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See detailNanoindentation and scanning force microscopy as a novel method for the characterization of tribological transfer films
Randall, N. X.; Bozet, Jean-Luc ULg

in Wear (1997), 212(1), 18-24

In conventional pin-on-disk testing of the tribological characteristics of two different materials in sliding contact, the main parameters of interest are notably the friction and wear properties of the ... [more ▼]

In conventional pin-on-disk testing of the tribological characteristics of two different materials in sliding contact, the main parameters of interest are notably the friction and wear properties of the material pair. However, when two bodies consisting of hard and soft materials respectively are subjected to such testing, the appearance of a transfer film, or third body, which can be a composite mixture of the two, is often observed. Until now the characterization of transfer films in terms of their mechanical properties has been hampered by their nonhomogeneous distribution across a tested surface, their small size, low thickness and the difficulty in accurately positioning a test probe such that the film properties can be measured independently from those of the substrate. In this paper a new method is introduced, consisting of nanoindentation and scanning force microscopy (SFM), which is capable of highly localized indentation testing of a specified sample site with high resolution imaging of the area prior to and after indentation. In this way the hardness and modulus of a transfer film can be obtained, as well as valuable surface topographical information concerning the material response to the indentation. Measurements are presented for the material pair A286/polyimide after testing on a pin-on-disk tribometer in ambient air and liquid nitrogen. Distinct variations in hardness between the transfer films and their contacting bodies have een observed and correlated to the wear behaviour and testing environment. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science S.A. [less ▲]

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See detailParathyroid Hormone in the Treatment of Involutional Osteoporosis: Back to the Future
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Taquet, A. N.; Fraikin, G. et al

in Osteoporosis International (1997), 7(Suppl 3), 163-8

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See detailEvaluation of some parameters influencing the drug delivery from a dry powder inhalation device using an in vitro model of the horse airways
Duvivier, Dominique Hannia; Chiap, Patrice ULg; Crommen, Jacques ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (1997), 28(6), 557-564

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breathing pattern, air humidity and position of the device on the delivery of an aerosol generated by a dry powder inhalation (DPI) device (Inhalator M ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine the effect of breathing pattern, air humidity and position of the device on the delivery of an aerosol generated by a dry powder inhalation (DPI) device (Inhalator M). The in vitro inhalation study was performed using the cascade impaction method (Andersen Sampler) adapted to imitate nasal breathing. The amount of ipratropium found in the device, the artificial upper airways and the six stages of the Andersen Sampler was measured using high precision liquid chromatography. Stage 1 of the Andersen Sampler was considered to be the respirable fraction and stages 2 to 6 to be the non-respirable fraction. It was concluded that the theoretical respirable fraction of ipratropium obtained after DPI through Inhalator M was influenced by relative air humidity, air flow and the position of the device, whereas the number of successive inspirations and the duration of inspiration did not affect this fraction of the drug. [less ▲]

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See detailRégime et tactique alimentaires de la loutre (Lutra lutra) dans le Massif Central
Libois, Roland ULg

in Vie et milieu (1997), 47(1), 33-45

Otter spaints were collected in 1991 on a seasonal basis in the river Chavanon catchment, a tributary of the river Dordogne, in central France. Small sized species (bullhead, three-spined stickleback ... [more ▼]

Otter spaints were collected in 1991 on a seasonal basis in the river Chavanon catchment, a tributary of the river Dordogne, in central France. Small sized species (bullhead, three-spined stickleback, gudgeon and minnow) are the most numerous items in the diet: they account for more than 50% of the 3,148 identified preys. However, when expressed in relative biomass, their importance falls down (8 %). In fact, the brown trout, large cyprinid fish, birds and mammals make up the bulk of the diet. We found strong differences linked to the general habitat types and also seasonal ones. Frogs are mainly preyed upon during the spring whereas the snakes are exclusively taken in the summer and autumn months. Gudgeon and insects are also mainly summer and autumn preys. Perch and large cyprinid fish remais are more frequent during winter and even spring. The present results confirm the opportunistic way of predation of the otter and the fact that its hunting takes place more on the bottom and along the river banks than in the open water. [less ▲]

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See detailSm-Nd signature of modern and late Quaternary sediments from the northwest North Atlantic: Implications for deep current changes since the Last Glacial Maximum
Innocent, C.; Fagel, Nathalie ULg; Stevenson, Ross et al

in Earth & Planetary Science Letters (1997), 146(3-4), 607-625

Nd isotopes and Sm-Nd concentrations have been investigated in the clay size fraction of surface and late Quaternary sediments of the northern North Atlantic. Four sources of Nd have been identified in ... [more ▼]

Nd isotopes and Sm-Nd concentrations have been investigated in the clay size fraction of surface and late Quaternary sediments of the northern North Atlantic. Four sources of Nd have been identified in the surface sediments: (1) a radiogenic Nd typical of the Iceland volcanism; (2) a ''Pan-African'' Nd issued from eastern Greenland; (3) a ''Variscan'' Nd derived from the Arctic Ocean; (4) an old unradiogenic Nd related to the North American Shield, In the Iceland and Irminger basins, the major sources of Nd are the Variscan Nd derived from the Arctic Ocean and the Iceland Nd, except in the western Irminger Basin where the Pan-African Nd originating from eastern Greenland is dominant and labels sedimentary supplies linked to the Denmark Strait Overflow Water, Nd derived from Icelandic volcanism is never clearly dominant, even on the Reykjanes Ridge, and the Nd derived from the American Shield becomes dominant only in the Labrador Sea, Sediments lying in the pathway of the Western Boundary Undercurrent have Nd isotopic compositions which are shifted towards more radiogenic values indicating an input of material from the eastern basins, carried by this deep current. Late Quaternary sediments were cored from the southern Greenland Rise (core 90-013-013) and eastern Labrador Rise (Orphan Knell; core 91-045-094). In core 90-013-013, epsilon Nd values during the Last Glacial Maximum are as low as -20, but subsequently rose to -9 in the modern sediments, indicating that the sedimentary material during the Last Glacial Maximum was dominated by unradiogenic Nd from the North American Shield. This may be related to a lesser outflow of the Western Boundary Undercurrent, In core 91-045-094, located along the Labrador Current trajectory, a dominant supply of North American Shield Nd is recorded, perhaps originating at least partially from the Hudson Strait, The Sm-Nd data are compatible with smectite vs. illite studies at the same sites which suggest a continuous but more modest Western Boundary Undercurrent supply during Last Glacial Maximum. [less ▲]

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See detailAppraisal of the validity of histamine-induced wheal and flare to predict the clinical efficacy of antihistamines.
Monroe, E. W.; Daly, Adrian ULg; Shalhoub, R. F.

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (The) (1997), 99(2), 798-806

Antihistaminic drugs have been used successfully for many years in the treatment of allergic diseases. Second-generation antihistamines have fewer sedating side effects than first-generation agents, and ... [more ▼]

Antihistaminic drugs have been used successfully for many years in the treatment of allergic diseases. Second-generation antihistamines have fewer sedating side effects than first-generation agents, and the number of newer drugs available for clinical use is growing. Various methods have been used to assess antihistaminic activity, the most popular of which is the epicutaneous histamine-induced wheal and flare. This test relies on the ability of epicutaneously injected histamine to bring about the wheal and flare, a neurovascular response that involves reflex vasodilation (flare) and local swelling caused by plasma extravasation (wheal). Antihistamines have been compared on the basis of their ability to block the histamine-induced wheal and flare in the skin. Results of these trials have been applied to predict the global antiallergic efficacy of various antihistamines. The review has examined the reliability of suppression of the histamine wheal and flare reaction in the skin to predict an antihistamine's clinical efficacy in two common allergic diseases seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. Although histamine is one mediator in the allergic response in the skin and nasal mucosa, many other agents are important modulators of the allergic response. In addition, the major structural and functional differences that exist between the nasal mucosa and the skin affect the type of local response. These manifest themselves as differences between the responses to antigen and histamine challenge in the skin and the nose. The allergic responses in these tissues are not simply the consequence of one chemical but are the result of a cascade of interactions among various cells and mediators. The clinical manifestations of these complex interactions obviously cannot be fully replicated by injection of one chemical mediator, histamine, into the outer layer of the skin. Studies with antihistamines have shown that certain drugs, such as cetirizine, are more suppressive than others (loratadine, terfenadine) in controlling the histamine-induced wheal and flare reaction in the skin. When the clinical efficacy of these medications is compared in clinical trials in seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria, all are equally efficacious in controlling symptoms. Although the histamine-induced wheal and flare reaction can serve as a useful clinical pharmacologic test to assess dose-response relations for an antihistamine, its lack of correlation with clinical responses among antihistamines indicates that this model should not be used to predict or compare clinical efficacies of antihistamines in seasonal allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. [less ▲]

