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See detailLiver transplantation for hepatitis B virus infection: improving long-term outcomes
Detry, Olivier ULg; Delwaide, Jean ULg

in Medscape Transplantation (2001)

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See detailInteractions between systemic analgesics.
Joris, Jean ULg; Kaba, Abdourahmane ULg

in Acta Anaesthesiologica Belgica (2001), 52(4), 395-401

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See detailHelping children to learn languages (Aider son enfant à apprendre les langues)
Blondin, Christiane ULg

in European Parents Association - Info Bulletin (2001), (Hiver 2001), 11-16

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See detailUtilisation des gènes à effet majeur en sélection laitière. Un exemple: le gène Pit-1
Renaville, Robert ULg; Parmentier, Isabelle; Fontaine, Sandrine et al

in Les Elevages belges (2001), 4

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See detailObligations des parties et sanctions des obligations dans la Convention de Vienne
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; van Houtte, Hans

in Revue du droit des affaires internationales - International Business Law Journal (2001)

This paper provides a detailed overview of the rights and duties of both seller and buyer under the Vienna Sales Convention. It does so in the light not only of the text of the Convention but also of the ... [more ▼]

This paper provides a detailed overview of the rights and duties of both seller and buyer under the Vienna Sales Convention. It does so in the light not only of the text of the Convention but also of the emerging case law of various countries, which is reviewed and taken into account. The overview also attempts to contrast the rules of the Convention with the rules applicable in Belgian contract law. [less ▲]

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See detailEntre Susana y Dulcinea. Imágenes femeninas en el discurso zapatista
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in México en Movimiento (2001), 8

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See detailNovel inhibitors of the sodium-calcium exchanger: benzene ring analogues of N-guanidino substituted amiloride derivatives
Rogister, F.; Laeckmann, D.; Plasman, P.-O. et al

in European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (2001), 36

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See detailReticulocyte transferrin receptor (TfR) expression and contribution to soluble TfR levels.
R'Zik, Samir ULg; Loo, Martine; Beguin, Yves ULg

in Haematologica (2001), 86(3), 244-51

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transferrin receptor (TfR) expression in erythroid cells is regulated by a number of factors, including iron status and erythropoietin (Epo) stimulation. However, the impact of ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Transferrin receptor (TfR) expression in erythroid cells is regulated by a number of factors, including iron status and erythropoietin (Epo) stimulation. However, the impact of these factors on reticulocyte TfR expression in vivo has never been studied. A soluble form of TfR (sTfR) is present in serum in proportion to the mass of cellular TfR. Although sTfR shedding by reticulocytes and erythroblasts has been demonstrated in vitro, the contribution of reticulocyte TfR to serum sTfR has never been evaluated in vivo. DESIGN AND METHODS: We measured directly the total number of reticulocyte TfR in normal rats of different age and iron status, as well as in animals experiencing various conditions and treatments aimed at altering erythropoietic activity and iron status, including rHuEpo therapy, hemolytic anemia, phlebotomies, hypertransfusions, thiamphenicol-induced red cell aplasia or inflammation. In addition, we examined the impact of repeated hypertransfusions with normal, reticulocyte-poor and reticulocyte-rich blood on serum sTfR levels. RESULTS: The number of TfR molecules per reticulocyte was around 50,000 in young rats but was around 100,000 in older animals. These values remained constant in most conditions and in particular were not influenced by iron supplementation or iron overload. However, functional iron deficiency as well as rHuEpo therapy resulted in increased reticulocyte TfR expression. In addition, TfR numbers in reticulocytes were elevated in the early phase of recovery after acute hemolysis or red cell aplasia but normalized soon after. Hypertransfusion experiments clearly demonstrated that reticulocytes can contribute substantially to sTfR levels in vivo. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: TfR numbers are regulated in vivo by the same factors as in vitro, in particular iron deficiency and erythropoietin stimulation. Circulating reticulocytes contribute significantly to serum sTfR levels. [less ▲]

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See detailRevascularisation coronaire a coeur battant par pontages exclusivement arteriels
RADERMECKER, Marc ULg; GRENADE, Thierry ULg; Dresse, Denise ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(6), 431-2

A case of complete arterial revascularization using both mammary arteries and the left radial artery is reported. The operation was done on the beating heart with the adjunct of a Y graft owing to a ... [more ▼]

A case of complete arterial revascularization using both mammary arteries and the left radial artery is reported. The operation was done on the beating heart with the adjunct of a Y graft owing to a severely calcified ascending aorta. This observation is the occasion to review the basic principles of beating heart surgery. [less ▲]

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See detailTransduction pathways involved in Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 phosphorylation and activation.
Minet, E.; Michel, G.; Mottet, Denis ULg et al

in Free Radical Biology & Medicine (2001), 31(7), 847-55

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor which is activated by hypoxia and involved in the adaptative response of the cell to oxygen deprivation. During hypoxic stress, HIF-1 triggers ... [more ▼]

Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor which is activated by hypoxia and involved in the adaptative response of the cell to oxygen deprivation. During hypoxic stress, HIF-1 triggers the overexpression of genes coding for glycolytic enzymes and angiogenic factors. To be active HIF-1 must be phosphorylated. HIF-1 is a substrate for various kinase pathways including PI-3K and the MAP kinases ERK and p38. Several transduction pathways have been proposed which act downstream of putative oxygen sensors and lead to the activation of these kinases. In this review, we summarize some of the latest advances describing the possible signaling pathways leading to HIF-1 phosphorylation and subsequent activation. The physiological relevance of these regulations is also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailThe acquired brain injuries in the term and preterm babies: an update on their pathophysiology
Battisti, Oreste ULg; Adant-François, A.; Scalais, E. et al

in Journal du Pédiatre Belge (2001), 3

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See detailExpression of Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutases during bovine embryo development: influence of in vitro culture.
Lequarré, Anne-Sophie ULg; Feugang, Jean-Magloire; Malhomme, Olivier et al

in Molecular Reproduction and Development (2001), 58(1), 45-53

Temporal pattern of expression of Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutases (SODs) was investigated in bovine oocytes and embryos produced in vitro in two different culture conditions and in vivo after ... [more ▼]

Temporal pattern of expression of Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutases (SODs) was investigated in bovine oocytes and embryos produced in vitro in two different culture conditions and in vivo after superovulation. SODs were examined at a transcriptional level in single oocytes and embryos by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and, at a protein level, by Western blotting on pools of embryos. mRNA encoding Cu/Zn SOD were detected in in vitro bovine embryos throughout preattachment development as well as in in vivo derived morulae and blastocysts. Transcripts for Mn SOD gene were detected in most immature and in vitro matured oocytes as well as in some zygotes and 5- to 8-cell embryos while no transcript was found at the 9-to 16-cell stage in both culture conditions. In vitro embryonic expression of Mn SOD was detected earlier in the presence of serum. Half of the morulae showed the transcript if cultured with 5% serum while none without serum. At the blastocyst stage Mn SOD could be detected independently of culture conditions. For in vivo-derived embryos Mn SOD transcripts were detected both in morulae and blastocysts. Immunoblotting analyses revealed that Cu/Zn SOD and Mn SOD were also present at a protein level in in vitro-derived zygotes and blastocysts. Together these data demonstrate, for the first time, that Mn SOD is transcribed and that Cu/Zn and Mn SOD proteins are expressed in preimplantation bovine embryos. Finally, they suggest that Mn SOD transcription is altered by in vitro culture conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailThe anatomical distribution of radiological abnormalities in Kashin-Beck disease in Tibet
Hinsenkamp, Maurice; Ryppens, F.; Mathieu, F. et al

in International Orthopaedics (2001), 25

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See detailEvolution des organisations urbaines et mobilités quotidiennes : espace de référence et analyse des processus
Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

in Espace Géographique (L') (2001), 30(1), 67-80

Cet article traite des liens entre la mobilité quotidienne et les évolutions intra-urbaines. Dans ce cadre, un espace géographique urbain de référence a tout d'abord été construit ; afin de clarifier des ... [more ▼]

Cet article traite des liens entre la mobilité quotidienne et les évolutions intra-urbaines. Dans ce cadre, un espace géographique urbain de référence a tout d'abord été construit ; afin de clarifier des processus d'évolution, il semble en effet naturel de débuter par la définition d'un état stable. Concernant les processus, plusieurs différenciations ont été opérées, notamment : l'urbanisation par rapport à la désurbanisation et l'urbanisation fonctionnelle par rapport à l'urbanisation morphologique. La problématique des types de mobilité a également été intégrée, ce qui a déterminé une réflexion sur le thème de la transition périurbaine, c'est-à-dire le processus de mutation de la ville sous l'impact de la mobilité automobile. [less ▲]

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See detailPratique de l'exercice musculaire chez le patient diabetique.
Jandrain, Bernard ULg; Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(5), 300-5

Muscular exercise is recommended in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and is part of the overall management, in combination with diet, oral antidiabetic agents and/or insulin. From a ... [more ▼]

Muscular exercise is recommended in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus and is part of the overall management, in combination with diet, oral antidiabetic agents and/or insulin. From a pathophysiological point of view, regular physical activity enhances insulin sensitivity, thus contributing to improve blood glucose control and to reduce cardiovascular risk factors associated to diabetes mellitus. From a practical point of view, however, muscular exercise in a diabetic patient requires special caution, in particular careful selection of the type of exercise, respect of metabolic and/or cardiovascular contraindications, and appropriate adjustment of current pharmacological/dietary treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and Theoretical Energy Levels, Transition probabilities and Radiative Lifetimes in Yb III
Biémont, Emile ULg; Garnir, Henri-Pierre ULg; Li, Z. S. et al

in Journal of Physics : B Atomic Molecular & Optical Physics (2001), 34

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See detailThe Pyoverdin Of Pseudomonas Fluorescens Btp2, A Novel Structural Type
Ongena, MARC ULg; Jacques, Philippe ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

in Tetrahedron Letters (2001), 42(34),

Abstract—From Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP2 a pyoverdin was isolated which contained the so far not encountered Val in its peptide chain. Its structure could be elucidated by chemical degradation and ... [more ▼]

Abstract—From Pseudomonas fluorescens BTP2 a pyoverdin was isolated which contained the so far not encountered Val in its peptide chain. Its structure could be elucidated by chemical degradation and spectroscopic data. [less ▲]

