskeletal thoracic sequelae that did not require any treatment at the time of follow-up; persistence of immediate postoperative left phrenic palsy (n = 1) and thoracic scoliosis (n = 1). Twenty of the 27 patients in whom chest X-ray was performed had minor radiological skeletal anomalies in the form of rib deformation or fusion related to the thoracotomy, lesions which have a potential to induce thoracic scoliosis. Left shoulder elevation at chest X-ray and isolated left arm dysfunction at clinical examination were not observed. Despite the low incidence of scoliosis and the absence of left arm dysfunction observed at mid-term follow-up in our series, the incidence of minor rib deformations with a potential to induce severe anomalies such as scoliosis should motivate late follow-up examination at adolescence to definitively assess the prevalence of thoracic sequelae after surgical closure of the patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma Clinics. Le médicament du mois. Le benzamycin, une actualisation du traitement topique de l'acné
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(2), 120-2

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See detailPeyer's Patches in Murine Aids: Dissociation between Lymphoproliferation and Anergy
Colombi, S.; Moutschen, Michel ULg; de Leval, Laurence ULg et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Immunology (1997), 45(2), 175-81

RadLV-Rs infection induces a murine immunodeficiency syndrome associated with a dramatic enlargement of spleen and lymph nodes. Surprisingly, the lymphoproliferation excludes thymus and Peyer's patches ... [more ▼]

RadLV-Rs infection induces a murine immunodeficiency syndrome associated with a dramatic enlargement of spleen and lymph nodes. Surprisingly, the lymphoproliferation excludes thymus and Peyer's patches (PP). To understand the cellular interactions underlying lymphoproliferation further, the authors investigated the fate of PP in RadLV-Rs infected mice. The atrophy of PP was mostly due to the depletion of B cells, while the proportion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells was increased. Nevertheless, B cell phenotype was modified with the emergence of lymphocytes with a low expression of B220 in infected PP. T cells characterized by a memory/activated phenotype in control PP did not undergo phenotypical changes after viral infection (i.e. regarding Thy-1 and CD44 expression). Despite the absence of lymphoproliferation, PP T and B cells displayed altered responses to mitogens in vitro. Finally, alterations of the expression of adhesion molecules and vascular addressins could not explain the atrophy of PP by a reduced homing to this lymphoid site. B cells and T cells from normal PP are clearly different from lymph nodes (LN) lymphocytes. The authors propose that the particular functional state which characterizes PP lymphocytes influences the B cell/T cell crosstalk necessary for RadLV-Rs-induced lymphoproliferation. [less ▲]

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See detailInterventional atrioseptostomy by application of monopolar high-frequency alternating current : In vitro evaluation of a new device.
Grabitz, R. G.; Handt, S.; Vanopbroeke, H. J. et al

in Investigative Radiology (1997), 32(2), 90-3

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The authors evaluate the use of a new device for interventional creation of atrial septal defects (ASD) working with high-frequency alternating current in an in vitro study with ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The authors evaluate the use of a new device for interventional creation of atrial septal defects (ASD) working with high-frequency alternating current in an in vitro study with porcine atria. METHODS: The device consists of a symmetrical cage of six superelastic monofile wires, including a microthermistor that is placed via a catheter into a punctured hole in the porcine foramen ovale. The device is used as a differential electrode for monopolar, temperature-controlled application of high-frequency alternating current for thermal modelling of ASD. RESULTS: Application of current for 60 seconds caused temperature-dependent, sized ASDs. CONCLUSION: In vivo animal studies to evaluate possible side effects and long term patency of the ASDs are justified and warranted. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... un melasma du visage
Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(2), 58-9

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See detailExpression of somatostatin receptor SST4 in human placenta and absence of octreotide effect on human placental growth hormone concentration during pregnancy.
Caron, Philippe; Buscail, Louis; Beckers, Albert ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1997), 82(11), 3771-3776

In pregnancy, the human placenta GH acts as a growth-promoting hormone and appears to be the main stimulator of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) secretion. In a woman with a TSH-secreting macroadenoma ... [more ▼]

In pregnancy, the human placenta GH acts as a growth-promoting hormone and appears to be the main stimulator of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) secretion. In a woman with a TSH-secreting macroadenoma, successful treatment with the somatostatin analog octreotide was conducted during the first month and the second half of pregnancy without side-effects on placental and fetal development. As observed in normal pregnancy, both serum placental GH and IGF-I levels increased throughout pregnancy and dropped sharply after delivery. In placental membranes from both treated and healthy untreated patients, we demonstrated the presence of high affinity binding sites for somatostatin-14 (Kd, 4.6 and 5.3 nmol/L; binding capacity, 1.53 and 1.35 pmol/mg protein, respectively). These receptors displayed low affinity for octreotide (IC50, 1.2-2 mumol/L), suggesting the presence of SST1 and/or SST4 receptors. We found that messenger ribonucleic acids of these two subtypes were expressed in both human placental tissue and purified human cytotrophoblast cells. Finally, the SST1-selective analog, des-AA1,2,5[D-Trp8,IAmp9]S-14 had low affinity for placental somatostatin receptors. These results argue in favor of the presence of the SST4 subtype in human placenta. At the doses administered, octreotide did not bind to placental somatostatin receptors. Our results may explain the absence of changes in both human placental GH and IGF-I concentrations that we observed during octreotide treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical Neurophysiology of Headache
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Neurologic Clinics (1997), 15(1), 85-105

Methods of clinical neurophysiology are of little use for the diagnosis of headache disorders. They are, however, invaluable tools for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of functional headaches ... [more ▼]

Methods of clinical neurophysiology are of little use for the diagnosis of headache disorders. They are, however, invaluable tools for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of functional headaches. They are traumatic, able to explore simple or more complex neural activities, and to some extent capable of reflecting activity in certain neurotransmitter systems as well as the action of pharmacologic agents on the CNS. This article reviews the interest and limits of electroencephalography, evoked potentials, electromyography, and nocifensive reflexes in primary headaches. Because neurophysiologic methods are no more than indirect means of looking into the "black box," their results need to be interpreted with caution and, whenever possible, should be compared in the same study with clinical behavioral and biochemical data. [less ▲]

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See detailAnionic polymerization of primary acrylates as promoted by Lithium 2-(2-Methoxyethoxy) ethoxide
Nugay, Nihan; Nugay, Turgut; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1997), 35(2), 361-369

Some primary acrylates, such as methyl, ethyl, n-butyl, and n-nonyl acrylate (MA, EA, nBuA and nNonA, respectively) have been anionically polymerized by using diphenylmethyl lithium (DPMLi) as an ... [more ▼]