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See detailProgramme EsQUIsE. Acquisition et interprétation de croquis d'architecture
Leclercq, Pierre ULg

in La lettre de l'IA (1997), 123

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See detailA la mémoire de Daniel P. Bobon, Mafhoud Boucebci, Amadeo Sanchez Blanque, Jean Mirel
Mormont, Christian ULg

in Acta Psychiatrica Belgica (1997), 97(Suppl. 1), 2-7

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See detailKarst non carbonaté au Cameroun méridional. L'exemple des grottes de Mfoula
Willems, Luc ULg; Pouclet, André; Vicat, Jean-Paul

in Würzburger Geographische Arbeiten (1997), 89

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See detailComparison of results of carotid artery surgery after either direct closure or use of a vein patch.
Desiron, Quentin ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg; Van Damme, Hendrik ULg et al

in Cardiovascular Surgery (1997), 5(3), 295-303

In order to assess the benefit of vein patching versus direct closure after carotid endarterectomy, a series of 2271 carotid operations were analysed retrospectively. Apart from 114 procedures consisting ... [more ▼]

In order to assess the benefit of vein patching versus direct closure after carotid endarterectomy, a series of 2271 carotid operations were analysed retrospectively. Apart from 114 procedures consisting of saphenous vein bypass (n = 29) and eversion endarterectomy (n = 85), 2157 open endarterectomies were performed. They were closed either directly (n = 837) or using a vein patch (n = 1320). The combined mortality-major neurological morbidity rate was 1.7%, i.e. 1% mortality (0.2% neurological) and 0.7% permanent neurological morbidity (0.5% ipsilateral to the operated artery). Early symptomatic internal carotid thrombosis was documented in six cases (four following direct closure and two after vein patching). A total of 827 carotid arteries were followed up by duplex scanning on an annual basis (244 direct closure and 583 vein patching). The mean follow-up was 44 months; 69 months for direct closure and 35 months for vein patching. In direct closure, there were 21 stenoses (9%) and 10 occult thromboses (4%); in vein patching carotids, there were 17 stenoses (3%), nine thromboses (1.8%) [corrected] and six pseudoaneurysms (1%). Annual incidence of poor results was 2.4% in direct closure, and 0.87% in vein patching. The only other factor responsible for a significant difference was gender (3.4% in women versus 2.1% in men). In this retrospective study, vein patching appears to be beneficial for the prevention of acute postoperative thrombosis and late stenosis or thrombosis. [less ▲]

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See detailFontes Graeci Sami, I. Η Σάμος στις πηγές από τον 8ο ως τον 6ο αι.
Vanhaegendoren, Koen ULg; Karla, Grammatiki

in Samiakes Meletēs (1997), 3

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See detailBankfull discharge recurrence interval in gravel bed rivers
Petit, François ULg; Pauquet, A.

in Earth Surface Processes & Landforms (1997)

Bankfull discharge was identified in some 30 gravel-bed rivers representing in total c. 40 gauging stations. The catchment sizes vary from 4km2 to nearly 2700km2. Bankfull discharge values increases with ... [more ▼]

Bankfull discharge was identified in some 30 gravel-bed rivers representing in total c. 40 gauging stations. The catchment sizes vary from 4km2 to nearly 2700km2. Bankfull discharge values increases with basin size. In the case of gravel-bed rivers developed on an impermeable substratum, the following equation emerges: Qb=0·087 A1·044. Bankfull discharge recurrence interval was determined by fitting maximum annual floods (Ta) into Gumbel’s distribution and then using the partial duration series (Tp) in this same distribution. Recurrence interval is below 0·7 years (Tp) for small pebble-bed rivers developed on an impermeable substratum; it reaches 1·1 to 1·5 years when the catchment size of these rivers exceeds 250km2. Rivers incised in the soft schists of the Famenne show larger channel capacity at bankfull stage, a small width/depth ratio and thus higher recurrence intervals (1·4–5·3 years with Ta and 1–4·4 years with Tp). Baseflow-dominated gravel-bed streams and sandy or silty rivers experience less frequent bankfull discharges, with a recurrence interval higher than 2 or even 3 years (Tp). [less ▲]

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See detailDarkness promotes flowering in the absolute long-day requiring plant, Lolium temulentum L. Ceres
Périlleux, Claire ULg; Bernier, Georges ULg; Kinet, Jean-Marie

in Journal of Experimental Botany (1997), 48(307), 349--351

Vegetative plants of the long-day grass Lolium temulentum L. Ceres were exposed to threshold long days or light breaks. Protracted darkness given just afterwards clearly promoted flowering and was weakly ... [more ▼]

Vegetative plants of the long-day grass Lolium temulentum L. Ceres were exposed to threshold long days or light breaks. Protracted darkness given just afterwards clearly promoted flowering and was weakly inductive on its own. The promotive effect of darkness was restricted to floral induction since further apical development was weak. [less ▲]

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See detailSurveys of ultraviolet-excess quasar candidates in large fields
Gosset, Eric ULg; Moreau, O.; Surdej, Jean ULg et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics. Supplement Series (1997), 123

We describe the results of a survey for moderately bright quasars performed in a 20.6-square-degree field around the galaxy NGC 450. The quasar candidates were selected on the basis of their ultraviolet ... [more ▼]

We describe the results of a survey for moderately bright quasars performed in a 20.6-square-degree field around the galaxy NGC 450. The quasar candidates were selected on the basis of their ultraviolet excess: by comparative visual inspection of the double image of each single object on a U/B dual-exposure Schmidt photographic plate, 95 primary and 45 secondary quasar candidates were selected on the basis of their $U$ image being too bright. The spectroscopic identification of the primary candidates led to the discovery of 59 bona fide quasars (out of which 6 were previously known). The Palomar Schmidt plate was digitised using the MAMA measuring machine and the outcoming data reduced using ad hoc procedures. A photometric calibration allowed us to derive values for the limiting magnitudes and for the U-B index selection threshold of the survey. A catalogue containing 60 quasars is presented with accurate positions, magnitudes and additional information such as redshifts. We studied the spatial distribution of the objects and detected, for the quasars of our sample, a significant deviation from randomness in the form of a propensity to cluster in pairs on the celestial sphere with a typical scale of about 10 arcmin. We also formally detected a tendency towards a 3-D clustering, but this result is induced by a single pair of quasars. A forthcoming paper will deal with a similar work performed in a field around NGC 520; the latter field is located directly to the North of the present one and slightly overlaps it. Based on observations acquired at the Mount Palomar and Las Campanas Observatories as well as at the European Southern Observatory. Also based on Schmidt-plate digitisations performed with the MAMA measuring machine of C.A.I. (I.N.S.U., Paris). [less ▲]

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See detailAdvantages of Inferior Vena Caval Flow Preservation in Combined Transplantation of the Liver and Heart
Detry, Olivier ULg; Honore, Pierre ULg; Meurisse, Michel ULg et al

in Transplant International (1997), 10(2), 150-1

Only a few cases of combined liver and heart transplantation have been reported in the literature, and no standard surgical procedure has yet been established. We report the successful transplantation of ... [more ▼]

Only a few cases of combined liver and heart transplantation have been reported in the literature, and no standard surgical procedure has yet been established. We report the successful transplantation of both liver and heart in a 28-year-old patient suffering from homozygous beta-thalassemia. We used Belghiti's technique of inferior vena caval flow preservation for liver transplantation, which avoids inferior vena cava occlusion by a side-to-side caval anastomosis. Applied to combined liver and heart transplantation, preservation of caval flow during liver transplantation may allow early discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass and, thus, minimize the general consequences of prolonged bypass. [less ▲]

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See detailInformation transfer between angiographic films and CT images: a tool to delineate the target volume
Tercier, P-A; COUCKE, Philippe ULg; Fankhauser, H et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (1997), 45

Abstract Background and purpose: This work was undertaken to improve the definition of target volumes for radiosurgery using the angiographic and CT data. Materials and methods: The basis of this new ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background and purpose: This work was undertaken to improve the definition of target volumes for radiosurgery using the angiographic and CT data. Materials and methods: The basis of this new method is to combine both imaging modalities and to compare them in each representation, i.e. to plot the volume obtained by angiography on CT images and also the contours defined by the CT on angiographic films. To obtain the angiographic volume, the radiographs are taken at several incidence angles. The X-ray sources position and the position of the films are determined using rectangular markers, then the intersection of all the loci of the target volume are calculated. Results: Verifications with a phantom show the accuracy of the procedure and the benefit obtained by increasing the number of angles of incidence in the angiographic imaging. The centre of gravity of the experimental target could be localized to an accuracy of better than 0.4 mm. The method was used in 11 clinical cases with excellent clinical results. Conclusions: The method can be easily applied and improves the delineation of target volumes in radiosurgery. CT data counterbalances the relative weakness of angiography concerning the three-dimensional geometry. Angiography adds useful information on the blood flow that is not shown in CT. Almost all the presented clinical cases benefit from the technique described here. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Effect of Intravenous Administration of Web 2086 on Paf-Induced Platelet Aggregation in Healthy Friesian Calves
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Gustin, Pascal ULg; Herion, Francine ULg et al

in Veterinary Research Communications (1997), 21(7), 521-531

The in vivo ability of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thienotriazolodiazepine, to inhibit platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cattle was investigated by in vitro determination of platelet ... [more ▼]