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See detailThe NETLANDER Ionosphere and Geodesy Experiment
Barriot, Jean-Pierre; Dehant, Véronique; Folkner, W. et al

in Advances in Space Research (2001), 28(8), 1237-1249

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See detailThe concept of age in marine modelling I. Theory and preliminary model results
Deleersnijder, Eric; Campin, Jean-Michel; Delhez, Eric ULg

in Journal of Marine Systems (2001), 28(3-4), 229-267

The age of a particle of a seawater constituent is defined to be the time elapsed since the particle under consideration left the region, in which its age is prescribed to be zero. An Eulerian theory of ... [more ▼]

The age of a particle of a seawater constituent is defined to be the time elapsed since the particle under consideration left the region, in which its age is prescribed to be zero. An Eulerian theory of the age is presented, in which advection, diffusion, production and destruction phenomena are properly accounted for. The key hypothesis is that the mean age of a set of particles is to be evaluated as the mass-weighted average of the ages of the particles under study. The basic variable is the concentration distribution function, representing, at a given time and location, the distribution over the age of the concentration of the constituent being considered. This function satisfies a partial differential equation, which, upon appropriate integration over the age, yields the equations, in flux form, governing the evolution of the concentration and the age concentration. The ratio of the latter variable to the former is the mean age. Further theoretical developments are presented, including a thought experiment showing that mixing processes cause the ages of various constituents to be different from each other. The potential of the age as a tool for understanding complex marine flows is briefly demonstrated by analysing the results of two numerical models. The ages of a passive tracer, a radioactive tracer and the water are computed, along with a suitably defined radio-age. First, the fate of tracers released into the English Channel at La Hague is simulated. Then, ages are computed in the World Ocean as a measure of the time that has elapsed since leaving the surface layers. A theorem is demonstrated, which specifies that the age of the radioactive tracer must be smaller than the relevant radio-age, the latter being smaller than the age of the passive tracer, which, under appropriate hypotheses, can be seen to be equivalent to the age of the water. These inequalities seem to be remarkably robust, since they are found to hold valid in most of the numerical and analytical results examined in the present study. On the other hand, a dimensionless number is highlighted, which is believed to play an important role in the scaling of the differences between ages. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailThe karyotype of the Formentera island garden dormouse, Eliomys quercinus ophiusae
Ramalhinho, Graça; Libois, Roland ULg

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2001), 131(1), 83-85

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See detailRobust Validation of Measurements on jet Engines
Dewallef, Pierre ULg; Léonard, Olivier ULg

in European Journal of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering (2001), 46(4), 237-242

Nowadays, most of turbine engine tests are processed using an open loop, i.e. the measurements are verified and treated a posteriori, sometimes weeks or months after the end of the test. The scope of the ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, most of turbine engine tests are processed using an open loop, i.e. the measurements are verified and treated a posteriori, sometimes weeks or months after the end of the test. The scope of the present project is to develop a new methodology which enables real time detection of faulty measurements and the suppression of the source of these faults during the test. This implies the development of a method which is sufficiently robust to cope with a lot of faulty data (up to 20 to 30 % of the measurements). Most of the existing methods make use of a least square approach so that a set of parameters is sought which minimizes the RMS error between the measurements and the values provided by a numerical model of the installation. This type of approach is efficient in finding whether a set of measurements is valid but cannot locate the fault(s). In this paper an alternative is proposed based on a distribution of the measurement noise introduced by Huber. This so-called robust validation method has been tested on a single spool, single flow and variable geometry nozzle turbojet. Both the least square and Huber's function approaches have been tested and compared in terms of efficiency. The robust estimator based on Huber's error function has shown to be much more powerful for both finding an invalid set of measurements and locating the faulty measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailEpdémiosurveillance de l'encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine en Belgique : bilan de l'année 1999
Saegerman, Claude ULg; Dechamps, P.; Roels, S. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

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See detailGeometrical considerations for evaluation of reserve design.
Bogaert, Jan ULg; Salvador-Van Eysenrode, D; Van Hecke, P et al

in Web Ecology (2001), (2), 65-70

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See detailRespiratory chain network in mitochondria of Candida parapsilosis: ADP/O appraisal of the multiple electron pathways.
Milani, G.; Jarmuszkiewicz, W.; Sluse-Goffart, C. et al

in FEBS Letters (2001), 508

In this study we demonstrated that mitochondria of Candida parapsilosis contain a constitutive ubiquinol alternative oxidase (AOX) in addition to a classical respiratory chain (CRC) and a parallel ... [more ▼]

In this study we demonstrated that mitochondria of Candida parapsilosis contain a constitutive ubiquinol alternative oxidase (AOX) in addition to a classical respiratory chain (CRC) and a parallel respiratory chain (PAR) both terminating by two different cytochrome c oxidases. The C. parapsilosis AOX is characterized by a fungi-type regulation by GMP (as a stimulator) and linoleic acid (as an inhibitor). Inhibitor screening of the respiratory network by the ADP/O ratio and state 3 respiration determinations showed that (i) oxygen can be reduced by the three terminal oxidases through four paths implying one bypass between CRC and PAR and (ii) the sum of CRC, AOX and PAR capacities is higher than the overall respiration (no additivity) and that their engagement could be progressive according to the redox state of ubiquinone, i.e. first cytochrome pathway, then AOX and finally PAR. [less ▲]

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See detailMaxbias curves of robust scale estimators based on subranges
Croux, C.; Haesbroeck, Gentiane ULg

in Metrika (2001), 53(2), 101-122

A maxbias curve is a powerful tool to describe the robustness of an estimator. It is an asymptotic concept which tells how much an estimator can change due to a given fraction of contamination. In this ... [more ▼]

A maxbias curve is a powerful tool to describe the robustness of an estimator. It is an asymptotic concept which tells how much an estimator can change due to a given fraction of contamination. In this paper, maxbias curves are computed for some univariate scale estimators based on subranges: trimmed standard deviations, interquantile ranges and the univariate Minimum Volume Ellipsoid (MVE) and Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD) scale estimators. These estimators are intuitively appealing and easy to calculate. Since the bias behavior of scale estimators may differ depending on the type of contamination (outliers or inliers), expressions for both explosion and implosion maxbias curves are given. On the basis of robustness and efficiency arguments, the MCD scale estimator with 25% breakdown point can be recommended for practical use. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of allelochemicals from first (Brassicaceae) and second (Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae) trophic levels on Adalia bipunctata
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2001), 27(2), 243-256

Three Brassicaceae species, Brassica napus (low glucosinolate content), Brassica nigra (including sinigrin), and Sinapis alba (including sinalbin) were used as host plants for two aphid species: the ... [more ▼]

Three Brassicaceae species, Brassica napus (low glucosinolate content), Brassica nigra (including sinigrin), and Sinapis alba (including sinalbin) were used as host plants for two aphid species: the generalist Myzus persicae and the specialist Brevicoryne brassicae. Each combination of aphid species and prey host plant was used to Feed the polyphagous ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata. Experiments with Brassicaceae species including different amounts and kinds of glucosinolates (GLS) showed increased ladybird larval mortality at higher GLS concentrations. When reared on plants with higher GLS concentrations, the specialist aphid, B. brassicae, was found to be more toxic than M. persicae. Identification of GLS and related degradation products, mainly isothiocyanates (ITC), was investigated in the first two trophic levels, plant and aphid species, by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. While only GLS were detected in M. persicae on each Brassicaceae species, high amounts of ITC were identified in B. brassicae samples (allyl-ITC and benzyl-ITC from B. nigra and S. alba, respectively) from all host plants. Biological effects of allelochemicals from plants on predators through aphid prey are discussed in relation to aphid species to emphasize the role of the crop plant in integrated pest management in terms of biological control efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailCentral self-tolerance by thymic presentation of self-antigens and autoimmunity
Geenen, Vincent ULg; Martens, Henri ULg; Hansenne, Isabelle et al

in Current Medicinal Chemistry - Immunology, Endocrine & Metabolic Agents (2001), 1

Before reacting against non-self infectious agents, the immune system is educated to tolerate the host molecular structure (self). The induction of self-tolerance is a multistep process that begins in the ... [more ▼]

Before reacting against non-self infectious agents, the immune system is educated to tolerate the host molecular structure (self). The induction of self-tolerance is a multistep process that begins in the thymus during fetal ontogeny (central tolerance) and also involves inactivating mechanisms outside the thymus (peripheral tolerance). The thymus is the primary lymphoid organ implicated in the development of competent and self-tolerant T cells. During ontogeny, T cell progenitors originating from hemopoietic tissues (yolk sac, fetal liver, and then bone marrow) enter the thymus and undergo a program of proliferation, T cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement, maturation and selection. Close interactions between thymocytes (pre-T cells) and the thymic cellular environment are crucial both for T cell development and induction of central self-tolerance. Thymic epithelial and stromal cells synthesize polypeptides belonging to various neuroendocrine families. The thymic repertoire of neuroendocrine-related precursors transposes at the molecular level the dual role of the thymus in T cell negative and positive selection. Thymic precursors not only constitute a source of growth peptides for cryptocrine signaling between thymic stromal cells and pre-T cells, but are also processed in a way that leads to the presentation of self-antigens by thymic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins. Thymic neuroendocrine self-antigens often correspond to peptide sequences highly conserved during the evolution of their corresponding family. The thymic presentation of some neuroendocrine self-antigens is not restricted by MHC alleles. Following the presentation of neuroendocrine self-antigens by thymic MHC proteins, the T cell system might be educated to tolerate main hormone families. Recent experiments argue that a defect in the thymic essential tolerogenic function is implicated as an important factor in the pathophysiology of many autoimmune diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailYoung Investigators Workshop participants (P.A Coucke) and N. Coleman : Radiation Research program, Radiation Oncology Sciences Program, National Cancer Institue, Nih, August 1-2, 2000
Coucke, Philippe ULg

in International Journal of Radiation, Oncology, Biology, Physics (2001), 49(5), 1505-1516

INTRODUCTION The one-and-a-half day Young Investigators Workshop was held in the Holiday Inn, Bethesda, August 1–2, 2000. Using the SCAROP mailing list and recommendations from department chiefs ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION The one-and-a-half day Young Investigators Workshop was held in the Holiday Inn, Bethesda, August 1–2, 2000. Using the SCAROP mailing list and recommendations from department chiefs, approximately 55 “early-career” physicianscientists were invited to attend the workshop. Table 1 includes the participants. The goals of the meeting were: c To bring together radiation oncology physician-scientists who were in the early part of their career to discuss research ideas and opportunities as well as potential barriers to progress for the field and for young-investigator careers. c To help develop camaraderie among and a critical-mass of a new generation of physician-scientists with interests ranging from technology development, to basic and translational research, to outcomes research and analysis. c To help the young investigators gain familiarity with the NIH grant programs. c To prepare a “white paper” with their vision and ideas for potential opportunities for the future. If possible, a shortand long-term agenda were to be proposed. The first morning included presentations from a variety of NCI programs. Three breakout sessions were held in the afternoon. Breakout Group Reports were discussed by the entire group the following morning. A fourth discussion topic on “Barriers To a Successful Research Career” was conducted by the entire group. Drafts of this entire Workshop Report were circulated to the participants. The final document represents the efforts of the entire Young Investigators Workshop and provides the perspective from the point of view of the investigators who have many years to invest in the future of radiation oncology. The Radiation Research Program (RRP) is grateful to all the participants for a lively workshop and to the session co-chairs for the timely preparation of this report. [less ▲]

