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See detailAntiplatelet Activity of Clopidogrel in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients
David, Jean-Louis ULg; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Thrombosis and Haemostasis (1999), 82(5), 1417-21

Clopidogrel is a recently introduced platelet ADP receptor antagonist, belonging to the thienopyridine derivatives, like its analogue ticlopidine. Its potential advantage is to be safer than ticlopidine ... [more ▼]

Clopidogrel is a recently introduced platelet ADP receptor antagonist, belonging to the thienopyridine derivatives, like its analogue ticlopidine. Its potential advantage is to be safer than ticlopidine. At 75 mg/od clopidogrel significantly inhibits platelet aggregation in ambulatory patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease and it prevents the recurrence of ischemic events more efficiently than aspirin. Its adequate dose in more acute situations remained to be determined. Therefore, sixty two patients with coronary artery disease were randomly assigned in four groups treated, within 24 h after coronary artery bypass graft, by clopidogrel 50 mg/od, 75 mg/od or 100 mg/od or by ticlopidine 250 mg/bid which was considered as the reference. The tolerance of clopidogrel was fairly good during the whole period of the study. Bleeding time and ex-vivo platelet aggregation induced by ADP 2 microM and 5 microM were performed at day -1, +9 and +28 after surgery. Like ticlopidine, the three dose levels of clopidogrel significantly inhibited ex-vivo platelet activity and prolonged the bleeding time at day 28. However, unlike ticlopidine, the inhibitory effects of clopidogrel were not significant at day 9, especially with 75 mg/od, a dose which was found to significantly protect patients in a chronic situation. Hence, although the clinical outcome for patients included in this limited study was the same in the four groups, these results suggest that the dose regime of clopidogrel should be more extensively investigated during the early period following coronary artery bypass graft, facing an overproduction of young and hyperreactive platelets. By analogy, the dose regime should be also investigated in other situations with an acute risk of arterial thrombotic occlusion. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Le cerebral salt wasting syndrome: a propos d'un cas
Llabres, V.; Canivet, Jean-Luc ULg; Hennuy, V. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(11), 850-853

A 75 year old woman was found to have a posterior cerebellar lesion which after surgical removal was shown to be a meningioma. Her postoperative course was complicated by a MRSA meningitis and on day 23 ... [more ▼]

A 75 year old woman was found to have a posterior cerebellar lesion which after surgical removal was shown to be a meningioma. Her postoperative course was complicated by a MRSA meningitis and on day 23 after resection, a polyuria up to 11.7 1/24 h became apparent. The diagnosis of cerebral wasting syndrome (CSWS) was made based on biological and clinical features such as an excessive natriuresis (143 mmol/l) resulting in hyponatremia (130 mmol/l) and an osmolarity higher in urine than in blood. A low central venous pressure and a low wedge pressure confirming a volumic depletion indicated the diagnosis of CSWS. This syndrome has marked similarities with the Inappropriate Secretion of Antidiuretic Hormone Syndrome (SIADH) in terms of biological finding with regards to clinical context and presentation. Without an adequate assessment, a patient with CSWS may be misdiagnosed as SIADH. However recognition is important, as water restriction which is part of SIADH treatment, is detrimental to patients with CSWS and can possibly be lethal. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of frequency and type of errors detected by a computerized record and verify system during radiation treatment
Barthelemy, Nicole ULg; Sabatier, Jacques; Dewé, Walthère ULg et al

in Radiotherapy & Oncology (1999), 53(2), 149-54

Background: Computerized record and verify systems (RVS) have been introduced to improve the precision of radiation treatment delivery. These systems prevent the delivery of ionizing radiations when the ... [more ▼]

Background: Computerized record and verify systems (RVS) have been introduced to improve the precision of radiation treatment delivery. These systems prevent the delivery of ionizing radiations when the settings of the treatment machine do not match the intended parameters within some maximal authorized deviation. Purpose: To assess the potential alteration of the frequency of errors associated with the use of RVS during radiation treatment delivery. Materials and methods: The software of the RVS was altered in order to record the settings actually used for radiation treatment delivery whereas the verification function was suppressed. At the end of the study period, the settings used during daily administration of radiation treatment were compared to the parameters recorded in the RVS using the computer. They were also compared with the planned ones written in the patient treatment chart. Results: Out of the 147 476 parameters examined during the study period, 678 (0.46%) were set erroneously. At least one error occurred in 628 (3.22%) of the 19 512 treated fields. An erroneous parameter was introduced in the RVS memory in 22 (1.17%) of the 1885 fields. Conclusions: RVS has the potential to improve precision of radiation treatment delivery by detecting a significant number of setting errors. However, excessive confidence in RVS could lead to repeated errors as there is a potential for the entry of erroneous parameters into the RVS memory. [less ▲]

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See detailA Cell Type-Specific and Gap Junction-Independent Mechanism for the Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Thymidine Kinase Gene/Ganciclovir-Mediated Bystander Effect
Princen, Frederic; Robe, Pierre ULg; Lechanteur, Chantal ULg et al

in Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (1999), 5(11), 3639-44

Tumor cells expressing the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene are killed by nucleoside analogues such as ganciclovir (GCV). GCV affects not only the cells expressing HSV-tk but ... [more ▼]

Tumor cells expressing the herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene are killed by nucleoside analogues such as ganciclovir (GCV). GCV affects not only the cells expressing HSV-tk but also neighboring cells that do not express the gene; this phenomenon commonly is called "bystander effect." GCV metabolites transfer via gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) accounts for the bystander effect in different cell lines, but other mechanisms have also been described. In this study, we analyzed the mechanisms of the bystander effect in two cell lines exhibiting different capacities of communication (DHD/K12 and 9L). The 9L cells exhibited a very good bystander effect, which was completely blocked by a long-term inhibitor of GJIC, 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid. DHD/K12 cells exhibited a moderate bystander effect that was not abolished by 18 alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid or 1-octanol, another strong inhibitor of GJIC. Interestingly, we also observed a bystander effect in cultures where HSV-tk-expressing DHD/K12 cells were physically separated from their untransfected counterparts but grown in the same medium. Moreover, the transfer of filtered conditioned medium from GCV-treated HSV-tk-expressing DHD/K12 cells to DHD/K12 parental cells induced a decrease of survival in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that the bystander effect in this cell line was mediated by a soluble factor. [less ▲]

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See detailCrise familiale et tribunal : quelle urgence pour l'expert?
Malchair, Alain ULg

in Revue Française et Francophone de Psychiatrie et de Psychologie Médicale (1999), 32

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See detailExperimental Infection of Specific Pathogen-Free New Zealand White Rabbits with Five Strains of Amyxomatous Myxoma Virus
Marlier, Didier ULg; Cassart, Dominique ULg; Boucraut-Baralon, C. et al

in Journal of Comparative Pathology (1999), 121(4), 369-84

Myxomatosis is a specific disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) due to a virus belonging to the genus Leporipoxvirus. Forty-seven years after its deliberate introduction into Europe, the ... [more ▼]

Myxomatosis is a specific disease of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) due to a virus belonging to the genus Leporipoxvirus. Forty-seven years after its deliberate introduction into Europe, the clinical aspects and the epizootiology of myxomatosis have changed. Two forms (nodular and amyxomatous) of the disease have been identified to date. A comparative study was made of the clinical signs, pathogenesis and gross lesions observed in male specific pathogen-free New Zealand White rabbits inoculated with five strains of amyxomatous myxoma virus. All five strains induced the characteristic amyxomatous myxomatosis clinical syndrome with clinical signs that differed only in intensity. The varying clinical intensity, together with the results of virological examination question the virulence of at least three of the five strains. Genomic analysis confirmed that the five strains came from the Lausanne strain introduced in 1952 in France and not from an unnoticed introduction of a Californian strain of myxoma virus. No link was found between the amyxomatous myxoma virus strains and the SG33 vaccine strain. 1999 Harcourt Publishers Ltd. [less ▲]

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See detailRégénération osseuse: on touche au but!
Mainjot, Amélie ULg

in Journal du Dentiste, cahiers scientifiques (1999)

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See detailInfluence of human anti-lipopolysaccharide immunoglobulins on tissue distribution and clearance of lipopolysaccharide in rats
Nys, Monique ULg; Damas, Jacques ULg; Damas, Pierre ULg et al

in Medical Microbiology & Immunology (1999), 188(2), 65-71

To examine the influence of passive immunization on the biological fate of injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we used a human IgG preparation (anti-LPS IgG) rich in antibodies to a large panel of smooth ... [more ▼]

To examine the influence of passive immunization on the biological fate of injected lipopolysaccharide (LPS), we used a human IgG preparation (anti-LPS IgG) rich in antibodies to a large panel of smooth and rough purified LPS extracts as well as a normal IgG preparation (standard IgG). Our approach was to compare the uptake of 125I-labeled LPS by the tissues of saline or IgG-treated rats. After intravenous injection, one fraction of 125I-labeled Escherichia coli O55:B5 LPS is rapidly taken up by tissues, while another fraction remained in the blood. Uptake of 125I-labeled LPS was principally observed into the liver and spleen. In rats treated prophylactically with standard IgG, these tissues accumulated significantly larger amount of LPS than the tissues of rats treated with anti-LPS IgG. Nevertheless, both IgG preparations increased the specific binding of LPS by the liver and spleen. High levels of homologous unlabeled LPS decreased the uptake of LPS by the liver, presumably by occupying tissue receptors, whereas in the presence of E. coli O127:B8 LPS, an increase of the uptake of 125I-labeled LPS by the liver and lungs was observed. The pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of LPS-IgG complexes pre-formed in vitro were compared. In the presence of standard IgG, a unexpected increase of the uptake of LPS by the tissues was recorded, whereas LPS-anti-LPS IgG complexes decreased the binding of 125I-labeled LPS to the tissues. On the other hand, the vascular effects induced by LPS did not appear to be modified in rats pretreated with either IgG preparation. In conclusion, although passive immunization against LPS slightly modified the uptake and clearance of LPS, neither in vitro nor in vivo formation of LPS-anti-LPS IgG complexes afforded a very significant protection against the toxic effects of LPS. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of Melting and Rheological Properties of Fatty Binders on the Melt Granulation Process in a High-Shear Mixer
Evrard, Brigitte ULg; Amighi, K.; Beten, D. et al

in Drug Development & Industrial Pharmacy (1999), 25(11), 1177-84

The preparation of granules by melt granulation was investigated using a laboratory-scale high-shear mixer (Pellmix PL 1/8) and binary mixtures containing lactose and different lipidic binders, namely ... [more ▼]

The preparation of granules by melt granulation was investigated using a laboratory-scale high-shear mixer (Pellmix PL 1/8) and binary mixtures containing lactose and different lipidic binders, namely, Compritol 888, Cutina HR, or Precirol ATO5. [less ▲]

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See detailLa “culture médiatique” au XIXe siècle. Essai de définition-périodisation
Durand, Pascal ULg

in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (1999)

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See detailAge-dependence of the anticonvulsant effects of the GABA uptake inhibitor tiagabine in vitro
Sabau, A; Frahm, C; Pfeiffer, M et al

in European Journal of Pharmacology (1999), 383(3), 259-266

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See detailL'approche expérimentale est-elle adaptée à l'évaluation des actions d'éducation pour la santé ?
Liesse, Anne; Vandoorne, Chantal ULg

in Education Santé (1999), (143), 5-8

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See detailAirway Mast-Cell Activation in Asthmatics Is Associated with Selective Sputum Eosinophilia
Bettiol, Jane; Radermecker, Maurice ULg; Sele, Jocelyne ULg et al

in Allergy (1999), 54(11), 1188-93

BACKGROUND: Tryptase is a serine endoprotease selectively released from mast cells. Although mast cells are known to be activated after experimental allergic provocation, their role in naturally occurring ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Tryptase is a serine endoprotease selectively released from mast cells. Although mast cells are known to be activated after experimental allergic provocation, their role in naturally occurring asthma is still debated. METHODS: We have investigated the levels of tryptase in the whole induced sputum collected from 51 asthmatics (31 atopic and 20 intrinsic) seen in our outpatient clinic and 22 normal nonatopic healthy volunteers. Tryptase was measured by a new immunoassay based on B12 monoclonal antibody recognition of total tryptase (UniCAP System, Pharmacia) with a sensitivity of 1 ng/ml. RESULTS: While being below the threshold of detection in all normal volunteers, tryptase was detectable in the sputum from 9/51 asthmatics (18%) including five atopic and four intrinsic asthma cases. In these patients, among whom three were asymptomatic asthmatics, the values ranged between 1 and 6.1 ng/ml. The asthmatics with detectable sputum tryptase had greater sputum eosinophil counts (P<0.05) but lower neutrophil counts (P<0.05) than those in whom tryptase was undetectable. When compared to control subjects, asthmatics without tryptase had still greater eosinophil counts (P<0.0001) but also raised neutrophil counts (P<0.05). No significant difference could be found between asthmatics with tryptase and those without tryptase with respect to the age, the baseline lung function, the methacholine bronchial responsiveness, and the frequency of treatment with inhaled steroids. CONCLUSIONS: With the UniCAP System, tryptase was detectable in the sputum from 18% of asthmatics irrespective of atopy and current symptoms. Asthmatics with tryptase appeared to have a selective increase in sputum eosinophil counts while those without tryptase displayed a mixed sputum granulocyte infiltration with raised eosinophil and neutrophil counts. [less ▲]

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See detailMid-term follow-up after multiple system organ failure following cardiac surgery in children.
Heying, R.; SEGHAYE, Marie-Christine ULg; Grabitz, R. G. et al

in Acta Paediatrica (1999), 88(11), 1238-43

Multiple system organ failure after cardiac surgery in children is a severe complication with unknown mid- and long-term sequelae. We therefore evaluated 11 children (aged 20-126 mo, median: 67 mo) having ... [more ▼]