The in vivo ability of the specific PAF-antagonist WEB 2086, a thienotriazolodiazepine, to inhibit platelet-activating factor (PAF) in cattle was investigated by in vitro determination of platelet aggregation curves. WEB 2086 was infused intravenously into a group of 5 healthy male Friesian calves in a dose of 3 mg/kg over 1 min. The resultant inhibition peaked between 30 min and 1 h after administration of WEB 2086. The inhibition was significantly reduced after 3 h and became non-significant after 6 h, but maximal pre-treatment aggregation had not been restored by 24 h after the injection of WEB 2086. These results confirm previous results obtained in vitro and suggest that WEB 2086 is a potent antagonist of PAF activity in calves. They also suggest that further clinical studies with WEB 2086 in cattle are desirable. [less ▲]

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See detailGezonheidszorg : actuele standpunten. Diagnostiek van osteoporose
Devogelaer, JP; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Raeman, F et al

in Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde (1997), 53(10), 639-645

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See detailUse of the alpha parameter method to calculate matrix corrections for infinitely thick targets (TTPIXE) with two different incident beam energies
Delbrouck Habaru, J.; Roelandts, I.; Strivay, David ULg et al

in Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research Section B (1997), 129(1), 92-100

The alpha parameter correction method for calculating matrix effects in PIXE data does not require a priori knowledge of the major element composition of the matrix but implies the determination of a so ... [more ▼]

The alpha parameter correction method for calculating matrix effects in PIXE data does not require a priori knowledge of the major element composition of the matrix but implies the determination of a so-called alpha parameter linking two independent phenomena: X-ray absorption and proton energy loss. The method extrapolated to the infinitely thick targets (TTPIXE) has been previously studied using two PIXE measurements in two different geometric configurations. The present Study deals with the possibility of using pairs of PIXE measurements at two different energies to obtain the alpha corresponding to thick samples (TTPIXE). The experimental conditions and error minimization problems are discussed. General tables allowing an easy use of the method are presented. [less ▲]

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See detailPrimary radiation therapy or surgery combined or not to radiation therapy in the management of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis
Zouhair, Abderrahim; Ozsahin, Mahmut; Douglas, Pelham et al

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (1997), 39(2 (Supplément)), 295

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See detailLes moyens de se prémunir contre la défaillance de ses cocontractants
Georges, Frédéric ULg

in Actualités du Droit (1997)

Cette contribution commentait l'impact de la réforme de 1997 du droit de l'insolvabilité sur les droits des créanciers

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See detailUsefulness of Induced Sputum Analysis in Pulmonary Diseases
Kayembe, J. M.; Louis, Renaud ULg; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (1997), 52(2), 106-11

In this study, we analysed the cellular component of induced sputum in healthy control subjects (n = 30), asthmatics (n = 44), patients suffering from COPD (n = 15), pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) (n = 14 ... [more ▼]

In this study, we analysed the cellular component of induced sputum in healthy control subjects (n = 30), asthmatics (n = 44), patients suffering from COPD (n = 15), pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) (n = 14) and healthy steel workers (HSW) (n = 14). [less ▲]

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See detailPsychiatrie de liaison:regards sur une pratique de la psychologie médicale en hôpital général
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg

in Revue francaise de psychiatrie et de psychologie médicale (1997)

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See detailAnomalously large Born effective charges in cubic WO3
Detraux, F.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg; Gonze, X.

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (1997), 56(3), 983-985

Within density-functional theory, we compute the Born effective charges of tungsten trioxyde in its reference cubic phase (defect-perovskite structure). For the tungsten atom, the effective charge tensor ... [more ▼]

Within density-functional theory, we compute the Born effective charges of tungsten trioxyde in its reference cubic phase (defect-perovskite structure). For the tungsten atom, the effective charge tensor is isotropic, with Z(W)*=+12.51. For the oxygen atoms, the two independent components of the tensor, corresponding, respectively, to a displacement of the atom parallel or perpendicular to the W-O bond, have the values Z(O parallel to)* = -9.13 and Z(O perpendicular to)* = -1.68. Z(W)* and Z(O parallel to)* are anomalously large with respect to the nominal ionic charges (+6 on W and -2 on O), but compatible with the Born effective charges found in related ABO(3)-perovskite compounds. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude histologique de lésions subcliniques de la lèvre latérale du talus chez le cheval
Yousfi, S.; Gabriel, Annick ULg; Maroit, V. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (1997), 141

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See detailDesign for an Ipriflavone Multicenter European Fracture Study
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Bufalino, L.; Christiansen, C. et al

in Calcified Tissue International (1997), 61(Suppl 1), 28-32

In order to investigate the efficacy of ipriflavone (i.p.) on the prevention of vertebral fractures and the effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, a large ... [more ▼]

In order to investigate the efficacy of ipriflavone (i.p.) on the prevention of vertebral fractures and the effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, a large multicentric European study was designed and is presently ongoing. Included in the study were 460 Caucasian, nonobese postmenopausal women aged > 45 and < 75 years, menopaused for at least 12 months. Inclusion was on the basis of a lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) lower than 2 SD compared with healthy women aged 50 years, corresponding to values below 0.860 g/cm2 (antero-posterior measurement) by Hologic QDR 1000. Women with prevalent vertebral fractures were excluded as well as those presenting secondary osteoporosis or having been treated with medications that could affect bone metabolism. This study was designed as a 3-year, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study that randomized the women to the oral administration of either 3 x 200 mg/day of i.p. or placebo. All patients received a daily supplement of 500 mg calcium. The primary purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of i.p. in preventing vertebral nontraumatic fractures. Fracture is defined here as a > or = 20% decrease in any anterior, central, or posterior T4-L4 vertebral height. Blinded vertebral X-ray readings and vertebral morphometry have been centralized in an independent Center, with standardized evaluation of two experts. Power calculations have been based on the hypothesis that 21% of placebo-treated patients would fracture within 3 years and that treatment with i.p. would lead to a 50% reduction in the incidence of fracture. Statistical tests have been designed to have a power of 80%, with a type I error equal to 5%. Secondary endpoints were changes in vertebral, radial, and femoral BMD. Centralized controls on 100% BMD scans would ensure the good quality of BMD readings. This study should verify the hypothesis that i.p. significantly decreases the risk of vertebral fracture in postmenopausal, osteoporotic women. [less ▲]

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See detailLe bois de tension. 1 Définition et distribution dans l'arbre.
Jourez, Benoît ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (1997), 1(2), 100-112

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See detailLa violence dans les stades de football
Comeron, Manuel ULg

in Revue Générale (1997), (2), 21-30

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See detailLe dessaisissement du juge d'instruction
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue de Droit Pénal et de Criminologie (1997)

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See detailMecanisme de croissance et de rupture des anevrysmes de l'aorte abdominale.
Limet, Raymond ULg; SakalihasanN, Natzi ULg; Lapiere, C. M.

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1997), 152(7-9), 295-302302-3

The relationship between atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm development is well known. Atherosclerosis cannot explain the whole mechanism. Genetic characters of mechanisms leading to abdominal ... [more ▼]

The relationship between atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm development is well known. Atherosclerosis cannot explain the whole mechanism. Genetic characters of mechanisms leading to abdominal aortic development is obvious from this study and others. Our study evidences an increased metalloproteases activity in aortic wall proportionally to the size of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. A decrease of aortic wall elastin is evidenced proportionally to the AAA size. Extractable collagen is significantly increased in the aortic wall of patients operated on for aortic rupture. [less ▲]

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See detailClostridium perfringens urease genes are plasmid-borne.
Dupuy, B.; Daube, Georges ULg; Popoff, M. R. et al

in Infection and Immunity (1997), 65

Although many bacteria are ureolytic, and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. In this study, ;2 ... [more ▼]

Although many bacteria are ureolytic, and in some cases urease acts as a virulence factor, the urease phenotype has not been analyzed in the anaerobic pathogen Clostridium perfringens. In this study, ;2% of C. perfringens strains, representing the principal biotypes, were found to harbor the urease structural genes, ureABC, and these were localized on large plasmids that often encode, in addition, the lethal « or i toxins or the enterotoxin. This represents the first report of a plasmid-encoded urease in a gram-positive bacterium. The C. perfringens enzyme was highly similar to the ureases of other bacteria and cross-reacted with antibodies raised against the urease purified from Helicobacter pylori. Urease production was inhibited by urea and induced under growth conditions where the availability of nitrogen sources was limiting. To date, this form of regulation has been observed only for chromosomal ureABC genes. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Primers For The Polymerase Chain Amplification Of Cpdna Intergenic Spacers In Phaseolus Phylogeny
Fofana, B.; Harvengt, L.; Baudoin, Jean-Pierre ULg et al

in Belgian Journal of Botany (1997), 129(2),

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See detailFunctional heterogeneity of human CD34(+) cells isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle.
GOTHOT, André ULg; Pyatt, R.; McMahel, J. et al

in Blood (1997), 90(11), 4384-93

Using simultaneous Hoechst 33342 (Hst) and Pyronin Y (PY) staining for determination of DNA and RNA content, respectively, human CD34(+) cells were isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the ... [more ▼]