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See detailEndothelin in the equine hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictive response to acute hypoxia
Benamou, A. E.; Marlin, D. J.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2001), 33(4), 345-353

Elevated concentrations of endothelin (ET), a potent endothelium-derived vasoactive peptide, have been reported in a number of pathophysiological conditions associated with pulmonary hypertension, both in ... [more ▼]

Elevated concentrations of endothelin (ET), a potent endothelium-derived vasoactive peptide, have been reported in a number of pathophysiological conditions associated with pulmonary hypertension, both in the horse and other species. We have previously shown, both in vitro and in vivo, that the pulmonary and systemic vascular response to exogenous ET is mediated predominantly via ET(A) receptors. Our hypothesis in the present study was that ET is involved in the equine hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictive response to acute hypoxia. In this study, we investigated the effects of a selective ET(A) receptor antagonist on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in the mature horse. Horses were exposed to a 10 min period of hypoxia (F(I)O2 approximately 0.11) on 2 occasions, with and without pretreatment with the selective ET(A) receptor antagonist TBC11251 (10 mg/kg bwt i.v.). Hypoxia increased mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 18.3+/-0.9 (mean +/- s.e. normoxia) to 28.0+/-0.8 mmHg (hypoxia) in the session without ET(A) receptor antagonism. Carotid arterial pressure (CAP) also increased progressively throughout the period of hypoxic challenge and at the end was 153+/-5 mmHg (hypoxia) compared to during normoxia (140+/-5 mmHg). There was no significant overall effect of ET(A) receptor antagonism on the haemodynamic or ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia. However, between 5 and 10 min of hypoxia there was a trend for the mean PAP to diverge in the 2 treatments, which just failed to reach significance at 10 min of hypoxia (P = 0.053). In conclusion, this study describes the haemodynamic and ventilatory changes in response to a period of acute hypoxia in the adult horse. The results do not support a role for ET as a mediator of acute HPV in the horse, but suggest that it may be involved as a modulator or in the slower (>10 min) phase of HPV. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving the bias/variance tradeoff of decision trees - towards soft tree induction
Geurts, Pierre ULg; Olaru, Cristina; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Engineering intelligent systems (2001), 9

One of the main difficulties with standard top down induction of decision trees comes from the high variance of these methods. High variance means that, for a given problem and sample size, the resulting ... [more ▼]

One of the main difficulties with standard top down induction of decision trees comes from the high variance of these methods. High variance means that, for a given problem and sample size, the resulting tree is strongly dependent on the random nature of the particular sample used for training. Consequently, these algorithms tend to be suboptimal in terms of accuracy and interpretability. This paper analyses this problem in depth and proposes a new method, relying on threshold softening, able to significantly improve the bias/variance tradeoff of decision trees. The algorithm is validated on a number of benchmark problems and its relationship with fuzzy decision tree induction is discussed. This sheds some light on the success of fuzzy decision tree induction and improves our understanding of machine learning, in general. [less ▲]

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See detailLes techniques d'empreinte en implantologie
Van Heusden, Alain ULg

in Revue Belge de Médecine Dentaire = Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde (2001), 56(3), 189-203

The implant-borne prostheses have become an integral part of the oral rehabilitation procedures. The aim of this article is to describe the most current impression techniques for oral implant prosthetics ... [more ▼]

The implant-borne prostheses have become an integral part of the oral rehabilitation procedures. The aim of this article is to describe the most current impression techniques for oral implant prosthetics used at the University of Liege, Belgium. Impression protocols adapted to various prosthetic procedures are described step-by-step through several clinical cases. Emphasis is put on the means necessary for achieving a precise adaptation and a passive fit of the final prosthetic suprastructure. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a test battery for assessing cognitive functions of elderly patients with Down syndrome
Georges, Michel ULg; Thewis, B.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg et al

in Revue de Neuropsychologie (2001), 11(4), 549-579

Post-mortem studies of Down syndrome (DS) individuals older than 35 years show that almost 100% of them develop the neuropathological symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). A test battery designed to assess ... [more ▼]

Post-mortem studies of Down syndrome (DS) individuals older than 35 years show that almost 100% of them develop the neuropathological symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). A test battery designed to assess several domains of cognition was administered to a group of 12 DS individuals older than 35 years. It proved sensitive to individual differences and thus appears to be appropriate for the observation of cognitive change linked to age. Statistical analyses do not reveal cognitive changes in the DS subjects after one year time. However qualitative analyses of individual profiles suggest a cognitive decline in one subject. Additionally, in a PET-scan examination, three subjects present a mild decrease in cerebral glucose metabolism similar to that usually observed in AD. An AD diagnostic though remains uncertain at this stage. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential impact of the main benthic amphipods on the eastern Weddell Sea shelf ecosystem (Antarctica)
Dauby, Patrick ULg; Scailteur, Yves; Chapelle, Gauthier et al

in Polar Biology (2001), 24

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See detailc-JUN gene induction and AP-1 activity is regulated by a JNK-dependent pathway in hypoxic HepG2 cells.
Minet, E.; Michel, G.; Mottet, Denis ULg et al

in Experimental Cell Research (2001), 265(1), 114-24

Hypoxia is an important pathophysiological stress that occurs during blood vessel injuries and tumor growth. It is now well documented that hypoxia leads to the activation of several transcription factors ... [more ▼]

Hypoxia is an important pathophysiological stress that occurs during blood vessel injuries and tumor growth. It is now well documented that hypoxia leads to the activation of several transcription factors which participate in the adaptive response of the cells to hypoxia. Among these transcription factors, AP-1 is rapidly activated by hypoxia and triggers bFGF, VEGF, and tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression. However, the mechanisms of AP-1 activation by hypoxia are not well understood. In this report, we studied the events leading to AP-1 activation in hypoxia. We found that c-jun protein accumulates in hypoxic HepG2 cells. This overexpression is concomitant with c-jun phosphorylation and JNK activation. Moreover, we showed that AP-1 is transcriptionally active. We also observed that AP-1 transcriptional activity is inhibited by a MEKK1 dominant negative mutant. Moreover, the MEKK1 dominant negative mutant as well as deletion of the AP-1 binding sites within the c-jun promoter inhibited the c-jun promoter activation by hypoxia. All together, these results indicate that, in hypoxic HepG2 cells, AP-1 is activated through a JNK-dependent pathway and that it is involved in the regulation of the c-jun promoter, inducing a positive feedback loop on AP-1 activation via c-jun overexpression. [less ▲]

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See detailRadiothérapie vasculaire : un nouveau standard
Coucke, Philippe ULg; HU PHUOC DO; URBAN, Ph. et al

in Médecine et Hygiène (2001), 59(2342), 853-858

Le traitement des maladies cardiovasculalres, et plus spécifiquement la prise en charge des patients avec des sténoses vasculalres, qu'elles soient cardiaques ou périphériques, est en train d'être modifié ... [more ▼]

Le traitement des maladies cardiovasculalres, et plus spécifiquement la prise en charge des patients avec des sténoses vasculalres, qu'elles soient cardiaques ou périphériques, est en train d'être modifié de façon radicale. Avec l'Introduction des techniques d'angioplastie par vole transcutanée (PTCA) et la mise en place de « stents », on a certainement amélioré le devenir de ces malades. Toutefois, l'incidence de resténose après ces interventions endovasculaires reste élevée. Ce phénomène d'oblitération vasculaire après angloplastie ou stent s'explique en partie par des mécanismes de prolifération néointimale. On s'est donc logiquement tourné vers les radiations ionisantes comme alternative thérapeutique possible vu leur efficacité sur les processus de prolifération cellulaire, Autant pour les lésions de novo que les resténoses in-stent, on observe l'efficacité des radiations ionisantes. Les résultats des premiers essais randomisés ont été rendus publics et ceci va certainement changer les standards de prise en charge en cardiologie interventionnelle. [less ▲]

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See detailCoordinated regulation of procollagens I and III and their post-translational enzymes by dissipation of mechanical tension in human dermal fibroblasts.
Lambert, Charles ULg; Colige, Alain ULg; Lapiere, C. M. et al

in European Journal of Cell Biology (2001), 80(7), 479-85

Mechanical tension governs fibroblast proliferation and survival and the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix to adapt its resistance to the mechanical requirements of the organs. To consolidate this ... [more ▼]

Mechanical tension governs fibroblast proliferation and survival and the homeostasis of the extracellular matrix to adapt its resistance to the mechanical requirements of the organs. To consolidate this view, we analysed the effect of tension release on the expression of molecules involved in the architecture and stabilisation of the collagen fibres, namely the procollagens type I and III, the amino- and carboxy-procollagen peptidases (N-pCP and C-pCP) and lysyl oxidase. Cells were cultured in conditions of high mechanical stress in monolayer on a collagen coat and under reduced tension by disruption of the cytoskeleton upon treatment with cytochalasin D in monolayer on a collagen coat or by integrin-mediated stress relaxation in a freely retracting collagen gel. The mRNAs were measured by quantitative RT-PCR monitored by simultaneous reverse-transcription and amplification of an original internal standard. Tension relaxation resulted in a decreased expression of the procollagens type I and III, of the two expressed forms of C-pCP, of the two forms of N-pCP and of lysyl oxidase. Type III collagen, known to control diameter of the fibres, was less down-regulated than type I collagen. Interestingly, the expression of the two alternatively spliced forms of the N-pCP was dissimilarly regulated. These data suggest that mechanical tension may modulate the stiffness of the extracellular matrix by controlling not only the level of expression of its fibrillar constituents but also that of the enzymes participating in their extracellular processing and mechanical stabilisation. [less ▲]

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See detailAnticyclonic eddies in the deep eastern Black Sea in summer-autumn 1999 (satellite and ship-borne observations
Ginzburg, Anna I.; Zatsepin, Andrey; Kostianoy, Andrey G. et al

in Earth Observation and Remote Sensing (2001), 5

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See detailQuantitative cell dispersion analysis: new test to measure tumor cell aggressiveness
Nawrocki-Raby, Béatrice; Polette, Myriam; Gilles, Christine ULg et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2001), 93(5), 644-52