Multiple system organ failure after cardiac surgery in children is a severe complication with unknown mid- and long-term sequelae. We therefore evaluated 11 children (aged 20-126 mo, median: 67 mo) having survived multiple system organ failure after cardiac operations for congenital cardiac defects in a cross-sectional follow-up study 12-76 mo (median: 32 mo) after surgery. Clinical and laboratory examinations included cardiac, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, neurological and psychological function tests. All patients had adequate cardiac function. Lung mechanics were abnormal in three children and glomerular renal function was abnormal in two patients. Slight elevation of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and coagulation factor deficiency was present in six and seven patients, respectively (five of whom had undergone the Fontan operation). Severe neurological sequelae such as diplegia (n = 1) and mental retardation (n = 1) were observed in two patients. In addition, five children presented delayed motor, graphomotor and/or speech development. Two children were found to have abnormal intelligence. We conclude that with the exception of neurological impairment, mid-term sequelae of multiple system organ failure after cardiac surgery in children are mild. However, longer follow-up using an appropriate control group is mandatory. [less ▲]

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See detailMiscibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) and poly(methylmethacrylate-co-zinc polyacrylate) ionomers
Moussaif, Noureddin; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer (1999), 40(24), 6831-6839

A random copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 5.7 mol.% of acrylic acid has been neutralized by zinc cation to different extents in order to study the effect of zinc carboxylate pendant groups on the ... [more ▼]

A random copolymer of methyl methacrylate and 5.7 mol.% of acrylic acid has been neutralized by zinc cation to different extents in order to study the effect of zinc carboxylate pendant groups on the miscibility of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF). The interaction parameter (χ) has been calculated from the experimental depression of the PVDF melting point. χ is minimum at zinc carboxylate content of 2.8 mol.%. The dynamic mechanical analysis of the PVDF-PMMA ionomer binary blends does not agree with the additivity rule of the properties, consistently with the phase morphology that changes with composition. Blends are indeed amorphous as long as the PVDF content does not exceed 40 wt.%, otherwise, semicrystalline PVDF coexists with an amorphous mixed PVDF/copolymer phase. [less ▲]

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See detailLa fundación vanguardista de la traducción
Willson, Patricia ULg

in Espacios de crítica y producción (1999), (25), 54-58

This article examines and contradicts some of the stereotypes in the field of criticism about the image of Borges as translator. From the collation of his translations of works by Faulkner, Joyce and ... [more ▼]

This article examines and contradicts some of the stereotypes in the field of criticism about the image of Borges as translator. From the collation of his translations of works by Faulkner, Joyce and Woolf, the relationship between these versions and his first essays and fictions is shown, especially the ones with a «criollista» tone. [less ▲]

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See detailConfrontation anatomo-clinique. A propos d'un cas de carcinome renal a cellules claires
Daloze, A.; Delbecque, Katty ULg; Delvenne, Philippe ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(11), 859-63

The authors report the case of a patient with a history of hypertension and multiple intracerebral hemorrhages who was found at post mortem examination to have a renal cell carcinoma. The relationship ... [more ▼]

The authors report the case of a patient with a history of hypertension and multiple intracerebral hemorrhages who was found at post mortem examination to have a renal cell carcinoma. The relationship between renal carcinoma and hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailA common mutation (epsilon1267delG) in congenital myasthenic patients of Gypsy ethnic origin
Abicht, A.; Stucka, R.; Karcagi, V. et al

in Neurology (1999), 53(7), 1564-9

OBJECTIVE: Mutation analysis of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene in patients with sporadic or autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). BACKGROUND: The nicotinic ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Mutation analysis of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) epsilon subunit gene in patients with sporadic or autosomal recessive congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS). BACKGROUND: The nicotinic AChR of skeletal muscle is a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel that mediates synaptic transmission at the vertebrate neuromuscular junction. Mutations in its gene may cause congenital myasthenic syndromes. A recently described mutation in exon 12 of the AChR epsilon subunit (epsilon1267delG) disrupts the cytoplasmic loop and the fourth transmembrane region (M4) of the AChR epsilon subunit. METHODS: Forty-three CMS patients from 35 nonrelated families were clinically classified as sporadic cases of CMS (group III according to European Neuromuscular Centre consensus) and were analyzed for epsilon1267delG by PCR amplification and sequence analysis. RESULTS: The authors report the complete genomic sequence and organization of the gene coding for the epsilon subunit of the human AChR (accession number AF105999). Homozygous epsilon1267delG was identified in 13 CMS patients from 11 independent families. All epsilon1267delG families were of Gypsy or southeastern European origin. Genotype analysis indicated that they derive from a common ancestor (founder) causing CMS in the southeastern European Gypsy population. Phenotype analysis revealed a uniform pattern of clinical features including bilateral ptosis and mild to moderate fatigable weakness of ocular, facial, bulbar, and limb muscles. CONCLUSIONS: The mutation epsilon1267delG might be frequent in European congenital myasthenic syndrome patients of Gypsy ethnic origin. In general, patients (epsilon1267delG) were characterized by the onset of symptoms in early infancy, the presence of ophthalmoparesis, positive response to anticholinesterase treatment, and the benign natural course of the disease. [less ▲]

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See detailLe schéma de développement de l'espace régional
Delnoy, Michel ULg

in Immobilier (1999), 18

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See detailLa loi du 4 mai 1999 instaurant la responsabilité pénale des personnes morales: une extension du filet pénal modalisée
Masset, Adrien ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (1999), 5940(1999), 653-660

Le droit pénal belge, après plus de 130 années de fidélité au principe de l’irresponsabilité pénale des sociétés, vient de bouleverser cette question en adoptant la loi du 4 mai 1999 instaurant la ... [more ▼]

Le droit pénal belge, après plus de 130 années de fidélité au principe de l’irresponsabilité pénale des sociétés, vient de bouleverser cette question en adoptant la loi du 4 mai 1999 instaurant la responsabilité pénale des personnes morales: les sociétés et groupements peuvent être sanctionnés de peines en cumul ou non avec les personnes physiques au travers desquelles ils ont agi. [less ▲]

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See detailMedial temporal lobe metabolic impairment in dementia associated with motor neuron disease
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of the Neurological Sciences (1999), 168(2), 145-150

In the course of their disease certain patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) develop clinical features compatible with a motor neuron disease (FTD-MND). Previous reports have suggested that the ... [more ▼]

In the course of their disease certain patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) develop clinical features compatible with a motor neuron disease (FTD-MND). Previous reports have suggested that the functional pattern is similar in FTD and FTD-MND. However, some neuropathological studies suggest greater involvement of medial temporal regions in FTD-MND than in FTD. Using statistical parametric mapping (SPM96), we compared the metabolic patterns obtained at rest with positron emission tomography in 10 FTD patients and three FTD-MND patients with those obtained from 46 healthy subjects (HS). Mean age, duration of illness and dementia stage did not differ statistically between the FTD and FTD-MND groups. In comparison with HS, both groups showed frontal and anterior temporal hypometabolism at P<0.001. When the FTD-MND group was compared to the FTD group, significant hypometabolism was only observed in bilateral amygdala, bilateral hippocampus, and bilateral enthorinal and parahippocampal regions (Brodmann's areas, BA 28/36) at P<0.005. We found no significant differences in regional glucose uptake when FTD patients were contrasted to FTD-MND patients. Our results suggest statistically comparable frontal and lateral temporal hypometabolism in both conditions but greater impairment of medial temporal lobe activity in FTD-MND. Our results and a review of the literature support the hypothesis that there is a functional continuum between classical motor neuron disease (cMND), FTD-MND, and FTD. [less ▲]

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See detailPregnancy-associated glycoprotein levels in pregnant goats inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii or Listeria monocytogenes: a retrospective study
Zarrouk, A.; Engeland, I. V.; Sulon, Joseph ULg et al

in Theriogenology (1999), 52(6), 1095-104

The pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration profiles of goats that had been experimentally inoculated with either Toxoplasma gondii or Listeria monocytogenes are described. All goats were ... [more ▼]

The pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration profiles of goats that had been experimentally inoculated with either Toxoplasma gondii or Listeria monocytogenes are described. All goats were examined regularly by ultrasonography. In T. gondii-infected females (n = 5), a slow decrease of PAG was observed throughout a period of 55 to 74 d after inoculation. Afterwards, the goats either aborted (n = 4) or kidded 1 dead and 1 weak fetus (n = 1). In L. monocytogenes-infected females (n = 8), a marked decrease of PAG was observed from the day of inoculation. Abortion occurred within 9 to 11 d post inoculation (n = 7). Only 1 goat kidded a healthy fetus. [less ▲]

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See detailPhase segregation and avalanches in multispecies sandpiles
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1999), 272(3-4), 450-458

A stochastic lattice model for the simulation of sandpiles is presented. The model allows for the numerical investigation of the phase segregation phenomenon occurring when different granular species are ... [more ▼]

A stochastic lattice model for the simulation of sandpiles is presented. The model allows for the numerical investigation of the phase segregation phenomenon occurring when different granular species are initially mixed together before deposition. The model includes the collective motion of grains along the pile surface and produces the so-called landslides. The parameters of the model are discussed. The distribution of avalanche sizes is found to broaden when the number of grain types increases. This result raises new questions about previously reported experimental observations of avalanche size distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailEffectiveness of poly(vinylpyridine) block copolymers as stabilizers of aqueous titanium dioxide dispersions of a high solid content
Creutz, Serge; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Langmuir (1999), 15(21), 7145-7156

Diblock copolymers of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) and sodium methacrylate (MANa) have been synthesized and tested as dispersants for aqueous dispersions (80 wt % solid) of alumina-coated titanium dioxide. P4VP ... [more ▼]

Diblock copolymers of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) and sodium methacrylate (MANa) have been synthesized and tested as dispersants for aqueous dispersions (80 wt % solid) of alumina-coated titanium dioxide. P4VP is strongly anchored onto the pigment surface. The molecular composition of the block copolymers has an effect on the amount of copolymer required for imparting good stability to the slurry. Where the two parent triblock copolymers are concerned, triblocks consisting of PMANa outer blocks have a stabilizing efficiency comparable to the diblock copolymers, whereas the reverse structure is much less efficient. In the case of a nonblock distribution of 4VP and MANa in the copolymer chains, the stabilization effect is lost. Finally, the comparison of different stabilizing blocks attached to the same anchoring block confirms that the electrosteric stabilization mechanism is superior to the steric stabilization mechanism. A decrease in the anchoring strength of the diblocks has a deleterious effect on the dispersion stability. [less ▲]

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See detailOxidation Sensitivity May Be a Useful Tool for the Detection of the Hematotoxic Potential of Newly Developed Molecules: Application to Antipsychotic Drugs
Liégeois, Jean-François ULg; Bruhwyler, J.; Petit, C. et al

in Archives of Biochemistry & Biophysics (1999), 370(1), 126-37

Some antipsychotic agents have been found to produce agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The oxidation phenomena and/or the formation of free radicals has been suggested to be causally related to various ... [more ▼]

Some antipsychotic agents have been found to produce agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. The oxidation phenomena and/or the formation of free radicals has been suggested to be causally related to various hematological disorders, e.g., agranulocytosis. Using five experimental conditions, we tested the oxidative potential of compounds with and without a history of hematological side effects, e.g., agranulocytosis and aplastic anemia. A statistical analysis was undertaken for each experimental condition and a multivariate analysis combining all results was performed. Two peroxidase-induced free radical models did not successfully discriminate between drugs with and without a history of causing hematologic problems (<70%). The lipid peroxidation system provided even less satisfactory discrimination, with only 56.25% correct classification. However, an 87.5% correct classification was obtained when using the oxidation potentials of these drugs determined at pH 4.7 and at pH 7.4. A multivariate analysis taking into account the five variables provided 87.5% success in classification. The two clusters were better discriminated in terms of a "distance coefficient." In a second analysis, the putative antipsychotic pyridobenzodiazepine analogues (JL5, JL8, JL18, and JL25) were classified in the cluster of toxic compounds, while the oxa- and thiazepine analogues (JL2, JL3, and JL13) were classified as nontoxic compounds. On the other hand, a few metabolites of clozapine and fluperlapine were classified in the toxic compound group. The procedure described herein is, to our knowledge, the first which classifies molecules of different structures as well as different pharmacological profiles according to their hematotoxic potential. Such a procedure could be used to predict drug-induced hematological side effects. [less ▲]

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See detailOn some stability properties of the discretization of damped propagation of shallow-water inertia–gravity waves on the Arakawa B-grid
Beckers, Jean-Marie ULg

in Ocean Modelling (1999), 1(2-4), 53-69

We investigate a problem mentioned by Deleersnijder and Campin (Deleersnijder, E., & Campin, J. -M. (1993). Ocean Modelling 97, 2), who looked at the problem of the discretization of inertia–gravity waves ... [more ▼]

We investigate a problem mentioned by Deleersnijder and Campin (Deleersnijder, E., & Campin, J. -M. (1993). Ocean Modelling 97, 2), who looked at the problem of the discretization of inertia–gravity waves in the staggered B-grid. We generalize this study by adding diffusion. General stability conditions are found with the help of Miller's theorem, and the paradox found in Deleersnijder and Campin (Deleersnijder, E., & Campin, J. -M. (1993). Ocean Modelling 97, 2) is discussed. It is argued that it stems from inappropriate application of boundary conditions in conjunction with a Coriolis force treatment which could produce mechanical work. [less ▲]

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See detailNew catalysis for fast bulk ring-opening polymerization of lactide monomers
Degée, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Macromolecular Symposia (1999), 144

The ring-opening polymerization of lactides has been studied in bulk using either 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin(II) salt, Sn(Oct)2, or aluminum triisopropoxide, Al(OiPr)3, as the initiator over a wide range of ... [more ▼]