Using simultaneous Hoechst 33342 (Hst) and Pyronin Y (PY) staining for determination of DNA and RNA content, respectively, human CD34(+) cells were isolated in subcompartments of the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle by flow cytometric cell sorting. In both bone marrow (BM) and mobilized peripheral blood (MPB) CD34(+) cells, primitive long-term hematopoietic culture-initiating cell (LTHC-IC) activity was higher in CD34(+) cells isolated in G0 (G0CD34(+) cells) than in those residing in G1 (G1CD34(+) cells). However, as MPB CD34(+) cells displayed a more homogeneous cell-cycle status within the G0 /G1 phase and a relative absence of cells in late G1 , DNA/RNA fractionation was less effective in segregating LTHC-IC in MPB than in BM. BM CD34(+) cells belonging to four subcompartments of increasing RNA content within the G0 /G1 phase were evaluated in functional assays. The persistence of CD34 expression in suspension culture was inversely correlated with the initial RNA content of test cells. Multipotential progenitors were present in G0 or early G1 subcompartments, while lineage-restricted granulomonocytic progenitors were more abundant in late G1 . In vitro hematopoiesis was maintained for up to 6 weeks with G0CD34(+) cells, whereas production of clonogenic progenitors was more limited in cultures initiated with G1CD34(+) cells. To test the hypothesis that primitive LTHC-ICs would reenter a state of relative quiescence after in vitro division, BM CD34(+) cells proliferating in ex vivo cultures were identified from their quiescent counterparts by a relative loss of membrane intercalating dye PKH2, and were further fractionated with Hst and PY. The same functional hierarchy was documented within the PKH2(dim) population whereby LTHC-IC frequency was higher for CD34(+) cells reselected in G0 after in vitro division than for CD34(+) cells reisolated in G1 or in S/G2 + M. However, the highest LTHC-IC frequency was found in quiescent PKH2(bright) CD34(+) cells. Together, these results support the concept that cells with distinct hematopoietic capabilities follow different pathways during the G0 /G1 phase of the cell cycle both in vivo and during ex vivo culture. [less ▲]

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See detailBenchmarks for finite element modelling of bolted steel connections
Bursi, O.; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULg

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (1997), 43(Nos 1-3),

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See detailBiomechanical assessment of the transversalis fascia and rectus abdominis aponeurosis in inguinal herniation - Preliminary results
PANS, Alain ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg et al

in Hernia : the Journal of Hernias & Abdominal Wall Surgery (1997), 1

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See detailUse of recombinant human erythropoietin after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation
Hermanne, J.-P.; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Erythropoiesis (1997), 8

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See detailFatal Massive Liver Steatosis. A Clinicopathological Case Report
de Leval, Laurence ULg; Lambermont, Bernard ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg et al

in Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica (1997), 60(2, Apr-Jun), 180-183

Hepatic fatty change is a common lesion. Two forms are recognized: micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, the former being much less frequent and more serious than the latter. The case of an alcoholic woman ... [more ▼]

Hepatic fatty change is a common lesion. Two forms are recognized: micro- and macrovesicular steatosis, the former being much less frequent and more serious than the latter. The case of an alcoholic woman under anticonvulsivant therapy and with medications for a syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) who presented with rapidly progressive cholestasis and hepatocellular failure is reported. Massive macro- and micro-vesicular hepatic steatosis was diagnosed at autopsy. The authors review the clinico-pathological features associated with this condition, and causal factors possibly implicated in this case are discussed in regard with currently considered pathophysiological mechanisms. [less ▲]

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See detailLa problématique de la matière grasse : aspects théoriques
Thonart, Philippe ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Antoine, P. et al

in Tribune de l'Eau (La) (1997), 586/2

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See detailSpecific repertoire of olfactory receptor genes in the male germ cells of several mammalian species
Vanderhaeghen, P.; Schurmans, Stéphane ULg; Vassart, G. et al

in Genomics (1997), 39

Olfactory receptors constitute the largest family among G protein-coupled receptors, with up to 1000 members expected. We have previously shown that genes belonging to this family were expressed in the ... [more ▼]

Olfactory receptors constitute the largest family among G protein-coupled receptors, with up to 1000 members expected. We have previously shown that genes belonging to this family were expressed in the male germ line from both dog and human. We have subsequently demonstrated the presence of one of the corresponding olfactory receptor proteins during dog spermatogenesis and in mature sperm cells. In this study, we investigated whether the unexpected pattern of expression of olfactory receptors in the male germ line was conserved in other mammalian species. Using reverse transcription-PCR with primers specific for the olfactory receptor gene family, about 20 olfactory receptor cDNA fragments were cloned from the testis of each mammalian species tested. As a whole, they displayed no sequence specificity compared to other olfactory receptors, but highly homologous, possibly orthologous, genes were amplified from different species. Finally, their pattern of expression, as determined by RNase protection assay, revealed that many but not all of these receptors were expressed predominantly in testis. The male germ line from each mammalian species tested ins thus characterized by a specific repertoire of olfactory receptors, which display a pattern of expression suggestive of their potential implication in the control of sperm maturation, migration, or fertilization [less ▲]

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See detailComparison between different methods of measurement of momentum and sensible heat fluxes over canopies.
Aubinet, Marc ULg

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (1997), 1(1),

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See detailGenetic markers may predict disease behavior in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Roussomoustakaki, M.; Satsangi, J.; Welsh, K. et al

in Gastroenterology (1997), 112(6), 1845-53

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that HLA DRB1*0103 and allele 2 of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) gene predict severe and extensive ulcerative colitis, respectively. The ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Recent studies have suggested that HLA DRB1*0103 and allele 2 of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) gene predict severe and extensive ulcerative colitis, respectively. The aim of this study was to test these hypotheses in patients undergoing surgery for their colitis. METHODS: HLA DRB1 and DQB1 genotyping was performed in 99 patients and 472 controls. Genotyping for polymorphisms of genes encoding tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-1RA was performed in 107 patients and 89 controls. Measurement of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) was performed in 72 patients and 58 healthy subjects by fixed neutrophil enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The DRB1*0103 allele was increased in patients (14.1% vs. 3.2% in controls; P < 1 x 10[-5]). This association was greatest in patients with extensive disease (15.8%; P < 0.0001) or extraintestinal manifestations (22.8%; P < 0.0001): mouth ulcers (25.8%; P < 0.0001), arthritis (27.2%; P < 0.0001), and uveitis (35.7%; P < 0.0001). The DRB1*04 alleles were reduced in patients (P = 0.005). Differences were noted between extensive and distal disease in the frequency of allele 2 of IL-1RA (10.9% in distal vs. 28.6% in extensive; P = 0.01) and allele 2 homozygosity. ANCA was detected in 76.4% of patients. Carriage of IL-1RA allele 2 and tumor necrosis factor 2 allele was increased in ANCA-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic markers may predict disease behavior in ulcerative colitis. [less ▲]

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See detailThe 118-135 Peptide Lot The Human Prion Protein Forms Amyloid Fibrils And Induces Liposome Fusion
Pillot, T.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Goethals, M. et al

in Journal of Molecular Biology (1997), 274(3), 381-93

The prion protein (PrPC) is a glycoprotein of unknown function normally found at the surface of neurons and of glial cells. It is involved in diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and ... [more ▼]

The prion protein (PrPC) is a glycoprotein of unknown function normally found at the surface of neurons and of glial cells. It is involved in diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in the human, where PrPC is converted into an altered form (termed PrPSc). PrPSc is highly resistant towards proteolytic degradation and accumulates in the central nervous system of affected individuals. By analogy with the pathological events occuring during the development of Alzheimer's disease, controverses still exist regarding the relationship between amyloidogenesis, prion aggregation and neuronal loss. To unravel the mechanism of PrP neurotoxicity and understand the interaction of PrP with cellular membranes, a series of natural and variant peptides spanning residues 118 to 135 of PrP was synthesized. The potential of these peptides to induce fusion of unilamellar lipid vesicles was investigated. According to computer modeling calculations, the 120 to 133 domain of PrP is predicted to be a tilted lipid-associating peptide, and to insert in a oblique way into a lipid bilayer through its N-terminal end. In addition to amyloidogenic properties exhibited in vitro by these peptides, peptide-induced vesicle fusion was demonstrated by several techniques, including lipid- and core-mixing assays. Elongation of the 120 to 133 peptide towards the N- and C-terminal ends of the PrP sequence showed that the 118 to 135 PrP peptide has maximal fusogenic properties, while the variant peptides had no effect. Due to their high hydrophobicity, all peptides tested were able to interact with liposomes to induce leakage of encapsulated calcein. We demonstrate also that the propensity of the peptides to fold as an alpha-helix increases their fusogenic activity, thus accounting for the maximal fusogenic activity of the most stable helix at residues 118 to 135. These data suggest that, by analogy with the C-terminal domain of the beta-amyloid peptide, the fusogenic properties exhibited by the prion peptides might contribute to the neurotoxicity of these peptides by destabilizing cellular membranes. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological alterations of blood platelets induced by Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) and partial inhibition by Ketoprofen in calves
Bastos da Silva, Miriam; Doizé, Cécile ULg; David, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Veterinary Research (1997), 28(5 Sep-Oct), 489-502