Some primary acrylates, such as methyl, ethyl, n-butyl, and n-nonyl acrylate (MA, EA, nBuA and nNonA, respectively) have been anionically polymerized by using diphenylmethyl lithium (DPMLi) as an initiator, in the presence of a chelating - dual ligand, i.e., a polydentate lithium alkoxide, at low temperature. It has been found that lithium 2-(2-methoxyethoxy) ethoxide (LiOEEM) is a very efficient ligand in preventing the anionic polymerization of these monomers from being disturbed by significant secondary transfer and termination reactions. Even for the difficult cases of ethyl and methylacrylate, that approach provides high polymerization yields and low polydispersity, allowing the molecular weight to be predetermined. LiOEEM/initiator molar ratio, solvent polarity, temperature and monomer concentration have proved to be key parameters in the control of the polymerization process. The efficiency of that control is however dependent on the monomer structure and improves with the length of the n-alkyl substituent, i.e., MA < EA < nBuA < nNonA. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and characterization of biodegradable homopolymers and block copolymers based on adipic anhydride
Ropson, Nathalie; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1997), 35(1), 183-192

Homopolymers of adipic anhydride (AA) and block copolymers of -caprolactone (-CL) and AA have been synthesized with aluminum triisopropoxide as an initiator. Homopolymerization was studied at 20°C in ... [more ▼]

Homopolymers of adipic anhydride (AA) and block copolymers of -caprolactone (-CL) and AA have been synthesized with aluminum triisopropoxide as an initiator. Homopolymerization was studied at 20°C in toluene and methylene chloride (CH2Cl2). The end-group analysis agrees with a coordination insertion mechanism based on the acyl-oxygen cleavage of the AA ring. Living poly(-caprolactone) (PCL) chains are very efficient macro-initiators for the polymerization of AA, with formation of diblock copolymers of a narrow molecular weight distribution. At our best knowledge, low molecular weight -aluminum alkoxide PCL macroinitiators (M¯n < 1000) allow the first valuable synthesis of PAA with a molecular weight as high as 58,000 and a quite narrow polydispersity (M¯w/M¯n = 1.2). Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and 13C NMR confirm the blocky structure of the copolymers, in agreement with DSC that shows two melting endotherms and two glass transitions characteristic of the crystalline and amorphous phases of PCL and PAA, respectively. Block copolymers of c-CL and AA are also sensitive to hydrolysis, which makes them possible candidates for biomedical applications. Initiation of the AA polymerization in bulk with aluminum triisopropoxide in the presence of various ligands is also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving Anionic Homopolymerization and Block Copolymerization of (Dimethylamino)ethyl Methacrylate
Creutz, Serge; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(1), 6-9

Anionic polymerization of (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) has been investigated in THF at -78°C. The presence of lithium chloride has been shown to be desirable in order to afford a narrow ... [more ▼]

Anionic polymerization of (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) has been investigated in THF at -78°C. The presence of lithium chloride has been shown to be desirable in order to afford a narrow molecular weight distribution as well as a good agreement between theoretical and observed molecular weight. The living character of the polymerization has been demonstrated. Thus the synthesis of block copolymers, some of them unattainable by GTP, has been carried out successfully. Finally, the anionic polymerization of mixtures of tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) and DMAEMA has been considered and their relative reactivity ratio estimated. The easy quaternization of (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate affords amphiphilic water-soluble copolymers displaying interesting characteristics as polymeric dispersants and surfactants. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving Anionic Homopolymerization and Block Copolymerization of 4-Vinylpyridine at "Elevated" Temperature and Its Characterization by Size Exclusion Chromatography
Creutz, Serge; Teyssié, Philippe; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (1997), 30(1), 1-5

The anionic polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) has been investigated in 9/1 pyridine/THF at 0 °C. After characterization of the living character of 4VP polymerization, its copolymerization with tert ... [more ▼]

The anionic polymerization of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) has been investigated in 9/1 pyridine/THF at 0 °C. After characterization of the living character of 4VP polymerization, its copolymerization with tert-butyl methacrylate (tBMA) has been carried out also successfully. Their relative reactivity ratios have been determined. Solvent composition as well as temperature have been varied in order to evaluate their influence on the final molecular characteristics of the polymers. Finally, a new SEC methodology in 8/1/1 N,N-dimethylformamide/triethylamine/pyridine has been developed. [less ▲]

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See detailAn updated model of the hot nitrogen atom kinetics and thermospheric nitric oxide
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Bisikalo, D. V.; Shematovich, V. I. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1997), 102

New observations and reanalysis of previous measurements suggest an upward revision of the measured thermospheric nitric oxide density. Our previous model of NO production by fast N([SUP]4[/SUP]S) atom ... [more ▼]

New observations and reanalysis of previous measurements suggest an upward revision of the measured thermospheric nitric oxide density. Our previous model of NO production by fast N([SUP]4[/SUP]S) atom collisions with O[SUB]2[/SUB] has been updated. It includes the effect of soft solar X rays, Auger electrons, and a detailed treatment of N[SUB]2[/SUB] dissociative ionization channels. In addition, new calculations indicate that the transfer of translational energy in N+N[SUB]2[/SUB] collisions is less efficient than in the hard sphere approximation. This result leads to reevaluation of the energy dependent relaxation cross section and to an upward revision of the reacting efficiency of collisions of N with O[SUB]2[/SUB] to form nitric oxide. The calculated peak NO density increases by a factor of ~2 when the effect of superthermal nitrogen atoms is included. The model response of the N([SUP]4[/SUP]S) energy distribution function and NO density to solar cycle variations is presented. The NO density at 110 km changes from 5.4×10[SUP]7[/SUP] to 1.3×10[SUP]8[/SUP]cm[SUP]-3[/SUP] when the solar F[SUB]10.7[/SUB] index varies from 70 to 245, but its response depends on the magnitude of the soft X ray increase with solar activity. [less ▲]

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See detailFourth supplement to the catalogue of observed periods of Ap stars
Catalano, F. A.; Renson, Pierre ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (1997), 121

New data on the periods of Ap stars with references are presented (Table 1). 21 further stars are introduced for which a periodic variability has recently been discovered or for which it was known before ... [more ▼]

New data on the periods of Ap stars with references are presented (Table 1). 21 further stars are introduced for which a periodic variability has recently been discovered or for which it was known before but it was not reported in previous issues of this catalogue. For many stars also present in previous issues of the catalogue new determinations of the periods are given. Recently attributed variable star names are also quoted. Table 1, notes to this Table and related references are only available in LaTEX form at the CDS via anonymous ftp 130.79.128.5 (filename: DS1178.tex). [less ▲]