Tumor progression requires the dispersion of epithelial cells from neoplastic clusters and cell invasion of adjacent stromal connective tissue. Aiming at demonstrating the precise relationships between ... [more ▼]

Tumor progression requires the dispersion of epithelial cells from neoplastic clusters and cell invasion of adjacent stromal connective tissue. Aiming at demonstrating the precise relationships between cell dispersion and cell invasion, related respectively to expression of E-cadherin/catenin complex and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), we developed an original in vitro model of cell dispersion analysis. Our study reports the validation of this model that allowed us to analyze and quantify the cell cohesion level by means of time-lapse videomicroscopy and computer analysis based on the observation of spatial and temporal cell distribution. Our model was able to distinguish 2 groups among different human bronchial and mammary epithelial cells previously characterized for the expression of E-cadherin/catenin complex and MMPs and their invasive capacity in the Boyden chamber assay. The first group (16HBE14o-, MCF-7, T47D) that expressed membranous E-cadherin and -catenin, and was negative for MMP-2 expression and non-invasive, displayed a highly cohesive pattern corresponding to a cluster spatial distribution. The second group (Beas2B, BZR, BZR-T33, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, BT549 and HS578T) that was invasive and showed lack of expression of E-cadherin and a cytoplasmic redistribution of -catenin, displayed a dispersed pattern corresponding to a random spatial distribution. Downregulation of E-cadherin by a blocking antibody induced a more random distribution. Conversely, expression of E-cadherin by cDNA transfection induced a cluster distribution. Moreover, tumor cell lines that co-expressed MT1-MMP and MMP-2 (Beas2B, BZR, BZR-T33, MDA-MB-435, BT549 and HS578T) showed a more dispersed pattern than tumor cell lines that did not express MMP-2 (MDA-MB-231). In conclusion, we demonstrated that the spatial group behavior of cell lines, i.e., their cohesion/dispersion ability, reflects their invasive properties. Thus, this model of cell dispersion analysis may represent a new test to measure tumor cell aggressiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailRheinische Wortgeographie - dialektometrische Kartenauswertung
Möller, Robert ULg

in Dialectologia et Geolinguistica (2001), 9

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See detailStratification of single-vessel coronary stenosis by ischemic threshold at the onset of wall motion abnormality during continuous monitoring of left ventricular function by semisupine exercise echocardiography.
Garot, J.; Hoffer, E. P.; Monin, J. L. et al

in Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography (2001), 14(8), 798-805

We studied the relation between the ischemic threshold at the onset of wall motion abnormality on exercise echocardiography (EE) and the severity of coronary stenosis in patients with 1-vessel coronary ... [more ▼]

We studied the relation between the ischemic threshold at the onset of wall motion abnormality on exercise echocardiography (EE) and the severity of coronary stenosis in patients with 1-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD). We screened 216 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography and EE for suspected CAD. Ninety-five (74 men; age, 56 +/- 12 years) satisfied the study criteria, that is, the presence of 1-vessel disease or no evidence of CAD on angiography and a normal baseline echocardiogram. Eighty-seven patients had 1-vessel CAD on angiography, and exercise-induced wall motion abnormality occurred in 73 (77%). Optimal cutoff values of percent diameter stenosis and minimal lumen diameter for predicting a positive EE were 61% (sensitivity and specificity of 76%) and 1.12 mm (sensitivity and specificity of 74%). Among patients with positive EE, heart rate-blood pressure product at ischemic threshold was correlated with quantitative coronary stenosis (r = -0.72, P <.001). The ischemic threshold from continuous monitoring of left ventricular function during semisupine EE is correlated with the severity of coronary stenosis among patients with 1-vessel disease and a normal resting echocardiogram. [less ▲]

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See detailEuthanasia: a law in Belgium?
Damas, François ULg; Damas, Pierre ULg; Lamy, Maurice ULg

in Intensive Care Medicine (2001), 27(10), 1683

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See detailDynamics of mononuclear cadmium beta-lactamase revealed by the combination of NMR and PAC spectroscopy.
Hemmingsen, L.; Damblon, Christian ULg; Antony, J. et al

in Journal of the American Chemical Society (2001), 123(42), 10329-35

The two metal sites in cadmium substituted beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus 569/H/9 have been studied by NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (15)N, and (113)Cd) and PAC spectroscopy ((111m)Cd). Distinct NMR ... [more ▼]

The two metal sites in cadmium substituted beta-lactamase from Bacillus cereus 569/H/9 have been studied by NMR spectroscopy ((1)H, (15)N, and (113)Cd) and PAC spectroscopy ((111m)Cd). Distinct NMR signals from the backbone amides are identified for the apoenzyme and the mononuclear and binuclear cadmium enzymes. For the binuclear cadmium enzyme, two (113)Cd NMR signals (142 and 262 ppm) and two (111m)Cd PAC nuclear quadrupole interactions are observed. Two nuclear quadrupole interactions are also observed, with approximately equal occupancy, in the PAC spectra at cadmium/enzyme ratios < 1; these are different from those derived for the binuclear cadmium enzyme, demonstrating interaction between the two metal ion binding sites. In contrast to the observation from PAC spectroscopy, only one (113)Cd NMR signal (176 ppm) is observed at cadmium/enzyme ratios < 1. The titration of the metal site imidazole (N)H proton signals as a function of cadmium ion-to-enzyme ratio shows that signals characteristic for the binuclear cadmium enzyme appear when the cadmium ion-to-enzyme ratio is between 1 and 2, whereas no signals are observed at stoichiometries less than 1. The simplest explanation consistent with all data is that, at cadmium/enzyme ratios < 1, the single Cd(II) is undergoing exchange between the two metal sites on the enzyme. This exchange must be fast on the (113)Cd NMR time scale and slow on the (111m)Cd PAC time scale and must thus occur in a time regime between 0.1 and 10 micros. [less ▲]

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See detailImplication de la neurohypophyse dans le stress psychique
Scantamburlo, Gabrielle ULg; Ansseau, Marc ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg

in Encéphale (L') (2001), 27(3, May-Jun), 245-59

Effects of different psychological stimuli on oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) secretion are reviewed in animals and in humans. The secretion of neuropituitary hormones is also discussed in various ... [more ▼]

Effects of different psychological stimuli on oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) secretion are reviewed in animals and in humans. The secretion of neuropituitary hormones is also discussed in various psychiatric diseases such an anorexia nervosa, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder. AVP and OT are secreted into the hypophyseal portal circulation by neurons which project from the paraventricular nucleus to the external zone of the median eminence. AVP and OT-containing neurons in the suprachiasmatic and paraventricular nuclei project to limbic areas, including the hippocampus, the subiculum, the ventral nucleus of the amygdala and the nucleus of the diagonal band. Specific AVP receptors which are pharmacologically different from the pressor and antidiuretic AVP receptors have been found in the anterior pituitary. OT receptors have been identified in a variety of forebrain sites. The neurohypophyseal secretion is regulated by the cholinergic muscarinic, histaminergic and beta-adrenergic systems. Stress alters the secretion of one or more of the hypothalamic factors which interact at the pituitary to increase the secretion of ACTH. AVP and OT have been shown to modulate the effect of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor (CRF) on ACTH secretion and appear to play a key role in mediating the ACTH response to stress. Although AVP is a relatively weak secretagogue for ACTH, it markedly potentiates the activity of CRF both in vitro and in vivo. The role of OT is more complex. In vitro, OT stimulates ACTH release at high doses whereas in human it inhibits ACTH secretion at low doses. The type of stressor appear to determine the relative importance of these secretatogues in ACTH response. Several recent studies indicate that psychological stressors display a similar degree of variety of secretagogue release patterns as was found earlier for physical stressors. A bewildering array of technique produces a bewildering array of conclusions. In rats, OT may be an important secretagogue during a novel stimulus, whereas the role for AVP is less clear. Indeed two studies out of ten suggest a stimulating role for AVP. In response to frustration and submission, OT and AVP are secreted. Regarding social isolation, results are difficult to interpret and the role of AVP could be species-dependent. In contrast plasma OT levels do not change. After restraint, ACTH release is primarily mediated by the active increase of OT and AVP does not appear to play a role. When restraint is associated with moderate levels of physical components and during immobilisation, all two secretagogs are involved in the ACTH response. With fear, ACTH response appears to be driven by OT. In humans, one study indicates that high emotionality women increase plasma OT in response to uncontrollable noise. Various neuroendocrine dysregulations have been observed in psychiatric disease. Either an increase or a decrease of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function have been described in several illnesses. Effects of OT appear to be reciprocal to the effects of AVP. OT has been called the "amnestic" neuropeptide due to its capacity to attenuate memory consolidation and retrieval. AVP exhibits a central activating action on mood, memory and selective attention. Underweight patients with anorexia nervosa have abnormally high levels of centrally directed AVP and reduced OT levels. These modifications could enhance the retention of cognitive distortions of aversive consequences of eating. Patients with bipolar disorder show a biphasic secretion of AVP. Depressive episodes are associated with decreased vasopressinergic activity whereas manic episodes involve an increased release. AVP might be responsible for an increased catecholamine activity. In addition, lithium could act as an antagonist to AVP. In schizophrenic patients, studies using the apomorphine stimulation suggest increased oxytoninergic and decreased vasopressinergic functions. These findings are consistent with the beneficial role of AVP on schizophrenic symptoms noted in several trials. The increased OT could be responsible for "positive" symptomatology such as delusions and hallucinations. Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) includes a range of cognitive and behavioral disturbances that could be influenced by OT. In animals, several studies have emphasized the role of AVP in promoting repetitive grooming behaviors and maintaining conditioned response to aversive stimuli. In OCD patients, one study have reported that AVP/OT ratio was negatively correlated with symptom severity. However, an independent report found similar AVP concentrations in OC patients without a personal or family history of tic disorder and in normal subjects. Whether these modifications are only a consequence of the central disturbances or whether those peptides could participate in the pathogenesis of these affections remains to be elucidated. [less ▲]

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See detailIs Aggregation Of Beta-Amyloid Peptides A Mis-Functioning Of A Current Interaction Process?
Festy, F.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Peranzi, G. et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology (2001), 1546(2), 356-64

In a previous study, Hughes et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 2065-2070] demonstrated that the amyloid peptide is able to interact with itself in a two-hybrid system and that interaction is ... [more ▼]