The ring-opening polymerization of lactides has been studied in bulk using either 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin(II) salt, Sn(Oct)2, or aluminum triisopropoxide, Al(OiPr)3, as the initiator over a wide range of temperature and monomer-to-initiator molar ratio, A high increase in the bulk polymerization rate has been observed when the initiator was added with an equimolar amount of a Lewis base, such as triphenylphosphine and 4-picoline (C6H7N) added to Sn(Oct)2 and Al(OiPr)3, respectively Melt stable polylactides of high molecular weight and reasonably narrow molecular weight distribution have been accordingly prepared. The use of the Sn(Oct)2. equimolar combination has allowed for reaching an acceptable balance between propagation and depolymerization rates, so that the polymerization is fast enough to be performed through a continuous single-stage process in a twin-screw extruder A global activation mechanism is proposed and discussed by comparison with both investigated initiation systems. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Catalytic, Glycosyl Transferase and Acyl Transferase Modules of the Cell Wall Peptidoglycan-Polymerizing Penicillin-Binding Protein 1b of Escherichia Coli
Terrak, Mohammed ULg; Ghosh, Tushar K.; van Heijenoort, Jean et al

in Molecular Microbiology (1999), 34(2), 350-364

The penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1b of Escherichia coli catalyses the assembly of lipid-transported N-acetyl glucosaminyl-beta-1, 4-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)-meso-diaminopimelyl ... [more ▼]

The penicillin-binding protein (PBP) 1b of Escherichia coli catalyses the assembly of lipid-transported N-acetyl glucosaminyl-beta-1, 4-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-(L)-meso-diaminopimelyl+ ++- (L)-D-alanyl-D-alanine disaccharide pentapeptide units into polymeric peptidoglycan. These units are phosphodiester linked, at C1 of muramic acid, to a C55 undecaprenyl carrier. PBP1b has been purified in the form of His tag (M46-N844) PBP1bgamma. This derivative provides the host cell in which it is produced with a functional wall peptidoglycan. His tag (M46-N844) PBP1bgamma possesses an amino-terminal hydrophobic segment, which serves as transmembrane spanner of the native PBP. This segment is linked, via an congruent with 100-amino-acid insert, to a D198-G435 glycosyl transferase module that possesses the five motifs characteristic of the PBPs of class A. In in vitro assays, the glycosyl transferase of the PBP catalyses the synthesis of linear glycan chains from the lipid carrier with an efficiency of congruent with 39 000 M-1 s-1. Glu-233, of motif 1, is central to the catalysed reaction. It is proposed that the Glu-233 gamma-COOH donates its proton to the oxygen atom of the scissile phosphoester bond of the lipid carrier, leading to the formation of an oxocarbonium cation, which then undergoes attack by the 4-OH group of a nucleophile N-acetylglucosamine. Asp-234 of motif 1 or Glu-290 of motif 3 could be involved in the stabilization of the oxocarbonium cation and the activation of the 4-OH group of the N-acetylglucosamine. In turn, Tyr-310 of motif 4 is an important component of the amino acid sequence-folding information. The glycosyl transferase module of PBP1b, the lysozymes and the lytic transglycosylase Slt70 have much the same catalytic machinery. They might be members of the same superfamily. The glycosyl transferase module is linked, via a short junction site, to the amino end of a Q447-N844 acyl transferase module, which possesses the catalytic centre-defining motifs of the penicilloyl serine transferases superfamily. In in vitro assays with the lipid precursor and in the presence of penicillin at concentrations sufficient to derivatize the active-site serine 510 of the acyl transferase, the rate of glycan chain synthesis is unmodified, showing that the functioning of the glycosyl transferase is acyl transferase independent. In the absence of penicillin, the products of the Ser-510-assisted double-proton shuttle are glycan strands substituted by cross-linked tetrapeptide-pentapeptide and tetrapeptide-tetrapeptide dimers and uncross-linked pentapeptide and tetrapeptide monomers. The acyl transferase of the PBP also catalyses aminolysis and hydrolysis of properly structured thiolesters, but it lacks activity on D-alanyl-D-alanine-terminated peptides. This substrate specificity suggests that carbonyl donor activity requires the attachment of the pentapeptides to the glycan chains made by the glycosyl transferase, and it implies that one and the same PBP molecule catalyses transglycosylation and peptide cross-linking in a sequential manner. Attempts to produce truncated forms of the PBP lead to the conclusion that the multimodular polypeptide chain behaves as an integrated folding entity during PBP1b biogenesis. [less ▲]

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See detailCulture of Gingival Fibroblasts on Bioabsorbable Regenerative Materials in Vitro
Simain-Sato, Franklin ULg; Lahmouzi, Jamila ULg; Kalykakis, G. K. et al

in Journal of Periodontology (1999), 70(10), 1234-9

BACKGROUND: The use of membranes in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) can limit the apical migration of gingival cells and favor the establishment of new attachment by periodontal ligament fibroblasts ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: The use of membranes in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) can limit the apical migration of gingival cells and favor the establishment of new attachment by periodontal ligament fibroblasts. However, gingival recession during healing following GTR has been described as a frequent complication. The purpose of this study was to determine if gingival fibroblasts are affected by the composition of the bioabsorbable membranes used in mucogingival surgery. METHODS: Two type of bioabsorbable regenerative materials were used as cell carriers. Wistar rat gingival fibroblasts (RGF) were obtained from attached gingiva, cut into small fragments, and placed in culture dishes. When confluent, cells were detached using trypsin and identified as "first transferred cells" (P1). At the third passage (P3), cell count, trypan blue exclusion test, acid phosphatase activity, DNA synthesis, phase contrast microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy were performed. The cells were then placed in wells containing the membranes and incubated for 72 hours. RESULTS: When examined under microscopy, the control wells (without membranes) showed one cell type with the elongated appearance characteristic of fibroblasts. The wells with membranes showed an altered cell morphology with a high proportion of cell fragments regardless of the type of membrane used. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that cell carrier membranes could affect RGF morphology and thus alter gingival tissue healing following GTR. [less ▲]

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See detailA general framework for power system transient stability control
Pavella, Mania ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Ruiz-Vega, Daniel

in IEEE Power Engineering Society Letters (1999), 19(10), 45-46

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See detailCrossover Iliofemoral Bypass Grafting for Treatment of Unilateral Iliac Atherosclerotic Disease
Defraigne, Jean-Olivier ULg; Vazquez, C.; Limet, Raymond ULg

in Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery and International Society For Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter (1999), 30(4), 693-700

PURPOSE: In patients with unilateral iliac disease, a less invasive procedure than aortobifemoral bypass grafting may be desirable, especially in poor-risk patients or when sexual dysfunction is feared ... [more ▼]

PURPOSE: In patients with unilateral iliac disease, a less invasive procedure than aortobifemoral bypass grafting may be desirable, especially in poor-risk patients or when sexual dysfunction is feared. In these cases, femorofemoral (FF) bypass grafting is often proposed. Compared with FF bypass grafting, iliofemoral (IF) bypass grafting avoids bilateral exposure of the groins, which may reduce the risk of infection. When the primitive iliac artery is occluded from its origin or heavily calcified, one may use the contralateral artery as inflow, after a small retroperitoneal exposure, to perform a crossover iliofemoral (CIF) bypass grafting procedure, through the Retzius space. Our 10-year experience with CIF bypass grafting in a select group of patients was studied. METHODS: Between 1986 and 1996, 36 patients underwent CIF bypass grafting for symptomatic unilateral iliac occlusion or stenosis. All patients were examined by means of Doppler ultrasound scanning and underwent bilateral multiplane angiography. Patients were considered for this procedure when the ipsilateral common iliac artery was occluded from its origin or was diffusely and heavily calcified. The decision to perform a CIF bypass grafting procedure was made when no significant disease of the contralateral common iliac artery was seen, and patients who had features of contralateral iliac disease were excluded. The main outcomes were perioperative mortality and morbidity, long-term primary and secondary patency rates, and limb salvage rate. RESULTS: The study included 31 men and five women, with a mean age of 58.8 years. Indications for bypass grafting were disabling claudication (26 of 36 patients, 72%) and limb-threatening ischemia (10 of 26 patients, 28%). Twelve procedures were performed simultaneously: endarterectomy of the recipient common femoral artery (n = 3), femoropopliteal bypass grafting (n = 4, 11.1%), profundoplasty (n = 4, 11%), and right internal carotid endarterectomy (n = 1). New postoperative erectile dysfunction did not develop in any of the patients. The survival rate was 97.3% at 1 year and 68.5% at 5 years. The primary and secondary patency rates were 94% and 100%, respectively, at 1 year and 76.7% and 95%, respectively, at 5 years. The limb salvage rate was 100% at 1 year and 87% at 3 years. CONCLUSION: The operative mortality associated with CIF is low. The long-term primary and secondary patency rates are satisfactory, and they are lower than those reported for aortobifemoral bypass grafting. This procedure does not preclude a later performance of an aortobifemoral bypass grafting procedure. CIF bypass grafting is not only suitable for poor-risk patients with a limited life expectancy who have the appropriate arterial anatomy, but also may be warranted for young patients in whom erectile dysfunction is feared. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets antitumoraux des agonistes dopaminergiques et des analogues de la somatostatine
Beckers, Albert ULg; Valdes Socin, Hernan Gonzalo ULg; Stevenaert, Achille ULg

in Médecine Thérapeutique Endocrinologie (1999), 1(2), 183-191

Le traitement médicamenteux des adénomes hypophysaires commence son histoire au début des années 70. La bromocriptine qui vient d’être découverte s’avère efficace pour traiter l’hyperprolactinémie et ... [more ▼]

Le traitement médicamenteux des adénomes hypophysaires commence son histoire au début des années 70. La bromocriptine qui vient d’être découverte s’avère efficace pour traiter l’hyperprolactinémie et restaurer la fertilité chez les femmes hyperprolactinémiques. Son effet antitumoral est découvert un peu plus tard lorsque des scanners performants permettent d’observer une diminution de volume de l’adénome. Au cours des vingt dernières années, des progrès substantiels ont été accomplis dans le traitement médical des adénomes hypophysaires et dans les techniques qui permettent leur observation et leur suivi. Des molécules plus puissantes que la bromocriptine sont maintenant disponibles pour le traitement des adénomes à prolactine (PRL). Les plus utilisées et les plus connues sont le quinagolide et la cabergoline. En outre, de nouveaux traitements médicamenteux, s’adressant cette fois à l’adénome somatotrope, ont vu le jour. La somatostatine a été découverte en 1973. Sa demi-vie très courte et les effets rebond observés après son injection ne permettaient toutefois pas de l’utiliser pour soigner l’acromégalie. Il a fallu attendre le milieu des années 80 pour disposer du premier analogue efficace dans cette indication : l’octréotide. Depuis, les préparations à effet retard ont vu le jour (Sandostatine® LAR, Somatuline® LP). Elles permettent une normalisation de la sécrétion de l’hormone de croissance (growth hormone, GH) dans l’acromégalie dans plus de la moitié des cas. Il est rapidement devenu évident que ces médicaments étaient aussi capables d’entraîner une réduction du volume des adénomes dans un pourcentage significatif de cas. Parallèlement, les progrès techniques ont permis la mise au point de scanners hyperperformants et, surtout, d’examens par résonance magnétique nucléaire (IRM). Actuellement, ce type d’examens a remplacé le scanner dans l’évaluation des adénomes hypophysaires. Il permet, en effet, de repérer des lésions de plus petite taille qu’avant, de mieux définir les limites entre la tumeur, l’hypophyse normale et les structures avoisinantes, notamment dans les macro-adénomes, et, en outre, de mieux caractériser les phénomènes intratumoraux tels que la nécrose ou l’hémorragie. Dans cet article nous revoyons les effets antitumoraux des analogues de la somatostatine et des agonistes dopaminergiques dans l’acromégalie et chez les patients porteurs d’adénome à prolactine. Les divers types de réponses, aussi bien dans les micro-adénomes que dans les macro-adénomes, seront envisagés à l’occasion de la description de cas cliniques illustratifs, puis une synthèse générale sera présentée. [less ▲]

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See detailAlphacalcidol in Prevention of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; de Froidmont, C.; Lecart, M. P. et al

in Calcified Tissue International (1999), 65(4), 328-31

One of the major drawbacks of glucocorticoids long-term therapy is the occurrence of a severe osteoporosis characterized by fractures occurring at different sites, mainly at the level of trabecular bone ... [more ▼]

One of the major drawbacks of glucocorticoids long-term therapy is the occurrence of a severe osteoporosis characterized by fractures occurring at different sites, mainly at the level of trabecular bone. One of the major determinants of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis is a decrease in the intestinal absorption of calcium (Ca) leading to a secondary hyperparathyroidism. D-hormones have been shown to significantly improve Ca absorption in the gut and subsequently to decrease parathyroid hormone circulating levels, hence normalizing bone turnover. In a recent study evaluating 145 patients suffering from diseases requiring long-term treatment with high doses of corticosteroids, we have demonstrated a significant benefit of alphacalcidol (1 microg/day) over placebo in terms of changes in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine. These results are in accordance with studies showing better prevention of bone loss and vertebral fractures in cardiac transplant patients treated with alphacalcidol than those treated with etidronate. There is now a convergent body of evidence to suggest that alphacalcidol is a reasonable, safe, and effective option for the prevention of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis, provided that serum Ca is monitored on a regular basis. [less ▲]

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See detailLa chirurgie des yeux dans les papyrus grecs d’Égypte
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Réalités Ophtalmologiques (1999), 68

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See detailAssociation of Tibolone and Fluoride Displays a Pronounced Effect on Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Osteoporotic Women
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Agnusdei, D.; Gennari, C. et al

in Gynecological Endocrinology : The Official Journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology (1999), 13(5), 361-8

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, prospective two-center study was carried out to assess the effects of tibolone + fluoride versus placebo + fluoride therapy on trabecular and cortical bone ... [more ▼]

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, prospective two-center study was carried out to assess the effects of tibolone + fluoride versus placebo + fluoride therapy on trabecular and cortical bone in postmenopausal osteoporotic women. Ninety-four subjects (mean age 61.1 years, postmenopausal 13.5 years on average) with low bone mineral density (BMD) at baseline were randomized to 2.5 mg of tibolone (Org OD 14, Livial) plus 26.4 mg of fluoride (Fluocalcic) or placebo plus 26.4 mg of fluoride daily over 2 years; 55 (58.5%) subjects completed the study, the main reason for discontinuation being untoward gastrointestinal effects. BMD at the lumbar spine was measured by both dual photon absorptiometry (DPA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and at the hip by DXA at 6-month intervals. Baseline values (DXA, g/cm2) for tibolone + fluoride and placebo + fluoride groups were 0.733 and 0.744 for the lumbar spine, and 0.761 and 0.788 for the hip. Change from baseline and percentage change from baseline were calculated for the intent-to-treat and completers groups. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) model or Wilcoxon test was used for statistical evaluation. There was a mean increase in BMD at the lumbar spine measured by DPA of 25.3% and 12.3% in tibolone + fluoride and placebo + fluoride groups, respectively (p = 0.01); with DXA, respective changes were 32.6% and 14.0% (p = 0.013). Data on BMD at the hip showed mean increases of 7.9% and 2.6% for the tibolone + fluoride and placebo + fluoride groups, respectively. We conclude that combined tibolone + fluoride treatment induces a highly significant increase in BMD at the lumbar spine without simultaneous loss of the cortical bone allowing for a meaningful reduction of the fluoride dose when given in combination with tibolone. [less ▲]

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See detailLack of Cell Wall Peptidoglycan Versus Penicillin Sensitivity: New Insights into the Chlamydial Anomaly
Ghuysen, Jean-Marie ULg; Goffin, Colette

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1999), 43(10), 2339-2344

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See detailReflux gastro-oesophagien et asthme
Lamproye, Anne ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg; Louis, Renaud ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(10), 805-8

Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) is more frequent in asthmatic patients than in the community at large. A causative association between the two diseases is suspected. Twenty-four hour ambulatory ... [more ▼]

Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) is more frequent in asthmatic patients than in the community at large. A causative association between the two diseases is suspected. Twenty-four hour ambulatory intraoesophageal pH monitoring represents the golden standard for the diagnosis of GER. The medical and/or surgical treatment of reflux in asthmatic patients with GER can improve pulmonary symptoms and to a lesser extent pulmonary function. The selection of the patients who will benefit from a GER treatment is difficult. Some symptoms like intrinsic asthma, nocturnal crises, could predict a good response to GER treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailShemin Pathway and Peroxidase Deficiency in a Fully Habituated and Fully Heterotrophic Non-Organogenic Sugarbeet Callus: An Adaptative Strategy or the Consequence of Modified Hormonal Balances and Sensitivities in These Cancerous Cells? A Review an
Gaspar, Thomas ULg; Kevers, Claire ULg; Bisbis, Badia et al

in Cell Proliferation (1999), 32(5), 249-70

There are many arguments for considering a specific fully habituated (auxin and cytokinin-independent) and fully heterotrophic non-organogenic (HNO) sugarbeet callus cell line as terminating a neoplastic ... [more ▼]

There are many arguments for considering a specific fully habituated (auxin and cytokinin-independent) and fully heterotrophic non-organogenic (HNO) sugarbeet callus cell line as terminating a neoplastic progression, and thus to be made of cancerous cells. The similarities with animal tumour and cancer cells are recalled. All types of habituated tissues examined in the literature share at least three common biochemical characteristics: low apparent peroxidase activity, high content of polyamines (PAs) and low production of ethylene. However, results concerning their auxin and cytokinin levels are not consistent. Peroxidase synthesis in the achlorophyllous HNO callus appears to arise from aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis through the Shemin pathway, commonly used by animals and fungi. This pathway is limited by disturbed nitrogen metabolism that diverts glutamate (directly used for ALA synthesis in green higher plants) from the Kreb's cycle into PA synthesis. There is no argument to suggest that the low ethylene production is caused by a competition with PAs for their common precursor, S-adenosylmethionine. The results we report here indicate modified anabolic and catabolic pathways of auxins and cytokinins but also the possibilities of unusual compounds playing similar roles (dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucosides, for instance). A higher turnover of PAs is shown in the HNO callus, which could suggest a role for H2O2 and gamma-aminobutyric acid, products or intermediates in the PA catabolic pathway, as secondary messengers. The habituated cells retain some sensitivity towards exogenous auxins and cytokinins. Their increased sensitivity to PAs and ethylene suggests modified hormonal balances for the control of these actively dividing cells. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enfant dans l'Égypte gréco-romaine
Marganne, Marie-Hélène ULg

in Revue de Pédiatrie (La) (1999), 30(298-7), 30-37

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See detailPharma clinics. Le médicament du mois. La lercanidipine (Zanidip)
Krzesinski, Jean-Marie ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(10), 832-834

Lercanidipine (Zanidip) is a new calcium antagonist belonging to the dihydropyridine family suitable for the first-line treatment of hypertension. This molecule displays a high specificity and selectivity ... [more ▼]

Lercanidipine (Zanidip) is a new calcium antagonist belonging to the dihydropyridine family suitable for the first-line treatment of hypertension. This molecule displays a high specificity and selectivity for vascular smooth muscle cells and has, in spite of a short plasma half-life, a long duration of action due to its liposolubility. The usual and once a day dose to treat high blood pressure of any grade is 10 mg, which if needed could be increased to 20 mg once a day. It has a gradual onset of effect on blood pressure, thus leading to a good tolerability and hopefully a better compliance in the treatment of hypertension. No adaptation of the dose is needed in older patients or in patients with moderate renal or liver impairment. [less ▲]

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See detailRole of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B in Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis Mediated by Aminopyropheophorbide Photosensitization
Matroule, J. Y.; Hellin, A. C.; Morliere, P. et al

in Photochemistry & Photobiology (1999), 70(4), 540-8

Aminopyropheophorbide (APP) is a second generation of photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). We demonstrated that APP strongly absorbed red light and, after being taken up by colon cancer cells ... [more ▼]

Aminopyropheophorbide (APP) is a second generation of photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT). We demonstrated that APP strongly absorbed red light and, after being taken up by colon cancer cells (HCT-116 cells), was localized in cytoplasmic and internal membranes but not in mitochondria. The APP-mediated photosensitization was cytotoxic for HCT-116 cells through an induction of apoptosis. Indeed, DNA fragmentation (DNA laddering and terminal deoxyuridine nick-end labeling) and chromatin condensation (4',6-diamidine-2'-phenylindole staining) could be visualized soon after photosensitization. Because nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B is involved in the response to many photosensitizers, we also demonstrated its nuclear translocation in two waves: a rapid and transient one, followed by a slow and sustained phase. The NF-kappa B turned out to be involved in an antiapoptotic response to APP-mediated photosensitization because the HCT-116 cell line expressing the dominant negative mutant of inhibitor-kappa B alpha was more sensitive to apoptosis as measured by DNA fragmentation and caspase activation. These data unambiguously show that a membrane-located photosensitizer can lead to effective apoptosis, reinforcing the idea that PDT can be an effective means to eradicate colon cancer cells. [less ▲]

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See detailLateral structures of thin films of ampholytic diblock copolymers adsorbed from dilute aqueous solution at the solid/liquid Interface
Walter, H.; Muller-Buschbaum, P.; Gutmann, J. S. et al

in Langmuir (1999), 15(20), 6984-6990

The lateral structures of dried thin films of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly((methacrylic acid)-block-((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)) adsorbed from dilute aqueous solution onto silicon ... [more ▼]

The lateral structures of dried thin films of the ampholytic diblock copolymer poly((methacrylic acid)-block-((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate)) adsorbed from dilute aqueous solution onto silicon substrates were investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM) and diffuse X-ray scattering. The adsorbed amount of polymer, as a function of pH, reveals a maximum near the isoelectric point (IEP) of the polyampholyte. Different lateral structures are determined for samples adsorbed at pH values above the maximum of the adsorbed amount, as compared to the ones adsorbed at pH values below this maximum. At a pH around the IEP, the polyampholyte precipitates and the layers are formed by adsorption of flocks with sizes in the micrometer range. Lateral structures measured by SFM are similarly detected by diffuse X-ray scattering. The later technique delivers a statistical description of the lateral surface structures averaged over a larger area. The structures investigated are related to the polyampholyte structure in solution and can be explained by the interplay of the electrostatic interactions of the two oppositely charged blocks of the polyampholyte and the charged surface, as well as by the dependencies of charge densities on pH. [less ▲]

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See detailBiological properties of human prolactin analogs depend not only on global hormone affinity, but also on the relative affinities of both receptor binding sites
Kinet, Sandrina; Bernichtein, Sophie; Kelly, Paul A. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (1999), 274(37), 26033-43

Zinc increases the affinity of human growth hormone (hGH) for the human prolactin receptor (hPRLR) due to the coordination of one zinc ion involving Glu-174(hGH) and His-18(hGH). In contrast, binding of ... [more ▼]

Zinc increases the affinity of human growth hormone (hGH) for the human prolactin receptor (hPRLR) due to the coordination of one zinc ion involving Glu-174(hGH) and His-18(hGH). In contrast, binding of hPRL to the hPRLR is zinc-independent. We engineered in binding site 1 of hPRL a hGH-like zinc coordination site, by mutating Asp-183(hPRL) (homologous to Glu-174(hGH)) into Glu (D183E mutation). This mutation was also introduced into G129R hPRL, a binding site 2 mutant (Goffin, V., Kinet, S., Ferrag, F., Binart, N., Martial, J. A. , and Kelly, P. A. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 16573-16579). These analogs were characterized using a stable clone expressing both the hPRLR and a PRLR-responsive reporter gene. The D183E mutation per se decreases the binding affinity and transcriptional activity of hPRL. However, this loss is partially rescued by the addition of zinc and the effect is much more marked on bioactivity than on binding affinity. These data indicate that the D183E mutation confers zinc sensitivity to hPRL biological properties. Due to an impaired site 2, the agonistic activity of G129R analog is almost nil. Although the double mutant D183E/G129R displays lower affinity ( approximately 1 log) compared with G129R hPRL, it unexpectedly recovers partial agonistic activity in the absence of zinc. Moreover, whereas zinc increases the affinity of D183E/G129R, it paradoxically abolishes its agonistic activity. Our results demonstrate that the biological properties of hPRL analogs do not necessarily parallel their overall affinity. Rather, the relative affinities of the individual binding sites 1 and 2 may play an even more important role. [less ▲]

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See detailEstrogen Receptor-Beta in Quail: Cloning, Tissue Expression and Neuroanatomical Distribution
Foidart, Agnès ULg; Lakaye, Bernard ULg; Grisar, Thierry ULg et al

in Journal of Neurobiology (1999), 40(3), 327-42

A partial estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) cDNA had been previously cloned and sequenced in Japanese quail. The 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends techniques were used here to identify a cDNA ... [more ▼]

A partial estrogen receptor-beta (ERbeta) cDNA had been previously cloned and sequenced in Japanese quail. The 3'- and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends techniques were used here to identify a cDNA sequence of the quail ERbeta that contains a complete open reading frame. For the first time in an avian species, this cDNA sequence and the corresponding amino acid sequence are described. They are compared with the known ERbeta sequences previously described in mammals and with the ERalpha sequences identified in a selection of mammalian and avian species. The analysis by Northern blotting of the ERbeta mRNA expression in the brain and kidneys revealed the presence of several transcripts. The presence of ERbeta identified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated a widespread distribution quite different from the distribution of ERalpha. The complete neuroanatomical distribution of ERbeta mRNA as determined by in situ hybridization with 35S- and 33P-labeled oligoprobes is also presented. Transcripts are present in many nuclei implicated in the control of reproduction such as the medial preoptic nucleus, the nucleus striae terminalis, and the nucleus taeniae, the avian homologue of the amygdala. These data demonstrate the presence of ERbeta in a nonmammalian species and indicate that the (neuro)-anatomical distribution of this receptor type has been conserved in these two classes of vertebrates. The role of this receptor in the control of reproduction and other physiological processes should now be investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailErratum : A procedure for deriving accurate linear polarimetric measurements
Lamy, H.; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg

in The Messenger (1999), 97

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See detailAn investigation of the large-scale variability of the apparently single Wolf-Rayet star WR 1
Morel, Thierry ULg; Georgiev, L. N.; Grosdidier, Y. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1999), 349

In recent years, much studies have focused on determining the origin of the large-scale line-profile and/or photometric patterns of variability displayed by some apparently single Wolf-Rayet stars, with ... [more ▼]

In recent years, much studies have focused on determining the origin of the large-scale line-profile and/or photometric patterns of variability displayed by some apparently single Wolf-Rayet stars, with the existence of an unseen (collapsed?) companion or of spatially extended wind structures as potential candidates. We present observations of <ASTROBJ>WR 1</ASTROBJ> which highlight the unusual character of the variations in this object. Our narrowband photometric observations reveal a gradual increase of the stellar continuum flux amounting to Delta v ~ 0.09 mag followed by a decline on about the same timescale (3-4 days). Only marginal evidence for variability is found during the 11 following nights. Strong, daily line-profile variations are also observed but they cannot be easily linked to the photometric variations. Similarly to the continuum flux variations, coherent time-dependent changes are observed in 1996 in the centroid, equivalent width, and skewness of He Ii lambda 4686. Despite the generally coherent nature of the variations, we do not find evidence in our data for the periods claimed in previous studies. While the issue of a cyclical pattern of variability in <ASTROBJ>WR 1</ASTROBJ> is still controversial, it is clear that this object might constitute in the future a cornerstone for our understanding of the mechanisms leading to the formation of largely anisotropic outflows in Wolf-Rayet stars. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of Eae, Tir, Esp a and Esp b Genes of Bovine and Human Attaching and Effacing Escherichia Coli by Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction
China, B.; Goffaux, F.; Pirson, V. et al

in FEMS Microbiology Letters (1999), 178(1), 177-82

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) virulence genes include the eae, the tir, the espA and the espB genes. These genes have been sequenced from several AEEC strains. The sequences alignments ... [more ▼]

Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) virulence genes include the eae, the tir, the espA and the espB genes. These genes have been sequenced from several AEEC strains. The sequences alignments revealed the presence of constant and variable regions. Multiplex polymerase chain reactions were developed, in order to determine the subtype of each gene present in a particular isolate. AEEC strains isolated from calves dead of diarrhea, from healthy calves and from infected humans were compared. The same pathotypes were found in sick and healthy calves but in inverted proportion. These pathotypes were also found in human AEEC. Although, the human EHEC strains from serotype O157 possessed their own pathotype. [less ▲]

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See detailAdsorption of polyampholyte copolymers at the solid/liquid interface: the influence of pH and salt on the adsorption behaviour
Mahltig, Boris; Walter, H.; Harrats, C. et al

in Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics [=PCCP] (1999), 1(17), 3853-3856

Polyampholytes are macromolecules that contain oppositely charged groups. We have studied the adsorption of the polyampholyte diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl ... [more ▼]

Polyampholytes are macromolecules that contain oppositely charged groups. We have studied the adsorption of the polyampholyte diblock copolymer poly(methacrylic acid)-block-poly((dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate), PMAA-b-PDMAEMA, on oxidized silicon surfaces. The amount of polymer adsorbed from aqueous solution of different pH and salt concentration was measured by ellipsometry. The influence of the added salts NaCl, Na2SO4 and CaCl2 was determined. In every case adsorption took place, although the polyampholyte and the substrate exhibit the same sign of net charge. For all types of salt, the adsorbed amount shows two maxima close to the isoelectric point (IEP) of the polymer as a function of pH. Directly at the IEP of the polyampholyte, no adsorption was found. The measured dependences can be explained by the adsorption of one or the other of the two blocks depending on acidity and ionic strength. Furthermore, the lateral structure of the dried films was investigated by scanning force microscopy (SFM). [less ▲]

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See detailDeconvolving spectra of lensing galaxies, QSO hosts, and more ...
Courbin, F.; Magain, Pierre ULg; Sohy, Sandrine ULg et al

in The Messenger (1999), 97

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See detailIn Vitro Activities of Strychnos Alkaloids and Extracts against Plasmodium Falciparum
Frederich, Michel ULg; Hayette, Marie-Pierre ULg; Tits, Monique ULg et al

in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (1999), 43(9), 2328-31

The in vitro antimalarial activities of 46 alkaloids and extracts from Strychnos species were evaluated. Two types of quasidimeric alkaloids exhibit high and selective activities against Plasmodium ... [more ▼]

The in vitro antimalarial activities of 46 alkaloids and extracts from Strychnos species were evaluated. Two types of quasidimeric alkaloids exhibit high and selective activities against Plasmodium. Strychnopentamine and isostrychnopentamine were active against chloroquine-sensitive and -resistant strains (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] approximately 0.15 microM), while dihydrousambarensine exhibited a 30-fold higher activity against the chloroquine-resistant strain (IC(50) = 0.03 microM) than it did against the chloroquine-sensitive strain. [less ▲]

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See detailChronic verrucous varicella zoster virus skin lesions: clinical, histological, molecular and therapeutic aspects
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Snoeck, Robert; Rentier, Bernard ULg et al

in Clinical & Experimental Dermatology (1999), 24(5), 346-353

The outbreak of HIV infection introduced a new phenomenon in varicella zoster virus (VZV) pathology, namely the long-standing wart-like skin lesions that are frequently associated with resistance to ... [more ▼]

The outbreak of HIV infection introduced a new phenomenon in varicella zoster virus (VZV) pathology, namely the long-standing wart-like skin lesions that are frequently associated with resistance to thymidine kinase (TK)-dependent antiviral agents. This paper reviews the clinical, histological, and molecular aspects and the therapeutic management of these verrucous lesions. The majority of lesions are characterized by chronically evolving, unique or multiple wart-like cutaneous lesions. The main histopathological features include hyperkeratosis, verruciform acanthosis and VZV-induced cytopathic changes with scant or absent cytolysis of infected keratinocytes. The mechanism that establishes the chronic nature of the lesions appears to be associated with a particular pattern of VZV gene expression exhibiting reduced or nondetectable gE and gB synthesis. Drug resistance to TK-dependent antiviral agents is a result of nonfunctional or deficient viral TK. This necessitates alternative therapeutic management using antiviral agents that target the viral DNA polymerase. [less ▲]

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See detailRipples versus giant dunes in a saltation-avalanche model
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Galam, S.

in International Journal of Modern Physics C : Computational Physics & Physical Computation (1999), 10(6), 1071-1076

A simple stochastic cellular automaton model is proposed for ripples and dunes formation. Saltation and avalanches are the unique ingredients of the model. The dynamics of ripple formation is found to be ... [more ▼]

A simple stochastic cellular automaton model is proposed for ripples and dunes formation. Saltation and avalanches are the unique ingredients of the model. The dynamics of ripple formation is found to be logarithmic in time while the ripple merging as well as the dune growth is faster and occurs by bursts. The ripple state turns out to be metastable. [less ▲]

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See detailThe relevance of a nonword repetition task to assess phonological short-term memory in individuals with Down syndrome
Comblain, Annick ULg

in Down's Syndrome, Research and Practice : The Journal of the Sarah Duffen Centre (1999), 6(2), 76-84

Phonological short-term memory capacity is generally measured with a word span task or a digit span task. Another way to measure it is to use a nonword repetition task. Gathercole and Adams (1993) claimed ... [more ▼]

Phonological short-term memory capacity is generally measured with a word span task or a digit span task. Another way to measure it is to use a nonword repetition task. Gathercole and Adams (1993) claimed that this procedure can be used with children as young as two-years old. It seems that in normally developing children the quality of nonword repetition is influenced both by the length of nonwords and by the degree of wordlikeness. Can the phonological short-term memory of individuals with Down syndrome be assessed with a nonword repetition task? In order to answer this question, we decided to replicate Gathercole and collaborators' experiments (1991,1993) but with individuals with Down syndrome. The quality of nonword repetition in individuals with Down syndrome is, as in normally developing children, influenced both by the length of nonwords and by their degree of wordlikeness. Furthermore, our results seem to confirm the hypothesis which states that nonwords are temporarily stored in the phonological short-term memory system. As this system has a limited capacity, both normally developing children and people with Down syndrome recall more short nonwords than long nonwords. In conclusion, nonword repetition is a reliable task with which to assess phonological short-term memory in individuals with Down syndrome as well as in normally developing children. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide on Pulmonary Hemodynamics in a Porcine Model of Endotoxin Shock
Lambermont, Bernard ULg; D'Orio, Vincenzo ULg; Kolh, Philippe ULg et al

in Critical Care Medicine (1999), 27(9), 1953-7

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary circulation in a porcine endotoxin shock model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a large ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary circulation in a porcine endotoxin shock model. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized trial. SETTING: Laboratory at a large university medical center. SUBJECTS: Twelve pathogen-free pigs weighing 15 to 31 kg. INTERVENTIONS: After surgical preparation, all pigs received a 0.5 mg/kg endotoxin infusion over 30 mins. One hour after the start of endotoxin, NO inhalation (40 ppm) was initiated in six pigs, whereas the six remaining pigs served to control the progression of shock in this model. Consecutive changes in systemic and pulmonary hemodynamics, including characteristic resistance, vascular compliance, peripheral vascular resistance, and inductance, were continuously assessed during the experimental protocol using a four-element Windkessel model of the pulmonary circulation. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Endotoxin insult resulted in a biphasic pulmonary artery pressure increase from 14 +/- 2 to 32 +/- 4 mm Hg. Inhaled NO reversed the resistance to blood flow in small pulmonary arteries from 596 +/- 69 to 424 +/- 36 dyne-sec/ cm5. In contrast, the vascular capacitance of the entire pulmonary circuit, which decreased from 2.4 +/- 0.2 to 0.8 +/- 0.1 mL/mm Hg throughout endotoxin challenge, remained insensitive to NO administration. CONCLUSION: In endotoxin-induced pulmonary hypertension, inhaled NO may function as a modulator of distal pulmonary arterial tone but fails to act as a regulator of larger capacitance pulmonary vessels. [less ▲]

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See detailMethodological Issues in a Cost-of-Dementia Study in Belgium: The National Dementia Economic Study (Nades)
Kurz, Xavier; Broers, Mattie; Scuvée-Moreau, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(3), 167-75

The NAtional Dementia Economic Study (NADES) is an on-going prospective, one-year cohort study developed in Belgium to assess the socio-economic consequences of dementia in a group of patients and their ... [more ▼]

The NAtional Dementia Economic Study (NADES) is an on-going prospective, one-year cohort study developed in Belgium to assess the socio-economic consequences of dementia in a group of patients and their caregivers (n = 400). Comparison is made with a group of subjects with cognitive impairment and no dementia (n = 100) and a group of subjects without any cognitive impairment (n = 100). Recruitment of subjects is based on screening of warning signs of dementia by general practitioners, followed by a Cambridge Mental Disorders of the Elderly Examination (CAMDEX) performed at home. This paper presents an overview of the study protocol and the rationale for basic design options, such as the choice of study population, screening strategy, and methods used for the case validation. It also presents preliminary results on the prevalence of dementia in general practice, the sensitivity and specificity of the warning signs as a screening test of dementia, and the validity of a computerised case ascertainment algorithm based on DSM-III-R criteria. [less ▲]

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See detailA propos des représentations implicites au concept de personnalité
Garcet, Serge ULg

in Langage et l'Homme (Le) : Recherches Pluridisciplinaires sur le Langage (1999), XXXIVn°2-3

La personnalité est un sujet de controverse depuis de nombreuses années. Cet article propose d'analyser les contenus implicites et philosophiques sous-jacents aux représentations traditionnelles de la ... [more ▼]

La personnalité est un sujet de controverse depuis de nombreuses années. Cet article propose d'analyser les contenus implicites et philosophiques sous-jacents aux représentations traditionnelles de la personnalité. La place des compétences intellectuelles dans ces systèmes conceptuels est également abordée ainsi que la critique des définitions classiques de la personnalité [less ▲]

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See detailMolecular interactions involving urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), its receptor (uPAR) and its inhibitor, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), as new targets for tumour therapy
Frankenne, F.; Noël, Agnès ULg; Bajou, Khalid ULg et al

in Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets (1999), 3(3), 469-48113

In the promotion of cancer progression, a classical role had previously been ascribed to the plasminogen activation system on the basis of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) proteolytic activity and ... [more ▼]

In the promotion of cancer progression, a classical role had previously been ascribed to the plasminogen activation system on the basis of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) proteolytic activity and plasminogen activation triggering a focalised pericellular activation cascade involving matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). As a result, many pharmaceutical companies have undertaken the development of synthetic uPA inhibitors. However, during the last few years, data have accumulated that uPA, as well as urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), are likely to play an essential role in tumour progression through non-proteolysis-related activities. Such activities endow them with new and likely key functions in tumour progression-associated events, such as cellular adhesion, migration, invasion and angiogenesis. Since these activities essentially depend upon protein-protein interactions, they represent new therapeutic targets. [less ▲]

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See detailEvenements et troubles post-traumatiques
Mormont, Christian ULg

in Santé plus (1999), 70

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See detailUne étiologie immunologique à l'hyperprolactinemie: la macroprolactinémie
Lebrun, Yves ULg; Luyckx, Françoise ULg; Brue, T. et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(9), 759-63

Besides classical etiologies of hyperprolactinaemia (pregnancy, pharmacological treatments, pituitary or hypothalamic perturbations), another less known cause may explain a spectacular idiopathic ... [more ▼]

Besides classical etiologies of hyperprolactinaemia (pregnancy, pharmacological treatments, pituitary or hypothalamic perturbations), another less known cause may explain a spectacular idiopathic elevation of plasma concentrations of prolactin hormone. Macroprolactinaemia is characterized by the presence of a circulating high molecular weight complex of prolactin with an immunoglobulin G. In this article, we report the cases of 3 female patients for whom size exclusion chromatography technique permitted to give a precise biological diagnosis and to avoid heavy, expensive, time consuming and unnecessary clinical investigations or therapeutic actions. Patients with macroprolactinaemia do not exhibit clinical features of classical hyperprolactinaemia, notably as regard to menstrual and fertility disturbances. [less ▲]

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See detailHBA1c: clinical and biological agreement for standardization of assay methode. Report by the expert of ALFEDIAM (Association de Langue française pour l'étude du diabète et des maladies métaboliques) and SFBC (Société française de Biologie clinique)
Gillery, Pierre; Bordas-Fonfrède, M.; Chapelle, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Diabète & Métabolisme (1999), 25(3), 283-7

Glycohaemoglobin, and particularly haemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), assays have been used for many years to retrospectively evaluate the glycaemic control of diabetic patients. Cut-off values have been established ... [more ▼]

Glycohaemoglobin, and particularly haemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), assays have been used for many years to retrospectively evaluate the glycaemic control of diabetic patients. Cut-off values have been established for deciding treatment modifications. The techniques used in the laboratories however exhibit varying quality, and all of them are not yet standardized. The consequence is an under-utilization of this test, especially in non-hospital practice. In this context, working groups of Société Française de Biologie Clinique (SFBC), Association de Langue Française pour l'Etude du Diabète et des Maladies Métaboliques (ALFEDIAM) and Société Française d'Endocrinologie (SFE) have met together, in order to analyze the national status, and to propose practical recommendations for implementing a standardization process on the basis of international experiences. It is recommended to exclusively express results as HbA1c percentage, using methods standardized and certified by comparison to reference methods such as those using Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) values. Simultaneously, contacts have been established with manufacturers, and the realisation of periodic quality control surveys was encouraged. [less ▲]

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See detailSelective effects of nicotine on attentional processes
Mancuso, G.; Warburton, D. M.; Melen, Marie-Rose ULg et al

in Psychopharmacology (1999), 146(2), 199-204

RATIONALE: It is now well established from electrophysiological and behavioural evidence that nicotine has effects on information processing. The results are usually explained either by a primary effect ... [more ▼]

RATIONALE: It is now well established from electrophysiological and behavioural evidence that nicotine has effects on information processing. The results are usually explained either by a primary effect of nicotine or by a reversal effect of a nicotine-induced, abstinence deficit. In addition, there is dispute about the cognitive processes underlying the changes in performance. METHODS: This study has approached the first question by using the nicotine patch, in order to administer nicotine chronically. In addition, we examined the effects of nicotine on attention with a selection of tests which assessed the intensity and selectivity features of attention, using the Random Letter Generation test, the Flexibility of Attention test and the Stroop test. RESULTS: Nicotine enhanced the speed of number generation and the speed of processing in both the control and interference conditions of the Stroop test. There were no effects on attentional switching of the Flexibility of Attention test. CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with the hypothesis that nicotine mainly improves the intensity feature of attention, rather than the selectivity feature. [less ▲]

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See detailL'acromégalie
Beckers, Albert ULg; Stevenaert, Achille ULg

in Tempo Médical (1999), 204

Les premières descriptions d'acromégalie ont été effectuées à la fin du siècle dernier par Pierre MARIE (1886). Cette affection, caractérisée par une hypersécrétion d'hormone de croissance a été longtemps ... [more ▼]

Les premières descriptions d'acromégalie ont été effectuées à la fin du siècle dernier par Pierre MARIE (1886). Cette affection, caractérisée par une hypersécrétion d'hormone de croissance a été longtemps considérée comme rare. En raison de sa progression insidieuse, elle est souvent diagnostiquée très tardivement. Dans cet article, nous illustrons le cas d'une patiente chez qui le diagnostic d'acromégalie a été posé au cours d'une opération pour adénocarcinome colique. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Epidural Bupivacaine on the Relationship between the Bispectral Index and End-Expiratory Concentrations of Desflurane
Hans, Pol ULg; Lecoq, Jean-Pierre; Brichant, Jean-François ULg et al

in Anaesthesia (1999), 54(9), 899-902

We compared the relationship between the bispectral index and end-tidal desflurane concentrations in 20 patients undergoing elective surgery. Patients received epidurally either 10 ml saline (group S) or ... [more ▼]

We compared the relationship between the bispectral index and end-tidal desflurane concentrations in 20 patients undergoing elective surgery. Patients received epidurally either 10 ml saline (group S) or 10 ml bupivacaine 0.125% with epinephrine 1/800 000 (group B) before induction of anaesthesia with sufentanil (0.15 microgram.kg(-1)) and propofol (2 mg.kg(-1)); muscle relaxation was obtained with cisatracurium (0.2 mg.kg(-1)). Patients lungs were ventilated to maintain end-tidal desflurane at 3% in O2/N2O (50/50) until 5 min after skin incision, followed by two consecutive 10 min periods at end-tidal desflurane 6% and 9%. bispectral index values were recorded before induction, at 3% desflurane before and 5 min after skin incision, and at 6% and 9% end-tidal desflurane. Bispectral index decreased with increasing end-tidal desflurane concentration (ANOVA: p < 0.05). The decrease in bispectral index was significant between pre-induction, 3% and 6% desflurane. No significant difference was observed at 3% desflurane before and after skin incision, or between 6 and 9% desflurane. The relationship between bispectral index and end-tidal desflurane concentration was fitted by a linear regression in each group. No significant difference in bispectral index was observed between the groups at any time. We conclude that bispectral index decreases with increasing desflurane concentration and that this relationship is not affected by epidural 0.125% bupivacaine. [less ▲]

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See detailEarly thalamic and cortical hypometabolism in adult-onset dementia due to metachromatic leukodystrophy
Salmon, Eric ULg; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Maertens De Noordhout, Alain ULg et al

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (1999), 99(3), 185-188

A case of early-onset adult dementia with family history of dementia is reported, characterised by neuropsychological deficits, suggesting frontal involvement, with mild non specific white matter ... [more ▼]

A case of early-onset adult dementia with family history of dementia is reported, characterised by neuropsychological deficits, suggesting frontal involvement, with mild non specific white matter abnormalities on CT scan. Familial Alzheimer's disease was suspected but the neuropathological diagnosis on brain biopsy was metachromatic leukodystrophy. 18FDG-PET revealed a very peculiar pattern of metabolic impairment in thalamic areas, in medial and frontopolar regions, and in occipital lobes. Neuropsychological follow-up showed relatively stable difficulties of long-term memory and signs of frontal lobe dysfunction, similar to those observed in subcortical dementias. MRI subsequently showed periventricular leukoencephalopathy. The brain metabolic pattern observed in that case of metachromatic leukodystrophy was quite different from that reported in other types of dementia. [less ▲]

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See detailGérer la mobilité - Lien entre le développement socio-économique et la gestion de la mobilité
Marchal, Jean ULg

in Bulletin de l’AILG (Association des Ingénieurs sortis de l’Université de Liège) (1999), 142e année(5),

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See detailLa transition russe vue de mon village
Bachkatov, Nina ULg

in Monde Diplomatique (Le) : Journal des Cercles Diplomatiques et des Grandes Organisations Internationales (1999)

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See detailStudy of the propagation center in the anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylic monomers: NMR study of Di-tert-butyl 2-Lithio-2.4'-trimethylglutarate and living poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) oligomers in THF/toluene mixtures
Zune, Catherine; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Grandjean, Jean ULg et al

in Macromolecules (1999), 32(7), 5477-5486

Solvation influences both the stereoregularity and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PtBMA) prepared by anionic polymerization of tBMA with a lithium counterion in THF ... [more ▼]

Solvation influences both the stereoregularity and molecular weight distribution (MWD) of poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PtBMA) prepared by anionic polymerization of tBMA with a lithium counterion in THF/toluene mixed solvents at −78 °C. As a probe of the structural changes of the propagating species, multinuclear 7Li, 1H, and 13C NMR analysis of di-tert-butyl 2-lithio-2,4,4‘-trimethylglutarate (a model dimer, A) and of short-length living PtBMA chains is reported and discussed. Whatever the system, the main structure of the lithium ester enolate in THF/toluene mixtures is similar to that one reported in THF. In the case of A and for toluene contents exceeding 50% v/v, partly organized pseudophases can additionally be detected in the 7Li NMR spectra, but they do not provide well-developed 1H and 13C NMR signals. The chemical shifts of 1H and 13C signals of A support the dimeric form of this model. An equilibrium between dimeric and nonaggregated living PtBMA chains has been previously proposed to dominate in pure THF. However, marked self-termination of low-molecular weight living oligomers prepared in THF/toluene mixtures can be observed at 263 K, in contrast to the stability observed in pure THF up to 298 K. Another contrasting feature is the broadening of the molecular weight distribution which can be explained by an aggregation process that stabilizes oligomers at the early stage of the anionic polymerization as supported by SEC-RI and SEC-UV eluograms. [less ▲]

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See detailFluorescence, Absorption and Electron Spin Resonance Study of Bacteriochlorin a Incorporation into Membrane Models
Hoebeke, Maryse ULg; Damoiseau, X.; Schuitmaker, H. J. et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (1999), 1420(1-2), 73-85

Analysis of the bacteriochlorin a absorption spectra suggests the existence of a monomer-dimer equilibrium, particularly intense in phosphate buffer and favored by a decrease of the pH. The dye in ... [more ▼]

Analysis of the bacteriochlorin a absorption spectra suggests the existence of a monomer-dimer equilibrium, particularly intense in phosphate buffer and favored by a decrease of the pH. The dye in methanolic solution is predominantly in monomeric form. Fluorescence and electron spin resonance nitroxide spin labeling measurements indicate that incorporation into the lipid phase of dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine liposomes induces dye monomerization. Moreover, the molecules are bound in the external surface of the vesicles and a complete incorporation is ensured by a lipid-to-dye ratio greater than 125. [less ▲]

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See detailIon-exchange properties of polypyrrole doped by omega-carboxylated polyethyleneoxide
Jérôme, Christine ULg; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Synthetic Metals (1999), 105(1), 65-71

α-Methoxy #969;-Na carboxylate polyethylenoxide (f-PEO) has been synthesized and used as counter-ion for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) films. The effect of f-PEO concentration on the kinetics of ... [more ▼]

α-Methoxy #969;-Na carboxylate polyethylenoxide (f-PEO) has been synthesized and used as counter-ion for the synthesis of polypyrrole (PPy) films. The effect of f-PEO concentration on the kinetics of pyrrole polymerization has been studied. The ion exchange properties of the formed PPy/f-PEO composite have been analyzed in aqueous solution containing various salts (f-PEONa and LaCl3). The incorporation of indigo carmine in this type of composite has also been investigated. [less ▲]

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See detailX-linked dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy: clinical, electrophysiological, and morphological phenotype in four families with different connexin32 mutations(1).
Senderek, J.; Hermanns, B.; Bergmann, C. et al

in Journal of the neurological sciences (1999), 167(2), 90-101

The sensorimotor neuropathy of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type (CMT) is the most common hereditary disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The X-linked dominant form of CMT (CMTX) is associated with ... [more ▼]

The sensorimotor neuropathy of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth type (CMT) is the most common hereditary disorder of the peripheral nervous system. The X-linked dominant form of CMT (CMTX) is associated with mutations in the gene for the gap junction protein connexin32. We examined four CMTX pedigrees two of which had potentially novel mutations in the only coding exon of connexin32. One previously unreported missense mutation, Ala39Val, was found in a family displaying a CMT phenotype with additional upper limb postural tremor reminiscent of a Roussy-Levy syndrome. A novel single base insertion, 679insT, is among the first mutations found in the fourth transmembrane domain of connexin32. Frameshift and premature stop of translation are supposed to result in a non-functional carboxy-terminus. Two further families had the known missense mutations Arg15Trp and Arg22Gln. Several female carriers were found normal on clinical presentation, however, the genotype was paralleled by decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCV) and slowed central conduction of brain stem auditory evoked responses (BAER). Median motor NCVs showed mild (in women) to intermediate (in males) reduction, indicating a peripheral neuropathy with a predominating axonal component. Nerve biopsy findings were consistent with the electrophysiological data showing a marked loss of large myelinated fibres and clusters of regenerating axons. Electron microscopy revealed various alterations of the axoglial attachment zone. This suggests defective axon-Schwann cell interactions which may induce the axonopathy in CMTX. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrophile induced rearrangement of 1-alkynylaluminium ate complexes
Debuigne, Antoine ULg; Gérard, Julien; Hevesi, Làszlo

in Tetrahedron Letters (1999), 40(32), 5943-5944

The title species have been shown to rearrange under the influence of the electrophile PhSCl to give tetrasubstituted vinylaluminium compounds protonolysis of which led to the corresponding vinyl sulfides ... [more ▼]

The title species have been shown to rearrange under the influence of the electrophile PhSCl to give tetrasubstituted vinylaluminium compounds protonolysis of which led to the corresponding vinyl sulfides in a highly stereoselective manner. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of hot oxygen on thermospheric O I UV airglow
Hubert, Benoît ULg; Gérard, Jean-Claude ULg; Cotton, D. M. et al

in Journal of Geophysical Research (1999), 104

The role of nonthermal oxygen atoms in the vertical distribution of the O I 989 Å EUV multiplet intensity is investigated using a thermospheric radiative transfer code. The superthermal oxygen ... [more ▼]

The role of nonthermal oxygen atoms in the vertical distribution of the O I 989 Å EUV multiplet intensity is investigated using a thermospheric radiative transfer code. The superthermal oxygen concentration and temperatures are derived from the energy distribution functions of the O([SUP]3[/SUP]P) atoms calculated by a Monte Carlo stochastic model, and their effect on UV radiative transfer is compared to sounding rocket observations. The calculated intensity increase associated with the perturbation of the Doppler profile by the presence of hot O([SUP]3[/SUP]P) atoms is shown to be insufficient to account for the set of sounding rocket EUV intensity data. [less ▲]

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See detailEl Congreso por la Libertad de la Cultura y la América Latina
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Estudos Ibero-Americanos (1999), 25(1), 217-234

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See detailNf- Kappa B and Chemoresistance: Could Nf- Kappa B Be an Antitumor Target?
Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Merville, Marie-Paule ULg; Bours, Vincent ULg

in Drug Resistance Updates : Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy (1999), 2(4), 274-276

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See detailPharma-clinics. Comment je traite ... les verrues péri-ungueales
Lambert, Jean-Luc ULg; Richert, Bertrand ULg; de LA BRASSINNE, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(8), 646-52

Warts are common benign lesions for which no specific antiviral treatment is available. In some cases, patients and doctors can be put off by poor results. Before selecting any treatment for peri- and ... [more ▼]

Warts are common benign lesions for which no specific antiviral treatment is available. In some cases, patients and doctors can be put off by poor results. Before selecting any treatment for peri- and subungual warts, it is of utmost importance to bear in mind the risk of damaging the nail matrix. This paper reviews the advantages and inconveniences of the current available treatments in this location. [less ▲]

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See detailInvestigation of the cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile, ethylacrylate and methylmethacrylate by coupled quartz crystal microbalance analysis and cyclic voltammetry
Baute, Noëlle; Martinot, Lucien; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry (1999), 472(1), 83-90

The cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN), ethylacrylate (EA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA), has been monitored for the first time by coupled electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM ... [more ▼]

The cathodic electropolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN), ethylacrylate (EA) and methylmethacrylate (MMA), has been monitored for the first time by coupled electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and cyclic voltammetry analyses. These data have been compared to the previously published analyses for methacrylonitrile (MAN). At the potential Ep1 of the less cathodic of the two voltammetric peaks observed (peak I), the polymer formed is anchored firmly to the cathode even in a good solvent for it, and it remains adsorbed when the voltammetric scan is repeated up to Ep1. In parallel, a linear relationship is observed between the frequency change recorded in situ by the QCM up to Ep1 and the PAN film thickness measured ex-situ by ellipsometry. However, when potentials more negative than peak I are scanned, the polymer desorption (degrafting) occurs as assessed by solubilization in a good solvent. Polymerization is also resumed but in solution and no longer as grafted chains. The major difference between the acrylic monomers (AN and EA) and the methacrylic ones (MMA and MAN) is that part of the methacrylic chains are not grafted at Ep1. This coexistence of adsorbed and desorbed chains is not observed for the polyacrylic chains in that potential range. The mass of PAN deposited onto the cathode has been approximated from the film thickness and the Sauerbrey equation, so allowing the Mn of the grafted chains to be estimated. [less ▲]

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See detailTumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Decreases, and Interleukin-10 Increases, the Sensitivity of Human Monocytes to Dexamethasone: Potential Regulation of the Glucocorticoid Receptor
Franchimont, Denis; Martens, Henri ULg; Hagelstein, Marie-Thérèse ULg et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (1999), 84(8), 2834-9

Resistance to glucocorticoid therapy has been observed in patients with autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and may be related to the inflammatory process itself. The aim of this study was to examine the ... [more ▼]

Resistance to glucocorticoid therapy has been observed in patients with autoimmune/inflammatory diseases and may be related to the inflammatory process itself. The aim of this study was to examine the ability of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha, a proinflammatory cytokine) and interleukin (IL)-10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) to differentially regulate the sensitivity of human monocytes/macrophages to glucocorticoids. To accomplish this, we first analyzed the pattern of TNFalpha and IL-10 inhibition by dexamethasone in LPS-stimulated whole-blood cell cultures. Second, we studied the modulation of the sensitivity of these cells to dexamethasone by preincubation with TNFalpha or IL-10 and measurement of LPS-stimulated IL-6 secretion. In addition, we evaluated the effect of dexamethasone on phorbolmyristate-acetate-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist secretion by the human monocytic cell line U937. Finally, we investigated whether the modulation of corticosensitivity in TNFalpha- and IL-10-pretreated U937 cells was related to a change of the glucocorticoid receptor concentration and affinity. Dexamethasone had different effects on LPS-induced TNFalpha and IL-10 secretion; whereas it suppressed TNFalpha in a dose-dependent fashion, its effect on IL-10 secretion was biphasic, producing stimulation at lower, and inhibition at higher doses. The concentration of LPS employed influenced the effect of dexamethasone on IL-10 secretion (P < 0.001). Pretreatment with TNFalpha diminished, and with IL-10 improved, the ability of dexamethasone to suppress IL-6 secretion in whole-blood cell cultures (P < 0.01 for both) and to enhance IL-1 receptor antagonist secretion by U937 cells (P < 0.05 for both). TNFalpha decreased (P < 0.001), while IL-10 increased (P < 0.001), the concentration of dexamethasone binding sites in these cells, with no discernible effect on their binding affinity. We conclude that glucocorticoids differentially modulate TNFalpha and IL-10 secretion by human monocytes in a LPS dose-dependent fashion and that the sensitivity of these cells to glucocorticoids is altered by TNFalpha or IL-10 pretreatment; TNFalpha blocks their effects, whereas IL-10 acts synergistically with glucocorticoids. This is accompanied by opposite glucocorticoid receptor changes, respectively opposing and favoring glucocorticoid actions. This study suggests that the pattern of pro-/antiinflammatory cytokine secretion may alter the response of patients to glucocorticoid therapy. [less ▲]

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See detailAcute Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Crohn's Disease: Characteristics of a Unique Series of 34 Patients. Belgian Ibd Research Group
Belaiche, Jacques ULg; Louis, Edouard ULg; D'Haens, Geert et al

in American Journal of Gastroenterology (1999), 94(8), 2177-81

OBJECTIVE: Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare complication of Crohn's disease, which represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to define epidemiological ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVE: Acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare complication of Crohn's disease, which represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of this study was to define epidemiological characteristics and therapeutic options of hemorrhagic forms of Crohn's disease. METHODS: Thirty-four cases of hemorrhagic forms of Crohn's disease were studied retrospectively. Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage was defined as acute rectal bleeding originating in diseased bowel and requiring a transfusion of at least 2 units of red blood cells within 24 h. Upper gastrointestinal tract hemorrhage or anal lesions and postoperative bleeding were excluded. RESULTS: Mean age at time of hemorrhage was 34.2 +/- 14 yr. Mean duration of disease before the hemorrhage was 5.6 +/- 6 yr. The hemorrhage occurred during a flare up of the disease in 35% of cases. The hemorrhage revealed Crohn's disease in 23.5% of cases. The hemorrhage was more frequent in colonic disease (85%) than in isolated small bowel disease (15%) (p < 0.0001). The origin of bleeding was identified in 65% of cases, by colonoscopy (60%), by angiography (3 patients), or at surgery (1 patient). The bleeding lesion was an ulcer in 95% of cases, most often in the left colon. The treatment was surgical in 20.5% (colectomy in 36%), endoscopical (7 patients, including 5 successes), or medical. Hemorrhage recurred in 12 patients (35%) within a mean time of 3 yr (4 days-8 yr), requiring surgery in 3 cases. No death was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study performed in a series characterized by a nonsurgical recruitment, the largest to date, shows that hemorrhagic forms of Crohn's disease may reveal disease in 23.5%, occurs in quiescent Crohn's disease in two-thirds of cases. Given the potential efficacy of endoscopical or medical treatment, as well as the absence of mortality, a conservative approach may be suggested as first-line therapy in the majority of patients. [less ▲]

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See detailLe retour du bacille de Koch (?) et les mycobactéries "atypiques"
Bartsch, Pierre ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(8), 691-7

This brief review describes the current status of the tuberculosis endemics in Belgium as well as the position of this country in the management of the disease: there is no come back of Mycobacterium ... [more ▼]

This brief review describes the current status of the tuberculosis endemics in Belgium as well as the position of this country in the management of the disease: there is no come back of Mycobacterium tuberculosis but a stagnation which further postpones the time of eradication. Some very general considerations about multiresistance are then presented, owing to the raising possibility of being confronted to this problem in the next future, together with more and more numerous cases of so called atypical mycobacteriosis. Simple and general guidelines from the recent literature about tuberculosis, multiresistance and non tuberculous bacteria are briefly recalled. [less ▲]

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See detailAnionic polymerization of methacrylic monomers: characterization of the propagating species
Zune, Catherine; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Progress in Polymer Science (1999), 24(5), 631-664

Ligation of the anionic species responsible for the polymerization (LAP) of alkyl(meth)acrylates has much contributed to improve polymerization control. This ligated anionic polymerization has been ... [more ▼]

Ligation of the anionic species responsible for the polymerization (LAP) of alkyl(meth)acrylates has much contributed to improve polymerization control. This ligated anionic polymerization has been firstly studied by using model compounds, such as low molecular weight lithium ester enolates. Recently, effort has been devoted to the direct analysis of the species that propagate the anionic polymerization of (meth)acrylates. In addition to IR, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy has been very instrumental in the elucidation of the structure and aggregation of the active species and how these characteristic features are modified by the addition of various types of ligands. This substantial progress in the characterization of the polyalkyl(meth)acrylate anions, ligated or not, is reported in this review. [less ▲]

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See detailLaparoscopic Live Donor Nephrectomy: Initial Experience
Defechereux, Thierry ULg; Hamoir, Etienne ULg; Detry, Olivier ULg et al

in Acta Chirurgica Belgica (1999), 99(4), 179-81

Transplanting a kidney graft harvested from a live donor has been proposed and used to shorten the waiting time of kidney transplant candidates and to increase the graft pool. Live donor renal transplants ... [more ▼]

Transplanting a kidney graft harvested from a live donor has been proposed and used to shorten the waiting time of kidney transplant candidates and to increase the graft pool. Live donor renal transplants have demonstrated better results in term of graft survival rates, compared to renal transplants harvested from brain dead donor. Recently, laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy has been introduced to reduce the live procurement morbidity. This lower morbidity may result in increased acceptance of the donor operation. We initiated a program of laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy in January 1997 and up until June 1998, three cases were successfully performed in our department. The purpose of this paper was to report the first case of this program and its first year of follow-up. [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of impaired subcortico-frontal metabolic networks in normal aging, subcortico-frontal dementia, and cortical frontal demential
Garraux, Gaëtan ULg; Salmon, Eric ULg; Degueldre, Christian ULg et al

in Neuroimage (1999), 10(2), 149-162

Normal aging, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are characterized by different degrees of decline in frontal lobe functions. We used (18)FDG-PET and statistical ... [more ▼]

Normal aging, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are characterized by different degrees of decline in frontal lobe functions. We used (18)FDG-PET and statistical parametric mapping (SPM96) to compare relative subcorticofrontal metabolic impairment at rest in 21 healthy elderly subjects (HES), 20 PSP patients, and 6 FTD patients. When HES were compared to 22 healthy young subjects, widespread decrease in metabolism was observed in bilateral medial prefrontal areas including anterior cingulate cortices, in dorsolateral prefrontal areas, in left lateral premotor area, in Broca's area, and in left insula. In PSP compared to the 43 healthy subjects (HS), we observed subcorticofrontal metabolic impairment including both motor and cognitive neural networks. Impairment of functional connections between midbrain tegmentum and cerebellar, temporal and pallidal regions was demonstrated in PSP as compared to HS. When comparing FTD to HS, glucose uptake was primarily reduced in dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices and in frontopolar and anterior cingulate regions. There was also bilateral anterior temporal, right inferior parietal, and bilateral striatal hypometabolism. Finally, FTD showed more severe striatofrontal metabolic impairment than PSP, while mesencephalothalamic involvement was only observed in PSP. Our data suggest that subcorticofrontal metabolic impairment is distributed in distinct subcorticocortical networks in normal aging, PSP, and FTD. Subcorticofrontal dementia in PSP is related to hypometabolism in discrete frontal areas, which are probably disconnected from certain subcortical structures. The concept of subcortical dementia is reinforced by our data, which show disrupted functional connections between mesencephalon and cerebellar cortex, inferior and medial temporal regions, and pallidum. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation pronostique des tumeurs solides humaines par immunohistologie
Delvenne, Philippe ULg; Delvenne, Catherine ULg; Fridman, Viviana ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (1999), 54(8), 677-82

The aim of this project is to evaluate the interest of new tumor markers in the most frequent solid tumors (breast, colon, prostatic cancers, ...). For each of these tumors, potential prognostic markers ... [more ▼]

The aim of this project is to evaluate the interest of new tumor markers in the most frequent solid tumors (breast, colon, prostatic cancers, ...). For each of these tumors, potential prognostic markers have been selected according to the literature and an immunohistologic technique has been developed to analyse them. We will first discuss the role of pathology in oncology, then briefly describe the analyzed markers and finally give information about a Web site (URL: http:/(/)www.ebm. lib.ulg.ac.be/index.htm) created to help clinicians exploit the laboratory results. [less ▲]

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See detailShingles Developing within Recent Surgical Scars
Nikkels, Arjen ULg; Pierard, Gérald ULg

in Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (1999), 41(2, Pt 2), 309-311

Occurrence of varicella and recurrence of herpes simplex on traumatized sites of the skin are well-described events. By contrast, herpes zoster occurring specifically at the site of previously injured ... [more ▼]

Occurrence of varicella and recurrence of herpes simplex on traumatized sites of the skin are well-described events. By contrast, herpes zoster occurring specifically at the site of previously injured skin has not yet been reported. Two patients are presented who developed shingles limited to skin on and around recent surgical scars. Varicella zoster virus was identified using immunohistochemistry on skin biopsy specimens and Tzanck smears. We suspect that the occurrence of herpes zoster involving surgical scars is usually misdiagnosed and therefore unrecognized. Whether shingles adjacent to scars represents a coincidental event or is specifically triggered by local injury is unknown. [less ▲]

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See detailMethods for Estimating Areas under Receiver-Operating Characteristic Curves: Illustration with Somatic-Cell Scores in Subclinical Intramammary Infections
Detilleux, Johann ULg; Arendt, J.; Lomba, F. et al

in Preventive Veterinary Medicine (1999), 41(2-3), 75-88

The aim of this study was to demonstrate receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology in the context of bovine intramammary infection (IMI). Quarter somatic cell scores (SCS) were available to ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to demonstrate receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) methodology in the context of bovine intramammary infection (IMI). Quarter somatic cell scores (SCS) were available to evaluate quarter IMI, and the final IMI diagnosis was made from milk bacteriologic cultures. Data consisted of 11,453 quarter-milk samples collected on 2084 clinically healthy cows located in 154 Belgian herds. Bacteriological analyses showed 16.2%, 7.2%, and 11.9% of quarters infected with coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus agalactiae, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., respectively. The ROC curve indicated all the combinations of sensitivity and specificity that quarter SCS was able to provide as a test to identify quarter IMI. Among parametric, semi-parametric, and non-parametric methods to estimate area under ROC curves, the parametric method seemed the least appropriate for analyzing SCS in this study. With the non-parametric method, the total area under the ROC curves showed quarter SCS could identify quarter IMI with an overall accuracy of 69%, 76%, and 59% for coagulase-positive Staphylococcus spp., S. agalactiae, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Parametric and non-parametric statistical tests showed that overall SCS diagnostic capability was significantly (p<0.01) different from chance and was different (p<0.01) across the three bacteria. However, the SCS thresholds yielding the highest percentage of quarters correctly classified as infected (for the observed prevalence and for equal costs assigned to false-positive and false-negative results) were so high that they had no practical value. The major advantage of ROC analysis is the comprehensive description of the discrimination capacity of SCS for all possible choices of critical values. The major disadvantage is the dependency upon the gold standard used for the final diagnosis--but recent improvements of the methodology will correct the problem. [less ▲]

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See detailRing-opening metathesis polymerization of new alpha-norbornenyl poly(epsilon-caprolactone) macromonomers
Mecerreyes, David; Dahan, Dahan; Lecomte, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1999), 37(14), 2447-2455

Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) macromonomers capped by a polymerizable norbornene end-group have been synthesized and (co)polymerized by ring-opening metathesis with formation of graft copolymers and ... [more ▼]

Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) macromonomers capped by a polymerizable norbornene end-group have been synthesized and (co)polymerized by ring-opening metathesis with formation of graft copolymers and polymacromonomers. -Norbornenyl PCL macromonomers have been synthesized by ring opening polymerization (ROP) of epsilon-caprolactone (CL) initiated by 2-diethylaluminoxymethyl-5-norbornene. Copolymerization of these PCL macromonomers with norbornene and polymerizable derivatives has been catalyzed by the [RuCl2(p-cymene)]2 PCy3/(trimethylsilyl)diazomethane complex yielding a series of poly(norbornene)-graft-poly(epsilon-caprolactone) copolymers. These new graft copolymers have been characterized by a set of analytical methods, i.e., SEC, 1H-NMR, FTIR, DSC, and TGA. Furthermore, PCL macromonomers have been polymerized into high molecular weight comb chains of narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn = 1.10) within high yields (90%). [less ▲]

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See detailPeptidase Activity of Beta-Lactamases
Rhazi, Noureddine ULg; Galleni, Moreno ULg; Page, Michael I. et al

in Biochemical Journal (1999), 341((Pt 2)), 409-13

Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each ... [more ▼]

Although beta-lactamases have generally been considered as being devoid of peptidase activity, a low but significant hydrolysis of various N-acylated dipeptides was observed with representatives of each class of beta-lactamases. The kcat/Km values were below 0.1 M(-1). s(-1), but the enzyme rate enhancement factors were in the range 5000-20000 for the best substrates. Not unexpectedly, the best 'peptidase' was the class C beta-lactamase of Enterobacter cloacae P99, but, more surprisingly, the activity was always higher with the phenylacetyl- and benzoyl-d-Ala-d-Ala dipeptides than with the diacetyl- and alpha-acetyl-l-Lys-d-Ala-d-Ala tripeptides, which are the preferred substrates of the low-molecular-mass, soluble dd-peptidases. A comparison between the beta-lactamases and dd-peptidases showed that it might be as difficult for a dd-peptidase to open the beta-lactam ring as it is for the beta-lactamases to hydrolyse the peptides, an observation which can be explained by geometric and stereoelectronic considerations. [less ▲]

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See detailBeneficial effect of triphenylphosphine on the bulk polymerization of L,L-lactide promoted by 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin (II) salt
Degée, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jacobsen, S. et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1999), 37(14), 2413-2420

The ring-opening polymerization of L,L-lactide has been studied in bulk using 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin (II) salt, Sn(Oct)2, as a catalyst over a wide range of temperature and monomer to Sn(Oct)2 molar ... [more ▼]

The ring-opening polymerization of L,L-lactide has been studied in bulk using 2-ethylhexanoic acid tin (II) salt, Sn(Oct)2, as a catalyst over a wide range of temperature and monomer to Sn(Oct)2 molar ratio. Although Sn(Oct)2 was known to initiate a fast polymerization, it is reported now that some Lewis bases, particularly triphenylphosphine (P()3), can increase further the polymerization rate, without any detrimental effect on the polylactide thermal stability. In order to optimize the balance between propagation and competing depolymerization reactions, the experimental conditions, i.e., temperature and concentration of Sn(Oct)2 and P()3 have been optimized. The up-scaling of the laboratory experiments to reactive extrusion has proved to be feasible, which demonstrates the efficiency of this catalytic system to produce polylactide in a continuous one-stage polymerization process. [less ▲]

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See detailMacromolecular engineering of polylactones and polylactides. XXV. Synthesis and characterization of bioerodible amphiphilic networks and their use as controlled drug delivery systems
Barakat, Ibrahim; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Grandfils, Christian ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1999), 37(14), 2401-2411

Well-defined ,-methacryloyl poly--caprolactone (PCL) and poly(d,l)-lactide P(D,L)LA dimacromonomers have been synthesized by living ring-opening polymerization of the parent monomers initiated by ... [more ▼]

Well-defined ,-methacryloyl poly--caprolactone (PCL) and poly(d,l)-lactide P(D,L)LA dimacromonomers have been synthesized by living ring-opening polymerization of the parent monomers initiated by diethylaluminum 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (Et2AlO(CH2)2OC(O)C(CH3)CH2) and terminated by reaction of the propagating Al alkoxide groups with methacryloyl chloride. These dimacromonomers have been copolymerized with a hydrophilic comonomer, i.e., 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, in bulk at 65°C by using benzoyl peroxide as a free-radical initiator. The swelling ability of the amphiphilic PHEMA/PCL or P(D,L)LA networks has been investigated in both aqueous and organic media. Effect of network composition and molecular weight of the dimacromonomer on the swelling kinetics and the equilibrium solvent uptake has been studied. Lipophilic dexamethasone acetate and the hydrophilic sodium phosphate counterpart have been incorporated into the amphiphilic gels and their release has been studied in relation to the gel characteristics. [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of dendritic-linear block copolymers by living ring-opening polymerization of lactones and lactides using dendritic initiators
Mecerreyes, David; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Polymer Science. Part A, Polymer Chemistry (1999), 37(13), 1923-1930

Polyether dendrons have been successfully used as macroinitiators for the living ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactones and lactides. A hydroxyl group located at the focal point of dendrimers of ... [more ▼]

Polyether dendrons have been successfully used as macroinitiators for the living ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of lactones and lactides. A hydroxyl group located at the focal point of dendrimers of different generations was transformed into diethyl aluminum alkoxides by reaction with triethyl aluminum. The dendritic aluminum alkoxides proved to be efficient macroinitiators for the living ROP of -caprolactone (CL), 1,4,8-trioxa(4,6)spiro[9]undecanone (TOSUO), D,L- and L,L-lactide. Formation of these block copolymers of unusual macromolecular architecture was supported by size exclusion chromatography and spectroscopy. The versatility of this synthetic approach allowed -functional dendrimer block-polyesters, such as macromonomer, and macromolecules with novel architectures, to be prepared. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentification of Psf, the Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein-Associated Splicing Factor, as a Developmentally Regulated Neuronal Protein
Chanas-Sacre, Grazyna; Mazy-Servais, Cécile; Wattiez, Ruddy et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Research (1999), 57(1), 62-73

The polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF), which plays an essential role in mammalian spliceosomes, has been found to be expressed by differentiating neurons in developing ... [more ▼]

The polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-associated splicing factor (PSF), which plays an essential role in mammalian spliceosomes, has been found to be expressed by differentiating neurons in developing mouse brain. The sequence of a fragment of mouse PSF was found to be remarkably similar to that of human PSF. Both the expression of PSF mRNA in cortex and cerebellum and PSF immunoreactivity in all brain areas were high during embryonic and early postnatal life and almost disappeared in adult tissue, except in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb where various neuronal populations remained PSF-immunopositive. Double-labeling experiments with anti-PSF antibody and anti-neurofilaments or anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies on sections of cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum indicate that PSF is expressed by differentiating neurons but not by astrocytic cells. In vitro, mouse PSF was found to be expressed by differentiating cortical and cerebellar neurons. Radial glia or astrocyte nuclei were not immunopositive; however, oligodendrocytes differentiating in vitro were found to express PSF. The restricted expression of PSF suggests that this splicing factor could be involved in the control of neuronal-specific splicing events occurring at particular stages of neuronal differentiation and maturation. [less ▲]

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See detailThe moving averages demystified
Vandewalle, Nicolas ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg; Boveroux, P.

in Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications (1999), 269(1), 170-176

A common method in technical analysis is the construction of moving averages along time series of stock prices. We show that they present a practical interest for physicists, and raise new questions on ... [more ▼]

A common method in technical analysis is the construction of moving averages along time series of stock prices. We show that they present a practical interest for physicists, and raise new questions on fundamental ground. Indeed, self-affine signals characterized by a defined roughness exponent H can be investigated through moving averages. The density rho of crossing points between two moving averages is shown to be a measure of long-range power-law correlations in a signal. Finally, we present a specific transform with which various structures in a signal, e.g. trends, cycles, noise, etc, can be investigated in a systematic way. [less ▲]

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See detailAbout the origin of extinction in the gravitational lens system MG J0414+0534
Angonin-Willaime, M.-C.; Vanderriest, C.; Courbin, F. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (1999), 347

Photometric measurements of the highly reddened gravitational mirage MG J0414+0534 have been carried out either by PSF subtraction or by applying accurate deconvolution algorithms to optical (R, I) and ... [more ▼]

Photometric measurements of the highly reddened gravitational mirage MG J0414+0534 have been carried out either by PSF subtraction or by applying accurate deconvolution algorithms to optical (R, I) and near-infrared (K) images obtained at CFHT and NOT under sub-arcsecond seeing conditions. It is confirmed that the close pair of images A1-A2 suffers a larger extinction than B and C. While the colours of image A2 obtained from ground-based data seem inconsistent with a simple reddening law, higher resolution images available from HST archives reveal an additional extended component (arc) which introduces significant errors in the photometric decomposition. When the arc component is properly taken into account, the colours of the 4 nucleus images do agree with a classical reddening law, with A2 being by far the most obscured component. Such a differential extinction (maximum difference Delta E(R-I) =~ 0.6) is likely due to the lensing galaxy. This does not mean that {all} the extinction occurs into the lens. Indeed, the fact that the arc is much less red than the images of the nucleus suggests that an important part of the reddening is intrinsic to the source. Finally, no significant variability is observed within this data set, i.e. between 1994 and 1997, while a discrepancy from earlier data is noticed for (A1 + A2). Based on observations collected with the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope at Mauna Kea (Hawaii, USA), the Nordic Optical Telescope (Canary, Spain) and archive data from the Hubble Space Telescope (NASA/ESA) [less ▲]

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See detailSynthesis of novel polybutadiene-graft-poly(sodium methacrylate) amphiphilic copolymers as precursors for liquid crystalline graft copolymers
Gohy, Jean-François; Charlier, Christelle; Zhang, Jian-Xin et al

in Macromolecular Chemistry and Physics (1999), 200(7), 1630-2638

Well-defined polybutadiene-graft-poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PBD-g-PtBMA) copolymers were prepared by reaction of PtBMA chains end-capped with a tert-butyl 4-vinylbenzoate (tBVB) anion, with the ... [more ▼]

Well-defined polybutadiene-graft-poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) (PBD-g-PtBMA) copolymers were prepared by reaction of PtBMA chains end-capped with a tert-butyl 4-vinylbenzoate (tBVB) anion, with the selectively hydrosilylated 1,2-units of anionically synthesized PBD. Substitution of the tBVB anion for the anion of living PtBMA chains is required for the formation of the expected C-silylation product instead of the unstable O-silylation one. Subsequent hydrolysis of the poly(tert-butyl methacrylate) grafts followed by neutralization of the carboxylic acid groups by sodium hydroxide leads to amphiphilic polybuta-diene-graft-poly(sodium methacrylate) (PBD-g-PNaMA) graft copolymers. These copolymers form unimeric micelles in water, as observed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Non-covalent liquid crystalline graft copo-lymers were prepared by cation exchange between PBD-g-PNaMA copolymers and an ammonium containing smectic mesogen. These copolymers form a smectic mesophase which is microphase separated from PBD. [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Advances in the Pharmacology of Quaternary Salts of Bicuculline
Seutin, Vincent ULg; Johnson, S. W.

in Trends in Pharmacological Sciences (1999), 20(7), 268-270

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See detailA RED discard strategy for ATM networks and its performance evaluation with TCP/IP Traffic
Rosolen, Vincent; Bonaventure, Olivier; Leduc, Guy ULg

in Computer Communication Review (1999), 29(3), 23-43

In ATM UBR networks supporting TCP traffic, optimal efficiency can only be envisaged if switches adopt a discard mechanism that operates at the packet level rather than the cell level. In this paper, we ... [more ▼]

In ATM UBR networks supporting TCP traffic, optimal efficiency can only be envisaged if switches adopt a discard mechanism that operates at the packet level rather than the cell level. In this paper, we define a variant of the RED discard strategy suitable for ATM switches. An interesting feature of this ATM-RED is that it has a similar per-VC implementation complexity as the Early Packet Discard (EPD) algorithm. To study the efficiency of the ATM-RED discard strategy, we compare its performance with plain the UBR, EPD and Fair Buffer Acceptance (FBA) discard strategies by means of simulation with TCP/IP traffic. We give comparative results with respect to different performance criteria such as goodput and fairness in various environments, such as end-to-end ATM networks and IP-based networks with an ATM backbone, in both single-bottlenecked and GFC topologies. [less ▲]

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See detailAnionic polymerization of (meth)acrylic monomers: anionic polymerization of tert-butyl methacrylate in toluene
Zune, Catherine; Dubois, Philippe ULg; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in Polymer International (1999), 48(7), 565-570

The anionic polymerization of tBMA initiated by an organolithium compound in toluene at low temperature (-78 °C and 0 °C) has been revisited. Under these experimental conditions, no livingness is reported ... [more ▼]

The anionic polymerization of tBMA initiated by an organolithium compound in toluene at low temperature (-78 °C and 0 °C) has been revisited. Under these experimental conditions, no livingness is reported, consistently with formation of an important fraction of oligomers (Mn = 650). [less ▲]

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See detailPolylactide (PLA) – A new way of production
Jacobsen, Sven; Degée, Philippe; Fritz, Hans-Gerhard et al

in Polymer Engineering & Science (1999), 39(7), 1311-1319

Poly(lactide) (PLA), a biodegradable aliphatic polyester with excellent properties for different polymer applications, has been used mostly in the biomedical field, mainly because of its high price ... [more ▼]

Poly(lactide) (PLA), a biodegradable aliphatic polyester with excellent properties for different polymer applications, has been used mostly in the biomedical field, mainly because of its high price, resulting from expensive polymerization and purification techniques. Although this polymer can play a major role in future markets for biodegradable polymers, the current high price has to be reduced significantly to at least $4 US/kg. Therefore, this paper aims to partially review the polymerization techniques traditionally used in PLA synthesis and to propose new developments that enable us to produce these polymers by an innovative process for just a portion of the costs traditionally charged, using reactive extrusion techniques in a closely intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder. This paper gives an overview of attainable mechanical properties and future markets. [less ▲]

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