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See detailDifferent universality classes for SOC in models driven by extremal dynamics
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Europhysics Letters [=EPL] (1997), 37(1), 1-6

We investigate a simple growth model. The model considers the growth of trees driven by extremal dynamics. Self-organized criticality (SOC) exhibited by the model is discussed. We point out that this tree ... [more ▼]

We investigate a simple growth model. The model considers the growth of trees driven by extremal dynamics. Self-organized criticality (SOC) exhibited by the model is discussed. We point out that this tree-like model does not seem to belong to any already studied SOC universality class. This is shown through a discussion of the dynamics and the so-called gap equation which does not hold here. [less ▲]

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See detailTriblock copolymer based thermoreversible gels. 1. Self-association of sPMMA end-blocks in o-xylene and viscoelasticity of the gels
Yu, Jian Ming; Jérôme, Robert ULg; Teyssié, Philippe

in Polymer (1997), 38(2), 347-354

Syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)-polybutadiene (PBD)-sPMMA triblock copolymers, or MBM, have been studied in the presence of o-xylene which is a selective solvent for the central PBD block ... [more ▼]

Syndiotactic poly(methyl methacrylate) (sPMMA)-polybutadiene (PBD)-sPMMA triblock copolymers, or MBM, have been studied in the presence of o-xylene which is a selective solvent for the central PBD block. Syndiotactic PMMA is known to self associate in o-xylene. The central PBD sequence does not prevent the self-association of sPMMA from occurring. Actually, this phenomenon contributes to the stability of the gels formed at room temperature. An endotherm is observed at 35°C, which is responsible for a gel-sol transition. The original solutions have been heated up to 80°C and then rapidly cooled down below 35°C and maintained at 10, 20 and 25°C respectively. The self-association of the sPMMA outer blocks, and thus the liquid-solid transition, have been studied at each of these temperatures. Dependence of the gel viscosity on frequency and temperature effects on viscoelasticity has also been investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruction and properties of fractal trees with tunable dimension: The interplay of geometry and physics
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review E (1997), 55(1), 94-98

In this paper, we emphasize three different techniques for the growth of fractal trees with a desired fractal dimension D-f. The three different growths are due to the influence of (i) stretched branches ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we emphasize three different techniques for the growth of fractal trees with a desired fractal dimension D-f. The three different growths are due to the influence of (i) stretched branches, (ii) dead ends, or (iii) a variable branching rate. Several examples are given. We point out that geometrical and physical properties (skeleton dimension, percolation exponents, self-avoiding walk) of fractal tress depend strongly on their type. The most striking result is that the critical exponents at the percolation transition are nonuniversal since they depend on the tree type. The critical exponents depend on D-f for trees of types (ii) and (iii). [less ▲]

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See detailIncrease in Cytokine Production (Il-1 Beta, Il-6, Tnf-Alpha but Not Ifn-Gamma, Gm-Csf or Lif) by Stimulated Whole Blood Cells in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis
Zheng, S. X.; Vrindts-Gevaert, Yvonne; Lopez, Marie-Josée ULg et al

in Maturitas (1997), 26(1), 63-71

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a progressive disorder characterized by a decreased bone mass and increased susceptibility to fractures. Several investigations have suggested that one of the mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a progressive disorder characterized by a decreased bone mass and increased susceptibility to fractures. Several investigations have suggested that one of the mechanisms through which estrogen prevents bone loss was a modulation on secretion or release of various cytokines that are known to influence bone remodeling, even if some recent data have challenged this hypothesis. However, in established osteoporosis, the possibility that enhanced cytokines activity may account for the progression of this disease remains unclear and controversial. We sought here to determine whether production of IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, GM-CSF and LIF, after direct stimulation in whole blood, was different in healthy (n = 30) or osteoporotic postmenopausal women (n = 24) and whether lumbar bone density (1-BMD) correlated with the values of cytokine production observed in these conditions. A significant difference was observed between the osteoporotic and control subjects for IL-1 beta (p < 0.0001), IL-6 (p < 0.001) and TNF-alpha (p = 0.027) productions, the values being higher in the osteoporotic women. No significant differences between the groups were observed for IFN-gamma (p = 0.51), GM-CSF (p = 0.70) or LIF (p = 0.97). In the whole population, statistically significant negative correlations were observed between lumbar BMD and IL-1 beta (r = -0.46) (p < 0.0005), IL-6 (r = -0.50) (p < 0.0001) and TNF-alpha (r = -0.39) (p < 0.005) production while no such correlations were observed for IFN-gamma, GM-CSF or LIF. In conclusion, the study of cytokine production by immune cells cultured in autologous whole blood suggests that in women more than 10 years past the menopause and presenting a decrease in lumbar bone density corresponding to the new WHO definition of "osteoporosis', production of IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha is still increased compared to controls matched for age and ovarian function, while no differences are reported for IFN-gamma, GM-CSF or LIF production. [less ▲]

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See detailGeometric and healing laws in simple stochastic models of fracture in a sputtering process
Dhulst, R.; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review. E : Statistical Physics, Plasmas, Fluids, and Related Interdisciplinary Topics (1997), 55(1), 189-193

We investigated two simple models of two-dimensional square lattice fracture under sputtering process conditions extending a previously studied model by Ausloos and Kowalski [Phys. Rev. B 45, 12 830 (1992 ... [more ▼]

We investigated two simple models of two-dimensional square lattice fracture under sputtering process conditions extending a previously studied model by Ausloos and Kowalski [Phys. Rev. B 45, 12 830 (1992)]. The models differ by the particle displacement rules during the fracture. Healing of the medium is observed in both models. This effect implies the formation of several thresholds during sputtering process fracture. They are distributed as a size-dependent power law. An avalanche like exponent is also obtained. We study this phenomenology within scaling arguments of classical percolation theory and mean-field arguments. [less ▲]

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See detailAccident vasculaire cérébral et thrombus aortique chez un patient déficient en protéine S
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Marcelle, Roland ULg et al

in Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux (1997), 90(1), 99-102

The authors report the case of a 50 year old man admitted to hospital with a right hemiplegia and aphasia of sudden onset in whom embolic fragments were found in the left mid and anterior cerebral artery ... [more ▼]

The authors report the case of a 50 year old man admitted to hospital with a right hemiplegia and aphasia of sudden onset in whom embolic fragments were found in the left mid and anterior cerebral artery territories at left carotid angiography : transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated a protrusive plaque of atherosclerosis in the ascending aorta and a pediculated thrombosis in the descending aorta. Biological investigations revealed a protein S level of 3% (normal : 70-140%). This case illustrates the acute development of a thromboembolic phenomenon originating from the aortic arch in a patient with a coagulation defect. [less ▲]

