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See detailConstruction of regular languages and recognizability of polynomials
Rigo, Michel ULg

in Discrete Mathematics (2002), 254(1-3), 485-496

A generalization of numeration systems in which NI is recognizable by finite automata can be obtained by describing a lexicographically ordered infinite regular language. We show that if P is an element ... [more ▼]

A generalization of numeration systems in which NI is recognizable by finite automata can be obtained by describing a lexicographically ordered infinite regular language. We show that if P is an element of Q[x] is a polynomial such that P(N) subset of N then there exists a numeration system in which the set of representations of P(N) is regular. The main issue is to construct a regular language with a complexity function equals to P(n + 1) - P(n) for n large enough. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPhosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus IE63 protein by casein kinases influences its cellular localization and gene regulation activity
Bontems, Sébastien ULg; Di Valentin, Emmanuel ULg; Baudoux, Laurence et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(23), 21050-21060

During the early phase of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, Immediate Early protein 63 (IE63) is expressed rapidly and abundantly in the nucleus, while during latency, this protein is confined ... [more ▼]

During the early phase of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, Immediate Early protein 63 (IE63) is expressed rapidly and abundantly in the nucleus, while during latency, this protein is confined mostly to the cytoplasm. Because phosphorylation is known to regulate many cellular events, we investigated the importance of this modification on the cellular localization of IE63 and on its regulatory properties. We demonstrate here that cellular casein kinases I and II are implicated in the in vitro and in vivo phosphorylation of IE63. A mutational approach also indicated that phosphorylation of the protein is important for its correct cellular localization in a cell type-dependent fashion. Using an activity test, we demonstrated that IE63 was able to repress the gene expression driven by two VZV promoters and that phosphorylation of the protein was required for its full repressive properties. Finally, we showed that IE63 was capable of exerting its repressive activity in the cytoplasm, as well as in the nucleus, suggesting a regulation at the transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional level. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of a low magnetic field on the thermal diffusivity of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8
Dorbolo, Stéphane ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg

in Physical Review B (2002), 65(21),

The thermal diffusivity of a Bi-2212 polycrystalline sample has been measured under a 1 T magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the heat flux. The magnetic contribution to the heat carrier mean free ... [more ▼]

The thermal diffusivity of a Bi-2212 polycrystalline sample has been measured under a 1 T magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the heat flux. The magnetic contribution to the heat carrier mean free path has been extracted and is found to behave as a simple power law. This behavior can be attributed to a percolation process of electrons in the vortex lattice created by the magnetic field. [less ▲]

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See detailPrecipitation of auroral protons in detached arcs
Immel, Thomas J; Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald U et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2002), 29

Recent global-scale observations by the IMAGE-FUV instrument demonstrate the existence of regions of particle precipitation at sub-auroral latitudes on the dayside. The signature of this precipitation is ... [more ▼]

Recent global-scale observations by the IMAGE-FUV instrument demonstrate the existence of regions of particle precipitation at sub-auroral latitudes on the dayside. The signature of this precipitation is seen infrequently, but when so, it is clear in all 3 channels of the FUV instrument. A conjugate hemisphere conjunction with the FAST satellite demonstrates the presence of precipitating protons and the notable absence of precipitating electrons in these arcs. With this knowledge, one can determine the mean energy and energy flux of the precipitating protons by intercomparison of the response in the three FUV channels. Assuming that the protons have a kappa energy distribution, the mean energy is found to be ~20 keV, with a peak in total energy flux of ~1 mW/m[SUP]2[/SUP]/sec, consistent with fits to the FAST ion measurements. These phenomena are observed mainly during times of high solar wind dynamic pressure and variable interplanetary magnetic field, and are associated with earlier nightside enhancements in the brightness and latitudinal extent of the proton aurora. [less ▲]

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See detailGlobal comparison of magnetospheric ion fluxes and auroral precipitation during a substorm
Mende, S. B.; Frey, H. U.; Immel, T. J. et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2002), 29

Integrated fluxes from global images taken by the High Energy Neutral Atom (HENA) and the far ultraviolet (FUV) imagers on the IMAGE spacecraft were compared for a six-hour period, during which a ... [more ▼]

Integrated fluxes from global images taken by the High Energy Neutral Atom (HENA) and the far ultraviolet (FUV) imagers on the IMAGE spacecraft were compared for a six-hour period, during which a reasonably intense substorm occurred. HENA and the FUV proton auroral imager (SI-12) monitor emissions which are representative of trapped and precipitating magnetospheric proton fluxes, respectively. For several hours prior to substorm onset, measurements of the fluxes of lower energy (10-16 and 16-27 keV) magnetospheric Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA-s) by HENA and precipitating auroral protons by FUV SI-12 show strong similarities, with the implication that, in general, proton precipitation is controlled by a steady pitch angle diffusion process. Less similarity is seen between ENA-s and the auroral electron precipitation, which is monitored with the FUV Wideband Imaging Camera. Prior to substorm onset, ENA intensity at large radial distance (L > 8) is reduced while the overall integrated ENA flux increases signifying earthward motion and accumulation of the plasma. About 20 minutes before onset, the auroral fluxes decrease while the ENA intensity continues to grow. The observations are consistent with a pre-onset increase in plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere without an increase in precipitation showing more efficient trapping perhaps by the distorted nightside magnetosphere. At substorm onset the increase in precipitation intensity is very sudden while the more gradual intensification of the energetic ENA-s continues. At onset the electron aurora shows an increase in intensity of one order of magnitude, while the increase in precipitating proton flux is only 50%. The intensification of the precipitation is relatively short lived (~10 minutes) while the ENA substorm enhancements last about an hour. [less ▲]

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See detailRecurring Outbursts and Nuclear Fragmentation of Comet C/2001 A2 (LINEAR)
Sekanina, Zdenek; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Boehnhardt, Hermann et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2002), 572

Analysis of the visual light curve and fragmentation sequence of comet C/2001 A2 (LINEAR) shows a strong temporal correlation between the onset of outbursts and separation of companion nuclei. This ... [more ▼]

Analysis of the visual light curve and fragmentation sequence of comet C/2001 A2 (LINEAR) shows a strong temporal correlation between the onset of outbursts and separation of companion nuclei. This scenario conforms to Sekanina's conceptual model for the release of sizable fragments of an inert dust mantle from the nucleus surface: an outburst is triggered as some of the mass rapidly disintegrates into fine dust. [less ▲]

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See detailModel intercomparison in the Mediterranean: MEDMEX simulations of the seasonal cycle
Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg; Rixen, M.; Brasseur, P. et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2002), 33

The simulation of the seasonal cycle in the Mediterranean by several primitive equation models is presented. All models were forced with the same atmospheric data, which consists in either a monthly ... [more ▼]

The simulation of the seasonal cycle in the Mediterranean by several primitive equation models is presented. All models were forced with the same atmospheric data, which consists in either a monthly averaged wind-stress with sea surface relaxation towards monthly mean sea surface temperature and salinity fields, or by daily variable European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) reanalysed wind-stress and heat fluxes. In both situations models used the same grid resolution. Results of the modelling show that the model behaviour is similar when the most sensitive parameter, vertical diffusion, is calibrated properly. It is shown that an unrealistic climatic drift must be expected when using monthly averaged forcing functions. When using daily forcings, drifts are modified and more variability observed, but when performing an EOF analysis of the sea surface temperature, it is shown that the basic cycle, represented similarly by the models, consists of the seasonal cycle which accounts for more than 90% of its variability. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIMAGE and FAST observations of substorm recovery phase aurora
Mende, Stephen B; Frey, Harald U; Carlson, Charles W et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2002), 29

Images from the IMAGE Wide-band Imaging Camera (WIC) and Spectrographic Imager (SI) channel SI12, were compared to in situ data taken by FAST. The IMAGE data segment began during the expansive phase of a ... [more ▼]

Images from the IMAGE Wide-band Imaging Camera (WIC) and Spectrographic Imager (SI) channel SI12, were compared to in situ data taken by FAST. The IMAGE data segment began during the expansive phase of a substorm and a double oval configuration evolved, consisting of a set of discrete poleward auroral forms and a separate more diffuse oval. The FAST data showed that a narrow (~1.5° latitude) region of downward currents separated the two ovals. The SI-12 optical observations showed a single oval of precipitating protons located on the equatorward side within the diffuse aurora. In agreement with IMAGE, the highest intensity proton flux measured by FAST was concentrated on the equatorward region although low flux protons were present throughout the entire double oval. In the lower latitude diffuse oval occasional structured auroras were embedded. These structured auroras were mostly created by inverted V type electrons but there were narrow regions in which intense beams of accelerated electrons were seen whose energy/pitch angle distribution and accompanying electric field data were consistent with Alfven wave acceleration. The poleward oval consisted of an intense inverted V precipitation event poleward of which a weak region of Alfven wave accelerated electrons was located. From the images it appears that the Alfven wave accelerated electron event in the diffuse auroral regions and the poleward features were part of short lived or rapidly moving auroral forms. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of topography in small well-mixed bays, with application to the lagoon of Mururoa
Mathieu, Pierre-Philippe; Deleersnijder, Eric; Cushman-Roisin, Benoît et al

in Continental Shelf Research (2002), 22(9), 1379-1395

The present study aims to better understand how bathymetry and wind field interact to shape the circulation in well-mixed bays with particular emphasis on the lagoon of Mururoa. The simple model of ... [more ▼]

The present study aims to better understand how bathymetry and wind field interact to shape the circulation in well-mixed bays with particular emphasis on the lagoon of Mururoa. The simple model of Csanady (J. Phys. Oceanography 3 (1973) 429) is re-examined and some new analytical properties of the velocity distribution are derived. An extended version of the Csanady model, called the idealised model (IM), is then applied to the lagoon of Mururoa located in the Pacific. The circulation obtained by IM compares well with the circulation simulated by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Our results show that IM provides a simple and powerful heuristic tool to gain more insight into the dominant dynamical regime of the lagoon. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'osteoradionecrose mandibulaire: epee de damocles de la radiotherapie cervico-faciale?
Piret, Pascal ULg; Deneufbourg, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(6), 393-9

RÉSUMÉ : Dotée d’une réelle efficacité, la radiothérapie des cancers cervico-faciaux peut toutefois être à l’origine de complications sévères. Heureusement peu fréquente, l’ostéoradionécrose mandibulaire ... [more ▼]

RÉSUMÉ : Dotée d’une réelle efficacité, la radiothérapie des cancers cervico-faciaux peut toutefois être à l’origine de complications sévères. Heureusement peu fréquente, l’ostéoradionécrose mandibulaire en constitue une des plus redoutables. Sa pathogénie relève d’altérations radiques au niveau de la muqueuse, de l’os et des glandes salivaires. Les facteurs de risque tiennent au patient, à la tumeur ainsi qu’aux modalités thérapeutiques. Une cascade d’événements prenant son origine dans l’hyposialie conduit à la nécrose osseuse via le développement de caries extensives et le traumatisme lié à l’extraction dentaire. Une prévention efficace existe, fondée sur une mise en ordre buccale préalablement à l’irradiation, sur des mesures hygiéno-diététiques et la pratique stricte de la fluoruration. Certains traitements médicaux peuvent stabiliser le processus. L’oxygénothérapie hyperbare exerce un effet bénéfique incontestable. Dans les cas les plus graves, une chirurgie reconstructrice par lambeau osseux libre microvascularisé constitue l’ultime recours pour restaurer tant la fonction que l’aspect cosmétique. Rapportant un cas clinique, l’importance de la bonne observance par le patient des principes de prévention est souligné. Parallèlement, l’accent est mis sur la nécessité d’une surveillance régulière exercée par le radiothérapeute afin d’éviter les conséquences gravissimes qui peuvent être celles de l’ostéoradionécrose mandibulaire. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatial filtering using a raster geographic information system: methods for scaling health and environmental data
Ali, M.; Emch, M.; Donnay, Jean-Paul ULg

in Health & Place (2002), 8(2), 85-92

Despite the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in academic research, it is still uncommon for public health officials to use such tools for addressing health and environmental issues ... [more ▼]

Despite the use of geographic information systems (GIS) in academic research, it is still uncommon for public health officials to use such tools for addressing health and environmental issues. Complexities in methodological issues for addressing relationships between health and environment, investigating spatial variation of disease, and addressing spatial demand and supply of health care service, hinder the use of GIS in the health sector. This paper demonstrates simple spatial filtering methods for analyzing health and environmental data using a raster GIS. Computing spatial moving average rates reduces individual affects and creates a continuous surface of phenomena. Another spatial analytical method discussed is computation of exposure status surfaces including neighbors' influences weighted by distance decay. These methods describe how health and environmental data can be scaled in order to better address health problems. Spatial filtering methods are demonstrated using health and population surveillance data within a GIS that were collected for approximately 210,000 people in Matlab, Bangladesh. (C) 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailA PET investigation of lexicality and phonotactic frequency in oral language processing
Majerus, Steve ULg; Collette, Fabienne ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Cognitive Neuropsychology (2002), 19(4), 343-360

Lexicality and phonotactic frequency effects are observed in many cognitive studies on language processing, but little is known about their underlying neural substrates, especially with regard to ... [more ▼]

Lexicality and phonotactic frequency effects are observed in many cognitive studies on language processing, but little is known about their underlying neural substrates, especially with regard to phonotactic frequency effects. Here, we conducted a positron emission tomography (PET) study in which 11 right-handed volunteers had either to repeat or to listen to lists of words, high phonotactic frequency nonwords, and low phonotactic frequency nonwords. The comparison of word versus nonword processing consistently confirmed previous findings of left temporal and prefrontal activations classically ascribed to lexicosemantic processing. Higher activation was found in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus when comparing high phonotactic frequency nonwords to words, but not when comparing low phonotactic frequency nonwords to words. We propose that this region is implicated in the formation of temporary phonological representations for high-probability phonological events, which may support processing of high phonotactic frequency nonwords [less ▲]

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See detailPoly(epsilon-caprolactone)/clay nanocomposites prepared by melt intercalation: mechanical, thermal and rheological properties
Lepoittevin, Bénédicte; Devalckenaere, Myriam; Pantoustier, Nadège et al

in Polymer (2002), 43(14), 4017-4023

(Nano)composites of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared by melt blending the polymer with natural Na+ montmorillonite and montmorillonite modified by hydrogenated tallowalkyl (HTA)-based ... [more ▼]