In a previous study, Hughes et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 2065-2070] demonstrated that the amyloid peptide is able to interact with itself in a two-hybrid system and that interaction is specific. They further supported that the method could be used to define the sequences that might be important in nucleation-dependent aggregation. The sequence of the amyloid peptide can be split into four clusters, two hydrophilic (1-16 and 22-28) and two hydrophobic (17-21 and 29-42). We designed by molecular modeling and tested by the two-hybrid approach, series of mutations spread all over the sequence and changing the distribution of hydrophobicity and/or the spatial hindrance. In the two-hybrid assay, interaction of native Abeta is reproduced. Screening of mutations demonstrates that the C-domain (residues 29-40 (42)), the median domain (residues 17-22) and the N-domain (1-16) are all crucial for interaction. This demonstrates that almost all fragments of the amyloid peptide but a loop (residues 23-28) and the C-term amino acid are important for the native interaction. We support that the folded three-dimensional (3D) structure is the Abeta-Abeta interacting species, that the whole sequence is involved in that 3D fold which has a low secondary structure propensity and a high susceptibility to mutations and thus should have a low stability. The native fold of Abeta could be stabilized in Abeta-Abeta complexes which could in other circumstances facilitate the nucleation event of aggregation that leads to the formation of stable senile plaques. [less ▲]

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See detailHIF-1 and AP-1 cooperate to increase gene expression in hypoxia: role of MAP kinases.
Michiels, C.; Minet, E.; Michel, G. et al

in IUBMB Life (2001), 52(1-2), 49-53

HIF-1 is the main transcription factor responsible for increased gene expression in hypoxia: VEGF, erythropoietin, GLUT-1, and glycolytic enzymes are such target genes and all participate in the ... [more ▼]

HIF-1 is the main transcription factor responsible for increased gene expression in hypoxia: VEGF, erythropoietin, GLUT-1, and glycolytic enzymes are such target genes and all participate in the adaptative response of cells to hypoxia. AP-1 activation by hypoxia has also been demonstrated in several cell lines and it cooperates with HIF-1 for increasing VEGF gene transcription in hypoxia. Both HIF-1 and AP-1 activation by hypoxia seems to involve members of the MAP kinase family. Here, we summarize the data indicating that ERK and JNK are needed for activation of HIF-1 and AP-1, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailChemical Recognition of Antioxidants and UV-light Stabilizers on the Surface of Polypropylene : Atomic Force Microscopy with Chemically Modified Tips
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Poleunis, Claude; Bertrand, Patrick et al

in Langmuir (2001), 17

We show in this paper that it is possible to locally detect additives on the surface of polypropylene with chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips. Gold-coated AFM tips modified with methyl ... [more ▼]

We show in this paper that it is possible to locally detect additives on the surface of polypropylene with chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips. Gold-coated AFM tips modified with methyl and hydroxyl terminated self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers were used to measure adhesion forces on a process-stabilizing agent (Irgafos 168), an antioxidant (Irganox 1010), and UV-light stabilizers (Tinuvin 770, Dastib 845, Chimassorb 944, and Hostavin N30). Pull-off force measurements carried out on these pure additive films have shown that it is possible to discriminate between antioxidants and UV-light stabilizers. We have evidenced a characteristic fingerprint for each additive, according to the functionality of the tip used and themediumwherein the force measurements are realized (water or nitrogen atmosphere). Similarly we have measured pull-off forces on a melt-pressed polypropylene sample stabilized with Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, and Tinuvin 770. These adhesion force measurements show that the extreme surface of the polymer is mainly made of a layer of Tinuvin 770. These results have been compared to those obtained from time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements [less ▲]

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See detailThe behavioral effects of acute and chronic JL 13, a putative antipsychotic, in Cebus non-human primates
Casey, Daniel; Bruhwyler, Jacques; Delarge, Jacques et al

in Psychopharmacology (2001), 157

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See detailUne révision critique de la distribution de Tortula inermis en Belgique
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Stieperaere, H.; Sotiaux, André ULg

in Dumortiera (2001), 77

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See detailIntensive and Prolonged Health Promotion Strategy May Increase Awareness of Osteoporosis among Postmenopausal Women
Tellier, V.; De Maeseneer, J.; De Prins, L. et al

in Osteoporosis International (2001), 12(2), 131-5

The aim of the study was to measure the results of a 15-year health promotion strategy towards osteoporosis, in an urban community of subjects over 45 years old, in terms of osteoporosis awareness and ... [more ▼]

The aim of the study was to measure the results of a 15-year health promotion strategy towards osteoporosis, in an urban community of subjects over 45 years old, in terms of osteoporosis awareness and handling. To this end an ancillary study to a large survey of the Belgian population's self-perceived health status was carried out. A rectangular sample of 4800 individuals over 45 years old was randomly selected in two Belgian cities, among the affiliates of the two main health insurance providers. One of the cities (Liege) had been, since the early 1980s, the target of a constant health promotion strategy, directed to both the medical community and the general population, aimed at increasing osteoporosis awareness in women after the menopause. During the same period, no particular steps were taken in the other city (Aalst) to increase osteoporosis awareness in the community. In our study, the participants were asked to spontaneously report any chronic, serious and/or severe disorders that they had been suffering from, for at least 6 months, during the previous 12 months. They also provided a list of drugs they were taking at the time of the survey. Osteoporosis was reported to be a disease affecting 1.5% of men in Aalst and 1.3% of men in Liege (p = 0.61). For women, osteoporosis was reported to be present in 4.8% in Aalst and 10.8% in Liege (p<0.001). Self-reporting of osteoporosis prevalence in Liege was statistically significantly higher in women aged 45-64 years, 65-74 years or over 75 years (p<0.001). Obesity, alcohol consumption or physical activity were equally distributed between women from Liege and Aalst. Prescription drugs used for osteoporosis had been delivered to a similar proportion of men in Aalst and Liege. In women, a statistically significant difference in these prescription drugs was observed between Liege and Aalst, both for the overall population (p<0.001) and in each of the age classes (p<0.001 for 45-64 years and 65-74 years; p<0.009 for over 75 years). A continuous long-term health promotion strategy, directed toward both physicians and the general population, thus appears to increase awareness about osteoporosis in women over 45 years and/or in the medical community. This is reflected by an increase in self-reported prevalence of osteoporosis and in the prescription of drugs aimed at prevention and treatment of this disorder. Whether these observations reflect an appropriate diagnosis and a proper handling of the disease remains to be evaluated by objective diagnostic tools such as bone densitometry and by an evaluation of the effectiveness of prescription practices in postmenopausal women. [less ▲]

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See detailSpirometric performance in Belgian Blue calves: I. Effects on economic losses due to the bovine respiratory disease complex.
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Detilleux, Johann ULg; Dorts, T. et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2001), 79(5), 1301-1304

The aim of this study was to determine whether high spirometric performances in calves are associated with low economic losses due to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Five spirometric ... [more ▼]

The aim of this study was to determine whether high spirometric performances in calves are associated with low economic losses due to the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). Five spirometric variables (SV) were measured in 909 double-muscled Belgian Blue calves from 15 to 60 d of age. Afterward, calves were monitored for 6 mo to determine whether they developed BRDC and to determine the costs due to BRDC (i.e., medicine costs and veterinarians' fees, plus estimated financial losses due to mortality in case of death). To analyze the effects of spirometric performances on BRDC cost, a fixed linear model was used for each SV. In addition to SV, each model included the effects of sex, dam's parity, vaccination status, muscular development score, herd-period, and BW. Only herd-period and the maximal ventilation and the vital capacity had significant effects on costs due to BRDC, indicating that these two SV are major physiological determinants of economic losses associated with BRDC. Accordingly, it is assumed that an amelioration of maximal ventilation and vital capacity could result in increased resistance to BRDC in calves. [less ▲]

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See detailExtended analysis of the spectrum of triply-ionozed Ytterbium (Yb IV) and transition probabilities
Wyart, J.-F.; Tchang-Brillet, W. U. L.; Spector, N. et al

in Physica Scripta (2001), 63

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See detailInvestigation of defect levels in Mg-doped GaN Schottky structures by thermal admittance spectroscopy
Nguyen, Ngoc Duy ULg; Germain, Marianne; Schmeits, Marcel et al

in Physica Status Solidi B. Basic Research (2001), 228

Schottky structures based on Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrate are studied by thermal admittance spectroscopy from 90 K to room temperature ... [more ▼]

Schottky structures based on Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on sapphire substrate are studied by thermal admittance spectroscopy from 90 K to room temperature. Evidence of two impurity levels results from the analysis of the observed peaks in the conductance curves, whose positions and strengths are temperature dependent. The experimental results are analyzed within a detailed theoretical study of the steady-state and small-signal electrical characteristics of the structure. Numerical simulations are based on the solution of the basic semiconductor equations for the structure consisting of two Schottky diodes connected back-to-back by a conduction channel formed by the GaN layer. [less ▲]

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See detailComment j'explore ... les differentes formes de diabete sucre: diagnostic differentiel clinique et biologique.
Scheen, André ULg; Philips, Jean-Christophe ULg; Luyckx, Françoise ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(9), 650-5

Owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the various aspects of this disease, we present a practical approach which allows the clinician to more easily differentiate type 1 diabetes ... [more ▼]

Owing to the increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus and the various aspects of this disease, we present a practical approach which allows the clinician to more easily differentiate type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and secondary diabetes of pancreatic origin, i.e. the most common forms of diabetes mellitus. Such an approach uses simple diagnostic criteria, based upon both clinical characteristics (family history, personal history, clinical presentation) and biological markers (C-peptide, autoantibodies,...). A right diagnosis should allow to optimize the management of the diabetic patient. [less ▲]

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See detailL'indexation de l'allocation pour l'aide d'une tierce personne : deux lectures distinctes pour un même problème.
Michiels, Olivier ULg

in Revue Générale des Assurances et des Responsabilités (2001)

L'article s'attache à cerner la jurisprudence divergente de la Cour de cassation et de la Cour d'arbitrage - devenue constitutionnelle - relative à l'indexation de l'allocation pour l'aide d'une tierce ... [more ▼]

L'article s'attache à cerner la jurisprudence divergente de la Cour de cassation et de la Cour d'arbitrage - devenue constitutionnelle - relative à l'indexation de l'allocation pour l'aide d'une tierce personne. [less ▲]

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See detailFrontières d’efficacité et processus d’appariement sur le marché du travail au Maroc
Ibourk, Aomar; Perelman, Sergio ULg

in Economie et Prévision (2001), (150-151), 33-45

La capacité d’un marché du travail à générer de nouveaux emplois à partir d’un stock donné de postes vacants et de chômeurs est interprétée comme une forme d’efficacité transactionnelle. Elle peut être ... [more ▼]

