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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Constipation et syndrome de masse abdominale chez une patiente de 51 ans
Detrembleur, Nancy ULg; Delbecque, Katty ULg; Thiry, Albert ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 688-91

A 51-year old patient consults for abdominal swelling and persistent constipation. Clinical exploration shows the presence of a left iliac fossa tumor corresponding to a papillary serous adenocarcinoma of ... [more ▼]

A 51-year old patient consults for abdominal swelling and persistent constipation. Clinical exploration shows the presence of a left iliac fossa tumor corresponding to a papillary serous adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube after macroscopic and microscopic examination. The diagnostic and therapeutic problems caused by this rare gynecologic tumor are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe mélèze, un résineux à (re) découvrir
Rondeux, Jacques ULg

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), (61), 3

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See detailExperimental evidence for N recycling in the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica
Lepoint, Gilles ULg; Defawe, Olivier; Gobert, Sylvie ULg et al

in Journal of Sea Research (2002), 48(3), 173-179

A one-year in situ experiment using N-15 as a tracer was designed to assess the N recycling in the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. R oceanica was shown to partly recycle the ... [more ▼]

A one-year in situ experiment using N-15 as a tracer was designed to assess the N recycling in the leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile. R oceanica was shown to partly recycle the internal nitrogen pool of its leaves in order to contribute to new leaf growth. The leaves sampled in June 1999 contained 20% of the quantity of N-15 found in June 1998. N recycling caused a difference between N and biomass turnover rate (0.8 vs 1.3 y(-1)) of Posidonia leaves. This 40% difference should correspond to the contribution of recycled N to the annual N requirement of Posidonia leaves. The N recycling appears to be insufficient to significantly reduce the quantitative impact of N loss due to autumnal leaf fall. However, new leaf growth between June and October is mainly sustained by this recycling because the tracer concentration in new leaves was the same as in the other leaves. By contrast, tracer concentration decreased drastically between October 1998 and June 1999, showing the more important contribution of N uptake during winter and spring. Nevertheless, recycling occurs throughout the year as demonstrated by the presence of tracer in the youngest leaves of shoots sampled one year after the tracer addition. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailQuaternary folding in the south piedmont of central segment of Tianshan Mountains
Huafu, Lu; Dong, Jia; Suppe, J. et al

in Chinese Science Bulletin (2002), 47

The Tianshan Mountains are an important active structural belt in the interior of Eurasia. By integrated methods of surface geology survey and interpretation of seismic profiles, we distinguish fold ... [more ▼]

The Tianshan Mountains are an important active structural belt in the interior of Eurasia. By integrated methods of surface geology survey and interpretation of seismic profiles, we distinguish fold scarps located at the south limb of the Kuqatawu anticline and the north limb of the Dongqiulitag anticline in the Kuqa rejuvenation foreland thrust belt, south piedmont of central segment of the Tian- shan Mountains. Fold scarp is a newly found structural phenomenon. Because of the bend of thrust plane and the movement of hanging wall above the thrust plane, the origi- nal horizontal deposits of hanging wall and their surface become a monocline structure, resulting from the separating and migration of the active and fixed axial surfaces. Meas- uring the geometry of fold scarp and using the data of age of the deformed deposits, the crustal shortening rate resulting from the deeply seated subsurface thrust is calculated. The crustal shortening rate reflected by the fold scarp located at the north limb of the Dngqiulitag anticline is (1␣0.1) mm/a. The fold scarps of the Dongqiulitag anticline and the Ku- qatawu anticline identify that the deformation process of the crustal compressive structures in the Kuqa area extends into the Late Quaternary. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical simulation of viscoplastic and frictional heating during finite deformation of metal. Part I: Theory
Adam, Laurent; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (2002), 128(11), 1215-1221

In this paper we will apply the theoretical framework developed in Part I to various metal forming processes. These numerical simulations are exposed showing the capability of the formulation to simulate ... [more ▼]

In this paper we will apply the theoretical framework developed in Part I to various metal forming processes. These numerical simulations are exposed showing the capability of the formulation to simulate finite anisothermal deformation of solids and thermal field evolution due to viscoplastic and frictional heating. [less ▲]

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See detailLe point sur l'immunité civile
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Lexius Actua (2002), 9

La loi du 10 avril 1971 sur les accidents du travail organise un régime de réparation forfaitaire du préjudice professionnel subi par la victime d’un accident du travail. Comme l’écrit M. JAMOULLE « la ... [more ▼]

La loi du 10 avril 1971 sur les accidents du travail organise un régime de réparation forfaitaire du préjudice professionnel subi par la victime d’un accident du travail. Comme l’écrit M. JAMOULLE « la règle de la responsabilité patronale a disparu ; l’employeur n’est jamais plus le débiteur personnel des indemnités forfaitaire ; en revanche, il devient le titulaire d’une obligation de contracter une assurance accident en faveur de ses salariés, assurance dont il supporte le coût par le payement des primes qui demeurent à sa charge exclusive. » La loi de 1971 n’évince toutefois pas le droit commun si ce n’est en conférant à l’employeur, à ses préposés et à ses mandataires, dans des hypothèses strictement réglementées, une immunité civile. C'est pourquoi la loi sur les accidents du travail organise la coexistence entre la réparation forfaitaire et la réparation selon les règles du droit commun. Si la volonté du législateur fut de permettre à la victime d’un accident du travail d’obtenir une indemnisation du risque professionnel qui se concrétise par l’intervention d’une assurance privée, il n’a jamais été question de libérer le tiers responsable de l’accident de son obligation de réparation. L’exonération de la responsabilité civile telle qu’elle est prévue par l’article 46 de la loi sur les accidents du travail a suscité diverses questions préjudicielles posées à la Cour d’Arbitrage. Nous nous proposons d’en faire le point. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman exposure to endocrine disrupters: consequences of gastroplasty on plasma concentration of toxic pollutants
Charlier, Corinne ULg; Desaive, Claude ULg; Plomteux, Guy ULg

in International Journal of Obesity (2002), 26(11), 1465-1468

BACKGROUND: Body weight loss occurring after a hypoenergetic diet or a gastroplasty could be followed by an increase in blood concentration of potentially toxic pollutants that can interfere with the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Body weight loss occurring after a hypoenergetic diet or a gastroplasty could be followed by an increase in blood concentration of potentially toxic pollutants that can interfere with the hormonal system (endocrine disrupters). DESIGN: Thirty obese individuals recruited for gastroplasty were compared before and after treatment with 45 normal-weight people. MEASUREMENTS: Blood samples were analyzed for DDT, DDE, HCB and PCBs no. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The results indicate clearly that body weight loss occurring after gastroplasty increases plasma concentration of lipophilic pollutants. CONCLUSION: Gastroplasty increases plasma concentration of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs, which could be a risk factor of endocrine disruption. Future longitudinal research will have to determine if the advantages of body weight loss are reduced by this potentially harmful effect. [less ▲]

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See detailHistoire et philosophie : un couple plusieurs fois millénaire
Jadoulle, Jean-Louis ULg

in Cahiers du SERDEP (2002)

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See detailLe medicament du mois. L'association budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH)
Louis, Renaud ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 741-4

The combination of budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH) in the same dry powder inhaler (turbohaler) results in a drug that possesses powerful bronchial anti-inflammatory ... [more ▼]

The combination of budesonide 160 micrograms/formoterol 4.5 micrograms (Symbicort TH) in the same dry powder inhaler (turbohaler) results in a drug that possesses powerful bronchial anti-inflammatory, bronchoprotective and bronchodilating activities. Symbicort TH is registered as a maintenance treatment for asthma from the age of 12 years. This drug is indicated in the treatment of moderate and severe persistent asthma as well as in asthma which remains mild persistent despite the regular use of low doses of inhaled corticoids alone. Symbicort TH rapidly improves asthma control by reducing symptoms, relief medication consumption and by improving lung function. Importantly, when taken regularly over a prolonged period, the drug reduces the number of mild and severe exacerbations. The dose of Symbicort TH is adjustable according to the disease severity and generally fluctuates between 2 x 1/24 h and 4 x 2/24 h. Symbicort TH is a simple and a efficient treatment likely to improve the compliance of asthmatics to their treatment in real life. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of aggregation on bacteriochlorin a triplet-state formation: A laser flash photolysis study
Damoiseau, Xavier; Tfibel, Francis; Hoebeke, Maryse ULg et al

in Photochemistry & Photobiology (2002), 76(5), 480-485

Bacteriochlorin a (BCA) is a potential photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer. It has been shown previously that the photoefficiency of the dye is mainly dependent on singlet oxygen (O-1(2 ... [more ▼]

Bacteriochlorin a (BCA) is a potential photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy of cancer. It has been shown previously that the photoefficiency of the dye is mainly dependent on singlet oxygen (O-1(2)) generation. Nanosecond laser flash photolysis was used to produce and to investigate the excited triplet state of the dye in methanol, phosphate buffer and dimiristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes. The transients were characterized in terms of their absorption spectra, decay kinetics, molar absorption coefficients and formation quantum yield of singlet-triplet intercrossing. The lifetime of the BCA triplet state was measured at room temperature. The triplet-state quantum yield is quite high in methanol (0.7) and in DMPC (0.4) but only 0.095 in phosphate buffer. In the last case, BCA is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium, and the low value of the quantum yield observed was ascribed to the fact the triplet state is only formed by the monomers. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of matrigel on human extravillous trophoblasts differentiation: Modulation of protease pattern gene expression
Tarrade, A.; Goffin, Frédéric ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Biology of Reproduction (2002), 67(5), 1628-1637

The human placenta is characterized by extensive trophoblast invasion of the uterus. Indeed, extravillous cytotrophoblast cells invade the. decidua and the upper third of uterine spiral arteries in the ... [more ▼]

The human placenta is characterized by extensive trophoblast invasion of the uterus. Indeed, extravillous cytotrophoblast cells invade the. decidua and the upper third of uterine spiral arteries in the myometrium. This invasion is reflected in situ by the expression of specific markers. In order to study this invasion process, we have established an in vitro culture model of human extravillous trophoblast isolated from first trimester chorionic villi. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a composite matrix, the Matrigel required for the culture of this homogenous population of extravillous trophoblasts (EVCT), on their in vitro differentiation. The effect of Matrigel was studied on different markers characterized by immunocytochemistry and by real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of transcripts. In addition, the expression of 12 different matrix metalloproteases and their inhibitors were investigated. We show that human extravillous cytotrophoblasts acquire an invasive phenotype on Matrigel associated with a specific pattern of protease gene expression. This in vitro model will be of interest to study the cellular mechanisms involved in abnormal trophoblast invasion observed in poor placentation and preeclampsia. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of serracin P, a phage-tail-like bacteriocin, and its activity against Erwinia amylovora, the fire blight pathogen
Jabrane, A.; Sabri, Ahmed ULg; Compère, Philippe ULg et al

in Applied and Environmental Microbiology (2002), 68(11), 5704-5710

Serratia plymithicum J7 culture supernatant displayed activity against many pathogenic strains of Erwinia amylovora,the causal agent of the most serious bacterial disease of apple and pear trees, fire ... [more ▼]

Serratia plymithicum J7 culture supernatant displayed activity against many pathogenic strains of Erwinia amylovora,the causal agent of the most serious bacterial disease of apple and pear trees, fire blight, and against Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia marcescens, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. This activity increased significantly upon induction with mitomycin C. A phage-tail-like bacteriocin, named serracin P, was purified from an induced culture supernatant of S. plymithicum J7. It was found to be the only compound involved in the antibacterial activity against sensitive strains. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of the two major subunits (23 and 43 kDa) of serracin P revealed high homology with the Fels-2 prophage of Salmonella enterica, the coliphages P2 and 168, the CTX prophage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a prophage of Yersinia pestis. This strongly suggests a common ancestry for serracin P and these bacteriophages. [less ▲]

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See detailAn XMM-Newton observation of the Lagoon Nebula and the very young open cluster NGC 6530
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg; Gosset, Eric ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 395(2), 499-513

We report the results of an XMM-Newton observation of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Our EPIC images of this region reveal a cluster of point sources, most of which have optical counterparts inside the very ... [more ▼]

We report the results of an XMM-Newton observation of the Lagoon Nebula (M8). Our EPIC images of this region reveal a cluster of point sources, most of which have optical counterparts inside the very young open cluster NGC6530. The bulk of these X-ray sources are probably associated with low and intermediate mass pre-main sequence stars. One of the sources experienced a flare-like increase of its X-ray flux making it the second brightest source in M8 after the O4 star 9 Sgr. The X-ray spectra of most of the brightest sources can be fitted with thermal plasma models with temperatures of kT similar to a few keV. Only a few of the X-ray selected PMS candidates are known to display Halpha emission and were previously classified as classical T Tauri stars. This suggests that most of the X-ray emitting PMS stars in NGC6530 are weak-line T Tauri stars. In addition to 9 Sgr, our EPIC field of view contains also a few early-type stars. The X-ray emission from HD 164816 is found to be typical for an O9.5 III-IV star. At least one of the known Herbig Be stars in NGC6530 ( LkHalpha 115) exhibits a relatively strong X-ray emission, while most of the main sequence stars of spectral type B1 and later are not detected. We also detect ( probably) diffuse X-ray emission from the Hourglass Region that might reveal a hot bubble blown by the stellar wind of Herschel 36, the ionizing star of the Hourglass Region. [less ▲]

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See detailSynergistic activation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 promoter activity by NF-kappa B and inhibitors of deacetylases: Potential perspectives for the development of therapeutic strategies
Quivy, Vincent; Adam, Emmanuelle; Collette, Yves et al

in Journal of Virology (2002), 76(21), 11091-11103

The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a central role in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activation pathway. HIV-1 transcription is also regulated by protein acetylation, since treatment ... [more ▼]

