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See detailLe déroulement de la conférence sur le développement rural durable dans l'ensemble des pays d'Europe.
Christians, Charles ULg; Schmitz, Serge ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001), 41

Présentation de l'organisation, du thème, de l'objectif et des activités (travaux sur le terrain et Conférence).

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See detailDynamics of copepod faecal pellets in relation to a Phaeocystis dominated phytoplankton bloom: characteristics, production and flux
Frangoulis, Costa; Belkhiria, Sami; Goffart, Anne ULg et al

in Journal of Plankton Research (2001), 23(1), 75-88

Copepod faecal pellet characteristics and production were measured in spring 1995, 1996 and 1997 in the North Sea Southern Bight in order to define changes due to the development of the phytoplankton ... [more ▼]

Copepod faecal pellet characteristics and production were measured in spring 1995, 1996 and 1997 in the North Sea Southern Bight in order to define changes due to the development of the phytoplankton bloom. Changes were related to the succession from diatoms to a Phaeocystis sp. bloom. Mean monthly pellet production decreased during the Phaeocystis bloom development to 0.27 pellets ind. –1 h –1, approximately 80% lower than before and after the bloom. Although phytoplanktonic pigments showed significant differences between inshore and offshore stations, there was no such significant difference for faecal pellet production. Faecal pellet sinking-rate decreased from 100 to 70 m day –1 during the transition from a diatom- to a Phaeocystis-dominated bloom. This was due to a decrease in pellet density and/or a decrease of the pellet volume. These results supported the idea of lower feeding of copepods under Phaeocystis bloom conditions. As mean seasonal density of copepod faecal pellets was higher (1.37 g cm –3) than in other seas, accidental ingestion of sedimentary material as the cause of this high density is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMorpho-anatomy of the otic region in carapid fishes : eco-morphological study of their otoliths
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Vandewalle, Pierre ULg; Lagardère, Françoise

in Journal of Fish Biology (2001), 58

Carapid species are characterized by so-called otophysical structures (sonic muscles, broad first apophyses covering the anterior part of the swimbladder, etc.) The family includes pelagic (Pyramodon and ... [more ▼]

Carapid species are characterized by so-called otophysical structures (sonic muscles, broad first apophyses covering the anterior part of the swimbladder, etc.) The family includes pelagic (Pyramodon and Snyderidia) and benthic (Echiodon) species and ones that are either commensal with (Onuxodon, Carapus) or parasites of (Encheliophis) invertebrates (sea cucumbers, etc). The aim of the present work was to seek possible relationships between the structures of the inner ear (particularly the sagitta) on the one hand and otophysical structures and lifestyles within the Carapidae family. In the eight species studied, the otic cavity is wide, the saccular otosac and its sagitta are particularly developed. The sacculi touch each other on the median line. A comparison of the inner ear structures reveals notably that the species with the most developed sagitta and sacculus are those with the largest parapophyses and have a commensal or parasitic lifestyle. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractéristiques de la reproduction dans l’espèce caprine
Zarrouk, A.; Souilem, O.; Drion, Pierre ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

This review pointed out the physiological basis of goat reproduction. So far assimilated to ewes, goats presented their own characteristics concerning the sexual activity and the endocrinology of ... [more ▼]

This review pointed out the physiological basis of goat reproduction. So far assimilated to ewes, goats presented their own characteristics concerning the sexual activity and the endocrinology of pregnancy. The well understanding of goat particularities is essential to control cyclic activities and reproduction applicationCe travail passe en revue les bases physiologiques de la reproduction dans l’espèce caprine. Longtemps assimilée à la brebis, la chèvre présente des spécificités propres, tant sur le plan du déroulement des cycles sexuels que sur le plan de l’endocrinologie de la gestation. Une bonne connaissance des particularités de la reproduction dans cette espèce permet une meilleure maîtrise du contrôle du cycle sexuel et des techniques de la reproduction [less ▲]

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See detailAb initio simulations of liquid semiconductors using the pseudopotential-density functional method
Chelikowsky, J. R.; Derby, J. J.; Godlevsky, V. V. et al

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2001), 13(41), 817-854854

One of the most difficult problems in condensed matter physics is describing the microscopic nature of the liquid state. Owing to the dynamical nature of the liquid state, it is not possible to discuss a ... [more ▼]

One of the most difficult problems in condensed matter physics is describing the microscopic nature of the liquid state. Owing to the dynamical nature of the liquid state, it is not possible to discuss a particular microscopic structure; only ensemble averages can be specified. Such averages can be performed via well crafted molecular dynamics simulations: the length of the simulation, the size of the ensemble and the nature of the interatomic forces must all be carefully analysed. Historically, a problematic issue in doing such simulations is that of how to describe the interatomic forces in the liquid state. This matter is especially challenging for the melt of semiconductors, such as silicon or gallium arsenide, where the chemical bond contains a strong covalent component. It is difficult to use pairwise interatomic potentials in such cases. Although many-body potentials can be utilized for simulations of these materials, one must map quantum phenomena such as hybridization onto classical interatomic potentials. This mapping is complex and difficult. In this review, we illustrate how one can avoid this problem by utilizing quantum forces to simulate liquids. Our focus is on the pseudopotential-density functional method. Within the pseudopotential method, only the valence electrons are explicitly treated and within the density functional theory, exchange and correlation terms are mapped onto an effective one-electron potential [less ▲]

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See detailLes nouveaux critères de sélection porcine
Leroy, Pascal ULg

in Carrefour des Productions animales Gembloux (2001)

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See detailColomb interactions and the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake
King, G. C. P.; Hubert, Aurelia ULg; Nalbant, S. S. et al

in Comptes Rendu de l’Académie des Sciences de Paris - Série 2. Sciences de la terre et des planètes (2001), 333(rie 2. Sciences de la terre et des planètes), 557-569

At 00:02 GMT (03:02 local time) on 17 August, 1999 a magnitude 7.4 (Ms) earthquake occurred 100 km east of Istanbul causing extensive destruction. The event was expected and several scientists have ... [more ▼]

At 00:02 GMT (03:02 local time) on 17 August, 1999 a magnitude 7.4 (Ms) earthquake occurred 100 km east of Istanbul causing extensive destruction. The event was expected and several scientists have published and attempted to publicize the danger. A paper on stress interactions for NW Turkey (J. Geophys. Res. 103 (1998) 24466–24469) concluded that “by combining the stress change map with the map of active faulting, likely locations for the occurrence of future earthquakes can be refined; faults in the Izmit Bay area, the western part of Biga Peninsula, the Saroz Gulf and a part of western Sea of Marmara must be regarded as posing a specific hazard”. An extension of that study is described here. It is shown that the Izmit (1999) earthquake loaded faults both to the east and west of the Izmit rupture. About three months after the Izmit event an M 7.2 earthquake occurred with an epicenter at Duzce extending the Izmit rupture to the east. In the Marmara Sea, west of Izmit, faults have been loaded by between 1 and 5 bar; 5 to 30 % of typical earthquake stress drops in the region suggesting the likelihood of a future event. The risk of a major event on a fault depends not just on stress increases associated with an individual earthquake, but also on the longer-term earthquake history and on tectonic loading. The roles of both are examined over two time periods from 1900 to 1999 and 1700 to 1999. Whatever interpretation we place on the data we conclude that one or two events as great or greater than the recent one is likely to occur within the next few decades near to the northern coast of the Marmara Sea [less ▲]

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See detailThe emerging role of class II histone deacetylases.
Fischle, Wolfgang; Kiermer, Véronique; Dequiedt, Franck ULg et al

in Biochemistry & Cell Biology (2001), 79(3), 337-48

Histone acetylation and deacetylation play essential roles in modifying chromatin structure and regulating gene expression in all eukaryotes. Several histone acetyltransferases have been identified that ... [more ▼]

Histone acetylation and deacetylation play essential roles in modifying chromatin structure and regulating gene expression in all eukaryotes. Several histone acetyltransferases have been identified that act as transcriptional coactivators. In contrast, histone deacetylases (HDACs) are part of transcriptional corepressor complexes. Based on their similarity to known yeast factors, the human HDACs are grouped into three classes. Class I HDACs are similar to the yeast transcriptional repressor yRPD3, while class II HDACs are related to yHDA1 and class III HDACs to ySIR2. In this review, we focus on the biology of class II HDACs. These newly discovered enzymes have been implicated in cell differentiation and development, and many molecular details are emerging that shed light on class II HDAC function and regulation. We discuss the biological role of these factors in the context of physiological processes. [less ▲]

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See detailNew lithostratigraphical, sedimentological, mineralogical and palaeontological data on the Mesozoic of Belgian Lorraine: a progress report
Boulvain, Frédéric ULg; Belanger, I.; Delsate, D. et al

in Geologica Belgica (2001), 3(1-2), 3-33

A multidisciplinary study of some extensively cored boreholes together with the new 1/25.000 geological mapping of wallonia lead us to propose a new lithostratigraphic canvas for belgian lorraine. This ... [more ▼]

A multidisciplinary study of some extensively cored boreholes together with the new 1/25.000 geological mapping of wallonia lead us to propose a new lithostratigraphic canvas for belgian lorraine. This area is located on the n-e border of the paris basin, south of the ardennes; the studied stratigraphic interval covers the keuper to the toarcian. Each of the newly defined units is sedimentologicaly interpreted on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic observations. Detailed palynological and claystratigraphical analyses have been performed, providingadditional stratigraphical, palaeoecological and sedimentological data. Moreover, a first sequence stratigraphic interpretation is proposed for this highly transgressive sedimentary body. The habay formation (conglomerates and red mudstones) is a fluvial unit, with immature channel conglomerates and paleosoils; the attert formation (dolomitic marls with gypsum and pseudomorphs) exhibites an evaporitic trend. The Mortinsart formation (sands and marls) corresponds to a restricted marine unit, evolving towards an alluvial plain (levallois member). The second cycle begins with the Jamoigne Formation (bioturbated marls and limestones), a marine subtidal restricted unit, evolving towards a more sandy sedimentary body (Metzert Member). The base of the third cycle corresponds to the rest of the Luxemburg Formation, comprising a succession of sandy waves. The Ethe Formation (laminar mudstones and marls) marks a deepening of the basin and the outset of open marine dysaerobic conditions. The Aubange Formation (bioturbated marls with sandstones and limestones) is characterized by the reappearance of a normal benthic fauna. The Grandcourt Formation (laminar mudstones and marls) marks a return to open marine dysaerobic conditions. The Mont-Saint-Martin Formation (marls, sandy marls and oolitic ironstone) is a highly regressive unit, while the Longwy Formation (limestones) marks the initiation of a carbonate platform. [less ▲]

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See detailLa Position de la littérature congolaise dans l’ensemble des littératures africaines : une approche du cheminement de la pensée congolaise
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULg

in Revue luxembourgeoise de littérature générale et comparée (2001)

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See detailJuifs et Romains. Y a-t-il eu un antijudaïsme romain ?
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Revue des Etudes Juives (2001), 160

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See detailGenetic Diversity In The Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus L.) As Revealed By Chloroplast Dna (Cpdna) Variations
Fofana, B.; Du Jardin, Patrick ULg; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2001), 48(5),

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See detailA Plea to Bridge the Gap between Antifungals and the Management of Onychomycosis
ARRESE ESTRADA, Jorge ULg; Pierard-Franchimont, Claudine ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in American Journal of Clinical Dermatology (2001), 2(5), 281-4

Onychomycosis represents a stubborn problem for the clinician facing up to the realities of antifungal treatments. There are obvious discrepancies between data given by in vitro antifungal testings ... [more ▼]

Onychomycosis represents a stubborn problem for the clinician facing up to the realities of antifungal treatments. There are obvious discrepancies between data given by in vitro antifungal testings, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, and those gathered from clinical experience. This critical review is an attempt at bridging the gap between in vitro and in vivo information about oral antifungals that aim to treat onychomycoses. Common sense shows that the in vitro concept of fungicidy cannot be simply extrapolated into clinical practice. Indeed, chlamidoconidia and arthroconidia present in vivo are much more resistant to antifungals than hyphae. Corneofungimetry may be a realistic bioassay in predicting antifungal activity in human infections. Boosting hyphae growth from conidia while taking antifungals is a new and appealing treatment modality that deserves controlled study. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamique de modification de l'habitat physique de reproduction des pondeurs lithophiles sous gravier. Cas de deux frayères à ombre dans l'Aisne
Parkinson, Denis; Petit, François ULg; Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULg et al

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001), 40

D’octobre 1998 à mars 1999, nous avons étudié dans l’Aisne, petit affluent ardennais de l’Ourthe, la dynamique de modification de deux bancs de gravier utilisés comme frayère par l’ombre commun en mars ... [more ▼]

D’octobre 1998 à mars 1999, nous avons étudié dans l’Aisne, petit affluent ardennais de l’Ourthe, la dynamique de modification de deux bancs de gravier utilisés comme frayère par l’ombre commun en mars-avril 1998. L’étude a été réalisée dans deux stations du cours inférieur de l’Aisne où se sont succédé quatre crues morphogènes. Dans chaque station, nous avons déterminé à intervalle d’environ 1 mois, la profondeur d’érosion et la hauteur de dépôt des sédiments (méthode de la barre d’érosion à chaînes), la granulométrie des matériaux des couches de surface et de subsurface, le dépôt des sédiments fins (placement de pièges à sédiments) et la perméabilité du substrat (méthode du standpipe). En complément, nous avons entrepris dans une station de l’Aisne moyenne, une caractérisation de divers éléments de la dynamique fluviale : identification des débits mobilisateurs (par marquage colorimétrique des sédiments en place), estimation de la vitesse de déplacement de la charge de fond (par étude de la dispersion longitudinale de scories, résidu d’anciennes industries métallurgiques) et estimation des quantités de sédiments charriés par la rivière (à partir des données de dragage). [less ▲]

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See detailKinetics of solvent addition on electrosprayed ions in an electrospray source and in a quadrupole ion trap
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; Lemaire, David; Laprévote, Olivier et al

in International Journal of Mass Spectrometry (2001), 210/211

Benzylpyridinium cations readily fragment in the electrospray source by loss of pyridine to give benzyl cations (M-79). The full-scan spectra obtained with some instruments also show, in addition, an m/z ... [more ▼]

Benzylpyridinium cations readily fragment in the electrospray source by loss of pyridine to give benzyl cations (M-79). The full-scan spectra obtained with some instruments also show, in addition, an m/z (M-38) peak corresponding to the addition of acetonitrile, being present in the solvent mixture, on the benzyl cations. Here we report that the addition reaction can occur in the source region of electrospray mass spectrometry instruments, and in a quadrupole ion trap. The kinetics of acetonitrile addition was monitored in an ion trap, acetonitrile being provided by leakage from the source, through the heated capillary. For benzyl ions with different substituents, the addition kinetics has been found positively correlated with the Brown parameter sigma+ of the benzyl radical, and therefore with the effective charge density on the alpha-carbon atom of the benzyl ion. This is consistent with the Langevin or average-dipole-orientation (ADO) theory of ion–molecule reaction kinetics. [less ▲]

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See detailLe dispositif d'évaluation externe en Communauté française de Belgique
Lafontaine, Dominique ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 195-218

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See detailPictures in cell biology. Spatial dynamics of rRNAs.
Thiry, Marc ULg; Cheutin, T.; O'Donohue, M. F. et al

in Trends in Cell Biology (2001), 11(4), 147

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See detailPIT-1, a candidate gene for mass assisted selection in dairy bulls.
Parmentier, Isabelle; Gengler, Nicolas ULg; Fontaine, S. et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2001), 79(Suppl 1, N°1412), 340

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See detailA propos du grec diglôssos
Rochette, Bruno ULg

in Antiquité Classique : Revue Interuniversitaire d'Etudes Classiques (2001), 70

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See detailComparison of deposition images obtained by use of an ultrafine 99m-technetium-labeled carbon dry aerosol with ventilation images obtained by use of 81m-krypton gas for evaluation of pulmonary dysfunction in calves.
Votion, Dominique ULg; Coghe, J. D.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (2001), 62(12), 1881-6

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the accuracy of an ultrafine 99m-technetium-labeled carbon dry aerosol for use in assessment of regional ventilation in calves with pulmonary dysfunction. ANIMALS: 7 Belgian ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the accuracy of an ultrafine 99m-technetium-labeled carbon dry aerosol for use in assessment of regional ventilation in calves with pulmonary dysfunction. ANIMALS: 7 Belgian White and Blue calves. PROCEDURE: The ultrafine aerosol was assessed by comparing deposition (D) images with ventilation (V) images obtained by use of 81 m-krypton (81mKr) gas via D-to-V ratio (D:V) image analysis in calves during spontaneous breathing (SB) and during experimentally induced pulmonary dysfunction (ePD). RESULTS: Mismatching index (LrTot) calculated on the D:V images revealed a good match (LrTot, 0.96 +/- 0.01) between D and V distribution patterns in calves during SB. Calculation of the ultrafine aerosol penetration index relative to 81mKr (PIRel) revealed preferential distribution of the ultrafine aerosol in lung parenchyma (PIRel, 1.13 +/- 0.11). In ePD, heterogeneity in the D:V distribution was observed (LrTot, 0.78 +/- 0.10) as a result of ultrafine aerosol particles impaction in airways as indicated by PIRel (0.66 +/- 0.16) and a proportion of pixels more radioactive in D images, compared with V images, that was located in the central part of the lung (475 +/- 77% in ePD vs 32.8 +/- 5.7% in SB). However, this central deposition did not prevent visual examination of the entire ventilated lung. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The ultrafine aerosol appears suitable for use in examination of ventilated parts of lungs of cattle, even those with impaired pulmonary function. However, airway impaction of ultrafine aerosol particles impedes the quantification of regional ventilation in cattle with abnormal lung function. [less ▲]

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See detailEthno-agricultural approach to the rural environment in the prevention of Kashin-Beck disease
Malaisse, François ULg; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Mathieu, Françoise et al

in International Orthopaedics (2001), 25

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See detailMolecular certification in chicken meat channel.
Haezebroeck, Valérie; Renaville, Robert ULg; Parmentier, Isabelle et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2001), 79(Suppl 1 N°1072), 260

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See detailVerifìcarea unei structuri metalice pentru depozitare paletizata la actinuea focului
Zaharia, R.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Zilele Academice Timisorene Editia VII - Buletinul Stiintific al Universitatii Politehnica din Timisoara (2001), 46(60), 288-298

The paper presents a fire design study case for a high-rise storage rack supporting building. Standardised ISO and natural fire models were considered for the fire action. The advanced numerical analysis ... [more ▼]

The paper presents a fire design study case for a high-rise storage rack supporting building. Standardised ISO and natural fire models were considered for the fire action. The advanced numerical analysis was carried out by means of SAFIR program, a FEM software specialised for the mechanical analysis of structures under elevated temperatures. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic diversiy within the eastern Weddell Sea amphipod community
Dauby, Patrick ULg; Scailteur, Yves; De Broyer, Claude

in Hydrobiologia (2001), 443

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See detailSupernumerary outer hair cells arise external to the last row of sensory cells in the organ of corti.
Lefèbvre, Philippe ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg; Thiry, Marc ULg et al

in Acta Oto-Laryngologica (2001), 121(2), 164-8

During the development of the mammalian inner ear, the number of hair cells produced is highly regulated and remains constant throughout life. The mechanism underlying this regulation is beginning to be ... [more ▼]

During the development of the mammalian inner ear, the number of hair cells produced is highly regulated and remains constant throughout life. The mechanism underlying this regulation is beginning to be understood although many aspects still remain obscure. When late embryonic or early postnatal rat organs of Corti were cultured, the production of supernumerary hair cells was observed. This overproduction of sensory cells could be modulated by the addition of several growth factors. In this study, we examined explants of rat organs of Corti that produced supernumerary hair cells. In the supernumerary hair cell region, up to two rows of inner hair cells and five rows of outer hair cells were observed. Morphological evaluation of these specimens revealed that less mature hair cells were located in the most external rows of these sensory cells. When a supernumerary hair cell was produced, a supporting cell (i.e. Deiters' cell) was also produced, strongly suggesting that the conversion of a Deiters' cell into a hair cell was not the mechanism that produced these extra hair cells. Based on these results, we propose that prosensory cells located at the external edge of the organ of Corti retain a capacity to form hair cells and that it is these prosensory cells that differentiate into supernumerary hair cells and Deiters' cells. [less ▲]

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See detailS179D-human PRL, a pseudophosphorylated human PRL analog, is an agonist and not an antagonist
Bernichtein, Sophie; Kinet, Sandrina; Jeay, Sébastien et al

in Endocrinology (2001), 142(9), 3950-63

For many years, our group has been involved in the development of human PRL antagonists. In two recent publications, S179D-human PRL, a human PRL analog designed to mimic a putative S179-phosphorylated ... [more ▼]

For many years, our group has been involved in the development of human PRL antagonists. In two recent publications, S179D-human PRL, a human PRL analog designed to mimic a putative S179-phosphorylated human PRL, was reported to be a highly potent antagonist of human PRL-induced proliferation and signaling in rat Nb2 cells. We prepared this analog with the aim of testing it in various bioassays involving the homologous, human PRL receptor. In our hands, S179D- human PRL was able to stimulate 1) the proliferation of rat Nb2 cells and of human mammary tumor epithelial cells (T-47D), 2) transcriptional activation of the lactogenic hormone response element-luciferase reporter gene, and 3) activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription and MAPK pathways. Using the previously characterized antagonist G129R-human PRL as a control, we failed to observe any evidence for antagonism of S179D-human PRL toward any of the human PRL-induced effects analyzed, including cell proliferation, transcriptional activation, and signaling. In conclusion, our data argue that S179D-human PRL is an agonist displaying slightly reduced affinity and activity due to local alteration of receptor binding site 1, and that the antagonistic properties previously attributed to S179D-human PRL cannot be confirmed in any of the assays analyzed in this study. [less ▲]

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See detailPex, Analytical Tools For Pdb Files. II. H-Pex: Noncanonical H-Bonds In Alpha-Helices
Thomas, Annick ULg; Benhabiles, N.; Meurisse, R. et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2001), 43(1), 37-44

We use the H-Pex (Thomas et al., this issue) to analyze the main chain interactions in 131 proteins. In antiparallel beta-sheets, the geometry of the N...O bond is: median N...O distances, 2.9 SA, C==O ... [more ▼]

We use the H-Pex (Thomas et al., this issue) to analyze the main chain interactions in 131 proteins. In antiparallel beta-sheets, the geometry of the N...O bond is: median N...O distances, 2.9 SA, C==O...N angles at 154 degrees and the C alpha--C==O...H angles are dispersed around 3 degrees. In some instances, the other side of the C==O axis is occupied by a HC alpha. As recently supported by Vargas et al. (J Am Chem Soc 2000;122:4750-4755) C alpha H...O and NH...O could cooperate to sheet stability. In alpha-helices, the main chain C==O interact with the NH of their n + 4 neighbor on one side, and with a C beta H or C gamma H on the other side. The median O...N distance (3.0 A) and C==N angle (147 degrees) suggest a canonical H-bond, but the C alpha--C==O...H dihedral angle invalidates this option, since the hydrogen attacks the oxygen at 122 degrees, i.e., between the sp(2) and pi orbitals. This supports that the H-bond is noncanonical. In many instances, the C gamma H or the C beta H of the n + 4 residue stands opposite to the NH with respect to the oxygen. Therefore, we propose that, in alpha-helices, the C gamma H or C beta H and the NH of the n + 4 residue hold the oxygen like an electrostatic pincher. [less ▲]

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See detailTransition between anesthesia and post-operative analgesia: relevance of intra-operative administration of analgesics.
Joris, Jean ULg; Kaba, Abdourahmane ULg; Lamy, Maurice ULg

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2001), 52(3), 271-9

The rapid awakening without residual analgesic effect seen with the new "fast-in-fast-out" anesthetic agents forces us to anticipate post-operative pain management. More then ever, "balanced analgesia ... [more ▼]

The rapid awakening without residual analgesic effect seen with the new "fast-in-fast-out" anesthetic agents forces us to anticipate post-operative pain management. More then ever, "balanced analgesia" appears the key for successful transition between anesthesia and post-operative analgesia. This review focuses on practical aspects seeking to answer the following questions: which analgesics should be used?; how should they be given?; at what stage of the anesthetic time should they be injected? In the absence of a loco-regional technique, analgesics must be given before the end of surgery to obtain a quiet awakening. The transition in this delicate period may be facilitated by the intra-operative use of various adjuvant therapies such as ketamine, lidocaine infusion, clonidine, and magnesium, that reduce the needs for opioid and/or post-operative pain severity. All non-opioid analgesics (propacetamol, NSAIDs, tramadol) must be given according to their pharmacokinetic characteristics, indications and contraindications to ensure the required analgesic effect is effective at the time of awakening. If tramadol is not used, an initial dose of a long-acting opioid should be given 20-30 minutes before the end of surgery. Insufficient analgesia must be corrected by titrating an opioid intravenously before allowing the patient to control his/her analgesia using a PCA pump. [less ▲]

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See detailLe diagnostic immunologique rapide des encéphalopathies spongiformes transmissibles
Pastoret, Paul-Pierre ULg; Gouffaux, M.; Saegerman, Claude ULg et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

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See detailDevelopment of specific antibodies for the quantificaion of plasma insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in cattle.
Renaville, Robert ULg; Bertozzi, C.; Hetzel, S. et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2001), 79(suppl 1, N°1610), 388

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See detailOn a general decomposition of the error of an approximate stress field in elasticity
Debongnie, Jean-François ULg; Beckers, Pierre ULg

in Computer Assisted Mechanics and Engineering Sciences [=CAMES] (2001), 8

The errors of finite element approximations are analysed in a general frame, which is completely independent from the way through which the approximate solution was obtained. It is found that the error ... [more ▼]

The errors of finite element approximations are analysed in a general frame, which is completely independent from the way through which the approximate solution was obtained. It is found that the error always admits decomposition in two terms, namely the equilibrium error and the compatibility error, which are orthogonal. Each of these admits upper and lower bound that can be computed in a post-processing scheme [less ▲]

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See detailThe Composite Genome Of The Legume Symbiont Sinorhizobium Meliloti
Galibert, Francis; Finan, Turlough M.; Long, Sharon R. et al

in Science (2001), 293(5530),

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See detailLe domicile : une notion plurielle
d'Huart, Véronique ULg

in Répertoire notarial (2001), VII

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See detailA thoughtful approach to brain tumours
Deprez, Manuel ULg

in Lancet (2001), Vol 358

Brain Tumours is a serious book, more than 1000 pages long, with 50 chapters, and the efforts of nearly 100 contributors. The editors begin by reminding us that surgery has always had a central role in ... [more ▼]

Brain Tumours is a serious book, more than 1000 pages long, with 50 chapters, and the efforts of nearly 100 contributors. The editors begin by reminding us that surgery has always had a central role in the management of brain tumours. However, surgical resection is often incomplete because of diffuse infiltration and the anatomical limits imposed by the surgical approach, or by proximity to the eloquent cortex. Incomplete resection undoubtedly contributes to tumour progression or recurrence, and the means to solve this dilemma lie in the collaborative effort of various medical and scientific disciplines. [less ▲]

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See detailFlow interruption effects on intake rate and rill erosion in two soils
Sirjacobs, Damien ULg; Shainberg, Itzhak; Rapp, Ido et al

in Soil Science Society of America Journal (2001), 65

Efficiency of surface irrigation is often low because of poor infiltration uniformity, resulting from relatively long periods of infiltration at the upstream end and short periods of infiltration at the ... [more ▼]

Efficiency of surface irrigation is often low because of poor infiltration uniformity, resulting from relatively long periods of infiltration at the upstream end and short periods of infiltration at the downstream end of the field. Surge irrigation, the intermittent supply of water to furrows, generally reduces soil intake rate (IR) and improves moisture uniformity over the entire field. However, IR reduction varies from one irrigation scheme to another, depends on soil and water properties, and is difficult to predict. A laboratory study using miniflumes was designed to investigate the effect of interrupted flow on IR and soil loss from short rills. Two soils differing in their textures, a silt loam (Calcic Haploxeralf) derived from loess and a clay soil (Typic Haploxerert), were studied. Intake rate in the clay soil was greater than that in the silt loam. Therefore, different inflow rates were applied to the two soils to achieve similar runoff flow rates from the two soils. Cumulative infiltration decreased from 646 mL in continuous flow to 539 mL in interrupted flow for the silt loam and from 1142 to 1068 mL in the clay soil. Interrupted flow also reduced cumulative soil loss by 84% in the clay soil but had only a small effect on soil loss from the silt loam. However, when flow rate was increased from 80 to 320 mL min−1, interrupted flow reduced soil loss in the silt loam as much as in the clay soil. Consolidation of the soil surface and formation of cohesive forces between soil particles of the silt loam with unstable structure during flow interruption was suggested as the explanation for the effect of flow interruption on intake rate and soil detachment. These results need to be verified in field experiments. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle biodiversite pour nos lisieres forestieres?
Branquart, E.; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Liesse, D. et al

in Parcs & Réserves (2001), 56(1), 26-32

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See detailEstimation of shortening rate since late Pleistocene in the Aksu area on the southern flank of the Tianshan
Wang, X.; Jia, C. Z.; Hubert, Aurelia ULg et al

in Science in China. Series D : Earth Sciences (2001), 44

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See detailTransplantation pulmonaire et fonction mitochondriale
Detry, Olivier ULg; Willet, K.; Meurisse, Michel ULg et al

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2001), 156(6, Pt 2), 355-9

The mechanisms of cellular lesions induced by lung ischemia and reperfusion are not fully understood and, in particular, the consequences of pulmonary ischemia and reperfusion injury on mitochondrial ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms of cellular lesions induced by lung ischemia and reperfusion are not fully understood and, in particular, the consequences of pulmonary ischemia and reperfusion injury on mitochondrial function have not been previously investigated. Therefore, we studied the respiratory function of isolated pulmonary mitochondria in a swine model of lung ischemia and reperfusion. We demonstrated that prolonged hypothermic (4 degrees C) ischemia induces significant lesions of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, particularly if ischemia is followed by normothermic reperfusion. These results should be integrated in the cellular alterations induced by the ischemia-reperfusion injury. In another swine model mimicking controlled non-heart beating donors, we demonstrated that thirty minutes of cardiac arrest do not promote significant alteration of the mitochondrial respiratory function. In contrast, forty-five minutes of cardiac arrest, induced significant mitochondrial lesions. This pulmonary tolerance to normothermic cardiac arrest might be explained by the presence of air in the lung airways, allowing some aerobic metabolism after circulatory arrest. These results suggested that lung grafts might be harvested from non-heart beating donors after thirty minutes of cardiac arrest, significantly increasing the pulmonary graft pool. [less ▲]

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See detailNumeration systems on a regular language : Arithmetic operations, Recognizability and Formal power series
Rigo, Michel ULg

in Theoretical Computer Science (2001), 269

Generalizations of numeration systems in which \(\N\) is recognizable by a finite automaton are obtained by describing a lexicographically ordered infinite regular language \(L\subset \Sigma^*\). For ... [more ▼]