The influence of platelet activating factor (PAF) was investigated in vivo on the ultrastructure of bovine platelets, and on the platelet count. The effect of an intravenous administration of ketoprofen ... [more ▼]

The influence of platelet activating factor (PAF) was investigated in vivo on the ultrastructure of bovine platelets, and on the platelet count. The effect of an intravenous administration of ketoprofen (a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) pretreatment followed by PAF infusion was also observed in a group of six healthy male Friesian calves. PAF infusion alone caused a moderate thrombocytopenia, which peaked one minute post challenge and returned to levels not significantly different from control after 30 min. Electron microscopy revealed that after PAF infusion, platelets lost their lentiform shape and became irregular, with many pseudopods. Their microtubules became impossible to distinguish. The numbers of alpha granules and dense bodies were significantly decreased. Glycogen particles became rare or even disappeared. Giant platelets occasionally appeared. The Golgi apparatus was more often visible and the number of mitochondria was significantly increased. Ketoprofen pretreatment lowered PAF-induced thrombocytopenia and decrease in the number of dense bodies. Under these conditions, the Golgi apparatus was rarely visible and giant platelets were not observed. These results showed that the morphological ultrastructure of blood platelets in bovines were modified following PAF infusion and that ketoprofen pretreatment before PAF infusion provided partial protection, limiting the extent of the morphological alterations and maintaining a normal platelet count [less ▲]

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See detailLes bacs à graisse : une solution aux problèmes des matières grasses pour les PME
Thonart, Philippe ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Zgoulli, S. et al

in Tribune de l'Eau (La) (1997), 586/2

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See detailMusaespora kalbii (lichenized Ascomycetes: Melanommatales), a new foliicolous lichen with a pantropical distribution
Lücking, Robert; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg

in Nordic Journal of Botany (1997), 16

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See detailApprentissage implicite et temps de réaction sériel: Une perspective développementale
Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Perruchet, Pierre

in Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance et de l'Adolescence (1997), 45(7-8), 384-386

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See detailAre Amphipathic Asymmetric Peptides Ubiquitous Structures For Membrane Destabilisation?
Rahman, M.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Thomas, Annick ULg et al

in Journal of Molecular Modeling (1997), 3(5), 203-215

The fusion of some viruses (SIV, BLV, etc) to host cells implicates short fragments of the fusion protein that are asymmetric amphipathic helices in molecular modelling. The tilted orientation of these ... [more ▼]

The fusion of some viruses (SIV, BLV, etc) to host cells implicates short fragments of the fusion protein that are asymmetric amphipathic helices in molecular modelling. The tilted orientation of these fragments at a water/lipid interface is directly related to their fusogenic capacity. On this basis, we have searched for fragments of sequences corresponding to “viral fusion peptides” in other proteins. We have developed a strategy to detect them from primary sequences. Many candidates were detected, especially in transmembrane areas of membranous proteins, in signal sequences and in globular proteins. We suggest that they are involved in the dynamics of lipid-protein interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailBWGIC guidelines for training and quality control in adult interventional cardiology. Belgian Working Group of Invasive Cardiology.
Legrand, Victor ULg; Vrolix, M.; De Bruyne, B. et al

in Acta cardiologica (1997), 52(6), 507-14

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See detailPolarization dependence of the exchange energy
Gonze, X.; Ghosez, Philippe ULg; Godby, R. W.

in Physical Review Letters (1997), 78(10), 2029-2029

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See detailClostridium spiroforme toxin genes are related to C. perfringens iota toxin genes but have a different genomic localization.
Gilbert, M.; Perelle, S.; Daube, Georges ULg et al

in Systematic & Applied Microbiology (1997), 20

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See detailAbdominal sequelae after pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction
PETIT, JY; RIETJENS, M; FERREIRA, M et al

in Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1997), 99

A considerable interest in autologous tissue breast reconstructions has developed recently, especially since Food and Drug Administration (FDA) experts have raised the polemic on silicone implants ... [more ▼]

A considerable interest in autologous tissue breast reconstructions has developed recently, especially since Food and Drug Administration (FDA) experts have raised the polemic on silicone implants. Although such enthusiasm for the transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous (TRAM) flap is justified in what concerns the final cosmetic result of the reconstructed breast, the risk of abdominal sequelae should be explained to the patient. Abdominal scarring, parietal weakness, strength loss, and back pain have been recorded in a series of pedicled TRAM flap reconstructions performed at the Institut Gustave-Roussy before 1991. Cosmetic results of the abdomen were tested by three independent judges on the photographs taken of 132 patients. The global appearance of the abdomen was rated as "natural" in 70 percent of the patients. The umbilical scar was unacceptable in 25 percent and very good or not visible in 21 percent. The lower abdominal scar was rated as "not acceptable" in 35 percent. Abdominal strength was tested among the 38 patients who underwent both preoperative and postoperative muscular testing, of whom 18 had single-pedicled and 20 had bipedicled TRAM flap reconstructions. In the first group, the physiotherapist observed an impairment of function of the upper portion of the rectus abdominis and of the oblique muscle in almost 50 percent. In the second group, the same muscles were more severely impaired (in 60 percent), as well as the function of the lower portion of the rectus (in 15 percent). The percentage of patients complaining of "light back pain" in the 6-month postoperative period was 55 percent in the single-pedicle group and 30 percent in the double-pedicle group. However, 20 percent of the bipedicled patients complained of "severe" back pain, while there was none in the single-pedicled group. In conclusion, abdominal sequelae after TRAM flap breast reconstruction should not be underestimated and constitute one of the drawbacks of the technique when it is compared with reconstruction with a prosthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... Une maladie de Basedow: de la clinique classique au diagnostic radio-immunologique.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(12), 788-91

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See detailPrevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. National consensus of the Belgian Bone Club"
Kaufman, JM; Devogelaer, JP; Raeman, F et al

in Clinical Rheumatology (1997), 16(4), 343-345

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See detailInfluence of a blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber on nutrient digestibility and plasma metabolites concentrations in healthy Beagles
Diez, Marianne ULg; Hornick, Jean-Luc ULg; Baldwin, Paule ULg et al

in American Journal of Veterinary Research (1997), 58

Objective-To evaluate effects of a blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber (4:1) at 3 incorporation rates on nutrient digestibility and plasma glucose, insulin, alpha-aminonitrogen, urea ... [more ▼]

Objective-To evaluate effects of a blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber (4:1) at 3 incorporation rates on nutrient digestibility and plasma glucose, insulin, alpha-aminonitrogen, urea, cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations measured weekly in nonfed dogs and during a 360-minute period after a meal. Animals-8 castrated 1 to 1.4-year-old young adult male Beagles weighing 10.0 to 13.5 kg. Procedure-Diets containing 2 incorporation rates of a blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber (5 and 10% on a dry matter basis [diets B and C, respectively]) were compared with a control diet without additional fiber (diet A). The 3 diets were evaluated for ability to modify digestibility of dry and organic matter, protein, fat, and ash and for effects on plasma glucose, insulin, alpha-aminonitrogen, urea, cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Each diet was fed for 6 weeks; plasma samples were collected weekly before feeding and after feeding on the last day of the period, During 1 week at the end of the 6-week period, dogs were kept in metabolic cages. Each period of the block was followed by a 4-week washout period. Results-Incorporating the blend of fructo-oiigosaccharides and sugar beet fiber in the diet was associated with greater passage of wet feces (diets B and C) and lower protein digestibility (diet C). Postprandial glucose (diet C), urea (diets B and C) and triglyceride (diets B and C) concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) decreased. Weekly preprandial measurements were characterized by decreased urea (diets B and C), cholesterol (diet C), and triglycerides (diets B and C) concentrations (P < 0.001). Conclusion-Chronic consumption of fermentable fiber is associated with mildly decreased protein digestibility and with metabolic effects in nonfed or fed dogs. Clinical Relevance-A blend of fructo-oligosaccharides and sugar beet fiber should he tested as a dietary aid for treatment of chronic diseases, such as diabetes mellitus or hyperlipidemia, in dogs. [less ▲]