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See detailElevated Plasma Alpha 1-Acid Glycoprotein Levels: Lack of Connection to Resistance to Vecuronium Blockade Induced by Anticonvulsant Therapy
Hans, Pol ULg; Brichant, Jean-François ULg; Pieron, F. et al

in Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology (1997), 9(1), 3-7

This study was designed to investigate the relationships among anticonvulsant therapy, plasma alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels, and resistance to vecuronium blockade. Thirty-one patients scheduled ... [more ▼]

This study was designed to investigate the relationships among anticonvulsant therapy, plasma alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels, and resistance to vecuronium blockade. Thirty-one patients scheduled for routine neurosurgery were included in the study. The patients were treated (TG; n = 20) with phenytoin (n = 15) and/or carbamazepine (n = 4) and/or phenobarbital (n = 3) for > or = 6 days or were left untreated (UG; n = 11, control group). TG patients were further assigned to one of two subgroups according to the plasma anticonvulsant level measured the day before surgery and found to be within (TGW, n = 10) or below (TGB, n = 10) the therapeutic range. Finally, the 31 patients were divided into two more groups according to their plasma AAG levels: higher than (HAAG, n = 17) or within (NAAG, n = 14) the normal range (25-94 mg dl-1). Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and sufentanil. Muscle relaxation was obtained with vecuronium 0.1 mg kg-1. A train-of-four (TOF) stimulation mode at 2 Hz was applied to the ulnar nerve every 15 s, and neuromuscular transmission was assessed using a TOF-Guard accelograph monitor. Plasma AAG concentrations (means +/- SEM) were 103.7 +/- 7.6 mg dl-1 in TG, 80.7 +/- 6.7 mg dl-1 in UG, 95.9 +/- 13.2 mg dl-1 in TGW, 111.6 +/- 7.6 mg dl-1 in TGB. 114.9 +/- 7.4 mg dl-1 in HAAG, and 71.4 +/- 3.8 mg dl-1 in NAAG groups. The differences in plasma AAG concentrations between UG and TG and between HAAG and NAAG groups were statistically significant. No significant relationship was found between plasma AAG levels and phenytoin concentrations (r = -0.26). The time (mean +/- SEM) to recovery of T1 to 25% of control was significantly shorter in TG (28.2 +/- 1.4 min) than in UG (42.2 +/- 3.1 min) but did not differ significantly according to the plasma anticonvulsant level (27.3 +/- 2.0 min in TGW; 29.1 +/- 1.9 min in TGB) and the plasma AAG level 31.7 +/- 1.9 min in HAAG; 35.3 +/- 3.3 min in NAAG). The time for the TOF ratio to recover to 25% yielded similar profiles and statistical significance levels: TG, 32.9 +/- 2.2 min; UG, 51.2 +/- 4.0 min; TGW, 35.0 +/- 3.9 min; TGB, 30.7 +/- 1.8 min; HAAG, 38.1 +/- 3.1 min; NAAG, 42.0 +/- 4.1 min. We conclude that anticonvulsant therapy induces an increase in plasma AAG independently of the plasma anticonvulsant level. However, duration and recovery of vecuronium blockade do not differ according to plasma AAG levels. Consequently, elevated AAG does not contribute to the resistance to vecuronium blockade induced by anticonvulsants. [less ▲]

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See detailCytotoxic interactions of 5-fluorouracil and nucleoside analogues in vitro
Li, Y-X; COUCKE, Philippe ULg; Paschoud, N et al

in Anticancer Research (1997), 17(1A), 21-27

The cytotoxic interaction of combined 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with different nucleoside analogues was investigated in vitro on a colon (WiDr) and a breast (MCF-7) cancer cell line. Azidothymidine (AZT), 3 ... [more ▼]

The cytotoxic interaction of combined 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with different nucleoside analogues was investigated in vitro on a colon (WiDr) and a breast (MCF-7) cancer cell line. Azidothymidine (AZT), 3'-deoxy-2', 3'-didehydrothymidine (D4T), 5-iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (DDC) were tested at different concentrations (5-600 microM) as modulators of 5-FU. The experimental endpoints were cellular viability and cell cycle distribution. The combination of 5-FU and AZT or D4T yielded supra-additive cytotoxic effects in both cell lines at all concentrations. On WiDr, IdUrd at high concentrations of 50 and 100 microM showed a supra-additive effect whereas at low concentrations (5, 10 and 20 microM) the effect was antagonistic. 5-FU combined with IdUrd produced a synergistic effect on MCF-7 cells at all concentrations. DDC antagonised the toxic effect of 5-FU on the WiDr cell line. In WiDr cells, a significant increase in the overall S-phase was observed 48 and 72 hours after exposure to D4T, AZT and DDC at the low concentration of 10 microM. On the contrary, this accumulation in S-phase was not present in MCF-7 cells. The combined effect of 5-FU and nucleoside analogues in vitro is dependent on the type and concentration of nucleosides and the cell-line tested. AZT, D4T and IdUrd are more likely to be subjected to more intensive in vitro and in vivo research as far as modulation of 5-FU toxicity is concerned. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalysis of Equine Scintigraphical Lung Images
Votion, Dominique ULg; Vandenput, Sandrina ULg; Duvivier, H. et al

in Veterinary Journal (1997), 153(1), 49-61

A method is proposed (1) to create inhalation to perfusion ratio (I/Q) images from equine lung scintiscans and (2) to analyse these I/Q images. This method was applied to five healthy horses in order to ... [more ▼]

A method is proposed (1) to create inhalation to perfusion ratio (I/Q) images from equine lung scintiscans and (2) to analyse these I/Q images. This method was applied to five healthy horses in order to establish reference ranges of I/Q distribution pattern. Computed I/Q images were divided in three regions based on the activity due to the inhalation (I) versus perfusion (Q) procedure. For each region a regional mismatching factor (Iri), i.e. the I/Q of the region, and an intraregional mismatching factor (Lri), which expresses the variability of pixels' I/Q within the region, were calculated. The Per(Ri) and Cen(Ri), which are the percentage of pixels in the parenchymal and in the central parts of the lung belonging to the region, were also computed. Results of this analysis showed a good match between I and Q distribution pattern. [less ▲]