(Nano)composites of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) were prepared by melt blending the polymer with natural Na+ montmorillonite and montmorillonite modified by hydrogenated tallowalkyl (HTA)-based quaternary ammonium cations, such as dimethyl 2-ethylhexyl HTA ammonium and methyl bis(2-hydroxyethyl) HTA ammonium. Microcomposites or nanocomposites were prepared depending on whether neat or modified montmorillonites was used, as assessed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical and thermal properties were studied as a function of the filter content by tensile testing, Izod impact testing, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The rheological behaviour at 80 degreesC was also analysed in relation to the structure and content of the layered silicate. Effect of exfoliated silicates on the mechanical properties, thermal stability and flame resistance of PCL was considered. Stiffness and thermal stability improved with the filler loading until a content of 5 wt%. Further loading resulted in the levelling off and possibly in a decrease of these properties. A marked charring effect was observed upon exposure to a flame. [less ▲]

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See detailWeight loss in obese dogs: Evaluation of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet
Diez, Marianne ULg; Nguyen, Patrick; Jeusette, Isabelle et al

in Journal of Nutrition (2002), 132(6 Suppl 2), 1685-1687

Obesity and excess body weight are estimated to affect approximately 25% of dogs receiving veterinary care in Western countries. They are recognized as the most common nutritional diseases in companion ... [more ▼]

Obesity and excess body weight are estimated to affect approximately 25% of dogs receiving veterinary care in Western countries. They are recognized as the most common nutritional diseases in companion animals. Energy restriction both during and after weight loss is the cornerstone to achieve and maintain optimal body condition. An important concern with energy restricted diet, however, is to cover all the requirements for essential nutrients, especially protein. In obese humans and animals, increasing dietary protein during weight loss programs has been shown to maintain lean body mass. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the effect of a high-protein low-starch weight-reduction diet in the management of canine obesity. In a preliminary study of client-owned dogs nine overweight or obese dogs (8 females and 1 male) with mean ages, body weights and body condition scores (BCS) of 8 y (range 3–10), 30 kg (13.5–48) and 4.6/5 (4.5–5 in a 5-point scale), respectively were recruited. Mean excess body weight was 30% (11–58). History and clinical examination revealed inactivity or lethargy (n = 5), impaired breathing (n = 3) and locomotion problems (n = 2) but all other variables were within normal limits. Treatment consisted of feeding a high-protein, low-starch diet at 40–55% of maintenance energy requirements (MER) for the dog’s estimated optimal body weight until it reached optimum body condition. Dogs were fed twice daily and sessions of exercise of at least 20 min/d were recommended to prevent excess protein catabolism and to minimize losses of fat-free mass (FFM). The time necessary to reach the target weight and a BCS of 3 ranged from 4 to 38 wk (mean ± SEM: 18.3 ± 3.8). The rate of weight loss varied from 0.8 to 3.1% (1.9 ± 0.3) per wk. Weight loss improved or suppressed the inactivity, lethargy, impaired breathing and locomotion problems initially reported by the owners. [less ▲]

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See detailAnomalies hypophysaires chez le sujet age avec insuffisance renale chronique
Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Magis, Delphine ULg; Betea, Daniela ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(6), 375-381

Chronic renal failure (CRF) in the elderly is a cause of multiple endocrine dysfunctions. The three most common pituitary axes involved are the thyrotrope, lactotrope and gonadotrope axes. Thyroid ... [more ▼]

Chronic renal failure (CRF) in the elderly is a cause of multiple endocrine dysfunctions. The three most common pituitary axes involved are the thyrotrope, lactotrope and gonadotrope axes. Thyroid dysfunction may be the consequence of thyroid or pituitary failure. Hyperprolactinemia results in gonadal failure and is present in 30% of patients. Early presentation of menopause and andropause are common in patients with CRF. Sexual hormonal replacement is controversial and must be individually tailored. We propose a systematic screening in the elderly with CRF: determination of TSH, TPO antibodies and cervical palpation, measures of PRL, LH, FSH and testosterone to explore lactotrope and gonadotrope axis. [less ▲]

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See detailHypertension artérielle et artériopathie
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(6), 370-374

High blood pressure as other factors of atherosclerosis is a well-known risk factor for development of peripheral arterial disease. A patient characterized by an isolated systolic hypertension and a low ... [more ▼]

High blood pressure as other factors of atherosclerosis is a well-known risk factor for development of peripheral arterial disease. A patient characterized by an isolated systolic hypertension and a low ankle/arm systolic blood pressure ratio very often presents coronary heart disease. Practising exercise (such as walking), stoping smoking and following an adapted diet are recommended. Hypertension treatment must be considered as a secondary prevention approach with a blood pressure normalisation as a target. All the different classes of antihypertensive drugs can be used, but with a marked preference for angiotensin converting enzyme (with caution for the renal artery stenosis risk) and for betablockers to improve the potential coronary heart disease (care is needed in the presence of severe peripheral arterial disease). [less ▲]

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See detailIn vitro antiplasmodial activity of Tithonia diversifolia and identification of its main active constituent: tagitinin C.
Goffin, Eric ULg; Ziemons, Eric ULg; De Mol, Patrick ULg et al

in Planta Medica (2002), 68(6), 543-5

The antimalarial properties of Tithonia diversifolia, an Asteraceae traditionally used to treat malaria, were investigated in vitro against three strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The ether extract from ... [more ▼]

The antimalarial properties of Tithonia diversifolia, an Asteraceae traditionally used to treat malaria, were investigated in vitro against three strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The ether extract from aerial parts of the plant collected in Sao Tome e Principe, demonstrated good antiplasmodial activity (IC 50 on FCA strain: 0.75 microg/ml). A bioassay guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of the known sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin C as an active component against Plasmodium (IC 50 on FCA strain: 0.33 microg/ml), but also possessing cytotoxic properties (IC 50 on HTC-116 cells: 0.706 microg/ml). [less ▲]

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See detailRelation between disease phenotype and HLA-DQ genotype in diabetic patients diagnosed in early adulthood
Weets, Ilse; Siraux, Valérie; Daubresse, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87(6), 2597-2605

We investigated inaugural disease phenotype in relation to the presence or absence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ risk genotypes in adult-onset diabetic ... [more ▼]

We investigated inaugural disease phenotype in relation to the presence or absence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ risk genotypes in adult-onset diabetic patients. Blood samples and questionnaires were obtained from 1584 recent-onset Belgian Caucasian patients (age 15-39 yr at diagnosis of primary diabetes) who were recruited by the Belgian Diabetes Registry over an 11-yr period. At clinical diagnosis, antibody-positive patients (n = 1198) were on average younger and had more symptoms, a more acute disease onset, lower body mass index, and random C-peptide levels, but higher insulin needs, glycemia, and prevalence of ketonuria, HLA-DQ, and 5' insulin gene susceptibility genotypes (P < 0.001 vs. antibody-negative patients; n = 386). In antibody-positive patients, these characteristics did not differ according to HLA-DQ genotype. However, in antibody-negative subjects, we found that patients were younger (P = 0.001); had a lower body mass index (P < 0.001), higher insulin needs (P = 0.014), and amylasemia (P = 0.001); and tended to have a higher glycemia and lower C-peptide in the presence of susceptible HLA-DQ genotypes. Differences according to HLA-DQ genotype subsisted after careful age-matching. In conclusion, we found no relation between initial disease phenotype and HLA-DQ genotype in antibody-positive diabetic young adults. In contrast, antibody-negative patients displayed more type I-like features when carrying susceptible HLA-DQ genotypes known to promote the development of antibody-positive diabetes. The overrepresentation of these susceptibility genotypes in antibody-negative patients suggests the existence of an immune-mediated disease process with as yet unidentified immune markers in a subgroup of seronegative patients. [less ▲]

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See detailNicolas, Diane, Tatiana et les autres
Leleu, Yves-Henri ULg

in 15e Jour du Mois (Le) (2002)

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See detailCultiver un avantage technologique dans les réseaux, le cas de la Compagnie Générale des Eaux
Froehlicher, Thomas ULg; Baroncelli, Allessandro; Assens, Christophe

in Annales des Mines. Gérer et Comprendre (2002), 68

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See detailL'image du mois. Desinsertion d'anneau mitral prothetique dans les suites d'une plastie mitrale
Nellessen, Eric ULg; LANCELLOTTI, Patrizio ULg; Yans, T. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(6), 361-2

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See detailAdsorption and structure formation of the weak polyelectrolytic diblock copolymer, PVP-b-PDMAEMA
Mahltig, Boris; Gohy, Jean-François; Antoun, Sayed et al

in Colloid and Polymer Science (2002), 280(6), 495-502

This paper reports on the pH-dependent adsorption of weak the polyelectrolytic diblock copolymer poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), (PVP-b-PDMAEMA). Aqueous PVP-b-PDMAEMA ... [more ▼]

This paper reports on the pH-dependent adsorption of weak the polyelectrolytic diblock copolymer poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate), (PVP-b-PDMAEMA). Aqueous PVP-b-PDMAEMA solutions have been adsorbed on alkaline pretreated silicon substrates. Altogether two copolymers differing in block ratio and molecular weight were used for the investigations. While the electrical charge of both samples in solution was investigated by electrophoretic measurements, the adsorbed polymer layers were studied with ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Depending on pH the electrical charge of both blocks of the diblock copolymer varied. Three different regimes have been identified. Under acidic conditions at pH < 5, both blocks are mainly positively charged. At medium pH between 5 and 8, only the PDMAEMA block is positively charged. At pH > 8, both blocks are nearly uncharged and a polymer precipitation occurred in solution. Each of these pH regimes was characterized by a specific adsorption behaviour leading to two adsorption maxima at acidic and alkaline pH values, while at medium pH a plateau in the adsorbed amount was observed. Moreover, the structures of the polyelectrolytes formed on the substrate after adsorption were specific to each of the three pH regimes. [less ▲]

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See detailSerological markers for prediction of response to anti-tumor necrosis factor treatment in Crohn's disease
Esters, N.; Vermeire, S.; Joossens, S. et al

in American Journal of Gastroenterology (2002), 97(6), 1458-1462

OBJECTIVES: The use of monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies (infliximab, Remicade) is a new therapeutic approach for severe refractory luminal or fistulizing, Crohn's disease (CD ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: The use of monoclonal anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibodies (infliximab, Remicade) is a new therapeutic approach for severe refractory luminal or fistulizing, Crohn's disease (CD). However, up to 30% of patients do not respond to this treatment. So far, no parameters predictive of response to anti-TNT have been identified. Our aim was to determine whether serological markers ASCA (anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies) or pANCA (perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies) could identify Crohn's patients likely to benefit from anti-TNF therapy. METHODS: Serum samples of 279 CID patients were analyzed for ASCA and pANCA before anti-TNF therapy. A blinded physician determined clinical response at week 4 (refractory luminal CD) or week 10 (fistulizing CD) after the first infusion of infliximab (5 mg/kg). RESULTS: Overall, there was no relationship between ASCA or pANCA and response to therapy. However, lower response rates were observed for patients with refractory intestinal disease carrying the pANCA+/ASCA- combination, although this lacked significance (p = 0.067). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of infliximab-treated patients, neither ASCA nor pANCA could predict response to treatment. However, the combination pANCA+/ASCA- might warrant further investigation for its value in predicting nonresponse in patients with refractory luminal disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPeut-on concilier la solidarité et la justice ? Le cas de l'insertion wallonne
Jacquemain, Marc ULg

in Déviance et Société (2002), 26

La politique d'insertion sociale peut avoir une fonction latente et une fonction manifeste. La fonction manifeste est de remettre les chômeurs à l'emploi. La fonction latente semble plutôt être de les ... [more ▼]

La politique d'insertion sociale peut avoir une fonction latente et une fonction manifeste. La fonction manifeste est de remettre les chômeurs à l'emploi. La fonction latente semble plutôt être de les maintenir socialisés. Mais la mise en oeuvre de la fonction latente n'est idéologiquement possible que sous le couvert de la fonction manifeste [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and assessment of the Osteoporosis Index of Risk (OSIRIS) to facilitate selection of women for bone densitometry
Sedrine, W. B.; Chevallier, T.; Zegels, Brigitte ULg et al

in Gynecological Endocrinology : The Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology (2002), 16(3), 245-250

A simple questionnaire would be useful to identify individuals most in need of bone mineral density (BMD) testing. We designed a new predictive model and risk assessment instrument based on an extensive ... [more ▼]

A simple questionnaire would be useful to identify individuals most in need of bone mineral density (BMD) testing. We designed a new predictive model and risk assessment instrument based on an extensive review of the literature evaluating risk factors for osteoporosis, and tested its performance in a large cohort of postmenopausal women in whom BMD was measured by dual x-ray absorptiometry. In total, 1303 postmenopausal women from an outpatient osteoporosis clinic participated in this study. The Osteoporosis Index of Risk (OSIRIS) is based on four variables: age, body weight, current hormone replacement therapy use and history of previous low impact fracture. The sensitivity and specificity for an OSIRIS value of +1 were respectively 78.5% and 51.4%. The AUC under the ROC curve of OSIRIS was 0.71. Three categories were arbitrarily created using OSIRIS, with cutoff of +1 and -3. The low risk category (OSIRIS > +1) represented 41% of all women; only 7% of the women in this category had osteoporosis. The prevalence of osteoporosis was very high (66%) among the group at high risk (OSIRIS < -3 representing 15% of all women). The prevalence of osteoporosis was 39% in the intermediate risk group (-3 < OSIRIS < +1, 44% of all women). In conclusion, OSIRIS is a simple index based on four easy-to-collect variables from postmenopausal women, it shows a high degree of accuracy, and performed well for classifying the degree of risk of osteoporosis in western European women of Caucasian lineage. Based on this instrument it is possible to propose a strategy that would initiate treatment in women with very high risk, postpone BMD measurement in women with low risk and limit BMD measurement to women with intermediate risk of osteoporosis, this would spare more than 55% of the densitometry bill compared with a mass screening scenario. [less ▲]

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See detailThe absent interface in design engineering
Leclercq, Pierre ULg; Juchmes, Roland ULg

in AI EDAM: Artificial Intelligence for Engineering Design Analysis and Manufacturing (2002), 16(3), 219-227

In order to respond to the difficulties encountered by CAD software applications in really assisting the conceptual designer, we propose a tool that is capable of interpreting design sketches and feeding ... [more ▼]