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See detailLe concept de qualité de vie
Etienne, Anne-Marie ULg; Fontaine, Ovide ULg

in Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive (1997), II(3), 16-25

Les auteurs examinent les problèmes rencontrés pour définir et mesurer la qualité de vie. Il se dégage des multiples définitions un ensemble de propriétés et de caractéristiques telles que la ... [more ▼]

Les auteurs examinent les problèmes rencontrés pour définir et mesurer la qualité de vie. Il se dégage des multiples définitions un ensemble de propriétés et de caractéristiques telles que la multifactorialité, l'auto-évaluation, la variabilité temporelle et la subjectivité. De plus, l'étude comparative des multiples outils existants devrait permettre d'affiner leur spécificité et donc aider à la compréhension du concept... [less ▲]

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See detailIncorporation of rapeseed meal extracted by pressure in a diet for growing fattening bulls .1. Intake, digestibility and fermentation in the rumen
Mayombo, A. P.; Baldwin, Paule ULg; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Annales de Zootechnie (1997), 46(1), 57-70

Intake, digestibility, degradation kinetic and fermentation were studied with bulls offered fattening diets with four different incorporation rates of rapeseed meal obtained by pressure; the ether extract ... [more ▼]

Intake, digestibility, degradation kinetic and fermentation were studied with bulls offered fattening diets with four different incorporation rates of rapeseed meal obtained by pressure; the ether extract content was 8.6% and the glucosinolate content 17,6 mu molg. The control diet was made of sugar beet pulp, cereals, soya bean meal and linseed meal. In the three other diets, nitrogen from rapeseed meal provided 33, 66 or 100% of nitrogen from soya bean meal or linseed meal. The intakes of the control diet were 94.3 +/- 7.3 g/kg metabolic body weight. Intakes were maintained high in the diet with 33, 66 or 100% of protein from rapeseed meal at 93.5 +/- 7.7; 93.0 +/- 5.0 and 93.5 +/- 7.7 g/kg, respectively. The apparent digestibility of rapeseed meal in the ration containing only rapeseed meal was high at 74.9 +/- 1.9% for dry matter, 76.5 +/- 2.1% for organic matter, 69.9 +/- 3.9% for nitrogen, 59.1 +/- 4.8% for ADF and 74.6 +/- 6.9% for ether extract. Dry matter of rapeseed meal was less degradable (57.8 +/- 5.0%) than that of soya bean meal (65.5 +/- 2.6%) or of linseed meal (61.6 +/- 4.2%) but was not as well protected than that of protected soya bean meal (43.6 +/- 2.6%) (P < 0.001). Similar trends were observed for the degradability of nitrogen (P < 0.001). Ether extract of rapeseed meal was more degradable than that of linseed meal (P < 0.001). There were no significant effects of the incorporation rate of rapeseed meal on the pH in the rumen. The fermentations were mainly of the acetate type with usual concentrations of propionate, butyrate, total volatile fatty acids, glucose or alpha amino nitrogen. Ammonia concentration was higher with the control diet and lower with the diet with 100% of protein from rapeseed meal. Fatty acids of rapeseed meal were more protected against saturation by the rumen microorganisms than in linseed meal. [less ▲]

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See detailModulation of lung inflammation in the control of bovine respiratory disease
Van de Weerdt, ML; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Bovine Practitioner (1997), 31.1

The purpose of this paper is to review the potential strategies which could improve the treatment of respiratory disorders in general and the modulation of lung inflammation in particular. Possible ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to review the potential strategies which could improve the treatment of respiratory disorders in general and the modulation of lung inflammation in particular. Possible preventive treatments will not be discussed in this review. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite les hypertensions réfractaires
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1997), 52(1), 2-6

L'hypertension artérielle réfractaire représente 10% des hypertensions artérielles traitées. La définition, arbitraire, consiste en la persistance de valeurs de pression artérielle au-delà de 140/90 mmHg ... [more ▼]

L'hypertension artérielle réfractaire représente 10% des hypertensions artérielles traitées. La définition, arbitraire, consiste en la persistance de valeurs de pression artérielle au-delà de 140/90 mmHg malgré une trithérapie antihypertensive dont un diurétique. Ce traitement a été administré à dose optimale pendant une durée suffisante. La reconnaissance des vraies hypertensions réfractaires est la première démarche diagnostique (bonne mesure de la pression artérielle et authenticité de l'augmentation de pression). Ensuite il convient de rechercher une non-observance, une forme secondaire d'hypertension artérielle ou encore une résistance thérapeutique liée à un excès de poids et à un hyperinsulinisme. Cette démarche permettra de proposer un schéma thérapeutique approprié visant à normaliser la pression artérielle, gage d'un risque cardio-vasculaire atténué. Une prise en charge globale des facteurs de risque cardio-vasculaire trouve ici une pleine implication. [less ▲]

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See detailBounds on the Soft Pomeron Intercept
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Kang, Kyungsik; Kim, Sung Ku

in Physics Letters B (1997), 395

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See detailVision artificielle et quantification de la forme de pommes
Leemans, Vincent ULg; Magein, Hugo ULg; Destain, Marie-France ULg

in Cahiers Agricultures (1997), 6

Golden delicious apples were characterised automatically by machine vision, taking into account six view of the cheeks and one of the stem end. The Fourier transform of the fruit boundaries were computed ... [more ▼]

Golden delicious apples were characterised automatically by machine vision, taking into account six view of the cheeks and one of the stem end. The Fourier transform of the fruit boundaries were computed and normalised. All the relevant information about the shape was included in the first fifteen harmonics. Moreover, particular harmonics were found to characterise the shape of the Golden delicious variety. By using the amplitude of particular harmonics in a discriminant analysis, apple were sorted into categories defined by EU, with a precision around 96%. The proposed method may also be used to compare varieties objectively, in order to identify relation between physiology and shape. [less ▲]

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See detailThree new species of Opegraphaceae (Lichens) from the Namib desert
Egea, J.M.; Sérusiaux, Emmanuël ULg; Torrente, Pilar et al

in Mycotaxon (1997), 61

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See detailPlaidoyer pour une expertise entièrement contradictoire en matière pénale
Jacobs, Ann ULg

in Revue de Jurisprudence de Liège, Mons et Bruxelles (1997)

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See detailA new generation of hydrocolloid dressings in combination with topical corticosteroids in the treatment of psoriasis vulgaris
Dezfoulian, Bita ULg; de LA BRASSINNE, Michel ULg; Rosillon, D.

in Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (1997), 9

Aim : A clinical, randomized, parallel, multicenter study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and Ihe tolerability of two known steroid creams, betamethasone 17-valerate and clobetasol propionate ... [more ▼]

Aim : A clinical, randomized, parallel, multicenter study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and Ihe tolerability of two known steroid creams, betamethasone 17-valerate and clobetasol propionate, alone or left under a hydrocolloid dressing (Contreei'* Derma Cover), in the treatment of chronic plaques of psoriasis. Methods : A total of 70 patients with symmetrical localized psoriasis were divided randomly into two groups for the study. Each patient applied ihe corticosteroid preparation under Contreet° Derma Cover once a week on one plaque and the same topical corticosteroid alone h.i.d on the other plaque; the treatment lasted 3 weeks for betamethasone 17-valerate, and 2 weeks for clobetasol propionate. Results : The heahng rate reached 79% with the Contreet" combined treatment versus 15% (P < 0,0001) with the standard treatment for betamethasone 17-valeratc (group I) and Sb% versus 14*70 (P < 0. 0001) for clobetasol propionate (group It). The mean difference in healing rate was 65% {95% confidence interval (C.I), 46-84%) and 69% (95% CL, 50-87%) in groups I and II, respectively. Conclusion : The use of the new generation of hydrocolloid dressings in combination with steroid preparations can be considered as another therapeutic option for the treatment of chronic localized psoriatic lesions. Furthermore, with this method the amount of the topical corticosteroid used can be reduced. [less ▲]

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See detailEnergy savings in methanol synthesis: Use of heat integration techniques and simulation tools.
Maréchal, François; Heyen, Georges ULg; Kalitventzeff, Boris ULg

in Computers & Chemical Engineering (1997), 21(Suppl. S), 511-516

Starting with a classical process for producing methanol using the reforming and synthesis steps, a combined approach applying simulation models and a new synthesis strategy, named Effect Modelling and ... [more ▼]

Starting with a classical process for producing methanol using the reforming and synthesis steps, a combined approach applying simulation models and a new synthesis strategy, named Effect Modelling and Optimisation (EMO), has been used to optimise the energy efficiency of the process. The method allows to identify different ways of improving the energy efficiency of the process. The modifications concern the synthesis reactor and the reforming reactor designs, the exploitation of the purge stream as fuel gas to satisfy the process requirement and its integration to a gas turbine system. The EMO approach allows to target the impact of a process modification at the global level of the energy cost of the process, including the combined production of heat and mechanical power in a gas turbine and the steam network. Starting with a classical methane conversion of 60% for the classical system, we identify solutions with up to 93% of the overall methane conversion when we transform the net mechanical power produced into methane savings at the country level. The interest of the approach is the possibility of computing the impact of the process modifications suggested by the analysis of the shape of the heat cascade on the overall energy balance of the plant without having to simulate in many details the steam and the heat exchanger network. [less ▲]

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See detailUne chambre noire pour l’analyse textuelle
Tilkin, Françoise ULg; Mathonet, Anne

in Espace pour un humanisme européen (1997), 33

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See detail(Meth)acrylates pseudo-living radical polymerization in the presence of transition metal complexes: the Kharasch reaction revisited
Granel, Claude; Moineau, George; Lecomte, Philippe ULg et al

in Polymer Preprints (1997), 38(1), 450-451

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See detailQuelques arthropodes de nos maisons
Loneux, Michèle ULg

in Cahiers d'Ethologie (1997), 17(1), 75-124

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See detailUne étude du style de vie de jeunes dans l’Union Européenne. Qu’en conclure et quels enseignements en tirer?
Piéron, Maurice; Ledent, Maryse; Delfosse, Catherine et al

in Sport (1997), 159/160

La littérature internationale continue à rassembler des indices en nombre croissant montrant l'étroite relation entre l'état de santé et la condition physique. Toutefois, une évolution très nette se ... [more ▼]

La littérature internationale continue à rassembler des indices en nombre croissant montrant l'étroite relation entre l'état de santé et la condition physique. Toutefois, une évolution très nette se marque dans l'identification des déterminants importants. La condition physique apparaît comme un produit très transitoire qui se détériore à partir du moment où l'on cesse de l'entretenir. ... [less ▲]

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See detailOptimizing the treatment of Paget’s disease of bone
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Gennari, C; Hosking, DJ et al

in Revue du Rhumatisme (English ed.) (1997), 64(4), 207-209

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See detailRelationship of human follicular diameter with oocyte fertilization and development after in-vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.
Ectors, Fabien ULg; Vanderzwalmen, P.; Van Hoeck, J. et al

in Human Reproduction (1997), 12(9), 2002-2005

The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between follicular size at the time of oocyte retrieval, and the subsequent oocyte competence to be fertilized and to develop in vitro. All the ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between follicular size at the time of oocyte retrieval, and the subsequent oocyte competence to be fertilized and to develop in vitro. All the obtained oocytes were classified according to the corresponding volume of aspirated follicular fluid. Aspirated volume of follicular fluid <2 ml corresponded to a follicular diameter <16 mm and constituted the small size group. Volume of follicular fluid from 2 to 6 ml corresponded to a diameter from 16 to 23 mm and constituted the medium size group. The large size group contained follicles with diameter >23 mm and corresponded to an aspirated volume of follicular fluid of >6 ml. A progressive and significant increase in the rates of oocytes with a first polar body was observed from the small size group to the other groups and from the medium to the large size group: 75.3, 85.9 and 95.3% respectively. After classical in-vitro fertilization (IVF), significantly better rates of fertilization and development were obtained in the medium size group compared to the two other groups. Moreover, a positive relationship was observed between follicular diameter and rates of embryos scored as 'good' when oocytes were fertilized by intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). These results demonstrated that follicular size is positively related to the oocyte ability to be fertilized and to develop. Although oocytes from small follicles gave lower percentages of development probably due to partial oocyte incompetence, they allowed an increase in the total number of embryos scored as 'good'. [less ▲]

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See detailLe diagnostic de la reproduction: fertilité, gestation, anœstrus
Delahaut, Philippe; Sulon, Joseph ULg; Ectors, Francis et al

in Cahiers Agricultures (1997), 6

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See detailOrigine sociale et réussite scolaire : un modèle en Chaîne de Markov estimé sur données individuelles belges
Donni, Olivier; Lejeune, Bernard ULg

in Recherches Economiques de Louvain (1997), 63(4), 421-446

Cet article étudie les relations entre l'origine socio-économique des élèves belges et leur parcours scolaire primaire et secondaire. Il repose sur l'hypothèse que le parcours scolaire des élèves peut ... [more ▼]

Cet article étudie les relations entre l'origine socio-économique des élèves belges et leur parcours scolaire primaire et secondaire. Il repose sur l'hypothèse que le parcours scolaire des élèves peut être décrit par un processus de Markov. Sur la base d'un échantillon transversal d'un millier d'enfants, en fonction de variables socio-économiques et pour chacune des années de scolarité obligatoire, les probabilités individuelles de poursuivre un parcours scolaire ''normal'', c.-à-d. sans redoublement ni relégation dans une filière de second choix, sont estimées. Nos résultats montrent que derrière les substantiels taux agrégés de redoublement qui caractérisent le système scolaire belge se cachent en fait de profondes inégalités sociales. [less ▲]

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See detailA one-nucleotide difference in a cAMP and phorbol ester response element leads to differential regulation of the human chorionic somatomammotropin A and B gene transcription
Oury, Cécile ULg; Alsat, E.; Jacquemin, P. et al

in Journal of Molecular Endocrinology (1997), 18(2), 87-99

Human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) is encoded by two highly related genes, hCS-A and hCS-B, located in the hGH/hCS gene locus. Both genes are expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the ... [more ▼]

Human chorionic somatomammotropin (hCS) is encoded by two highly related genes, hCS-A and hCS-B, located in the hGH/hCS gene locus. Both genes are expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta and hCS release from trophoblast cells is known to be increased by cAMP and phorbol esters. However, it remains unclear whether this regulation acts at the level of hCS gene expression or secretion and whether both genes are affected. We examined the effects of cAMP and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on the transcription of the hCS-A and hCS-B genes. Transient expression experiments revealed a 7 bp cAMP- and PMA-responsive element (CRElhCS-A) spanning nucleotides-1102 to -1096 upstream of the hCS-A gene. In contrast, the homologous sequence upstream of hCS-B (CRElhCS-B), differing from CRElhCS-A by a single substitution, shows little or no response to cAMP. In band-shift assays, the CRElhCS-A oligonucleotide was shown to bind two factors related to CREBP and AP-1, whereas CRElhCS-B only competes for one of these complexes. Finally, Southwestern analysis revealed that the CRElhCS-A element binds two ubiquitous proteins of 100 kDa and 47 kDa respectively, whereas CRElhCS-B interacts only with the 47 kDa protein. Taken together, these results suggest that a 47 kDa protein binding to the CRElhCS-A and CRElhCS-B elements is involved in the PMA response of the hCS-A and hCS-B genes, and a 100 kDa protein plays a crucial role in cAMP regulation of the hCS-A gene. [less ▲]

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See detailJungermannia paroica (Schiffn.) Grolle in the Vosges, new to France
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Sotiaux, André ULg

in Journal of Bryology (1997), 19

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See detailA moderate transfusion regimen may reduce iron loading in beta-thalassemia major without producing excessive expansion of erythropoiesis.
Cazzola, M.; Borgna-Pignatti, C.; Locatelli, F. et al

in Transfusion (1997), 37(2), 135-40

BACKGROUND: Hypertransfusion with a baseline hemoglobin of 10 to 12 g per dL is still considered by many to be the mainstay of conservative therapy for beta-thalassemia major. However, this regimen is ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Hypertransfusion with a baseline hemoglobin of 10 to 12 g per dL is still considered by many to be the mainstay of conservative therapy for beta-thalassemia major. However, this regimen is frequently associated with manifestations of transfusion iron overload, despite regular chelation therapy with subcutaneous desferoxamine. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: To verify whether a transfusion regimen with a target pretransfusion hemoglobin level between 9 and 10 g per dL can allow a significant reduction in blood consumption, while still effectively suppressing erythropoiesis, the records were reviewed of 32 beta-thalassemia major patients, who were maintained at a pretransfusion hemoglobin of 11.3 +/- 0.5 g per dL between 1981 and 1986. These patients were switched at the beginning of 1987 to a transfusion regimen with pretransfusion hemoglobin of 9.4 +/- 0.4 g per dL. The degree of erythroid marrow activity was evaluated in these patients and in 32 subjects with beta-thalassemia intermedia through the simple measurement of serum transferrin receptor. RESULTS: After the adoption of the moderate transfusion regimen, transfusion requirements decreased from 137 +/- 26 to 104 +/- 23 mL per kg per year of red cells (p < 0.0001), and mean serum ferritin decreased from 2448 +/- 1515 to 1187 +/- 816 micrograms per L (p < 0.0001), with one-half of patients achieving serum ferritin levels lower than 1000 micrograms per L. The proportion of patients having spontaneous pubertal development increased significantly (p < 0.01), as a result of less iron-related gonadotropin insufficiency. At the lower pretransfusion hemoglobin, erythroid marrow activity did not exceed two to three times normal levels in most subjects. CONCLUSION: As compared with hypertransfusion, moderate transfusion may allow more effective prevention of iron loading, with higher likelihood of spontaneous pubertal development and without producing excessive expansion of erythropoiesis. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonographic examination of the proximal scutum in the horse.
Denoix, J. M.; Busoni, Valeria ULg; Olalla, M. J.