La capacité d’un marché du travail à générer de nouveaux emplois à partir d’un stock donné de postes vacants et de chômeurs est interprétée comme une forme d’efficacité transactionnelle. Elle peut être mesurée à partir de l’estimation d’une fonction d’appariement qui décrit la situation d’échange entre la demande, exprimée par les firmes, et l’offre, représentée par les travailleurs à la recherche d’un emploi. Dans cet article, nous proposons l’utilisation des techniques des frontières d’efficacité pour ces estimations. Deux méthodes alternatives, paramétrique et non paramétrique, sont appliquées au cas des marchés du travail régionaux au Maroc. Les résultats obtenus permettent une évaluation de l’efficacité des appariements sur chacun des marchés ainsi qu’une évaluation de l’activité des centres d’information et d’orientation pour l’emploi (CIOPE) qui ont été créés au début des années quatre-vingt-dix aux fins de faciliter l’appariement de l’offre et de la demande des diplômés. [less ▲]

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See detailBooklist 2000
Pirenne, Christophe ULg

in Popular Music (2001), 20(3), 453-477

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See detailBone resorption in post-menopausal women with normal and low BMD assessed with biochemical markers specific for telopeptide derived degradation products of collagen type I
Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg; Henrotin, Yves ULg; Christiansen, C. et al

in Calcified Tissue International (2001), 69(3), 130-137

Biochemical markers of bone resorption can be used clinically to predict the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures (prognostic tool) and to assess the response of an osteoporotic patient to an ... [more ▼]

Biochemical markers of bone resorption can be used clinically to predict the risk of osteoporosis-related fractures (prognostic tool) and to assess the response of an osteoporotic patient to an antiresorptive therapy (monitoring tool). Our aim was to assess the ability of four currently marketed biochemical markers of bone resorption, based on the measurement of degradation products from collage type I telopeptides to monitor the elevated resorption associated with menopause. Women (846) were stratified for menopause, age, and bone mineral density and the following markers were measured: urinary cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx), the levels of breakdown products of type I collagen C-telopeptides in serum (S-CTx), and in urine, by ELISA (U-CTx-E), and RIA (U-CTx-R). Furthermore, the ratio (a/b) between the aL form of CTx measured in the CTx RIA and the bL form measured in the ELISA was calculated. The mean difference was calculated for each marker in women with osteopenia (Op) or osteoporosis (PMO) (WHO definition) compared with healthy premenopausal (Pre) women and postmenopausal (N Post) women with normal bone mass. Serum CTx showed the highest elevation in post- compared with premenopausal women. All marker values were significantly higher in Op and PMO subjects compared with both Pre and to N Post women. Compared with premenopausal values, the largest elevation in both Op and PMO women was observed for serum CTx. Compared with N Post, urine NTx showed the highest increase in OP subjects. The a/b CTx ratio was elevated in post- compared with Pre women, but there was no difference in the ratio among N Post, Op, or PMO women. In conclusion, postmenopausal women showed elevated turnover with all bone resorption markers, but with substantial individual variation in resorption levels. Furthermore, the turnover process in postmenopausal women appears to be quantitatively different from the premenopausal stage, apparent as altered a/b CTx ratios. [less ▲]

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See detailPolymorphisms at the Five Exons of the Growth Hormone Gene in the Algarvia Goat. Possible Association with Milk Traits
Malveiro, E.; Pereirab, M.; Marques, P. X. et al

in Small animal research (2001), 41

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See detailEvidence of rainbow trout prolactin interaction with its receptor through unstable homodimerisation.
Le Rouzic, Philippe; Sandra, Olivier; Grosclaude, Jeanne et al

in Molecular & Cellular Endocrinology (2001), 172(1-2), 105-13

This study aims to characterise Prolactin receptor (PRLR) in rainbow trout for which no information is available despite the availability of Salmonid PRL preparations. By screening a freshwater rainbow ... [more ▼]

This study aims to characterise Prolactin receptor (PRLR) in rainbow trout for which no information is available despite the availability of Salmonid PRL preparations. By screening a freshwater rainbow trout intestine cDNA library with a probe corresponding to the extracellular domain (ECD) of tilapia PRLR, we have cloned a 2.5 kb insert coding for the PRLR. The mature protein of 614 amino acid residues is similar to PRLR isolated in tilapia and also the long form of mammalian PRLR. Analysis of PRLR gene expression in osmoregulatory organs revealed the presence of a unique transcript, thus confirming the involvement of this hormone in the control of osmoregulation in this fish species. By using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) technology, kinetic measurement of interaction between trout PRL and its receptor ECD was studied. This approach allowed us to demonstrate the formation of a transient, unstable homodimeric complex. This unstability could explain the inability to perform binding experiments using homologous PRL. In contrast, heterologous lactogenic ligands were able to interact through a more stable complex. Whether these characteristics of PRL-receptor interaction in rainbow trout are different to what occurs in tilapia where a homologous radioreceptor assay was developed would require further studies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe neural substrate of orientation working memory
Cornette, Luc; Dupont, Patrick; Salmon, Eric ULg et al

in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (2001), 13(6), 813-828

We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify the neural substrate of two major cognitive components of working memory (WM), maintenance and manipulation of a single elementary visual ... [more ▼]

We have used positron emission tomography (PET) to identify the neural substrate of two major cognitive components of working memory (WM), maintenance and manipulation of a single elementary visual attribute, i.e., the orientation of a grating presented in central vision. This approach allowed us to equate difficulty across tasks and prevented subjects from using verbal strategies or vestibular cues. Maintenance of orientations involved a distributed fronto-parietal network, that is, left and right lateral superior frontal sulcus (SFSl), bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral precuneus, and right superior parietal lobe (SPL). A more medial superior frontal sulcus region (SFSm) was identified as being instrumental in the manipulative operation of updating orientations retained in the WM. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that orientation WM relies on a coordinated interaction between frontal and parietal regions. In general, the current findings confirm the distinction between maintenance and manipulative processes, highlight the functional heterogeneity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and suggest a more dynamic view of WM as a process requiring the coordinated interaction of anatomically distinct brain areas. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasar pairs with arcminute angular separations
Zhdanov, V. I.; Surdej, Jean ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2001), 372

We use the Véron-Cetty & Véron (\cite {veron}) catalog (VV) of 13 213 quasars to investigate their possible physical grouping over angular scales 10arcsec <=Delta theta <= 1000arcsec . We first estimate ... [more ▼]

We use the Véron-Cetty & Véron (\cite {veron}) catalog (VV) of 13 213 quasars to investigate their possible physical grouping over angular scales 10arcsec <=Delta theta <= 1000arcsec . We first estimate the number of quasar pairs that would be expected in VV assuming a random distribution for the quasar positions and taking into account observational selection effects affecting heterogeneous catalogs. We find in VV a statistically significant (>3sigma ) excess of pairs of quasars with similar redshifts (Delta z<= 0.01) and angular separations in the 50arcsec -100arcsec range, corresponding to projected linear separations (0.2-0.5) Mpc/h[SUB]75[/SUB] (Omega[SUB]M[/SUB] =1, Omega[SUB]Lambda[/SUB] =0) or (0.4-0.7) Mpc/h[SUB]75[/SUB] (Omega[SUB]M[/SUB] =0.3, Omega[SUB]Lambda[/SUB] = 0.7). There is also some excess in the 100arcsec -600arcsec range corresponding to (1-5) Mpc in projected linear separations. If most of these quasar pairs do indeed belong to large physical entities, these separations must represent the inner scales of huge mass concentrations (cf. galaxy clusters or superclusters) at high redshifts; but it is not excluded that some of the pairs may actually consist of multiple quasar images produced by gravitational lensing. Of course, a fraction of these pairs could also arise due to random projections of quasars on the sky. The list of 11 pairs of quasars with redshift differences Delta z<= 0.02 and angular separations 50arcsec <= Delta theta <= 100arcsec is presented in order to stimulate further observational studies and to better understand the astrophysical and cosmological significance of these interesting objects. [less ▲]

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See detailEffets comportementaux et neurochimiques de stimuli associés à l’administration d'éthanol: implications pour les comportements d'alcoolisation
Quertemont, Etienne ULg; De Witte, Philippe

in Cahiers de l'I.R.E.B. (2001), 15

Les drogues, y compris l’alcool, peuvent servir de stimuli inconditionnels dans des situations d’apprentissage par conditionnement. Les stimuli environnementaux qui accompagnent systématiquement ... [more ▼]

Les drogues, y compris l’alcool, peuvent servir de stimuli inconditionnels dans des situations d’apprentissage par conditionnement. Les stimuli environnementaux qui accompagnent systématiquement l’administration d’alcool peuvent ainsi acquérir le statut de stimuli conditionnés capables d’induire à eux seuls des réactions physiologiques conditionnées. Deux types de réactions conditionnées avec l’alcool ont été observées. D’une part, les stimuli associés à l’administration d’alcool peuvent induire des effets similaires à ceux de l’éthanol. D’autre part, ces stimuli conditionnés à l’éthanol peuvent aussi engendrer des réponses conditionnées opposées aux effets de l’éthanol. Ces deux types de réponses conditionnées semblent jouer un rôle dans les différentes étapes de l’alcoolisation. Leur implication dans la tolérance envers l’éthanol est largement illustrée par le phénomène de tolérance dépendante de l’environnement. Plusieurs études expérimentales et observations cliniques suggèrent aussi que les processus de conditionnement pourraient être impliqués dans la consommation d’alcool et particulièrement dans son abus. Toutefois, les bases neurochimiques de ces réponses conditionnées à l’éthanol sont encore largement méconnues. De récentes études utilisant la technique de microdialyse intracérébrale ont pourtant montré le rôle de divers neurotransmetteurs et neuromodulateurs. D’une part, les réponses conditionnées similaires à l’éthanol sont accompagnées d’une libération de dopamine dans le noyau accumbens. D’autre part, la libération conditionnée de glutamate et de taurine semble être impliquée dans les réponses conditionnées opposées aux effets de l’éthanol. [less ▲]

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See detailTranslocation Of The pAntp Peptide And Its Amphipathic Analogue Ap-2al
Drin, G.; Demene, H.; Temsamani, J. et al

in Biochemistry (2001), 40(6), 1824-34

The pAntp peptide, corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of the Antennapedia protein, enters by a receptor-independent process into eukaryotic cells. The interaction between the pAntp ... [more ▼]

The pAntp peptide, corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of the Antennapedia protein, enters by a receptor-independent process into eukaryotic cells. The interaction between the pAntp peptide and the phospholipid matrix of the plasma membrane seems to be the first step involved in the translocation mechanism. However, the mechanism by which the peptide translocates through the cell membrane is still not well established. We have investigated the translocation ability of pAntp through a protein-free phospholipid membrane in comparison with a more amphipathic analogue. We show by fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling that pAntp is not sufficiently helically amphipathic to cross a phospholipid membrane of a model system. Due to its primary sequence related to its DNA binding ability in the Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex, the pAntp peptide does not belong to the amphipathic alpha-helical peptide family whose members are able to translocate by pore formation. [less ▲]

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See detailPex, Analytical Tools For Pdb Files. I. Gf-Pex: Basic File To Describe A Protein
Thomas, Annick ULg; Bouffioux, O.; Geeurickx, D. et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2001), 43(1), 28-36

Pex are created to extract numeric and string descriptions of protein structures from PDB files. This concerns covalent bond lengths and angles, secondary structures, residues in interaction, H-bond ... [more ▼]

Pex are created to extract numeric and string descriptions of protein structures from PDB files. This concerns covalent bond lengths and angles, secondary structures, residues in interaction, H-bond lengths and geometry, etc. Several kinds of Pex are generated: (1) general feature (GF-Pex); (2) H-bond (H-Pex); and (3) accessible surface (AS-Pex) and force potential (FP-Pex). We describe the general principles of Pex and detail the GF-Pex files. Using the GF-Pex of 131 proteins, we analyze the mean residue frequencies, the straight phi/psi distribution and the major kinds of secondary structures in proteins. Thomas et al. (this issue) analyzes the main chain H-bonds in those proteins. The GF-Pex and H-Pex files of the 131 proteins can be downloaded from the CBMN site (http://www.fsagx.ac.be/bp/). [less ▲]

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See detailIntraconzole versus amphotericin B plus nystatin in the prophylaxis of fungal infections in neutropenic cancer patients
Boogaerts, Marc; Maertens, Johan; van Hoof, Achiel et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2001), 48

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See detailMagnetic properties of magnetically textured Bi-2212 ceramics
Vanderbemden, Philippe ULg; Bougrine, Hassan ULg; Ausloos, Marcel ULg et al

in Physica C: Superconductivity (2001), 351(1), 67-70

This paper aims at reporting magnetic properties of bulk polycrystalline Bi2Sr2Ca0.8Dy0.2Cu2O8-y samples textured under a magnetic field. The microstructure of these materials is highly anisotropic and ... [more ▼]

This paper aims at reporting magnetic properties of bulk polycrystalline Bi2Sr2Ca0.8Dy0.2Cu2O8-y samples textured under a magnetic field. The microstructure of these materials is highly anisotropic and exhibits particular features needed to be taken into account in order to interpret their magnetic and electrical properties. First the AC magnetic susceptibility has been measured for several magnetic fields (H parallel to ab and H parallel to c) and compared to the electrical resistivity data. The structure of the chi'' peak is shown to be related to the chemical content distribution of the superconducting grains. Next, the magnetic flux profiles have been extracted from the magnetic measurements using the Campbell-Rollins procedure. The anisotropy of the flux profiles and their peculiar curvature behaviour for H parallel toc point out the role of both grain platelet structure and the presence of secondary phases. From these results, we conclude that the magnetic properties of such magnetically textured materials do not allow for a reliable extraction of the critical current density J(c) but essentially probe geometric effects. Such effects have to be taken into account for improving the manufacture of attractive high-T-c materials. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailIncreased Camp Levels and Protein Kinase (Pka) Type I Activation in Cd4+ T Cells and B Cells Contribute to Retrovirus-Induced Immunodeficiency of Mice (Maids): A Useful in Vivo Model for Drug Testing
Rahmouni, Souad ULg; Aandahl, Einar Martin; Trebak, Mohamed et al

in FASEB Journal (2001), 15(8), 1466-1468

Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is characterized by a lymphoproliferative disease and a profound anergy, which involves mostly CD4(+) T cells. To better define the mechanisms responsible for anergy, we measured cAMP ... [more ▼]

Murine AIDS (MAIDS) is characterized by a lymphoproliferative disease and a profound anergy, which involves mostly CD4(+) T cells. To better define the mechanisms responsible for anergy, we measured cAMP concentrations in the different lymphocyte subsets of the infected mice. CD4(+) T cells and B cells displayed a dramatic 10- to 30-fold increase of cAMP. cAMP was also significantly increased in CD8(+) T cells, although to a far lesser extent. The unusual CD4(+) CD90(-) T cells, typical of MAIDS, were characterized by a much higher cAMP level than their CD90(+) counterparts. T cells of the infected mice were much more sensitive to inhibition by the cAMP analogue 8-CPT-cAMP, which confirmed increased in vivo exposure to cAMP. In accordance with the increased cAMP levels, PKA type I was constitutively activated and its C subunit was translocated to the nucleus. Finally, the profound T-cell anergy associated with MAIDS could be reversed by treating T cells with a PKA type I-selective antagonist ex vivo. MAIDS could constitute a suitable model for the study of new pharmacological agents aimed at reversing the immunosuppressive effects of cAMP previously shown to be involved in several pathological states, including HIV infection and common variable immunodeficiency. [less ▲]

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See detailConstruire des indicateurs internationaux d'équité des systèmes éducatifs
Demeuse, Marc ULg; Baye, Ariane ULg; Straeten, Marie-Hélène et al

in Cahiers du Service de Pédagogie Expérimentale (SPE) (2001), (7-8), 97-100

Les membres du SPE se préoccupent de longue date des problèmes d'équité éducative (Crahay, 2000). Ils contribuent soit à l'évaluation de celle-ci dans le système belge francophone ou au sein d'autres ... [more ▼]

Les membres du SPE se préoccupent de longue date des problèmes d'équité éducative (Crahay, 2000). Ils contribuent soit à l'évaluation de celle-ci dans le système belge francophone ou au sein d'autres systèmes à travers des recherches internationales, telles celles de l'IEA ou de l'OCDE (Demeuse, Crahay [less ▲]

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See detailL’administration publique et les technologies de l’information
Cornet, Annie ULg; Rondeaux, Giseline ULg

in Gestion : Revue Internationale de Gestion (2001), 26(1), 28-30

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See detailHuman viral infections derived from food
Scipioni, Alexandra ULg; Daube, Georges ULg; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2001), 32(218, AUG-SEP),

Several viruses may be transmitted to humans via food including hepatitis A and E virus (VHA and VHE), Norwalk type calicivirus, rotavirus and astrovirus. Enterovirus and enteric adenovirus may also be ... [more ▼]

Several viruses may be transmitted to humans via food including hepatitis A and E virus (VHA and VHE), Norwalk type calicivirus, rotavirus and astrovirus. Enterovirus and enteric adenovirus may also be transmitted. Sick people or healthy carriers excrete these viruses in their stools. Shellfish and water are the most frequently contaminated foodstuffs. Another route of infection is during handling of food. Detection of these viruses in food is complex for several reasons: the interaction of virus and food makes viral concentration and purification difficult, in vitro culture of these viruses is difficult if not impossible, and the quantity of virus present in the sample is low. Molecular technology (PCR) is the most suitable method of detection. Another method is to choose an indicator of viral faecal contamination. [less ▲]

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See detailMercury porosimetry: applicability of the buckling-intrusion mechanism to low-density xerogels
Alié, Christelle ULg; Pirard, René ULg; Pirard, Jean-Paul ULg

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2001), 292(1-3), 138-149

Mineral materials can be either crushed or invaded by mercury during mercury porosimetry experiments. It has been shown here that many low-density xerogels exhibit the two volume variation mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Mineral materials can be either crushed or invaded by mercury during mercury porosimetry experiments. It has been shown here that many low-density xerogels exhibit the two volume variation mechanisms successively, compaction followed by intrusion. when submitted to mercury porosimetry and that a unimodal pore size distribution can be obtained by applying Pirard's collapse model below the pressure of transition P-1 and Washburn's intrusion theory above P-t. To confirm the validity of the use of the buckling law, one low-density xerogel was wrapped in a tight membrane (intrusion is prevented and the sample is crushed during the whole porosimetry experiment). The analysis of the mercury porosimetry data of the wrapped sample by the buckling law leads to a continuous unimodal distribution similar to the distribution of the unwrapped sample obtained by applying the buckling law below P-t and the intrusion law above P-t. The position of P-t is characteristic of the tested material: when submitted to mercury pressure. aerogels and low-density xerogels only collapse in case of very small aggregates whereas they are crushed and then intruded in case of larger silica aggregates. The fact that compacted slabs of monodisperse non-aggregated silica spheres (of the same size range as the xerogels and aerogels) show only intrusion during mercury porosimetry experiments implies that the particles need to be aggregated so that the compaction mechanism takes place. The position of the change of mechanism from crushing to intrusion is not directly related to the size of the elementary particles but is linked to the size of the aggregates of silica particles. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailL'exercice physique pour prevenir l'obesite, favoriser l'amaigrissement et maintenir la perte ponderale.
Scheen, André ULg; Rorive, Marcelle ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(4), 244-7

Obesity is a multifactorial disease making difficult the determination of the precise role of one specific factor such as physical activity or sedentary. Nevertheless, numerous arguments, derived from ... [more ▼]

Obesity is a multifactorial disease making difficult the determination of the precise role of one specific factor such as physical activity or sedentary. Nevertheless, numerous arguments, derived from epidemiological observational studies or from randomized controlled interventional trials, support a favourable role of regular physical activity in the control of body weight. Physical activity contributes to prevent the occurrence of weight excess, especially in children or adolescents, to obtain a satisfactory weight loss, in general in combination with reduced-energy diets, and to maintain long-term weight loss. In addition, physical activity improves both the metabolic profile and health of obese subjects. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of copepod faecal pellets in relation to a Phaeocystis dominated phytoplankton bloom: characteristics, production and flux
Frangoulis, Costa; Belkhiria, Sami; Goffart, Anne ULg et al

in Journal of Plankton Research (2001), 23(1), 75-88

Copepod faecal pellet characteristics and production were measured in spring 1995, 1996 and 1997 in the North Sea Southern Bight in order to define changes due to the development of the phytoplankton ... [more ▼]

Copepod faecal pellet characteristics and production were measured in spring 1995, 1996 and 1997 in the North Sea Southern Bight in order to define changes due to the development of the phytoplankton bloom. Changes were related to the succession from diatoms to a Phaeocystis sp. bloom. Mean monthly pellet production decreased during the Phaeocystis bloom development to 0.27 pellets ind. –1 h –1, approximately 80% lower than before and after the bloom. Although phytoplanktonic pigments showed significant differences between inshore and offshore stations, there was no such significant difference for faecal pellet production. Faecal pellet sinking-rate decreased from 100 to 70 m day –1 during the transition from a diatom- to a Phaeocystis-dominated bloom. This was due to a decrease in pellet density and/or a decrease of the pellet volume. These results supported the idea of lower feeding of copepods under Phaeocystis bloom conditions. As mean seasonal density of copepod faecal pellets was higher (1.37 g cm –3) than in other seas, accidental ingestion of sedimentary material as the cause of this high density is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailPreparation of low-density xerogels by incorporation of additives during synthesis
Alié, Christelle ULg; Ferauche, Fabrice; Pirard, René ULg et al

in Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids (2001), 289(1-3), 88-96

Low-density xerogels were prepared by incorporation of an additive to alcogels prior to gelation. The additives studied are 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (EDAS), 3 ... [more ▼]

Low-density xerogels were prepared by incorporation of an additive to alcogels prior to gelation. The additives studied are 3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane (EDAS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (AMS), propyltrimethoxysilane (PMS), tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (AES) using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as main silica precursor. Samples were also prepared with EDAS as additive and TMOS as main silica reagent. When the additive contains methoxy groups, it reacts first, forms nuclei on which the main reagent TEOS reacts to form the silica particles. The nucleation mechanism by the additive occurs only in case of a difference of reactivity between additive and main silica precursor. The other group of the additive (amine, alkyl group, ...) influences only the gelation time. In case of ethoxy groups (series AES/TEOS) or methoxy groups (series EDAS/TMOS) for both additive and main reagent, there is no nucleation by the additive. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. [less ▲]

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See detailPex, Analytical Tools For Pdb Files. II. H-Pex: Noncanonical H-Bonds In Alpha-Helices
Thomas, Annick ULg; Benhabiles, N.; Meurisse, R. et al

in Proteins-Structure Function and Genetics (2001), 43(1), 37-44

We use the H-Pex (Thomas et al., this issue) to analyze the main chain interactions in 131 proteins. In antiparallel beta-sheets, the geometry of the N...O bond is: median N...O distances, 2.9 SA, C==O ... [more ▼]

We use the H-Pex (Thomas et al., this issue) to analyze the main chain interactions in 131 proteins. In antiparallel beta-sheets, the geometry of the N...O bond is: median N...O distances, 2.9 SA, C==O...N angles at 154 degrees and the C alpha--C==O...H angles are dispersed around 3 degrees. In some instances, the other side of the C==O axis is occupied by a HC alpha. As recently supported by Vargas et al. (J Am Chem Soc 2000;122:4750-4755) C alpha H...O and NH...O could cooperate to sheet stability. In alpha-helices, the main chain C==O interact with the NH of their n + 4 neighbor on one side, and with a C beta H or C gamma H on the other side. The median O...N distance (3.0 A) and C==N angle (147 degrees) suggest a canonical H-bond, but the C alpha--C==O...H dihedral angle invalidates this option, since the hydrogen attacks the oxygen at 122 degrees, i.e., between the sp(2) and pi orbitals. This supports that the H-bond is noncanonical. In many instances, the C gamma H or the C beta H of the n + 4 residue stands opposite to the NH with respect to the oxygen. Therefore, we propose that, in alpha-helices, the C gamma H or C beta H and the NH of the n + 4 residue hold the oxygen like an electrostatic pincher. [less ▲]

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See detailAvancées récentes en biologie moléculaire du virus de la diarrhée virale bovine
Dehan, Pierre ULg; Hamers, C.; Couvreur, B. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

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See detailLa marca de Marcos. ¿Pueden hablar los indígenas mexicanos ?
Vanden Berghe, Kristine ULg

in Cuadernos Americanos (2001), 87

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See detailNeuromuscular transmission in migraine patients with prolonged aura
Ambrosini, Anna; MAERTENS DE NOORDHOUT, Alain ULg; SCHOENEN, Jean ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2001), 101(3), 166-70

P/Q Ca2+ channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and may be involved in other types of migraine. They are also found at the neuromuscular junctions, where ... [more ▼]

P/Q Ca2+ channels are genetically abnormal in most cases of familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) and may be involved in other types of migraine. They are also found at the neuromuscular junctions, where they control stimulation-induced acetylcholine release. Prolonged aura is a very frequent clinical feature in FHM patients. The objective of this study was thus to explore neuromuscular transmission in migraine with typical and prolonged aura patients. We performed single fiber electromyography (SFEMG) in such patients and compared them to a group of healthy volunteers. Results were expressed as mean jitter (MCD) and percentage of single endplate abnormalities. Mean MCD was on average comparable in controls and migraineurs. By contrast, single endplate abnormalities were only found in patients (p < 0.01), especially in those with prolonged aura (p < 0.001). These results suggest subtle impairment of neuromuscular transmission in a subgroup of migraineurs characterized by prolonged aura, which might be due to dysfunctioning P/Q Ca(2+)-channels. [less ▲]

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See detailLa recombinaison chez les alphaherpèsvirus
Meurens, François; Schynts, Frédéric; Thiry, Etienne ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145

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See detailAntimicrobial susceptilities of Campylobacter strains isolated from food animals in Belgium.
Van Looveren, M.; Daube, Georges ULg; De Zutter, L. et al

in Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (2001), 48

Afin d’assurer une transparence tout le long de la chaîne de transformation de la viande, il faut disposer d’un système de traçabilité performant. La traçabilité administative montre des limites que ... [more ▼]

Afin d’assurer une transparence tout le long de la chaîne de transformation de la viande, il faut disposer d’un système de traçabilité performant. La traçabilité administative montre des limites que l’utilisation de marqueurs génétiques pourrait surmonter. Le génome de chaque individu possède des différences de séquences, à la base du polymorphisme génétique, dont les marqueurs génétiques sont les témoins. Parmi ceux-ci, deux classes semblent s’imposer en matière de traçabilité : les microsatellites et les polymorphismes simple nucléotide. Les microsatellites sont caractérisés par un degré de polymorphisme important avec de nombreux allèles pour un même locus. De plus, leur détection se fait directement par amplification itérative. Techniquement, le problème se pose lors de la détection simultanée de plusieurs microsatellites où le patron obtenu est difficile à interpréter. Les polymorphismes simple nucléotide sont répresentés par des mutations ponctuelles dans la séquence nucléotidique. Ils sont fréquents, stables, répartis de façon aléatoire et généralement bialléliques. La détection se fait soit par hybridation sur des biopuces, soit par spectrométrie de masse ou par d’autres techniques facilement automatisables. Cette automatisation est nécessaire pour pouvoir tester un grand nombre de polymorphismes simultanément sur un grand nombre d’échantillons, permettant ainsi de diminuer les coûts. L’avantage majeur des polymophismes simple nucléotide est le signal binaire obtenu, son désavantage est le caractère population- spécifique de ce type de marqueur. [less ▲]

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See detailSr, Nd isotopes and geochemistry of the Bayuda Desert high-grade metamorphic basement (Sudan): An early Pan-African oceanic convergent margin, not the edge of the East Saharan ghost craton?
Küster, D.; Liégeois, Jean-Paul ULg

in Precambrian Research (2001), 109(1-2), 1-23

The high-grade metamorphic basement of the Bayuda Desert is situated at the inferred transition between the juvenile Neoproterozoic mainly greenschist facies Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the pre ... [more ▼]

The high-grade metamorphic basement of the Bayuda Desert is situated at the inferred transition between the juvenile Neoproterozoic mainly greenschist facies Arabian-Nubian Shield (ANS) and the pre-Neoproterozoic mainly amphibolite facies domain of the East Saharan Ghost Craton. New geochemical and Sr-Nd isotope data reveal that this basement in Bayuda constituted a Neoproterozoic oceanic convergent margin succession with limited and probably late input of old material. Within this series, garnet amphibolites and epidote-biotite gneisses have geochemical characteristics of HFSE-depleted tholeiitic basalts and low- to medium-K dacites and rhyodacites, indicating magmatism in an oceanic island arc or back-arc basin environment. This magmatism occurred at 806 ± 19 Ma (Sm-Nd 11 WR isochron), similar in age to arc magmatism in the ANS. Leucocratic gneisses, muscovite schists and garnet-biotite schists form the dominant meta-sedimentary rocks of the study area. They were primarily derived from two different sources: volcanogenic sediments from a Neoproterozoic island arc (TDM Nd model ages between 790 and 900 Ma) and terrigeneous sediments from an older continental source (TDM Nd model ages up to 2100 Ma). The volcanosedimentary succession was metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions prior to 670 Ma, probably at approximately 700 Ma. The high-grade metamorphism is related to a frontal collisional event that also produced syn-collisional peraluminous granites preserved as muscovite-biotite gneisses. Meta-igneous rocks from eastern Bayuda have εNd values at 806 Ma of + 5.2 ± 0.4, indicating a less depleted mantle source (crustal contamination can be excluded) than the neighbouring Gabgaba-Gebeit terrane (εNd, ca. + 7) from the Arabian-Nubian shield. Less depleted mantle source is also known at Jebel Moya to the south, and inside the Arabian-Nubian Shield to the southeast of Bayuda. Lithological and structural similarities (dominantly northeast striking foliation) with the Bayuda Desert succession occur in many parts of central and western Sudan, suggesting a comparable geodynamic evolution. It is proposed that a Neoproterozoic oceanic convergent margin (Bayuda type succession) collided at approximately 700 Ma to the northwest with the East Saharan ghost craton, whose easternmost limit must lie below or more to the west than previously thought. © 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelle biodiversite pour nos lisieres forestieres?
Branquart, E.; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg; Liesse, D. et al

in Parcs & Réserves (2001), 56(1), 26-32

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See detailAbsolute configuration of N-[(R)-3-methyl-2-butyl]-(S)-2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-propionamide
Dupont, L.; Khellili, S.; Pirotte, Bernard ULg et al

in Acta Crystallographica (2001), E57

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See detailGranulométrie et Morphométrie des matériaux granulaires en laboratoire
Pirard, Eric ULg

in Techniques de l'Industrie Minérale (2001), 12

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See detailMother-Young Relationships in Belgian Blue Cattle after a Caesarean Section: Characterisation and Effects of Parity
Vandenheede, Marc ULg; Nicks, Baudouin ULg; Desiron, A. et al

in Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2001), 72(3), 281-292

The systematic use of Caesarean section in "double muscled" Belgian Blue cattle can induce ethical concerns. The aims of the following study was to characterise mother-young relationships in such a ... [more ