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 References of "Article"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 35601 to 35700 of 52551     352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362     Dernier hoquet à FrancorchampsAbu Dalu, Firass in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (0 ULg) Propofol anesthesia and cerebral blood flow changes elicited by vibrotactile stimulation: a positron emission tomography study.Bonhomme, Vincent ; Fiset, P.; Meuret, P. et alin Journal of Neurophysiology (2001), 85(3), 1299-308We investigated the effects of the general anesthetic agent propofol on cerebral structures involved in the processing of vibrotactile information. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and the H(2)(15 ... [more ▼]We investigated the effects of the general anesthetic agent propofol on cerebral structures involved in the processing of vibrotactile information. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and the H(2)(15)O bolus technique, we measured regional distribution of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in eight healthy human volunteers. They were scanned under five different levels of propofol anesthesia. Using a computer-controlled infusion, the following plasma levels of propofol were targeted: Level W (Waking, 0 microg/ml), Level 1 (0.5 microg/ml), Level 2 (1.5 microg/ml), Level 3 (3.5 microg/ml), and Level R (Recovery). At each level of anesthesia, two 3-min scans were acquired with vibrotactile stimulation of the right forearm either on or off. The level of consciousness was evaluated before each scan by the response of the subject to a verbal command. At Level W, all volunteers were fully awake. They reported being slightly drowsy at Level 1, they had a slurred speech and slow response at Level 2, and they were not responding at all at Level 3. The following variations in regional CBF (rCBF) were observed. During the waking state (Level W), vibrotactile stimulation induced a significant rCBF increase in the left thalamus and in several cortical regions, including the left primary somatosensory cortex and the left and right secondary somatosensory cortex. During anesthesia, propofol reduced in a dose-dependent manner rCBF in the thalamus as well as in a number of visual, parietal, and prefrontal cortical regions. At Level 1 through 3, propofol also suppressed vibration-induced increases in rCBF in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, whereas the thalamic rCBF response was abolished only at Level 3, when volunteers lost consciousness. We conclude that propofol interferes with the processing of vibrotactile information first at the level of the cortex before attenuating its transfer through the thalamus. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) Automatic time stepping algorithms for implicit numerical simulations of blade/casing interactionsNoels, Ludovic ; Stainier, Laurent ; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe et alin International Journal of Crashworthiness (2001), 6(3), 351-362An automatic time stepping algorithm for non-linear problems, solved by implicit schemes, is presented. The time step computation is based on the estimation of an integration error calculated from the ... [more ▼]An automatic time stepping algorithm for non-linear problems, solved by implicit schemes, is presented. The time step computation is based on the estimation of an integration error calculated from the acceleration difference. It is normalised according to the size of the problem and the integration parameters. This time step control algorithm modifies the time step size only if the problem has a long time physical change. Additionally, the Hessian matrix can be kept constant for several iterations, even though the problem is non-linear. A criterion selecting if the Hessian matrix must be calculated or not is developed. Finally, a criterion of iterations divergence is also proposed. It avoids the determination, by the user, of a maximal iteration number. This minimises the total number of iterations, and thus the computation cost. Industrial numerical examples are presented that demonstrate the performances (precision and computational cost) of the algorithms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 57 (6 ULg) Le transsexualisme et l'anorexie mentale : emprise et tyrannie de la subjectivité : approches méthodologiquesMormont, Christian ; Frankignoul, A.; Michel, Audein Pratiques psychologiques (2001), (3), 25-36Detailed reference viewed: 72 (4 ULg) Troubles de la rétention à court terme d'informations auditivo-verbales: évaluation et prise en chargePoncelet, Martine ; Majerus, Steve ; Van der Linden, Martial in Rééducation Orthophonique (2001), 208Detailed reference viewed: 56 (16 ULg) Le travailleur adoptantKefer, Fabienne ; Barth, D.in Actualités du Droit (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) L'impact de la readaptation cardiaque sur la qualite de vie apres un pontage aorto-coronaire : Une etude belgeEtienne, Anne-Marie ; Fontaine, Ovide ; Dupuis, Gilles et alin Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (2001), 6(2), 15-25The aim of this study was to measure the quality of life of coronary artery bypass surgery patients enrolled or not in a rehabilitation program. The study was prospective and longitudinal and used ... [more ▼]The aim of this study was to measure the quality of life of coronary artery bypass surgery patients enrolled or not in a rehabilitation program. The study was prospective and longitudinal and used patients’ self selection as the allocation strategy to constitute the two groups: rehabilitation and no-rehabilitation. Forty first coronary bypass surgery patients (38 men and 2 women, mean age 59 +/-8) were recruited from four hospitals in a French area of Belgium. Patients were evaluated before and after surgery with: the Quality of Life Systemic Inventory (QLSI), the Beck Depression Inventory, the State Anxiety Inventory, a somatic symptoms questionnaire, a physical activities questionnaire, and a medical questionnaire. Both groups improved on the QLSI global score of quality of life, but the effect size (eta squared) was greater in the rehab group (0.5) compared to the no rehab group (0.25) [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 442 (8 ULg) Adaptive significance of facultative paedomorphosis in Triturus alpestris (Amphibia, Caudata): resource partitioning in an alpine lakeDenoël, Mathieu ; Joly, Pierrein Freshwater Biology (2001), 46(10), 1387-13961. Facultative paedomorphosis is a polymorphism that has important evolutionary implications in promoting morphological differentiation and variation in habitat use. It occurs in several urodele species ... [more ▼]1. Facultative paedomorphosis is a polymorphism that has important evolutionary implications in promoting morphological differentiation and variation in habitat use. It occurs in several urodele species throughout the world. Several hypotheses based on life-history theory have been proposed to explain the wide range of habitats in which facultative paedomorphosis occurs, suggesting multifactorial causes. 2. In harsh habitats, such as mountain lakes, paedomorphosis might promote niche partitioning between morphs. This hypothesis was tested by comparing micro-habitat use and diet of two coexisting morphs in an alpine lake. 3. Paedomorphs occupied all microhabitats in the lake while metamorphs occurred only along the shoreline or at the water surface. Paedomorphic newts were frequent in deep water, where they foraged mainly on plankton. Plankton was poorly exploited by metamorphic newts, which fed mainly on terrestrial insects. Difference between morphs in microhabitat use, and consequently in the diet, were consistent in both sexes and in juveniles. 4. In adults, the mass and energy value of stomach contents did not differ between morphs, suggesting a similar food availability in the habitats occupied. 5. This study indicates habitat partitioning between morphs involving dietary differences. Specific benefits and costs of each ontogenetic pathway may allow their coexistence in this deep and fishless lake. Paedomorphosis benefits individual newts by making new food resources available and presumably reducing competition at the shore of the lake. However, the proximate causes of such an ontogenetic switch remain unclear. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 223 (18 ULg) A self-consistent model of the Jovian auroral thermal structureGrodent, Denis ; Waite, J. Hunter; Gérard, Jean-Claude in Journal of Geophysical Research (2001), 106(A7), 12933-12952A one-dimensional (1-D) model coupling a two-stream electron transport model of energy deposition with a 1-D thermal conduction model has been developed. It is applied to investigate the links between ... [more ▼]A one-dimensional (1-D) model coupling a two-stream electron transport model of energy deposition with a 1-D thermal conduction model has been developed. It is applied to investigate the links between auroral heat input and the vertical temperature of Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Two energy distributions meant to reproduce the emissions of a diffuse and a discrete aurora are used to evaluate the importance of the energy spectrum of the incident electrons for the thermal balance of Jupiter's auroral thermosphere. The values of observable quantities such as the altitude of the H-2 emission peak, thermal infrared (LR), ultraviolet (UV) emissions, and temperatures associated with various optical signatures are used to constrain the parameters of these distributions. It is shown that the high-energy component of these energy distributions heats a region of the homosphere between 10(-4) and 10(-6) bar and mainly controls the H-2 temperature and the far-UV (FUV) emission. A 3-keV soft electron component is necessary to heat the region directly above the homopause, between 10(-6) and 10(-9) bar. It has a large influence on the H-2 and H-3(+) temperatures and on the H-3(+) near-IR(NIR) emission. It is used in conjunction with a weak 100 eV component which is responsible for heating the thermosphere, from 10(-9) to 10(-12) bar and exerts a control on the exospheric temperature. The calculated temperatures, UV, and IR emissions suggest that the model probably misses a nonparticle heat source in the 10(-5) bar region, that is expected to balance the strong hydrocarbon cooling. Sensitivity tests are performed to evaluate the importance of the parameters of the energy distributions. They show that the FUV color ratio increases with the characteristic energy (or high-energy cutoff) of the high-energy component, while the H-2 rovibrational temperature varies inversely. A trade-off is therefore necessary for these two parameters to simultaneously meet their observational constraints. Further tests demonstrate the essential thermostatic role played by H-3(+), which regulates the net heating in the thermosphere. An increased eddy diffusion reproduces the effect of a possible auroral upwelling of methane but gives rise to an H-2 temperature smaller than the observed value. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (14 ULg) Effect of risedronate on the risk of hip fracture in elderly women. Hip Intervention Program Study Group.McClung, M R; Geusens, P; Miller, P D et alin New England Journal of Medicine [=NEJM] (2001), 344(5), 333-40BACKGROUND: Risedronate increases bone mineral density in elderly women, but whether it prevents hip fracture is not known. METHODS: We studied 5445 women 70 to 79 years old who had osteoporosis ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Risedronate increases bone mineral density in elderly women, but whether it prevents hip fracture is not known. METHODS: We studied 5445 women 70 to 79 years old who had osteoporosis (indicated by a T score for bone mineral density at the femoral neck that was more than 4 SD below the mean peak value in young adults [-4] or lower than -3 plus a nonskeletal risk factor for hip fracture, such as poor gait or a propensity to fall) and 3886 women at least 80 years old who had at least one nonskeletal risk factor for hip fracture or low bone mineral density at the femoral neck (T score, lower than -4 or lower than -3 plus a hip-axis length of 11.1 cm or greater). The women were randomly assigned to receive treatment with oral risedronate (2.5 or 5.0 mg daily) or placebo for three years. The primary end point was the occurrence of hip fracture. RESULTS: Overall, the incidence of hip fracture among all the women assigned to risedronate was 2.8 percent, as compared with 3.9 percent among those assigned to placebo (relative risk, 0.7; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.6 to 0.9; P=0.02). In the group of women with osteoporosis (those 70 to 79 years old), the incidence of hip fracture among those assigned to risedronate was 1.9 percent, as compared with 3.2 percent among those assigned to placebo (relative risk, 0.6; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.9; P=0.009). In the group of women selected primarily on the basis of nonskeletal risk factors (those at least 80 years of age), the incidence of hip fracture was 4.2 percent among those assigned to risedronate and 5.1 percent among those assigned to placebo (P=0.35). CONCLUSIONS: Risedronate significantly reduces the risk of hip fracture among elderly women with confirmed osteoporosis but not among elderly women selected primarily on the basis of risk factors other than low bone mineral density. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (18 ULg) Le syndrome de Shone: presentation de quatre cas et revue de la litteratureRADERMECKER, Marc ; Massin, M.; GRENADE, Thierry et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 506-10The observation of four clinical cases of Shone's complex, two of them presenting first with predominant coarctation of the aorta, prompted us to review the pertinent literature. Patients with ... [more ▼]The observation of four clinical cases of Shone's complex, two of them presenting first with predominant coarctation of the aorta, prompted us to review the pertinent literature. Patients with multiobstructive lesions of the left heart, including Shone's complex, represent a surgical challenge where the adequate management of mitral valve anomalies, subaortic stenosis, and coarctation constitutes the key prognostic factor for satisfactory mid-term outcome. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (0 ULg) The Immuno-Inflammatory Reaction in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Characterisation, Genetics and Clinical Application. Focus on Tnf AlphaLouis, Edouard in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (2001), 64(1), 1-5Inflammatory bowel diseases are multifactorial polygenic diseases. The author has worked on the characterisation of the mucosal immuno-inflammatory reaction, on genetic predisposition and on potential ... [more ▼]Inflammatory bowel diseases are multifactorial polygenic diseases. The author has worked on the characterisation of the mucosal immuno-inflammatory reaction, on genetic predisposition and on potential clinical application of blood immuno-inflammatory markers in these diseases. This paper summarizes some aspects of this work, focusing on TNF. Following points are developed: production of TNF by inflamed mucosa, genetic control of TNF production, TNF gene polymorphim in inflammatory bowel disease, and evaluation of serum TNF as a marker of disease activity or evolutivity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg) Eugène Monseur (1860-1912)Boutier, Marie-Guy in Wallonnes : Chronique de la Société de Langue et de Littérature Wallonnes (2001), (1), Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 ULg) Chromogenic detection of aminoglycoside phosphotransferases.Amoroso, Ana Maria ; Gutkind, G. O.in Methods in molecular medicine (2001), 48Acquired resistance to aminoglycosides is most frequently due to the presence of the so-called aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AGME) (1) able to catalyze one or more of three general reactions: N ... [more ▼]Acquired resistance to aminoglycosides is most frequently due to the presence of the so-called aminoglycoside modifying enzymes (AGME) (1) able to catalyze one or more of three general reactions: N-acetylation, O-nucleotidylation and O-phosphorylation (2). Although resistance phenotype (to different (substrate or not for enzymatic modification) may serve as an approach for identifying actual enzymes present in a given isolate (3), results can be obscured or confusing, particularly when several different enzymes (4) (even, isoenzymes with different affinities) are superimposing their action in a single microorganism with potential "permeability" or target alterations. Thus, identification of the AGME content of a given strain also requires screening at the DNA level using probes specific to all the known AGME (5). However, the complete set of probes is available only to a few laboratories around the world, making surveillance for the appearance of novel enzymes, or the unlikely evolution of those already known, a relatively nonfeasible goal, as search for new enzymes may begin only after failing to hybridize to all known probes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Quelle biodiversite pour nos lisieres forestieres?Branquart, E.; Doucet, Jean-Louis ; Liesse, D. et alin Parcs & Réserves (2001), 56(1), 26-32Detailed reference viewed: 63 (8 ULg) Numerical modelling of coupled transient phenomenaCharlier, Robert ; Radu, Jean-Pol ; Collin, Frédéric in Revue Française de Génie Civil (2001), 5(6), 719-743The basic phenomena involved in thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in geomaterials have been described in the 1st chapter. The equations describing these phenomena are non-linear differential equations ... [more ▼]The basic phenomena involved in thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in geomaterials have been described in the 1st chapter. The equations describing these phenomena are non-linear differential equations. Their solution can generally only be approximated thanks to numerical methods. This is the main subject of the present chapter. First the type of problems and the set of equations to be solved will be shortly recalled. Emphasis will be given on the non-linear contributions. In a second section, the mostly developed numerical method, i.e. the finite difference and the finite element methods will be discussed under the light of the problems to be treated. The iterative techniques allowing the solution of non linear equations will be described. A third section will be dedicated to the coupling terms and to their modelling. The question that rises then is How to model efficiently problems, which may differ highly from, the point of view of the time and length scales? [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 69 (14 ULg) Ethnobotanical And Chemical Surveys Of An Edible Wild Legume: Uraria Picta (Jacq.) Dc.Ambe, Guy-Alain; Lognay, Georges ; Wathelet, Bernard et alin Ecology of Food and Nutrition (2001), 40(5), Detailed reference viewed: 48 (13 ULg) Caractérisation et valorisation du savoir paysan sur les insectes nuisibles du pois cajan (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.) dans le Nord de l'OugandaVelay, F.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ; Mergeai, Guy in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2001), 5(2), 105-114Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) Integrated modelling of the Belgian Coastal ZoneDelhez, Eric ; Carabin, G.in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2001), 53(4), 477-491The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater ... [more ▼]The management of the water resources in coastal or delta plains asks for an integrated modelling of the water system at a regional scale. In the SALMON project, detailed descriptions of the groundwater, river and marine domains are provided by coupling appropriate numerical models of these different sub-systems. The application of this three-fold model to the Scheldt and Belgian Coastal Zone reveals a marked river plume extending along the Belgian Coast with strong offshore gradients. This plume cannot be explained by the Eulerian residual transport velocity field but requires Lagrangian aspects to be taken into account. The computation of the age of this water mass shows that the different parts of the coastal zone are influenced by a discharge in the Grote Schijn River after a delay that varies between a few days (for the marine part of the estuary) to about 100 days (for the centre of the residual gyre). The computation shows also that the groundwater around Antwerp can also be contaminated by a pollution in the river but the resulting mass loss from the river does not lead to a significant reduction of the flux to the coastal zone. (C) 2001 Academic Press. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (10 ULg) L'azathioprine dans la maladie de Crohn : un traitement toujours d'actualitéBelaiche, Jacques ; Louis, Edouard in Hépato-Gastro (2001), 8Detailed reference viewed: 35 (3 ULg) Cell turnover in BLV-infected sheep.Debacq, C.; Peremans, T.; Kerkhofs, P. et alin AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses (2001), 17(1), 13Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Elaboration d'une batterie d'évaluation des fonctions cognitives de sujets âgés porteurs d'un syndrome de DownGeorges, M.; Théwis, B.; Van der Linden, Martial et alin Revue de Neuropsychologie (2001), 11Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 ULg) Comparison between the GIRBAS Scale and the Acoustic and Aerodynamic Measures Provided by EVA for the Assessment of Dysphonia following Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis.Morsomme, Dominique ; Jamart, Jacques; Wery, Carine et alin Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica (2001), 53(6), 317-25The aim of this study is to establish relevant objective parameters for evaluating dysphonia following unilateral vocal fold paralysis. To do so, the study compares objective and perceptual voice measures ... [more ▼]The aim of this study is to establish relevant objective parameters for evaluating dysphonia following unilateral vocal fold paralysis. To do so, the study compares objective and perceptual voice measures. The objective measures were obtained using a voice analysis software (Evaluation Vocale Assistee), whereas the perceptual measures were established with the GIRBAS Scale (grade, instability, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain). All measurements were performed on 40 voice samples: 28 dysphonic subjects with unilateral laryngeal paralysis, and 12 control subjects. The intra- and inter-judge agreements were fairly good, at least for control subjects. The six GIRBAS measures obtained from the pathological voices were higher than those from the control voices (p < 0.001) and the correlation between both groups was good. Grade, breathiness and asthenia correlated with the objective parameters that express the aperiodicity of the phonatory signal (p < 0.01), namely, the coefficient of variability of the fundamental frequency, the coefficient of variability of intensity, and jitter. Our findings suggest that the perceptual reality of laryngeal paralysis-induced dysphonia depends more on grade, breathiness and asthenia than it does on roughness or instability. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (8 ULg) Le rôle fédérateur d'un architecte. Entretien avec Claude Strebelle.Frankignoulle, Pierre in A+ (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 43 (8 ULg) Resolution of Paraneoplastic Leukocytosis and Hypertrophic Osteopathy after Resection of a Renal Transitional Cell Carcinoma Producing Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor in a Young Bull TerrierPeeters, Dominique ; Clercx, Cécile ; Thiry, Albert et alin Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine (2001), 15(4, Jul-Aug), 407-11Detailed reference viewed: 30 (10 ULg) Analyse sociologique de la gestion des services de police, pour une compréhension par le jeu autour des règlesSchoenaers, Frédéric in Gestion : Revue Internationale de Gestion (2001), 25(4), 45-55Detailed reference viewed: 43 (5 ULg) Differences in glucosinolate degradation products related to aphid and Brassicaceae host plant myrosinasesFrancis, Frédéric ; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ; Lognay, Georges in GCIRC Bulletin (2001)Studies on chemical ecology of host plant selection by herbivores were largely carried out to orplain the diversity of secondary plant chemicals and host specialisation of herbivores. The glucosinolate ... [more ▼]Studies on chemical ecology of host plant selection by herbivores were largely carried out to orplain the diversity of secondary plant chemicals and host specialisation of herbivores. The glucosinolate - isothiocyanate system in Brassicaceae plants was considered as a plant defence and was known to influence the feeding behaviour of phytophagous insects such as the cabbage aphid, Brevicoryre brassicae. Purified m5nosinases from the latter and from white mustard, Sinqis alba, were used to hydrolyse two glucosinolate compounds. Identification of the degradation products, mainly isothiocyanates, was perficrmed by gas chromatography - mass spectromeûy. While sinigdn hydrolysis gave identical isothiocyanates for insect and plant enzymes, B. brassicae myrosinase showed a particular activity toward sinalbin A lost of an hydrory group was obsen'red for the two latter substrates related products when compared to the S. alba enzymatic specificity. Aphid and plant myrosinases have different properties and specificities which can be discussed in relation to a co-evolution approach. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 53 (8 ULg) Gene structure and promoter function of a teleost ribosomal protein: a tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) L18 geneMolina, Alfredo; Iyengar, Arati; Marins, Luis F. et alin Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (2001), 1520(3), 195-202We have cloned and characterized a tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) L18 ribosomal protein gene, including the complete transcribed region and 488 bp of upstream regulatory sequences. We have also ... [more ▼]We have cloned and characterized a tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) L18 ribosomal protein gene, including the complete transcribed region and 488 bp of upstream regulatory sequences. We have also isolated two L18 cDNAs from another tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) with a few conservative nucleotide differences. Our results suggest the presence of two genes in both species. Reporter constructs were tested for transient expression in CV1 cells and in microinjected zebrafish and tilapia embryos. The tilapia L18 promoter was able to drive expression of the reporter gene in all three experiments, with no apparent preference for a particular tissue. The tilapia L18 promoter is therefore likely to be a powerful tool to drive tissue-independent gene expression in fish. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (6 ULg) Evolution of aphidophagous ladybird populations in a vegetable crop and implications as biological agents.Francis, Frédéric ; Colignon, P.; Hastir, P. et alin Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 333-40Aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly and ladybird beetles are effective biological agents to control aphid pests in perennial and annual cultivated species. Introduction and conservation of beneficial ... [more ▼]Aphidophagous predators such as hoverfly and ladybird beetles are effective biological agents to control aphid pests in perennial and annual cultivated species. Introduction and conservation of beneficial insects are two ways to increase natural control of pests. Whether massive releases of entomophagous insects are expensive and time consuming, the preservation of predator natural populations can be expected by reducing and by adapting chemical treatments in crop fields. Vegetable cultivated areas increased in Belgium for several years, mainly Fabaceae species such as peas and beans. In this work, the evolution of ladybird species population was assessed from May to June in broad bean fields (Vicia faba L.) between Waremme and Hannut, in Hesbaye. Weekly, the aphid and aphidophagous beetle populations were collected from yellow traps and determined on plants by visual observations. Even if five ladybird species were identified, three of them represented more than 95% of the collected insects (Coccinella septempunctata L., Propylea quatuor-decimpunctata L. and Psyllobora vingintiduopunctata L.). Evolution of coccinellid populations during the cultivation season was discussed in relation to the presence of potential aphid preys and the agrochemical treatments which were applied. Integrated pest management in vegetable fields constitute a reliable way to increase the quality level of fresh vegetables in terms of pesticide residue limitations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 59 (5 ULg) Well-ordered spherical mesoporous materials CMI-1 synthesized via an assembly of decaoxyethylene cetyl ether and TMOSBlin, Jean-Luc; Léonard, Alexandre ; Su, Bao-Lianin Chemistry of Materials (2001), 13(10), 3542-3553Well-ordered spherical CMI-1 mesoporous materials with a hexagonal arrangement of channels, analogous to MCM-41, have been directly synthesized by variation of the weight percentage of decaoxyethylene ... [more ▼]Well-ordered spherical CMI-1 mesoporous materials with a hexagonal arrangement of channels, analogous to MCM-41, have been directly synthesized by variation of the weight percentage of decaoxyethylene cetyl ether [C 16(EO) 10] in aqueous solution. XRD, TEM, SEM, and nitrogen adsorption-desorption results led us to propose two different synthesis pathways for surfactant concentrations higher and lower than 30 wt %, respectively. For samples obtained with an elevated surfactant concentration (>30 wt %), in addition to the possible perturbation induced by methanol released in low amount during the hydrolysis of TMOS, other factors such as the interactions of the silica source with hydrophilic chain heads of surfactant molecules should also disturb the preformed hexagonal micelle array, and disordered wormhole mesostructured materials (DWM), analogous to MSU, are obtained. For the synthesis with a C 16(EO) 10 concentration less than 30 wt %, a cooperative mechanism, which involves the polymerization of silica source and the interface interactions between the hydroxyl groups of silica source produced from the hydrolysis of TMOS and hydrophilic chain heads of surfactant molecules which are present in the single rod micelle form, has been evidenced, leading to well-ordered CMI-1 materials with hexagonal arrangement of their channels. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg) The concept of age in marine modelling I. Theory and preliminary model resultsDeleersnijder, Eric; Campin, Jean-Michel; Delhez, Eric in Journal of Marine Systems (2001), 28(3-4), 229-267The age of a particle of a seawater constituent is defined to be the time elapsed since the particle under consideration left the region, in which its age is prescribed to be zero. An Eulerian theory of ... [more ▼]The age of a particle of a seawater constituent is defined to be the time elapsed since the particle under consideration left the region, in which its age is prescribed to be zero. An Eulerian theory of the age is presented, in which advection, diffusion, production and destruction phenomena are properly accounted for. The key hypothesis is that the mean age of a set of particles is to be evaluated as the mass-weighted average of the ages of the particles under study. The basic variable is the concentration distribution function, representing, at a given time and location, the distribution over the age of the concentration of the constituent being considered. This function satisfies a partial differential equation, which, upon appropriate integration over the age, yields the equations, in flux form, governing the evolution of the concentration and the age concentration. The ratio of the latter variable to the former is the mean age. Further theoretical developments are presented, including a thought experiment showing that mixing processes cause the ages of various constituents to be different from each other. The potential of the age as a tool for understanding complex marine flows is briefly demonstrated by analysing the results of two numerical models. The ages of a passive tracer, a radioactive tracer and the water are computed, along with a suitably defined radio-age. First, the fate of tracers released into the English Channel at La Hague is simulated. Then, ages are computed in the World Ocean as a measure of the time that has elapsed since leaving the surface layers. A theorem is demonstrated, which specifies that the age of the radioactive tracer must be smaller than the relevant radio-age, the latter being smaller than the age of the passive tracer, which, under appropriate hypotheses, can be seen to be equivalent to the age of the water. These inequalities seem to be remarkably robust, since they are found to hold valid in most of the numerical and analytical results examined in the present study. On the other hand, a dimensionless number is highlighted, which is believed to play an important role in the scaling of the differences between ages. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 78 (22 ULg) Les sanctions administratives dans les communes : en route vers le droit communal arméMasset, Adrien in Journal des Tribunaux (2001), 6031(2001), 833-838La nouvelle loi belge du 13 mai 1999 permet désormais aux communes de réglementer une série de comportements en en assurant le respect par le recours à des sanctions administratives, alors qu’auparavant ... [more ▼]La nouvelle loi belge du 13 mai 1999 permet désormais aux communes de réglementer une série de comportements en en assurant le respect par le recours à des sanctions administratives, alors qu’auparavant ces sanctions ne pouvaient être que pénales; la loi nouvelle offre aussi aux communes des pouvoirs de police administrative plus étendus; cette loi donne le ton d’une dépénalisation dans les communes au profit d’un droit administrativo-pénal [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 133 (12 ULg) Genetic Diversity In The Lima Bean (Phaseolus Lunatus L.) As Revealed By Chloroplast Dna (Cpdna) VariationsFofana, B.; Du Jardin, Patrick ; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre in Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution (2001), 48(5), Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Risedronate Increases Bone Mineral Density and Reduces the Vertebral Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal WomenReginster, Jean-Yves in Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology (2001), 19(1), 121-2Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) Core-polarization effects and radiative lifetime measurements in Pr IIIBiémont, Emile ; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ; Palmeri, P. et alin Physical Review. A (2001), 64Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg) «Lo sconosciuto Panegirico in lode di Carlo II di Gregorio Leti (ms. Liège, Université, W. 77)»Moreno, Paola in Studi e Problemi di Critica Testuale (2001), LXIDetailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg) Competition between deep impurity and dopant behavior of Mg in GaN Schottky diodesSchmeits, Marcel; Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ; Germain, Mariannein Journal of Applied Physics (2001), 89The effect of the deep acceptor Mg on the electrical characteristics of p-doped GaN Schottky diodes is analyzed. The theoretical study is based on the numerical resolution of the basic semiconductor ... [more ▼]The effect of the deep acceptor Mg on the electrical characteristics of p-doped GaN Schottky diodes is analyzed. The theoretical study is based on the numerical resolution of the basic semiconductor equations, including the continuity equation for the Mg-related acceptor level. It gives the steady-state and small-signal analysis of p-doped GaN:Mg Schottky diodes, yielding as final result the frequency dependent capacitance and conductance of the structure. It is shown that the low-frequency characteristics are determined by the carrier exchange between the Mg related impurity level and the valence band, whereas above the impurity transition frequency, the hole modulation of the depletion layer edge governs the electrical response. Detailed results are shown on the effect of temperature, applied steady-state voltage and series resistance. The study of two back-to-back connected GaN Schottky diodes reveals the appearance of typical features in the electrical characteristics, depending on the respective Schottky barrier height of the two junctions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (4 ULg) The effect of risedronate on hip fracture risk in elderly women with osteoporosisBensen, W; Eastell, R; Reginster, Jean-Yves et alin Journal of Rheumatology (2001), 28(S63), 24Detailed reference viewed: 5 (1 ULg) Optimisation des arcs paraboliques et en chaînette – aide à la conception sur base d'indicateurs morphologiquesLatteur, Pierre ; Samyn, Philippe; De Wilde, Patrickin Revue Française de Génie Civil (2001), 5Detailed reference viewed: 33 (0 ULg) Identification of Brucella spp. genes involved in intracellular trafficking.Delrue, R. M.; Martinez-Lorenzo, M.; Lestrate, P. et alin Cellular Microbiology (2001), 3(7), 487-97After uptake by host cells, the pathogen Brucella transits through early endosomes, evades phago-lysosome fusion and replicates in a compartment associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ... [more ▼]After uptake by host cells, the pathogen Brucella transits through early endosomes, evades phago-lysosome fusion and replicates in a compartment associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are still poorly understood. To identify new bacterial factors involved in these processes, a library of 1800 Brucella melitensis 16M mini-Tn5catkm mutants was screened for intracellular survival and multiplication in HeLa cells and J774A.1 macrophages. Thirteen mutants were identified as defective for their intracellular survival in both cell types. In 12 of them, the transposon had inserted in the virB operon, which encodes a type IV-related secretion system. The preponderance of virB mutants demonstrates the importance of this secretion apparatus in the intracellular multiplication of B. melitensis. We also examined the intracellular fate of three virB mutants (virB2, virB4 and virB9) in HeLa cells by immunofluorescence. The three VirB proteins are not necessary for penetration and the inhibition of phago-lysosomal fusion within non-professional phagocytes. Rather, the virB mutants are unable to reach the replicative niche and reside in a membrane-bound vacuole expressing the late endosomal marker, LAMP1, and the sec61beta protein from the ER membrane, proteins that are present in autophagic vesicles originating from the ER. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg) Presentation of a French version ot the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions QuestionnaireLaroi, Frank ; Brédart, Serge in European Review of Applied Psychology = Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée (2001), 52In recent years an increasing interest in attributional style in both normal and pathological populations has developed. In that context, the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire ... [more ▼]In recent years an increasing interest in attributional style in both normal and pathological populations has developed. In that context, the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (IPSAQ) was constructed. We investigated the psychometric properties of a French translation of the IPSAQ in a normal population.The results offer evidence that the present french translation has similarly adequate psychometric porperties as the original english version [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 251 (14 ULg) Intégration régionale et démocratie. Quelques réflexions à partir de la pensée d'Alexis de TocquevilleCarlier, Jean-Yves in Revue Burkinabè du droit (2001), (39-40), 9-20Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) A finite element formulation for spectral problems in optical fibersGuenneau, S.; Nicolet, A.; Zolla, F. et alin COMPEL (2001), 20(1), 120--131Detailed reference viewed: 9 (2 ULg) Facial mimicry and emotional contagion to dynamic emotional facial expression and their influence on decoding accuracyHess, U; Blairy, Sylvie in International Journal of Psychophysiology (2001), 40Detailed reference viewed: 42 (1 ULg) Image analysis, impedance spectroscopy and mercury porosimetry characterisation of freeze-drying porous materialsBlacher, Silvia ; Maquet, Véronique; Pirard, René et alin Colloids and Surfaces A : Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects (2001), 187-188Image analysis and impedance spectroscopy have been used as potential tools for the characterization of the texture of ultramacroporous PLA foams prepared by freeze-drying. It has been shown that these ... [more ▼]Image analysis and impedance spectroscopy have been used as potential tools for the characterization of the texture of ultramacroporous PLA foams prepared by freeze-drying. It has been shown that these two techniques actually provide valuable information on the structure of this material. They are complementary to mercury porosimetry, which does not allow morphological details to be distinguished. Image analysis of SEM micrographs of transverse cross-sections at two different magnifications gave information on both the macroporosity (1 μm < width < 10 μm) and ultramacroporosity (width > 10 μm). Impedance spectroscopy was used to investigate the transport properties of the three-dimensional porous matrices by measurement of ionic conduction [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (14 ULg) Ipriflavone in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.Alexandersen, P; Toussaint, André ; Christiansen, C et alin JAMA : Journal of the American Medical Association (2001), 285(11), 1482-8CONTEXT: Data on the efficacy and safety of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal bone loss are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of oral ipriflavone on prevention of ... [more ▼]CONTEXT: Data on the efficacy and safety of ipriflavone for prevention of postmenopausal bone loss are conflicting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of oral ipriflavone on prevention of postmenopausal bone loss and to assess the safety profile of long-term treatment with ipriflavone in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 4-year study conducted in 4 centers in Belgium, Denmark, and Italy from August 1994 to July 1998. PARTICIPANTS: Four hundred seventy-four postmenopausal white women, aged 45 to 75 years, with bone mineral densities (BMDs) of less than 0.86 g/cm(2). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned to receive ipriflavone, 200 mg 3 times per day (n = 234), or placebo (n = 240); all received 500 mg/d of calcium. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Efficacy measures included spine, hip, and forearm BMD and biochemical markers of bone resorption (urinary hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine and urinary CrossLaps [Osteometer Biotech, Herlev, Denmark] corrected for creatinine), assessed every 6 months. Laboratory safety measures and adverse events were recorded every 3 months. RESULTS: Based on intent-to-treat analysis, after 36 months of treatment, the annual percentage change from baseline in BMD of the lumbar spine for ipriflavone vs placebo (0.1% [95% confidence interval (CI), -7.9% to 8.1%] vs 0.8% [95% CI, -9.1% to 10.7%]; P =.14), or in any of the other sites measured, did not differ significantly between groups. The response in biochemical markers was also similar between groups (eg, for hydroxyproline corrected for creatinine, 20.13 mg/g [95% CI, 18.85-21.41 mg/g] vs 20.67 mg/g [95% CI, 19.41-21.92 mg/g]; P =.96); urinary CrossLaps corrected for creatinine, 268 mg/mol (95% CI, 249-288 mg/mol) vs 268 mg/mol (95% CI, 254-282 mg/mol); P =.81. The number of women with new vertebral fracture was identical or nearly so in the 2 groups at all time points. Lymphocyte concentrations decreased significantly (500/microL (0.5 x 10(9)/L]) in women treated with ipriflavone. Thirty-one women (13.2%) in the ipriflavone group developed subclinical lymphocytopenia, of whom 29 developed it during ipriflavone treatment. Of these, 15 (52%) of 29 had recovered spontaneously by 1 year and 22 (81%) of 29 by 2 years. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that ipriflavone does not prevent bone loss or affect biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Additionally, ipriflavone induces lymphocytopenia in a significant number of women. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Modelling migration from high-density polyethylene containers into concentrated solutions used as food flavouringsFauconnier, Marie-Laure ; Panhaleux, V.; Vanzeveren, E. et alin Food Additives & Contaminants (2001), 18(11), 1040-1045Migration from high-density polyethylene into different liquids (hexane, ethanol, lemon terpenes and their emulsions) was modelled using the response surfaces method. Polynomial equations (z = A + Bx + Cy ... [more ▼]Migration from high-density polyethylene into different liquids (hexane, ethanol, lemon terpenes and their emulsions) was modelled using the response surfaces method. Polynomial equations (z = A + Bx + Cy + Dx(2) + Ey(2) + Fxy) were established and parameters determined for each compound. Correlation coefficients were generally > 90%. Analysis indicated that 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenol, probably due to the degradation of the antioxidant additive tris(2,4- bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) phenyl) phosphite, migrated into each liquid tested, whatever the temperature. Oligomers (10-30 carbons) terminated by a vinyl group were also detected. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 86 (17 ULg) Life-cycle modelling of bequests and its implications for annuity valuationJousten, Alain in Journal of Public Economics (2001), 79In this paper we introduce a linear bequest motive into a standard life-cycle model, both allowing for credit and annuity market imperfections. First, we characterize the consumption and wealth processes ... [more ▼]In this paper we introduce a linear bequest motive into a standard life-cycle model, both allowing for credit and annuity market imperfections. First, we characterize the consumption and wealth processes.We find that consumption is non-increasing in the linear bequest parameter for the simplest certainty case, but that the same is not true for life-span uncertainty. Second, we study the issue of annuity valuation. For a sufficiently strong bequest motive, the true value of an annuity is equal to the actuarial value. This invalidates a previous claim that, for imperfect annuity markets, it is close to the simple financial value. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 39 (8 ULg) Auto/biographie. Le dispositif Mallarmé/VerlaineDurand, Pascal in Littératures (2001), 44(printemps), 97-119Detailed reference viewed: 66 (12 ULg) 33 RENO: A European surveillance registry of coronary brachytherapy with the NovosteTM Beta-CathTM SystemCoen, V.; Sauerwein; Orrechia et alin Radiotherapy & Oncology (2001), 60(supp 1), 12Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg) Modelling short-term CO2 fluxes and long-term tree growth in temperate forests with ASPECTSRasse, Daniel P.; François, Louis ; Aubinet, Marc et alin Ecological Modelling (2001), 141(1-3), 35-52The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) Of CO2 between temperate forests and the atmosphere governs both carbon removal from the atmosphere and forest growth. In recent years, many experiments have been ... [more ▼]The net ecosystem exchange (NEE) Of CO2 between temperate forests and the atmosphere governs both carbon removal from the atmosphere and forest growth. In recent years, many experiments have been conducted to determine temperate forest NEE. These data have been used by forest modellers to better understand the processes that govern CO, fluxes, and estimate the evolution of these fluxes under changing environmental conditions. Nevertheless, it is not clear whether models capable of handling short-term processes, which are mostly source-driven, can provide an accurate estimate of long-term forest growth, which is potentially more influenced by sink- and phenology-related processes. To analyse the interactions between short- and long-term processes, we developed the ASPECTS model, which predicts long-term forest growth by integrating, over time, hourly NEE estimates. Validation data consisting of measurements of NEE by eddy-covariance and forest carbon reservoir estimates were obtained from mixed deciduous and evergreen experimental forests located in Belgium. ASPECTS accurately estimated both: (1) the NEE fluxes for several years of data; and (2) the amount of carbon contained in stems, branches, leaves, fine and coarse roots. Our simulations demonstrated that: (1) NEE measurements in Belgian forests are compatible with forest growth over the course of the 20th century, and (2) that forest history and long-term processes need to be considered for accurate simulation of short-term CO2 fluxes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 59 (24 ULg) Use of multiple electrophysiological techniques to get insigh into the mode of action of an insecticide, fipronilGrolleau, Françoise; Alix, Philippe ; Le Corronc, Hervé et alin Veterinary and Human Toxicology (2001), 43(4), 238Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) Moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass reduces myocardial cell damage and myocardial cell death related to cardiac surgery.Vazquez-Jimenez, J. F.; Qing, M.; Hermanns, B. et alin Journal of the American College of Cardiology (2001), 38(4), 1216-23OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory ... [more ▼]OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that moderate hypothermia during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. BACKGROUND: Moderate hypothermia during experimental CPB stimulates production of interleukin-10 (IL10) and blunts release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). METHODS: Twelve young pigs were assigned to a temperature (T degrees ) regimen during CPB: moderate hypothermia (T degrees : 28 degrees C; n = 6) and normothermia (T degrees : 37 degrees C; n = 6). Intra-myocardial TNFalpha- and IL10-messenger RNA were detected by competitive reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and quantification of cytokine synthesis by Western blot. Levels of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in cardiac lymph and in arterial and coronary venous blood were examined during and after CPB. Myocardial cell damage was assessed by histologic and ultrastructural anomalies of tissue probes taken 6 h after CPB. RESULTS: Synthesis of IL10 was significantly higher, while that of TNFalpha was significantly lower, in pigs that were in moderate hypothermia during surgery than in the others. In contrast with normothermia, moderate hypothermia was also associated with significantly lower cumulative cardiac lymphatic flow during and after CPB, significantly lower lymphatic cTnI concentrations after CPB, significantly lower percentages of myocardial cell necrosis and a significantly lower score of ultrastructural anomalies of myocardial cells. While the percentage of apoptotic cells was not different between groups, the apoptosis/necrosis ratio tended to be higher in animals that were in moderate hypothermia during surgery. In all animals, TNFalpha synthesis correlated positively while IL10 production correlated negatively with necrosis and total cell death, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that moderate hypothermia during CPB provides myocardial protection by enhancing intra-myocardial anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 43 (1 ULg) The 'Aesthetics of Personalism' in Caryl Phillips's Writing: Complexity as a New Brand of HumanismLedent, Bénédicte in World Literature Written in English (2001), 39(1), 75-85This paper attempts to underline the epistemological implications of Phillips's handling of diasporic history through a focus on individual lives in Cambridge (1991) and The Nature of Blood (1997). His ... [more ▼]This paper attempts to underline the epistemological implications of Phillips's handling of diasporic history through a focus on individual lives in Cambridge (1991) and The Nature of Blood (1997). His confessional first-person narratives highlight the intricacies inherent in human nature, thereby resisting the globalizing discourse of liberal humanism. Even more importantly, his fictions seem to illustrate a new, more understanding approach to this often hackneyed term, for they give voice to individuals whose multiple differences are, paradoxically, part proof of a common humanity, viewed here as an inclusive rather than exclusive concept. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 104 (8 ULg) Location and Phenotype of Proliferating T cells in Secondary Lymph FolliclesHoshi, S.; Bouzahzah, F.; Mancini, I. et alin Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hematopathology [=JCEH] (2001), 42Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) About the Photoionization of Methyl Chloride. A Threshold Photoelectron Spectroscopic and Photoionization Mass Spectrometric investigation.Locht, Robert ; Leyh, Bernard ; Hoxha, A. et alin Chemical Physics (2001), 272The threshold photoelectron spectroscopic (TPES) and the photoionization mass spectrometric (PIMS) study of Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) in the 8-20 eV photon energy is presented. The interpretation and ... [more ▼]The threshold photoelectron spectroscopic (TPES) and the photoionization mass spectrometric (PIMS) study of Methyl Chloride (CH3Cl) in the 8-20 eV photon energy is presented. The interpretation and assignments are supported by ab initio calculations. The detailed analysis of the TPES shows numerous features in the Jahn-Teller split ground X2E(2A'-2A") state of CH3Cl+ and a new continuus band peaking at 13.4 eV. These were assigned to both direct ionization and autoionizing transitions. The transitions to the A2A1 and to the B2E states undergo a large enhancement ascribed to important autoionizing contributions. Based on the present calculations, the weak to very weak signals in the 19-26 eV photon energy range were mainly assigned to 2a1-1 ionization and to double excitations described essentially by 2e-2, 4a11 and 1e-1, 2e-1, 4a11 configurations. The PIMS study allowed us to investigate in detail the ionization and dissociation of CH3Cl+ into CH2+, CH3+, CHCl+ and CH2Cl+ from threshold up to 20 eV photon energy. At the onset, the CH3+, CHCl+ and CH2Cl+ fragment ion production is correlated to the ground state of CH3Cl+ and all fragment ions have to appear through dissociative autoionization from the 2e->3p Rydberg state. This interpretation is supported by the photoabsorption spectrum (PAS) measured recently in the same photon energy range. At higher energies, beside direct dissociation of the A2A1 and B2E states of CH3Cl+ autoionization also contributes to the fragmentation in all decay channels. For CH3+ the photoion-pair process is analyzed and detailed assignments are proposed on the basis of recent PAS data. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (12 ULg) Définition, critères de qualité et évaluation d'un programme de type école du dos. Recommandations de la Société belge des écoles du dosHenrotin, Yves ; Vanderthommen, Marc ; Fauconnier, C. et alin Revue du Rhumatisme (2001), 68Detailed reference viewed: 114 (3 ULg) Aspidothelium gemmiferum sp. nov., from Papua new Guinea (Lichenized Ascomycetes)Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ; Lücking, Robertin Mycotaxon (2001), 79Detailed reference viewed: 6 (2 ULg) Experimental and theoretical investigations of the electrical properties of undoped and magnesium-doped GaN layersNguyen, Ngoc Duy ; Germain, Marianne; Schmeits, Marcel et alin Journal of Crystal Growth (2001), 230The ac characteristics of GaN : Mg and undoped GaN layers, grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates, are measured for a wide range of temperature and bias conditions, in order to investigate the effect of ... [more ▼]The ac characteristics of GaN : Mg and undoped GaN layers, grown by MOVPE on sapphire substrates, are measured for a wide range of temperature and bias conditions, in order to investigate the effect of the magnesium-related level on the transport properties. Two peaks, whose height and position depend on the measurement temperature, are observed in the admittance curves (G/ω versus frequency) of the Mg-doped samples, whereas only one peak appears in undoped samples. The study of the frequency dependence of the impedance, with a model including the two metallic Au/GaN junctions, the GaN layer itself, shows that, besides the effect of the differential resistance of the layer which plays a role in both sample types, the presence of a Mg-related deep level contributes to the observed variations of the peaks in the admittance curves of the p-doped samples. Results of a theoretical steady-state and small-signal analysis based on numerical modelling of the Au/GaN/Au heterostructure complete our analysis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (3 ULg) Mechanisms of unconsciousness during general anaesthesiaBONHOMME, Vincent ; Hans, Polin Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care (2001), (12), 109-113Detailed reference viewed: 2 (0 ULg) La lecture littéraire : le pour et le contreDumortier, Jean-Louis in Education-Formation (2001), 262Detailed reference viewed: 29 (1 ULg) Presence of Oestrogen Receptor Type Beta in Human RetinaMunaut, Carine ; Lambert, Vincent ; Noël, Agnès et alin British Journal of Ophthalmology (2001), 85(7), 877-82BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ORalpha) and beta (ORbeta) with significant differences of expression among organs. Since ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND/AIMS: Recent studies have demonstrated the existence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes alpha (ORalpha) and beta (ORbeta) with significant differences of expression among organs. Since important pathologies of human eye could be linked to hormonal status, the expression of ORbeta in ocular posterior segment was sought. METHODS: Immunohistochemical localisation of ORbeta and ORalpha protein and detection of OR mRNAs by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed in macular and extramacular regions of the retina and in the choroid on male and female donors eyes. RESULTS: ORbeta protein was localised in the ganglion cell layer and in the choroid. At the transcriptional level, mRNA for ORbeta and for ORalpha were both present. Local differences in the expression level were observed, however, suggesting the possibility of variation in the ratio of ORalpha v ORbeta. CONCLUSIONS: The coexistence of two oestrogen receptor subtypes in the human ocular posterior segment raises acute questions about their potential physiological role, but offers a perspective for preferential targeting of a specific receptor subtype. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 102 (40 ULg) Algebraic decay of the survival probability in chaotic heliumSchlagheck, Peter ; Buchleitner, A.in Physical Review. A (2001), 63(2), 024701We demonstrate that the classical helium atom exhibits algebraic decay of the survival probability in the autoionizing eZe configuration. Excitation towards asymptotic orbits of marginal stability is ... [more ▼]We demonstrate that the classical helium atom exhibits algebraic decay of the survival probability in the autoionizing eZe configuration. Excitation towards asymptotic orbits of marginal stability is identified as the cause of the nonexponential decay. Since one electron travels along a bound Kepler trajectory of infinite excitation in these orbits, we argue that the classical decay law will prevail in the quantum dynamics of a wave packet launched along the eZe configuration. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg) En Bloc Excision of Nonpalpable Breast Lesions Using the Advanced Breast Biopsy Instrumentation System: An Alternative to Needle Guided Surgery?Lifrange, Eric ; Dondelinger, R. F.; Fridman, Viviana et alin European Radiology (2001), 11(5), 796-801This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the clinical potential of the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system as an alternative to needle localization and open surgery in the ... [more ▼]This study was prospectively conducted to evaluate the clinical potential of the advanced breast biopsy instrumentation (ABBI) system as an alternative to needle localization and open surgery in the management of nonpalpable breast lesions (NPBL). One hundred and eighty-six consecutive patients were referred for management of NPBL. Thirty-six underwent an ABBI procedure, offered as a first step before possible surgery for lesions which would in any case have required complete excision. The 18 patients with a malignant ABBI biopsy underwent re-excision of the biopsy site and axillary dissection was carried out in cases of infiltrating carcinoma. The other 150 patients underwent image-guided needle biopsy. Following these procedures, 60/150 (40%) patients underwent needle-guided surgery. Finally, 96/186 (51%) patients required complete excision. A total of 43 benign lesions and 53 carcinomas were confirmed. Thirty-six out of 96 (38%) excisions were obtained with the ABBI system; 17/43 (40%) benign lesions and 11/53 (21%) carcinomas were completely removed with the ABBI system. Out of 9 malignant specimens with a pathological size less than 10 mm, 5/9 (55%) had tumor-free margins and in 8/9 (89%) no residual disease was found at re-excision. The preliminary results of this study suggest that, in selected cases, en bloc excision using the ABBI procedure could be an alternative to conventional surgery. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (1 ULg) The acquired brain injuries in the term and preterm babies: an update on their pathophysiologyBattisti, Oreste ; Adant-François, A.; Scalais, E. et alin Journal du Pédiatre Belge (2001), 3Detailed reference viewed: 40 (8 ULg) Les devoirs : un canal de communication entre l’école et la famille ?Poncelet, Débora; Schillings, Patricia ; Hindryckx, Geneviève et alin Point sur la Recherche en Education (Le) (2001), 20Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Évolution des accessibilités et des mobilités des localisations commercialesMerenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette in Travaux de l’Institut de Géographie de Reims (2001), 27(107-108), 7-23In order to be able to study the links between the evolution of accessibilities and mobilities and the dynamics of the commercial localizations, the article has been organized in three parts : firstly ... [more ▼]In order to be able to study the links between the evolution of accessibilities and mobilities and the dynamics of the commercial localizations, the article has been organized in three parts : firstly, the definition of the concepts of accessibility and mobility as well as the distance; secondly, analysis of the role of these two concepts in the commercial field and the their most evident recent evolutions; lastly, research into corresponding links. On the basis of this work, everything indicates the priority of mobility over accessibility as well as very close relations between the mutations of urbanized territories and the installation of the new commercial framework, which is strongly governed by car mobility. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 179 (3 ULg) Associations between casein haplotypes and first lactation milk production traits in Finnish Ayrshire cowsIkonen, T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Ojala, M. et alin Journal of Dairy Science (2001), 84(2), 507-514The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of ß--casein (CN) haplotypes on first-lactation milk production traits. The ß--CN haplotypes were deduced using information on ß- and -CN genotypes ... [more ▼]The objective of this study was to estimate the effects of ß--casein (CN) haplotypes on first-lactation milk production traits. The ß--CN haplotypes were deduced using information on ß- and -CN genotypes of cows and their sires for 16,973 Finnish Ayrshire cows that had at least nine paternal half sibs. Effects of CN haplotypes on milk production traits were estimated for one haplotype at a time using an animal model, which included the fixed effects for calving year and month, age at calving, days open, ß-lactoglobulin, and a ß--CN haplotype. Differences in milk production traits were also estimated between haplotype combinations A1A+A2B and A1B+A2A within ß--CN genotype A1A2AB and between combinations A1E+A2A and A1A+A2E within genotype A1A2AE. The ß--CN haplotypes A2A and A2B were associated with high milk and protein yields and low fat content, and those that included the ß-CN A1 allele were associated with low yields and high fat content. Protein content was affected by the -CN locus; haplotype A1B was associated with high protein content and A1E was with low protein content. The haplotype combination A1A+A2B was associated with 140 kg more milk yield (P = 0.045) and 0.03 percentage units less protein content (P = 0.055) than combination A1B+A2A, and combination A1A+A2E showed 0.02 percentage units greater protein content (P = 0.098) than A1E+A2A. These results indicate that genes linked to the CN loci contribute to the variation in milk yield and protein content. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) Surface Modification of Polycarbonate and Poly(ethyleneterephthalate) Films and Membranes by Polyelectrolyte DepositionDauginet, Laurence; Duwez, Anne-Sophie ; Legras, Roger et alin Langmuir (2001), 17The surface modification by chemical or physical adsorption of a polyelectrolyte (polyallylamine, PAH) was established using hydrolyzed polycarbonate (PC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) thick and ... [more ▼]The surface modification by chemical or physical adsorption of a polyelectrolyte (polyallylamine, PAH) was established using hydrolyzed polycarbonate (PC) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) thick and thin films. Contact angle data indicated changes in the hydrophilicity of PET film surfaces in terms of the chemical treatment. XPS analysis showed that the immobilization of PAH on PET and PC films was effective and that the amount of chemically or/and physically bounded PAH depends on the pH of the electrolyte solution used for the adsorption. Similar treatments have been successfully applied to polymeric track-etched membranes. These modified membranes have been used as templates for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) nanotubules. FE-SEM analysis showed that much thicker PPy tubules were obtained in modified membranes than in virgin ones. This indicates that the surface chemistry of the pore walls plays an important role in the morphology of the nanostructures synthesized within the pores [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 56 (2 ULg) A novel, possibly functional, single nucleotide polymorphism in the coding region of the thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) gene is also associated with TAFI levels.Brouwers, G. J.; Vos, H. L.; Leebeek, F. W. et alin Blood (2001), 98(6), 1992-3Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) Insecticide resistance gene transmission by insecticide-susceptible insectsArnaud, Ludovic; Callaghan, Amanda; Haubruge, Eric in Functional Ecology (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Treatment of drug-induced toxic epidermal necrolysis (Lyell’s syndrome) with intravenous human immunoglobulinsPaquet, Philippe ; JACOB, Eric; Damas, Pierre et alin Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries (2001), 27(6), 652-655Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare drug-induced life-threatening disease. Currently, the disease is only treated by supportive and antiseptic measures. Quite recently intravenous immunoglobulins ... [more ▼]Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) is a rare drug-induced life-threatening disease. Currently, the disease is only treated by supportive and antiseptic measures. Quite recently intravenous immunoglobulins (IG) were shown to be a promising TEN treatment. The rationale for their use is based on the fact that keratinocyte apoptosis in TEN involves the CD95 (APO-1/Fas) cell surface receptor–ligand system. We successfully treated a TEN patient with high dose of intravenous IG. The clinical recovery appeared exceptionally rapid. Immunohistochemistry showed that the IG action probably developed on the CD95 receptor–ligand system at the keratinocytes surface. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (6 ULg) Vingt ans après... Regards d'un didacticien sur l'enseignement de la littérature française de BelgiqueDumortier, Jean-Louis in Textyles : Revue des Lettres Belges de Langue Française (2001), 19Detailed reference viewed: 25 (0 ULg) N N scattering phase shifts in a chiral constituent quark modelBartz, Daniel ; Stancu, Floarea in Nuclear Physics A (2001), A688We study the nucleon-nucleon interaction within a chiral constituent quark model which reproduces succesfully the baryon spectra. We calculate the $^3S_1$ and $^1S_0$ phase shifts by using the resonating ... [more ▼]We study the nucleon-nucleon interaction within a chiral constituent quark model which reproduces succesfully the baryon spectra. We calculate the $^3S_1$ and $^1S_0$ phase shifts by using the resonating group method. They clearly indicate the presence of a strong repulsive interaction at short distance, due to the spin-flavour symmetry of the quark-quark interaction and of the quark interchange between the two interacting nucleons. A $\sigma$-meson exchange quark-quark interaction, providing a medium-range attraction, helps to get closer to the experimental phase shifts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) Une innovation dans la chirurgie hellénistique: l'opération de la cataracteMarganne, Marie-Hélène in Medizinhistorisches Journal (2001), 36(1), 23-33Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) All detectable high-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins are modified in a high-level beta-lactam-resistant clinical isolate of Streptococcus mitis.Amoroso, Ana Maria ; Demares, D.; Mollerach, M. et alin Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy (2001), 45(7), 2075-81All detectable high-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (HMM PBPs) are altered in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mitis for which the beta-lactam MICs are increased from those previously ... [more ▼]All detectable high-molecular-mass penicillin-binding proteins (HMM PBPs) are altered in a clinical isolate of Streptococcus mitis for which the beta-lactam MICs are increased from those previously reported in our region (cefotaxime MIC, 64 microg/ml). These proteins were hardly detected at concentrations that saturate all PBPs in clinical isolates and showed, after densitometric analysis, 50-fold-lower radiotracer binding. Resistance was related to mosaic structure in all HMM PBP-coding genes, where critical region replacement was complemented not only by substitutions already reported for the closely related Streptococcus pneumoniae but also by other specific replacements that are presumably close to the active-site serine. Mosaic structure was also presumed in a pbp1a-sensitive strain used for comparison, confirming that these structures do not unambiguously imply, by themselves, detectable critical changes in the kinetic properties of these proteins. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) Les flux d'azote mobilisés par les agricultures belgesDebouche, Charles in Bulletin d'Information (Association Royale des Ingénieurs Issus de la Fusagx - Aigx) (2001), 4Les flux de matières azotées mobilisés par les exploitations agricoles sont identifiés et quantifiés par divers modèles mathématiques. Ceux-ci sont conçus de manière à pouvoir être appliqués tant au ... [more ▼]Les flux de matières azotées mobilisés par les exploitations agricoles sont identifiés et quantifiés par divers modèles mathématiques. Ceux-ci sont conçus de manière à pouvoir être appliqués tant au niveau d'une exploitation agricole qu'au niveau d'un territoire déterminé. Après avoir décrit succinctement ces modèles, leurs caractéristiques et leurs limites, le résultat de leur application aux agricultures flamande et wallonne est présenté. Il met en évidence une différence importante entre ces deux agricultures, notamment quant à leurs responsabilités environnementales. Les flux d'azote mobilisés par des exploitations agricoles existantes sont également estimés. Ils illustrent la grande diversité de comportement d'exploitations agricoles apparemment semblables. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg) Introduction à la programmation avec Matlab sous windowsAkossou, A. Y. J.; Fonton, N. H.; Claustriaux, Jean-Jacques in Notes de Biométrie et d'Informatique (2001), 2This note aims to introduce Matlab software. Through this presentation we show a few advantages of the software. This presentation is then illustrated by a few examples of program with the software.Detailed reference viewed: 67 (2 ULg) HIF-1 and AP-1 cooperate to increase gene expression in hypoxia: role of MAP kinases.Michiels, C.; Minet, E.; Michel, G. et alin IUBMB Life (2001), 52(1-2), 49-53HIF-1 is the main transcription factor responsible for increased gene expression in hypoxia: VEGF, erythropoietin, GLUT-1, and glycolytic enzymes are such target genes and all participate in the ... [more ▼]HIF-1 is the main transcription factor responsible for increased gene expression in hypoxia: VEGF, erythropoietin, GLUT-1, and glycolytic enzymes are such target genes and all participate in the adaptative response of cells to hypoxia. AP-1 activation by hypoxia has also been demonstrated in several cell lines and it cooperates with HIF-1 for increasing VEGF gene transcription in hypoxia. Both HIF-1 and AP-1 activation by hypoxia seems to involve members of the MAP kinase family. Here, we summarize the data indicating that ERK and JNK are needed for activation of HIF-1 and AP-1, respectively. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 94 (2 ULg) Quel aplostome à guidon chromé au fond de la cour ? De la mauvaise influence des thèses logiciennes sur la définition linguistique de l’autonymieBadir, Sémir in Le français moderne (2001), LXIX(1), 49-57Detailed reference viewed: 26 (0 ULg) Charge critique et longueur de flambement des éléments à inertie variable et aux conditions d'extrémité élastiquesLatteur, Pierre in revue scientifique des Instituts supérieurs industriels francophones de Belgique (2001), 15Detailed reference viewed: 149 (2 ULg) L'invention de la mélancolie. Note sur l'ancienneté de la photographieHavelange, Carl in Journal Français de Psychiatrie. Clinique, Scientifique et Psychanalytique (2001), 16Detailed reference viewed: 21 (0 ULg) Changes in polyamines, auxins and peroxidase activity during in vitro rooting of Fraxinus angustifolia shoots: an auxin-independent rooting modelTonon, Giustino; Kevers, Claire ; Gaspar, Thomas in Tree Physiology (2001), 21(10), 655-663Among shoots of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl raised in vitro, 76% rooted after culture on root induction medium for 5 days in darkness followed by culture on root expression medium for 15 days in light. The ... [more ▼]Among shoots of Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl raised in vitro, 76% rooted after culture on root induction medium for 5 days in darkness followed by culture on root expression medium for 15 days in light. The addition of 20.7 muM indole-butyric acid (IBA) to the root induction medium did not significantly increase the rooting percentage (88%). Putrescine, spermidine, cyclohexylamine (CHA) and aminoguanidine (AG) enhanced rooting up to 100% (98.66% for AG), when applied during root induction in the absence of IBA, otherwise these compounds inhibited rooting, as did spermine and difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) + difluoromethylarginine (DFMA). The root induction phase was characterized by a temporary increase in endogenous free indole-acetic acid (IAA) and putrescine concentrations during root induction, whereas the root expression phase was characterized by increased peroxidase activity and low concentrations of polyamines. These changes were specifically associated with the rooting process and did not depend on the presence of exogenous IBA, because application of exogenous IBA enhanced the amount of IAA in the cuttings but did not affect rooting or the pattern of changes in polyamines and peroxidase. The effects of CHA, AG and DFMO + DFMA on endogenous concentrations of auxins and polyamines highlight the close relationship between the effects of IAA and putrescine in root induction and suggest that polyamine catabolism has an important role in root formation and elongation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (7 ULg) Heterogeneity of (co)variance components for Jersey type traitsGengler, Nicolas ; Dusseldorf, T.; Wiggans, G. R. et alin Journal of Dairy Science (2001), 84Detailed reference viewed: 5 (0 ULg) Central self-tolerance by thymic presentation of self-antigens and autoimmunityGeenen, Vincent ; Martens, Henri ; Hansenne, Isabelle et alin Current Medicinal Chemistry - Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents (2001), 1Before reacting against non-self infectious agents, the immune system is educated to tolerate the host molecular structure (self). The induction of self-tolerance is a multistep process that begins in the ... [more ▼]Before reacting against non-self infectious agents, the immune system is educated to tolerate the host molecular structure (self). The induction of self-tolerance is a multistep process that begins in the thymus during fetal ontogeny (central tolerance) and also involves inactivating mechanisms outside the thymus (peripheral tolerance). The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ implicated in the development of competent and self-tolerant T cells. During ontogeny, T cell progenitors originating from hemopoietic tissues (yolk sac, fetal liver, and then bone marrow) enter the thymus and undergo a program of proliferation, T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement, maturation and selection. Close interactions between thymocytes (pre-T cells) and the thymic cellular environment are crucial both for T cell development and induction of central self-tolerance. Thymic epithelial and stromal cells synthesize polypeptides belonging to various neuroendocrine families. The thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine-related precursors transposes at the molecular level the dual role of the thymus in T cell negative and positive selection. Thymic precursors not only constitute a source of growth peptides for cryptocrine signaling between thymic stromal cells and pre-T cells, but are also processed in a way that leads to the presentation of self-antigens by thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Thymic neuroendocrine self-antigens often correspond to peptide sequences highly conserved during the evolution of their corresponding family. The thymic presentation of some neuroendocrine self-antigens is not restricted by MHC alleles. Following the presentation of neuroendocrine self-antigens by thymic MHC proteins, the T cell system might be educated to tolerate main hormone families. Recent experiments argue that a defect in the thymic essential tolerogenic function is implicated as an important factor in the pathophysiology of many autoimmune diseases. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (3 ULg) Catalytic asymmetric dihydroxylation of C,C double bonds with osmium tetroxide using selenoxides as co-oxidantsKrief, A.; Colaux, Catherine in Synlett (2001), (4), 501-504Asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins has been achieved in good yields and ee's using potassium osmate dihydrate (K2OsO2(OH)(4), the pre-oxidant), (DHQD)(2)PHAL (the chiral ligand), potassium carbonate ... [more ▼]Asymmetric dihydroxylation of olefins has been achieved in good yields and ee's using potassium osmate dihydrate (K2OsO2(OH)(4), the pre-oxidant), (DHQD)(2)PHAL (the chiral ligand), potassium carbonate (the base) and selenoxides (the co-oxidants). Bath the yield and the ee proved to be pH dependent, the highest yield and ee being found at almost the same pH values. The rate of the reaction was found to be highly dependent upon the structure of the selenoxide used. Some representative examples involving aminoxides are presented for comparison. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) Comment j'explore ... les differentes formes de diabete sucre: diagnostic differentiel clinique et biologique.Scheen, André ; Philips, Jean-Christophe ; Luyckx, Françoise et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(9), 650-5Owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the various aspects of this disease, we present a practical approach which allows the clinician to more easily differentiate type 1 diabetes ... [more ▼]Owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the various aspects of this disease, we present a practical approach which allows the clinician to more easily differentiate type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and secondary diabetes of pancreatic origin, i.e. the most common forms of diabetes mellitus. Such an approach uses simple diagnostic criteria, based upon both clinical characteristics (family history, personal history, clinical presentation) and biological markers (C-peptide, autoantibodies,...). A right diagnosis should allow to optimize the management of the diabetic patient. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (5 ULg) Some properties of generalized age-distribution equations in fluid dynamicsBeckers, Jean-Marie ; Delhez, Eric ; Deleersnijder, Ericin SIAM Journal on Applied Mathematics (2001), 61(5), 1526-1544The concept of age in fluid dynamics is analyzed in the case of a tracer advection-diffusion equation. From the general solution in a uniform velocity field, it is shown that unexpected symmetry ... [more ▼]The concept of age in fluid dynamics is analyzed in the case of a tracer advection-diffusion equation. From the general solution in a uniform velocity field, it is shown that unexpected symmetry properties arise for the age field. In particular, for a point release, the age field is isotropic, regardless of the direction of the ow and the value of the diffusion coefficient. The analysis is then extended to situations with time-varying currents, where the symmetry can be broken under some circumstances. Finally, we show a method by which a time-dependent problem can be used to assess a stationary concentration distribution function, providing details about the propagation of younger and older material at a given location. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (13 ULg) Programme international pour le suivi des acquis des élèves (PISA) de l'OCDELafontaine, Dominique ; Baye, Ariane ; Matoul, Anne in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), 7-8(7-8), 53-57Detailed reference viewed: 57 (10 ULg) Synthesis and optical properties of opal and inverse opal photonic crystalsJohnson, N. P.; McComb, D. W.; Richel, Aurore et alin Synthetic Metals (2001), 116(1-3), 469-473We describe the synthesis of two complementary photonic crystals: opal and an inverted opal structure consisting of air spheres in a titania matrix. From optical measurements and comparison with the ... [more ▼]We describe the synthesis of two complementary photonic crystals: opal and an inverted opal structure consisting of air spheres in a titania matrix. From optical measurements and comparison with the literature, the mechanical strength and effective refractive index are increased by sintering for opal and because of compression for the inverse opal. However, this is at the expense of reducing the PBG in the [1 1 1] direction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 85 (2 ULg) Procollagen II amino propeptide processing by ADAMTS-3. Insights on dermatosparaxis.Fernandes, R. J.; Hirohata, S.; Engle, J. M. et alin Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(34), 31502-9The amino and carboxyl propeptides of procollagens I and II are removed by specific enzymes as a prerequisite for fibril assembly. Null mutations in procollagen I N-propeptidase (ADAMTS-2) cause ... [more ▼]The amino and carboxyl propeptides of procollagens I and II are removed by specific enzymes as a prerequisite for fibril assembly. Null mutations in procollagen I N-propeptidase (ADAMTS-2) cause dermatosparaxis in cattle and the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (dermatosparactic type) in humans by preventing proteolytic excision of the N-propeptide of procollagen I. We have found that procollagen II is processed normally in dermatosparactic nasal cartilage, suggesting the existence of another N-propeptidase(s). We investigated such a role for ADAMTS-3 in Swarm rat chondrosarcoma RCS-LTC cells, which fail to process the procollagen II N-propeptide. Stable transfection of RCS-LTC cells with bovine ADAMTS-2 or human ADAMTS-3 partially rescued the processing defect, suggesting that ADAMTS-3 has procollagen II N-propeptidase activity. Human skin and skin fibroblasts showed 30-fold higher mRNA levels of ADAMTS-2 than ADAMTS-3, whereas ADAMTS-3 mRNA was 5-fold higher than ADAMTS-2 mRNA in human cartilage. We propose that both ADAMTS-2 and ADAMTS-3 process procollagen II, but ADAMTS-3 is physiologically more relevant, given its preferred expression in cartilage. The findings provide an explanation for the sparing of cartilage in dermatosparaxis and, perhaps, for the relative sparing of some procollagen I-containing tissues. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Un nouveau projet archéologique de l'Université de Lyon 2.Morard, Thomas ; Wavelet, Davidin Mélanges de l'Ecole Française de Rome. Italie et Méditérranée (2001), 113(1), 477-481Detailed reference viewed: 30 (1 ULg) La distribution des industries dans une région : des images multiplesMerenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ; Devillet, Guénaël in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2001), 40How to apprehend the industrial distribution in a region ? How to analyse their pattern ? Such are the two main questions discussed in this paper which tries to give an answer by a progress in five steps ... [more ▼]How to apprehend the industrial distribution in a region ? How to analyse their pattern ? Such are the two main questions discussed in this paper which tries to give an answer by a progress in five steps : thinking about the choice of indicators, thinking about the choice of the spatial scale, making or not a distinction between industrial hranchs or types, integreting or not the temporal changes, testing a typology. Through all the images that have been produced, the relativity of the points of view as well as their partial approach of the studying phenomenon are showed, which indicates that both « prudence » and « modesty » are necessary in all researchs trying to analyse the structures of the territories. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (17 ULg) Infections virales humaines d'origine alimentaireScipioni, Alexandra ; Daube, Georges ; Thiry, Etienne in Point Vétérinaire (2001), 218Detailed reference viewed: 42 (3 ULg) Distinct carbohydrate recognition domains of an invertebrate defense molecule recognize Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.Bilej, M.; De Baetselier, P.; Van Dijck, E. et alin Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(49), 45840-7Coelomic fluid of Eisenia foetida earthworms (Oligochaeta, Annelida) contains a 42-kDa defense molecule named CCF for coelomic cytolytic factor. By binding microbial antigens, namely the O-antigen of ... [more ▼]Coelomic fluid of Eisenia foetida earthworms (Oligochaeta, Annelida) contains a 42-kDa defense molecule named CCF for coelomic cytolytic factor. By binding microbial antigens, namely the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), beta-1,3-glucans, or N,N'-diacetylchitobiose present, respectively, on Gram-negative bacteria or yeast cell walls, CCF triggers the prophenoloxidase activating pathway. We report that CCF recognizes lysozyme-predigested Gram-positive bacteria or the peptidoglycan constituent muramyl dipeptide as well as muramic acid. To identify the pattern recognition domains of CCF, deletion mutants were tested for their ability to reconstitute the prophenoloxidase cascade in E. foetida coelomic fluid depleted of endogenous CCF in the presence of LPS, beta-1,3-glucans, N,N'-diacetylchitobiose, and muramic acid. In addition, affinity chromatography of CCF peptides was performed on immobilized beta-1,3-glucans or N,N'-diacetylchitobiose. We found that the broad specificity of CCF for pathogen-associated molecular patterns results from the presence of two distinct pattern recognition domains. One domain, which shows homology with the polysaccharide and glucanase motifs of beta-1,3-glucanases and invertebrate defense molecules located in the central part of the CCF polypeptide chain, interacts with LPS and beta-1,3-glucans. The C-terminal tryptophan-rich domain mediates interactions of CCF with N,N'-diacetylchitobiose and muramic acid. These data provide evidence for the presence of spatially distinct carbohydrate recognition domains within this invertebrate defense molecule. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Application of the accelerated shelf life testing method (ASLT) to study the survival rates of freeze-dried Lactococcus starter culturesAchour, M.; Mtimet, N.; Cornelius, C. et alin Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (2001), 74Detailed reference viewed: 78 (4 ULg) Le débiteur et le contenu d'une garantie sujets à discussionParis, Catherine in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (2001)Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) A propos du remplage de la verrière d'Esther.Morard, Thomas in Arte Cristiana (2001), 89(802), 23-30Detailed reference viewed: 22 (7 ULg) Compact holographic camera based on photorefractive crystals and application in interferometryGeorges, Marc ; Scauflaire, Véronique; Lemaire, Philippein Optical Materials (2001), 18Detailed reference viewed: 15 (4 ULg) A STUDY OF VACUUM FREEZE-DRYING OF FROZEN WET PAPERSCarapelle, Alain ; Henrist, Marc; Rabecki, Frédéric in Drying Technology (2001), 19(6), 1113-1124Vacuum freeze-drying of frozen wet papers was investigated experimentally. A freeze-drying facility was built to study the process by monitoring the various physical parameters (pressure, sample ... [more ▼]Vacuum freeze-drying of frozen wet papers was investigated experimentally. A freeze-drying facility was built to study the process by monitoring the various physical parameters (pressure, sample temperature, heater temperature, water content of the sample and cold panel temperature). A simple phenomenological model was developed to explain experimental results. The values of the physical parameters were optimized to make the process cost effective. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 72 (9 ULg)