in Equine Veterinary Journal (1997), 29(2), 136-41

Normal and abnormal ultrasonographic images are presented of the proximal scutum (proximal sesamoid bones and palmar ligament) in the horse. Comparison between anatomical sections, MRI (magnetic resonance ... [more ▼]

Normal and abnormal ultrasonographic images are presented of the proximal scutum (proximal sesamoid bones and palmar ligament) in the horse. Comparison between anatomical sections, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) and ultrasound scans enabled the authors to establish the normal ultrasonographic anatomy of the palmar fetlock. Nine cases of proximal scutum injuries were identified ultrasonographically, of which 4 are illustrated. On normal limbs, the facies flexoria of the proximal sesamoid bones appeared as a thin and regular hyperechoic line and the palmar ligament was regularly echogenic. Lesions of the proximal scutum, that could be documented ultrasonographically, included rupture of the palmar ligament, avulsion fractures of the proximal sesamoid bones and palmar ligament desmopathy. Thinning or degeneration of the palmar ligament, concurrent with osteolysis of the proximal sesamoid bones, were indicative of palmar ligament enthesopathy. Ultrasonographic examination provided essential information for an accurate diagnosis of proximal scutum damage. [less ▲]

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See detailReactivite bronchique chez les patients diabetiques.
Piéron, Maurice ULg; Scheen, André ULg; Corhay, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Revue des Maladies Respiratoires (1997), 14(5), 379-85

The data of the literature concerning bronchial reactivity in diabetic patients are controversial. Therefore, we studied the influence of the presence of a diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) on ... [more ▼]

The data of the literature concerning bronchial reactivity in diabetic patients are controversial. Therefore, we studied the influence of the presence of a diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) on the ventilatory parameters measured during a methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction test. Ten insulin-dependent diabetic patients without CAN, ten insulin-dependent diabetic patients with CAN and ten healthy volunteers, all non-smokers and free of respiratory symptoms, have undergone a functional respiratory check-up before the methacholine test. The presence of CAN was classically studied by the decrease in heart rate changes during three standardized tests (deep breathing at 6 cycles/min, Valsalva manoeuver, orthostatism) which all mainly explore the parasympathetic function. The bronchial response to methacholine was similar in the healthy subjects and in the diabetic patients without CAN. However, the fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second induced by the highest dose of methacholine was significantly less marked in the diabetic subjects with CAN than in the two other groups. These results suggest that the diabetic autonomic neuropathy also involves the vagal innervation of the respiratory tract. [less ▲]

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See detailL'hypoglycemie du patient diabetique. Recommendations of ALFEDIAM (French Language Association for the Study of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases.
Grimaldi, A.; Slama, G.; Tubiana-Rufi, N. et al

in Diabètes & Métabolism (1997), 23(1), 100-8

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See detailDeconvolution with correct sampling.
Magain, Pierre ULg; Courbin, F.; Sohy, Sandrine ULg

in The Messenger (1997), 88

The authors briefly describe the basic ideas behind a new deconvolution technique which overcomes some of the drawbacks of the traditional methods and which gives results of high photometric and ... [more ▼]

The authors briefly describe the basic ideas behind a new deconvolution technique which overcomes some of the drawbacks of the traditional methods and which gives results of high photometric and astrometric accuracy. The authors also show how it can be combined with other techniques (e.g. adaptive optics) to give even better results. [less ▲]

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See detailChimie et immunologie: controle de qualite des eaux.
Portetelle, Daniel ULg; Copin, A.; Hecquet, J. F.

in Agricontact (1997), (290),

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See detailLes aspects thérapeutiques de l'HTA
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Médisphère (1997), 68

Traiter l'hypertension artérielle n'améliore pas seulement le pronostic cardiovasculaire. L'étude de Wiklund (Suède) à partir de la population étudiée dans la Hot Study a permis de montrer que l ... [more ▼]

Traiter l'hypertension artérielle n'améliore pas seulement le pronostic cardiovasculaire. L'étude de Wiklund (Suède) à partir de la population étudiée dans la Hot Study a permis de montrer que l'abaissement de la pression artérielle améliorait l'humeur des hypertendus et ce, proportionnellement à la correction du niveau tensionnel. [less ▲]

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See detailThe meaning of formal: from weak to strong formal methods
Wolper, Pierre ULg

in International Journal on Software Tools for Technology Transfer (1997), 1(1-2), 6--8

This short note reflects on what makes formal methods "formal". It concludes that there are weak and strong ways of being formal, the latter being linked to the formality of the method being exploitable ... [more ▼]

This short note reflects on what makes formal methods "formal". It concludes that there are weak and strong ways of being formal, the latter being linked to the formality of the method being exploitable, and exploited, in software tools. [less ▲]

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See detailThe lowest 5g-6h supermultiplet of Fe II
Biémont, Emile ULg; Johansson, S.; Palmeri, P.

in Physica Scripta (1997), 55

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See detailRadiographical Assessment of Interphalangeal Rotation in the Evaluation of Equine Digital Conformation
Caudron, I.; Grulke, Sigrid ULg; Gabriel, Annick ULg et al

in Acta Anatomica (1997), 160(2), 95-9

This study is a part of a work to design a radiographical method to objectively define the conformation of an equine digit and to assess the individual appropriate trimming of a horse. Various angles were ... [more ▼]

This study is a part of a work to design a radiographical method to objectively define the conformation of an equine digit and to assess the individual appropriate trimming of a horse. Various angles were measured directly from the phalangeal bones. The authors observed that the bone relief of the sesamoid ligament insertions on the proximal phalanx was an essential landmark to determine the phalangeal alignment. The same angles were measured from specific radiographs and made it possible to quantify the rotation imposed to the proximal phalanx. The authors also noticed that the phalangeal rotation had little influence on the radiographic image of articular asymmetry. [less ▲]

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See detailOnset Time of Neuromuscular Block and Intubating Conditions: Influence of Different Stimulation Patterns
Hans, Pol ULg; Dewé, Walthère ULg; Albert, Adelin ULg

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (1997), 48(1), 15-21

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See detailLes protéases stromales dans la progression cancéreuse mammaire
Foidart, Jean-Michel ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (1997), 152(5), 229-35235-7

Matrix metalloproteases represent a family of proteases secreted as latent inactive enzymes able to degrade the majority of extracellular matrix components. These enzymes are overexpressed during several ... [more ▼]

Matrix metalloproteases represent a family of proteases secreted as latent inactive enzymes able to degrade the majority of extracellular matrix components. These enzymes are overexpressed during several pathological tissue remodelings including tumor progression and tumor invasion. It was indeed classically admitted that matrix metalloproteases involved in tumoral progression were preferentially expressed by cancerous cells. Our studies on gelatinase A and stromelysin-3 have, however, demonstrated that their messenger RNAS are detected in fibroblasts of the peritumoral stroma in human mammary carcinoma and not in the cancerous cells themselves. By immunohistochemistry, we have detected gelatinase A in the cytoplasm of fibroblasts and at the surface of the tumor cells. This membrane localization of the protein could result from its binding, following secretion by the neighbouring stromal cells, to a specific binding site expressed at the surface of the carcinoma cells. These cells are indeed able to induce an increased proteolytic activity by enhancing the transcription of these enzymes by peritumoral fibroblasts. These enzymes represent therefore potential targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailNucleon nucleon interaction in a chiral constituent quark model
Stancu, Floarea ULg; Pepin, S.; Glozman, L Ya

in Physical Review. C : Nuclear Physics (1997), C56

We study the short-range nucleon-nucleon interaction in a chiral constituent quark model by diagonalizing a Hamiltonian comprising a linear confinement and a Goldstone boson exchange interaction between ... [more ▼]

We study the short-range nucleon-nucleon interaction in a chiral constituent quark model by diagonalizing a Hamiltonian comprising a linear confinement and a Goldstone boson exchange interaction between quarks. The six-quark harmonic oscillator basis contains up to two excitation quanta. We show that the highly dominant configuration is $\mid s^4p^2[42]_O [51]_{FS}>$ due to its specific flavour-spin symmetry. Using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation we find a strong effective repulsion at zero separation between nucleons in both $^3S_1$ and $^1S_0$ channels. The symmetry structure of the highly dominant configuration implies the existence of a node in the S-wave relative motion wave function at short distances. The amplitude of the oscillation of the wave function at short range will be however strongly suppressed. We discuss the mechanism leading to the effective short-range repulsion within the chiral constituent quark model as compared to that related with the one-gluon exchange interaction. [less ▲]

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