The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a central role in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) activation pathway. HIV-1 transcription is also regulated by protein acetylation, since treatment with deacetylase inhibitors such as trichostatin A (TSA) or sodium butyrate (NaBut) markedly induces HIV-1 transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeat (LTR) promoter. Here, we demonstrate that TSA (NaBut) synergized with both ectopically expressed p50/p65 and tumor necrosis factor alpha/SF2 (TNF)-induced NF-kappaB to activate the LTR. This was confirmed for LTRs from subtypes A through G of the HIV-1 major group, with a positive correlation between the number Of kappaB sites present in the LTRs and the amplitude of the TNF-TSA synergism. Mechanistically, TSA (NaBut) delayed the cytoplasmic recovery of the inhibitory protein IkappaBalpha. This coincided with a prolonged intranuclear presence and DNA binding activity of NF-kappaB. The physiological relevance of the TNF-TSA (NaBut) synergism was shown on HIV-1 replication in both acutely and latently HIV-infected cell lines. Therefore, our results open new therapeutic strategies aimed at decreasing or eliminating the pool of latently HIV-infected reservoirs by forcing viral expression. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based infrared spectroscopic measurements of carbonyl sulfide: Free tropospheric trends from a 24-year time series of solar absorption measurements
Rinsland, Curtis P.; Goldman, Aaron; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres (2002), 107(D22),

[1] Solar absorption spectra recorded over a 24-year time span have been analyzed to retrieve average free tropospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). The measurements were recorded with the ... [more ▼]

[1] Solar absorption spectra recorded over a 24-year time span have been analyzed to retrieve average free tropospheric mixing ratios of carbonyl sulfide (OCS). The measurements were recorded with the Fourier transform spectrometer located in the U. S. National Solar Observatory McMath solar telescope facility on Kitt Peak (altitude 2.09 km, lat. 31.9degreesN, long. 111.6degreesW), southwest of Tucson, Arizona, and were obtained on 167 days between May 1978 and February 2002, typically at 0.01-cm(-1) spectral resolution. A best fit to the time series shows an average mixing ratio of 566 pptv (1 pptv = 10(-12) per unit volume) between 2.09 and 10 km, a small but statistically significant long-term decrease equal to (-0.25 +/- 0.04)% yr(-1), 1 sigma, and a seasonal variation with a summer maximum, a winter minimum, and a peak amplitude of (1.3 +/- 0.4)%, 1 sigma, relative to the mean. Although a statistically significant decline and seasonal variation have been detected, both are exceedingly small. The present results confirm and extend earlier studies showing that the OCS free tropospheric abundance at northern midlatitudes has remained nearly constant over the last decades. [less ▲]

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See detailContext-dependent effects of castration and testosterone treatment on song in male European starlings
Pinxten, R.; De Ridder, E.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2002), 42(3), 307-318

Most seasonally breeding songbirds display dramatic seasonal fluctuations in plasma testosterone (T) levels and mate attraction behaviors, including song. However, males of some songbird species, such as ... [more ▼]

Most seasonally breeding songbirds display dramatic seasonal fluctuations in plasma testosterone (T) levels and mate attraction behaviors, including song. However, males of some songbird species, such as the European starling (Stumus vulgaris), continue to sing at high levels after the breeding season, when T levels are basal. In male starlings song during the breeding season functions mainly to attract mates, whereas song during the nonbreeding season appears unrelated to reproduction. This suggests that song produced in a context unrelated to female courtship, unlike song directed toward females, is not regulated by plasma T. In captive males housed in large outdoor aviaries we explored the relationship between plasma T and song produced during the breeding season within and outside a courtship context. This was achieved by determining the effects of castration and subsequent T treatment on song and mate attraction behaviors in both the presence and the absence of a female. Compared to intact males, castrated males did not show reduced song activity in the absence of a female for at least 6 months after the operation, strongly suggesting that the expression of noncourtship song is not regulated by plasma T. Likewise, we found that experimentally elevating T levels in castrated males did not affect noncourtship song rates. However, control castrated males receiving empty implants tended to show reduced noncourtship song rates after implantation. This may have been due to a suppressive effect caused by the presence of the T-implanted castrated males in the same aviary. In contrast, courtship singing was clearly controlled by plasma T: it was abolished by castration and restored by subsequent T replacement when males were housed both individually and in a group situation. High plasma levels of T also appeared necessary for the activation of three other behavioral traits critical for mate attraction, namely, nesthole occupancy, spending time (singing) in a nesthole, and carrying green nesting material into a nesthole. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailMatrix metalloproteinase-9, but not tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1, increases in the sputum from allergic asthmatic patients after allergen challenge
Cataldo, Didier ULg; Bettiol, J.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in CHEST (2002), 122(5), 1553-1559

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether allergen inhalation modulates the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metallloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in the ... [more ▼]

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine whether allergen inhalation modulates the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of matrix metallloproteinase (TIMP)-1 in the induced sputum recovered from patients during a late-phase reaction. Method: Eight allergic asthma patients and five healthy control subjects inhaled a dose of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract corresponding to the provocative concentration of the allergen causing a 20% fall in FEV1 and saline solution. Lung function was carefully monitored for 6 h, and an induced sputum test was performed at 6 h after sham challenge or allergen challenge. The total and differential cell counts were analyzed, and the levels of MMP-9 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and zymography), TIMP-1 (by ELISA), and albumin (by rocket immunoelectrophoresis) were measured. Results: The sputum eosinophil counts (p < 0.01) and MMP-9 levels (p < 0.05) increased significantly in atopic asthma patients after undergoing the allergen challenge but did not in the control subjects. By contrast, TIMP-1 and albumin levels were not significantly increased in any group. MMP-9 levels, measured after the allergen challenge in asthmatic patients, were significantly correlated with FEV1 variations after allergen inhalation (r = 0.51; p < 0.05) and with the sputum neutrophil percentage (r = 0.71; p < 0.01). Conclusion: The levels of MMP-9, but not TIMP-1, increase after inhaled allergen challenge in the sputum of allergic asthmatic patients. This protease increase may lead to a transient imbalance between MMP-9 and TIMP-1 favoring proteolytic extracellular matrix degradation. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Simulation of Viscoplastic and Frictional Heating during Finite Deformation of Metal. Part II: Applications
Adam, Laurent; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Journal of Engineering Mechanics (2002), Vol. 128

In this paper we will apply the theoretical framework developed in Part I to various metal forming processes. These numerical simulations are exposed showing the capability of the formulation to simulate ... [more ▼]

In this paper we will apply the theoretical framework developed in Part I to various metal forming processes. These numerical simulations are exposed showing the capability of the formulation to simulate finite anisothermal deformation of solids and thermal field evolution due to viscoplastic and frictional heating. [less ▲]

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See detailL'evaluation de la qualite de vie dans les essais therapeutiques: un pas vers une approche holistique de la sante
Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(11), 695-700

The concept of quality of life has been widely developed over the last two decades. As they provide subjective assessment of health, quality of life measures may be broadly and relevantly applied in many ... [more ▼]

The concept of quality of life has been widely developed over the last two decades. As they provide subjective assessment of health, quality of life measures may be broadly and relevantly applied in many areas. Numerous measures are available today to perform discriminative, evaluative or analytical studies in the epidemiological, the therapeutic or the health economic fields. Such measures are increasingly used and may be added to clinical, biological or radiographical criteria to assess medical benefits and health outcomes in order to strengthen decisional choice in health. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of endocrine status and cell type in adhesion of human endometrial cells to the peritoneum in nude mice
Beliard, Aude ULg; Noël, Agnès ULg; Goffin, Frédéric ULg et al

in Fertility and Sterility (2002), 78(5), 973-978

Objective: To investigate the role of different cellular types (epithelial and stromal endometrial cells and peritoneal cells) in the ectopic implantation of endometrium and to evaluate the importance of ... [more ▼]

Objective: To investigate the role of different cellular types (epithelial and stromal endometrial cells and peritoneal cells) in the ectopic implantation of endometrium and to evaluate the importance of endocrine environment on the adhesion of endometrial cells to the peritoneum. Design: Experimental prospective study. Setting: University hospital, department of cell biology. Animal(s): One hundred one nude mice. Intervention(s): Monolayer culture of human epithelial and stromal endometrial cells obtained from patients undergoing hysterectomy or laparoscopy for benign disease. Intraperitoneal injection of cells into nude mice. Main Outcome Measure(s): Two weeks after cell injection, adhesion of endometrial cells was evaluated by histological and immunohistochemical examination. Result(s): Mixed cultures of stromal and epithelial cells, but not purified epithelial or stromal cells alone, adhered to the mouse peritoneum and led to endometriotic-like nodules. Pretreatment of cells with estrogen alone or with estrogen and progestin resulted in a higher percentage of animals developing endometriotic-like nodules, whereas treatment with progestin alone did not affect endometriotic implantation. Conclusion(s): Our data indicate that the success of endometrial cell implantation is dependent on the cooperativeness between stromal and epithelial endometrial cells, as well as on the endocrine environment of endometrial cells, but not that of recipient animals. The results emphasize the role of both endometrial cell types for ectopic implantation. (C) 2002 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine. [less ▲]

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See detailExcitation of the FUV Io tail on Jupiter: Characterization of the electron precipitation
Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Gustin, Jacques ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2002), 107(A11),

[1] Spectral observation of both polar regions of Jupiter in the far ultraviolet (FUV) obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), on board the Hubble Space Telescope from July 1997 to ... [more ▼]

[1] Spectral observation of both polar regions of Jupiter in the far ultraviolet (FUV) obtained with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), on board the Hubble Space Telescope from July 1997 to January 2001 have been combined with FUV images to map the FUV color ratio along the STIS slit. Spatially resolved spectra of the aurora carried at similar to12 Angstrom resolution have been used to determine the amount of methane absorption as measured by the FUV color ratio of the Io magnetic footprint and its trailing tail. It is found that the absorption is systematically less than in the main polar aurora, indicating a higher altitude source region. The color ratio of the north tail is shown to slowly decrease downstream from the footprint. The combination of these spectral data with a two-stream model of the interaction of energetic electrons with the Jovian thermosphere indicates that the mean energy of the electrons creating the north FUV emission ranges from similar to55 keV at the Io footprint to similar to40 keV, 20 degrees downstream in the tail. In parallel, the incident electron energy flux drops by a factor similar to6 over the same angular distance. These observations are consistent with the steady state slippage picture where the subcorotating flux tube is accelerated very slowly up to corotation owing to the nonideal coupling. It is argued that small deviations from corotation can supply sufficient energy to fuel the observed auroral emissions. It is suggested that the parallel electric field accelerating electrons out of the flux tube only moderately depends on the time elapsed since the contact with Io, although the mapping between a point in the tail and Io is very uncertain in the presence of magnetic field line slippage. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of the interaction formulae for beam columns in Eurocode 3
Boissonnade, N.; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg; Muzeau, J. P. et al

in Computers & Structures (2002), 80(27-30), 2375-2385

This paper presents a new proposal for beam-column interaction formulae initially based on second-order in-plane elastic theory, as an alternative to those proposed in the Eurocode 3 pre-standard [1]. It ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a new proposal for beam-column interaction formulae initially based on second-order in-plane elastic theory, as an alternative to those proposed in the Eurocode 3 pre-standard [1]. It has been derived according to the following requirements: theoretical background, clear physical meaning, consistency with the other related formulae of Eurocode 3 and accuracy. Besides that, the suggested formulae cover all required continuities: between the cross-section classes, from plasticity to elasticity as slenderness and axial force increase, and continuity between all the individual stability member checks and cross-section verifications. Further to the presentation of the formulae and their background, the good agreement of the proposal is shown through an extensive comparison with more than 15,000 results of finite element numerical simulations. (C) 2002 Civil-Comp Ltd. and Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailMouse Aortic Ring Assay: A New Approach of the Molecular Genetics of Angiogenesis
Masson, Véronique ULg; Devy, L.; Grignet-Debrus, Christine ULg et al

in Biological Procedures Online (2002), 4

Angiogenesis, a key step in many physiological and pathological processes, involves proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. To study the role of two enzymatic families, serine-proteases and matrix ... [more ▼]

Angiogenesis, a key step in many physiological and pathological processes, involves proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. To study the role of two enzymatic families, serine-proteases and matrix metalloproteases in angiogenesis, we have adapted to the mouse, the aortic ring assay initially developed in the rat. The use of deficient mice allowed us to demonstrate that PAI-1 is essential for angiogenesis while the absence of an MMP, MMP-11, did not affect vessel sprouting. We report here that this model is attractive to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of angiogenesis, to identify, characterise or screen "pro- or anti-angiogenic agents that could be used for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases. Approaches include using recombinant proteins, synthetic molecules and adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of a novel cation-exchange restricted-access material for automated sample clean-up prior to the determination of basic drugs in plasma by liquid chromatography
Chiap, Patrice ULg; Rbeida, O.; Christiaens, B. et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2002), 975(1), 145-155

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See detailp53-dependent downregulation of metastasis-associated laminin receptor
Modugno, Michele; Tagliabue, Elda; Ardini, Elena et al

in Oncogene (2002), 21(49), 7478-7487

Based on observations suggesting a role for the tumor suppressor protein p53 in regulating expression of the 67-kDa laminin receptor precursor, 37LRP, we analysed the 37LRP promoter activity in a wild ... [more ▼]

Based on observations suggesting a role for the tumor suppressor protein p53 in regulating expression of the 67-kDa laminin receptor precursor, 37LRP, we analysed the 37LRP promoter activity in a wild-type p53 (wt p53) ovarian carcinoma cell line and in a cisplatin-resistant subline with mutated p53. We observed an increased promoter activity in wt p53 cells as compared to the mutated-p53 line when the first intron of the 37LRP gene was present in the reporter construct. Cotransfection experiments showed that the promoter is downregulated by both wt and mutated p53. Deletion analysis of the first intron localized an enhancer activity in the first 5' 214 bp that upregulates both 37LRP and SV40 promoter activity and is repressed by both wt and mutant p53. Cotransfection, mutagenesis and gel-shift experiments identified a functional AP-2 cis-acting element in this intron region that is repressed by increased levels of both wt and mutated p53. Coimmunoprecipitation studies revealed AP-2 in physical association in vivo with both wt and mutated p53, indicating for the first time that interaction of p53 with AP-2 is involved in the repression mechanism and in the regulation of genes involved in cancer growth and progression. [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(epsilon-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites by in-situ intercalative polymerization catalyzed by dibutyltin dimethoxide
Lepoittevin, Bénédicte; Pantoustier, Nadège; Devalckenaere, Myriam et al