In order to respond to the difficulties encountered by CAD software applications in really assisting the conceptual designer, we propose a tool that is capable of interpreting design sketches and feeding data to various project evaluators, right from the early phases in the design process. For that purpose, we use the concept of the absent interface, which is the only interface that is compatible with the cognitive process involved in sketching. In this paper, we present the principles of such an interface, illustrated by EsQUIsE, a software prototype for capturing and interpreting architectural sketches, which has been under development for several years. [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of the training value of two types of anesthesia simulators: Computer screen-based and mannequin-based simulators
Nyssen, Anne-Sophie ULg; Larbuisson, Robert ULg; Janssens, Marc ULg et al

in Anesthesia and Analgesia (2002), 94(6), 1560-1565

In this study, we compared two different training simulators (the computer screen-based simulator versus the full-scale simulator) with respect to training effectiveness in anesthesia residents ... [more ▼]

In this study, we compared two different training simulators (the computer screen-based simulator versus the full-scale simulator) with respect to training effectiveness in anesthesia residents. Participants were evaluated in the management of a simulated preprogrammed scenario of anaphylactic shock using two variables: treatment score and diagnosis time. Our results showed that simulators can contribute significantly to the improvement of performance but that learning in treating simulated crisis situations such as anaphylactic shock did not significantly vary between full-scale and computer screen-based simulators. Consequently, the initial decision on whether to use a full-scale or computer screen-based training simulator should be made on the basis of cost and learning objectives rather than on the basis of technical or fidelity criteria. Our results support the contention that screen-based simulators are good devices to acquire technical skills of crisis management. Mannequin-based simulators would probably provide better training for behavioral aspects of crisis management, such as communication, leadership, and interpersonal conflicts, but this was not tested in the current study. IMPLICATIONS: We compared two different training simulators (computer screen-based versus full-scale) for training anesthesia residents to better document the effectiveness of such devices as training tools. This is an important issue, given the extensive use and the high cost of mannequin-based simulators in anesthesiology. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase-resolved X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the massive binary HD 93403
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Vreux, Jean-Marie ULg; Stevens, I. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 388(2), 552-562

We report the first results of a campaign aimed at the study of early-type binaries with the XMM-Newton observatory. Phase-resolved EPIC spectroscopy of the eccentric binary HD93403 reveals a clear ... [more ▼]

We report the first results of a campaign aimed at the study of early-type binaries with the XMM-Newton observatory. Phase-resolved EPIC spectroscopy of the eccentric binary HD93403 reveals a clear orbital modulation of the X-ray luminosity as a function of the orbital phase. Below 1.0 keV, the observed X-ray flux is modulated by the opacity of the primary wind. Above 1.0 keV, the observed variation of the X-ray flux is roughly consistent with a 1/r dependence expected for an adiabatic colliding wind interaction. HD93403 appears less overluminuous in X-rays than previously thought and a significant fraction of the total X-ray emission arises probably within the winds of the individual components of the binary. Optical monitoring of the system reveals strong variability of the He II lambda 4686 and Halpha line profiles. The He II lambda 4686 line displays a broad asymmetrical emission component which is found to be significantly stronger between phases 0.80 and 0.15 than around apastron. This suggests that part of the emission arises in the interaction region and most probably in the trailing arm of a shock cone wrapped around the secondary. Some absorption lines of the secondary's spectrum display equivalent width variations reminiscent of the so-called Struve-Sahade effect. The differences in behaviour between individual lines suggest that the temperature may not be the only relevant parameter that controls this effect. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of prodelphinidins isolated from Ribes nigrum on chondrocyte metabolism and COX activity
Garbacki, Nancy ULg; Angenot, Luc ULg; Bassleer, C. et al

in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology (2002), 365(6), 434-441

Articular diseases. such as osteoarthritis, is the clinical expression of the loss of cartilage function. COX inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of such pathologies for their beneficial effects ... [more ▼]

Articular diseases. such as osteoarthritis, is the clinical expression of the loss of cartilage function. COX inhibitors are widely used in the treatment of such pathologies for their beneficial effects on inflammation but often produce a negative activity on cartilage synthesis. In this study, we determined the effect of different prodelphinidins, the major compounds isolated from Ribes nigrum leaves, on the proteoglycans (PGs), type II collagen (coll. II) and prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)) production by differentiated human chondrocytes cultivated in long term (12 days) and in clusters as well as their inhibition potential on COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro. Gallocatechin trimer (GC-GC-GC) showed the higher stimulation of PGs and coll. II production (1 mug ml(-1)) and the synthesis of PGE(2) was significantly reduced by gallocatechin dimer (GC-GC), gallocatechin-epigallocatechin (GC-EGC) and GC-GC-GC at 10 and 100 mug ml(-1). The inhibition of PGE(2) synthesis was confirmed by the in vitro test on purified COX enzymes, showing the selectivity of prodelphinidins on COX-2. However, the prodelphinidins had no effects on COX activity in the whole blood assay. Our studies suggest that the prodelphinidins fractions from R. nigrum may be useful as an additive agent in the prevention of osteoarthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of CCD mosaic configurations for the ILMT: Astrometry and photometry of point sources in the absence of a TDI corrector
Vangeyte, B.; Manfroid, Jean ULg; Surdej, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 388(2), 712-731

The image deformations induced by the time-delay integration (TDI) mode, used with a CCD camera at the prime focus of a Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT), can be corrected for by a system of lenses ... [more ▼]

The image deformations induced by the time-delay integration (TDI) mode, used with a CCD camera at the prime focus of a Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT), can be corrected for by a system of lenses, simultaneously with the optical aberrations. However, before adopting the design of a TDI corrector, we may wonder what is the importance of the TDI image deformations and how to possibly reduce these by choosing optimal mosaic configurations of CCDs, covering an equivalent field of view. In a first step, we have simulated the point spread function (PSF) deformation due to the TDI mode only, for different selected mosaic configurations. We have then estimated the importance of the astrometric and photometric errors induced by the TDI deformation. By simulating star fields with the same synthetic PSF and taking into account realistic sources of noise (cf. CCD readout noise, photon noise and sky background), we have derived the limiting magnitudes for photometry and astrometry for the case of a 4 m LMT. [less ▲]

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See detailMaxbias curves of robust location estimators based on subranges
Croux, C.; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

in Journal of Nonparametric Statistics (2002), 14(3), 295-306

A maxbias curve is a powerful tool to describe the robustness of an estimator. It tells us how much an estimator can change due to a given fraction of contamination. In this paper, maxbias curves are ... [more ▼]

A maxbias curve is a powerful tool to describe the robustness of an estimator. It tells us how much an estimator can change due to a given fraction of contamination. In this paper, maxbias curves are computed for some univariate location estimators based on subranges: midranges, trimmed means and the univariate Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE) location estimators. These estimators are intuitively appealing and easy to calculate. [less ▲]

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See detailEpimerization study on [18F]FDG produced by an alkaline hydrolysis on solid support under stringent conditions
Mosdzianowski, C.; Lemaire, Christian ULg; Simoens, F. et al

in Applied Radiation & Isotopes (2002), 56(6), 871-875

Since 1998, routine [18F]FDG syntheses are being carried out by alkaline hydrolysis on a solid support, i.e. the labeled intermediate is trapped on a tC18 solid phase extraction cartridge, purified and ... [more ▼]

Since 1998, routine [18F]FDG syntheses are being carried out by alkaline hydrolysis on a solid support, i.e. the labeled intermediate is trapped on a tC18 solid phase extraction cartridge, purified and finally hydrolyzed within the cartridge, at room temperature, using sodium hydroxide. The present study demonstrated that no epimerization of [18F]FDG to [18F]FDM occurs even when 12 N NaOH is used and when the hydrolysis time is extended up to 1 h. The alkaline hydrolysis on solid support appears to be a simple method leading to [18F]FDG with high purity. [less ▲]

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See detailLouis Paul Boon in de Engelse neerlandistiek
Steyaert, Kris ULg

in Boelvaar Poef. Tijdschrift van het Louis Paul Boongenootschap (2002), 2(2), 69-77

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See detailThe medial preoptic nucleus receives vasotocinergic inputs in male quail: a tract-tracing and immunocytochemical study
Absil, Philippe ULg; Papello, M.; Viglietti-Panzica, C. et al

in Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy (2002), 24(1), 27-39

The sexually dimorphic testosterone-sensitive medial preoptic nucleus (POM) of quail can be identified by the presence of a dense network of vasotocinergic fibers. This innervation is sexually ... [more ▼]

The sexually dimorphic testosterone-sensitive medial preoptic nucleus (POM) of quail can be identified by the presence of a dense network of vasotocinergic fibers. This innervation is sexually differentiated (present in males only) and testosterone sensitive. The origin of these fibers has never been formally identified although their steroid sensitivity Suggests that they originate in parvocellular vasotocinergic neurons that are found in quail only in the medial part of the bed nucleus striae terminalis (BSTm) and in smaller numbers within the POM itself. We report here that following injections of a retrograde tracer into the POM of male quail, large populations of retrogradely labeled cells can be identified in the BSTm. The POM also receives afferent projections from magnocellular vasotocinergic nuclei, the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei. Double labeling for vasotocin immunoreactivity of the retrogradely labeled sections failed however to clearly identify magnocellular vasotocin-immunoreactive cells that were retrogradely labeled from POM. In contrast a substantial population of vasotocin-immunoreactive neurons in the BSTm contained tracer retrogradely transported from the POM. These data therefore demonstrate that a significant part of the vasotocinergic innervation of the quail POM originates in the medial part of the BST. An intrinsic innervation could however also contribute to this network. This interaction between BSTm and POM could play a key role in the control of male-typical sexual behavior and in its sex dimorphism in quail. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone metabolism in adult-onset growth hormone deficiency: A 2-year open randomized controlled multicenter trial
Bex, M.; Abs, R.; Maiter, D. et al

in Journal of Bone and Mineral Research (2002), 17(6), 1081-1094

Adult hypopituitary patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) show a significant decrease in bone mass and an increased fracture rate. Replacement therapy with GH increases bone turnover. Most of the ... [more ▼]

Adult hypopituitary patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) show a significant decrease in bone mass and an increased fracture rate. Replacement therapy with GH increases bone turnover. Most of the long-term data on bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) have been acquired in open, noncontrolled trials involving limited numbers of patients. To determine whether long-term GH therapy is beneficial for bone despite the increased bone turnover, 100 patients (59 men and 41 women), aged 25-65 years (mean, 49.7 years) with adult-onset GHD were randomized to treatment with GH (40 men and 28 women; mean dose, 0.18 IU/kg per week) or to a nontreated control group (19 men and 13 women) for 24 months. Despite a similar increase in parameters of bone turnover (osteocalcin [OC], procollagen type I carboxy-terminal propeptide [PICP], and pyridinolines ([PYD]) in male and female GH-treated patients compared with controls, the effects on BMC and BMD as evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were gender specific. A significant increase in spine BMC and BMD and total hip BMD and a decrease in BMD at the ultradistal radius over time was observed in male GH-treated patients compared with the evolution in controls (mean +/- SEM change at 24 months: + 6.8 +/- 1.1% and p = 0.009, +5.1 +/- 0.8% and p = 0.005, +3.5 +/- 0.7% and p = 0.02, and -2.6 +/- 0.8% and p = 0.008, respectively). No significant treatment effects were observed in female patients. Despite the increase in the total remodeling space induced by GH treatment, prolonged GH therapy in adult-onset GHD has a positive effect on bone balance, maintaining bone mass in women, and even increasing it in men over a 2 year-period. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural basis of alpha-amylase activation by chloride
Aghajari, N.; Feller, Georges ULg; Gerday, Charles ULg et al

in Protein Science : A Publication of the Protein Society (2002), 11(6), 1435-1441

To further investigate the mechanism and function of allosteric activation by chloride in some alpha-amylases, the structure of the bacterial alpha-amylase from the psychrophilic micro-organism ... [more ▼]

To further investigate the mechanism and function of allosteric activation by chloride in some alpha-amylases, the structure of the bacterial alpha-amylase from the psychrophilic micro-organism Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis in complex with nitrate has been solved at 2.1 Angstrom, as well as the structure of the mutants Lys300Gln (2.5 Angstrom) and Lys300Arg (2.25 Angstrom). Nitrate binds strongly to alpha-amylase but is a weak activator. Mutation of the critical chloride ligand Lys300 into Gln results in a chloride-independent enzyme, whereas the mutation into Arg mimics the binding site as is found in animal alpha-amylases with, however, a lower affinity for chloride. These structures reveal that the triangular conformation of the chloride ligands and the nearly equatorial coordination allow the perfect accommodation of planar trigonal monovalent anions such as NO3-, explaining their unusual strong binding. It is also shown that a localized negative charge such as that of Cl-, rather than a delocalized charge as in the case of nitrate, is essential for maximal activation. The chloride-free mutant Lys300Gln indicates that chloride is not mandatory for the catalytic mechanism but strongly increases the reactivity at the active site. Disappearance of the putative catalytic water molecule in this weakly active mutant supports the view that chloride helps to polarize the hydrolytic water molecule and enhances the rate of the second step in the catalytic reaction. [less ▲]

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See detailThe parvocellular vasotocin system of Japanese quail: A developmental and adult model for the study of influences of gonadal hormones on sexually differentiated and behaviorally relevant neural circuits
Panzica, G. C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Pessatti, M. et al

in Environmental Health Perspectives (2002), 110(Suppl. 3), 423-428

Vasotocin (VT; the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. A sexually dimorphic system of VT-immunoreactive (ir ... [more ▼]

Vasotocin (VT; the antidiuretic hormone of birds) is synthesized by diencephalic magnocellular neurons projecting to the neurohypophysis. A sexually dimorphic system of VT-immunoreactive (ir) parvocellular elements has been described within the male medial preoptic nucleus (POM) and the nucleus of the stria terminalis, pars medialis (BSTm). VT-ir fibers are present in many diencephalic and extradiencephalic locations, and quantitative morphometric analyses demonstrated their sexually dimorphic distribution in regions involved in the control of different aspects of reproduction. Moreover, systemic or intracerebroventricular injections of VT markedly inhibit the expression of some aspects of male sexual behavior. In adult animals, circulating levels of testosterone (T) have a profound influence on the VT immunoreactivity within BSTm, POM, and lateral septum. Castration markedly decreases the immunoreaction, whereas T-replacement therapy restores a situation similar to the intact birds. We observed no changes in gonadectomized females treated with T. These changes parallel similar changes in male copulatory behavior (not present in castrated male quail, fully expressed in castrated, T-treated males). The restoration by T of the VT immunoreactivity in castrated male quail could be fully mimicked by a treatment with estradiol (E-2), suggesting that the aromatization of T into E-2 may play a key limiting role in both the activation of male sexual behavior and the induction of VT synthesis. This dimorphism has an organizational nature: administration of E-2 to quail embryos (a treatment that abolishes male sexual behavior) results in a dramatic decrease of the VT immuno reactivity in sexually dimorphic regions. Conversely, the inhibition of E-2 synthesis during embryonic life (a treatment that stimulates the expression of male copulatory behavior in treated females exposed in adulthood to T) results in a malelike distribution of VT immunoreactivity. The VT parvocellular system of the Japanese quail can therefore be considered an accurate marker of the sexual differentiation of brain circuits mediating copulatory behavior and could be a very sensitive indicator of the activity of estrogenlike substances on neural circuits. [less ▲]