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See detailStereotaxic Needle-Core Biopsy and Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Nonpalpable Breast Lesions: Controversies and Future Prospects
Lifrange, Eric ULg; Kridelka, Frédéric ULg; Colin, Claude ULg

in European Journal of Radiology (1997), 24(1), 39-47

OBJECTIVE: To determine the advantages and limitations of a combined stereotaxic fine-needle aspiration biopsy and needle-core biopsy in the diagnosis of 353 nonpalpable breast lesions with special ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To determine the advantages and limitations of a combined stereotaxic fine-needle aspiration biopsy and needle-core biopsy in the diagnosis of 353 nonpalpable breast lesions with special attention given to the collection of follow-up data. METHODS AND MATERIAL: 353 nonpalpable breast lesions underwent 'one pass' stereotaxic fine-needle aspiration (21 gauge needle) and needle-core biopsy (18 gauge needle) at our institution from January 1990 to October 1993. Stereotaxic biopsies were carried out by means of an 'add-on unit'. Surgical biopsy was usually recommended for highly suspicious radiologic patterns and/or needle biopsy reports classified as atypical or malignant. In all other cases mammographic follow-up was advised at 6 months and then annually for 3 years. The data were collected retrospectively during September 1995 (theoretical average follow-up of greater than 3 years). RESULTS: Following the combined needle biopsy technique procedure, surgery was recommended for 83 lesions. Fifty-four cancers were associated to these suspicious lesions. Because of changing radiological or clinical pattern during follow-up (mean follow-up: 22 months), 11 cancers were detected among the 270 lesions initially considered not to need surgery. Forty-three percent of the 65 malignant lesions were initially read as having less than highly suspicious mammographic features. There was no significant difference between the sensitivity and the specificity of one pass fine-needle aspiration biopsy (57% and 96% respectively) and needle-core biopsy (60% and 97% respectively), but noncontributive samples were not included in the false negative diagnoses and atypical samples were included in the true positive diagnoses. Of the 11 missed cancers, nine were manifested initially by clusters of calcifications. Our diagnostic approach was significantly less sensitive (P = 0.006) and less specific (P = 0.032) in cases of clusters of calcifications (31% false negative diagnoses) than in cases of soft-tissue masses (5.5% false negative diagnoses). In this study, an average delay in diagnoses of 22 months was responsible for a significantly increased percentage of axillary node positive invasive cancer (P < 0.001) and six of the 11 missed cancers were palpable at the time of the delayed diagnosis. For the nine cancers initially manifested by calcifications, the 22 months delay in diagnosis was responsible for a nonsignificant increase of microinvasive type at the expense of carcinoma in situ. CONCLUSION: Our enthusiasm with the sensitivity of this double stereotaxic needle sampling has been tempered by the results of this reanalysis in the light of a mean theoretical follow-up of three years. Our diagnostic approach was adequate in the presence of soft-tissue masses but not valid in the presence of clustered calcifications. When dealing with calcifications, multiple samplings must be done in order to improve the sensitivity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, this study does not favour the theory that the majority of mammographically detected cancers are indolent and highlights the poor sensitivity of the mammographic follow-up of nonpalpable lesions. [less ▲]

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See detailExpression of Bone Matrix Proteins in Human Breast Cancer: Potential Roles in Microcalcification Formation and in the Genesis of Bone Metastases
Bellahcene, Akeila ULg; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in Bulletin du Cancer (1997), 84(1), 17-24

The skeleton is the privileged target of metastatic human breast cancer cells. Bone metastases are indeed found in virtually all advanced breast cancer patients and generate major morbidity. The high ... [more ▼]

The skeleton is the privileged target of metastatic human breast cancer cells. Bone metastases are indeed found in virtually all advanced breast cancer patients and generate major morbidity. The high osteotropism of breast cancer cells suggests that they exhibit a selective affinity for mineralized tissues. The observation that mammary malignant cells are able to induce hydroxyapatite crystals deposition within the primary tumour suggests that they can generate a microenvironment that favors the crystallization of calcium and phosphate ions into the bone specific hydroxyapatite. Osteonectin (OSN), osteopontin (OPN) and bone sialoprotein (BSP), 3 bone matrix proteins involved in bone matrix mineralization, are expressed in human breast cancers. BSP, an RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) containing phosphoprotein, initiates hydroxyapatite deposition and mediates attachment of osteoclast to the same crystals prior to their resorption. Detection of BSP at both the protein and the mRNA levels in human breast cancer and in human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47-D and MDA-MB 231) indicates that mammary malignant cells synthesize directly BSP rather than uptaking it from the serum. Interestingly, the level of BSP expression correlates with the development of bone metastases and with poor survival. These data suggest that the ectopic expression of bone matrix proteins could be involved in conferring osteotropic properties to circulating metastatic breast cancer cells. These observations open new alleys of investigation for the identification of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the genesis of bone metastases. [less ▲]

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See detailMiscellaneous and Experimental Agents
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in American Journal of the Medical Sciences (The) (1997), 313(1), 33-40

Current therapeutic approaches to postmenopausal bone loss or established osteoporosis vary widely among the different regions of the world. Because no treatment of osteoporosis has unequivocally ... [more ▼]

Current therapeutic approaches to postmenopausal bone loss or established osteoporosis vary widely among the different regions of the world. Because no treatment of osteoporosis has unequivocally demonstrated full prevention of the appearance or the recurrence of axial or peripheral fractures so far, many investigational compounds are being developed. Anabolic steroids act mainly as inhibitors of bone resorption with very few, if any, effects on bone formation. Because of the high occurrence of signs of virilization and the weak effects on bone structure, the risk/benefit ratio in osteoporosis should be considered at least problematic. If ongoing large-scale trials confirm the expected benefits of estrogen antagonist/agonists on the skeleton and confirm no cardiovascular risk to postmenopausal women with optimal uterine safety, these substances are likely to become the most prominent alternative to hormonal replacement therapy after the menopause. Additional studies are requested to evaluate the potential benefit of growth hormone or insulin-like growth factors in treatment of osteoporosis. Ipriflavone acts predominantly as an inhibitor of bone resorption. To confirm the efficacy of ipriflavone on the prevention of vertebral fractures and its effects on bone mineral density in women with postmenopausal established osteoporosis, a large multicentric European study is being conducted. Treatment with parathyroid peptides induces a significant gain in bone mass, mainly in the axial skeleton. Long-term studies that compare peptides, doses, and regimes are needed to better understand the exact position of parathyroid peptides as treatment of osteoporosis. Prolonged administration of strontium to postmenopausal osteoporotic women resulted in a decoupling between bone resorption and formation that yielded a significant increase in the lumbar spine bone mineral density of treated subjects. In the view of these promising results and of the excellent tolerance of strontium during preliminary trials, additional investigations of this compound in prevention and treatment of osteoporosis should be promptly initiated. Several other compounds have been punctually suggested for treatment of osteoporosis or are at very early stages of development. Finally, besides pharmacologic approaches to the treatment of osteoporosis, hip fractures may also be reduced by the use of hip protectors. [less ▲]