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(22), 8385-8390

Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone by using dibutyltin dimethoxide as an initiator/catalyst. A nonmodified Na ... [more ▼]

Poly(epsilon-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites were prepared by in-situ ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone by using dibutyltin dimethoxide as an initiator/catalyst. A nonmodified Na+-montmorillonite and two montmorillonites surface-modified by dimethyl 2-ethylhexyl (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) and methyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl) (hydrogenated tallow alkyl) ammonium cations, respectively, were used. The evolution of molecular weights was followed in relation to silicate surface modification and clay concentration. The alcohol-bearing organo-modified clay was a co-initiator for the polymerization reaction and thus controlled the molecular weight of the PCL chains. Furthermore, the number-average molecular weight of the growing PCL chains linearly increased with the monomer conversion. Nanocomposites were analyzed by small-angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetry. The clay dispersion depended on the structure of the alkylammonium used to make the clay more hydrophobic. Exfoliated nanocomposites were formed when hydroxyl-containing alkylammonium. was used; otherwise, intercalated structures were reported. Thermogravimetric analyses showed a higher degradation temperature for the exfoliated structures than for the intercalated ones, both of them exceeding the degradation temperature of unfilled poly(epsilon-caprolactone). [less ▲]

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See detailIsolation of Mycoplasma species from the lower respiratory tract of healthy cattle and cattle with respiratory disease in Belgium
Thomas, Anne; Ball, H.; Dizier, Isabelle ULg et al

in Veterinary Record (2002), 151(16), 472-476

Between 1997 and 2000, a total of 150 healthy cattle and 238 animals with respiratory disease were examined for six Mycoplasma species. Attempts were made to detect Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma dispar and ... [more ▼]

Between 1997 and 2000, a total of 150 healthy cattle and 238 animals with respiratory disease were examined for six Mycoplasma species. Attempts were made to detect Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma dispar and Ureaplasma diversum in calves with recurrent disease, and all three of these species were identified in calves with recurrent disease and in healthy lungs. In healthy calves, 84 per cent of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids were mycoplasma free; when cultures were positive, Mycoplasma bovirhinis was the only species isolated. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 78 per cent of animals suffering recurrent respiratory disease and from 65 per cent of acute respiratory cases. Mycoplasma bovis was isolated from bronchoalveolar lavages from 35 per cent of calves suffering recurrent respiratory disease, and from 50 per cent of acute cases, and from 20 per cent of pneumonic cases examined postmortem. M bovis was associated with other Mycoplasma species in 44 per cent of cases. M dispar was also isolated from 45.5 per cent of calves suffering recurrent respiratory disease, often in association with M bovis. M canis was identified for the first time in diseased Belgian cattle. Other mycoplasmas, including Mycoplasma arginini, Mycoplasma alkalescens and U diversum, were isolated less frequently. Associations between mycoplasmas and other pathogens were often observed. Among lungs infected with Pasteurella and/or Mannheimia species, more than 50 per cent were mixed infections with M bovis. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled synthesis of anthracene-labeled omega-amine polystyrene to be used as a probe for interfacial reaction with mutually reactive PMMA
Yin, Zhihui; Koulic, Christian; Pagnoulle, Christophe et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2002), 203(14), 2021-2028

Anthracene-labeled polystyrene (PS) end-capped by a primary amine has been synthesized by atom transfer radical copolymerization of styrene with 3-isopropenyl-alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (m-TMI ... [more ▼]

Anthracene-labeled polystyrene (PS) end-capped by a primary amine has been synthesized by atom transfer radical copolymerization of styrene with 3-isopropenyl-alpha,alpha-dimethylbenzyl isocyanate (m-TMI). The m-TMI co-monomer (5.7 mol-%) does not perturb the control of the radical polymerization of styrene. The pendant isocyanate groups of the copolymer chains of low polydispersity (M-w/M-n = 1.25) and controlled molecular weight (up to 35 000) have been derivatized into anthracene by a reaction with 9-methyl(aminomethyl)anthracene. The anthracene-labeled PS (ca. 2 mol-% label) has been conveniently analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography with a UV detector (SEC-UV). Moreover, the omega-bromide end-group of the copolymer chains has been derivatized into a primary amine, making the labeled PS chains reactive towards non-miscible poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains end-capped by an anhydride. The interfacial coupling of the mutually reactive PS and PMMA chains has been studied under static conditions (i.e., at the interface between thin PS and PMMA films) and successfully analyzed by SEC-UV. [less ▲]

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See detailPersistent negative T waves in the infarct-related leads as an independent predictor of poor long-term prognosis after acute myocardial infarction
Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg; Gerard, P. L.; Kulbertus, Henri ULg et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2002), 90(8), 833-837

This study sought to determine the long-term prognostic significance of persistent or transient, negative T waves in infarct-related leads. After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), QRS and T wave ... [more ▼]

This study sought to determine the long-term prognostic significance of persistent or transient, negative T waves in infarct-related leads. After acute myocardial infarction (AMI), QRS and T wave alterations may resolve. No clinical study has investigated the prognostic importance of persistent versus transient negative T waves. We studied 147 consecutive patients with first AMI and greater than or equal to2 negative T waves in the infarct-related leads on the electrocardiogram. One hundred twenty patients developed Q waves. Patients were followed clinically for 60 +/- 21 months. T-wave normalization was observed early (before hospital discharge) in 34 patients and late (at 4 +/- 1 months) in 65. Thirty patients had Q-wave regression. Adverse outcome occurred in 57 patients. There were 23 hard events (cardiac death in 12 patients and nonfatal AMI in 11). Patients with early or late T-wave normalization had similar event-free survival curves that diverged rapidly from that of patients with persistent negative T waves, who had a worse outcome (p <0.0001). Patients with or without Q-wave regression had similar survival curves. Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, higher end-systolic volume (hazard ratio [HR] 1.01, p = 0.007), the presence of multivessel disease (HR 3.33, p = 0.009), and persistent negative T waves (HR 2.92, p = 0.024) predicted hard events. Persistent negative T waves 4 months after first AMI were independently associated with a worse outcome, whereas Q-wave regression has no long-term prognostic importance. (C) 2002 by Excerpta Medica, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailThe aromatase knock-out mouse provides new evidence that estradiol is required during development in the female for the expression of sociosexual behaviors in adulthood
Bakker, Julie ULg; Honda, S. I.; Harada, N. et al

in Journal of Neuroscience (2002), 22(20), 9104-9112

We used estrogen-deficient aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice to determine whether estrogens contribute to the development of the brain and behavior in females. Female mice of three different genotypes [i.e ... [more ▼]

We used estrogen-deficient aromatase knock-out (ArKO) mice to determine whether estrogens contribute to the development of the brain and behavior in females. Female mice of three different genotypes [i.e., wild type (WT), heterozygous (HET), and homozygous (ArKO)] were ovariectomized in adulthood and subsequently tested for odor preferences (choice: intact male vs estrous female) in a Y-maze. When treated with testosterone, ArKO females spent significantly less time sniffing odors (both volatile and nonvolatile) from either male or female stimuli compared with WT and HET females. When given direct access to anesthetized stimulus animals or when given a choice between odor and visual cues from both stimulus animals, ArKO females continued to spend less time investigating the stimuli compared with WT and HET females. These defects in olfactory investigation of ArKO females were partially corrected with estradiol treatment in adulthood. Estradiol-treated ArKO females no longer differed from WT and HET females in the time spent investigating either nonvolatile odors or the anogenital region of anesthetized animals. However, ArKO females still investigated volatile odors and/or visual cues less than WT and HET females. Sexual receptivity was severely impaired in ArKO females after treatments with estradiol and progesterone that successfully induced receptivity in WT and HET females. Furthermore, ArKO females showed diminished levels of male sexual behaviors, whereas WT and HET females readily mounted an estrous female. Together, these findings demonstrate that estrogen is required for normal female development. The concept that the female brain develops in the absence of any hormonal stimulation should therefore be reconsidered. [less ▲]

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See detailPatterns in hydraulic ripples with binary granular mixtures
Caps, Hervé ULg; Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (2002), 313(3-4), 357-364

An experimental study of a binary granular mixture submitted to a transient shear flow in a cylindrical container is reported. The formation of ripples with a spiral shape is observed. The appearance of ... [more ▼]

An experimental study of a binary granular mixture submitted to a transient shear flow in a cylindrical container is reported. The formation of ripples with a spiral shape is observed. The appearance of phase segregation in those spiral patterns is shown. The relative grain size between sand species is found to be a relevant parameter leading to phase segregation. However, the relative repose angle is an irrelevant parameter. The formation of sedimentary structures is also presented. They result from a ripple climbing process. The "sub-critical" or "super-critical" character of the lamination patterns is shown to depend on the rotation speed of the container. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail2-oxepane-1,5-dione: A precursor of a novel class of versatile semicrystalline biodegradable (Co)polyesters
Latere, Jean-Pierre; Lecomte, Philippe ULg; Dubois, Philippe ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(21), 7857-7859

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See detailRadiative lifetime measurements and transition probability calculations in lanthanide ions
Quinet, Pascal ULg; Palmeri, P.; Biémont, Emile ULg et al

in Journal of Alloys and Compounds (2002), 344(1-2), 255-259

We have undertaken a systematic investigation of spectroscopic properties of lanthanide ions (Z=57-71). Using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence following one- or two-photon excitations, a large ... [more ▼]

We have undertaken a systematic investigation of spectroscopic properties of lanthanide ions (Z=57-71). Using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence following one- or two-photon excitations, a large number of radiative lifetimes have been measured at the Lund Laser Centre for singly, doubly and trebly ionized atoms. These new measurements have been used for testing theoretical calculations performed within the framework of a relativistic Hartree-Fock approach taking core-polarization effects into account. Using the experimental lifetimes (when available) and the theoretical branching fractions, a large number of transition probabilities, most of them of astrophysical interest, have been deduced and are stored in a new database (DREAM). Up to now, the results obtained concern the following ions: La2+, Ce2+, Ce2+, Pr2+, Ho2+, Er2+, Tm2+, Tm2+, Yb2+, Yb2+, Yb2+, Lu2+ and Lu2+. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailLes nouveautés de l'urbanisme wallon après le décret d'optimalisation du CWATUP
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2002), n° spécial

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See detailAssociation of the adaptor TANK with the IκB kinase (IKK) regulator NEMO connects IKK complexes with IKKε and TBK1 kinases
Chariot, Alain ULg; Leonardi, Antonio; Muller, Jean-Noel ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(40), 37029-37036

Canonical activation of NF-kappaB is mediated via phosphorylation of the inhibitory IkappaB proteins by the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK). IKK is composed of a heterodimer of the catalytic IKKalpha and ... [more ▼]

Canonical activation of NF-kappaB is mediated via phosphorylation of the inhibitory IkappaB proteins by the IkappaB kinase complex (IKK). IKK is composed of a heterodimer of the catalytic IKKalpha and IKKbeta subunits and a presumed regulatory protein termed NEMO (NF-kappaB essential modulator) or IKKgamma. NEMO/IKKgamma is indispensable for activation of the IKKs in response to many signals, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we identify TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-kappaB activator) as a NEMO/IKKgamma-interacting protein via yeast two-hybrid analyses. This interaction is confirmed in mammalian cells, and the domains required are mapped. TANK was previously shown to assist NF-kappaB activation in a complex with TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) or IKKepsilon, two kinases distantly related to IKKalpha/beta, but the underlying mechanisms remained unknown. Here we show that TBK1 and IKKepsilon synergize with TANK to promote interaction with the IKKs. The TANK binding domain within NEMO/IKKgamma is required for proper functioning of this IKK subunit. These results indicate that TANK can synergize with IKKepsilon or TBK1 to link them to IKK complexes, where the two kinases may modulate aspects of NF-kappaB activation. [less ▲]

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See detailSecond Fundamental Model of Resonance with Asymmetric Equilibria
Jancart, Sylvie ULg; Lemaitre, Anne; Istace, Anne

in Celestial mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (2002), 84

We study the position and the stability of the equilibria for a generic Hamiltonian function developed up to the second harmonic and depending on two parameters; we describe the topology of the phase ... [more ▼]

We study the position and the stability of the equilibria for a generic Hamiltonian function developed up to the second harmonic and depending on two parameters; we describe the topology of the phase space for fixed values of these parameters. We show that for some values of the parameters asymmetric equilibria (unstable or stable) may appear. We deduce the conditions of capture into first order resonances for slowly drifting systems. We apply this model to the restricted three-body problem. [less ▲]

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See detailArterial elastance and heart-arterial coupling in aortic regurgitation are determined by aortic leak severity
Segers, P.; Morimont, Philippe ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg et al

in American Heart Journal (2002), 144(4), 568-576

Background In aortic valve regurgitation (AR), aortic leak severity modulates left ventricle (LV) arterial system interaction. The aim of this study was to assess (1) how arterial elastance (E-a ... [more ▼]

Background In aortic valve regurgitation (AR), aortic leak severity modulates left ventricle (LV) arterial system interaction. The aim of this study was to assess (1) how arterial elastance (E-a), calculated as the ratio of LV end-systolic pressure and stroke volume, relates to arterial properties and leak severity and (2) the validity of E-a/E-max (with E-max the slope of the-end-systolic pressure-volume relation) as a heart-arterial coupling parameter in AR. Methods and Results Our work is based on human data obtained from a study on vascular adaptation in chronic AR. These data allowed us to assess the parameters of a computer model of heart-arterial interaction. In particular, total peripheral resistance (R) and aortic leak severity-expressed as leak resistance (R-L,R-ao)-were quantified for different patient subgroups (group I/IIa/IIb: E-max = 2.15/0.62/0.47 mm Hg/mL; E-a = 1.24/0.66/0.90 mm Hg/mL; R = 1.9/0.6/0.85 mm Hg-s/mL, R-L,R-ao = 0.35/0.05/0.20 mm Hg-s/mL). A parameter study demonstrated that R-L,R-ao was the main determinant of E-a. With all other parameters constant, valve repair would increase E-a to 2.81, 1.08, and 1.54 mm Hg/mL in groups I,IIa, and IIb, respectively. For a given E-a/E-max, LV pump efficiency (estimated as the ratio of stroke work and LV systolic pressure-volume area) was lower than the theoretical predicted value, except for the simulations with intact aortic valve. Conclusions In AR(a) E-a is determined by aortic leak severity rather than by arterial system properties. Using E-a/E-max as a coupling parameter in general or as a mechanico-energetic regulatory parameter in particular is questionable. [less ▲]

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See detailModerate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass increases intramyocardial synthesis of heat shock protein 72.
Qing, Ma; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F; Schumacher, Kathrin et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (2002), 124(4), 724-31

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the myocardial protective effect of moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass involves upward regulation of heat shock protein 72 ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the myocardial protective effect of moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass involves upward regulation of heat shock protein 72. METHODS: Sixteen young pigs were randomly assigned to a temperature regimen during standardized cardiopulmonary bypass of normothermia or moderate hypothermia (temperatures 37 degrees C and 28 degrees C, respectively, n = 8 per group). Myocardial probes were sequentially sampled from the right ventricle before and during bypass and 6 hours after bypass. Messenger RNA encoding for heat shock protein 72 was assessed by competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, and heat shock protein 72 synthesis was assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemical methods. Induction of apoptosis was assessed by gene expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins (Bcl-xL, Bak, and Fas) according to competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Apoptotic cells were identified with an in situ apoptosis-detection kit (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling) in combination with morphologic criteria. Necrotic cells were detected by standard histologic methods. RESULTS: Moderate hypothermia rather than normothermia was associated with earlier and higher gene expression and synthesis of heat shock protein 72 in the myocardium during and after cardiac surgery. In the hypothermia group both heat shock protein 72 and the messenger RNA encoding it were detected as soon as 30 minutes after initiation of bypass and before aortic clamping, whereas in the normothermia group they were not detected before aortic clamping. Immunohistochemical methods showed localization of heat shock protein 72 in the cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and macrophages. Although the percentage of necrotic cells in the myocardium was lower in the hypothermic group, the induction of apoptosis regulatory proteins and the percentage of apoptotic cells did not differ between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the myocardial protective effect of moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass involves upward regulation of heat shock protein 72 and inhibition of necrosis but not of apoptosis. [less ▲]

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See detailCortical processing of noxious somatosensory stimuli in the persistent vegetative state
Laureys, Steven ULg; Faymonville, Marie-Elisabeth ULg; Peigneux, Philippe ULg et al

in NeuroImage (2002), 17(2), 732-741

The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a devastating medical condition characterized by preserved wakefulness contrasting with absent voluntary interaction with the environment. We used positron ... [more ▼]

The persistent vegetative state (PVS) is a devastating medical condition characterized by preserved wakefulness contrasting with absent voluntary interaction with the environment. We used positron emission tomography to assess the central processing of noxious somatosensory stimuli in the PVS. Changes in regional cerebral blood flow were measured during high-intensity electrical stimulation of the median nerve compared with rest in 15 nonsedated patients and in 15 healthy controls. Evoked potentials were recorded simultaneously. The stimuli were experienced as highly unpleasant to painful in controls. Brain glucose metabolism was also studied with [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose in resting conditions. In PVS patients, overall cerebral metabolism was 40% of normal values. Nevertheless, noxious somatosensory stimulation-activated midbrain, contralateral thalamus, and primary somatosensory cortex in each and every PVS patient, even in the absence of detectable cortical evoked potentials. Secondary somatosensory, bilateral insular, posterior parietal, and anterior cingulate cortices did not show activation in any patient. Moreover, in PVS patients, the activated primary somatosensory cortex was functionally disconnected from secondary somatosensory, bilateral posterior parietal, premotor, polysensory superior temporal, and prefrontal cortices. In conclusion, somatosensory stimulation of PVS patients, at intensities that elicited pain in controls, resulted in increased neuronal activity in primary somatosensory cortex, even if resting brain metabolism was severely impaired. However, this activation of primary cortex seems to be isolated and dissociated from higher-order associative cortices. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailEpithelial supporting cells can differentiate into outer hair cells and Deiters' cells in the cultured organ of Corti
Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Thiry, Marc ULg; Van De Water, Thomas R. et al

in Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences : CMLS (2002), 59(10), 1744-1757

The organ of Corti is a complex structure containing a single row of inner hair cells (IHCs) and three rows of outer hair cells (OHCs), supported respectively by one row of inner phalangeal cells and ... [more ▼]

The organ of Corti is a complex structure containing a single row of inner hair cells (IHCs) and three rows of outer hair cells (OHCs), supported respectively by one row of inner phalangeal cells and three rows of Deiters' cells. When fetal rat organ of Corti explants are cultured, supernumerary OHCs and supernumerary Deiters' cells are produced, without any additional cell proliferation. Analysis of semi- and ultrathin sections revealed that supernumerary OHCs are produced at the distal edge of the organ of Corti. Quantitative analysis of cell types present in the organ of Corti demonstrates that when the number of OHCs increases: (i) the total number of cells remains constant; (ii) the number of Deiters' cells increases; (iii) the number of tectal cells decreases and of Hensen's cells decreases. Using specific HC markers, i.e. jagged2 (Jag2) and Math1, we showed that in addition to existing OHCs, supernumerary OHCs, tectal cells and Hensen's cells expressed these markers in embryonic day 19 organ of Corti explants after 5 days in vitro. The results of this study suggest that Hensen's cells retain the capacity to differentiate into either tectal cells, which differentiate into OHCs, or into undertectal cells which differentiate into Deiters' cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLa neuropathie avec hypersensibilite hereditaire a la pression ou neuropathie tomaculaire
Tinant, France ULg; Zeevaert, Bernard ULg; Benkirane, H. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(10), 651-4

Hereditary neuropathy liability to pressure palsies is characterized by recurring accesses of painless paralysis at the level of various nerves likely to be compressed. This affection remains ... [more ▼]

Hereditary neuropathy liability to pressure palsies is characterized by recurring accesses of painless paralysis at the level of various nerves likely to be compressed. This affection remains underdiagnosed because of its usually benign course, sometimes without any symptom. The diagnosis is supported by clinical and electrophysiological data associated with, in the majority of patients, a deletion of one of the alleles coding for protein PMP 22 on the level of the locus 17p11.2. [less ▲]

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See detailTraitement hormonal de la menopause: traitement hormonal substitutif classique ou tibolone?
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction (2002), 31(6), 541-9

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to review with critical analysis, data from randomized controlled clinical trials comparing the effects on bone of conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and tibolone ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to review with critical analysis, data from randomized controlled clinical trials comparing the effects on bone of conventional hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and tibolone. Their respective effects on bone were also reviewed and summarized. Materials and methods. Medline via PubMed was searched using a combination of the following key words "tibolone, estrogens and bone" to identify all randomized controlled trials tibolone versus HRT (1960-2001). RESULTS: Six randomized controlled trials that have been carried out to compare effects of tibolone and conventional HRT on prevention of postmenopausal bone loss were identified. Only one of these trials has been performed with a correct methodology (double-blind and with an adequate duration). In this trial over 2 years, the highest significant increase from baseline in bone mineral density (BMD) at all sites was observed with HRT; in addition, HRT showed a significantly greater increase in BMD at lumbar spine than tibolone. Randomized placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated that tibolone produces positive effects on BMD. Nevertheless, no clinical convincing data are available to support its efficacy in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures. The positive impact on BMD of conventional HRT to prevent postmenopausal bone loss and to treat established osteoporosis has been shown by many randomized controlled trials. Regarding fracture risk prevention, some clinical and epidemiological data suggest that HRT initiated in early or late postmenopause may prevent fractures if it is administered at standard doses and continued for a long time. CONCLUSION: HRT is always the reference treatment of postmenopausal symptoms related to estrogen deficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailPathologies inflammatoires de l'hypophyse durant la grossesse
Hansen, Isabelle ULg; Betea, Daniela ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2002), 63(5), 464-469

Well-known pituitary inflammatory diseases (sarcoidosis, Wegener granulomatosis, Langerhans and non-Langerhans histiocytosis, inflammatory pseudotumors) may occur during pregnancy or apart from it ... [more ▼]

Well-known pituitary inflammatory diseases (sarcoidosis, Wegener granulomatosis, Langerhans and non-Langerhans histiocytosis, inflammatory pseudotumors) may occur during pregnancy or apart from it. Moreover, some inflammatory diseases, such as lymphocytic hypophysitis occur most of the time during pregnancy. In this chapter, we shall consider these different pathologies as well as the specific treatment of lymphocytic hypophysitis. [less ▲]

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See detailAcromégalie et grossesse
Betea, Daniela ULg; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Hansen, Isabelle ULg et al

in Annales d'Endocrinologie (2002), 63(5), 457-63

Acromegaly usually results from GH hypersecretion by a somatotroph adenoma. The fertility of acromegalic patients is often impaired. Several factors may impact the course of pregnancy in acromegaly ... [more ▼]

Acromegaly usually results from GH hypersecretion by a somatotroph adenoma. The fertility of acromegalic patients is often impaired. Several factors may impact the course of pregnancy in acromegaly. Disturbed pituitary function might lead to infertility or spontaneous abortion. GH is a powerful insulin antagonist, and pregnant acromegalic patients are prone to added glucose intolerance and diabetes. Pregnancy itself might also impact the course of the pituitary tumor. During pregnancy, the normal pituitary increases in size due to estrogens-mediated hyperplasia. Therefore, tumors are at risk for hemorrhage due to enhanced vascularity, and might compress the optic chiasm. In this article we summarize the data on the literature on the reciprocal influences between acromegaly and pregnancy, we discuss therapeutic options and advance diagnostic and surveillance schedules of acromegaly during pregnancy. [less ▲]

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See detailCyclosporin-A differentially affects apoptosis during in vivo rat thymocyte maturation
Damoiseaux, JGMC; Defresne, Marie-Paule ULg; Reutelingsperger, C. P. M. et al

in Scandinavian Journal of Immunology (2002), 56(4), 353-360

Maturation arrest and interference with selection are two well-documented effects of cyclosporin-A (CsA) on the thymus. We recently hypothesized that these effects are related and owing to the reduced T ... [more ▼]

Maturation arrest and interference with selection are two well-documented effects of cyclosporin-A (CsA) on the thymus. We recently hypothesized that these effects are related and owing to the reduced T-cell receptor (TCR)-CD3 complex-mediated signal transduction in thymocytes upon CsA treatment. In this hypothesis, the maturation arrest is the result of the additional depletion of thymocytes that normally survive by positive selection, whereas the impaired self-tolerance induction is caused by an increased survival of thymocytes that normally undergo negative selection. In this view, it is anticipated that CsA differentially affects thymocyte apoptosis during in vivo thymocyte maturation. Indeed, we report in this study a strong increase in apoptotic cells in the thymic cortex on in situ analysis. Simultaneously, the number of apoptotic cells had decreased at the cortico-medullary zone which is held to be the site for negative selection. Rapamycin (Rapa) also interferes with thymocyted maturation by inhibiting cytokine-driven proliferation. Hence, Rapa preferentially affects the early maturational stages of thymoctye development and is considered not to alter thymocyte selection and subsequent apoptotic events. Indeed, the number of apoptotic events appears not to be altered. However, possibly owing to the decrease in cortical macrophages, the apoptotic cells revealed an atypical enumeration around blood vessels. Taken together, our results favour the hypothesis that the dominant effect of CsA on the thymus is the reduction of the TCR-CD3 complex-mediated signal transduction in thymocytes upon interaction with stromal cells. Furthermore, the preferential localization of apoptotic cells next to blood vessels upon Rapa administration may indicate that endothelial cells are a back-up system for the removal of apoptotic cells. [less ▲]

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See detailSecreted metalloprotease gene family of Microsporum canis
Brouta, Frédéric; Descamps, Frédéric; Monod, Michel et al

in Infection and Immunity (2002), 70(10), 5676-5683

Keratinolytic proteases secreted by dermatophytes are likely to be virulence-related factors. Microsporum canis, the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats, causes a zoonosis that is frequently ... [more ▼]

Keratinolytic proteases secreted by dermatophytes are likely to be virulence-related factors. Microsporum canis, the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats, causes a zoonosis that is frequently reported. Using Aspergillus fumigatus metalloprotease genomic sequence (MEP) as a probe, three genes (MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3) were isolated from an M. canis genomic library. They presented a quite-high percentage of identity with both A. fumigatus MEP and Aspergillus oryzae neutral protease I genes. At the amino acid level, they all contained an HEXXH consensus sequence, confirming that these M. canis genes (MEP genes) encode a zinc-containing metalloprotease gene family. Furthermore, MEP3 was found to be the gene encoding a previously isolated M. canis 43.5-kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease, and was successfully expressed as an active recombinant enzyme in Pichia pastoris. Reverse transcriptase nested PCR performed on total RNA extracted from the hair of M. canis-infected guinea pigs showed that at least MEP2 and MEP3 are produced during the infection process. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. [less ▲]

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See detailLa gauche a-t-elle peur de la sécurité ?
Verjans, Pierre ULg

in Politique : Revue de Débats (2002)

La genèse des partis de gauche ne les pousse pas à valoriser la défense des grands propriétaires mais la responsabilité politique et l'embourgeoisement de la classe ouvrière les pousse à défendre le ... [more ▼]

La genèse des partis de gauche ne les pousse pas à valoriser la défense des grands propriétaires mais la responsabilité politique et l'embourgeoisement de la classe ouvrière les pousse à défendre le patrimoine des petits propriétaires, d'où une tension interne difficile à gérer. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition probabilities in GdIII
Biémont, Emile ULg; Kohnen, G.; Quinet, Pascal ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 393(2), 717-720

Theoretical lifetimes, calculated with inclusion of core-polarization effects, have been determined for five 4f(7) 6p levels of doubly ionized gadolinium. They agree quite well with recent experimental ... [more ▼]

Theoretical lifetimes, calculated with inclusion of core-polarization effects, have been determined for five 4f(7) 6p levels of doubly ionized gadolinium. They agree quite well with recent experimental values measured by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. From this agreement, the accuracy of a first set of Gd III transition probabilities, calculated for 4f(7) 5d- 4f(7) 6p and 4f(7) 6s- 4f(7) 6p transitions of astrophysical interest, has been assessed. [less ▲]

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See detailEen Nederlandstalige Shelley op de planken. De reconstructie van een vergeten schandaal
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Neerlandica Extra Muros (2002), 40(3), 13-25

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See detailThermal instability of a rotating saturated porous medium heated from below and submitted to rotation
Desaive, Thomas ULg; Hennenberg, M.; Lebon, Georgy ULg

in European Physical Journal B -- Condensed Matter (2002), 29(4), 641-647

In this work, we study the problem of onset of thermal convection in a rotating saturated porous medium heated from below. The effect of rotation is restricted to the Coriolis force, neglecting thus the ... [more ▼]

In this work, we study the problem of onset of thermal convection in a rotating saturated porous medium heated from below. The effect of rotation is restricted to the Coriolis force, neglecting thus the centrifugal effects, the porous medium is described by Brinkman's model. The linear eigenvalue problem is solved by means of a modified Galerkin method. The behavior of the critical temperature gradient is discussed in terms of various parameters of the system for both stationary and overstable convections. Finally a weakly nonlinear analysis is provided to derive amplitude equations and to study the onset of Kuppers-Lortz instability. [less ▲]

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See detailAntiplasmodial activity of alkaloids from various Strychnos species
Frederich, Michel ULg; Jacquier, M. J.; Thepenier, P. et al

in Journal of Natural Products (2002), 65(10), 1381-1386

The in vitro antiplasmodial activities of 69 alkaloids from various Strychnos species were evaluated against chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive lines of Plasmodium falciparum. The compounds ... [more ▼]

The in vitro antiplasmodial activities of 69 alkaloids from various Strychnos species were evaluated against chloroquine-resistant and chloroquine-sensitive lines of Plasmodium falciparum. The compounds, comprising mainly indolomonoterpenoid alkaloids, exhibited a wide range of biological potencies in the antiplasmodial assays. The most active alkaloids were also tested for cytotoxicity against HCT-116 colon cancer cells to determine their antiplasmodial selectivity. As a result of these studies, structure-activity relationships for these alkaloids have begun to emerge. Alkaloids presenting four types of bisindole skeleton exhibited potent and selective activities against Plasmodium. They were sungucine-type (IC(50) values ranging from 80 nM to 10 microM), longicaudatine-type (IC(50) values ranging from 0.5 to 10 microM), matopensine-type (IC(50) values ranging from 150 nM to 10 microM), and usambarine-type alkaloids. Within the last structural type, isostrychnopentamine (49) and ochrolifuanine A (46) were found to be active against chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains (IC(50) values of 100-150 and 100-500 nM, respectively), and dihydrousambarensine (51) exhibited a 30-fold higher activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain (IC(50) = 32 nM) than against the chloroquine-sensitive one. [less ▲]

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See detailA family of MMA approximations for structural optimization
Bruyneel, Michaël ULg; Duysinx, Pierre ULg; Fleury, Claude ULg

in Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization (2002), 24(4), 263-276

This paper proposes a new first-order approximation scheme used for solving structural optimization problems. It is based on approximations of the MMA family (MMA and GCMMA), but it utilizes the gradients ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a new first-order approximation scheme used for solving structural optimization problems. It is based on approximations of the MMA family (MMA and GCMMA), but it utilizes the gradients and/or the function values at two successive design points to improve the quality of the approximation. In addition, this scheme can consider simultaneously monotonous and nonmonotonous structural behaviour. According to the characteristics of the treated problem, one of the approximations or a mix of them is automatically selected. Based on this approach, the accuracy of the approximated subproblems is improved and the solution process can be sped up. Numerical results compare the effectiveness of the method with previously derived approximations of the MMA family for shape optimization of trusses and for composite design problems. The benefit of using mixed approximations is also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailSputum eosinophil count in a large population of patients with mild to moderate steroid-naive asthma: distribution and relationship with methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness
Louis, Renaud ULg; Sele, Jocelyne ULg; Henket, Monique ULg et al

in Allergy (2002), 57(10), 907-912

BACKGROUND: Although airway eosinophilia is seen as a cardinal feature of asthma, data eosinophilia are still lacking on the proportion of the asthma group exhibiting raised airway eosinophilia. This ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Although airway eosinophilia is seen as a cardinal feature of asthma, data eosinophilia are still lacking on the proportion of the asthma group exhibiting raised airway eosinophilia. This study aimed to assess the distribution of sputum eosinophil count and its relationship with methacholine bronchial hyperresponsiveness in mild to moderate steroid-naive asthmatic people. METHODS: Sputum was induced by inhalation of hypertonic saline (NaCl 4.5%) in 118 mild to moderate steroid-naive asthmatic people consecutively recruited from our outpatient clinic, and in 44 healthy people. The asthma group was selected on the basis of an forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)) of > or = 70% predicted, and a provocative methacholine concentration causing a fall of 20% in FEV(1) (PC20 methacholine; PC(20)M) < or = 16 mg/ml. RESULTS: In the asthma group, the median (range) of the percentage and the absolute values of sputum eosinophils were 4.8% (0-75) and 38 10(3)/g (0-14,191), respectively, vs 0% (0-2.3) (P < 0.001) and 0 10(3)/g (0-53) (P < 0.001) in healthy participants. Based on the 95% percentile for normal values calculated from our healthy group, 69% of the asthma group had significantly raised sputum eosinophil count (that is > 2%). In the asthma group, multiple regression analysis followed by a stepwise procedure revealed that sputum eosinophil count was significantly and inversely associated with PC(20)M accounting for 16% of its total variance (P < 0.001) while neutrophil counts positively related to PC(20)M accounting for 4% of total variance (P < 0.05). By contrast, no significant relationship was found between either eosinophil or neutrophil counts and the slope of forced vital capacity (FVC) vs FEV(1) from the methacholine challenge. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that two-thirds of people in the mild to moderate asthma group had increased sputum eosinophilia, which plays a limited role in determining the degree of methacholine airway hyperresponsiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailMatrix metalloproteinase-9 contributes to choroidal neovascularization
Lambert, Vincent ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg; Jost, M. et al

in American Journal of Pathology (2002), 161(4), 1247-1253

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of irreversible photoreceptors loss in adult patients and current therapies are limited. Increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs ... [more ▼]

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of irreversible photoreceptors loss in adult patients and current therapies are limited. Increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been documented in neovascularization of severe ocular pathologies such as AMD and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. We report here that MMP-9 (gelatinase B) expression is induced and temporally regulated in the course of experimental choroidal neovascularization. We used transgenic mice expressing beta-galactosidase reporter gene under the dependence of MMP-9 promoter and RT-PCR analysis on choroidal neovascular structures microdissected from serial sections by laser pressure catapulting to show that MMP-9 expression is up-regulated concomitantly with the appearance of inflammatory cells in the subretinal lesion. In mice deficient in MMP-9 expression the development of choroidal neovascularization induced by laser photocoagulation still occurred, but at a reduced level. [less ▲]

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See detailSecretion of alpha-amylase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAB23: Two different pathways in different hosts
Tutino, M. L.; Parrilli, E.; Giaquinto, L. et al

in Journal of Bacteriology (2002), 184(20), 5814-5817

Secretion of cold-adapted alpha-amylase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAB23 was studied in three Antarctic bacteria. We demonstrated that the enzyme is specifically secreted in the psychrophilic ... [more ▼]

Secretion of cold-adapted alpha-amylase from Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAB23 was studied in three Antarctic bacteria. We demonstrated that the enzyme is specifically secreted in the psychrophilic hosts even in the absence of a protein domain that has been previously reported to be necessary for alpha-amylase secretion in Escherichia coli. The occurrence of two different secretion pathways in different hosts is proposed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of the social conditions of housing through testing on cocaine-induced contextual sensitisation and conditioned locomotion in C57BL/6J mice
Michel, Alexa ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry (2002), 26(6), 1185-1191

The potential differential effects of isolated and collective housing through the testing phase on sensitisation to cocaine-induced locomotion, the subsequent conditioned locomotion and the context ... [more ▼]

The potential differential effects of isolated and collective housing through the testing phase on sensitisation to cocaine-induced locomotion, the subsequent conditioned locomotion and the context-dependent expression of sensitisation were examined in C57BL/6J male mice. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring brain connectivity: a new frontier in systems neuroscience
Ramnani, Narander; Lee, Lucy; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Trends in Neurosciences (2002), 25(10), 496-497

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See detailIsolation of a Microsporum canis gene family encoding three subtilisin-like proteases expressed in vivo
Descamps, Frédéric; Brouta, Frédéric; Monod, Michel et al

in Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2002), 119(4), 830-835

Microsporum canis is the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats and is responsible for frequent zoonosis. The pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown, however. Among potential fungal ... [more ▼]

Microsporum canis is the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats and is responsible for frequent zoonosis. The pathogenesis of the disease remains largely unknown, however. Among potential fungal virulence factors are secreted keratinolytic proteases, whose molecular characterization would be an important step towards the understanding of dermatophytic infection pathogenesis. M. canis secretes a 31.5 kDa keratinolytic subtilisin-like protease as the major component in a culture medium containing cat keratin as the sole nitrogen source. Using a probe corresponding to a gene's internal fragment, which was obtained by polymerase chain reaction, the entire gene encoding this protease named SUB3 was cloned from a M. canis lambdaEMBL3 genomic library. Two closely related genes, termed SUB1 and SUB2, were also cloned from the library using as a probe the gene coding for Aspergillus fumigatus 33 kDa alkaline protease (ALP). Deduced amino acid sequence analysis revealed that SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 are secreted proteases and show large regions of identity between themselves and with subtilisin-like proteases of other filamentous fungi. Interestingly, mRNA of SUB1, SUB2, and SUBS were detected by reverse transcriptase nested-polymerase chain reaction from hair of experimentally infected guinea pigs. These results show that SUB1, SUB2, and SUB3 encode a family of subtilisin-like proteases and strongly suggest that these proteases are produced by M. canis during the invasion of keratinized structures. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Dissection aortique de type A post-remplacement valvulaire aortique
TCHANA-SATO, Vincent ULg; RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; Pierard, Luc ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(10), 637-9

The risk for aortic dissection or further dilation of the ascending aorta exists after aortic valve replacement. We present a case of acute aortic dissection following replacement of the aortic valve. The ... [more ▼]

The risk for aortic dissection or further dilation of the ascending aorta exists after aortic valve replacement. We present a case of acute aortic dissection following replacement of the aortic valve. The management and treatment of dilated ascending aorta associated with aortic valve disease are reviewed and discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailLa question de l’alignement stratégique dans le cadre des nouvelles formes organisationnelles
Pichault, François ULg

in Revue de Gestion des Ressources Humaines (2002), (46), 59-75

Discusses the validity of the strategic alignment thesis when considering network organizations

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See detailThe lymphotoxin-beta receptor induces different patterns of gene expression via two NF-kappaB pathways.
Dejardin, Emmanuel ULg; Droin, Nathalie; Delhase, Mireille et al

in Immunity (2002), 17

The lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) plays critical roles in inflammation and lymphoid organogenesis through activation of NF-kappaB. In addition to activation of the classical NF-kappaB, ligation of ... [more ▼]

The lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTbetaR) plays critical roles in inflammation and lymphoid organogenesis through activation of NF-kappaB. In addition to activation of the classical NF-kappaB, ligation of this receptor induces the processing of the cytosolic NF-kappaB2/p100 precursor to yield the mature p52 subunit, followed by translocation of p52 to the nucleus. This activation of NF-kappaB2 requires NIK and IKKalpha, while NEMO/IKKgamma is dispensable for p100 processing. IKKbeta-dependent activation of canonical NF-kappaB is required for the expression but not processing of p100 and for the expression of proinflammatory molecules including VCAM-1, MIP-1beta, and MIP-2 in response to LTbetaR ligation. In contrast, IKKalpha controls the induction by LTbetaR ligation of chemokines and cytokines involved in lymphoid organogenesis, including SLC, BLC, ELC, SDF1, and BAFF. [less ▲]

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See detailThe transsexual : what about the future ?
Michel, Aude; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg et al

in European Psychiatry (2002), 17(6), 353-362

Since the 1950's, sexual surgical reassignments have been frequently carried out. As this surgical therapeutic procedure is controversial, it seems important to explore the actual consequences of such an ... [more ▼]

Since the 1950's, sexual surgical reassignments have been frequently carried out. As this surgical therapeutic procedure is controversial, it seems important to explore the actual consequences of such an intervention and objectively evaluate its relevance. In this context, we have carried out a review of the literature. After looking at the methodological limitations of follow-up studies, the psychological, sexual, social and profesionnal futures of the individuals subject to a transsexual operation are presented. Finally, prognostic aspects are considered. In the literature, follow-up studies tend to show that surgical transformations have positive consequences for the subjects. In the majority of cases, transsexuals are very satisfied with their intervention and any difficulties experienced are often temporary and disappear within a year after the surgical transformation. Studies show that there is less than 1% of regrets and a little more than 1% of suicides among operated subjects. The empirical research does not confirm the opinion that suicide is strongly associated with surgical transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailLa notion de 'parliamentary sovereignty' en droit constitutionnel anglais : fondements, paradoxes et problèmes contemporains
Behrendt, Christian ULg

in Revue de Droit International et de Droit Comparé (2002)

The article, written in French, gives an outline on the concept of parliamentary sovereignty in UK constitutional law.