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See detailOvarian endometriosis and peritoneal endometriosis: are they different entities from a fertility perspective?
Nisolle, Michelle ULg

in Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology (2002), 14(3), 283-288

This review summarizes the recent literature concerning new data on the pathogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis and its natural evolution. Indeed, the main concern in endometriosis is the choice of ... [more ▼]

This review summarizes the recent literature concerning new data on the pathogenesis of peritoneal endometriosis and its natural evolution. Indeed, the main concern in endometriosis is the choice of treatment in cases of infertility problems: medical or surgical. This concern could hypothetically be avoided if endometriosis were considered as a spontaneously regressive phenomenon. The present paper also discusses the risk of recurrence and the results of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in cases of ovarian endometriosis. Whatever type of surgery is performed, the results of in-vitro fertilization and embryo transfer are not impaired, especially if damage to the ovarian cortex is avoided. Further studies are required to determine if oocytes from endometriosis patients are altered and could be responsible for the development of lower quality embryos. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic criteria for renovascular hypertension
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (2002), 102(3), 159-166

Renovascular hypertension is a clinical situation characterized by high blood pressure in the presence of renal ischemia mainly related to atherosclerotic or fibromuscular dysplasic narrowing of the renal ... [more ▼]

Renovascular hypertension is a clinical situation characterized by high blood pressure in the presence of renal ischemia mainly related to atherosclerotic or fibromuscular dysplasic narrowing of the renal artery (ies). This diagnosis is often "a posteriori" validated, because the discovery of a significant renal artery stenosis is not obligatory responsible of the blood pressure elevation. This article proposes a diagnostic strategy for exploring patient with this suspected secondary cause of hypertension before proposing an invasive approach (intra-arterial angiography) possibly followed by a revascularization. However, the methods for exploring such population are mainly based on patient characteristics and local expertise and habits. These must thus be individualized. First, clinical symptoms or signs frequently associated with hypertension and renal artery stenosis must be searched. If present, a non invasive and functional exploration of the renal arteries is to be proposed (Captopril radioisotope renography, colour duplex sonography) followed by magnetic resonance angiography or spiral computer tomography angiography if the clinical suspicion index is moderate or high. If this is very high, an intra-arterial arteriography could immediately be performed if not too dangerous. On the opposite site, if the clinical index is low, it is recommended to follow clinically and to treat risk factors. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of sexual genotype on the behaviour of females (genotype WZ) and pseudofemales (genotype ZZ) in the tilapia Oreochromis aureus
Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Desprez, Damien; Mélard, Charles ULg et al

in Aquatic Living Resources (2002), 15(3), 163-167

17alpha-ethynylestradiol sex-reversed males of Oreochromis aureus (pseudofemales, DeltaF, genotype ZZ) are used in aquaculture to produce a male monosex population by crossing with ZZ homogametic normal ... [more ▼]

17alpha-ethynylestradiol sex-reversed males of Oreochromis aureus (pseudofemales, DeltaF, genotype ZZ) are used in aquaculture to produce a male monosex population by crossing with ZZ homogametic normal males. When placed with males (M) and females (F) in the same spawning tank, the spawning rate of F is higher than for DeltaF. In order to understand this phenomenon, comparisons were made between the behaviour of 18 F (446 +/- 96 mm) and 18 DeltaF (401 +/- 59 mm). DeltaF showed a more aggressive behaviour and were significantly more dominant than normal F in fighting pair experiments (F x DeltaF) or in fighting group experiments in four different stocking densities (8, 12, 16 and 83 fish 10(-3) l with F/DeltaF ratio = 1). DeltaF were also more aggressive towards males than F were. The results support the idea that behavioural differences exist between F and DeltaF These differences are probably due to the effect of the sexual genotype on behaviour. (C) 2002 Ifremer/CNRS/Inra/IRD/Cemagref/Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detail"Arrachez-moi ce coeur!": de la crainte du rejet au délire après transplantation cardiaque
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Demoulin, J. C.; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(6), 389-92

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See detailCAU-1, a subclass B3 metallo-beta-lactamase of low substrate affinity encoded by an ortholog present in the Caulobacter crescentus chromosome
Docquier, J. D.; Pantanella, F.; Giuliani, F. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2002), 46(6), 1823-1830

The sequenced chromosome of Caulobacter crescentus CB15 encodes a hypothetical protein that exhibits significant similarity (30 to 35% identical residues) to metallo-beta-lactamases of subclass B3. An ... [more ▼]

The sequenced chromosome of Caulobacter crescentus CB15 encodes a hypothetical protein that exhibits significant similarity (30 to 35% identical residues) to metallo-beta-lactamases of subclass B3. An allelic variant of this gene (divergent by 3% of its nucleotides) was cloned in Escherichia coli from C crescentus type strain DSM4727. Expression studies confirmed the metallo-p-lactamase activity of its product, CAU-1. The enzyme produced in E. coli was purified by two ion-exchange chromatography steps. CAU-1 contains a 29-kDa polypeptide with an alkaline isoelectric pH (>9), and unlike the L1 enzyme of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, the native form is monomeric. Kinetic analysis revealed a preferential activity toward penicillins, carbapenems, and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins, while oxyimino cephalosporins were poorly or not hydrolyzed. Affinities for the various beta-lactams were poor overall (K-m values were always >100 muM and often >400 muM). The interaction with divalent ion chelators appeared to occur by a mechanism similar to that prevailing in other members of subclass B3. In C. crescentus, the CAU-1 enzyme is produced independently of beta-lactam exposure and, interestingly, the bla(CAU) determinant is bracketed by three other genes, including two genes encoding enzymes involved in methionine biosynthesis and a gene encoding a putative transcriptional regulator, in an operon-like structure. The CAU-1 enzyme is the first example of a metallo-beta-lactamase in a member of the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and theoretical investigation of radiative decay rates of metastable levels in LaII
Derkatch, A.; Ilyinsky, L.; Mannervik, S. et al

in Physical Review A (2002), 65(6),

An experimental and theoretical investigation of lifetimes of metastable levels in La II has been performed. The experimentally obtained results using the laser probing of a stored ion beam were tau=5.2 ... [more ▼]

An experimental and theoretical investigation of lifetimes of metastable levels in La II has been performed. The experimentally obtained results using the laser probing of a stored ion beam were tau=5.2+/-0.2 s for the a(1)G(4) and tau=2.1+/-0.3 s for the b(1)D(2) levels. Within the error bars, the results are in good agreement with the relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations including core polarization. [less ▲]

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See detailOverproduction and biochemical characterization of the Chryseobacterium meningosepticum BlaB metallo-beta-lactamase
Vessillier, S.; Docquier, J. D.; Rival, S. et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (2002), 46(6), 1921-1927

The BlaB metallo-beta-lactamase of Chryseobacterium meningosepticum CCUG4310 was overproduced in Escherichia coli by means of a T7 promoter-based expression system. The overproducing system, scaled up in ... [more ▼]

The BlaB metallo-beta-lactamase of Chryseobacterium meningosepticum CCUG4310 was overproduced in Escherichia coli by means of a T7 promoter-based expression system. The overproducing system, scaled up in a 15-liter fermentor, yielded approximately 10 mg of BlaB protein per liter, mostly released in the culture supernatant. The enzyme was purified by two ion-exchange chromatographic steps with an overall yield of 66%. Analysis of the kinetic parameters revealed efficient activities (k(cat)/K-m ratios of >10(6) M-1 s(-1)) toward most penam and carbapenem compounds, with the exception of the 6-alpha-methoxypenam derivative temocillin and of biapenem, which were poorer substrates. Hydrolysis of cephalosporins was overall less efficient, with a remarkable variability that was largely due to variable affinities of the BlaB enzyme for different compounds. BlaB was also able to hydrolyze serine-beta-lactamase inhibitors, including beta-iodopenicillanate, sulbactam and, although less efficiently, tazobactam. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of systemic nitroglycerin on CGRP and 5-HT afferents to rat caudal spinal trigeminal nucleus and its modulation by estrogen
Pardutz, A.; Multon, Sylvie ULg; Malgrange, Brigitte ULg et al

in European Journal of Neuroscience (2002), 15(11), 1803-1809

Systemic administration of nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide donor, triggers in migraine patients a delayed attack of unknown mechanism. After puberty migraine is more prevalent in women. Attacks can be ... [more ▼]

Systemic administration of nitroglycerin, a nitric oxide donor, triggers in migraine patients a delayed attack of unknown mechanism. After puberty migraine is more prevalent in women. Attacks can be triggered by abrupt falls in plasma estrogen levels, which accounts in part for sexual dimorphism, but lacks an established neurobiological explanation. We studied the effect of nitroglycerin on the innervated area of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and serotonin-immunoreactive afferents to the superficial laminae of the spinal portion of trigeminal nucleus caudalis, and its modulation by estrogen. In male rats, nitroglycerin produced after 4 h a significant decrease of the area innervated by CGRP-immunoreactive afferents and an increase of that covered by serotonin-immunoreactive fibres. These effects were not observed in the superficial laminae of thoracic dorsal horns. The effect of nitroglycerin was similar in ovariectomized females. In estradiol-treated ovariectomized females the area in the spinal portion of trigeminal nucleus caudalis laminae I-II covered by CGRP-immunoreactive fibres was lower and that of serotonin-immunoreactive fibres was higher than in males and for both transmitters not significantly changed after nitroglycerin. The bouton size of CGRP profiles was smaller in estradiol-treated ovariectomized females, whereas after nitroglycerin it decreased significantly but only in males and ovariectomized females. Nitroglycerin, i.e. nitric oxide, is thus able to differentially influence afferent fibres in the superficial laminae of rat spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis. Estradiol modulates the basal expression of these transmitters and blocks the nitroglycerin effect. These data may contribute to understanding the mechanisms by which estrogens influence migraine severity and the triggering of attacks by nitric oxide. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite ... un herpès labial récurrent
Petit, L.; Braham, C.; Nikkels, Arjen ULg et al

in Information Dentaire (L') (2002), 22

L'herpès labial récurrent est une affection fréquente. Il fait suite à la réactivation du virus herpétique (HSV1 et au plus rarement HSV2) au niveau du ganglion de Gasser. Le traitement et la prévention ... [more ▼]

L'herpès labial récurrent est une affection fréquente. Il fait suite à la réactivation du virus herpétique (HSV1 et au plus rarement HSV2) au niveau du ganglion de Gasser. Le traitement et la prévention de l'herpès labial récurrent font classiquement appel à des agents antiviraux spécifiques. Les résultats spectaculaires obtenus chez les patients immunodéprimés sont beaucoup moins convaincants chez des sujets par ailleurs sains. D'autres voies prospectives de thérapeutique sont à l'étude utilisant des lipopeptides et des moyens physiques induisant une modification du pH cutané. [less ▲]

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See detailShortened first-line high-dose chemotherapy for patients with poor-prognosis aggressive lymphoma
Gisselbrecht, C.; Lepage, E.; Molina, T. et al

in Journal of Clinical Oncology (2002), 20(10), 2472-2479

Purpose: Randomized trial LNH93-3 was conducted on patients who had poor-prognosis aggressive lymphoma and were younger than 60 years with two to three factors of the age-adjusted International Prognostic ... [more ▼]

Purpose: Randomized trial LNH93-3 was conducted on patients who had poor-prognosis aggressive lymphoma and were younger than 60 years with two to three factors of the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index to evaluate the benefit of early high-dose therapy (HDT) with autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Patients and Methods: Patients were randomized between doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone (ACVBP) chemotherapy followed by sequential consolidation and an experimental shortened treatment consisting of three cycles with escalated doses of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, vindesine, bleomycin, and prednisone and collection of peripheral-blood stem cells. On day 60, HDT was administered with 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan followed by ASCT. Results: Eligible patients (n = 370) with aggressive lymphoma were analyzed. For ACVBP (181 patients) and HDT (189 patients), respective complete remission rates were 64% and 63%. With a median follow-up of 60 months, 5-year overall survival and event-free survival for ACVBP and HDT were 60% +/- 8% and 46% +/- 8% (P = .007) and 52 +/- 8% and 39 8% (P = .01), respectively. Survival was independently affected by age greater than 40 years (P = .0003), T-cell phenotype (P = .009), bone marrow involvement (P = .003), and HDT treatment group (P = .04). Conclusion: Early HDT with ASCT in high-risk patients was inferior to the ACVBP chemotherapy regimen. These results indicate that the received dose-intensity before HDT was too low when compared with ACVBP and HDT and was given too early. (C) 2002 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. [less ▲]

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See detailThe use of epsilon-caprolactone as a polymerizable solvent for the atom transfer radical polymerization of MMA at low temperature
Wang, Wenxin; Yin, Zhihui; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (2002), 203(7), 968-974

This paper report on the decisive effect that solvent has on the atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl metacrylate (MMA) at low temperature. In buta-none and in the presence of a copper(I ... [more ▼]

This paper report on the decisive effect that solvent has on the atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl metacrylate (MMA) at low temperature. In buta-none and in the presence of a copper(I)/bipyridine com-plex the polymerization is controlled and the molecular weight distribution is narrow, at 0°C and even lower. This control is maintained when ε-caprolactone (CL) is substi-tuted for butanone. The use of this polymerizable solvent together with a novel dual initiator, 2-hydroxyethyl. 2'-methyl-2'bromopropionate, is an efficient strategy to pre pare PMMA-b-PCL diblock polymers in a one-pot process. [less ▲]

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See detailMutational analysis of the two zinc-binding sites of the Bacillus cereus 569/H/9 metallo-beta-lactamase
De Seny, Dominique ULg; Prosperi, Christelle ULg; Bebrone, Carine ULg et al

in Biochemical Journal (2002), 363(Pt 3), 687-696

The metallo-beta-lactamase BcII from Bacillus cereus 569/H/9 possesses a binuclear zinc centre. The mono-zinc form of the enzyme displays an appreciably high activity. although full efficiency is observed ... [more ▼]

The metallo-beta-lactamase BcII from Bacillus cereus 569/H/9 possesses a binuclear zinc centre. The mono-zinc form of the enzyme displays an appreciably high activity. although full efficiency is observed for the di-zinc enzyme. In an attempt to assign the involvement of the different zinc ligands in the catalytic properties of BcII, individual substitutions of selected amino acids were generated. With the exception of His(116) --> Ser (H116S), C221A and C221S, the mono- and di-zinc forms of all the other mutants were poorly active. The activity of H116S decreases by a factor of 10 when compared with the wild type. The catalytic efficiency of C221A and C221S was zinc-dependent. The monozinc forms of these mutants exhibited a low activity, whereas the catalytic efficiency of their respective di-zinc forms was comparable with that of the wild type. Surprisingly, the zinc contents of the mutants and the wild-type Bell were similar. These data suggest that the affinity of the beta-lactamase for the metal was not affected by the substitution of the ligand. The pH-dependence of the H196S catalytic efficiency indicates that the zinc ions participate in the hydrolysis of the beta-lactam ring by acting as a Lewis acid. The zinc ions activate the catalytic water molecule, but also polarize the carbonyl bond of the beta-lactam ring and stabilize the development of a negative charge on the carbonyl oxygen of the tetrahedral reaction intermediate. Our studies also demonstrate that Asn(233) is not directly involved in the interaction with the substrates. [less ▲]

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See detailLe marché intérieur : comment rendre effectifs les droits des intéressés ?
Munoz, Rodolphe ULg

in Revue du Marché Commun et de l'Union Européenne (2002), 458

Le marché intérieur est une réalité économique, juridique et politique. Il est l’instrument principal de la construction européenne. Certes, aujourd’hui d’autres sujets ont plus de visibilité sur la scène ... [more ▼]

Le marché intérieur est une réalité économique, juridique et politique. Il est l’instrument principal de la construction européenne. Certes, aujourd’hui d’autres sujets ont plus de visibilité sur la scène communautaire. Cependant, le marché intérieur reste un des piliers de la Communauté européenne. Le résultat atteint, en ce qui concerne les quatre libertés, est particulièrement impressionnant quant on regarde le chemin parcouru en quarante-cinq ans par la Communauté. Face à ce constat plutôt positif, un aspect reste encore à développer afin de rendre effectif le marché intérieur dans chaque Etat membre : il faut mettre en oeuvre des moyens de recours efficaces face aux problèmes rencontrés par ses principaux utilisateurs "les citoyens et les entreprises". La Commission a décidé à cette fin d’établir un nouveau système de règlement des différends. Ce système nommé "SOLVIT", a pour but de mettre en contact directement les entreprises et les citoyens en présence des administrations nationales avec pour objectif de régler à l’amiable, dans un laps de temps prédéterminé, les problèmes qui peuvent l’être au niveau national tout en gardant une supervision au niveau communautaire. Face à une telle perspective les attentes sont grandes même si l’établissement d’un système plus ou moins similaire avait précédemment échoué. Cependant, cette fois-ci la Commission a décidé de mettre toutes les chances de son côté. [less ▲]

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See detailA proinflammatory role for the cyclopentenone prostaglandins at low micromolar concentrations: Oxidative stress-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation without NF-kappa B inhibition
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Desmet, Christophe ULg; Burin Kefer, D. et al

in Journal of Immunology (2002), 168(10), 5318-5325

An anti-inflammatory role and therapeutic potential for cyclopentenone PGs (cyPGs) has been suggested, based on observations that levels of cyPGs in exudates increase during the resolution phase of ... [more ▼]

An anti-inflammatory role and therapeutic potential for cyclopentenone PGs (cyPGs) has been suggested, based on observations that levels of cyPGs in exudates increase during the resolution phase of inflammation, and that exogenous cyPGs may attenuate the inflammatory response in vivo and in vitro mainly through inhibition of NF-kappaB, a critical activator of inflammatory gene expression. However, exogenous cyPGs inhibit NF-kappaB only at concentrations substantially higher than those of endogenous cyPGs present in inflammatory fluids, thus challenging the hypothesis that cyPGs are naturally occurring inhibitors of inflammation and suggesting that cyPGs at low concentrations might have previously unappreciated effects. In this study, using various cell types, we report that cyPGs, when used at concentrations substantially lower than required for NF-kappaB inhibition (viz, low micromolar concentrations), significantly potentiate the inflammatory response to TNF-alpha. At these concentrations, cyPGs induce production of reactive oxygen species, thereby synergizing with TNF-alpha to activate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, an activation which in turn potentiates proinflammatory cytokine expression at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Our studs establishes a proinflammatory role for cyPGs at low micromolar concentrations, raises the possibility that cyPGs do not act as physiologic anti-inflammatory mediators, and questions the therapeutic potential of these compounds. [less ▲]

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See detail"Un bémol à l'exécution de l'appel", note sous Gand, 21 décembre 2000
Moreau, Pierre ULg; de Leval, Georges ULg

in Revue Générale de Droit Civil Belge = Tijdschrift voor Belgisch Burgerlijk (2002)

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See detailStrontium ranelate: Dose-dependent effects in established postmenopausal vertebral osteoporosis - A 2-year randomized placebo controlled trial
Meunier, P. J.; Slosman, D. O.; Delmas, P. D. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2002), 87(5), 2060-2066

The aim of the strontium ranelate (SR) for treatment of osteoporosis (STRATOS) trial was to investigate the efficacy and safety of different doses of SR, a novel agent in the treatment of postmenopausal ... [more ▼]

The aim of the strontium ranelate (SR) for treatment of osteoporosis (STRATOS) trial was to investigate the efficacy and safety of different doses of SR, a novel agent in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. A randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken in 353 osteoporotic women with at least one previous vertebral fracture and a lumbar T-score <-2.4. Patients were randomized to receive placebo, 0.5 g, 1 g, or 2 g SR/d for 2 yr. The primary efficacy endpoint was lumbar bone mineral density (BMD), assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcome measures included femoral BMD, incidence of new vertebral deformities, and biochemical markers of bone metabolism. Lumbar BMD, adjusted for bone strontium content, increased in a dose-dependent manner in the intention-to-treat population: mean annual slope increased from 1.4% with 0.5 g/d SR to 3.0% with 2 g/d SR, which was significantly higher than placebo (P < 0.01). There was a significant reduction in the number of patients experiencing new vertebral deformities in the second year of treatment with 2 g/d SR [relative risk 0.56; 95% confidence interval (0.35; 0.89)]. In the 2 g/d group, there was a significant increase in serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase, whereas urinary excretion of cross-linked N-telopeptide, a marker of bone resorption, was lower with SR than with placebo. All tested doses were well tolerated; the 2 g/d dose was considered to offer the best combination of efficacy and safety. In conclusion, SR therapy increased vertebral BMD and reduced the incidence of vertebral fractures. [less ▲]

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See detailInteractions between aromatase (estrogen synthase) and dopamine in the control of male sexual behavior in quail
Balthazart, Jacques ULg; Baillien, M.; Ball, G. F.

in Comparative Biochemistry & Physiology Part B (2002), 132(1), 37-55

In male quail, like in other vertebrates including rodents, testosterone acting especially through its estrogenic metabolites is necessary for the activation of male sexual behavior. Also, the ... [more ▼]

In male quail, like in other vertebrates including rodents, testosterone acting especially through its estrogenic metabolites is necessary for the activation of male sexual behavior. Also, the administration of dopamine agonists and antagonists profoundly influences male sexual behavior. How the steroid-sensitive neural network and dopamine interact physiologically, remains largely unknown. It is often implicitly assumed that testosterone or its metabolite estradiol, stimulates male sexual behavior via the modification of dopaminergic transmission. We have now identified in quail two possible ways in which dopamine could potentially affect sexual behavior by modulating the aromatization of testosterone into an estrogen. One is a long-acting mechanism that presumably involves the modification of dopaminergic transmission followed by the alteration of the genomic expression of aromatase. The other is a more rapid mechanism that does not appear to be dopamine receptor-mediated and may involve a direct interaction of dopamine with aromatase (possibly via substrate competition). We review here the experimental data supporting the existence of these controls of aromatase activity by dopamine and discuss the possible contribution of these controls to the activation of male sexual behavior. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of follicles from prepubertal calves ovaires to in vitro stimulation with LH and FSH
Bister, J.L; De roover, R; Dessy, F et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2002), 6(1), 15-16

Ovaries from prepubertal calves were harvested in an abattoir and quickly brought to the laboratory for the dissection of the follicles. The intact entire follicles were put in individual chambers and ... [more ▼]

Ovaries from prepubertal calves were harvested in an abattoir and quickly brought to the laboratory for the dissection of the follicles. The intact entire follicles were put in individual chambers and continuously perifused with TCM199 at the rate of 1ml/30 min. The medium was added LH at the time 60–90 min and FSH at the time 120–180 min. The perifusion lasted 5 hours and the perifused medium was collected every 30 min. The samples were assayed for Progesterone, D4-Androstenedione and Estradiol. Four different stimulations were assayed: LH +FSHc (FSH commercial with an estimated 20% LH contamination), LH + FSHp (pure FSH, with 0% LH activity), FSHc alone, and FSHp alone. No difference were observed between the treatments; this confirms the results of De Roover eet al. (this workshop) that the absence of LH is not the reason for the lack of Estradiol peak after FSH stimulation of calves ovaries in vivo. Only large follicles (diameter ³ 13 mm) were able to produce Estradiol in vitro. According to the follicular size, no difference can be measured in D4 production, but medium sized follicles produced significantly more Progesterone than small or large ones. It can be interpreted as a growing ability to produce Progesterone and the late acquisition of ability to produce Estradiol. The observation of the small proportion of follicles with diameter ³ 13 mm may be the explanation of the lack of E2 peak production after in vivo stimulation. High levels of Estradiol are suspected to be necessary for the acquisition of the oocyte competency to develop into viable embryos. The incapability of most of the follicles present in ovaries of prepubertal calves to produce significant level of E2 might be the reason of the poor results in embryo development after ovum pick-up in this kind of animal. [less ▲]

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See detailLa sténose d'artère rénale: cause possible de décompensation cardiaque aiguë
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 253-257

Among the different causes of pulmonary edema, there are all the clinical situations with hydrosaline overload. A significant (> 70%) bilateral renal artery stenosis or a unilateral stenosis in the ... [more ▼]

Among the different causes of pulmonary edema, there are all the clinical situations with hydrosaline overload. A significant (> 70%) bilateral renal artery stenosis or a unilateral stenosis in the presence of a solitary kidney is one possibility. Recurrent acute pulmonary edema not fully explained on a cardiac basis is rather typical for such a disease in a cardiac patient with moderate renal failure aggravated when angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are used. [less ▲]

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See detailThe assessment of nociceptive and non-nociceptive skin sensitivity in the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica)
Evrard, H. C.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2002), 116(2), 135-146

We evaluated the efficacy of two nociceptive tests, the hot water (HWT) and the foot pressure tests (FPT), and one non-nociceptive test (Semmes-Weinstein test, SWT) in assessing skin sensitivity in ... [more ▼]

We evaluated the efficacy of two nociceptive tests, the hot water (HWT) and the foot pressure tests (FPT), and one non-nociceptive test (Semmes-Weinstein test, SWT) in assessing skin sensitivity in conscious Japanese quail. All stimuli elicited a reflex-like, strongly reproducible response. Responses in the HWT and FPT were identified as typical nocifensive flight-fight behavior. In untreated birds, these responses occurred at temperatures and forces described previously as noxious. In the SWT, two responses were observed: a slight ruffling of the cloacal gland feathers due to the stimulation of the cloacal gland, and a brief extension of the limbs due to the stimulation of the ilium or pectoral apterium. These reactions occurred at intensities recognized as innocuous. Morphine significantly altered the response latency and threshold in the HWT and FPT, but had no effect in the SWT. However, the SWT response threshold was significantly increased by local application of xylocaine. Taken together, the pattern of the responses, the intensities and the effects of morphine and xylocaine allowed to distinguish between nociceptive and non-nociceptive tests. They also demonstrate the efficacy of these tests to evaluate skin sensitivity in quail and to assess its modulation by chemical factors that affect somatosensory processes. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe application of EIA/SEA procedures to the urban cultural heritage active conservation
Teller, Jacques ULg; Dupagne, Albert ULg

in Proc. of 5th European Commission Conference on Research for Protection, Conservation and Enhancement of Cultural Heritage (2002)

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See detailLa dissection aigue de l'aorte: la grande simulatrice
Limet, Raymond ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 258-62

Dissecting aneurysm is capable to induce death by cardiac complications, internal haemorrhage or acute ischemia of any organ supplied by an aortic branch. Only early and precise diagnosis can oppose the ... [more ▼]

Dissecting aneurysm is capable to induce death by cardiac complications, internal haemorrhage or acute ischemia of any organ supplied by an aortic branch. Only early and precise diagnosis can oppose the fatal evolution. [less ▲]

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See detailPreventive control of voltage security margins: A multicontingency sensitivity-based approach
Capitanescu, Florin ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2002), 17(2), 358-364

This paper addresses the problem of changing the operating point of a power system in order to keep voltage security margins with respect to contingencies above some minimal value. Margins take on the ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of changing the operating point of a power system in order to keep voltage security margins with respect to contingencies above some minimal value. Margins take on the form of maximum pre-contingency power transfers either between a generation and a load area or between two generation areas. They are determined by means of a fast time-domain method. We will first discuss the use of a general optimal power flow, in which linear voltage security constraints are added. The simultaneous control of several (possibly conflicting) contingencies is considered. Then, we will focus on the minimal control change objective. Among the possible controls, emphasis is put on generation rescheduling and load curtailment. Examples are presented on an 80-bus test system as well as on a real system. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of subtidal benthic invertebrates in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem (Andhra Pradesh, India)
Bouillon, Steven; Raman, A. V.; Dauby, Patrick ULg et al

in Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science (2002), 54(5), 901-913

In order to assess the relative trophic importance of mangrove litterfall and aquatic primary production in the mangrove creeks of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andhra Pradesh, India) and the adjacent ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the relative trophic importance of mangrove litterfall and aquatic primary production in the mangrove creeks of the Coringa Wildlife Sanctuary (Andhra Pradesh, India) and the adjacent semi-enclosed Kakinada Bay, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were determined in a variety of benthic invertebrate species collected at 22 sites during the pre-monsoon period (May-June) of 1997 and 1999. delta(13)C values showed little interspecific variation at any given location, but there was a distinct spatial gradient in consumer delta(13)C values of about 7parts per thousand, with more depleted values in the mangrove creeks ( - 23.6 +/- 0.6parts per thousand), and gradually increasing in the mangrove outlets ( - 21.5 +/- 0.9parts per thousand), a relatively restricted zone in the south-eastern part of Kakinada Bay adjacent to the mangroves ( - 18.8 +/- 0.8parts per thousand), and the central and northern part of the Bay ( - 16.7 +/- 1.4parts per thousand) which opens into the Bay of Bengal. This gradient is much larger than that observed during a previous study in suspended organic matter (maximum about 2.7parts per thousand) and during this study in sediment organic matter (about 1.5-2.5parts per thousand). The observed carbon stable isotope ratios thus suggest a marked selectivity of the benthic invertebrate community for pelagic and benthic microalgal food sources and indicate that mangrove-derived and other terrestrial carbon is not a significant food source for benthic invertebrate communities in this ecosystem during the pre-monsoon period. Furthermore, delta(13)C values of sediment organic matter (SOM) suggest that terrestrial carbon is not a major contributor to the SOM-pool in this ecosystem. Evidence for seaward migration of Penaeid prawns was provided by some individuals caught in the North Bay which displayed low delta(13)C values of characteristic of fauna found in the mangrove creeks or outlets. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios were found to be a useful indicator of trophic level, even though there remained some overlap between delta(15)N values of presumed low and higher trophic levels. Benthic invertebrates showed a delta(15)N gradient of about 3.2parts per thousand between the mangrove creeks and the Central and North Bay whereas sediment delta(15)N values showed a smaller spatial gradient of about 1.6parts per thousand. This gradient which is hypothesized to reflect differences in inorganic nitrogen sources and availability. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe shoot apical meristem of Sinapis alba L. expands its central symplasmic field during the floral transition
Ormenese, Sandra ULg; Havelange, Andrée ULg; Bernier, Georges ULg et al

in Planta (2002), 215(1), 67-78

The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is functionally subdivided into zones with distinct tasks. During vegetative growth the peripheral zone of the meristem gives rise to leaf primordia that develop into ... [more ▼]

The shoot apical meristem (SAM) is functionally subdivided into zones with distinct tasks. During vegetative growth the peripheral zone of the meristem gives rise to leaf primordia that develop into dorsiventral leaves under the influence of signals from the central zone. During the floral transition the function of the SAM is altered and its peripheral zone starts to form floral structures in a specific pattern. This requires alterations in the signal networks that coordinate the activities of the peripheral and central zone of the SAM. These signal networks are partly housed in the symplasmic space of the SAM. Dye-coupling experiments demonstrate that in the superficial layer of the Sinapis alba meristem this space is radially subdivided. The cells of the central zone are coupled into a symplasmic field, which is shielded from the peripheral zone by the positional closing of plasmodesmata. In the vegetative meristems, most of these central symplasmic fields have a triangular geometry and are relatively small in size. Plants that are induced to flower by exposure to a single long day alter the geometry as well as the size of their central symplasmic field. After two subsequent days under short photoperiod the central symplasmic fields exhibit a circular form. Simultaneously. their size strongly increases both in an absolute sense and relative to the enlarging meristem. The geometric change in the fields is hypothesized to be due to recruitment of extra initial cells, required to support the increase in phyllotactic complexity. The proportional increase in field size is interpreted as an adjustment in the balance between the central and peripheral zone of the SAM, accompanying the shift from leaf production to flower formation. [less ▲]

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See detailTime-resolved laser-induced fluorescence lifetime measurements and theoretical transition probabilities in Tb III
Biémont, Emile ULg; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Quinet, Pascal ULg et al

in Physical Review A (2002), 65(5),

Lifetimes of four short-lived levels belonging to the 4f(8)(F-7)6p configuration of Tb III have been measured using a two-step excitation time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. They agree ... [more ▼]

Lifetimes of four short-lived levels belonging to the 4f(8)(F-7)6p configuration of Tb III have been measured using a two-step excitation time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique. They agree quite well with multiconfigurational relativistic Hartree-Fock calculations performed with inclusion of core-polarization effects. Using the experimental lifetimes and the theoretical branching fractions, a set of transition probabilities has been deduced for this ion. [less ▲]

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See detailSpatially resolved far ultraviolet spectroscopy of the jovian aurora
Gustin, Jacques ULg; Grodent, Denis ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Icarus: International Journal of Solar System Studies (2002), 157(1), 91-103

Spatially resolved spectra in four 50-Angstrom FUV spectral windows were obtained across the jovian aurora with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Nearly ... [more ▼]

Spatially resolved spectra in four 50-Angstrom FUV spectral windows were obtained across the jovian aurora with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Nearly simultaneous ultraviolet imaging makes it possible to correlate the intensity variations along the STIS slit with those observed in the images and to characterize the global auroral context prevailing at the time of the observations. Spectra at similar to1-Angstrom resolution taken in pairs included an unabsorbed window and a spectral region affected by hydrocarbon absorption. Both sets of spectra correspond to an aurora with a main oval brightness of about 130 kilorayleighs of H-2 emission. The far ultraviolet color ratios I(1550-1620 Angstrom)/I(1230-1300 Angstrom) are 2.3 and 5.9 for the noon and morning sectors of the main oval, respectively. We use an interactive model coupling the energy degradation of incoming energetic electrons, auroral temperature and composition, and synthetic H2 spectra to fit the intensity distribution of the H2 lines. It is found that the model best fitting globally the spectra has a soft energy component in addition to a 10 erg cm(-2) s(-1) flux of 80 keV electrons. It provides an effective H2 temperature of 540 K. The relative intensity of temperature-sensitive H-2 lines indicates differences between the auroral main oval and polar cap emissions. The amount of methane absorption across the polar region is shown to vary in a way consistent with temperature. For the second spectral pair, the polar cap shows a higher attenuation by CH4, indicating a harder precipitation along high-latitude magnetic field lines. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). [less ▲]

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See detailMaladie de Cushing et adénome corticotrope: résultats de la microchirurgie hypophysaire
Stevenaert, Achille ULg; Perrin, G.; Martin, Didier ULg et al

in Neuro-Chirurgie (2002), 48(2-3, Pt 2), 234-265

Between November 1994 and June 2001, 194 patients with Cushing's disease underwent transsphenoidal surgery: 167 patients had adenomectomy, 14 had ante hypophysectomy, 5 had subtotal hypophysectomy, 4 had ... [more ▼]

Between November 1994 and June 2001, 194 patients with Cushing's disease underwent transsphenoidal surgery: 167 patients had adenomectomy, 14 had ante hypophysectomy, 5 had subtotal hypophysectomy, 4 had hemihypophysectomy 4 had central hypophysectomy. Complications occurred in 18 patients (9.3%), including 4 deaths (three were apparently not related to surgery). Remission of disease was achieved in 162 of 190 (85.3%) patients analyzed. Surgical failures were associated with lack of pituitary adenoma, size of the tumor and invasiveness. Among patients with confirmed adenomas, the rate of remission was significantly higher (p<0.01) in patients with microadenomas (92.6%) than in patients with macroadenomas (66.7%). Reoperation in 6 failures was followed by remission in 4 cases. The overall remission rate was 87.4%. In the 162 patients with immediate success, duration of follow-up was 10.0 +/- 5.9 years (m +/- DS; median=10.0). Recurrence of the disease occurred in 24 (14.8%) of 162 patients at a mean 4.8 years (range: 0.8-12.0 years). Our longest sustained remission is 25.6 years. Actuarial analysis indicates that the probability of a patient remaining well 12 years after surgery is 80.0%. It is 86.2% in microadenomas versus 52.5% in macroadenomas and 94.5% in the patients with postoperative hypocortisolism versus 59.2% in the others. [less ▲]

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See detailConstitutive nuclear factor-kappa B activity preserves homeostasis of quiescent mature lymphocytes and granulocytes by controlling the expression of distinct Bcl-2 family proteins
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Vanderplasschen, Alain ULg; Jaspar, Fabrice ULg et al

in Blood (2002), 99(10), 3683-3691

Constitutive nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) activity protects quiescent mature Immune cells from spontaneous apoptosis. Here, we examined whether NF-kappaB exerts its antiapoptotic function in these ... [more ▼]

Constitutive nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) activity protects quiescent mature Immune cells from spontaneous apoptosis. Here, we examined whether NF-kappaB exerts its antiapoptotic function in these cells through the control of Bcl-2 family proteins. Specific pharmacologic inhibitors of NF-kappaB were used to achieve total NF-kappaB inactivation In quiescent human blood lymphocytes, granulocytes, and monocytes. NF-kappaB inhibition induced drastic lymphocyte and granulocyte apoptosis, but only moderate monocyte apoptosis. T- and B-cell apoptosis was slow and associated with a gradual down-regulation of the prosurvival Bcl-2 family proteins Bcl-X-L and BcI-2, respectively. By contrast, granulocyte apoptosis was fast and accompanied by a rapid cellular accumulation of Bcl-x(s), the proapoptotic Bcl-x isoform that is generated from alternative splicing of the bcl-x pre-mRNA. Finally, antisense bci-x(L) and bcl-2 knockdown in T and B cells, respectively, and induction of Bcl-xs expression in granulocytes through antisense oligonucleotide-mediated redirection of bcl-x pre-mRNA splicing were sufficient to induce significant apoptosis in these cells. Taken together, these results reveal that basal NF-kappaB activity preserves homeostasis of quiescent mature lymphocytes and granulocytes through regulation of distinct members of the Bcl-2 family. This study sheds light on the constitutive mechanisms by which NF-kappaB maintains defense integrity. (C) 2002 by The American Society of Hematology. [less ▲]

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See detailPlasma trypsin level in horses suffering from acute intestinal obstruction
Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Gangl, M.; Deby, Ginette ULg et al

in Veterinary Journal (2002), 163(3), 283-291

Gastrointestinal disorders in horses leading to endotoxic shock could have further consequences on other splanchnic organs such as the pancreas, as can be seen in humans suffering from septic shock. In ... [more ▼]

Gastrointestinal disorders in horses leading to endotoxic shock could have further consequences on other splanchnic organs such as the pancreas, as can be seen in humans suffering from septic shock. In this study, the range of enzymatically active trypsin (EAT) in healthy horses was established and is similar to the range observed in healthy humans. EAT values were determined in horses with acute abdominal crises on admission as well as during anaesthesia and in the postoperative phase. A significant increase in plasma EAT was found in 59% of the horses with surgical colic when compared to our established reference range. Significantly higher values were found in severe shock cases. When separated in groups according to the duration of colic before referral, significantly higher EAT values were observed in the non-survivor group compared to the survivor group of colics of short duration. EAT plasma values increased significantly during the postoperative phase, and were significantly higher in small intestine obstructions than in large bowel disorders. In human medicine, hypovolaemic or septic shock patients show an increase in pancreatic proteases. Splanchnic hypoperfusion during shock could lead to pancreatic damage resulting in trypsin liberation into the peritoneal space and an increase in plasma levels. Trypsin is able to activate inflammatory cascades and leucocytes and could play a role in multiple organ failure. Further studies are needed to evaluate the implications of changes in plasma trypsin in the disease process of equine acute abdomen and to demonstrate possible pancreatic damage. [less ▲]

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See detailMycophenolate mofetil monotherapy in stable liver transplant recipients with progressive renal failure
Detry, Olivier ULg; De Roover, Arnaud ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2002), 34(3), 782-783

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See detailPost-sensitisation conditioned hyperlocomotion induced by cocaine is augmented as a function of dose in C57BL/6J mice
Michel, Alexa ULg; Tirelli, Ezio ULg

in Behavioural Brain Research (2002), 132(2), 179-186

The study tested the possibility of a positive relationship between the dose of cocaine and the size of the placebo effect generated after contextual sensitisation to the behavioural effects of cocaine ... [more ▼]

The study tested the possibility of a positive relationship between the dose of cocaine and the size of the placebo effect generated after contextual sensitisation to the behavioural effects of cocaine. Male C57BL/6J mice were first injected (subcutaneous, s.c.) over seven successive daily sessions with saline or one of three doses of cocaine (2.5, 5 or 7.5 mg/kg), either in the test room or in the colony room (before being placed in a novel cage tub). On the test day, 24 h after chronic pre-treatment, mice from the four conditions were challenged under saline in the test room. Mice were video-recorded and their behaviours were scored using a time-sampling technique. A dose-dependent development of sensitisation was first generated. On the saline challenge test day, significant levels of placebo hyperlocomotion were obtained for mice previously given 5 and 7.5 mg/kg, but not 2.5 mg/kg cocaine, the effect being significantly greater in the mice pretreated with the highest dose than in those receiving the intermediate one, which exhibited a placebo effect that was greater than that of the mice pretreated with 2.5 mg/kg cocaine. Therefore, the magnitude of the placebo effect was a function of the intensity of the unconditioned stimulus (the dose used to generate sensitisation). Such results directly support the Pavlovian conditioning account of post-sensitisation placebo effects. [less ▲]

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See detailIntracellular free iron content of rat liver tissue after cold ischemia
Pincemail, Joël ULg; Sergent, O.; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2002), 34(3), 759-761

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See detailDetermination of the free/included piroxicam ratio in cyclodextrin complexes: comparison between UV spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry
Van Hees, Thierry ULg; Piel, Géraldine ULg; Henry de Hassonville, Sandrine et al

in European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2002), 15(4), 347-353

Few analytical techniques allow to evaluate the inclusion yield of cyclodextrin-drug complexes, because most manufacturing processes give amorphous products, In this study we have developed an alternative ... [more ▼]

Few analytical techniques allow to evaluate the inclusion yield of cyclodextrin-drug complexes, because most manufacturing processes give amorphous products, In this study we have developed an alternative method to differential scanning calorimetry, to accurately determine the free/complexed piroxicam ratio by UV spectroscopy. This method is based on the differential solubility of the piroxicam-beta-cyclodextrin 1:2.5 mol/mol complex in water-acetonitrile (1:1 v/v) (Solvent A) or in anhydrous acetonitrile (Solvent B). both containing 0.05 M HCl. In anhydrous acetonitrile, beta-cyclodextrin is insoluble and the included drug remains entrapped, allowing the free piroxicam determination, while with 50% of water, the complex is totally dissolved, allowing the determination of the total guest content. This method was validated for linearity, precision and accuracy. The presence of cyclodextrin does not influence the assays, but more than 0.5% of water in Solvent B significantly affects the determination of the free piroxicam content. In comparison with differential scanning calorimetry, both delectability and precision were improved. It is now possible to analyse complexes with an inclusion purity greater than 99%. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic differentiel et traitement medical dans la maladie de Cushing.
Beckers, Albert ULg; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Betea, Daniela ULg et al

in Neuro-Chirurgie (2002), 48(2-3 Pt 2), 163-172

Cushing's disease remains a difficult diagnosis in spite of new technical procedures such as pituitary MRI, selective bilateral petrosal or cavernous sampling, (111)In pentreotide scan and 18 ... [more ▼]

Cushing's disease remains a difficult diagnosis in spite of new technical procedures such as pituitary MRI, selective bilateral petrosal or cavernous sampling, (111)In pentreotide scan and 18 Flurodeoxyglucose pituitary PET scan. In this article, we review biological diagnostic procedures of Cushing's disease and corticotroph adenomas. According to our experience and the literature, we summarize the approach in medical treatment of Cushing's disease. [less ▲]

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See detailFibromyalgie et performances musculaires
Maquet, Didier ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Renard, Cécile ULg et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme [Ed Fr] (2002), 69(3), 518-525

Objectifs. Évaluer la fonction musculaire d’un groupe de patientes fibromyalgiques et la comparer à celle d’une population féminine de référence. Méthodes. Seize patientes fibromyalgiques et 87 sujets ... [more ▼]

Objectifs. Évaluer la fonction musculaire d’un groupe de patientes fibromyalgiques et la comparer à celle d’une population féminine de référence. Méthodes. Seize patientes fibromyalgiques et 87 sujets sains féminins sédentaires ou sportifs de loisir ont exécuté un protocole expérimental composé de quatre épreuves. La première évaluait le moment de force isocinétique concentrique maximum des muscles extenseurs et fléchisseurs du genou dominant. Un dynamomètre de Colin autorisait une mesure de la force manuelle isométrique. La résistance musculaire à la fatigue s’appréciait lors d’une épreuve isocinétique de flexion–extension des genoux : le sujet enchaînait 30 contractions concentriques d’intensité maximale à la vitesse angulaire de 180 °/s. La dernière épreuve évaluait l’endurance musculaire statique à l’aide de tests exigeant le maintien d’une position donnée. Résultats. Toutes les variables musculaires apparaissaient réduites chez les sujets fibromyalgiques. Ce déficit, déjà manifeste pour les efforts anaérobiques, s’accentuait lors des efforts en aérobie. Le déficit moyen correspondait à 39 % (p < 0,001) pour la force musculaire, 40 % (p < 0,0001) pour la résistance musculaire à la fatigue et 81 % (p < 0,0001) pour l’endurance musculaire statique. Les perceptions nociceptives au cours de l’effort, évaluées à l’aide d’une échelle visuelle analogique, étaient supérieures chez les patientes fibromyalgiques. Conclusion. L’exploration combinée des trois filières énergétiques confirme l’altération générale de la fonction musculaire du sujet fibromyalgique. Cette étude suggère cependant une perturbation préférentielle des composantes oxydatives. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation de l'huile de chaîne à base végétale
Debouche, Charles ULg; Novak, Marie Hélène; Sonneville, G.

in Forêt Wallonne (2002), 58

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See detailAn empirical formula for L line X-ray production cross-section of elements from Ag to U for protons below 3.5 MeV
Strivay, David ULg; Weber, Georges ULg

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research. Section B, Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms (2002), 190

When computing element concentration from proton induced X-ray emission analysis, an important parameter is the X-ray production cross-section. There have been numerous experimental and theoretical works ... [more ▼]

When computing element concentration from proton induced X-ray emission analysis, an important parameter is the X-ray production cross-section. There have been numerous experimental and theoretical works in this field. Nonetheless, although there is a simple analytical formula to compute K X-ray cross-sections, there is no such ones for the L lines. We present here analytical formulas for the cross-section of the three main X-ray lines L-alpha L-beta and L-gamma based on experimental data. So far, nearly 3000 values of cross-sections for elements from Ag to U and proton energy ranging from 0.5 to 3.5 MeV have been collected from various references. This experimental data set has been fitted for each Xray line with an exponential function depending on the proton energy and on the element atomic number. These fitted values have then been compared to the experimental data and with theoretical values obtained by the ECPSSR theory and Coster-Kronig fluorescence yields. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe fate of the Blal repressor during the induction of the Bacillus licheniformis BlaP beta-lactamase
Filée, Patrice ULg; Benlafya, Kamal; Delmarcelle, Michaël ULg et al

in Molecular Microbiology (2002), 44(3), 685-694

The induction of the Staphylococcus aureus BlaZ and Bacillus licheniformis 749/l BIaP beta-lactamases by beta-lactam antibiotics occurs according to similar processes. In both bacteria, the products of ... [more ▼]

The induction of the Staphylococcus aureus BlaZ and Bacillus licheniformis 749/l BIaP beta-lactamases by beta-lactam antibiotics occurs according to similar processes. In both bacteria, the products of the blal and blaR1 genes share a high degree of sequence homology and act as repressors and penicillin-sensory transducers respectively. It has been shown in S. aureus that the Blal repressor, which controls the expression of BlaZ negatively, is degraded after the addition of the inducer. In the present study, we followed the fate of Blal during beta-lactamase induction in B. licheniformis 749/l and in a recombinant Bacillus subtilis 168 strain harbouring the pDML995 plasmid, which carries the B. licheniformis blaP, blal and blaR1 genes. In contrast to the situation in B. licheniformis 749/l, beta-lactamase induction in B. subtilis 168/pDML995 was not correlated with the proteolysis of Blal. To exclude molecular variations undetectable by SDS-PAGE, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was performed with cellular extracts from uninduced or induced B. subtilis 168/pDML995 cells. No variation in the Blal isoelectric point was observed in induced cells, whereas the DNA-binding property was lost. Cross-linking experiments with dithiobis(succimidylpropionate) confirmed that, in uninduced recombinant B. subtilis cells, Blat was present as a homodimer and that this situation was not altered in induced conditions. This latter result is incompatible with a mechanism of inactivation of Blal by proteolysis and suggests that the inactivation of Blal results from a non-covalent modification by a co-activator and that the subsequent proteolysis of Blal might be a secondary phenomenon. In addition to the presence of this co-activator, our results show that the presence of penicillin stress is also required for full induction of beta-lactamase biosynthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailMuscle performance in patients with fibromyalgia
Maquet, Didier ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Renard, Cindy ULg et al

in Joint Bone Spine (2002), 69(3), 293-299

Objectives. To compare muscle performance in women with fibromyalgia and in healthy women. Patients and methods. Sixteen women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and 85 healthy women who were physically ... [more ▼]

Objectives. To compare muscle performance in women with fibromyalgia and in healthy women. Patients and methods. Sixteen women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and 85 healthy women who were physically inactive or engaged in recreational sports underwent measurements of four parameters: maximal concentric isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors in the dominant limb, isometric grip strength on a Colin dynamometer, muscle fatigue resistance during 30 maximal concentric isokinetic contractions of the dominant knee flexors and extensors at 180° angular velocity, and static endurance during posture maintenance. Results. All muscle variables were decreased in the FMS patients as compared to the controls.The decreases were more marked during aerobic than during anaerobic exercise.Mean decreases were 39% (P<0.001) for muscle strength, 40% (P<0.0001) for fatigue resistance, and 81% (P<0.0001) for static endurance. Pain during exercise as evaluated using a visual analog scale was more marked in the FMS patients. Conclusion. This study of the three pathways supplying energy to muscle confirms that muscle function is globally impaired in FMS patients.The results suggest that the impairment predominates on aerobic processes. [less ▲]

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See detailImmobilization of actinide ions in thin layers of polypyrrole/polyacrylamidoglycolic acid (PPy/PAGA) composite. Application to the preparation of alpha spectrometry sources
Leroy, D.; Martinot, Lucien; Mignosin, P. et al

in Radiochimica Acta (2002), 90(5), 279-284

We propose a new fully aqueous electrochemical method for the preparation of high resolution alpha sources. Thin films of polypyrrole (PPy) are prepared by anodic electropolymerization, starting from ... [more ▼]

We propose a new fully aqueous electrochemical method for the preparation of high resolution alpha sources. Thin films of polypyrrole (PPy) are prepared by anodic electropolymerization, starting from aqueous solutions of the pyrrole monomer and an anionic polyelectrolyte which is able to complex actinide and play the role of PPy doping agent: polyacrylamidoglycolic acid (PAGA). These thin films can be prepared on various electrodes: stainless steel, platinum, glassy carbon and polyethylene doped by carbon-black. Peeling tests revealed their strong adhesion on stainless steel electrode. Alpha sources were prepared by simple immersion in actinide containing solutions. This easy process results in alpha sources with outstanding energy resolution (FWHM: around 9 keV for various isotopes). [less ▲]

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See detailMaladie de Cushing et adénome corticotrope: fonctions antéhypophysaires avant et après microchirurgie transsphénoidale
Martin, Didier ULg; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Beckers, Albert ULg et al

in Neuro-Chirurgie (2002), 48(2-3, Pt 2), 226-233

Background and purpose. - Cushing's disease is characterized by an overproduction of ACTH inducing an hypersecretion of corticosteroids. We assessed the non-corticotrophic pituitary functions before and ... [more ▼]

Background and purpose. - Cushing's disease is characterized by an overproduction of ACTH inducing an hypersecretion of corticosteroids. We assessed the non-corticotrophic pituitary functions before and after microsurgical resection of the corticotrophic adenoma. Methods. - We reviewed retrospectively a series of 98 patients (19 males, 79 females) undergoing transsphenoidal surgery between 1974 and 2001. Prolactin levels, somatrotrophic, gonadotrophic and thyroidotrophic functions were assessed and compared before and after resection of the adenoma. Results. - Before surgery, we observed an elevation of prolactin and a reduction of the GH, TSH, LH and FSH levels. These modifications were not linked to the volume of the adenoma but depended on the systemic effect of the hypercorticism or on local paracrine mechanisms. Selective adenomectomy usually restored altered corticotrophic and also, unlike (partial or total) hypophysectomy, the non-corticotrophic functions. Conclusions. - Non-corticotrophic functions are often altered in Cushing's disease but can be restored after selective adenomectomy. [less ▲]

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See detailTroubles anxieux et pathologies organiques: un diagnostic differentiel difficile
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Fuchs, Sonia; Lancellotti, Patrizio ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(5), 303-306

The diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include symptoms commonly experienced by patients with organic diseases. We report a case of coronary artery spasm in a patient with chest pain, exhibiting ... [more ▼]

The diagnostic criteria for panic disorder include symptoms commonly experienced by patients with organic diseases. We report a case of coronary artery spasm in a patient with chest pain, exhibiting atypical characteristics, and accompanied by symptoms of nervousness. The approach and the management of anxiety disorders are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimal extraction of multiple overlapping spectra using a maximum entropy algorithm
Khmil, S. V.; Surdej, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 387(1), 347-355

A general algorithm of slit spectra extraction for a system of point-like sources (e.g. multiple lensed images of a quasar) has been developed, assuming that the point-spread function (PSF) induced by the ... [more ▼]

A general algorithm of slit spectra extraction for a system of point-like sources (e.g. multiple lensed images of a quasar) has been developed, assuming that the point-spread function (PSF) induced by the measuring instrument and/or atmosphere and the positions of the spectra relative to the CCD frame are unknown. The main idea of the algorithm is to successively apply the maximum entropy method to each set of parameters, such as the spectra, the PSF, and the spectra positions, in order to iteratively improve their values. The algorithm uses all the a priori knowledge about the spectra (e.g. flux positivity, flux ratios between the components, astrometry, etc.) to compute the initial parameter sets. The main features of the algorithm, its implementation, as well as some important aspects of its practical use, are discussed in detail. Two sets of simulated spectroscopic data have been built in order to show the most characteristic properties of the algorithm and to justify its aplication to the spectra extraction of the gravitational lens system Q1009-0252 A [less ▲]

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See detailInterest of a prescreening questionnaire to reduce the cost of bone densitometry
Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Broers, P.; Devogelaer, J. P. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2002), 13(5), 434-442

Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is widely recognized as the best single tool to identify patients with a high lifetime risk of developing an osteoporosis-related fracture. However, the cost/benefit ... [more ▼]

Bone mineral density (BMD) measurement is widely recognized as the best single tool to identify patients with a high lifetime risk of developing an osteoporosis-related fracture. However, the cost/benefit value of screening the whole population has been repeatedly challenged and demonstrated to be rather poor. In many countries, BMD scan is not or no longer reimbursed because of lack of validated criteria to identify patients who should benefit from this procedure. Based on the proposals of a nationwide expert panel, a simple questionnaire identifying historical, clinical and behavioral risk factors for osteoporosis was developed. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the proposed criteria; to determine the extent to which this questionnaire could be useful for optimizing the use of densitometry tests; and, more specifically, to estimate the diagnostic costs per osteoporotic or osteopenic patient detected. For this purpose, we applied the questionnaire to 3998 consecutive individuals at least 20 years old, of both genders, either consulting spontaneously or referred for a BMD measurement to an outpatient osteoporosis center. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the lumbar spine and at the hip (both total hip and femoral neck). Diagnostic accuracies were evaluated through measures of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. After determining a benchmark value for age, different strategies were compared in order to identify the most cost-effective one in terms of cost per patient detected. According to the WHO operational definition of osteoporosis (T-score <-2.5), 31% of the subjects were classified as osteoporotic at one or more of the measured sites. If only patients with at least one of the proposed risk factors had been referred for scans, 33.3% of the BMD measurements would have been avoided. Among those, less than 5% were missclassified as they did have osteoporosis at the total hip and up to 23% at one or more of the considered sites. On the other hand, of the subjects who would be recommended for a densitometry test, only a small fraction were identified correctly (the positive predictive values varied from 11.3% at the total hip to 34.8% at any site). In this first setting, the suggested criteria seem useful chiefly for excluding subjects who do not need a DXA scan rather than selecting osteoporotic patients. When applied only to patients aged 61 years or more, the positive predictive values rose to 15.1% (total hip) and 42.9% (any site), whereas the corresponding negative predictive values were set at 93% and 68.6%. In comparison, with a mass screening scenario the estimated diagnostic costs (costs associated with the DXA procedure) per osteoporotic patient detected at any of the considered sites would be reduced by more than 9% (59.4 instead of 65.3 Euros) if the suggested indications are taken into account for prescreening patients. And when the questionnaire is applied only to women over the age of 60 years these costs would be further reduced to 50.6 Euros, representing a 23% decrease. Then, a prescreening strategy based on these indications concomitantly with an age-selective criterion could represent a promising way toward a more rational use of BMD measurement. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of perioperative infusion of antioxidants on neutrophil activation during liver transplantation in humans
Biasi, F.; Poli, G.; Salizzoni, M. et al

in Transplantation Proceedings (2002), 34(3), 755-758

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See detailPersistent infection of human thymic epithelial cells by coxsackievirus B4
Brilot, F.; Chehadeh, W.; Charlet-Renard, C. et al

in Journal of Virology (2002), 76(10), 5260-5265

Persistent replication of coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) E2 (diabetogenic) and CVB4 JBV (nondiabetogenic) strains in thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-enriched cultures (>or=95%) was proved by detection of positive ... [more ▼]

Persistent replication of coxsackievirus B4 (CVB4) E2 (diabetogenic) and CVB4 JBV (nondiabetogenic) strains in thymic epithelial cell (TEC)-enriched cultures (>or=95%) was proved by detection of positive- and negative-strand viral RNA by reverse transcription-PCR in extracted RNA from cell cultures, VP1 capsid protein detection by immunofluorescence (IF) staining, and release of infectious particles up to 30 days after infection without obvious cytolysis. By double-IF staining, cytokeratin-containing cells were shown to be susceptible to CVB4. The persistence of CVB4 was associated with a significantly increased rate of TEC proliferation (up to 70%) after 20 days of culture and a significantly increased chronic production of immunoreactive interleukin-6 (IL-6), leukemia inhibitory factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in supernatant after 3 days of culture. The CVB4 replication and the release of cytokines were not restricted to the CVB4 E2 diabetogenic strain and did not depend on the genetic background of the host; however, TEC were more responsive to CVB4 E2 than CVB4 JBV as far as the production of cytokines. [less ▲]

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See detailL'allocation pour l'aide d'une tierce personne et son indexation
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Lexius Actua (2002), 5

L'article fait le point sur l'aide d'une tierce personne en accident du travail et sur l'indexation de cette allocation.

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See detailByssoloma llimonae sp nov., from continental Spain, Madeira and the Canary Islands
Sérusiaux, Emmanuel ULg; Gomez-Bolea, A.; Longan, A. et al

in Lichenologist (2002), 34(Part 3), 183-188

Byssoloma llimonae, a new species described from NE Spain, Madeira and the Canary Islands (Gomera, La Palma and Tenerife), is a mostly corticolous species, closely related to the more widespread and ... [more ▼]

Byssoloma llimonae, a new species described from NE Spain, Madeira and the Canary Islands (Gomera, La Palma and Tenerife), is a mostly corticolous species, closely related to the more widespread and usually foliicolous Bapalmuia kakouettae (=Byssoloma aptrootii). The generic position of this group of species within the Pilocarpaceae is still unclear. The new combination Byssoloma kakouettae (Serus.) R. Lucking [less ▲]

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See detailStrychnohexamine from Strychnos icaja, a naturally occurring trimeric indolomonoterpenic alkaloid
Philippe, Geneviève ULg; Prost, E.; Nuzillard, J. M. et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2002), 43(18), 3387-3390

A reinvestigation of Strychnos icaja roots has resulted in the isolation, from the EtOAC extract, of one tertiary trisindole alkaloid, named strychnohexamine. Its structure has been investigated by means ... [more ▼]

A reinvestigation of Strychnos icaja roots has resulted in the isolation, from the EtOAC extract, of one tertiary trisindole alkaloid, named strychnohexamine. Its structure has been investigated by means of spectroscopic data interpretation (UV. IR. HRESIMS. 1D and 2D NMR). This is the first time that a natural trimeric indolomonoterpenic alkaloid has been isolated directly from a plant species. This compound is one of the largest alkaloids ever discovered. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailpH-Dependence of the morphology of micelles formed by poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) copolymers in water
Gohy, Jean-François; Mores, Sandrine; Varshney, Sunil K et al

in e-Polymers (2002), (21), 1-8

The morphology of micelles formed by two poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-b-PEO) copolymers has been studied in phosphate-buffered water by dynamic light scattering and transmission ... [more ▼]

The morphology of micelles formed by two poly(2-vinylpyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (P2VP-b-PEO) copolymers has been studied in phosphate-buffered water by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Spherical micelles are observed when the P2VP block is the minor component of the diblock copolymer. When P2VP dominates the composition, transition from spheres-to-rods-to-vesicles takes place in a narrow pH range that straddles the pKa of P2VP. This transition is controlled by the degree of protonation of the P2VP blocks. At high pH, the copolymer precipitates from the solution. [less ▲]

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See detailControlled ring-opening polymerization of epsilon-caprolactone in the presence of layered silicates and formation of nanocomposites
Kubies, Dana; Pantoustier, Nadège; Dubois, Philippe et al

in Macromolecules (2002), 35

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See detailThe origin of catecholaminergic inputs to the song control nucleus RA in canaries
Appeltants, D.; Ball, G. F.; Balthazart, Jacques ULg

in Neuroreport (2002), 13(5), 649-653

Song control nuclei in oscines receive dense catecholaminergic inputs but their anatomical origin is poorly understood. We analyzed catecholaminergic inputs to the nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA) in ... [more ▼]

Song control nuclei in oscines receive dense catecholaminergic inputs but their anatomical origin is poorly understood. We analyzed catecholaminergic inputs to the nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA) in canaries by retrograde tract-tracing combined with immunocytochemistry for tyrosine hydroxylase. In both sexes, dopaminergic inputs to RA come mostly from the A1 1 (mesencephalic central gray) and A10 (area ventralis of Tsai) cell groups but the locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus (A6) also send noradrenergic projections to RA. No input originates in the hypothalamic and in the A5 to A1 catecholaminergic groups. These findings and previous work on the high vocal center (HVc) indicate that the two major nuclei of the motor pathway controlling song production (RA and HVc) receive catecholaminergic inputs of similar origins. [less ▲]

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See detailLifetime measurements for doubly ionized uranium
Biémont, Emile ULg; Palmeri, P.; Quinet, Pascal ULg et al

in Journal of Physics B-Atomic Molecular and Optical Physics (2002), 35(7), 1701-1705

The first lifetime measurements for doubly ionized uranium are reported in the present work. They relate to five levels belonging to the configurations 5f(2)6d(2), 5f(2)6d7s and 5f(3)7p and have been ... [more ▼]

The first lifetime measurements for doubly ionized uranium are reported in the present work. They relate to five levels belonging to the configurations 5f(2)6d(2), 5f(2)6d7s and 5f(3)7p and have been obtained with a time-resolved laser-induced-fluorescence technique, the ions being produced by laser ablation of a uranium oxide target. [less ▲]

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See detailSubdivision of the helix-turn-helix GntR family of bacterial regulators in the FadR, HutC, MocR, and YtrA subfamilies
Rigali, Sébastien ULg; Derouaux, Adeline ULg; Giannotta, F. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2002), 277(15), 12507-12515

Haydon and Guest (Haydon, D. J, and Guest, J. R. (1991) FEMS Microbiol Lett. 63, 291-295) first described the helix-turn-helix GntR family of bacterial regulators. They presented them as transcription ... [more ▼]

Haydon and Guest (Haydon, D. J, and Guest, J. R. (1991) FEMS Microbiol Lett. 63, 291-295) first described the helix-turn-helix GntR family of bacterial regulators. They presented them as transcription factors sharing a similar N-terminal DNA-binding (D-b) domain, but they observed near-maximal divergence in the C-terminal effector-binding and oligomerization (E-b/O) domain. To elucidate this C-terminal heterogeneity, structural, phylogenetic, and functional analyses were performed on a family that now comprises about 270 members. Our comparative study first focused on the C-terminal E-b/O domains and next on DNA-binding domains and palindromic operator sequences, has classified the GntR members into four subfamilies that we called FadR, HutC, MocR, and YtrA. Among these subfamilies a degree of similarity of about 55% was observed throughout the entire sequence. Structure/function associations were highlighted although they were not absolutely stringent. The consensus sequences deduced for the DNA-binding domain were slightly different for each subfamily, suggesting that fusion between the D-b and E-b/O domains have occurred separately, with each subfamily having its own D-b domain ancestor. Moreover, the compilation of the known or predicted palindromic cis-acting elements has highlighted different operator sequences according to our subfamily subdivision. The observed C-terminal E-b/O domain heterogeneity was therefore reflected on the DNA-binding domain and on the cis-acting elements, suggesting the existence of a tight link between the three regions involved in the regulating process. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrografting of preformed aliphatic polyesters onto metallic surfaces
Lou, Xudong; Jérôme, Christine ULg; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Langmuir (2002), 18(7), 2785-2788

Preformed aliphatic polyesters bearing pendent acrylate groups, poly(4-acryloyloxy-epsilon-caprolactone)co-epsilon-caprolactone) [poly(ACL-co-epsilonCL)], were grafted onto metallic surfaces by a cathodic ... [more ▼]

Preformed aliphatic polyesters bearing pendent acrylate groups, poly(4-acryloyloxy-epsilon-caprolactone)co-epsilon-caprolactone) [poly(ACL-co-epsilonCL)], were grafted onto metallic surfaces by a cathodic electrochemical process. Content of acrylates must exceed a lower limit for them to be adsorbed on the cathode with the proper orientation and for the grafting to be successful. The strongly adhering films were analyzed by IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. As a result of the known miscibility of poly-e-caprolactone with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), the pregrafting of poly(ACL-co-epsilonCL) imparts strong adhesion to PVC topcoats. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of non-adiabatic temperature variations on line profile variations of slowly rotating beta Cephei stars and SPBs. II. Simulations of line profile time series
De Ridder, J.; Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; Neuforge, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 385

We investigate to what extent non-adiabatic temperature variations at the surface of slowly rotating non-radially pulsating beta Cephei stars and slowly pulsating B stars affect silicon line profile ... [more ▼]

We investigate to what extent non-adiabatic temperature variations at the surface of slowly rotating non-radially pulsating beta Cephei stars and slowly pulsating B stars affect silicon line profile variations. We use the non-adiabatic amplitudes of the effective temperature and gravity variation presented in Dupret et al. (\cite{Dupret02}), together with a Kurucz intensity grid, to compute time series of line profile variations. Our simulations point out that the line shapes do not change significantly due to temperature variations. We find equivalent width variations of at most two percent of the mean equivalent width. We confront our results with observational equivalent width variations and with photometrically obtained effective temperature variations. Based on observations obtained with the Swiss photometric telescope and with the ESO/CAT telescope, at La Silla in Chile. [less ▲]

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See detailHadronic scattering amplitudes: Medium-energy constraints on asymptotic behavior
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Ezhela, Vladimir V.; Gauron, P. et al

in Physical Review. D (2002), 65(7),

We consider several classes of analytic parametrizations of hadronic scattering amplitudes, and compare their predictions to all available forward data (pp, (p) over barp, pip, Kp, gammap, gammagamma ... [more ▼]

We consider several classes of analytic parametrizations of hadronic scattering amplitudes, and compare their predictions to all available forward data (pp, (p) over barp, pip, Kp, gammap, gammagamma, Sigmap). Although these parametrizations are very close for rootsgreater than or equal to9 GeV, it turns out that they differ markedly at low energy, where a universal Pomeron term similar toln(2)s enables one to extend the fit down to roots=4 GeV. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of non-adiabatic temperature variations on line profile variations of slowly rotating beta Cep stars and SPBs. I. Non-adiabatic eigenfunctions in the atmosphere of a pulsating star
Dupret, Marc-Antoine ULg; De Ridder, J.; Neuforge, C. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2002), 385

In this study, we compute theoretical line profiles of a non-radially pulsating star, taking the non-adiabatic effects into account. These non-adiabatic effects are especially important in the atmosphere ... [more ▼]

In this study, we compute theoretical line profiles of a non-radially pulsating star, taking the non-adiabatic effects into account. These non-adiabatic effects are especially important in the atmosphere, where the spectral lines are formed, and must be accounted for. In this first paper of the series, we present a new treatment of the perturbed thermal and dynamical equations in the atmosphere of a pulsating star. We apply our formalism to the computation of non-adiabatic eigenfunctions in a typical beta Cephei star with low order p-modes and in a typical slowly pulsating B star with high-order g-modes. [less ▲]

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See detailV4741 Sagittarii
Gosset, Eric ULg

in International Astronomical Union Circular (2002), 7887

IAUC 7887 available at Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams.

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See detailLe syndrome des ongles verts ou chloronychie
Maes, M.; Richert, Bertrand ULg; de LA BRASSINNE, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2002), 57(4), 233-235

"Green nails" or chloronychia is an infection mostly caused by Pseudomonas ueruginosa but also by other bacterial or fungal contamination. The clinical appearance consists in a typical triad: green ... [more ▼]

"Green nails" or chloronychia is an infection mostly caused by Pseudomonas ueruginosa but also by other bacterial or fungal contamination. The clinical appearance consists in a typical triad: green discoloration of the nail plate associated with proximal chronic paronychia and disto-lateral onycholysis. Exposition to moist environment, microtraumatisms, oaychotillomania and associated nail diseases such as psoriasis may promote infection by Pseudomonas. Treatment consists in cutting of the detached nail plate, brushing the nail bed with a 2% sodium hypochlorite solution twice daily and eviction of the repeated immersions by wearing cotton and latex gloves. [less ▲]

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See detailBiometry and paleoenvironment of Retispora lepidophyta (Kedo) Playford 1976 and associated miospores in the latest Famennian nearshore marine facies, eastern Ardenne (Belgium)
Maziane, N.; Higgs, K. T.; Streel, Maurice ULg

in Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology (2002), 118(1-avr Sp. Iss. SI), 211-226

The size diameter of Retispora lepidophyta, a stratigraphically important miospore, is reexamined in greater detail than in previous studies using three sections of the latest Famennian nearshore marine ... [more ▼]

The size diameter of Retispora lepidophyta, a stratigraphically important miospore, is reexamined in greater detail than in previous studies using three sections of the latest Famennian nearshore marine facies of the eastern Ardenne. The evolutionary character of the size reduction with time is confirmed and is used for accurate correlations between the three sections. Cluster analyses (dendrograms) are performed on the percentages of a selection of miospore species from the two most complete sections and show a clear analogy in the lateral distribution of R. lepidophyta and Vallatisporites hystricosus, a species known elsewhere (West Virginia, USA) to belong to coastal 'downstream' near-swamp plant communities [Streel and Scheckler, Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 64 (1990) 315-324]. By comparison also with the West Virginia data, three Diducites species are believed to represent the 'coal' swamp vegetation. A decrease in the proportion of the Diducites species from the lower to the upper portion of the studied sections is observed. Using biometric analysis, high resolution correlation between these sections reveals a lateral shift of facies with time during the latest Famennian in the eastern Ardenne. Local synsedimentary block-faulting processes were probably responsible. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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