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See detailInterstellar Bubbles in Two Young H II Regions
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Chu, You-Hua; Points, Sean D et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2001), 122

Massive stars are expected to produce wind-blown bubbles in the interstellar medium; however, ring nebulae, suggesting the existence of bubbles, are rarely seen around main-sequence O stars. To search for ... [more ▼]

Massive stars are expected to produce wind-blown bubbles in the interstellar medium; however, ring nebulae, suggesting the existence of bubbles, are rarely seen around main-sequence O stars. To search for wind-blown bubbles around main-sequence O stars, we have obtained high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images and high-dispersion echelle spectra of two pristine H II regions, N11B and N180B, in the Large Magellanic Cloud. These H II regions are ionized by OB associations that still contain O3 stars, suggesting that the H II regions are young and have not hosted any supernova explosions. Our observations show that wind-blown bubbles in these H II regions can be detected kinematically, but not morphologically, because their expansion velocities are comparable to or only slightly higher than the isothermal sound velocity in the H II regions. Bubbles are detected around concentrations of massive stars, individual O stars, and even an evolved red supergiant (a fossil bubble). Comparisons between the observed bubble dynamics and model predictions show a large discrepancy (1-2 orders of magnitude) between the stellar wind luminosity derived from bubble observations and models and that derived from observations of stellar winds. The number and distribution of bubbles in N11B differ from those in N180B, which can be explained by the difference in the richness of stellar content between these two H II regions. Most of the bubbles observed in N11B and N180B show a blister structure, indicating that the stars were formed on the surfaces of dense clouds. Numerous small dust clouds, similar to Bok globules or elephant trunks, are detected in these H II regions, and at least one of them hosts on-going star formation. [less ▲]

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See detailNeurotransmitters as Early Signals for Central Nervous System Development
Nguyen, Laurent ULg; Rigo, Jean-Michel; Rocher, Véronique et al

in Cell & Tissue Research (2001), 305(2), 187-202

During brain ontogenesis, the temporal and spatial generation of the different types of neuronal and glial cells from precursors occurs as a sequence of successive progenitor stages whose proliferation ... [more ▼]

During brain ontogenesis, the temporal and spatial generation of the different types of neuronal and glial cells from precursors occurs as a sequence of successive progenitor stages whose proliferation, survival and cell-fate choice are controlled by environmental and cellular regulatory molecules. Neurotransmitters belong to the chemical microenvironment of neural cells, even at the earliest stages of brain development. It is now established that specific neurotransmitter receptors are present on progenitor cells of the developing central nervous system and could play, during neural development, a role that has remained unsuspected until recently. The present review focuses on the occurrence of neurotransmitters and their corresponding ligand-gated ion channel receptors in immature cells, including neural stem cells of specific embryonic and neonatal brain regions. We summarize in vitro and in vivo data arguing that neurotransmitters could regulate morphogenetic events such as proliferation, growth, migration, differentiation and survival of neural precursor cells. The understanding of neurotransmitter function during early neural maturation could lead to the development of pharmacological tools aimed at improving adult brain repair strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationship between bone mass density and tensile strength of the skin in women
Pierard, Gérald ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Vanderplaetsen, S. et al

in European Journal of Clinical Investigation (2001), 31(8), 731-735

BACKGROUND: Skin and bone may be affected similarly during the climacteric and during long-term corticotherapy. Little is known about the correlation between the respective alterations in bone mass ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Skin and bone may be affected similarly during the climacteric and during long-term corticotherapy. Little is known about the correlation between the respective alterations in bone mass density (BMD) and tensile strength of the skin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 women aged 19-88 years, receiving, or not, hormone replenishment therapy or systemic corticosteroids, were enrolled in the study. Tensile strength of the inner forearm skin was measured using the suction method operated in both the steep and progressive-force application modes. BMD was measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry at the hip, femoral neck and lumbar spine. RESULTS: Being heterogeneous, the population of volunteers yielded a wide range of BMD and cutaneous tensile strength values. However, significant correlations were found between BMD and tensile skin parameters. In particular, a positive correlation was yielded between the biological elasticity of skin and the BMD of the hip and femoral neck. CONCLUSION: An overall correlation is shown between skin elasticity on a relatively sun-protected area and cortico-trabecular BMD. [less ▲]

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See detailCascades of Popping Bubbles Along Air/Foam Interfaces
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Lentz, J. F.

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2001), 64(2, Pt 1), 21507

We report image analysis of popping bubbles during the collapsing of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D aqueous foams. Although temporal and spatial correlations between successive popping bubbles within ... [more ▼]

We report image analysis of popping bubbles during the collapsing of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D aqueous foams. Although temporal and spatial correlations between successive popping bubbles within avalanches are emphasized, the breaking of a soap film at the air/foam interface seems to be independent of (i) the topology, (ii) the local curvature, and (iii) the size of the popping bubble. Possible mechanisms for cascades of pops are proposed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLes toxidermies iatrogenes, une rancon de la quete de la sante
Fumal, I.; Sriha, B.; Paquet, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(8), 583-91

Muco-cutaneous drug reactions are side effects secondary to the intake of various medications. They are quite frequent and diverse in their clinical presentation, pathogeny, histology and prognosis. It is ... [more ▼]

Muco-cutaneous drug reactions are side effects secondary to the intake of various medications. They are quite frequent and diverse in their clinical presentation, pathogeny, histology and prognosis. It is important to diagnose and adequately monitor the disease in its early evolving phase. [less ▲]

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See detailA unified approach to transient stability contingency filtering, ranking and assessment
Ernst, Damien ULg; Ruiz-Vega, Daniel; Pavella, Mania ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2001), 16(3), 435-443

This paper proposes a unified approach to contingency filtering, ranking and assessment in power system transient stability studies. The approach consists of two-block techniques in which the first block ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a unified approach to contingency filtering, ranking and assessment in power system transient stability studies. The approach consists of two-block techniques in which the first block selects from a list of contingencies the a priori “interesting” ones, that the second block ranks and assesses. This Filtering, Ranking and Assessment (FILTRA) approach relies on SIME (for SIngle Machine Equivalent). SIME is a hybrid direct-time-domain stability method which combines accuracy and flexibility skills of time-domain methods with sound additional possibilities of direct methods. The FILTRA approach is fully general: it may adapt itself to the specifics of any power system (modeling, protection characteristics, etc.), any contingency scenario and mode of (in)stability (first- or multi-swing, local or inter-area mode) and any application context (planning, operation planning and real-time operation). The approach is illustrated on two EHV power systems, having different structures, control and protective devices. The adequacy of its filtering and ranking capabilities is illustrated in terms of performance criteria such as reliability (ability to consistently capture all dangerous contingencies), effectiveness (ability to avoid false alarms) and computational efficiency (ability to comply with real-time requirements). Further, the assessment task is shown to provide the operator with sound information and effective means of control. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse de 516 rapports de reaction apres transfusion de produits sanguins labiles
Frere, M.C.; Rapaille, A.; Bouillenne, C. et al

in Transfusion Clinique et Biologique (2001), 8(4), 333-42

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the implemented preventive measures of transfusion reactions (TR) and to make a study of residual reactions, we analyzed 516 TR reports from 14 hospitals, for three years ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: In order to assess the implemented preventive measures of transfusion reactions (TR) and to make a study of residual reactions, we analyzed 516 TR reports from 14 hospitals, for three years since 1996 to 1998. METHODS: Clinical signs were classified according to seven etiologic categories. Systematic anti-erythrocyte and anti-leucocyte detection, as well as bacterial control of the returned bag were performed. RESULTS: The TR incidence is 3.7 per 1.000 products. Platelet concentrates (PC) provoke 7.4 TR per 1.000 transfusions, and red cell concentrates (RCC) 3.8. There are as many TR with apheresis platelets (AP), pre-storage leuco-depleted, as with random platelets, post-storage leuco-depleted, and as many with leuco-depleted RCC as with non leuco-depleted RCC. Leuco-depleted AP provoke more allergic reactions than other blood components. TR with AP are much more frequent in children than in adults. Plasma removal from AP before transfusion decreases reaction frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The lack in efficacy failure of pre-storage deleucocytation in TR prevention should be due to related patient factors. Etiology of AP allergic reactions deserves further study. PC suspension in synthetic medium before transfusion is an efficient means for RT decreasing. Hemovigilance system has to be improved so that all TR be reported. [less ▲]

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See detailL'Intérêt Herpétologique des carrières du Condroz oriental (Province de Liège, Belgique)
Graitson, Eric ULg

in Natura Mosana (2001), 53(2), 110-118

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See detailReversal of Chloroquine and Mefloquine Resistance in Plasmodium Falciparum by the Two Monoindole Alkaloids, Icajine and Isoretuline
Frederich, Michel ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Planta Medica (2001), 67(6), 523-7

Eight naturally occurring monoindole alkaloids were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth and, in drug combination, to reverse the resistance of a chloroquine ... [more ▼]

Eight naturally occurring monoindole alkaloids were evaluated in vitro for their ability to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum growth and, in drug combination, to reverse the resistance of a chloroquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. None of these indole alkaloids has significant intrinsic antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) > 10 microM or 5 microg/ml). Nevertheless, three alkaloids (icajine, isoretuline and strychnobrasiline) did reverse chloroquine resistance at concentrations between 2.5 and 25 microg/ml (IF of 12.82 for isoretuline on W2 strain). The Interaction Factor (IF) equals 2, < 2, or > 2 for additive, antagonistic or synergistic effects of alkaloids on chloroquine inhibition, respectively. Icajine and isoretuline were also assessed in vitro for their mefloquine potentiating activity on a mefloquine-resistant strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Only icajine proved to be synergistic with mefloquine (IF = 15.38). [less ▲]

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See detailMutations Inactivating Mitochondrial Genes in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii
Remacle, Claire ULg; Duby, Franceline ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg et al

in Biochemical Society Transactions (2001), 29(Pt 4), 442-6

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is now becoming a useful model for the study of mitochondrial genetics in a photosynthetic organism. The small (15.8 kb) mitochondrial genome C. reinhardtii has been sequenced ... [more ▼]

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is now becoming a useful model for the study of mitochondrial genetics in a photosynthetic organism. The small (15.8 kb) mitochondrial genome C. reinhardtii has been sequenced completely and all the genes have been identified. Several mutants inactivated in mitochondrial genes encoding components of the respiratory complexes I, III and IV have been characterized at the molecular level. Assembly of complex I in several mutant strains and mapping of mitochondrial mutations by recombinational analysis are also described. [less ▲]

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See detailPositron Emission Tomography (PET) for Staging Low-Grade Non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas (NHL)
Najjar, F.; Hustinx, Roland ULg; Jerusalem, Guy ULg et al

in Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals (2001), 16(4), 297-304

Although positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is now recognized as a useful tool for staging intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), few data are available regarding its accuracy ... [more ▼]

Although positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is now recognized as a useful tool for staging intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), few data are available regarding its accuracy in low grade NHL. We therefore studied 36 patients with histologically proven low-grade NHL. Whole-body 2-(fluorine-18) fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET was performed at the time of initial diagnosis (n = 21) or for disease recurrence (n = 15) prior to any treatment. PET results were compared to those of physical examination and computed tomography (CT). PET studies were read without knowledge of any clinical data. Any focus of increased activity was described and given a probability of malignancy using a 5 point-scale (0: normal to 4: definitively malignant). An individual biopsy was available for a total of 31 lesions. The sensitivity and specificity were 87% and 100% for FDG-PET, 100% and 100% for physical examination and 90% and 100% for CT respectively. In addition, 42 of 97 peripheral lymph node lesions observed by FDG-PET were clinically undetected, whereas the physical examination detected 23 additional nodal lesions. PET and CT both indicated 12 extranodal lymphomatous localizations. FDG-PET showed 7 additional extranodal lesions while 5 additional unconfirmed lesions were observed on CT. Regarding bone marrow infiltration, PET and biopsy were concordant in 24 patients with 11 true positive (TP) and 13 true negative (TN). However PET was FN in 11 patients and no biopsy was performed in one patient. The combination PET/CT/physical examination seems to be more sensitive than the conventional approach for staging low grade NHL. Its sensitivity however is unacceptably low for diagnosing bone marrow infiltration. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of fluorescent polyethylene glycols (PEGs) to assess intestinal permeability in vitro
Loret, S; Pirson, L; Nollevaux, G et al

in Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology (2001), 442(5), 187

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Syndrome dyskinetique majeur induit par la ranitidine
Fouddah, A.; Canivet, Jean-Luc ULg; Damas, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(8), 548-551