Generalizations of numeration systems in which \(\N\) is recognizable by a finite automaton are obtained by describing a lexicographically ordered infinite regular language \(L\subset \Sigma^*\). For these systems, we obtain a characterization of recognizable sets of integers in terms of $\N$-rational formal series. After a study of the polynomial regular languages, we show that, if the complexity of \(L\) is \(\Theta (n^l)\) (resp. if \(L\) is the complement of a polynomial language), then multiplication by \(\lambda\in \N\) preserves recognizability only if \(\lambda=\beta^{l+1}\) (resp. if \(\lambda\neq (\#\Sigma)^\beta\)) for some \(\beta\in \N\). Finally, we obtain sufficient conditions for the notions of recognizability for abstract systems and some positional number systems to be equivalent. [less ▲]

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See detailInulin: its physicochemical properties and technological functionality.
Blecker, Christophe ULg; Chevalier, J. P.; Herck, J C van et al

in Recent Research Developments in Agricultural & Food Chemistry (2001), 5

This review examines the present state of knowledge on the physicochemical properties and technological functionality of inulin. First, structure and conformation are described. Secondly, solubility and ... [more ▼]

This review examines the present state of knowledge on the physicochemical properties and technological functionality of inulin. First, structure and conformation are described. Secondly, solubility and gelation are precisely detailed. Finally, the numerous advantages offered by this functional food are described. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of orlistat on weight and on serum lipids in obese patients with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre study.
Muls, E.; Kolanowski, J.; Scheen, André ULg et al

in International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders (2001), 25(11), 1713-21

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the effects of orlistat 120 mg three times daily vs placebo on weight loss and serum lipids in obese hypercholesterolemic patients. DESIGN: A 24 week multicentre, double-blind ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Assessment of the effects of orlistat 120 mg three times daily vs placebo on weight loss and serum lipids in obese hypercholesterolemic patients. DESIGN: A 24 week multicentre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. After a 2-week single-blind run-in period (placebo+diet (-600 kcal/day; < or =30% of calories as fat)), 294 patients were submitted to the hypocaloric diet and randomly assigned to either orlistat 120 mg or placebo three times daily. Patients who completed the double-blind study (n=255) were eligible for participation in a subsequent 24 week open-label orlistat extension phase. SUBJECTS: Patients with body mass index (BMI) 27-40 kg/m2 and hypercholesterolemia (low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C, 4.1-6.7 mmol/l). MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy assessments included weight loss, lipid levels, other cardiovascular risk factors and anthropometric parameters. Safety assessments. RESULTS: Weight loss during run-in was similar in both groups. After randomization, orlistat-treated patients lost significantly more weight than placebo recipients: mean percentage weight loss from start of run-in to week 24 was-6.8% in the orlistat group and -3.8% in the placebo group (P<0.001). Moreover, more patients in the orlistat group than in the placebo group achieved clinically meaningful weight loss of > or =5% (64 vs 39%) or > or =10% (23 vs 13%) at week 24. Treatment with orlistat was associated with significantly greater changes in total cholesterol (-11.9% vs -4.0%; P<0.001) and LDL-C (-17.6 vs -7.6%; P<0.001). For any category of weight loss during the double-blind treatment period, change in LDL-C was more pronounced in orlistat-treated patients than in placebo recipients, indicating that orlistat had a direct cholesterol-lowering effect that was independent of weight reduction (P<0.001). Adjunction of orlistat during the extension phase in patients who initially received placebo induced a further decrease in weight, total cholesterol and LDL-C. Orlistat was generally well tolerated with a safety profile comparable to placebo, with the exception of a higher incidence of gastrointestinal events (> or =1 event in 64 vs 38% of patients). CONCLUSION: Orlistat as an adjunct to dietary intervention promotes weight loss and reduces LDL-C beyond the effect of weight loss in overweight or obese patients with concomitant hypercholesterolemia. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterization of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene promoter: human zinc-finger proteins (ZNF140 and ZNF91) that bind to different regions function as transcription repressors
Nishimura, Tadahiro; Narita, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Emi et al

in International Immunology (2001), 13(8), 1075-84

Expression of the human low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG (human Fc gamma RII) is differentially regulated. We report here the characterization of the promoter structure of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene ... [more ▼]

Expression of the human low-affinity Fc receptors for IgG (human Fc gamma RII) is differentially regulated. We report here the characterization of the promoter structure of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene and the isolation of the promoter region-binding proteins by a yeast one-hybrid assay. The minimal 154-bp region upstream from the transcription start site of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene was shown to possess promoter activity in a variety of cells. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay indicated that multiple nuclear factors in cell extracts bind to the two regions [F2-3 (-110 to -93) and F4-3 (-47 to -31)] of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene promoter. Mutation analysis indicated that GGGAGGAGC (-105 to -97) and AATTTGTTTGCC (-47 to -36) sequences are responsible for binding to nuclear factors respectively. By using GGGAGGAGC and AATTTGTTTGCC as bait sequences, we cloned two zinc-finger proteins (ZNF140 and ZNF91) that bind to the F2-3 and F4-3 regions within the promoter of the human Fc gamma RIIB gene respectively. When the ZNF140 and ZNF91 were transfected with reporter plasmid, both showed repressor activity with additive effects. Thus, these results indicate that these cloned ZNF140 and ZNF91 proteins function as repressors for the human Fc gamma RIIB transcription. [less ▲]

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See detailÀ la croisée du temps, de l’aspect et du mode: Le conjonctif en néo-égyptien
Winand, Jean ULg

in Lingua Aegyptia [= LingAeg] (2001), (9), 293-329

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See detailBelgian normative data of the temperament and character inventory
Hansenne, Michel ULg; Le Bon, O.; Gauthier, Audrey ULg et al

in European Journal of Psychological Assessment (2001), 17(1), 56-62

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a 226-item self-questionnaire developed to assess the seven dimensions of personality described by Cloninger and his colleagues. Normative data from 322 ... [more ▼]

The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is a 226-item self-questionnaire developed to assess the seven dimensions of personality described by Cloninger and his colleagues. Normative data from 322 representative French-speaking subjects from Belgium are presented and the psychometric properties are discussed. Mean scores of temperament dimensions were appreciably different from those published by Cloninger. In our sample, novelty seeking and self-transcendence scores were lower and harm avoidance scores were higher compared to US norms. The other dimensions were almost identical. The factorial analysis showed that the hypothesized factor structure of temperament and character dimensions was almost confirmed. The present study also confirmed that the TCI scales were weakly related among themselves. The relationships were consistent with those reported by previous reports. Gender differences were also found for different dimensions. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerations systems on a regular language
Lecomte, Pierre ULg; Rigo, Michel ULg

in Theory of Computing Systems (2001), 34

Generalizations of positional number systems in which N is recognizable by finite automata are obtained by describing an arbitrary infinite regular language according to the lexicographic ordering. For ... [more ▼]

Generalizations of positional number systems in which N is recognizable by finite automata are obtained by describing an arbitrary infinite regular language according to the lexicographic ordering. For these systems of numeration, we show that ultimately periodic sets are recognizable. We also study translation and multiplication by constants as well as the order-dependence of the recognizability. [less ▲]

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See detailAuto-observation des modalites d'apprentissage en situation de projet. Metacognition mathetique au cours de PARMs; L'universite, un espace d'innovation pedagogique ?
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg; Denis, Brigitte ULg

in Revue des Sciences de l'Education (2001), 27(2), 421-440

This article presents the training objectives (motivational, metacognitive, instrumental, and disciplinary) of a pedagogical method known as PARMs (multimedia reciprocal animation project) and procedures ... [more ▼]

This article presents the training objectives (motivational, metacognitive, instrumental, and disciplinary) of a pedagogical method known as PARMs (multimedia reciprocal animation project) and procedures for self-observation of learning as experienced by university students. The authors describe a series of didactic-mathetic activities related to training objectives, as well as those learning strategies promoted in the PARMs course. Two instruments to measure metacognitive thinking are presented: « Questionnaire on progress » and « Questionnaire on mathetical self-description ». The results of these questionnaires is then discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailMatériaux manganates CMR… la voie vers une nouvelle génération de capteurs inductifs ?
Vanderbemden, Philippe ULg; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULg

in Bulletin Scientifique de l'Association des Ingénieurs Electriciens sortis de l'Institut Electrotechnique Montefiore (2001), 4

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See detailDes escargots et des champignons à la rescousse du développement durable
Libois, Roland ULg; Codjia, J.T.C.

in Parcs & Réserves (2001), 56(4), 46-49

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See detailOptimal heating control in a passive solar commercial building.
Kummert, Michaël; Andre, Philippe ULg; Nicolas, Jacques ULg

in Solar Energy (2001), 69(6), 103-116

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building ... [more ▼]

A smart heating controller has a twofold objective: to save as much energy as possible while maintaining an acceptable comfort level in the building. Due to very large time constants in the building response, it has to anticipate internal and external disturbances. In the case of a passive solar commercial building, the need for anticipation is reinforced by important solar and internal gains. Indeed, large solar gains increase the energy savings potential but also the overheating risk. Optimal control theory presents an ideal formalism to solve this problem: its principle is to anticipate the building behaviour using a model and a forecasting of the disturbances in order to compute the control sequence that minimises a given cost function over the optimisation horizon. This cost function can combine comfort level and energy consumption. This paper presents the application of optimal control to auxiliary heating of a passive solar commercial building. Simulation-based and experimental results show that it can lead to significant energy savings while maintaining or improving the comfort level in this type of building [less ▲]

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See detailLe sort des obligations du bailleur en cas de contre-préavis du locataire. Note sous Cass., 22 juin 1998
Kohl, Benoît ULg

in Journal des Juges de Paix = Tijdschrift van de Vrederecters (2001)

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See detailThe ornithine decarboxylase gene is essential for cell survival during early murine development
Pendeville-Samain, Hélène ULg; Carpino, Nick; Marine, Jean-Christophe et al

in Molecular & Cellular Biology (2001), 21(19), 6549-58

Overexpression and inhibitor studies have suggested that the c-Myc target gene for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the enzyme which converts ornithine to putrescine, plays an important role in diverse ... [more ▼]

Overexpression and inhibitor studies have suggested that the c-Myc target gene for ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), the enzyme which converts ornithine to putrescine, plays an important role in diverse biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis. To explore the physiological function of ODC in mammalian development, we generated mice harboring a disrupted ODC gene. ODC-heterozygous mice were viable, normal, and fertile. Although zygotic ODC is expressed throughout the embryo prior to implantation, loss of ODC did not block normal development to the blastocyst stage. Embryonic day E3.5 ODC-deficient embryos were capable of uterine implantation and induced maternal decidualization yet failed to develop substantially thereafter. Surprisingly, analysis of ODC-deficient blastocysts suggests that loss of ODC does not affect cell growth per se but rather is required for survival of the pluripotent cells of the inner cell mass. Therefore, ODC plays an essential role in murine development, and proper homeostasis of polyamine pools appears to be required for cell survival prior to gastrulation. [less ▲]

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See detailPratique de l'exercice musculaire chez le patient diabetique.
Jandrain, Bernard ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 300-5

Muscular exercise is recommended in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and is part of the overall management, in combination with diet, oral antidiabetic agents and/or insulin. From a ... [more ▼]

Muscular exercise is recommended in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and is part of the overall management, in combination with diet, oral antidiabetic agents and/or insulin. From a pathophysiological point of view, regular physical activity enhances insulin sensitivity, thus contributing to improve blood glucose control and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated to diabetes mellitus. From a practical point of view, however, muscular exercise in a diabetic patient requires special caution, in particular careful selection of the type of exercise, respect of metabolic and/or cardiovascular contraindications, and appropriate adjustment of current pharmacological/dietary treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailPharma clinics. Le medicament du mois. Le clopidogrel (Plavix).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 186-9

Clopidogrel is launched in Belgium by Sanofi-Synthelabo and Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade name of Plavix. It is a potent and irreversible ADP receptor antagonist that proved to be more effective ... [more ▼]

Clopidogrel is launched in Belgium by Sanofi-Synthelabo and Bristol-Myers Squibb under the trade name of Plavix. It is a potent and irreversible ADP receptor antagonist that proved to be more effective than aspirin as antiplatelet agent in the multicentre, randomised double-blind CAPRIE study. It is indicated, at a dosage of 75 mg/day, for the reduction of atherosclerotic events including myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke and vascular death in patients with atherosclerosis manifested by recent stroke, myocardial infarction or established peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrated that the combination of clopidogrel with aspirin is more effective than aspirin alone and better tolerated than the combination ticlopidine-aspirin for the prevention of atherothrombosis after placement of intravascular stents. Ongoing trials are evaluating the efficacy and safety of such clopidogrel-aspirin combination after acute ischaemic coronary events or in patients at very high risk of stroke. Thus the indications of clopidogrel may become even larger in a next future. [less ▲]

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See detailProperties of ordinary and exotic hadrons
Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Few-Body Systems Supplementum (2001), 13

I discuss properties of ordinary and exotic hadrons as described by two distinct constituent quark models. These are the one gluon exchange (OGE) and the Goldstone boson exchange (GBE) models. I also ... [more ▼]

I discuss properties of ordinary and exotic hadrons as described by two distinct constituent quark models. These are the one gluon exchange (OGE) and the Goldstone boson exchange (GBE) models. I also discuss the interaction between hadrons starting from their quark structure. The case of the $NN$ is presented in some details. [less ▲]

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See detailUne action intégrée en vue d'améliorer l'efficacité des systèmes d'enseignement : Le pilotage des systèmes d'enseignement
Demeuse, Marc ULg; Baye, Ariane ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (5-6), 23-50

Cet article s'inspire largement d'un chapitre du rapport non publié déposé en 1998 auprès de la Communauté européenne dans le cadre d'un projet entrepris grâce aux moyens accordés par l'action III.3.1 du ... [more ▼]

Cet article s'inspire largement d'un chapitre du rapport non publié déposé en 1998 auprès de la Communauté européenne dans le cadre d'un projet entrepris grâce aux moyens accordés par l'action III.3.1 du programme Socrates (Marc Demeuse) [less ▲]

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See detailFetal renal hyperechogenicity in intrauterine growth retardation : importance and outcome.
Suranyi, A.; Retz, C.; Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg et al

in Pediatric Nephrology : Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association (2001), 16(7), 575-580

The object of the study was to investigate the outcome in growth-retarded newborns who were diagnosed with fetal renal hyperechogenicity without anatomical abnormality during any stage of pregnancy ... [more ▼]

The object of the study was to investigate the outcome in growth-retarded newborns who were diagnosed with fetal renal hyperechogenicity without anatomical abnormality during any stage of pregnancy. Depending on the fetal renal ultrasonography result, the cases were divided into two study groups. There was an intrauterine growth-retarded group with fetal renal medullary hyperechogenicity and another group without fetal renal medullary hyperechogenicity. The renal parenchyma was observed after birth, within the first 5 days of life, and several times until the 14th postpartum day in positive cases. Hyperechogenic renal medullae were detected in 25 of 90 cases with intrauterine growth retardation during the 8-month study period. This may be an in utero cause of subsequent intrauterine and neonatal complications, such as cesarean section because of fetal distress (36%), perinatal infection (24%), treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (52%), or increased perinatal mortality (8%). The results demonstrate that fetuses with hyperechoic medullae had 1.5 times the risk of an abnormal outcome compared with fetuses with normal echoic kidneys and intrauterine growth retardation. Detailed ultrasound examinations of renal parenchyma appear to be useful for the prenatal diagnosis of intrauterine hypoxia, allowing the detection of possible pathological fetal conditions in utero. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets comportementaux et neurochimiques de stimuli associés à l’administration d'éthanol: implications pour les comportements d'alcoolisation
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Cahiers de l'I.R.E.B. (2001), 15

Les drogues, y compris l’alcool, peuvent servir de stimuli inconditionnels dans des situations d’apprentissage par conditionnement. Les stimuli environnementaux qui accompagnent systématiquement ... [more ▼]

Les drogues, y compris l’alcool, peuvent servir de stimuli inconditionnels dans des situations d’apprentissage par conditionnement. Les stimuli environnementaux qui accompagnent systématiquement l’administration d’alcool peuvent ainsi acquérir le statut de stimuli conditionnés capables d’induire à eux seuls des réactions physiologiques conditionnées. Deux types de réactions conditionnées avec l’alcool ont été observées. D’une part, les stimuli associés à l’administration d’alcool peuvent induire des effets similaires à ceux de l’éthanol. D’autre part, ces stimuli conditionnés à l’éthanol peuvent aussi engendrer des réponses conditionnées opposées aux effets de l’éthanol. Ces deux types de réponses conditionnées semblent jouer un rôle dans les différentes étapes de l’alcoolisation. Leur implication dans la tolérance envers l’éthanol est largement illustrée par le phénomène de tolérance dépendante de l’environnement. Plusieurs études expérimentales et observations cliniques suggèrent aussi que les processus de conditionnement pourraient être impliqués dans la consommation d’alcool et particulièrement dans son abus. Toutefois, les bases neurochimiques de ces réponses conditionnées à l’éthanol sont encore largement méconnues. De récentes études utilisant la technique de microdialyse intracérébrale ont pourtant montré le rôle de divers neurotransmetteurs et neuromodulateurs. D’une part, les réponses conditionnées similaires à l’éthanol sont accompagnées d’une libération de dopamine dans le noyau accumbens. D’autre part, la libération conditionnée de glutamate et de taurine semble être impliquée dans les réponses conditionnées opposées aux effets de l’éthanol. [less ▲]

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See detailNicardipine Protocol for Cabg Using the Radial Artery Clinical and Angiographic Data
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; Grenade, Thierry ULg; Cao-Thian, S. K. et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2001), 101(4, Jul-Aug), 185-9

The routine use of arterial grafts in coronary surgery is facilitated by peroperative adjunction of antispasmodic drug to reduce the event of spasm. Diltiazem has been favoured in most clinical studies ... [more ▼]

The routine use of arterial grafts in coronary surgery is facilitated by peroperative adjunction of antispasmodic drug to reduce the event of spasm. Diltiazem has been favoured in most clinical studies devoted to the radial artery graft. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a spasm preventing protocol associating hydrostatic dilation of the graft with a diluted solution of papaverine and nicardipine infusion, starting preoperatively and continued postoperatively in i.v. and per os forms. Between September 1996 and March 1997, a consecutive series of 50 patients underwent myocardial revascularization using the radial artery. The radial artery was prepared by hydrostatic dilation with papaverine (1%) and nicardipine was administrated at 0.25 microgram/kg/min and titrated according to the arterial systemic pressure. Operative mortality was 4% (sepsis). There was no evidence of perioperative MI nor hypoperfusion syndrome. Mean CKMB level at 18 hours was 36 micrograms/l. No ischaemic anomalies of the ECG were detected. Angiography performed in the last 20 patients showed a 98% (51/52) permeability rate for all graft; 19/20 radial grafts (95%) were patent. One radial graft presented a 50% stenosis at the proximal anastomosis, and another a moderate spasm (40%) in the middle part of the conduit. This study confirms that the radial artery conduit can be used with satisfactory results for routine coronary artery bypass. The use of nicardipine allows the control the vasoreactivity of the radial graft without totally obviating at least angiographic spasm. This drug is easy to titrate, and well tolerated in association to beta-blockers in the routine perioperative management of the coronary patients. [less ▲]

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See detailL'image du mois. L'hypotension orthostatique filmee par le Finapres: neuropathie autonome versus cause iatrogene.
Scheen, André ULg; Descampheleire, M.; Marchand, Monique ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(3), 133-4

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See detailCharacterization of TRIP-assisted multiphase steel surface topography by atomic force microscopy
Ros-Yanez, Tanya; Houbaert, Yvan; Mertens, Anne ULg

in Materials Characterization (2001), 47

Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels have a complicated microstructure consisting of different phases, mainly ferrite, retained austenite, bainite and martensite. Atomic ... [more ▼]

Transformation-induced plasticity (TRIP)-assisted multiphase steels have a complicated microstructure consisting of different phases, mainly ferrite, retained austenite, bainite and martensite. Atomic force microscopy has been used for the phase identification and characterization of the phases in this kind of steel. A series of tests has been made on a C-Mn-Si and a C-Mn-Al TRIP-assisted steel after two different heat treatments: intercritical annealing followed by quench, and intercritical annealing followed by aging. After the aging process, the C-Mn-Al alloy was tempered in order to make metallographic observation easier, except the samples for mechanical testing, XRD or Mössbauer spectroscopy. It has been possible to identify the different phases and their topographic characteristics and to study their morphology using atomic force microscopy. The fine and complex microstructures of TRIP-assisted multiphase steels require improvements of the existing observation techniques, like electron backscattered diffraction and atomic force microscopy. Results of these techniques are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailAugmented Lagrangian procedure for implicit computation of contact-impact between deformable bodies.
Graillet, D.; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg; Stainier, Laurent ULg

in International Journal of Crashworthiness (2001), 6(2), 209-221

This paper shows how efficiency can be improved by using an adequate Augmented Lagrangian procedure instead of the classical and well-known Penalty method for solving contact-impact problems between ... [more ▼]

This paper shows how efficiency can be improved by using an adequate Augmented Lagrangian procedure instead of the classical and well-known Penalty method for solving contact-impact problems between deformable bodies, including frictional contact, large deformations, dynamical effects and inelasticity phenomena The Augmented Lagrangian method has already enjoyed great success in solving constrained minimisation problems or incompressibility conditions. Alternatives to existing automation techniques for augmentations are presented. Starting from a Penalty method, it will be seen how the Augmented Lagrangian decreases ill-conditioning of governing equations and gives a more precise solution with a lower CPU-cost. Several original simultaneous criteria are proposed for optimising the number and the location of the augmentations in an incremental implicit resolution. Application of the method is done for two axisymmetric impact problems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effect of food on growth and metamorphosis of paedomorphs in Triturus alpestris apuanus
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Poncin, Pascal ULg

in Archiv für Hydrobiologie (2001), 152(4), 661-670

The effect of food level on growth and metamorphosis of paedomorphs was examined in an experimental replicated design in Triturus alpestris apuanus. Paedomorphosis concerns the retention of larval ... [more ▼]

The effect of food level on growth and metamorphosis of paedomorphs was examined in an experimental replicated design in Triturus alpestris apuanus. Paedomorphosis concerns the retention of larval characteristics in adult individuals. Newts that forgo metamorphosis and then retain gill and gill slits in the adult stage maintain an aquatic life but keep potential for undergoing metamorphosis. Paedomorphs metamorphosed later in treatments with food as a non-limiting factor than in stressful treatments where food was limited. Timing of metamorphosis did not differ between males and females. Food level greatly affected growth rates. These results confirm and extend optimality models that predict paedomorphosis under advantageous aquatic conditions (paedomorph advantage hypothesis) and metamorphosis in stressful aquatic habitats. [less ▲]

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See detailInfo-congres. Insulinotherapie pour prevenir le diabete de type 1 chez des sujets apparentes a haut risque: resultats negatifs du "Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1".
Scheen, André ULg; Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 536-8

The results of the American multicentre "Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1" were presented by J. Skyler during the last congress of the American Diabetes Association in Philadelphia on June 23, 2001. The ... [more ▼]

The results of the American multicentre "Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1" were presented by J. Skyler during the last congress of the American Diabetes Association in Philadelphia on June 23, 2001. The prophylactic subcutaneous administration of low-dose insulin was not able to prevent the development of type 1 diabetes nor to preserve residual insulin secretion in young relatives at very high-risk of diabetes (> 50% in the next 5 years), selected upon genetic, immunological and metabolic criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailGrowth patterns of Belgian Blue replacement heifers and growing males in commercial farms
de Behr, Vanessa; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Cabaraux, Jean-François ULg et al

in Livestock Production Science (2001), 71

A survey was carried out to propose models of growth curves in Belgian Blue cattle less than 20 months of age and raised in commercial farms in southern Belgium. Live weight data were recorded between ... [more ▼]

A survey was carried out to propose models of growth curves in Belgian Blue cattle less than 20 months of age and raised in commercial farms in southern Belgium. Live weight data were recorded between 1993 and 1999 from 1104 breeding heifers, and 924 growing males. The linear, polynomial group, power, logistic, Brody, Gompertz, von Bertalanffy and Richards models were used and compared. A step-wise linear growth model characterized by two periods of linear growth was also evaluated. This last model has been proposed as the reference model to characterize the growth curves of Belgian Blue cattle less than 20 months old. The animals were then ranked and divided in subgroups based on percentiles and quartiles in order to compare their performances. The subgroups performing better presented a greater homogeneity. The males ranked above the 90th percentile presented a growth rate comparable to that of young males selected for artificial insemination. Cattle ranked above the third quartile presented a growth rate comparable to that of licensed animals. When reproduction performances were related to the growth rate, it appeared that the better growing heifers were bred younger and heavier than lesser performing animals. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon sinks in temperate forests
Martin, Philippe; Nabuurs, G. J.; Aubinet, Marc ULg et al

in Annual Review of Energy & the Environment (2001), 26

In addition to being scientifically exciting, commercially important, and environmentally essential, temperate forests have also become a key diplomatic item in international climate negotiations as ... [more ▼]

In addition to being scientifically exciting, commercially important, and environmentally essential, temperate forests have also become a key diplomatic item in international climate negotiations as potential sinks for carbon. This review presents the methods used to estimate carbon sequestration, identifies the constraints and opportunities for carbon sequestration in temperate forests, addresses the issues raised by the monitoring of carbon sequestration, and analyzes uncertainties pertaining to the sequestration of carbon by temperate forests. This review serves a dual purpose: It aims at informing policy makers about carbon sequestration in temperate forests and at making forest ecologists, biogeochemists, and atmospheric scientists aware of the structure of an international agreement to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions and some of the real, still answered scientific questions that it poses. [less ▲]

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See detailAttachment of “menstrual” endometrium to peritoneum?
Donnez, Jacques; NISOLLE, Michelle ULg

in Fertility and Sterility (2001), 76(3), 642

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See detailOriginal 2-alkylamino-6-halogenoquinazolin-4(3H)-ones and KATP channel activity
Somers, F.; Ouedraogo, R.; Antoine, M.-H. et al

in Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2001), 44

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See detailLa divinyl éther synthase de plantes
Hoyaux, P.; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Delcarte, J. et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(2), 79-84

Divinyl ether synthase, an enzyme of the lipoxygenase pathway transforms, in potato tubers, 9-hydroperoxides of fatty acids into colneleic and colnelenic acid, two divinyl ethers of fatty acids. The ... [more ▼]

Divinyl ether synthase, an enzyme of the lipoxygenase pathway transforms, in potato tubers, 9-hydroperoxides of fatty acids into colneleic and colnelenic acid, two divinyl ethers of fatty acids. The enzyme has been described in a limited number of quite different plants. The enzyme has also been detected in tomato roots, garlic bulbs, tobacco plants and in marine algae. The enzyme is bound to membranes and is located in the microsomal fraction. The molecular weight of the enzyme exceeds 100,000 Da, its optimal pH is around 9 and its high specificity for 9-hydroperoxides as substrate is described. The reactional mechanism has been elucidated using radio-labelled molecules. Colneleic and colnelenic acid can be degraded enzymatically or not into aldehydes and oxo-acids. Those last compounds are also formed by the action of hydroperoxide lyase on 9-hydroperoxides of fatty acids. As other enzymes of the lipoxygenase pathway, reaction products of divinyl ether synthase are involved in pathogenic resistance. Colneleic and colnelenic acid content in potato plants has been corelated with resistance to Phytophthora infestans. [less ▲]

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See detailACTH silent adenoma shrinking under cabergoline.
Petrossians, Patrick ULg; Ronci, N.; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2001), 144(1), 51-57

OBJECTIVES: The authors present a case report that proposes the use of cabergoline treatment in silent ACTH adenoma, an unusual member of the heterogeneous group of the so-called clinically non ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The authors present a case report that proposes the use of cabergoline treatment in silent ACTH adenoma, an unusual member of the heterogeneous group of the so-called clinically non-functioning pituitary adenomas. DESIGN: Following the clinical and radiological improvement of a recurrent silent ACTH adenoma in a 77-year-old patient treated with cabergoline (0.5 mg every 2 days for 2 years), in vitro studies of the original tumor were performed. METHODS: The original tumor from the patient was studied by in situ hybridization and dopamine D2 receptor autoradiography. It was compared with four macroprolactinomas and two macroadenomas from patients with Cushing's disease. RESULTS: The D2 receptor mRNA signal of the reported case was intense and of the same order of magnitude as that observed in control prolactinomas. Dopamine D2 receptor autoradiography was twice that of control corticotroph adenomas and was close to that observed in prolactinomas. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first description of an in vivo shrinkage of an ACTH silent adenoma under cabergoline. We demonstrate in vitro, the presence of D2 receptors in the primitive tumor in concentrations similar to those found in control prolactinomas. These results suggest that therapeutic trials with cabergoline might be undertaken in recurring cases of ACTH silent tumors and more generally, non-functioning pituitary adenomas. [less ▲]

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See detailStudies in Bacidia sensu lato (lichenized Ascomycetes: Lecanorales). II. Six new combinations in Fellhanera Vezda
Lücking, Robert; Cáceres, M.E.S.; Kalb, Klaus et al

in Lichenologist (2001), 33

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See detailNote sous corr., Bruxelles du 27 juin 2001 (affaire de la Crèche Clovis)
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Journal des Procès (2001), (419), 30-31

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See detailModelling migration from high-density polyethylene containers into concentrated solutions used as food flavourings
Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg; Panhaleux, V.; Vanzeveren, E. et al

in Food Additives & Contaminants (2001), 18(11), 1040-1045

Migration from high-density polyethylene into different liquids (hexane, ethanol, lemon terpenes and their emulsions) was modelled using the response surfaces method. Polynomial equations (z = A + Bx + Cy ... [more ▼]

Migration from high-density polyethylene into different liquids (hexane, ethanol, lemon terpenes and their emulsions) was modelled using the response surfaces method. Polynomial equations (z = A + Bx + Cy + Dx(2) + Ey(2) + Fxy) were established and parameters determined for each compound. Correlation coefficients were generally > 90%. Analysis indicated that 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol, probably due to the degradation of the antioxidant additive tris(2,4- bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl) phosphite, migrated into each liquid tested, whatever the temperature. Oligomers (10-30 carbons) terminated by a vinyl group were also detected. [less ▲]

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See detailCopper And Vegetation At The Kansanshi Hill (Zambia) Copper Mine
Leteinturier, B.; Baker, Ajm.; Bock, Laurent ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Botany (2001), 134(1),

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See detailImmediate and long-term clinical and angiographic results from Wiktor stent treatment for true bifurcation narrowings.
Anzuini, A.; Briguori, C.; Rosanio, S. et al

in American Journal of Cardiology (2001), 88(11), 1246-50

From January 1996 to December 1998, 90 consecutive patients with true bifurcation lesions underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty with Wiktor stent implantation in our centers. In 1 group (group I, n ... [more ▼]

From January 1996 to December 1998, 90 consecutive patients with true bifurcation lesions underwent percutaneous coronary angioplasty with Wiktor stent implantation in our centers. In 1 group (group I, n = 45), a simple approach (main vessel stenting and balloon angioplasty of the side branch) was pursued. In the other group (group II, n = 45), both the main vessel and the side branch were stented ("T" technique). There was no significant difference in clinical and angiographic characteristics between the 2 groups. Angiographic and procedural successes were 100% and 95.6%, respectively, in both groups. Angiographic results for the side branch were better in group II than in group I. In-hospital and long-term (12 month) major cardiac events were similar in the 2 groups. Target lesion revascularization was 15.5% in group I and 35.5% in group II (p = 0.12). In the main vessel, restenosis rate was 12.5% in group I and 25% in group II (p = 0.15). In the side branch, restenosis rate was 37.5% in group II and 12.5% in group I (p = <0.05; odds ratio 2.42; 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 6.26). Event-free probability at 12 months was 61% in group II and 80% in group I (p = 0.10). When dealing with true bifurcation lesions, a simple strategy is associated with a lower risk of restenosis in the side branch. In contrast, a complex approach does not appear to give any benefit in terms of early or long-term outcome or restenosis rate. [less ▲]

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See detailApprendre à manfiester la compréhension des récits de fiction. Un instrument pour produire des questionnaire qui favorisent le développement de compétences.
Dumortier, Jean-Louis ULg

in Enjeux : Revue de Formation Continuée et de Didactique du Français (2001), 51-52

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See detailDown-Regulation of MT1-MMP expression by the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen inhibits bronchial tumor cell line invasion
Martinella-Catusse, C.; Polette, M.; Noël, Agnès ULg et al

in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (2001), 81

The basement membrane (BM) is the first barrier encountered by tumor cells when they become invasive. Moreover, some invasive tumor clusters are surrounded by a remnant or neosynthetized BM material. We ... [more ▼]

The basement membrane (BM) is the first barrier encountered by tumor cells when they become invasive. Moreover, some invasive tumor clusters are surrounded by a remnant or neosynthetized BM material. We have previously reported the presence of a particular alpha chain of type IV collagen, the alpha3(IV) chain, in bronchopulmonary carcinomas. This chain was not detected in the normal bronchial epithelium, but was found around some invasive tumor cluster BM. In the present study, we examined the effects of the alpha3(IV) chain on the invasive properties of bronchial tumor cell lines, with special emphasis on their expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and its activator, membrane type 1-matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP), which is largely involved in tumor progression. Two epithelial bronchial cell lines (16HBE14o- and BZR), showing different invasive abilities, were evaluated. Using the Boyden chamber invasion assay, we demonstrated that the alpha3(IV) chain inhibits the invasive properties of BZR cells and modifies their morphology by inducing an epithelial cell shape. In the presence of the recombinant NC1 domain of the alpha3(IV) chain, the expression of MMP-2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) was not modified in either cell line. The NC1 alpha3(IV) domain did not modulate the MT1-MMP expression of noninvasive 16HBE14o- cells, whereas a 50% decrease of MT1-MMP mRNA was observed in invasive BZR cells. Accordingly, Western blot analyses showed a disappearance of the 45-kd MT1-MMP form when BZR cells were treated with the recombinant NC1 alpha3(IV) domain. These findings suggest that the alpha3 chain of type IV collagen may play a role in tumor invasion, at least by decreasing the expression and synthesis of MT1-MMP. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanism of Collisional Heating in Electrospray Mass Spectrometry: Ion Trajectory Calculations
Hoxha, Antuan; Collette, Caroline ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Journal of Physical Chemistry A (2001), 105

To simulate the multicollisional heating process taking place in the intermediate pressure region of an electrospray source, ion trajectory calculations have been preformed by introducing in the SIMION ... [more ▼]

To simulate the multicollisional heating process taking place in the intermediate pressure region of an electrospray source, ion trajectory calculations have been preformed by introducing in the SIMION program a subroutine for handling the collision dynamics. The simulated internal energy distributions are compared with already available experimental distributions obtained by the "survival ion yield" method. [less ▲]

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See detailLa libre circulation des personnes dans l'Union européenne (1er janvier - 31 décembre 2000)
Carlier, Jean-Yves ULg

in Journal de Droit Européen [=JDE] (2001), 9(3), 65-73

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See detailChanges in peroxidase activity, and level of phenolic compounds during light-induced plantlet regeneration from Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. nodes in vitro
Arezki, Ouoimare; Boxus, Philippe; Kevers, Claire ULg et al

in Plant Growth Regulation (2001), 33(3), 215-219

Node cultures of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn in Petri dishes in vitro under darkness in the presence of an auxin developed meristematic agglomerates (4 to 6 diameter), i.e. dense shoot clusters in which ... [more ▼]

Node cultures of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn in Petri dishes in vitro under darkness in the presence of an auxin developed meristematic agglomerates (4 to 6 diameter), i.e. dense shoot clusters in which outgrowth of numerous successive buds is limited. Similar cultures under a 16 photoperiod produced small green plantlets with reduced leaves often presenting white hypertrophied lenticels and very short roots crowning the stem bases. The use of half-litre glass vials under light allowed direct development of well-developed rooted plantlets, either in the presence of the same auxin or in the presence of a cytokinin. Light favoured an increase in phenolic compounds and a reverse variation of peroxidase activity during the culture cycles. These aspects are discussed in terms of a possible regulation of the endogenous auxin level through a light control of peroxidase activity and the level of phenolic compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailCaractérisation de particules d'engrais : corrélation entre les propriétés physiques et morphométriques
Miserque, Olivier; Tissot, Serge; Pirard, Eric ULg

in Récents Progrès en Génie des Procédés (2001), 15(78),

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See detailL'exercice physique pour prevenir l'obesite, favoriser l'amaigrissement et maintenir la perte ponderale.
Scheen, André ULg; Rorive, Marcelle ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 244-7

Obesity is a multifactorial disease making difficult the determination of the precise role of one specific factor such as physical activity or sedentary. Nevertheless, numerous arguments, derived from ... [more ▼]

Obesity is a multifactorial disease making difficult the determination of the precise role of one specific factor such as physical activity or sedentary. Nevertheless, numerous arguments, derived from epidemiological observational studies or from randomized controlled interventional trials, support a favourable role of regular physical activity in the control of body weight. Physical activity contributes to prevent the occurrence of weight excess, especially in children or adolescents, to obtain a satisfactory weight loss, in general in combination with reduced-energy diets, and to maintain long-term weight loss. In addition, physical activity improves both the metabolic profile and health of obese subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) Questionnaire as a public health initiative and in clinical practice.
Edmeads, J.; Lainez, J. M.; Brandes, J. L. et al

in Neurology (2001), 56(6 Suppl 1), 29-34

Migraine is not always well managed in clinical practice, often being under-diagnosed and under-treated. As a result, many sufferers never consult a physician or lapse from care after physician contact ... [more ▼]

Migraine is not always well managed in clinical practice, often being under-diagnosed and under-treated. As a result, many sufferers never consult a physician or lapse from care after physician contact. Although most migraine care is provided by general practitioners, others, including specialists, emergency room physicians, pharmacists, and alternative practitioners, may also be involved. A method of standardizing clinical information about migraine is essential for coordinated, logical, and systematic care. The impact of migraine on the patient is an important clinical parameter but one that is seldom inquired about, perhaps because it exhibits such marked variability among and within individuals. Headache-related disability can be an objective and measurable index of this impact. The Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) Questionnaire is a simple and validated instrument with potential for use in clinical practice, research, and public health. It can improve communication between patients and health-care professionals regarding the impact of migraine which, in turn, allows tailoring of the intensity of treatment to the severity of the illness. Changes in the MIDAS score may serve as an end point in assessing treatment efficacy. In populations, MIDAS scores may indicate the burden of migraine in the community and spark public health initiatives to improve management. [less ▲]

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See detailLa métallurgie ancienne en "Terre de Durbuy" : Utilisation des macroscories en dynamique fluviale
Houbrechts, Geoffrey ULg; Petit, François ULg

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001), 40

Avant d’utiliser les scories métallurgiques comme traceur et indicateur de la compétence de l’Aisne à différents endroits de son cours, nous avons relevé les différents atouts qui ont favorisé le ... [more ▼]

Avant d’utiliser les scories métallurgiques comme traceur et indicateur de la compétence de l’Aisne à différents endroits de son cours, nous avons relevé les différents atouts qui ont favorisé le développement de la sidérurgie dans la « Terre de Durbuy » et nous avons étudié l’évolution des techniques sidérurgiques afin de mieux comprendre la genèse des scories. Dans cet article, nous étudions plus particulièrement l’évolution longitudinale de la taille des scories dans l’Aisne, entre Blier et Bomal où elle se jette dans l’Ourthe. Vu la trop grande proximité des sites de rejets, nous n’avons pu proposer qu’une vitesse minimum d’avancée de la charge de fond ; les scories prélevées nous ont cependant renseignés sur les variations de puissances spécifiques dans les différents tronçons de la rivière. [less ▲]

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See detailGénéralisation de l'apprentissage d'une langue moderne à l'école primaire ; première analyse de la situation
Straeten, M.; Blondin, Christiane ULg

in Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2001), 19

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See detailPharma-clinics. Le medicament du mois. La sibutramine (Reductil).
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(9), 656-9

Sibutramine (Reductil, Abbott-Knoll, 10 mg and 15 mg) is a new appetite regulator recommended in the treatment of obesity. It is a noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor which exerts its ... [more ▼]

Sibutramine (Reductil, Abbott-Knoll, 10 mg and 15 mg) is a new appetite regulator recommended in the treatment of obesity. It is a noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine reuptake inhibitor which exerts its effects in vivo predominantly via its secondary and primary amine metabolites. Sibutramine is indicated as an adjunctive therapy within a weight management programme in patients with obesity (BMI > or = 30 kg/m2) or in overweight subjects (BMI > or = 27 kg/m2) if other eight-related risk factors are present (dyslipidaemias, diabetes mellitus). In those patients with an inadequate response on initial dose of 10 mg per day (suggested as less than 2 kg weight loss in four weeks), the dose may be increased to 15 mg once daily, providing that sibutramine is well tolerated. Several large-scale randomized clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of long-term (at least one year) treatment with sibutramine in obese subjects with or without type 2 diabetes. Sibutramine was also shown to help in maintaining long-term weight reduction. Most frequent side-effects are dry mouth and constipation, as well as mild increase in heart rate and arterial blood pressure. The impact of sibutramine on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of obese nondiabetic and diabetic patients will be studied soon in a large international prospective clinical trial. [less ▲]

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See detailCrystallographic analysis of family 11 endo-beta-1,4-xylanase Xyl1 from Streptomyces sp. S38.
Wouters, J.; Georis, J.; Engher, D. et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography (2001), 57(Pt 12), 1813-9

Family 11 endo-beta-1,4-xylanases degrade xylan, the main constituent of plant hemicelluloses, and have many potential uses in biotechnology. The structure of Xyl1, a family 11 endo-xylanase from ... [more ▼]

Family 11 endo-beta-1,4-xylanases degrade xylan, the main constituent of plant hemicelluloses, and have many potential uses in biotechnology. The structure of Xyl1, a family 11 endo-xylanase from Streptomyces sp. S38, has been solved. The protein crystallized from ammonium sulfate in the trigonal space group P321, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 71.49, c = 130.30 A, gamma = 120.0 degrees. The structure was solved at 2.0 A by X-ray crystallography using the molecular-replacement method and refined to a final R factor of 18.5% (R(free) = 26.9%). Xyl1 has the overall fold characteristic of family 11 xylanases, with two highly twisted beta-sheets defining a long cleft containing the two catalytic residues Glu87 and Glu177. [less ▲]

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See detailAerossolterapia nas doenças respiratórias em eqüinos
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Duvivier, Dominique Hannia; Votion, Dominique ULg et al

in Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Research and Animal Science (2001), 38(2), 88-96

Respiratory problems are frequently implicated in horses as a cause of poor sportive performances. The most frequently occurring lower respiratory tract disorders are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... [more ▼]

Respiratory problems are frequently implicated in horses as a cause of poor sportive performances. The most frequently occurring lower respiratory tract disorders are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), inflammatory airway disease and exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH). Classically, their treatment includes systemic administration of drugs, but aerosol therapy is now known to be a more specific way to treat these disorders. This article describes the equipment and drugs currently available for aerosol therapy in horses. [less ▲]

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See detailAnticyclonic eddies in the deep eastern Black Sea in summer-autumn 1999 (satellite and ship-borne observations
Ginzburg, Anna I.; Zatsepin, Andrey; Kostianoy, Andrey G. et al

in Earth Observation and Remote Sensing (2001), 5

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See detailPex, Analytical Tools For Pdb Files. I. Gf-Pex: Basic File To Describe A Protein
Thomas, Annick ULg; Bouffioux, O.; Geeurickx, D. et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2001), 43(1), 28-36

Pex are created to extract numeric and string descriptions of protein structures from PDB files. This concerns covalent bond lengths and angles, secondary structures, residues in interaction, H-bond ... [more ▼]

Pex are created to extract numeric and string descriptions of protein structures from PDB files. This concerns covalent bond lengths and angles, secondary structures, residues in interaction, H-bond lengths and geometry, etc. Several kinds of Pex are generated: (1) general feature (GF-Pex); (2) H-bond (H-Pex); and (3) accessible surface (AS-Pex) and force potential (FP-Pex). We describe the general principles of Pex and detail the GF-Pex files. Using the GF-Pex of 131 proteins, we analyze the mean residue frequencies, the straight phi/psi distribution and the major kinds of secondary structures in proteins. Thomas et al. (this issue) analyzes the main chain H-bonds in those proteins. The GF-Pex and H-Pex files of the 131 proteins can be downloaded from the CBMN site (http://www.fsagx.ac.be/bp/). [less ▲]

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See detailUne enquête internationale sur l'éducation à la citoyenneté : Connaissances, représentations, attitudes et engagement des jeunes
Lafontaine, Annette ULg; Hindryckx, Geneviève ULg

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 59-64

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See detailConstruire des indicateurs internationaux d'équité des systèmes éducatifs
Demeuse, Marc ULg; Baye, Ariane ULg; Straeten, Marie-Hélène et al

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 97-100

Les membres du SPE se préoccupent de longue date des problèmes d'équité éducative (Crahay, 2000). Ils contribuent soit à l'évaluation de celle-ci dans le système belge francophone ou au sein d'autres ... [more ▼]

Les membres du SPE se préoccupent de longue date des problèmes d'équité éducative (Crahay, 2000). Ils contribuent soit à l'évaluation de celle-ci dans le système belge francophone ou au sein d'autres systèmes à travers des recherches internationales, telles celles de l'IEA ou de l'OCDE (Demeuse, Crahay [less ▲]

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See detailImproving the bias/variance tradeoff of decision trees - towards soft tree induction
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Olaru, Cristina; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Engineering intelligent systems (2001), 9

One of the main difficulties with standard top down induction of decision trees comes from the high variance of these methods. High variance means that, for a given problem and sample size, the resulting ... [more ▼]

One of the main difficulties with standard top down induction of decision trees comes from the high variance of these methods. High variance means that, for a given problem and sample size, the resulting tree is strongly dependent on the random nature of the particular sample used for training. Consequently, these algorithms tend to be suboptimal in terms of accuracy and interpretability. This paper analyses this problem in depth and proposes a new method, relying on threshold softening, able to significantly improve the bias/variance tradeoff of decision trees. The algorithm is validated on a number of benchmark problems and its relationship with fuzzy decision tree induction is discussed. This sheds some light on the success of fuzzy decision tree induction and improves our understanding of machine learning, in general. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. L'histoire naturelle d'une obesite morbide: aller vers le diabete de type 2 insulinorequerant et retour apres chirurgie bariatrique.
De Flines, Jenny ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg; Desaive, Claude ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(12), 816-22

Morbid obesity is a crucial risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes and is often associated with a metabolic syndrome closely linked to insulin resistance. This case report illustrates the ... [more ▼]

Morbid obesity is a crucial risk factor in the development of type 2 diabetes and is often associated with a metabolic syndrome closely linked to insulin resistance. This case report illustrates the natural history of morbid obesity, starting during the adolescence and ending with an extremely severe type 2 diabetes at the age of 40. Numerous attempts of weight loss with various medical approaches failed and diabetes mellitus rapidly became insulin-requiring in a context of extreme insulin resistance. Finally, the patient was submitted to a gastric bypass which resulted in a drastic weight loss over 50 kg during the year following surgery without any significant side-effects or complications. Type 2 diabetes almost disappeared and the classical markers of insulin resistance were markedly improved. This clinical case clearly demonstrates that successful management of obesity with bariatric surgery can reverse severe type 2 diabetes. [less ▲]

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See detailHuman - ovine comparative sequencing of a 250 kilobase imprinted domain encompassing the callipyge (clpg) gene and identification of six imprinted transcripts: DLK1, DAT, GTL2, PEG11, antiPEG11 and MEG8
Charlier, Carole ULg; SEGERS, Karin ULg; Wagenaar, D. et al

in Genome Research (2001), 11

Two ovine BAC clones and a connecting long-range PCR product, jointly spanning ∼250 kb and representing most of theMULGE5-OY3 marker interval known to contain the clpglocus, were completely sequenced. The ... [more ▼]

Two ovine BAC clones and a connecting long-range PCR product, jointly spanning ∼250 kb and representing most of theMULGE5-OY3 marker interval known to contain the clpglocus, were completely sequenced. The resulting genomic sequence was aligned with its human ortholog and extensively annotated. Six transcripts, four of which were novel, were predicted to originate from within the analyzed region and their existence confirmed experimentally: DLK1, DAT, GTL2, PEG11, antiPEG11, and MEG8. RT-PCR experiments performed on a range of tissues sampled from an 8-wk-old animal demonstrated the preferential expression of all six transcripts in skeletal muscle, which suggests that they are under control of common regulatory elements. The six transcripts were also shown to be subject to parental imprinting: DLK1, DAT, andPEG11 were shown to be paternally expressed and GTL2,antiPEG11, and MEG8 to be maternally expressed. [less ▲]

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See detailInfo-congres. Prevention pharmacologique de la progression de la diminution de la tolerance au glucose vers le diabete de type 2: effets favorables de la metformine et de l'acarbose.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(10), 727-30

We report the positive results of two large prospective studies of pharmacological prevention of type 2 diabetes presented at the EASD Congress in Glasgow, September 12, 2001. In the "Diabetes Prevention ... [more ▼]

We report the positive results of two large prospective studies of pharmacological prevention of type 2 diabetes presented at the EASD Congress in Glasgow, September 12, 2001. In the "Diabetes Prevention Program", metformin (2 x 850 mg/day), a biguanide compound, reduces the progression from impaired glucose tolerance towards type 2 diabetes by 31% (p < 0.001) while in the "STOP-NIDDM trial", acarbose (3 x 100 mg/day), an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, diminished it by 24% (p < 0.002). These results are, however, less marked than those obtained with lifestyle modifications including better dietary habits and increased physical exercise (-58% versus control group, p < 0.001). [less ▲]

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See detailQuelques spécimens exceptionnels de premières plantes terrestres découvertes au Brésil (Bassin du Paraná, Dévonien basal)
Gerrienne, Philippe ULg; Milagres, I.; Bergamaschi, S. et al

in Geo-Eco-Trop (2001), 25

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See detailEstimation of additive and nonadditive genetic variances in Hereford, Gelbvieh, and Charolais by Method R.
Duangjinda, M.; Bertrand, K.; Misztal, I. et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2001), 79(12), 2997-3001

Parameters for direct and maternal dominance were estimated in models that included non-additive genetic effects. The analyses used weaning weight records adjusted for age of dam from populations of ... [more ▼]

Parameters for direct and maternal dominance were estimated in models that included non-additive genetic effects. The analyses used weaning weight records adjusted for age of dam from populations of Canadian Hereford (n = 467,814), American Gelbvieh (n = 501,552), and American Charolais (n = 314,552). Method R estimates of direct additive genetic, maternal additive genetic, permanent maternal environment, direct dominance, and maternal dominance variances as a proportion of the total variance were 23, 12, 13, 19, and 14% in Hereford; 27, 7, 10, 18, and 2% in Gelbvieh; and 34, 15, 15, 23, and 2% in Charolais. The correlations between direct and maternal additive genetic effects were -0.30, -0.23, and -0.47 in Hereford, Gelbvieh, and Charolais, respectively. The correlations between direct and maternal dominance were -0.38, -0.02, and -0.04 in Hereford, Gelbvieh, and Charolais, respectively. Estimates of inbreeding depression were -0.20, -0.18, and -0.13 kg per 1% of inbreeding for Hereford, Gelbvieh, and Charolais, respectively. Estimates of the maternal inbreeding depression were -0.01, -0.02, and -0.02 kg, respectively. The high ratio of direct dominance to additive genetic variances provided some evidence that direct dominance effects should be considered in beef cattle evaluation. However, maternal dominance effects seemed to be important only for Hereford cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailRevenant & exorcisme à Liège. Quête de reliques en Sardaigne (1634-1652)
George, Philippe ULg

in Bulletin de la Commission Royale d'Histoire (2001), CLXVII

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