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See detailLiving free radical polymerization of macromonomers: preparation of well defined graft copolymers
Hawker, Craig Jon; Mecerreyes, David; Elce, Edmund et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1997), 198(1), 155-166

Well defined graft copolymers have been synthesized by a nitroxide-mediated "living" free radical process using pre-formed macromonomers. Analysis of the graft systems revealed that the macromonomer was ... [more ▼]

Well defined graft copolymers have been synthesized by a nitroxide-mediated "living" free radical process using pre-formed macromonomers. Analysis of the graft systems revealed that the macromonomer was efficiently incorporated into the polymeric back-bone to give block copolymers of controlled molecular weight and narrow polydispersi-ties. An added benefit of the "living" free radical process is that macromonomers, such as polylactide or polycaprolactone, which contain reactive functional groups can be used to form novel graft Systems using this approach. Functionalized monomers or polymeric initiators were also used in the copolymerization mixture to give graft Systems with a variety of functional groups attached to the backbone. [less ▲]

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See detailStreptococcus difficile Is a Nonhemolytic Group B, Type Ib Streptococcus
Vandamme, Peter; Devriese, L. A.; Pot, B. et al

in International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (1997), 47(1), 81-5

Whole-cell protein electrophoretic analysis of the type strain of Streptococcus difficile (LMG 15799) revealed that this organism was indistinguishable from Streptococcus agalactiae strains. Although LMG ... [more ▼]

Whole-cell protein electrophoretic analysis of the type strain of Streptococcus difficile (LMG 15799) revealed that this organism was indistinguishable from Streptococcus agalactiae strains. Although LMG 15799'r (T = type strain) was originally described as serologically untypeable, we found that this strain was a group B streptococcus belonging to the capsular polysaccharide antigen type Ib group. The biochemical reactivity of S.difficile, which differed from the biochemical reactivity of typical S. agalactiae strains mainly by being less versatile, is similar to the biochemical reactivity of other group B, type Ib streptococci isolated from poikilothermic animals, such as fish and frogs. [less ▲]

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See detailLes Banyarwanda du Sud-Kivu: les Banyamulenge?
Kabamba, Bob ULg

in Revue Nouvelle (1997), (n°1), 7-15

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See detailCalcitonine et vieillissement osseux
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Pathologie Biologie (1997), 45(1), 52-6

There appears to be a consensus that 100 IU/day of nasally administered salmon calcitonin may prevent trabecular bone loss during the first years of the menopause. Strong evidence exists that half that ... [more ▼]

There appears to be a consensus that 100 IU/day of nasally administered salmon calcitonin may prevent trabecular bone loss during the first years of the menopause. Strong evidence exists that half that dose may also be sufficient to prevent trabecular bone loss and that higher doses (> or = 200 IU/day) induce a significant increase in spinal bone mineral content. Calcium supplements should be systemically administered when calcitonin is given, particularly at high doses. Rectal calcitonin seems also to be an efficient alternative in prevention of trabecular bone loss. Further studies are required to evaluate the effect of calcitonin in prevention of cortical bone loss. In established osteoporosis, calcitonin may prevent further bone loss at trabecular and cortical sites. A similar benefit is obtained following parenteral or nasal administration of the drug. Long-term administration of nasal salmon calcitonin induces a significant dose-dependent gain of bone at the lumbar spine, whereas discontinuous therapy with a ratio of 1:2 or 2:3 between the treatment and nontreatment periods is the best regimen for cortical bone. Epidemiological, retrospective, and prospective studies provide a convergent network of evidence that calcitonin administration in osteoporosis contributes to reduce significantly the frequency of subsequent fractures, both in the spine and in the hip. Finally, in established osteoporosis, nasal calcitonin possesses a potent analgesic effect, reduces the duration of bed confinement, and decreases the number of concomitant analgesic medications. The well-demonstrated effects of nasal calcitonin permit it to be considered as a highly rational solution for the prevention and the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. [less ▲]

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See detailLes taxanes : un nouvelle classe d'agents cytotoxiques
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Fillet, Georges ULg

in Médecine et Hygiène (1997), 55

Paclitaxel et docetaxel sont de novueaux agents cytotoxiques qui présentent un mécanisme d'action tout à fait original. Les taxanes favorisent la polymérisation des dimères alpha et bêta de la tubuline et ... [more ▼]

Paclitaxel et docetaxel sont de novueaux agents cytotoxiques qui présentent un mécanisme d'action tout à fait original. Les taxanes favorisent la polymérisation des dimères alpha et bêta de la tubuline et sont responsables d'anomalies stables de la structure des microtubules ainsi que de la formation anarchique de nombreux astères non fonctionnels. Des résultats encourageants sont observés dans le traitement de deuxième ligne d'une grande variété de cancers. La toxicité est acceptable si l'on utilise une prémédication anti-allergique. Le paclitaxel est indiqué dans le traitement de première ligne du cancer ovarien avancé et de deuxième ligne du cancer du sein métastatique réfractaire aux anthracyclines. Le remboursement dans d'autres indications est à l'étude dans les années à venir. [less ▲]

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See detailLe maintien des droits aux prestations de santé lors d'une séparation de fait ou de corps
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Divorce : Actualité Juridique, Sociale et Fiscale (1997)

L'article examine la question du maintien des droits aux prestations de santé lors d'une séparation de corps ou d'une séparation de fait.

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See detailReliability of the TEC computed using GPS measurements: the problem of hardware biases
Warnant, René ULg

in Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica Hungarica (1997), 32(3-4), 451-459

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See detailRelationship of human follicular diameter with oocyte fertilization and development after in-vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Ectors, Fabien ULg; Vanderzwalmen, P.; Van Hoeck, J. et al

in Human Reproduction (1997), 12(9), 2002-2005

The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between follicular size at the time of oocyte retrieval, and the subsequent oocyte competence to be fertilized and to develop in vitro. All the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between follicular size at the time of oocyte retrieval, and the subsequent oocyte competence to be fertilized and to develop in vitro. All the obtained oocytes were classified according to the corresponding volume of aspirated follicular fluid. Aspirated volume of follicular fluid <2 ml corresponded to a follicular diameter <16 mm and constituted the small size group. Volume of follicular fluid from 2 to 6 ml corresponded to a diameter from 16 to 23 mm and constituted the medium size group. The large size group contained follicles with diameter >23 mm and corresponded to an aspirated volume of follicular fluid of >6 ml. A progressive and significant increase in the rates of oocytes with a first polar body was observed from the small size group to the other groups and from the medium to the large size group: 75.3, 85.9 and 95.3% respectively. After classical in-vitro fertilization (IVF), significantly better rates of fertilization and development were obtained in the medium size group compared to the two other groups. Moreover, a positive relationship was observed between follicular diameter and rates of embryos scored as 'good' when oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These results demonstrated that follicular size is positively related to the oocyte ability to be fertilized and to develop. Although oocytes from small follicles gave lower percentages of development probably due to partial oocyte incompetence, they allowed an increase in the total number of embryos scored as 'good'. [less ▲]

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See detailRecherches karstologiques au Sud Cameroun
Willems, Luc ULg

in Regards (1997), 28

Several karsts have been studied in South Cameroon, booth in gneiss and granite lithologies.

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See detailTextural properties and thermal stability of silica-zirconia aerogels
Pirard, René ULg; Bonhomme, Damien; Kolibos, Sofia et al

in Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (1997), 8

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See detailTransgenic mice expressing the human inducible Hsp70 have hippocampal neurons resistant to ischemic injury.
Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg; Krueger, A. M.; Currie, R. W. et al

in Cell Stress & Chaperones (1997), 2(3), 162-7

Using transgenic mice constitutively expressing the human inducible Hsp70, we examined the role of Hsp70 on cell survival after focal cerebral ischemia. Twenty-four hours after permanent occlusion of the ... [more ▼]

Using transgenic mice constitutively expressing the human inducible Hsp70, we examined the role of Hsp70 on cell survival after focal cerebral ischemia. Twenty-four hours after permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery, no difference in infarct area was detected between Hsp70-transgenic and non-transgenic mice. In the non-transgenic mice, many pyramidal neurons of the ipsilateral hippocampus were observed to be pyknotic. However, in all Hsp70-transgenic mice, hippocampal pyramidal neurons showed normal morphology and no evidence of pyknosis. This suggests that constitutive expression of Hsp70 reduces the extent of damage following permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. [less ▲]

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See detailRheological characterization on the BaTiO3 sol-gel transition
Van Cantfort, Olivier; Brasseur, Alain; Michaux, Bernard et al

in Faraday Discussions (1997), 101

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See detailBovine herpesvirus type 4. In Lymphotropicherpesviruses: Epstein-Barr virus and Human herpesvirus 8
Thiry, Etienne ULg; Lomonte, P.; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg et al

in International Agency for research on cancer (1997)

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See detailCharacterization of the IGF system and analysis of the possible molecular mechanisms leading to IGF-II overexpression in a mesothelioma.
Hodzic, D.; Delacroix, Laurence ULg; Willemsen, P. et al

in Hormone & Metabolic Research (1997), 29(11), 549-55

The expression of members of the IGF system in a mesothelioma from a patient suffering from hypoglycemia, in term placenta and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells were compared. Very high levels of IGF-II ... [more ▼]

The expression of members of the IGF system in a mesothelioma from a patient suffering from hypoglycemia, in term placenta and HT29 colon adenocarcinoma cells were compared. Very high levels of IGF-II mRNA and protein were detected in the mesothelioma. Moreover, half of the IGF-II protein took the high-molecular-weight form. We also analyzed the parental imprinting status and the promoter usage of the IGF-II gene. Our results showed loss of imprinting (LOI) in the mesothelioma while the imprinting was maintained in HT29 cells, expressing moderate levels of the transcript. Promoter P4 was active in the three tissues we analyzed, whereas IGF-II mRNA transcription from promoter P3 was only detected in the mesothelioma and the placenta, expressing comparably high levels of the transcript. IGF-II gene structure was identical in the analyzed tissues and cells. The type-I receptor mRNA expression was very low in the tumor. IGFBP-2, -4 and -5 mRNAs were detected in the mesothelioma, while IGFBP-2, -3 and -5 transcripts were detected in the placenta. IGFBP-1 and -6 transcripts were not detected. [less ▲]

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See detailComment les enseignants évaluent-ils la géométrie au premier degré de l'enseignement secondaire ?
Burton, Réginald; Detheux-Jehin, Monique; Fagnant, Annick ULg

in Informations pédagogiques (1997), 38(15), 24

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See detailLes peuplements à graines. Concept, réglementations et mise en oeuvre.
Vanslembrouck, C.; Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Silva Belgica (1997), 104(4), 17-21

La rentabilité de la propriété forestière qui, dans une large mesure, conditionne la pérennité des forêts gérées intensivement fait de plus en plus l'objet des préoccupations des chercheurs, sylviculteurs ... [more ▼]

La rentabilité de la propriété forestière qui, dans une large mesure, conditionne la pérennité des forêts gérées intensivement fait de plus en plus l'objet des préoccupations des chercheurs, sylviculteurs, gestionnaires et responsables des politiques forestières. Dans ce contexte, lorsqu'il s'agit de la création et de l'enrichissement de peuplements, veiller à respecter la meilleure adéquation possible entre le sol et l'essence n'est pas tout, encore faut-il ensuite utiliser un matériel génétique de qualité en particulier lors de régénérations artificielles. C'est à ce dernier point, et plus particulièrement aux peuplements à graines, que les lignes suivantes sont consacrées. Nous envisagerons successivement ce qu'il convient communément d'entendre par peuplement à graines (§ 2), sa raison d'être (§ 3) et le processus d'identification de celui-ci (§ 4) avant de tirer quelques brèves conclusions. [less ▲]

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See detailImpaired LTP induction in dentate gyrus of calretinin-deficient mice
Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Schiffmann, S. N.; Gurden, H. et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (1997), 94

Calretinin (Cr) is a Ca21 binding protein present in various populations of neurons distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We have generated Cr-deficient (Cr2/2) mice by gene targeting ... [more ▼]

Calretinin (Cr) is a Ca21 binding protein present in various populations of neurons distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We have generated Cr-deficient (Cr2/2) mice by gene targeting and have investigated the associated phenotype. Cr2/2 mice were viable, and a large number of morphological, biochemical, and behavioral parameters were found unaffected. In the normal mouse hippocampus, Cr is expressed in a widely distributed subset of GABAergic interneurons and in hilar mossy cells of the dentate gyrus. Because both types of cells are part of local pathways innervating dentate granule cells andyor pyramidal neurons, we have explored in Cr2/2 mice the synaptic transmission between the perforant pathway and granule cells and at the Schaffer commissural input to CA1 pyramidal neurons. Cr2/2 mice showed no alteration in basal synaptic transmission, but long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in the dentate gyrus. Normal LTP could be restored in the presence of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline, suggesting that in Cr2/2 dentate gyrus an excess of g-minobutyric acid (GABA) release interferes with LTP induction. Synaptic transmission and LTP were normal in CA1 area, which contains only few Cr-positive GABAergic interneurons. Cr2/2 mice performed normally in spatial memory task. These results suggest that expression of Cr contributes to the control of synaptic plasticity in mouse dentate gyrus by indirectly regulating the activity of GABAergic interneurons, and that Cr2/2 mice represent a useful tool to understand the role of dentate LTP in learning and memory [less ▲]

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See detailPhysical activity and cardiovascular risk factors in children. The Belgian Luxembourg Child Study.
Guillaume, Michèle ULg; Lapidus, L.; Bjorntorp, P.

in Obesity Research (1997)

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See detailAntitumor and radiosensitizing effects of (E)-2'-Deoxy-2'-(Fluoromethylene) cytidine, a novel inhibior of ribonucleotide diphosphate reductase on human colon carcinoma xenografts in nude mice.
Sun, Lin-Quan; Li, Ye-Xiong; Guillou, Louis et al

in Cancer Research (1997), 57

Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of (E).2'-deoxy.2'-(fluromethyl ene) cytidine (FMdC), a novel inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, were evaluated on nude mice bearing s.c. xenografts and liver ... [more ▼]

Antitumor and radiosensitizing effects of (E).2'-deoxy.2'-(fluromethyl ene) cytidine (FMdC), a novel inhibitor of ribonucleotide reductase, were evaluated on nude mice bearing s.c. xenografts and liver metastases of a human colon carcinoma. FMdC given once daily or twice weekly has a dose-dependent antitumor effect. The maximum tolerated dose In the mice was reached with 10 mgi'kg applied daily over 12 days. Twice weekly administration of FMdC reduced its toxicity but lowered the antitumor effect. Treatment of preestablished liver micrometastases obtained via intrasplenic injection of tumor cells, with 5 or 10 mgfkg FMdC, signifi candy prolonged the survival of the mice as compared to controls (P < 0.025 and P < 0.001, respectively). Ten mg/kg resulted in longer survival than S mg/kg FMdC (P < 0.05). Radiotherapy alone of s.c. xenografts (10 fractions over 12 days) yielded the radiation dose required to produce local tumor control in 50% of the treated mice (TCD@O)of 43.0 Gy. When combined with FMdC, TCDsawas reduced to 22.5 and 19.0 Gy at doses of 5 and 10 mg/kg given i.p. 1 h before each irradiation, respec tively. The corresponding enhancement ratios were 1.91 and 2.43, respec lively. FMdC produced moderate and reversible myelosuppression. When 5 mg/kg FMdC was combined with irradiation, there was no increased skin or hematological toxicity as compared to radiotherapy or FMdC alone. At the 10 mg/kg level, however, lower leukocyte counts were observed. These results show that FMdC appears to be a potent anticancer drug and radiosensitizer [less ▲]

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See detailDynamique de défense du nid chez Symphodus ocellatus (Forsskål, 1775), poisson labridé méditerranéen. I. Comportements agonistiques entre le mâle territorial nidificateur et cinq autres espèces de labridés
Ylieff, Marc ULg; Michel, Christian ULg; Voss, Jacques

in Cahiers d'Ethologie (1997), 17(1), 49-74

This research in the field consists of a study of interspecific agonistic behaviour of territorial male in Symphodus ocellatus. This behaviour is useful for brood and nest defense. Four questions ... [more ▼]

This research in the field consists of a study of interspecific agonistic behaviour of territorial male in Symphodus ocellatus. This behaviour is useful for brood and nest defense. Four questions involving Symphodus ocellatus towards S. tinca, S. mediterraneus, S. roissali, Thalassoma pavo et Coris julis were investigated. The questions of interest were: (1) aggressors or intruders motivations (predation of the brood (a) and/or territorial conflicts (b)), (2) the recognition of this or that species (recognition studied with selective attacks by territorial male), (3) the organ(s) of perception used for this recognition and (4) the importance of territorial male investment in nest defense; this role could ensure a successful reproduction of the species. Our observations and experimentations (tested labrid fishes presented to T. males) allow us to affirm that in S. ocellatus, nesting territorial males recognize the various tested labrid fishes; that the organ of perception used for social recognition is the visual channel; that spawn protection insured by territorial male, a task guided by his visual system, is necessary towards menace of his congeners, but also the other fishes living in his habitat. Nevertheless, if it’s becoming clear that the Mediterranean labrid fishes have the ability to recognize and preferentially interact with particular individuals, the answer of the question 1, concerning aggressors motivations, is not yet clearly known. [less ▲]

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See detailMulti-Cité, une expérience de formation initiale inédite
Beckers, Jacqueline ULg; Stegen, Pierre; Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg et al

in Puzzle (1997), 2(juin), 10-16

L'article présente l'expérience de formation co-jointe de futurs professeurs de géographie de l'ULg et de la Haute Ecole Charlemagne via la réalisation d'un jeu pédagogique portant sur la gestion urbaine ... [more ▼]

L'article présente l'expérience de formation co-jointe de futurs professeurs de géographie de l'ULg et de la Haute Ecole Charlemagne via la réalisation d'un jeu pédagogique portant sur la gestion urbaine, jeu publié dans GEO 41. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrastructural nucleolar alterations induced by an ametantrone/polyr(A-U) complex.
Thiry, Marc ULg; Jamison, J. M.; Gilloteaux, J. et al

in Experimental Cell Research (1997), 236(1), 275-84

In the present study we examined the ultrastructural modifications as well as the precise distribution of DNA and RNA in RT4 cell nucleoli following a 3-h exposure to nontoxic or toxic doses of ... [more ▼]

In the present study we examined the ultrastructural modifications as well as the precise distribution of DNA and RNA in RT4 cell nucleoli following a 3-h exposure to nontoxic or toxic doses of ametantrone (AMT), poly(adenylate-uridylate) (polyr(A-U), or an AMT/polyr(A-U) combination. While distribution of nucleic acids within the various nucleolar components is not modified following all treatments, the nucleoli exhibit several ultrastructural changes: redistribution of the nucleolar components, decrease in the number of fibrillar centers, and increase in the size of the fibrillar centers. The relative frequencies of the test agents to induce the apparition of nucleoli of compact type are AMT/polyr(A-U) > AMT approximately polyr(A-U) > sham-treated, while the abilities of the test agents to induce the nucleolar segregation are AMT/polyr(A-U) approximately AMT > polyr(A-U) > sham-treated cells. These ultrastructural changes are characteristics of drugs that intercalate into DNA and inhibit rDNA transcription as well as rRNA processing and release of nascent preribosomes from the nucleolus. [less ▲]

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