We report a case of severe dyskinetic syndrome, consisting of intense myoclonia movements, associated with choreiform activity involving the face and upper extremities. The abnormal movements occurred in ... [more ▼]

We report a case of severe dyskinetic syndrome, consisting of intense myoclonia movements, associated with choreiform activity involving the face and upper extremities. The abnormal movements occurred in a patient with confusion and visual hallucinations. This syndrome had an abrupt onset in a patient recovering from coronary artery bypass surgery complicated by an early post-operative cardiac arrest and acute renal failure. Dyskinesia appeared several days after intravenous administration of ranitidine for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Several etiologies were raised in this case among which were post-anoxic myoclonia and metabolic encephalopathy. Cessation of histamine receptor blocker therapy for 48 hours was associated with return of normal cognitive function and disappearance of abnormal movements. This confirmed the iatrogenic nature of the syndrome related to administration of ranitidine. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental evaluation of materials and buildings processes : application of the life cycle analysis to the construction of an industrial hall
Courard, Luc ULg; Rademaker, C.; Teller, P.

in Materials and Structures (2001), 34

Methodologies based on Life Cycle Assesment (L.C.A) give the opportunity to realise a global and complete evaluation of the environmental effects of products from their production to their use and ... [more ▼]

Methodologies based on Life Cycle Assesment (L.C.A) give the opportunity to realise a global and complete evaluation of the environmental effects of products from their production to their use and elimination (from craddle to grave); methods used for analysis are internationally wellknown and standardised. These methods are rarely used in construction materials area, although materials flows and energy consumption are important and constructions have a long way of life. A calculation methodology, based on ecofactors/ecopoints, has been used for the analysis of industrial hall made of concrete, steel, or concrete/wood structure; materials but also construction process are compared at the point of view of their environmental impact. This analysis completes the technical and economical approaches for the construction owner and designer and gives a global view of the interaction between construction and civil engineering, and environment. [less ▲]

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See detailReduced Glutathione System: Role in Cancer Development, Prevention and Treatment (Review)
Locigno, R.; Castronovo, Vincenzo ULg

in International Journal of Oncology (2001), 19(2), 221-36

Reduced glutathione (GSH), a ubiquitous thiol-containing tripeptide, is unanimously recognized to play a central role in cell biology. It is highly implicated in the cellular defense against xenobiotics ... [more ▼]

Reduced glutathione (GSH), a ubiquitous thiol-containing tripeptide, is unanimously recognized to play a central role in cell biology. It is highly implicated in the cellular defense against xenobiotics and naturally occurring deleterious compounds such as free radicals and hydroperoxides. Consequently, GSH is an essential actor in several human diseases including cancer and cardio-vascular diseases. Its implication in oncogenesis has led to the development of new strategies to improve both prevention and treatment of cancer. The present review proposes an in depth analysis or our current knowledge of the relations between GSH and cancer. [less ▲]

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See detailComment intégrer l'automesure de la pression artérielle dans la mise au point de l'hypertendu
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(8), 552-556

Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone of the diagnosis and follow up of arterial hypertension. Because of its large variability, the office blood pressure measurement can hardly be trusted. The ... [more ▼]

Blood pressure measurement is the cornerstone of the diagnosis and follow up of arterial hypertension. Because of its large variability, the office blood pressure measurement can hardly be trusted. The blood pressure self measurement allows more precisely to select the hypertensive patients (BP > 135/85 mmHg), to follow with more accuracy patients with important blood pressure variability and to check the efficacy of antihypertensive treatment. The self blood pressure measurement is at the early stage of its scientific period of development but requires the use of strictly validated devices which only measure the blood pressure at the brachial level. [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative Analysis of the Stabilization by Substrate of Staphylococcus Aureus Pc1 Beta-Lactamase
Lejeune, Annabelle ULg; Vanhove, Marc; Lamotte-Brasseur, Josette et al

in Chemistry & Biology (2001), 8(8), 831-42

BACKGROUND: The stabilization of enzymes in the presence of substrates has been recognized for a long time. Quantitative information regarding this phenomenon is, however, rather scarce since the enzyme ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The stabilization of enzymes in the presence of substrates has been recognized for a long time. Quantitative information regarding this phenomenon is, however, rather scarce since the enzyme destroys the potential stabilizing agent during the course of the experiments. In this work, enzyme unfolding was followed by monitoring the progressive decrease of the rate of substrate utilization by the Staphylococcus aureus PC1 beta-lactamase, at temperatures above the melting point of the enzyme. RESULTS: Enzyme inactivation was directly followed by spectrophotometric measurements. In the presence of substrate concentrations above the K(m) values, significant stabilization was observed with all tested compounds. A combination of unfolding kinetic measurements and enzymatic studies, both under steady-state and non-steady-state regimes, allowed most of the parameters characteristic of the two concurrent phenomena (i.e. substrate hydrolysis and enzyme denaturation) to be evaluated. In addition, molecular modelling studies show a good correlation between the extent of stabilization, and the magnitude of the energies of interaction with the enzyme. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that the enzyme is substantially stabilized towards heat-induced denaturation, independently of the relative proportions of non-covalent Henri-Michaelis complex (ES) and acyl-enzyme adduct (ES*). Thus, for those substrates with which the two catalytic intermediates are expected to be significantly populated, both species (ES and ES*) appear to be similarly stabilized. This analysis contributes a new quantitative approach to the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailKinetic Study of Two Novel Enantiomeric Tricyclic Beta-Lactams Which Efficiently Inactivate Class C Beta-Lactamases
Vilar, M.; Galleni, Moreno ULg; Solmajer, T. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2001), 45(8), 2215-23

A detailed kinetic study of the interaction between two ethylidene derivatives of tricyclic carbapenems, Lek 156 and Lek 157, and representative beta-lactamases and D-alanyl-D-alanine peptidases (DD ... [more ▼]

A detailed kinetic study of the interaction between two ethylidene derivatives of tricyclic carbapenems, Lek 156 and Lek 157, and representative beta-lactamases and D-alanyl-D-alanine peptidases (DD-peptidases) is presented. Both compounds are very efficient inactivators of the Enterobacter cloacae 908R beta-lactamase, which is usually resistant to inhibition. Preliminary experiments indicate that various extended-spectrum class C beta-lactamases (ACT-1, CMY-1, and MIR-1) are also inactivated. With the E. cloacae 908R enzyme, complete inactivation occurs with a second-order rate constant, k(2)/K', of 2 x 10(4) to 4 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1), and reactivation is very slow, with a half-life of >1 h. Accordingly, Lek 157 significantly decreases the MIC of ampicillin for E. cloacae P99, a constitutive class C beta-lactamase overproducer. With the other serine beta-lactamases tested, the covalent adducts exhibit a wide range of stabilities, with half-lives ranging from long (>4 h with the TEM-1 class A enzyme), to medium (10 to 20 min with the OXA-10 class D enzyme), to short (0.2 to 0.4 s with the NmcA class A beta-lactamase). By contrast, both carbapenems behave as good substrates of the Bacillus cereus metallo-beta-lactamase (class B). The Streptomyces sp. strain R61 and K15 extracellular DD-peptidases exhibit low levels of sensitivity to both compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of MT1-MMP and of Human Laminin-5 Gamma2 Chain Degradation to Mammary Epithelial Cell Migration
Gilles, Christine ULg; Polette, M.; Coraux, C. et al

in Journal of Cell Science (2001), 114(Pt 16), 2967-76

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) that is frequently associated with processes involving tissue remodelling and cell migration. We ... [more ▼]

Membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MT1-MMP) is a membrane-anchored matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) that is frequently associated with processes involving tissue remodelling and cell migration. We have examined MT1-MMP expression and subcellular distribution as a function of MCF10A mammary epithelial cell migration using an in vitro outgrowth migration assay. Stronger expression of MT1-MMP was observed at the mRNA and at the protein level in cells at the periphery of the outgrowth. As shown by videomicroscopy, these cells were involved in an orientated cell migration, in contrast to stationary cells distant from the periphery. Furthermore, MT1-MMP was mainly distributed in lamellipodia of migratory cells, as well as at their basal surface in contact with the substrate. Laminin-5 (Ln-5), a recently described substrate for MT1-MMP, was deposited preferentially in the matrix by migratory cells. Fragments of the gamma2 subunit of Ln-5 were also identified in migratory cultures of MCF10A cells, attesting to its proteolytic degradation. These fragments corresponded in size to those we observed after incubation of purified human Ln-5 with the recombinant catalytic domain of human MT1-MMP. We also show that anti-Ln5 blocking antibodies, MMP inhibitors (BB94 and TIMP-2) and MT1-MMP antisense oligonucleotides significantly decreased MCF10A cell migration. Taken together, these observations demonstrate that MT1-MMP is spatially and temporally regulated during MCF10A cell migration, and suggest that MT1-MMP-mediated pericellular proteolysis of Ln-5 gamma2 chain could contribute to this process. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalytic Quantification of Phototype-Related Regional Skin Complexion
Hermanns, Jean-François ULg; Petit, L.; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg et al

in Skin Research & Technology (2001), 7(3), 168-71

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Narrow-band spectrophotometry that yields melanin (M) and erythema (E) indexes is a convenient method for assessing skin colour. The objective of the study was to assess the phenotype ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Narrow-band spectrophotometry that yields melanin (M) and erythema (E) indexes is a convenient method for assessing skin colour. The objective of the study was to assess the phenotype-associated body site differences in skin complexion. METHOD: The Mexameter MX16 was used to record the skin colour in 137 subjects. Evaluations were made on the inner arm, volar forearm, dorsal forearm and forehead. RESULTS: The inner arm and volar forearm had similar values for each of the colorimetric values. The dorsal forearm exhibited the highest M values, and the forehead had the highest E values. Significant positive linear correlations were found between M values from the distinct body sites. The E values showed a correlation only between the inner arm and the volar forearm. CONCLUSION: Regional skin colour differences are obvious. Sun-exposed skin does not react in the same way on the forearm and forehead. Regional variations in M can be predicted from the innate M value. In contrast, the regional variability in E is highly variable among subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailThe functional anatomy of inhibition processes investigated with the Hayling task
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Delfiore, Guy et al

in Neuroimage (2001), 14(2), 258-267

The cortical areas involved in inhibition processes were examined with positron emission tomography (PET). The tasks administered to subjects were an adaptation of the Hayling test. In the first condition ... [more ▼]

The cortical areas involved in inhibition processes were examined with positron emission tomography (PET). The tasks administered to subjects were an adaptation of the Hayling test. In the first condition (response initiation), subjects had to complete sentences with a word clearly suggested by the context, whereas in the second condition (response inhibition), subjects had to produce a word that made no sense in the context of the sentence. Results indicated that the response initiation processes were associated to increases of activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45/47), whereas response inhibition processes led to increases in a network of left prefrontal areas, including the middle (BA 9 and BA 10) and inferior (BA 45) frontal areas. [less ▲]

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See detailReactive blending of functional PS and PMMA: interfacial behavior of in situ formed graft copolymers
Yin, Zhihui; Koulic, Christian; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(15), 5132-5139

ω-Isocyanate PMMA, α-anhydride PMMA, and PS-co-PSNH2 have been prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with controlled molecular weights (104 and 3.5 × 104) and low polydispersity (1.2 ... [more ▼]

ω-Isocyanate PMMA, α-anhydride PMMA, and PS-co-PSNH2 have been prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) with controlled molecular weights (104 and 3.5 × 104) and low polydispersity (1.2). They have been used as precursors of PS-g-PMMA copolymers and let to react in the melt (170 °C, for 10 min) under moderate shear rate. The well-controlled molecular characteristics of these precursors are a substantial advantage to study the effect of the kinetics of the interfacial reaction on the phase morphology. When the grafting reaction is fast (NH2/anhydride pair) and low molecular weight chains are used, the interfacial reaction is quasi-complete and a nanophase morphology is observed, whereas limited reaction and formation of microphases are observed in all the other cases. A high reaction yield requires not only that the functional groups are highly mutually reactive but also that the interface is anytime made available to the functional polymers for the reaction to progress. Then, a nanophase morphology may be observed, which is that of the copolymer formed by the interfacial reaction. A low reaction yield is dictated by either a slow interfacial reaction or a slow diffusion of the copolymer away from the interface. In the latter case, the phases formed by the unreacted precursors are stabilized by the copolymer which resides at the interface. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural Determinants of Cold Adaptation and Stability in a Large Protein
D'Amico, Salvino ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg; Feller, Georges ULg

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(28), 25791-6

The heat-labile alpha-amylase from an antarctic bacterium is the largest known protein that unfolds reversibly according to a two-state transition as shown by differential scanning calorimetry. Mutants of ... [more ▼]

The heat-labile alpha-amylase from an antarctic bacterium is the largest known protein that unfolds reversibly according to a two-state transition as shown by differential scanning calorimetry. Mutants of this enzyme were produced, carrying additional weak interactions found in thermostable alpha-amylases. It is shown that single amino acid side chain substitutions can significantly modify the melting point T(m), the calorimetric enthalpy Delta H(cal), the cooperativity and reversibility of unfolding, the thermal inactivation rate constant, and the kinetic parameters k(cat) and K(m). The correlation between thermal inactivation and unfolding reversibility displayed by the mutants also shows that stabilizing interactions increase the frequency of side reactions during refolding, leading to intramolecular mismatches or aggregations typical of large proteins. Although all mutations were located far from the active site, their overall trend is to decrease both k(cat) and K(m) by rigidifying the molecule and to protect mutants against thermal inactivation. The effects of these mutations indicate that the cold-adapted alpha-amylase has lost a large number of weak interactions during evolution to reach the required conformational plasticity for catalysis at low temperatures, thereby producing an enzyme close to the lowest stability allowing maintenance of the native conformation. [less ▲]

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See detailConsidérations sur l'analyse statistique de données sensorielles
Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(3), 155-158

This publication introduces some steps to build an adequate statistical data analysis for sensory studies.