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See detailNeurological complications of acute and persistent Epstein-Barr virus infection in paediatric patients
Häusler, M.; Ramaekers, Vincent ULg; Doenges, M. et al

in Journal of Medical Virology (2002), 68(2), 253-263

Neurological complications of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been reported almost exclusively in the course of acute primary infections. The role of EBV in paediatric neurological disease was investigated ... [more ▼]

Neurological complications of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been reported almost exclusively in the course of acute primary infections. The role of EBV in paediatric neurological disease was investigated prospectively over a 2-year period, searching for acute primary, chronic, and reactivated EBV infections. Active EBV infections were diagnosed in 10/48 patients, including two with acute primary EBV infections (cranial neuritis and cerebellitis), one with chronic active infection (T/NK cell lymphoma with cranial neuritis), and seven with reactivated infections. Among these seven patients, three showed "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome, one facial nerve palsy, one progressive macrocephaly, and two prolonged encephalitic illness. The prognosis was good except for the patient with lethal T/NK cell lymphoma and the two girls with encephalitic illness. Despite steroid treatment, these girls suffered prolonged cognitive impairment and epileptic seizures. Both developed left-sided hippocampal atrophy, and one of them hippocampal sclerosis. Like primary infections, reactivated EBV infections cause neurological complications in a considerable number of paediatric patients, lead to serious long-term complications, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of hippocampal lesions. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [less ▲]

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See detailContribution of whole-body (18)FDG PET imaging in the management of cervical cancer
Belhocine, T.; Thille, Alain ULg; Fridman, Viviana ULg et al

in Gynecologic Oncology (2002), 87(1), 90-97

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) imaging in the management of cervical cancer. METHODS ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)FDG PET) imaging in the management of cervical cancer. METHODS: Fully corrected whole-body PET was performed in 60 patients (pts) with proven cervical cancer. In pretreatment staging, 22 pts underwent PET in addition to routine protocol including International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) staging and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Eighteen of them had pelvic lymphadenectomy. After treatment, PET was performed in 38 pts routinely followed up by clinical and radiological examinations. Results of PET and routine protocols were compared to final diagnoses, including histological findings in 31 pts and clinical outcomes in the other cases. Median follow-up time was 12 +/- 7.3 months. RESULTS: In all but 2 patients (FIGO stage IA), both PET and MRI detected the primary tumor. In 6 pts, MRI alone noted loco-regional tumor spread but PET localized 9 unsuspected extrapelvic nodal sites (6 para-aortic, 2 mediastinal, and 1 supra-clavicular). However, PET missed 8 microscopic pelvic nodal metastases. In 18% of the patients, PET staging significantly influenced the treatment choices. In follow-up, PET accurately diagnosed a recurrent disease in 13 pts with falsely negative or equivocal conventional imaging (CI). Ten patients with a negative PET were still in complete remission after a minimal follow-up time of 12 months. Overall, the agreement of PET with final diagnosis was significantly better than that of routine protocol (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Whole-body (18)FDG PET appears useful in the management of cervical cancer, in particular for staging extrapelvic metastases or optimally detecting a recurrence. MRI is better indicated for evaluating the loco-regional status of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailHormonal and temperature responses to the 5-HT1a receptor agonist flesinoxan in normal volunteers
Pitchot, William ULg; Wauthy, Jacques ULg; Adam, Martine ULg et al

in Psychopharmacology (2002), 164(1), 27-32

RATIONALE: Flesinoxan is a highly potent and selective 5-HT(1A) agonist and appears to be a potentially interesting neuroendocrine serotonergic probe. OBJECTIVES: We assessed hormonal (ACTH, cortisol ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: Flesinoxan is a highly potent and selective 5-HT(1A) agonist and appears to be a potentially interesting neuroendocrine serotonergic probe. OBJECTIVES: We assessed hormonal (ACTH, cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone) and temperature responses to flesinoxan in normal volunteers. METHODS: In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, single doses of 0.5 mg and 1 mg were injected over 10 min into 12 healthy male volunteers at 1-week intervals. Temperature and hormonal responses were measured at times -30, 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. RESULTS: Flesinoxan induced a significant and dose-dependent increase in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH) and a decrease in body temperature. Tolerance to flesinoxan was excellent. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed the role of 5-HT(1A) mechanisms in the PRL, ACTH, cortisol, GH, and temperature responses to flesinoxan. In the present study, flesinoxan appears a very promising serotonergic neuroendocrine probe. [less ▲]

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See detailKarst in granitic rocks, South Cameroon: cave genesis and silica and taranakite speleothems
Willems, Luc ULg; Compère, Philippe ULg; Hatert, Frédéric ULg et al

in Terra Nova (2002), 14(5), 355-362

A cave in granitic rocks was studied in Mezesse, South Cameroon. Coralloid speleothems, draperies and dissolution traces on the cave walls attest to its truly karstic nature. The speleothems consist of ... [more ▼]

A cave in granitic rocks was studied in Mezesse, South Cameroon. Coralloid speleothems, draperies and dissolution traces on the cave walls attest to its truly karstic nature. The speleothems consist of microlayers of opal and taranakite (K,NH4)Al-3(PO4)(3)(OH).9H(2)O. They indicate a significant mobilization of silica, Al and K from granite during the formation of the cave. Identification of silicified bacteria in the speleothems layers suggests a possible role of these micro-organisms in silica deposition. The presence of taranakite and of silicified organic remains within the speleothems lead to a better understanding of the genesis of the cave. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of organohalogenated contaminants in liver of harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded on the Belgian North Sea coast
Covaci, Adrian; Van de Vijver, Kristin Inneke; De Coen, Wim et al

in Marine Pollution Bulletin (2002), 44(10),

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See detailFaites-vous de la grammaire, un peu, beaucoup, passionnément, pas du tout ?
Defays, Jean-Marc ULg

in Echec à l'Echec (2002), 151

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See detailProduction of proinflammatory cytokines and myocardial dysfunction after arterial switch operation in neonates with transposition of the great arteries.
Hovels-Gurich, Hedwig H; Vazquez-Jimenez, Jaime F; Silvestri, Anna et al

in Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (The) (2002), 124(4), 811-20

OBJECTIVE: Neonates undergoing cardiac surgery have a systemic inflammatory reaction with release of proinflammatory cytokines, which could be responsible for myocardial dysfunction as a result of ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Neonates undergoing cardiac surgery have a systemic inflammatory reaction with release of proinflammatory cytokines, which could be responsible for myocardial dysfunction as a result of myocardial cell damage. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the production of proinflammatory cytokines during cardiac surgery would be associated with myocardial dysfunction after the arterial switch operation in neonates. METHODS: A total of 63 neonates with transposition of the great arteries were operated on with combined deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and low-flow cardiopulmonary bypass at a median age of 7 days. Perioperative plasma concentrations of interleukins 6 and 8 were correlated with myocardial dysfunction, as assessed clinically and by echocardiography within 24 hours after the operation, and with perioperative cardiac troponin T blood levels as a marker of myocardial cell damage. RESULTS: Myocardial dysfunction was observed in 11 patients (17.5%), and 2 of them died. Durations of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic crossclamping, but not of circulatory arrest, were correlated with myocardial dysfunction. Patients with myocardial dysfunction had significantly higher cardiac troponin T blood levels at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass and 4 and 24 hours after the operation than did patients without myocardial dysfunction. Patients with myocardial dysfunction also had higher interleukin 6 plasma concentrations after cardiopulmonary bypass and 4 hours after the operation, as well as higher interleukin 8 plasma concentrations 4 and 24 hours after the operation, than did those without myocardial dysfunction. Postoperative interleukin 6 and 8 plasma concentrations were significantly correlated with postoperative cardiac troponin T blood levels. Multivariable analysis of independent risk factors for myocardial dysfunction comprising cytokine and troponin levels and bypass duration revealed interleukin 6 levels 4 hours after the operation as significant (P =.047). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac operations in neonates stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, which may contribute to myocardial cell damage and myocardial dysfunction. [less ▲]

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See detailLa loi du 26 mai 2002 concernant le droit à l'intégration sociale
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Journal du Juriste (2002), 14

L'article fait une très brève analyse de l'entrée en vigueur de la loi du 26 mai 2002 concernant le droit à l'intégration sociale

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See detailL’accord sur le renouveau politique – Acte I : la réforme électorale
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Journal du Juriste (2002), 14

Cet article présente le premier volet de l'accord du "renouveau politique", à savoir le volet portant sur la réforme électorale de 2002.

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See detailDécret d'optimalisation du CWATUP
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (2002), 16

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See detailA novel family 8 xylanase, functional and physicochemical characterization
Collins, T.; Meuwis, Marie-Alice ULg; Stals, I. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(38), 35133-35139

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See detailHuman immune cells express ppMCH mRNA and functional MCHR1 receptor
Verlaet, Myriam ULg; Adamantidis, Antoine ULg; Coumans, Bernard ULg et al

in FEBS Letters (2002), 527(1-3), 205-210

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is highly expressed in the brain and modulates feeding behavior. It is also expressed in some peripheral tissues where its role remains unknown. We have investigated ... [more ▼]

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is highly expressed in the brain and modulates feeding behavior. It is also expressed in some peripheral tissues where its role remains unknown. We have investigated MCH function in human and mouse immune cells. RT-PCR analysis revealed a low expression of prepro-MCH and MCH receptor 1 (MCHR1) but not of MCHR2 transcript in tissular and peripheral blood immune cells. FACS and in vitro assay studies demonstrated that MCHR1 receptor expression on most cell types can trigger, in the presence of MCH, cAMP synthesis and calcium mobilization in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Moreover, MCH treatment decreases the CD3-stimulated PBMC proliferation in vitro. Accordingly, our data indicate for the first time that MCH and MCHR1 may exert immunomodulatory functions. (C) 2002 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase equivalent chains of Darboux transformations in scattering theory
Samsonov, B. F.; Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Physical Review C (2002), 66(3), 034001

We propose a procedure based on phase equivalent chains of Darboux transformations to generate local potentials satisfying the radial Schrodinger equation and sharing the same scattering data. For ... [more ▼]

We propose a procedure based on phase equivalent chains of Darboux transformations to generate local potentials satisfying the radial Schrodinger equation and sharing the same scattering data. For potentials related by a chain of transformations, an analytic expression is derived for the Jost function. It is shown how the same system of S-matrix poles can be differently distributed between poles and zeros of a Jost function that corresponds to different potentials with equal phase shifts. The concept of shallow and deep phase equivalent potentials is analyzed in connection with distinct distributions of poles. It is shown that phase equivalent chains do not violate the Levinson theorem. The method is applied to derive a shallow and a family of deep phase equivalent potentials describing the S-1(0) partial wave of the nucleon-nucleon scattering. [less ▲]

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See detailSusceptibility of trypanotolerant West African Dwarf goats and F1 crosses with the susceptible Sahelian breed to experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection and interactions with helminth infections and different levels of diet
Faye, D.; Osaer, S.; Goossens, B. et al

in Veterinary Parasitology (2002), 108(2), 117-136

dForty pure West African Dwarf (WAD) goats and 35 of its F1 crosses with the Sahelian breed were used in a multifactorial experimental design to evaluate the effects of an experimental Trypanosoma ... [more ▼]

dForty pure West African Dwarf (WAD) goats and 35 of its F1 crosses with the Sahelian breed were used in a multifactorial experimental design to evaluate the effects of an experimental Trypanosoma congolense infection and interactions with natural helminth infections and different levels of diet on health and productivity of these two breeds. Trypanosome infection caused a severe drop in packed cell volume (PCV), but this was not significantly affected by breed. Neither deworming nor diet had any effect on the course of anaemia after trypanosome infection. The mean score of parasitaemia tended to be higher in crossbreeds than in WAD goats although this was not significant (P > 0.05). Similarly, the antibody response to trypanosome infection was not significantly different between breeds. Parasitaemia level was significantly influenced by the level of diet with the group under high supplementation having a higher mean parasitaemia score than the group under low supplementation. Weight loss due to trypanosome infection tended to be greater in crossbreeds than in WAD goats (P > 0.05). During this study, there was no difference in mean helminth egg output between crossbred and WAD goats. However, between weeks 4 and 10 after trypanosome infection (corresponding to a period of heavy rainfall and highly infective pastures), the mean egg output was higher in the crossbreeds. The immunosuppressive effect of trypanosome infections was revealed by a lower antibody response to Haemonchus contortus in infected animals compared to the uninfected controls.Trypanosome infection tended to increase strongyle egg output. This study did no reveal any superior trypanotolerance of WAD goats compared to crossbreeds. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization of styrene, styrene/acrylonitrile mixtures, and dienes using a nitrone
Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Sciannamea, Valérie; Koulic, Christian et al

in Macromolecules (2002), 35(19), 7214-7223

Radical polymerization of styrene and copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile (60/40) are controlled when conducted in the presence of N-tert-butyl-alpha-isopropylnitrone, which is easily ... [more ▼]

Radical polymerization of styrene and copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile (60/40) are controlled when conducted in the presence of N-tert-butyl-alpha-isopropylnitrone, which is easily synthesized from cheap reagents. However, for the control to be effective, the nitrone has to be prereacted with the radical initiator. Nitroxides are then formed "in situ", such that this nitrone system is an attractive alternative for the classical nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), which may require a multistep synthesis of nitroxides or alkoxyamines. The choice of the radical initiator is important because it dictates the structure of the nitroxide and thus its capacity to control the radical polymerization. Well-defined poly(styrene)-b-poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile), poly(styrene)-b-poly(n-butyl acrylate), and poly(styrene)-b-poly(isoprene) copolymers have been successfully synthesized by this process. [less ▲]

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See detailFinite element simulation of springback in sheet metal forming
Papeleux, Luc ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2002), 125(Sp. Iss. SI), 785-791

Although finite element analysis (FEA) is successful in simulating complex industrial sheet forming operations, the accurate and reliable application of this technique to springback has not been widely ... [more ▼]

Although finite element analysis (FEA) is successful in simulating complex industrial sheet forming operations, the accurate and reliable application of this technique to springback has not been widely demonstrated. Several physical parameters, as well as numerical, influence this phenomenon and its numerical prediction. In this paper, we investigate the impact of these parameters on the springback appearing in a 2D U-draw bending. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical Simulation of Lubricated Contact in Rolling Processes
Boman, Romain ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2002), 125-126

In this paper, the lubrication problem in numerical simulation of rolling process is presented. In this case, the recent and complex model of Marsault for the solution of the mixed lubrication regime has ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the lubrication problem in numerical simulation of rolling process is presented. In this case, the recent and complex model of Marsault for the solution of the mixed lubrication regime has been implemented and tested. This model requires the use of the finite difference method to work properly. We will discuss the advantages and the difficulties encountered when trying to solve the same problem with the finite element method in a general frame. Finally, a finite element formulation for the solution of the time-dependent Reynolds' equation coupled with the deformation of the workpiece is proposed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailFast automated extraction and clean-up of biological fluids for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls analysis
Focant, Jean-François ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Journal of Chromatography. B : Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical & Life Sciences (2002), 776(2), 199-212

A fast automated extraction and clean-up procedure for low-level analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs ... [more ▼]

A fast automated extraction and clean-up procedure for low-level analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs) in biological fluids is presented. Online extraction of prepared fluids is carried out using disposable octadecyl bonded (C-18) solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts are then cleaned up through disposable multi-layer silica (acidic, basic and neutral) and dispersed PX-21 carbon columns. This new methodology is compared with classical Soxhlet extraction and manual solid-phase extraction in terms of repeatability, reproducibility, accuracy and recovery rates for reference and certified materials. Robustness is evaluated on different matrices, such as cow's milk, breast milk and human serum. As a consequence of the reduced number of reusable glassware used, as well as lowering of solvent consumption, recorded blank levels are decreased in favor of limits of detection (LODs). Total analysis time and cost are further reduced using simultaneous sample preparation units and the sample throughput is increased compared to classical methods. As a result, this new approach appears to be suitable for the fast sample preparation often required for such fluids in case of emergency foodstuffs analysis or during large epidemiological studies. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Quadruple Wolf-Rayet System GP Cephei: Spectral Types, Masses, Mass-Loss Rate, and Colliding Winds
Demers, H.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Marchenko, S. V. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2002), 577

We have reevaluated the orbital elements for each pair of the quadruple (W-R+O) + (O+O) stellar system GP Cep and propose new spectral types WN6o/WCE + O3-6, B0: I + B1: V-III. It is shown that there is ... [more ▼]

We have reevaluated the orbital elements for each pair of the quadruple (W-R+O) + (O+O) stellar system GP Cep and propose new spectral types WN6o/WCE + O3-6, B0: I + B1: V-III. It is shown that there is only one Wolf-Rayet (W-R) star in GP Cep, contrary to a previous claim. A rate of change P=1.3+/-0.2 s yr[SUP]-1[/SUP] is determined for the W-R+O pair, which leads to a new period of 6.6887 days and to a W-R mass-loss rate of (0.8-3.0)à 10[SUP]-5[/SUP] M[SUB]solar[/SUB] yr[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Masses for this pair are estimated to be M[SUB]W-R[/SUB]>~6 M[SUB]solar[/SUB] and M[SUB]O[/SUB]>~21 M[SUB]solar[/SUB]. The effects of wind-wind collision in the W-R+O pair are studied. It is shown that even after allowing for dilution by the OB components of the quadruple system, these effects are not as strong as in the binary V444 Cygni (WN5+O6, P=4.212 days). In GP Cep, the phase-dependent, relatively weak excess emission does not originate in the arms of the bow shock cone. Rather, it emerges from the extra heated portion of the W-R wind facing the hot O companion. The trailing bow shock arm is clearly seen, however, as an enhanced He I absorption component near quadrature at phase ~0.73. An anomalous blueshifted He I absorption is present at phase ~0.9, as is also seen in V444 Cyg, in the WC8+O9 I/O8 III binary γ Velorum and in the LBV-cotype binary R81 (B2.5 Iab:e). A 3.5 day orbit for the eclipsing B star pair is confirmed. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis and compatibilization ability of hydrogenated polybutadiene-b-polyamide 6 diblock copolymer in low density polyethylene and polyamide 6 blends
Harrats, Charef; Fayt, R.; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (2002), 43(19), 5347-5354

This paper describes the synthesis of hydrogenated polybutadiene-b-polyamide 6 (HPB-b-PA6), a pure diblock copolymer, which consists of three main steps: synthesis of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene ... [more ▼]

This paper describes the synthesis of hydrogenated polybutadiene-b-polyamide 6 (HPB-b-PA6), a pure diblock copolymer, which consists of three main steps: synthesis of hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene, its hydrogenation and functionalization with an epsilon-caprolactam blocked diisocyanate. In a third step the functionalized HPB is copolymerized with epsilon-caprolactam monomer via ring opening anionic polymerization. The compatibilization ability of the synthesized pure diblock copolymer was evaluated in low-density polyethylene (LDPE)/polyamide 6 (PA6) blends. The investigation includes phase morphology development using both optical and electron scanning microscopy. The ultimate tensile properties of the modified and non-modified blends were also evaluated. The synthesized pure diblock copolymer exhibits very interesting interfacial activity both in terms of particle size reduction and improvement of the interfacial adhesion between the incompatible LDPE/PA6 phases. The tensile properties of the investigated blends were also significantly affected by the addition of the copolymer. The efficiency of compatibilization was found to be very sensitive to the molecular characteristics such as composition and molecular weight of the copolymer. Among the copolymers investigated a copolymer containing 24 wt% PA6 and having a total molecular weight (M) over bar (a) of 87,000 was found to exhibit the most efficient interfacial activity. [less ▲]

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See detailInterplanetary magnetic field control of afternoon-sector detached proton auroral arcs
Burch, J. L.; Lewis, W. S.; Immel, T. J. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics (2002), 107

Data from the Far Ultraviolet Imager (FUV) on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite show that subauroral proton arcs appear in the afternoon sector during ... [more ▼]

Data from the Far Ultraviolet Imager (FUV) on the Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration (IMAGE) satellite show that subauroral proton arcs appear in the afternoon sector during geomagnetically disturbed periods when the interplanetary magnetic field rotates either from south to north or from west to east and when the magnetosphere is moderately compressed. Time series of proton aurora images show that the proton emissions are generally aligned along the equatorward part of the auroral oval. However, when interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) B[SUB]z[/SUB] changes from negative to positive the auroral oval contracts toward higher latitudes while the ring current proton precipitation remains stationary, resulting in a separation of several degrees between the latitude of the new oval position and a subauroral proton arc in the afternoon sector. A similar effect occurs when IMF B[SUB]y[/SUB] rotates from negative to positive, in which case the oval in the afternoon sector retreats toward higher latitudes, again leaving a separation between the oval and the subauroral proton arc of several degrees. Comparisons with low-altitude and geosynchronous satellite data show that the subauroral proton arc is caused by the precipitation of protons with energies from several keV to 30 keV and is likely associated with the existence of a plasmaspheric ``drainage plume.'' In contrast, the proton emissions along the main oval are caused by protons with energies generally less than 10 keV. [less ▲]

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See detailFamilial colloid cyst of the third ventricle: neuroendocrinological follow-up and review of the literature.
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Born, J.; Wallemacq, Caroline et al

in Clinical Neurology & Neurosurgery (2002), 104(4), 367-370

Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are rare, benign cysts of endodermal origin. Between 1989 and 1999, eight patients with this lesion (five females, three males), with a mean age of 40.5 years (range ... [more ▼]

Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are rare, benign cysts of endodermal origin. Between 1989 and 1999, eight patients with this lesion (five females, three males), with a mean age of 40.5 years (range 20-54), were identified out of 1354 operated for tumours of the central nervous system. Among the eight, two were familial. They were half sisters 38 and 28 years-old, who were diagnosed to have colloid cysts of the third ventricle on CT scanning. Transcortical excision yielded 10 and 15 mm sized colloid cysts, respectively. Moreover, both sisters developed a multinodular goiter associated with these congenital tumours. The second sibling developed hyperprolactinemia associated with macroprolactinemia. Pregnancy was only possible after bromocriptine treatment. These cases provide further evidences that colloid cysts probably have an autosomic recessive pattern of inheritance with variable penetrance. [less ▲]

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See detailTumor necrosis factor-alpha and troponin I release in porcine cardiac lymph and coronary sinus blood before and after cardiopulmonary bypass.
Vazquez-Jimenez, J. F.; Liakopoulos, O. J.; Qing, Ma et al

in Lymphology (2002), 35(3), 105-13

To assess the concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) in cardiac lymph compared with coronary sinus (CS) blood and to measure cardiac lymph flow before and ... [more ▼]

To assess the concentrations of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) in cardiac lymph compared with coronary sinus (CS) blood and to measure cardiac lymph flow before and after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In 21 pigs, the main cardiac lymph trunk was cannulated before institution of standardized CPB. Lymph flow, cTnI and TNFa in cardiac lymph and CS blood were measured before and after CPB for 6 hours. Before CPB, cTnI concentration was 215 +/- 36 nglml in cardiac lymph and 0.5 +/- 0.1 nglml in CS blood, respectively. After aortic declamping a significant elevation of cTnI values was measured in cardiac lymph and CS blood. cTnl concentration in cardiac lymph and CS blood peaked 6 hrs after CPB (10,556 +/- 4,735 vs. 22.2 +/- 3.7 nglml, p < 0.01). TNFalpha concentration at baseline was 23.2 +/- 5.6 pg/ml in lymph and 18.7 +/- 9.5 pg/ml in CS blood, and there was no significant release of TNFalpha up to the end of the experiment. Baseline cardiac lymph flow was 3.07 +/- 0.35 ml/h and declined after aortic clamping (0.72 +/- 0.16 ml/h; p < 0.01) and peaked one hour after CPB (5.66 +/- 0.97 ml/h; p < 0.01). In conclusion, very high cTnI concentrations in cardiac lymph suggest serious perioperative myocardial damage after CPB with cardioplegia, which is underestimated by cTnI release into the bloodstream. In our study, the myocardium was not a major source of TNFalpha release. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased uptake of the apoptosis-imaging agent (99m)Tc recombinant human annexin V in human tumors after one course of chemotherapy as a predictor of tumor response and patient prognosis
Belhocine, Tarik; Steinmetz, Neil; Hustinx, Roland ULg et al

in Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2002), 8(9), 2766-2774

Purpose: Many anticancer therapies exert their therapeutic effect by inducing apoptosis in target tumors. We evaluated in a Phase I study the safety and the feasibility of Tc-99m-Annexin V for imaging ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Many anticancer therapies exert their therapeutic effect by inducing apoptosis in target tumors. We evaluated in a Phase I study the safety and the feasibility of Tc-99m-Annexin V for imaging chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in human cancers immediately after the first course of chemotherapy. Experimental Design: Fifteen patients presenting with lung cancer (n = 10), lymphoma (n = 3), or breast cancer (n = 2) underwent Tc-99m-Annexin V scintigraphy before and within 3 days after their first course of chemotherapy. Tumor response was evaluated by computed tomography and F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography scans, 3 months in average after completing the treatment. Median follow-up was 117 days. Results: In all cases, no tracer uptake was observed before treatment. However, 24-48 h after the first course of chemotherapy, 7 patients who showed Tc-99m-Annexin V uptake at tumor sites, suggesting apoptosis, had a complete (n = 4) or a partial response In = 3). Conversely, 6 of the 8 patients who showed no significant posttreatment tumor uptake had a progressive disease. Despite the lack of tracer uptake after treatment, the 2 patients with breast cancer had a partial response. Overall survival and progression-free survival were significantly related to tracer uptake in treated lung cancers and lymphomas (P < 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Our preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility and the safety of Tc-99m-Annexin V for imaging apoptosis in human tumors after the first course of chemotherapy. Initial data suggest that early Tc-99m-Annexin V tumor uptake may be a predictor of response to treatment in-patients with late stage lung cancer and lymphoma. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cinéma d’animation et ses thanatomorphoses (fragments sur le monstre, la charogne, le montage et l’animation)
Tomasovic, Dick ULg

in Cinémas : revue d'études cinématographiques / Cinémas: Journal of Film Studies (2002), 13(Automne), 143-164

The role and limits of editing in animation film are reconsidered here. It is no longer a matter of perceiving this practice as “simply” assembling shots, associating random elements, linking diverse ... [more ▼]

The role and limits of editing in animation film are reconsidered here. It is no longer a matter of perceiving this practice as “simply” assembling shots, associating random elements, linking diverse pieces and creating a monstrous body, but rather, it is presently regarded as a continual process of managing transitions, shifting between images, transforming inanimate objects, transmuting immobile elements and transfiguring inert beings. Thus, the animation film’s purpose is less phantasmal, to be a giver of life, as it is phantasmagoric, to be an animator of death. [less ▲]

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See detailFetal infection with Neospora caninum in dairy and beef cattle in Belgium
De Meerschman, F.; Speybroeck, N.; Berkvens, D. et al

in Theriogenology (2002), 58(5), 933-945

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, which causes fetal and neonatal mortality in livestock and companion animals. In 224 abortions in Belgian cattle, different diagnostic methods were used to ... [more ▼]

Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite, which causes fetal and neonatal mortality in livestock and companion animals. In 224 abortions in Belgian cattle, different diagnostic methods were used to demonstrate infection, and the presence of N. caninum. An indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) was used to analyze fetal and maternal sera and immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed when lesions consistent with neosporosis were observed in the brain, heart or liver. Twenty dairy cattle sera out of 70 (29%) and 13 beef cattle sera out of 93 (14%) were positive by IFAT. A positive titer to N. caninum was found in seven and three fetuses born to beef and dairy cows, respectively. Lesions consistent with N. caninum infection were observed in 17 fetuses. Of nine positive beef fetuses, five were confirmed by IHC while, all but one dairy fetus were confirmed using the same technique. Age had no influence on the serological status of the mother (P = 0.486) whereas husbandry system had a borderline influence (P = 0.082). However, a strong association (P = 0.004) between the level of antibodies in the darn and the occurrence of lesions in the fetus was observed and lesions were more prominent in dairy than in beef fetuses. Additionally, the distribution of intra-cerebral lesions was more extensive in dairy than in beef fetuses (P < 0.0001). Age and serological status of the fetus were found to influence the occurrence of lesions in beef fetuses (both P < 0.001) but no such significant relationships could be demonstrated in dairy fetuses. The study indicated that N. caninum must be considered as an important cause of bovine abortion in Belgium. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and in vitro characterisation of novel bioresorbable and bioactive composite materials based on polylactide foams and Bioglass (R) for tissue engineering applications
Roether, J. A.; Boccaccini, Aldo R.; Hench, L. L. et al

in Biomaterials (2002), 23(18), 3871-3878

Bioactive and bioresorbable composite materials were fabricated using macroporous poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) foams coated with and impregnated by bioactive glass (Bioglass®) particles. Stable and ... [more ▼]

Bioactive and bioresorbable composite materials were fabricated using macroporous poly(DL-lactide) (PDLLA) foams coated with and impregnated by bioactive glass (Bioglass®) particles. Stable and homogeneous Bioglasss coatings on the surface of PDLLA foams as well as infiltration of Bioglass® particles throughout the porous network were achieved using a slurry-dipping technique in conjunction with pre-treatment of the foams in ethanol. The quality of the bioactive glass coatings was reproducible in terms of thickness and microstructure. Additionally, electrophoretic deposition was investigated as an alternative method for the fabrication of PDLLA foam/Bioglass® composite materials. In vitro studies in simulated body fluid (SBF) were performed to study the formation of hydroxyapatite (HA) on the surface of PDLLA/Bioglass® composites. SEM analysis showed that the HA layer thickness rapidly increased with increasing time in SBF. The high bioactivity of the PDLLA foam/Bioglasss composites indicates the potential of the materials for use as bioactive, resorbable scaffolds in bone tissue engineering. [less ▲]

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See detailThe impact of small physical obstacles on upstream movements of six species of fish - Synthesis of a 5-year telemetry study in the River Meuse basin
Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Philippart, Jean-Claude ULg

in Hydrobiologia (2002), 483(1-3), 55-69

In the course of the 'Meuse Salmon 2000' programme, most weirs and dams (3-8 m in height) in the regulated River Meuse have been progressively equipped with new fishways in order to restore the free ... [more ▼]

In the course of the 'Meuse Salmon 2000' programme, most weirs and dams (3-8 m in height) in the regulated River Meuse have been progressively equipped with new fishways in order to restore the free circulation of all amphibiotic fish species. Nevertheless, fish entering into major spawning tributaries are still confronted with various kinds of physical obstacles of which the overall impact on fish migration has never been investigated. In order to test their ability to negotiate physical obstacles, 128 individuals of fish ( Salmo trutta, Thymallus thymallus, Salmo salar, Chondrostoma nasus, Barbus barbus and Esox lucius) were captured several weeks before their spawning migrations and tagged with radio-transmitters. They were tracked from 30 to 466 days in the River Ourthe and six spawning tributaries over the period October 1995 to June 2001. All obstacles recorded in this study have been classified according to their type and main characteristics (i.e. slope, length and height). Results indicated that most fish migrate during or outside the spawning period and that some small obstacles are not as insignificant as initially thought and can significantly disrupt and/or obstruct their upstream movements. There is a need to harmonize interests in the sustainable conservation of fish populations and the development of small-scale hydropower generation and tourism. [less ▲]

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See detailTraining early Alzheimer patients to use a mobile phone
Lekeu, Françoise ULg; Wojtasik, Vinciane ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2002), 102(3), 114-121

The mobile phone may be useful to keep in contact with spatially disoriented and memory impaired patients. In keeping with this idea, this study describes the training program developed to teach two ... [more ▼]

The mobile phone may be useful to keep in contact with spatially disoriented and memory impaired patients. In keeping with this idea, this study describes the training program developed to teach two patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (CI and ML) how to use their own mobile phone. Each training session was divided into two parts. In the first part, the spaced-retrieval technique was used to promote the consultation of a card pasted on the back of the phone. The card detailed each stage of phone utilization and which keys had to be pressed to call somebody. In the second part, the patients received repetitive exercises of calling based upon the errorless learning principle. At the end of three-months rehabilitation, the results showed different learning patterns for the patients. ML needed more spaced-retrieval sessions to spontaneously consult the card and to correctly use the phone, compared to CI However, by the repetition of calling exercises, both patients showed a decrease of instruction card consultation, whereas they were still able to correctly call somebody. This learning ability is hypothesized to be a consequence of a relatively preserved procedural memory in both patients. In conclusion, this study highlights the effectiveness of combined specific learning techniques for improving AD patient's autonomy in daily life activities. [less ▲]

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See detailMethyl-laudanosine: A new pharmacological tool to investigate the function of small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels
Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg; Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Massotte, Laurent ULg et al

in Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics (The) (2002), 302(3), 1176-1183

Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK channels) underlie the prolonged postspike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) observed in many central neurons and play an important role in modulating ... [more ▼]

Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (SK channels) underlie the prolonged postspike afterhyperpolarization (AHP) observed in many central neurons and play an important role in modulating neuronal activity. However, a lack of specific and reversible blockers of these channels hampers their study in various experimental conditions. Because previous work has shown that bicuculline salts block these channels, we examined whether related alkaloids, namely laudanosine quaternary derivatives, would produce similar effects. Intracellular recordings were performed on rat midbrain dopaminergic neurons and hippocampus CA1 pyramidal cells. Binding experiments were performed on rat cerebral cortex membranes. Laudanosine, methyl-laudanosine, and ethyl-laudanosine blocked the apamin-sensitive AHP of dopaminergic neurons with mean IC(50) values of 152, 15, and 47 microM, respectively. The benzyl and butyl derivatives were less potent. Methyl-laudanosine had no effect on the I(h) current, action potential parameters, or membrane resistance of dopaminergic cells, or on the decrease in input resistance induced by muscimol, indicating a lack of antagonism at GABA(A) receptors. Interestingly, 100 microM methyl-laudanosine induced a significant increase in spiking frequency of dopaminergic neurons but not of CA1 pyramidal cells, suggesting the possibility of regional selectivity. Binding experiments on laudanosine derivatives were in good agreement with electrophysiological data. Moreover, methyl-laudanosine has no affinity for voltage-gated potassium channels, and its affinity for SK channels (IC(50) 4 microM) is superior to its affinity for muscarinic (IC(50) 114 microM) and neuronal nicotinic (IC(50) > or =367 microM) receptors. Methyl-laudanosine may be a valuable pharmacological tool to investigate the role of SK channels in various experimental models. [less ▲]

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See detailUsefulness of F-18-FDG PET in the post-therapy surveillance of endometrial carcinoma
Belhocine, Tarik; De Barsy, Caroline; Hustinx, Roland ULg et al

in European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (2002), 29(9), 1132-1139

The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of fluorine-18 tluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) in the post-therapy surveillance of endometrial carcinomas. Forty-one ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of fluorine-18 tluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) in the post-therapy surveillance of endometrial carcinomas. Forty-one fully corrected whole-body PET studies were performed in 34 women with previously treated endometrial cancers as a part of their follow-up programme. In 28 studies, FDG PET was indicated to localise a recurrence suspected at the control visits on the basis of clinical examination and/or radiological abnormalities (chest X-ray, CT or MRI) and/or elevated tumour marker levels (CA125, CEA). Another 13 studies were performed as a simple surveillance procedure. Overall, in 26 studies PET detected recurrent disease, which was confirmed either by histology (n=7) or by clinical and radiological outcomes (n=19). In 88% of the cases, the PET findings confirmed recurrence suggested by routine follow-up. In the remaining 12% of cases, PET detected asymptomatic recurrences that were unsuspected at the control visits. Whole-body PET accurately localised the site of confirmed recurrences as being above and below the diaphragm in 50%, only below the diaphragm in 35% and only above the diaphragm in 15%. In one patient, however, PET missed microscopic lung metastases shown on thoracic CT, and in three studies, metabolic imaging results were not confirmed. In I I of 12 negative PET studies, no subsequent clinical or radiological recurrences were observed with a median follow-up of 10 months. Overall, the results of PET agreed well with the final diagnosis (Cohen's kappa coefficient =0.78). In 9/26 patients (35%) with confirmed recurrences, the PET findings significantly altered the treatment choice by detecting either clinically or radiologically unsuspected distant metastases. The sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy and positive and negative predictive values of FDG PET imaging in the post-therapy surveillance of endometrial carcinomas were 96%, 78%, 90%, 89% and 91 %, respectively. Indeed, the high likelihood ratio for a positive test result (4.5) and the low likelihood ratio for a negative test result (0.05) demonstrated the clinical utility of metabolic imaging in "ruling in" disease as well as "ruling out" recurrence. In conclusion, whole-body FDG PET appears useful in the post-therapy surveillance of endometrial cancers, both for the accurate localisation of suspected recurrences and for the detection of asymptomatic recurrent disease. [less ▲]

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See detailThe spatial epidemiology of cholera in an endemic area of Bangladesh
Ali, M.; Emch, M.; Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Social Science & Medicine (2002), 55(6), 1015-1024

This paper defines high-risk areas of cholera based on environmental risk factors of the disease in an endemic area of Bangladesh. The risk factors include proximity to surface water, high population ... [more ▼]

This paper defines high-risk areas of cholera based on environmental risk factors of the disease in an endemic area of Bangladesh. The risk factors include proximity to surface water, high population density, and low educational status, which were identified in an earlier study by the authors. Cholera data were analyzed by spatially referenced extended household units for two time periods, 1983-1987 and 1992-1996. These periods were chosen because they had different dominant cholera agents. From 1983-1987 classical cholera was dominant and from 1992-1996 El Tor was dominant. By defining high-risk areas based on risk factors, this study builds a spatial risk model for cholera. The model is then evaluated based on the locations of observed cholera cases. The study also identifies the determinants of death due to cholera for the two different time periods dominated by the different cholera agents. The modeled risk areas that were based on the risk factors were found to correspond with actual distributions of cholera morbidity and mortality. The high-risk areas of the dominant cholera agents are relatively stable over time. However, from 1983-1987 El Tor cholera, which was not the dominant agent during that period, was not associated with high-risk areas, suggesting that the El Tor habitat may have changed over time. The case fatality rate for cholera was related to proximity to a diarrhea treatment hospital in the study area. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailSexual partner preference requires a functional aromatase (Cyp19) gene in male mice
Bakker, Julie ULg; Honda, S.; Harada, N. et al

in Hormones & Behavior (2002), 42(2), 158-171

Sexual motivation, sexual partner preference, and sexual performance represent three different aspects of sexual behavior that are critical in determining the reproductive success of a species. Although ... [more ▼]

Sexual motivation, sexual partner preference, and sexual performance represent three different aspects of sexual behavior that are critical in determining the reproductive success of a species. Although the display of sexual behavior is under strict hormonal control in both sexes, the relative roles of androgen and estrogen receptors in activating the various components of male sexual behavior are still largely unknown. A recently developed mouse model that is deficient in estradiol due to targeted disruption of exons 1 and 2 of the Cyp19 gene (aromatase knockout (ArKO) mice) was used here to analyze the role of estradiol in the control of all three aspects of male sexual behavior. When tested in a Y-maze providing volatile olfactory cues, male ArKO mice did not show a preference for the odors from an estrous female over those from an intact male, whereas wildtype (WT) and heterozygous (HET) males clearly preferred to sniff estrous odors. When provided with visual and olfactory cues, male ArKO mice also failed to show a preference for an estrous female when given a choice between an estrous female and an empty arm. However, sexual partner preferences of male ArKO mice were not sex-reversed: they did not prefer to investigate an intact male over an estrous female or empty arm. Thus, male ArKO mice seemed to have general deficits in discriminating between conspecifics by using olfactory and visual cues. Male coital behavior was also severely impaired in male ArKO mice: they displayed significantly fewer mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations than WT and HET males. Latencies to first mount or intromission were also significantly longer in ArKO males compared to WT and HET males, in addition to them showing less interest in investigating olfactory and visual cues in a Y-maze, suggesting that they were sexually less motivated. However, three out of seven male ArKO mice were capable of siring litters provided they were housed with a female for a prolonged period of time. In conclusion, aromatization of testosterone to estradiol appears to be essential for sexual motivation and sexual partner preference. By contrast, estradiol may play only a limited role in the expression of male coital behaviors. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailDecreased local control following radiation therapy alone in early larynx cancer with anterior commisure extension
Ozsahin; Bron; COUCKE, Philippe ULg et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (2002), 64(supp 1), 243-244

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