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See detailModular Structure, Local Flexibility and Cold-Activity of a Novel Chitobiase from a Psychrophilic Antarctic Bacterium
Lonhienne, T.; Zoidakis, J.; Vorgias, C. E. et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (2001), 310(2), 291-7

The gene archb encoding for the cell-bound chitobiase from the Antarctic Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter sp. TAD20 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in a soluble form. The mature ... [more ▼]

The gene archb encoding for the cell-bound chitobiase from the Antarctic Gram-positive bacterium Arthrobacter sp. TAD20 was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in a soluble form. The mature chitobiase ArChb possesses four functionally independent domains: a catalytic domain stabilized by Ca(2+), a galactose-binding domain and an immunoglobulin-like domain followed by a cell-wall anchorage signal, typical of cell-surface proteins from Gram-positive bacteria. Binding of saccharides was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, allowing to distinguish unequivocally the catalytic domain from the galactose-binding domain and to study binding specificities. The results suggest that ArChb could play a role in bacterium attachment to natural hosts. Kinetic parameters of ArChb demonstrate perfect adaptation to catalysis at low temperatures, as shown by a low activation energy associated with unusually low K(m) and high k(cat) values. Thermodependence of these parameters indicates that discrete amino acid substitutions in the catalytic center have optimized the thermodynamic properties of weak interactions involved in substrate binding at low temperatures. Microcalorimetry also reveals that heat-lability, a general trait of psychrophilic enzymes, only affects the active site domain of ArChb. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanism of Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis Mediated by Pyropheophorbide-a Methylester Photosensitization
Matroule, Jean-Yves; Carthy, Chris M; Granville, David J et al

in Oncogene (2001), 20

Pyropheophorbide-a methylester (PPME) is a second generation of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We demonstrated that PPME photosensitization triggered apoptosis of colon cancer cells ... [more ▼]

Pyropheophorbide-a methylester (PPME) is a second generation of photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). We demonstrated that PPME photosensitization triggered apoptosis of colon cancer cells as measured by using several classical parameters such as DNA laddering, PARP cleavage, caspase activation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. Preincubation of cells with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or pyrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) protected against apoptosis mediated by PPME photosensitization showing that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved as second messengers. On the other hand, photosensitization carried out in the presence of deuterium oxide (D2O) which enhances singlet oxygen (1O2) lifetime only increases necrosis without affecting apoptosis. Since PPME was localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi system and lysosomes, other messengers than ROS were tested such as calcium, Bid, Bap31, phosphorylated Bcl-2 and caspase-12 but none was clearly identified as being involved in triggering cytochrome c release from mitochondria. On the other hand, we demonstrated that the transduction pathways leading to NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis were clearly independent although NF-kappaB was shown to counteract apoptosis mediated by PPME photosensitization. [less ▲]

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See detailLe corps du lecteur
Durand, Pascal ULg

in La Licorne (2001), 221-234

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See detailCardiac Surgery in Octogenarians; Peri-Operative Outcome and Long-Term Results
Kolh, Philippe ULg; Kerzmann, Arnaud ULg; Lahaye, L. et al

in European Heart Journal (2001), 22(14), 1235-43

AIMS: Because the elderly are increasingly referred for operation, we reviewed the results of cardiac surgery in patients of 80 years or older. METHODS AND RESULTS: Records of 182 consecutive ... [more ▼]

AIMS: Because the elderly are increasingly referred for operation, we reviewed the results of cardiac surgery in patients of 80 years or older. METHODS AND RESULTS: Records of 182 consecutive octogenarians who had had cardiac operations between 1992 and 1998 were reviewed. Follow-up was 100% complete. Seventy patients had coronary grafting (CABG), 70 aortic valve replacement, 30 aortic valve replacement+CABG, and 12 mitral valve repair/replacement. Rates of hospital death, stroke, and prolonged stay (>14 days) were as follows: CABG: 7 (10%), 2 (2.8%) and 41 (58%); aortic valve replacement: 6 (8.5%), 2 (2.8%) and 32 (45.7%); aortic valve replacement+CABG: 8 (26.5%), 1 (3.8%) and 14 (46.6%); mitral valve repair/replacement: 3 (25%), 1 (8.3%) and 5 (41.6%). Multivariate predictors (P<0.05) of hospital death were New York Heart Association functional class, urgent procedure, prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time, and, after aortic valve replacement, previous percutaneous aortic valvuloplasty. Ascending aortic atheromatous disease was predictive of stroke, while pre-operative myocardial infarction was predictive of prolonged hospital stay. Actuarial 5-year survival was as follows: CABG, 65.8+/-8.8%; aortic valve replacement, 63.6+/-7.1%; aortic valve replacement+CABG, 62.4+/-6.8%; mitral valve repair/replacement, 57.1+/-5.6%; and total, 63.0+/-5.6%. Multivariate predictors of late death were pre-operative myocardial infarction, and urgent procedure. Ninety percent of long-term survivors were in New York Heart Association class I or II, and 87% believed having a heart operation after age 80 years was a good choice. CONCLUSION: Cardiac operations are successful in most octogenarians with increased hospital mortality, and longer hospital stay. Long-term survival and quality of life are good. [less ▲]

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See detailMetallocene catalyzed polymerization of ethylene in the presence of graphite. 1. Synthesis and characterization of the composites
Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Pluta, Miroslaw; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2001), 202(11), 2239-2246

Polyethylene/graphite composites have been prepared by two different methods. In a first approach, the ethylene polymerization has been catalyzed by metallo-cene in the presence of neat graphite particles ... [more ▼]

Polyethylene/graphite composites have been prepared by two different methods. In a first approach, the ethylene polymerization has been catalyzed by metallo-cene in the presence of neat graphite particles (NGC composites). A second series of composites (TGC) has been prepared by the polymerization-filling technique, which requires that the metallocene/methylalumoxane catalyst is fixed onto the graphite surface prior to the ethylene polymerization. The two series of composites exhibit significantly different morphology and thermal properties. The filler distribution is very heterogeneous in the NGC series. The morphology changes from an intimate mixture of PE and filler particles at low graphite content to graphite covered by patches of PE at high filler loading. The graphite distribution is much more homogeneous in the TGC samples, and the morphology consists of particles covered by a layer of PE in the whole composition range. Differences in the thermal properties are discussed in relation to the morphology. [less ▲]

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See detailMain Glucosidase Conversion Products of the Gluco-Alkaloids Dolichantoside and Palicoside
Brandt, V.; Tits, Monique ULg; Penelle, J. et al

in Phytochemistry (2001), 57(5), 653-9

The enzymatic glucose cleavage of palicoside revealed the biosynthetic pathway to akagerine, whereas the conversion of dolichantoside led to a new quaternary heteroyohimbine alkaloid named N(b)-methyl-21 ... [more ▼]

The enzymatic glucose cleavage of palicoside revealed the biosynthetic pathway to akagerine, whereas the conversion of dolichantoside led to a new quaternary heteroyohimbine alkaloid named N(b)-methyl-21-beta-hydroxy-mayumbine. The hypothetical models of reactions occurring after the conversion of both substrates are proposed. Dolichantoside and palicoside, as well as Strychnos mellodora stem bark crude ethanol extract, exhibit significant antimycotic activity against human pathogens in presence of specific glucosidase. [less ▲]

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See detailAccidents thrombo-emboliques veineux et arteriels chez un patient porteur d'une mutation du facteur V R506Q Leiden et ayant developpe une reaction immuno-allergique a l'heparine
Letawe-Gilis, L.; Lambermont, Bernard ULg; David, Jean-Louis ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 493-6

A forty-six-year old in-patient was treated with heparin for massive pulmonary embolism. During the hospitalization, the clinical evolution was unusual and characterised as follows: a) the extent of ... [more ▼]

A forty-six-year old in-patient was treated with heparin for massive pulmonary embolism. During the hospitalization, the clinical evolution was unusual and characterised as follows: a) the extent of pulmonary embolism justified a thrombolysis by streptokinase; b) an acute thrombocytopenia occurred a few days later, preceded by a slower, but significant decrease of platelet count; c) a non-occlusive aortic thrombosis developed, distal to renal arteries, causing distal embolisation, successfully treated by local fibrinolysis. The prompt correction of platelet count after interruption of heparin therapy confirmed the diagnosis, before the detection of antibodies against heparin-PF4 complexes. Heparin was immediately replaced by another direct anticoagulant, recombinant hirudin (lepirudine-Refludan), initially given alone and progressively replaced by an antivitamin K (Sintrom). The occurrence of distal embolism from aortic thrombosis, developed during the critical period, characterizes this syndrome, which appears rare but whose incidence is probably underestimated. A subsequent investigation for risk factors for venous thromboembolism in this patient revealed a heterozygous mutation of the Leiden type factor V in our patient, and also in others family members. [less ▲]

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See detailIn Vitro Comparison of the Antimycotic Activity of a Miconazole-Hp-Beta-Cyclodextrin Solution with a Miconazole Surfactant Solution
Piel, Géraldine ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Pavoni, Ermanno et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2001), 48(1), 83-7

The antimycotic activity of a new parenteral solution containing miconazole was compared with that of a marketed solution (Daktarin IV solution). This solution has been withdrawn from the Belgian market ... [more ▼]

The antimycotic activity of a new parenteral solution containing miconazole was compared with that of a marketed solution (Daktarin IV solution). This solution has been withdrawn from the Belgian market, probably because of toxic effects related to the presence of polyoxyl 35 castor oil. We propose a new formulation containing miconazole (10 mg/mL) (like the marketed solution), in combination with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin and lactic acid. The MICs of these two solutions were determined by a broth microdilution method (based on NCCLS guidelines) for 67 yeasts and 50 filamentous fungi isolates. This study shows that the MICs obtained with these two solutions are not significantly different. [less ▲]

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See detailA novel neurodevelopmental syndrome responsive to 5-hydroxytryptophan and carbidopa.
RAMAEKERS, Vincent ULg; Senderek, J.; Hausler, M. et al

in Molecular genetics and metabolism (2001), 73(2), 179-87

Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH; EC 1.14.16.4) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step of serotonin biosynthesis by converting l-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan. Serotonin controls multiple vegetative ... [more ▼]

Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH; EC 1.14.16.4) catalyzes the first rate-limiting step of serotonin biosynthesis by converting l-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan. Serotonin controls multiple vegetative functions and modulates sensory and alpha-motor neurons at the spinal level. We report on five boys with floppiness in infancy followed by motor delay, development of a hypotonic-ataxic syndrome, learning disability, and short attention span. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed a 51 to 65% reduction of the serotonin end-metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5HIAA) compared to age-matched median values. In one out of five patients a low CSF 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (MTHF) was present probably due to the common C677T heterozygous mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Baseline 24-h urinary excretion showed diminished 5HIAA values, not changing after a single oral load with l-tryptophan (50-70 mg/kg), but normalizing after 5-hydroxytryptophan administration (1 mg/kg). Treatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan (4-6 mg/kg) and carbidopa (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) resulted in clinical amelioration and normalization of 5HIAA levels in CSF and urine. In the patient with additional MTHFR heterozygosity, a heterozygous missense mutation within exon 6 (G529A) of the TPH gene caused an exchange of valine by isoleucine at codon 177 (V177I). This has been interpreted as a rare DNA variant because the pedigree analysis did not provide any genotype-phenotype correlation. In the other four patients the TPH gene analysis was normal. In conclusion, this new neurodevelopmental syndrome responsive to treatment with 5-hydroxytryptophan and carbidopa might result from an overall reduced capacity of serotonin production due to a TPH gene regulatory defect, unknown factors inactivating the TPH enzyme, or selective loss of serotonergic neurons. [less ▲]

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See detailLes maladies environnementales, maladies du XXIe siecle. Les agressions de l'arbre respiratoire et la pollution interieure ("indoor pollution")
Salem, T.; Bartsch, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 497-505

Air pollution becomes a major concern in the 21st century. There is of course a relation between outdoor pollution and pollution in the building where we live and work. Indoor pollution, nevertheless is ... [more ▼]

Air pollution becomes a major concern in the 21st century. There is of course a relation between outdoor pollution and pollution in the building where we live and work. Indoor pollution, nevertheless is characterized by a higher concentration of several pollutants. This article is a short review of the main chemical and biological substances present in the indoor environment which may impair the lung health. [less ▲]

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See detailUne ETAPE au profit des touts petits. Le projet Ensemble Travaillons Autour de la Petite Enfance
Vanmeerbeek, Marc ULg

in Education Santé (2001), 161

Un certain nombre de nourrissons et d'enfants nés normaux présentent dès les premiers mois un retard de développement psychomoteur sans cause organique décelable. Plus âgés, ils connaissent des ... [more ▼]

Un certain nombre de nourrissons et d'enfants nés normaux présentent dès les premiers mois un retard de développement psychomoteur sans cause organique décelable. Plus âgés, ils connaissent des difficultés psychomotrices et accusent un retard scolaire majeur. Parfois, la cause paraît d'origine sociale: le phénomène se reproduit de génération en génération. Nous postulons qu'une forme de négligence parentale peut en être la cause, et nous proposons une méthode d'intervention efficace qui respecte la dignité et la culture propre des familles. [less ▲]

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See detailMutants of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii deficient in mitochondrial complex I: Characterization of two mutations affecting the nd1 coding sequence
Remacle, Claire ULg; Baurain, Denis ULg; Cardol, Pierre ULg et al

in Genetics (2001), 158(3), 1051-60

The mitochondrial rotenone-sensitive NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) comprises more than 30 subunits, the majority of which are encoded by the nucleus. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, only five ... [more ▼]

The mitochondrial rotenone-sensitive NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) comprises more than 30 subunits, the majority of which are encoded by the nucleus. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, only five components of complex I are coded for by mitochondrial genes. Three mutants deprived of complex I activity and displaying slow growth in the dark were isolated after mutagenic treatment with acriflavine. A genetical analysis demonstrated that two mutations (dum20 and dum25) affect the mitochondrial genome whereas the third mutation (dn26) is of nuclear origin. Recombinational analyses showed that dum20 and dum25 are closely linked on the genetic map of the mitochondrial genome and could affect the nd1 gene. A sequencing analysis confirmed this conclusion: dum20 is a deletion of one T at codon 243 of nd1; dum25 corresponds to a 6-bp deletion that eliminates two amino acids located in a very conserved hydrophilic segment of the protein. [less ▲]

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See detailInactivation of Aeromonas Hydrophila Metallo-Beta-Lactamase by Cephamycins and Moxalactam
Zervosen, Astrid ULg; Valladares, Maria Hernandez; Devreese, Bart et al

in European Journal of Biochemistry (2001), 268(13), 3840-50

Incubation of moxalactam and cefoxitin with the Aeromonas hydrophila metallo-beta-lactamase CphA leads to enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of both compounds and to irreversible inactivation of the enzyme by ... [more ▼]

Incubation of moxalactam and cefoxitin with the Aeromonas hydrophila metallo-beta-lactamase CphA leads to enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis of both compounds and to irreversible inactivation of the enzyme by the reaction products. As shown by electrospray mass spectrometry, the inactivation of CphA by cefoxitin and moxalactam is accompanied by the formation of stable adducts with mass increases of 445 and 111 Da, respectively. The single thiol group of the inactivated enzyme is no longer titrable, and dithiothreitol treatment of the complexes partially restores the catalytic activity. The mechanism of inactivation by moxalactam was studied in detail. Hydrolysis of moxalactam is followed by elimination of the 3' leaving group (5-mercapto-1-methyltetrazole), which forms a disulfide bond with the cysteine residue of CphA located in the active site. Interestingly, this reaction is catalyzed by cacodylate. [less ▲]

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See detailAortopexy reduces anastomosis stress after repair of coarctation.
Vazquez-Jimenez, J. F.; Sachweh, J. S.; Seipelt, R. et al

in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2001), 72(1), 294-5

Restenosis after repair of coarctation with hypoplastic distal aortic arch is an important complication. Complete removal of ductal tissue, resection of isthmus area, and side-to-side arterioplasty of the ... [more ▼]

Restenosis after repair of coarctation with hypoplastic distal aortic arch is an important complication. Complete removal of ductal tissue, resection of isthmus area, and side-to-side arterioplasty of the distal aortic arch leads to a wide distance between the aortic arch and descending aorta; therefore, the anastomosis may remain under tension, increasing risk of restenosis. To reduce the tension, aortopexy of the descending aorta was used. The operative technique and the results in 16 neonates and infants are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailComment positionner l'acéclofénac au sein de l'arsenal thérapeutique des pathologies ostéo-articulaires chroniques ?
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Paul, I.; Henrotin, Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 484-8

The aim of this article is to critically review the potential role of aceclofenac in the treatment of inflammatory pain and chronic osteoarticular disorder, based on its activity on the mediators of ... [more ▼]

The aim of this article is to critically review the potential role of aceclofenac in the treatment of inflammatory pain and chronic osteoarticular disorder, based on its activity on the mediators of inflammation, its effect on cartilage remodeling and on the results of clinical studies comparing aceclofenac with other NSAIDs in these disorders. Aceclofenac has an outstanding anti-inflammatory profile, involving besides a classical inhibition of prostaglandins E2, a decrease in the expression of several cytokines including interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. It also inhibits activated oxygen species production and influences cells adhesion. Aceclofenac and its main metabolite, 4-hydroxyaceclofenac, has positive effects on cartilage anabolism combined with modulating effect of matrix catabolism. Clinically, aceclofenac has been consistently shown to have a similar efficacy than that of widely marketed NSAIDs and a tolerance profile at least as good, if not better than the profile observed for other NSAIDs in the treatment of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. As of today, no head to head comparison between aceclofenac and coxibs have been performed, nor for efficacy neither for tolerance. The specific profile of aceclofenac makes this NSAID an interesting candidate for long-term treatment of chronic rheumatic disorders as well as for treatment of acute inflammatory episodes. [less ▲]

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See detailAPRIL IN CHICAGO
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (2001), (163), 50

Le Center for Black Music Research - Blues et Gospel dans la Cité des Vents

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See detailLe point sur la fibromyalgie
Maquet, Didier ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Annales de Réadaptation et de Médecine Physique (2001), 44(6), 316-25

OBJECTIVE: To realize a clarification about fibromyalgia, attempting to consider diagnostic criteria, prevalence, pathophysiology and therapeutic approach. METHOD: A systematic literature search was ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To realize a clarification about fibromyalgia, attempting to consider diagnostic criteria, prevalence, pathophysiology and therapeutic approach. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted to select articles about fibromyalgia and connected diseases. The database are Premedline, Medline and Medlineplus. RESULTS: Fifty-eight articles about fibromyalgia and twelve articles about connected diseases were selected to realize this review of literature. DISCUSSION: Fibromyalgia constitutes a syndrome characterized by widespread musculo-skeletal pain, present above the waist and below the waist and in the axial skeleton. Widespread pain must have been present for at least three months. "Spasmophilie", chronic fatigue syndrome and myofascial syndrome represent diseases connected with fibromyalgia: differential diagnosis must be established. Researches related to fibromyalgia suggest a reduction of muscular performances associated with histological and biochemical anomalies. Patients are characterized by shorter and nonrestorative sleep. Psychological, neuroendocrine and central alterations appear often associated with fibromyalgia. The reduction of pressure tolerance and pain thresholds may be linked to the alterations of neuroendocrine substances. Literature recommend a multidisciplinary therapeutic approach in management of fibromyalgia. CONCLUSION: The pathophysiologic mechanisms in fibromyalgia appear multiple and interdependent. With the aim to optimizing treatment, investigations are necessary to determine biochemical repercussions of various therapeutic approaches. [less ▲]

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See detailLes avatars du professeur de langue étrangère
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Infos-Langues, Revue d'Action Langues (2001), 61

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. A propos d'un cas de syndrome des antiphospholipides
Fumal, Arnaud ULg; Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Moonen, Gustave ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 480-3

This article reports a case of Anton-Babinski syndrome, due to right middle cerebral artery thrombosis and attributed to a likely primary antiphospholipid syndrome. It is always difficult to diagnose the ... [more ▼]

This article reports a case of Anton-Babinski syndrome, due to right middle cerebral artery thrombosis and attributed to a likely primary antiphospholipid syndrome. It is always difficult to diagnose the latter, especially in the case of our patient who had a past history of multiple venous thromboses but also a heterozygosity for the mutation of the factor V of Leyden. We reviewed the literature dedicated to the prothrombotic events linked to the presence of these antiphospholipid antibodies: the lupus anticoagulant and the anticardiolipin antibodies. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. Souvenir de voyage en nouvelle pangee
Arrese, J. E.; Chian-Garcia, C.; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 473

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See detailContribution of Lexico-Semantic Processes to Verbal Short-Term Memory Tasks: A Pet Activation Study
Collette, Fabienne ULg; Majerus, Steve ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Memory (2001), 9(4-6), 249-259

Recent studies have demonstrated the intervention of long-term memory processes in verbal STM tasks and several cognitive models have been proposed to explain these effects. A PET study was performed in ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have demonstrated the intervention of long-term memory processes in verbal STM tasks and several cognitive models have been proposed to explain these effects. A PET study was performed in order to determine whether supplementary cerebral areas are involved when subjects have to execute short-term memory tasks for items having representations in long-term memory (in comparison to items without such representations: words vs non-words). Results indicate that verbal STM for words specifically involves the left middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) and temporo-parietal junction (BA 39). These areas can be associated with lexical and semantic processes. These results are in agreement with cognitive models that postulate the simultaneous influence of lexical and semantic long-term representations on verbal STM processes and/or a lexico-semantic buffer. [less ▲]

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See detailHyperparathyroidism in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 : Surgical trends and results : a 256-patient series from the genem study group
Goudet, P.; Cougard, P.; Verges, B. et al

in World Journal of Surgery (2001), 25(7), 886-890

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See detailPrevalence of Antibodies to Human Adenovirus Type 5 in Belgian Cattle
Gogev, S.; Lemaire, Mylène; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Veterinary Record : Journal of the British Veterinary Association (2001), 148(24), 752-4

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See detailFli-1 inhibits collagen type I production in dermal fibroblasts via an Sp1-dependent pathway.
Czuwara-Ladykowska, Joanna; Shirasaki, Fumiaki; Jackers, Pascale ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(24), 20839-20848

Fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), especially collagen. Because Ets factors are implicated in physiological and pathological ECM remodeling, the aim of ... [more ▼]

Fibrosis is characterized by the excessive deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM), especially collagen. Because Ets factors are implicated in physiological and pathological ECM remodeling, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of Ets factors in collagen production. We demonstrate that the expression of collagenous proteins and collagen alpha2(I) (COL1A2) mRNA was inhibited following stable transfection of Fli-1 in dermal fibroblasts. Subsequent analysis of the COL1A2 promoter identified a critical Ets binding site that mediates Fli-1 inhibition. In contrast, Ets-1 stimulates COL1A2 promoter activity. In vitro binding assays demonstrate that both Fli-1 and Ets-1 form DNA-protein complexes with sequences present in COL1A2 promoter. Furthermore, Fli-1 binding to the COL1A2 is enhanced via Sp1-dependent interaction. Studies using Fli-1 dominant interference and DNA binding mutants indicate that Fli-1 inhibition is mediated by both direct (DNA binding) and indirect (via protein-protein interaction) mechanisms and that Sp1 is an important mediator of the Fli-1 function. Furthermore, experiments using the Gal4 system in the context of different cell types as well as experiments with the COL1A2 promoter in different cell lines demonstrate that the direction and magnitude of the effect of Fli-1 is promoter- and cell context-specific. We propose that Fli-1 inhibits COL1A2 promoter activity by competition with Ets-1. In addition, we postulate that another factor (co-repressor) may be required for maximal inhibition after recruitment to the Fli-1-Sp1 complex. We conclude that the ratio of Fli-1 to Ets-1 and the presence of co-regulatory proteins ultimately control ECM production in fibroblasts. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat is the real nature of HD 108?
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Vreux, Jean-Marie ULg; Rauw, Grégor ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 372

Since the beginning of the past century, the nature of HD 108 has been a subject of intense debate. One after another, astronomers explored its variability and attributed it either to binarity, or to ... [more ▼]

Since the beginning of the past century, the nature of HD 108 has been a subject of intense debate. One after another, astronomers explored its variability and attributed it either to binarity, or to changes in the stellar wind of a single star. In this article, we analyse a 30 year campaign of spectroscopic observations of this star with special emphasis on the last 15 years during which photographic plates have been replaced by CCD detectors. Our investigation of the radial velocities of HD 108 yields no significant short- or long-term period and does not confirm the published periodicities either. Though the radial velocity of HD 108 appears clearly variable, the variations cannot be explained by the orbital motion in a spectroscopic binary. However, our data reveal spectacular changes in the H I Balmer lines and some He I profiles over the years. These lines continuously evolved from P Cygni profiles to ``pure'' absorption lines. A similar behaviour has already been observed in the past, suggesting that these changes are recurrent. HD 108 seems to share several characteristics of Oe stars and we discuss different hypotheses for the origin of the observed long-term variations. As we are now in a transition period, a continuous monitoring of HD 108 should be considered for the next few years. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (France). [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the interactions of polyvinylpyrrolidone with mixtures of anionic and nonionic surfactants or anionic and zwitterionic surfactants by pulsed field gradient NMR
Misselyn-Bauduin, Anne-Marie; Thibaut, André ULg; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Journal of Colloid & Interface Science (2001), 238(1), 1-7

The interaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a nonionic surfactant (pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether, C(10)E(5)), and a zwitterionic ... [more ▼]

The interaction of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with an anionic surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), a nonionic surfactant (pentaethylene glycol monodecyl ether, C(10)E(5)), and a zwitterionic surfactant (lauryl amido propyl betaine, LAPB) has been investigated by means of pulsed gradient spin-echo NMR (FT-PGSE NMR), allowing self-diffusion coefficients to be determined. The results confirm the strong interaction prevailing in the PVP/SDS system, whereas no association has been observed in the PVP/C(10)E(5) and PVP/LAPB systems. Mixing PVP with two surfactants, namely SDS and C(10)E(5) or SDS and LAPB, results in the formation of ternary aggregates between the polymer and the mixed micelles. [less ▲]

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See detailAchieving 1% photometric accuracy with the ESO Wide Field Imager
Manfroid, Jean ULg; Selman, F.; Jones, H.

in The Messenger (2001), 104

The highly successful Wide Field Imager on the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope offers the possibility of undertaking photometry over a half-degree field. The authors discuss findings concerning the photometric ... [more ▼]

The highly successful Wide Field Imager on the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope offers the possibility of undertaking photometry over a half-degree field. The authors discuss findings concerning the photometric performance of the camera. They describe strategies for dealing with the flat-field calibration error, which is often underestimated by observers. [less ▲]

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See detailCenta as a Chromogenic Substrate for Studying Beta-Lactamases
Bebrone, Carine ULg; Moali, C.; Mahy, F. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2001), 45(6), 1868-71

CENTA, a chromogenic cephalosporin, is readily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases of all classes except for the Aeromonas hydrophila metalloenzyme. Although it cannot practically be used for the detection of ... [more ▼]

CENTA, a chromogenic cephalosporin, is readily hydrolyzed by beta-lactamases of all classes except for the Aeromonas hydrophila metalloenzyme. Although it cannot practically be used for the detection of beta-lactamase-producing strains on agar plates, it should be quite useful for kinetic studies and the detection of the enzymes in crude extracts and chromatographic fractions. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslocation Frequencies Measured in Patients One Year after Radioactive Iodine Therapy for Thyrotoxicosis
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Thierens, H.; Monsieurs, M. et al

in International Journal of Radiation Biology (2001), 77(6), 679-85

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of translocations induced by iodine-131 therapy in thyrotoxicosis patients 1 year after the administration of the radiolabelled compound. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: To investigate the incidence of translocations induced by iodine-131 therapy in thyrotoxicosis patients 1 year after the administration of the radiolabelled compound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tricolour FISH with whole-chromosome-specific probes for chromosomes 2, 4 and 8 was used for scoring translocations. From the genomic translocation frequencies, derived using the Lucas formula, equivalent whole-body doses were calculated, based on the in vitro (60)Co gamma-ray dose-response curve. RESULTS: A total of 101 translocations were observed in 4864 metaphases, 63% being of the two-way type. In the control group used for obtaining dose-response data, nine translocations were observed in 5278 metaphases, 55% being two-way translocations. No correlation was found between the observed frequency of translocations and administered radioactivity. Using the in vitro dose-response, an estimated average dose for the group of nine patients of 0.79 +/- 0.22Gy was obtained. Compared with frequencies following the assumption that the involvement of a particular chromosome in a two-break exchange-type aberration is proportional to its DNA content, chromosome 4 was more frequently involved and chromosomes 2 and 8 less frequently involved in chromosomal rearrangements. CONCLUSION: This study shows that (131)I therapy for thyrotoxicosis patients induced translocations, especially in chromosome 4, which could be detected 1 year after the administration of the radiolabelled compound. [less ▲]

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See detailDetection of Aspergillus spp. by PCR in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid
Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Vaira, Dolorès ULg; Suzin, Fabrice et al

in Journal of Clinical Microbiology (2001), 39(6), 2338-2340

The usefulness of a nested PCR assay for detection of Aspergillus sp. DNA was evaluated in 177 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens. This test was accurate both to diagnose culture-negative BAL ... [more ▼]

The usefulness of a nested PCR assay for detection of Aspergillus sp. DNA was evaluated in 177 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid specimens. This test was accurate both to diagnose culture-negative BAL fluid specimens from patients with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and to confirm culture-positive samples. However, it did not differentiate between infection and colonization. [less ▲]

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See detailStigmates professionnels chez le musicien instrumentiste
Claessens, N.; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 453-5

The frequent practice of a music instrument represents a risk for frictional or allergic contact dermatitis. The localisation and type of lesions are often typical for the musician specialty.

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See detailEffectifs des populations, répartition et statut du petit nacré, Issoria lathonia L., sur les terrains calaminaires du bassin de la Vesdre (province de Liège, Belgique) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
Ertz, Damien; Graitson, Eric ULg

in Linneana Belgica : Revue Belge d'Entomologie (2001), 18(2), 87-92

La recherche d'issoria lathonia sur l'ensemble des terrains calaminaires du bassin de la Vesdre a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de ce papillon sur tous les sites où sa plante-hôte, viola ... [more ▼]

La recherche d'issoria lathonia sur l'ensemble des terrains calaminaires du bassin de la Vesdre a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de ce papillon sur tous les sites où sa plante-hôte, viola calaminaria, est bien représentée. Un seul site offre actuellement, avec plus de 1000 individus, une population stable de cette espèce. L'hypothèse de l'existence d'une métapopulation est avancée. La protection des terrains calaminaires semble capitale pour le maintien de populations permanentes d'I. lathonia dans cette région. [less ▲]

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See detailApplication of ARMAV models to identification and damage detection of mechanical and civil engineering structures
Bodeux, Jean-Bernard; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg

in Smart Materials & Structures (2001), 10(3), 479-489

In this paper, the application of auto-regressive moving average vector models to system identification and damage detection is investigated. These parametric models have already been applied for the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the application of auto-regressive moving average vector models to system identification and damage detection is investigated. These parametric models have already been applied for the analysis of multiple input-output systems under ambient excitation. Their main advantage consists in the capability of extracting modal parameters from the recorded time signals, without the requirement of excitation measurement. The excitation is supposed to be a stationary Gaussian white noise. The method also allows the estimation of modal parameter uncertainties. On the basis of these uncertainties, a statistically based damage detection scheme is performed and it becomes possible to assess whether changes of modal parameters are caused by, e.g. some damage or simply by estimation inaccuracies. The paper reports first an example of identification and damage detection applied to a simulated system under random excitation. The `Steel-Quake' benchmark proposed in the framework of COST Action F3 `Structural Dynamics' is also analysed. This structure was defined by the Joint Research Centre in Ispra (Italy) to test steel building performance during earthquakes. The proposed method gives an excellent identification of frequencies and mode shapes, while damping ratios are estimated with less accuracy. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... une epilepsie refractaire par stimulation du nerf vague
Sadzot, Bernard ULg; Martin, Didier ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 407-10

Intermittent left vagus nerve stimulation is a novel therapeutic modality that can be proposed to patients with a refractory epilepsy and for whom resective surgery is not an option. Its precise mechanism ... [more ▼]

Intermittent left vagus nerve stimulation is a novel therapeutic modality that can be proposed to patients with a refractory epilepsy and for whom resective surgery is not an option. Its precise mechanism of action is not known. Controlled studies have shown that its efficacy is similar to that of antiepileptic drugs: 50% decrease in seizure frequency in 40% patients after two years. Side effects which are generally mild to moderate are the result of a diffusion of the stimulation to the larynx. No CNS side effect has been reported. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization Methods for Inverse Problems in Metal Forming Simulation
Kleinermann, Jean-Pascal; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in STEELS-Mechanical Technology (2001)

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See detailObituary : WILSON BOOZOO CHAVIS
Sacré, Robert ULg

in Soul Bag (2001), (135), 42-43

Wilson " Boozoo" CHAVIS 1931-2001

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See detailShort-term contextual sensitisation and conditioned hyperkinesia produced by cocaine in suckling rats aged 4-10 days and 14-20 days
Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Psychopharmacology (2001), 156(1), 46-52

RATIONALE: It was hypothesised that the failure to generate sensitisation to the behavioural effects of a motor stimulant in suckling rats was mainly due to not pairing the drug with the test context ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: It was hypothesised that the failure to generate sensitisation to the behavioural effects of a motor stimulant in suckling rats was mainly due to not pairing the drug with the test context during chronic pretreatment. OBJECTIVE: This study probed the capabilities of neonatal and infant rat pups to show short-term context-specific sensitisation and conditioned drug activity produced by cocaine. METHODS: Two similar experiments were conducted on rat pups aged 4-10 days or 14-20 days, each experiment comprising three phases: a sensitisation phase (days 4-8 and days 14-18 of age), a test session under cocaine for context specificity of sensitisation (day 9 and day 19 of age) and a test session under saline for conditioned drug effects (day 10 and day 20 of age). Over five daily sessions, pups first received an injection of either 16 mg/kg cocaine (paired group) or saline (unpaired group) in test chambers, and 110 min later the converse injections in the vivarium (in a cage that was different from the home cage). A third group received saline in both contexts. Behaviour was scored using videotapes. RESULTS: Sensitisation developed in the paired groups at both ages. In 4- to 10-day-old pups, sensitisation was expressed via locomotion (matrix crosses) and also horizontal and vertical activities (categories comprising several age-specific movements). In 14- to 18-day-old pups, it was displayed by increases in head movements and vertical activity, and by a decline in stationary position. These effects were confirmed to be context specific on the test sessions (day 9 or day 19), the paired groups producing by far the greatest values. On the conditioning test, the paired groups also produced the greatest amounts of the above-mentioned behaviours, revealing a conditioned drug effect. Additionally, the conditioned effect scores were higher than those of two additional groups that had been treated similarly to the others but outside the chamber until the two tests (controlling for a withdrawal effect and possible novelty-induced activity in the test context). There were no differences between these unexposed groups, indicating that no abstinence effect occurred. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that neonatal rats are capable of showing physiological/non-contextual cocaine-induced behavioural sensitisation as well as its context-specific expression and the conditioned activity following its establishment. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectors of Inflammation in Actinic Prurigo
Arrese, J. E.; Dominguez-Soto, L.; Hojyo-Tomoka, M. T. et al

in Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2001), 44(6), 957-61

BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is a specific familial photodermatosis of uncertain pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the immunohistologic presentation of actinic prurigo to explore the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Actinic prurigo is a specific familial photodermatosis of uncertain pathogenesis. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the immunohistologic presentation of actinic prurigo to explore the involved pathomechanisms. METHODS: The present immunohistochemical study was performed on biopsy specimens from 20 Mexican patients presenting with a severe and perennial form of the disease. RESULTS: The dense inflammatory infiltrate was composed predominantly of helper T type 1 lymphocytes admixed with scattered B-cell lymphoid follicles and numerous dermal dendrocytes. Keratinocytes contained abundant tumor necrosis factor-alpha and calprotectin. CONCLUSION: In subjects genetically predisposed to actinic prurigo, ultraviolet light may trigger excessive tumor necrosis factor-alpha production by keratinocytes whose sustained release in turn exerts its proinflammatory activity and deleterious epidermal effects. Such a cascade of events is in line with the therapeutic benefit already reported when thalidomide is used to treat actinic prurigo. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le montelukast (Singulair)
Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 460-2

Montelukast (Singulair, Merck Sharp

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See detailLes mediateurs biochimiques de l'inflammation
Henrotin, Yves ULg; Deby-Dupont, G.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 433-42

Inflammatory processes are the physiological response of the organism to different stimuli such as trauma, infections or immunological reactions. The events leading to inflammation are characterized by ... [more ▼]

Inflammatory processes are the physiological response of the organism to different stimuli such as trauma, infections or immunological reactions. The events leading to inflammation are characterized by leukocytes adhesion to the endothelium, diapedesis and migration, cells activation and tissue remodelling. These processes are initiated and regulated by a great variety of inflammatory mediators including cytokines, prostanoids, leukotrienes, neuropeptides, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, complement components, coagulation factors and metalloproteases. This paper is devoted to the description of the major local effects of these mediators in the inflammatory reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailL’évaluation de la performance économique des entreprises publiques africaines par la méthode des comptes de surplus
Mbangala, Mapapa ULg

in Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics = Annales de l'Economie Publique, Sociale et Coopérative (2001), 72

This paper focuses on the assessment of the economic performance of seven African railway enterprises using a Total Factor Productivity index decomposition. This method shows the role of these public ... [more ▼]

This paper focuses on the assessment of the economic performance of seven African railway enterprises using a Total Factor Productivity index decomposition. This method shows the role of these public enterprises in the production and distribution of added value. The analysis allows to identify the, positive or negative, contribution of each production factor to productivity growth. At the same time, it shows how the firm's partners do, or do not benefit from the added value created by these companies. [less ▲]

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See detailIpsilateral motor responses to focal transcranial magnetic stimulation in healthy subjects and acute-stroke patients
Alagona, Giovanna; DELVAUX, Valérie ULg; GERARD, Pascale ULg et al

in Stroke (2001), 32(6), 1304-1309

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prevalence and characteristics of ipsilateral upper limb motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were compared in healthy subjects ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Prevalence and characteristics of ipsilateral upper limb motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were compared in healthy subjects and patients with acute stroke. METHODS: Sixteen healthy subjects and 25 patients with acute stroke underwent focal TMS at maximum stimulator output over motor and premotor cortices. If present, MEPs evoked in muscles ipsilateral to TMS were analyzed for latency, amplitude, shape, and center of gravity (ie, preferential coil location to elicit them). In stroke patients, possible relationships between early ipsilateral responses and functional outcome at 6 months were sought. RESULTS: With relaxed or slightly contracting target muscle, maximal TMS over the motor cortex failed to elicit ipsilateral MEPs in the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) or biceps of any of 16 normal subjects. In 5 of 8 healthy subjects tested, ipsilateral MEPs with latencies longer than contralateral MEPs were evoked in FDI muscle (in biceps, 6 of 8 subjects) during strong (>50% maximum) contraction of the target muscle. In 15 of 25 stroke patients, ipsilateral MEPs in the unaffected relaxed FDI (in biceps, 6 of 25 stroke patients) were evoked by stimulation of premotor areas of the affected hemisphere. Their latencies were shorter than those that MEPs evoked in the same muscle by stimulation of the motor cortex of the contralateral unaffected hemisphere. Such responses were never obtained in normal subjects and were mostly observed in patients with subcortical infarcts. Patients harboring these responses had slightly better bimanual dexterity after 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: Ipsilateral MEPs obtained in healthy individuals and stroke patients have different characteristics and probably different origins. In the former, they are probably conveyed via corticoreticulospinal or corticopropriospinal pathways, whereas in the latter, early ipsilateral MEPs could originate in hyperexcitable premotor areas. [less ▲]

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See detailAntioxydant activity of β-carboline derivatives in the LDL oxidation model
Hadjaz, Fariza; Besret, Soizic; Martin-Nizard, Françoise et al

in European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2001), 46

A series of b-carboline compounds were synthesized, starting from compound GWC22, their antioxidant activity was determined by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The oxidation of LDL was induced in the ... [more ▼]

A series of b-carboline compounds were synthesized, starting from compound GWC22, their antioxidant activity was determined by inhibition of lipid peroxidation. The oxidation of LDL was induced in the presence of CuSO4 or 2,20-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH). The protective actions of these compounds against the cytotoxicity were evaluated with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and cellular vitality by measuring mitochondrial activity in the presence of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Most of compounds showed an higher antioxidant activity than GWC22 derivative (R = 1.6 for 5 mM CuSO4). The best antioxidant activities are phenolic and benzyloxy derivatives with ratio R = 1.9 to 2.8 for 1 mM CuSO4. These substances have protective actions and increase significantly the cell viability. [less ▲]

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See detailAdipose tissue expression of gelatinases in mouse models of obesity.
Lijnen, roger; Maquoi, Erik ULg; Holvoet, P. et al

in Thrombosis and Haemostasis (2001), 85(6), 1111-1116

Following the observation by Brown et al. (Am J Physiol 1997; 272: C937-49) that primary rat adipocytes in culture secrete gelatinase A (MMP-2), we have evaluated gelatinase expression in adipose tissue ... [more ▼]

Following the observation by Brown et al. (Am J Physiol 1997; 272: C937-49) that primary rat adipocytes in culture secrete gelatinase A (MMP-2), we have evaluated gelatinase expression in adipose tissue with the use of mouse models of obesity. Wild-type mice were kept on a standard fat diet (SFD) or on a high fat diet (42% fat, HFD) and- genetically obese db/db mice were kept on SFD; gonadal and subcutaneous fat pads were removed and analysed ex vivo. These studies revealed that: 1) the HFD induced adipocyte hypertrophy; 2) after 32 weeks, significantly higher levels of 70 kDa (p <0.05) and 65 kDa proMMP-2 (p <0.01) were observed in extracts of gonadal fat pads of mice on HFD; 3) the contribution of active MMP-2 to the total level was comparable in SFD and HFD groups (20 to 30%); and 4) gelatinase B (MMP-9) was not consistently detected. These findings were confirmed by gelatin zymography and by mRNA determination using competitive RT-PCR. The presence of MMP-2 in the adipose tissue was confirmed immunologically and its localization in adipocytes revealed by immunogold electron microscopy. The potential functional role of MMP-2 in adipose tissue remains to be determined. [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular Modeling Study of Beta- and Gamma-Cyclodextrin Complexes with Miconazole
Piel, Géraldine ULg; Dive, Georges ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2001), 13(3), 271-9

Different authors have demonstrated the inclusion of miconazole in cyclodextrins (CD). Miconazole can be included in the CD cavity both in the neutral and in the ionized form. The present study tries to ... [more ▼]

Different authors have demonstrated the inclusion of miconazole in cyclodextrins (CD). Miconazole can be included in the CD cavity both in the neutral and in the ionized form. The present study tries to understand which fragment of the miconazole molecule is involved in the inclusion. Austin Model 1 approximate molecular orbital calculations have been performed on several complexes between beta-cyclodextrin (betaCD) or gamma-cyclodextrin (gammaCD) and miconazole in the ionized and the non-ionized forms of the two R and S enantiomers in three different orientations. We observed that betaCD is a good vehicle to transport miconazole which can be very easily released. The complexation energy between miconazole and betaCD is not very high but the entropic factor has a great incidence on the stability of the formed complex. The inclusion of the dichlorobenzene-CH(2)-O- and of the imidazole part of the S isomer gives rise to the most probable complex in acidic conditions (ionized miconazole). Nevertheless, the inclusion should be considered as a dynamic process in which different parts of the molecule could be alternatively included in betaCD. The present work demonstrates the high capability of deformation of betaCD which could easily accommodate several types of ligand. By opposite, the cycle extension in gammaCD leads to a more rigid vehicle with regards to miconazole. [less ▲]

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See detailL'atelier d'écriture. Mémoire, désenchantement, idéal
Havelange, Carl ULg

in Santé Conjuguée (2001), (17), 7-832-116

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See detailProblématique de l'authenticité vs artificialité dans l'enseignement des langues germaniques : pistes de réflexion et esquisses de solutions
Simons, Germain ULg; Dahmen, Manfred

in Puzzle (2001), (10), 37-41

L'authenticité est un concept-clé de l'approche communicative. L'input langagier auquel les élèves sont exposés doit/devrait être "authentique", de même que les situations de communication qui leur sont ... [more ▼]

L'authenticité est un concept-clé de l'approche communicative. L'input langagier auquel les élèves sont exposés doit/devrait être "authentique", de même que les situations de communication qui leur sont proposées. Cet article questionne le concept d'authenticité qui est, selon les auteurs, un concept particulièrement "mou" et relatif, surtout lorsque l'on tient compte des caractéristiques du contexte SCOLAIRE de l'apprentissage d'une langue étrangère. Dans la deuxième partie de l'article, les auteurs proposent quelques pistes de réflexion et esquisses de solutions pour rendre l'enseignement/apprentissage des langues étrangères moins "artificiel". [less ▲]

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See detailImages in Clinical Medicine. A Medical Mystery: Alkaptonuric ochronosis
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in New England Journal of Medicine (2001), 344(21), 1642-1643

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See detailProbing thermoplastic matrix-carbon fiber interphases. 1. Preferential segregation of low molar mass chains to the interface
Carlier, V.; Sclavons, M.; Jonas, Alain M et al

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(11), 3725-3729

The molecular mobility of polystyrene (PS) chains near the surface of carbon fibers was investigated. The glass transition temperature of very thin coatings deposited on carbon fibers was measured by ... [more ▼]

The molecular mobility of polystyrene (PS) chains near the surface of carbon fibers was investigated. The glass transition temperature of very thin coatings deposited on carbon fibers was measured by supported DMTA in order to probe the properties of the thermoplastic interphase. Depending on the fiber impregnation method from the melt or from solution, Tg changed in an opposite way for the thinnest coatings, decreasing with coating thickness in the case of impregnation in the melt and increasing when a polymer solution was used. This observation is explained by degradation of PS in the melt and subsequent preferential segregation of low molar mass chains to the interface. This conclusion is supported by the study of the Tg of coatings made from a bimodal molar mass distribution. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of the Solvent Polarity on the Living Ligated Anionic Polymerization of tert-Butyl Methacrylate and Copolymerization with Methyl Methacrylate
Zune, Catherine; Archambeau, C.; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (2001), 39(10), 1774-1785

An anionic polymerization of t-butyl methacrylate and a copolymerization with methyl methacrylate were initiated with an organolithium ligated with 10 equiv of LiCl. As a rule, the complexation of the ... [more ▼]

An anionic polymerization of t-butyl methacrylate and a copolymerization with methyl methacrylate were initiated with an organolithium ligated with 10 equiv of LiCl. As a rule, the complexation of the active species by LiCl masked the effect that the polarity of the solvent might have on the molecular structure of the chains. [less ▲]

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See detailInhibition of the Nf-Kappa B Transcription Factor Increases Bax Expression in Cancer Cell Lines
Bentires-Alj, M.; Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg; Viatour, Patrick ULg et al

in Oncogene (2001), 20(22), 2805-13

The NF-kappa B transcription factor has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in several experimental systems. We therefore investigated whether the expression of the Bax proapoptotic protein could be ... [more ▼]

The NF-kappa B transcription factor has been shown to inhibit apoptosis in several experimental systems. We therefore investigated whether the expression of the Bax proapoptotic protein could be influenced by NF-kappa B activity. Increased Bax protein expression was detected in HCT116, OVCAR-3 and MCF7 cells stably expressing a mutated unresponsive I kappa B-alpha inhibitory protein that blocks NF-kappa B activity. Northern blots showed that bax mRNA expression was increased as a consequence of mutated I kappa B-alpha expression in HCT116 cells. A careful examination of the human bax gene promoter sequence showed three putative binding sites for NF-kappa B, and the kappa B2 site at position -687 could indeed bind NF-kappa B complexes in vitro. Transient transfection of a bax promoter luciferase construct in HCT116 cells showed that NF-kappa B proteins could partially inhibit the transactivation of the bax promoter by p53. Mutations or deletions of the kappa B sites, including kappa B2, indicated that this NF-kappa B-dependent inhibitory effect did not require NF-kappa B DNA-binding, and was thus an indirect effect. However, cotransfection of expression vectors for several known cofactors failed to identify a competition between p53 and NF-kappa B for a transcription coactivator. Our findings thus demonstrate for the first time that NF-kappa B regulates, through an indirect pathway, the bax gene expression. [less ▲]

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See detailWater-soluble complexes formed by poly(2-vinylpyridinium)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(sodium methacrylate)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers
Gohy, Jean-François; Varshney, Sunil K; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Macromolecules (2001), 34(10), 3361-3366

Formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) by mixing protonated poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-b-PEO) with neutralized poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide ... [more ▼]

Formation of interpolyelectrolyte complexes (IPEC) by mixing protonated poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-b-PEO) with neutralized poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PMAA-b-PEO) has been investigated in water. It was observed that (i) IPEC are formed in a limited pH range, which is controlled by the degree of ionization of the PMAA and P2VP blocks; (ii) IPEC self-assemble to form the core of monodisperse spherical micelles surrounded by a corona of PEO blocks; (iii) IPEC are salt-sensitive, falling apart above a critical salt concentration; (iv) IPEC are not observed at high pH, but micelles are formed by the P2VP-b-PEO copolymers, which contain an uncharged P2VP core surrounded by a PEO corona; (v) IPEC are not observed at low pH, but the PMAA-b-PEO diblocks aggregate into micelles, the core of which is formed by a hydrogen-bonded complex between PMAA and PEO; and (vi) these PMAA-b-PEO micelles, which are temperature-sensitive, show a complete reorganization of the micellar core above a critical temperature. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrochemical strategies for the strengthening of polymer – metal interfaces
Baute, Noëlle; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien et al

in European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry (2001), 2001(5), 1097-1107

Polymers have been widely used for the protection of metals against corrosion and for improving the performance of structural adhesive joints. In this contribution, the weakness and short-term durability ... [more ▼]

Polymers have been widely used for the protection of metals against corrosion and for improving the performance of structural adhesive joints. In this contribution, the weakness and short-term durability of these polymer-metal interactions and some common approaches for alleviating this problem are briefly reviewed. Among the existing techniques, electrochemical processes offer the advantage of controlled interfacial reactions. Promising results have been reported by Strat-mann et al. and Le´cayon et al., who have emphasized the interest and opportunity to create strong chemical bonds between the organic coating and the metallic substrate. Their work is discussed in this review, along with results recently obtained in our group [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation and properties of layered silicate nanocomposites based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers
Alexandre, Michaël ULg; Beyer, Günter; Henrist, Catherine ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2001), 22(8), 643-646

(Nano)composites based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) and montmorillonite modified by various alkylammonium cations were processed by mechanical kneading. Polymer intercalation and filler ... [more ▼]

(Nano)composites based on ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) and montmorillonite modified by various alkylammonium cations were processed by mechanical kneading. Polymer intercalation and filler exfoliation were evidenced by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Nano-composites tensile properties showed that Young's modulus increases significantly even at very low content of the organo-modified filler while preserving high ultimate elongation and tensile stress. The matrix thermal stability in air was increased by 40°C and, interestingly, the obtained nanocomposites present flame retardant properties. TEM micrograph of the nanocomposite based on EVA3 filled with 5 wt.-% of Mont-2CN2C18. [less ▲]

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See detailIsocinétisme et traumatologie sportive
Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 360-8

The assessment of human muscle strength is of considerable value in various pathological states with modifications of the performance level. The original concept of isokinetic dynamometry provides a ... [more ▼]

The assessment of human muscle strength is of considerable value in various pathological states with modifications of the performance level. The original concept of isokinetic dynamometry provides a precise and reliable quantification of strength. Identification of underlying deficits in bilateral and reciprocal muscle group relationships plays a great role in the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and muscle injuries. The value of this type of assessment for prevention in uninjured subjects practicing sports at risk is suggested. Rehabilitative use of isokinetic includes muscle strengthening and tendinitis treatment by means of eccentric exercises. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of an Alfexpress DNA Sequencer to Analyze Protein-Nucleic Acid Interactions by Band Shift Assay
Filée, Patrice ULg; Delmarcelle, Michaël ULg; Thamm, Iris ULg et al

in BioTechniques (2001), 30(5), 1044-81050-1

Gel retardation analysis, or band shift assay, is technically the simplest method to investigate protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this report, we describe a nonradioactive band shift assay using a ... [more ▼]

Gel retardation analysis, or band shift assay, is technically the simplest method to investigate protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this report, we describe a nonradioactive band shift assay using a fluorescent DNA target and an ALFexpress automatic DNA sequencer in place of the current method that utilizes radioactively end-labeled DNA target and a standard electrophoresis unit. In our study, the dsDNA targets were obtained by annealing two synthetic oligonucleotides or by PCR. In both cases, a molecule of indodicarbocyanine (CY5) was attached at the 5' OH end of one of the two synthetic oligonucleotides, with a ratio of one molecule of fluorescent dye per molecule of dsDNA. To demonstrate the feasibility of this new band shift assay method, the DNA-binding proteins selected as models were the BlaI and AmpR repressors, which are involved in the induction of the Bacillus licheniformis 749/I and Citrobacter freundii beta-lactamases, respectively. The results show that the use of an automatic DNA sequencer allows easy gel retardation analysis and provides a fast, sensitive, and quantitative method. The ALFexpress DNA sequencer has the same limit of detection as a laser fluorescence scanner and can be used instead of a FluorImager or a Molecular Imager. [less ▲]

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See detailLe recours de l'assureur-loi : son objet et son assiette.
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Lexius Actua (2001), 5

L’article 47 de la loi sur les accidents du travail permet à l’assureur loi et au Fonds des accidents du travail d’exercer une action subrogatoire contre le responsable du sinistre à concurrence des ... [more ▼]

L’article 47 de la loi sur les accidents du travail permet à l’assureur loi et au Fonds des accidents du travail d’exercer une action subrogatoire contre le responsable du sinistre à concurrence des sommes versées à la victime ou à ses ayants droit. Cette action ne peut toutefois excéder les montants que la victime ou ses ayants droit auraient pu réclamer du chef du même dommage en vertu du droit commun. Le recours de l’assurance loi ou du Fonds des accidents du travail est limité au montant de la plus faible de ces deux sommes. Aux fins de pouvoir apprécier l’étendue du recours de l’assureur, l'article propose de différencier son objet et son assiette. [less ▲]

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See detailRaynaud Phenomenon after Treatment of Verruca Vulgaris of the Sole with Intralesional Injection of Bleomycin
Vanhooteghem, Olivier ULg; Richert, Bertrand ULg; de LA BRASSINNE, Michel ULg

in Pediatric Dermatology (2001), 18(3), 249-251

Intralesional injection of bleomycin (BLM) for the treatment of warts resistant to all conventional therapies is of certain interest because of the drug's low toxicity and its efficacy. However, delayed ... [more ▼]

Intralesional injection of bleomycin (BLM) for the treatment of warts resistant to all conventional therapies is of certain interest because of the drug's low toxicity and its efficacy. However, delayed side effects may appear, particularly Raynaud phenomenon. Accordingly, some precautions must be taken in patients with vascular or collagen diseases and, as a precaution, pregnant or lactating women and infants should not be treated with this drug. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual Precocity after Immigration from Developing Countries to Belgium: Evidence of Previous Exposure to Organochlorine Pesticides
Krstevska-Konstantinova, M.; Charlier, Corinne ULg; Craen, M. et al

in Human Reproduction (2001), 16(5), 1020-6

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to ... [more ▼]

In a retrospective auxological study of 145 patients seen in Belgium during a 9-year period for treatment of precocious puberty, 28% appeared to be foreign children (39 girls, one boy) who immigrated 4 to 5 years earlier from 22 developing countries, without any link to a particular ethnic or country background. The patients were either adopted (n = 28) or non-adopted (n = 12), the latter having normal weight and height at immigration and starting early puberty without evidence of earlier deprivation. This led to the hypothesis that the mechanism of precocious puberty might involve previous exposure to oestrogenic endocrine disrupters. A toxicological plasma screening for eight pesticides detected p,p'-DDE, which is derived from the organochlorine pesticide DDT. Median p,p'-DDE concentrations were respectively 1.20 and 1.04 ng/ml in foreign adopted (n = 15) and non-adopted (n = 11) girls with precocious puberty, while 13 out of 15 Belgian native girls with idiopathic or organic precocious puberty showed undetectable concentrations (<0.1 ng/ml). A possible relationship between transient exposure to endocrine disrupters and sexual precocity is suggested, and deserves further studies in immigrant children with non-advanced puberty. [less ▲]

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See detailLe réentrainement à l'effort du patient BPCO
Bury, Thierry ULg; Lange, B.; Pirnay, Freddy ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 289-92

Rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established and widely accepted as a means of enhancing standard therapy in order to alleviate symptoms and optimize ... [more ▼]

Rehabilitation for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is well established and widely accepted as a means of enhancing standard therapy in order to alleviate symptoms and optimize function. The primary goal of rehabilitation is to restore the patient to the highest possible level of independent function. There is, however, no consensus on the optimal training modalities. Both walking and cycling improve exercise performance; there is substantial evidence that lower extremity exercise training should be included in rehabilitation programs for patients with COPD. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Distribution of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in the Canary Brain: Demonstration of a Specific and Sexually Dimorphic Catecholaminergic Innervation of the Telencephalic Song Control Nulcei
Appeltants, D.; Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Cell & Tissue Research (2001), 304(2), 237-59

Singing and the processing of auditory information related to song can be affected by experimental manipulations of catecholamine activity in the brain of zebra finches. We investigated, by ... [more ▼]

Singing and the processing of auditory information related to song can be affected by experimental manipulations of catecholamine activity in the brain of zebra finches. We investigated, by immunocytochemistry in the brain of male and female canaries, the distribution of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of catecholamines. Fibers immunoreactive for TH (TH-ir) were particularly abundant in the lobus parolfactorius, the paleostriatum primitivum, and the nucleus septalis lateralis. A high density of TH-ir basket-like structures was observed in the caudomedial neostriatum, an area involved in song perception and recognition. In most males, a high density of TH-ir fibers outlined the telencephalic song control nuclei including the high vocal center, the nucleus robustus archistriatalis, the nucleus interfascialis, the lateral and medial parts of the magnocellular nucleus of the anterior neostriatum, and area X of the lobus parolfactorius. The higher density of fibers immunoreactive for TH in these nuclei, compared with the surrounding telencephalon, supports the notion that the morphological evolution of the song control nuclei was accompanied by a neurochemical specialization. This specific innervation of the song control regions was, in general, not found in females. The specific presence of high densities of TH-ir fibers in the song system of male canaries and the sex difference of this innervation provide anatomical evidence in support of the claim that dopamine and/or norepinephrine play important roles in the modulation of song learning and production. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslocation (16;17)(Q22;P13) Is a Recurrent Anomaly of Aneurysmal Bone Cysts
Herens, Christian ULg; Thiry, Anne-Marie ULg; Dresse, M. F. et al

in Cancer Genetics & Cytogenetics (2001), 127(1), 83-4

Recently, Panoutsakopoulos et al. (1999) reported 2 cases of aneurysmal bone cysts with a recurrent (16;17)(q22;p13) translocation. We present here two additional cases harboring the same translocation as ... [more ▼]

Recently, Panoutsakopoulos et al. (1999) reported 2 cases of aneurysmal bone cysts with a recurrent (16;17)(q22;p13) translocation. We present here two additional cases harboring the same translocation as well as additional chromosomal changes. [less ▲]

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See detailSport et hypertension artérielle
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg; Ancion, G.

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 306-312

Regular physical exercise belongs to the non pharmacological tools for the control of high blood pressure. When practising it almost daily at low intensity during 30 minutes, and mainly on a dynamic mode ... [more ▼]

Regular physical exercise belongs to the non pharmacological tools for the control of high blood pressure. When practising it almost daily at low intensity during 30 minutes, and mainly on a dynamic mode, blood pressure can decrease almost of the same order of magnitude as with an antihypertensive drug. In severe hypertension, blood pressure must be first controlled by drugs before starting the physical exercise training. An exercise test is preferable before exercise suggestion in sedentary people older than 40 years. In hypertensive people who enter sportive competition, diuretics and betablockers are forbidden. These agents can also reduce performance. [less ▲]

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See detailLa readaptation cardio-vasculaire
Pierard, Luc ULg; Louis, Olivier ULg; Gobin, Eric ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 293-9

In industrialized countries, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality. Cardiovascular rehabilitation is one of the most important components of secondary prevention and is mainly ... [more ▼]

In industrialized countries, coronary artery disease is the leading cause of mortality. Cardiovascular rehabilitation is one of the most important components of secondary prevention and is mainly prescribed after acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery revascularization. The aims of rehabilitation are not only the improvement of functional capacity but also the correction of risk factors and assistance to social and professional reintegration. There are numerous indications, including not only patients with coronary artery disease but also patients with heart failure and those who underwent cardiac surgery or heart transplantation. Cardiac rehabilitation consists in 3 successive stages. The first is performed during hospital stay. The two others take place in an approved center of multidisciplinary cardiac rehabilitation. The intensity of exercise is determined for each individual patient from the results of stress testing. The beneficial effects are well established: reduction in morbidity and mortality, improvement of quality of life and of pulmonary, cardiac, muscular and metabolic parameters. Its efficacy is only maximal when patients continue performing exercise regularly. [less ▲]

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See detailSurentrainement et efforts d'endurance
Jidovtseff, Boris ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 343-52

Optimal training results in exercise-recovery harmonious balance. High frequency and volumic training, associated with insufficient recovery may induce overtraining. It depends on the kind of exercise but ... [more ▼]

Optimal training results in exercise-recovery harmonious balance. High frequency and volumic training, associated with insufficient recovery may induce overtraining. It depends on the kind of exercise but occurs mainly in endurance sports. The high frequency of upper respiratory track infection in endurance sportsmen results from a temporary immunosuppression state, possibly associated with overtraining. Many immune and haematological parameters have been associated with overtraining, but none seemed really efficient for diagnosis. Hormonal parameters, despite contradictions in studies, appear to give a good insight of athlete's staleness and are more predictive of overtraining. Actually, overtraining detection needs a combination of different parameters, and cannot sustain on isolated factors. [less ▲]

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See detailAspects echographiques du coeur du sportif
Pierard, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 313-7

Sporting activities and athletic training induce not only physiologic, but also morphologic changes. Dynamic training is associated with an enlarged left ventricle and a small increase in wall thickness ... [more ▼]

Sporting activities and athletic training induce not only physiologic, but also morphologic changes. Dynamic training is associated with an enlarged left ventricle and a small increase in wall thickness. Athletes who perform predominantly static or isometric exercise have increased wall thickness with normal left ventricular internal diameter. Systolic and diastolic function are normal. Echocardiography is the method of choice to identify and follow the athlete's heart and to distinguish between physiologic and pathologic hypertrophy. [less ▲]

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See detailPathologie tendineuse du sujet sportif veteran
Bartsch, Valérie ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 375-81

Tendonitis and tendons ruptures are mainly seen above 40 years of age, especially in sport practice. We discuss the physiopathology, diagnosis and treatment.

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See detailLes mécanismes du déclenchement pubertaire : signaux périphériques, hypothalamiques et environnementaux
LEBRETHON, Marie-Christine ULg; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Actualités Médicales Internationales. Métabolismes-Hormones-Nutrition (2001), V(3), 101-106

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See detailExercise Versus Dobutamine-Induced St Elevation in the Infarct-Related Electrocardiographic Leads: Clinical Significance and Correlation with Functional Recovery
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Seidel, Laurence ULg; Hoffer, E. et al

in American Heart Journal (2001), 141(5), 772-9

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of stress-induced ST elevation early after acute myocardial infarction and its relation to functional recovery remain controversial. The aims of this study were (1 ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of stress-induced ST elevation early after acute myocardial infarction and its relation to functional recovery remain controversial. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the incidence of ST elevation during dobutamine and exercise tests and (2) to assess the relative accuracy of exercise and dobutamine ST elevation for predicting functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated 52 patients who underwent supine exercise (from 25 W to maximal charge) and dobutamine (from 5 to 40 microg/kg per minute and up to 1 mg atropine) stress electrocardiography in the same position. ST elevation was defined as new or worsening at >1 mm, 80 ms after J point. Echocardiography and quantitative angiography were available in all patients before hospital discharge. The follow-up resting echocardiogram was recorded 30 +/- 6 days after the acute event. ST elevation developed during 30 (58%) dobutamine and 24 (46%) exercise tests. The sum of ST elevation was higher during dobutamine testing (7.7 +/- 3.8 mm) than during exercise (5.5 +/- 2.5 mm) (P =.03). A low peak creatine kinase level was the single independent predictor of dobutamine-induced ST elevation. Functional improvement occurred in 35 patients. Two independent predictors of functional recovery were selected from multivariate analysis: dobutamine ST elevation (chi(2) = 9.1; P =.0026) and low peak creatine kinase level (chi(2) = 5.1; P =.025). When dobutamine ST elevation was not included in multivariate analysis, exercise-induced ST elevation emerged as an independent predictor of functional recovery (chi(2) = 5.0; P =.023). Significant linear correlation was found between the sum of ST elevation at peak dobutamine stress and the extent of functional recovery (r = 0.87; P <.0001). In contrast, no correlation was observed with exercise ST elevation (r = 0.06; P = not significant). CONCLUSIONS: Stress-induced ST elevation is an ancillary sign of viable myocardium that can recover. The sum of ST elevation at peak dobutamine stress correlates with the extent of functional recovery. [less ▲]

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See detailLes fractures de fatigue chez le sportif
Pirnay, Laurence ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 369-74

Stress fractures are very frequent injuries which account for 10% of all consultations in sports medicine, in a majority of cases affecting the lower limbs in young adults. They can be defined as a ... [more ▼]

Stress fractures are very frequent injuries which account for 10% of all consultations in sports medicine, in a majority of cases affecting the lower limbs in young adults. They can be defined as a modification of the bone structure not necessarily associated with cortical infraction which occurs in the absence of injury. They happen as a result of an imbalance between the bone's capacity for adaptation and the overloading of mechanical constraints applied. This imbalance is adjusted by different favourable factors thus explaining the individual threshold to external demands. In theory, any bone might be damaged although more frequently they are to be found at the level of the tibia or the second and third metatarsals. The clinical picture is dominated by a symptomatology of pain which appears progressively strictly mechanical at the development stage. Further medical examination will include an x-ray (late diagnosis which often gives false-negative results) but, more importantly, a scintigraphy (which is very sensitive at an early stage but which is not specific enough). More recently, MRI has been a preferred means of detection. The treatment consists of obligatory segmented rest for a period of between two and six weeks. The intensity and length of treatment vary in function of the location of the injury and the reoccurrence of pain when the offending activity is restarted again. Rest is of utmost importance in order to avoid an evolution towards a true fracture which would result in long-term isolation from sport and social activities. [less ▲]

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See detailArchaeopteris from the Upper Famennian of Belgium: Heterospory, Nomenclature, and Palaeobiogeography
Fairon-Demaret, Muriel ULg; Leponce, Isabelle ULg; Streel, Maurice ULg

in Review of Palaeobotany & Palynology (2001), 115(1-2), 79-97

New fertile specimens of Archaeopteris roemeriana from Upper (but not uppermost) Famennian strata of Belgium have been studied. Crowded sporangia are borne on non-laminate, three times bifurcate fertile ... [more ▼]

New fertile specimens of Archaeopteris roemeriana from Upper (but not uppermost) Famennian strata of Belgium have been studied. Crowded sporangia are borne on non-laminate, three times bifurcate fertile leaves helically arranged around the fertile ultimate axes. Vegetative leaves occur both proximal and distal to the fertile leaves. Heterospory is demonstrated with miospores belonging to the Geminospora-Aneurospora complex and macrospores most probably to Contagisporites genus. The established morphological traits allow us to substantiate a synonymy between A. roemeriana and A. halliana. The apparent dominance of A. halliana on the eastern side of the Acadian mountains during Late Famennian times is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-synoptic versus pseudo-synoptic data sets: an assimilation experiment
Rixen, Michel; Allen, J. T.; Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2001), 29(1-4), 313-333

Several first-order correction methods are implemented to compute pseudo-synoptic data sets from non-synoptic raw data sets. These include a geostrophic relocation method, a linear and a quadratic ... [more ▼]

Several first-order correction methods are implemented to compute pseudo-synoptic data sets from non-synoptic raw data sets. These include a geostrophic relocation method, a linear and a quadratic interpolation method, and a method using spatio-temporal correlation functions. The relocation method involves analyses and geostrophic velocity computations to allow the relocation of stations in time and space to a particular analysis time. Interpolation methods involve several almost identical and consecutive surveys interpolated in time. Temporal weighting methods are based upon a spatio-temporal function modifying the weight on data with respect to the time at which they have been sampled. These techniques are tested on the OMEGA data set and are validated by simple nudging assimilation into a 3D primitive equation model (PE). It is shown that, under certain hypothesis, these methods are able to correct the lack of synopticity in hydrographic data sets, and improve the diagnosis of vertical velocities computed from the Omega equation. These methods are of particular interest for the scientific community. They might be used together with diagnostic models. They might provide suitable pseudo-synoptic fields required by 3D PE models as initial conditions, boundary conditions or assimilation data sets. They may also be useful in the design of mesoscale samplings. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFull Recovery of Contraction Late after Acute Myocardial Infarction: Determinants and Early Predictors
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg; Berthe, Christian ULg et al

in Heart (2001), 85(5), 521-6

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative value of electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, angiographic, and in-hospital therapeutic indices for predicting late functional recovery after acute myocardial ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relative value of electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, angiographic, and in-hospital therapeutic indices for predicting late functional recovery after acute myocardial infarction, and to determine the variables associated with absence of recovery, partial recovery, and full recovery. DESIGN: Prospective observational follow up study. SETTING: Teaching hospital. PATIENTS: 74 consecutive patients with a first uncomplicated acute myocardial infarct. INTERVENTIONS: Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography was performed mean (SD) 5 (2) days after the acute event. Quantitative angiography was available in all patients before hospital discharge. A follow up resting echocardiogram was obtained 12 (2) months later. RESULTS: Functional recovery (partial, n = 18; full, n = 27) was observed in 45 of the 74 patients. Recovery was associated with earlier thrombolytic treatment (p = 0.008), earlier peak concentration of creatine kinase (p = 0.009), greater contractile reserve (p = 0.0001), non-Q wave acute myocardial infarction (p = 0.002), and more frequent elective angioplasty of the infarct related vessel (p = 0.0004). Three independent variables were selected stepwise from multivariate analysis for predicting late recovery: contractile reserve (chi(2) = 24.2, p < 0.0001); non-Q wave infarction (chi(2) = 15.7, p = 0.0001); and the time from symptom onset to thrombolysis (chi(2) = 4.94, p = 0.026). Three independent variables predicted full recovery: contractile reserve (chi(2) = 17.2, p = 0.0001); non-Q wave infarction (chi(2) = 10.1, p = 0.0016); and elective angioplasty of the infarct related artery (chi(2) = 4.53, p = 0.033). Only contractile reserve (chi(2) = 17.0, p < 0.001) was selected from the multivariate analysis for its ability to distinguish between partial recovery and absence of recovery. CONCLUSIONS: Late recovery of contraction relates to earlier treatment, which is associated with lower infarct size unmasked by a non-Q wave event and the presence of contractile reserve. Elective coronary angioplasty of the infarct related artery before hospital discharge is associated with full recovery. [less ▲]

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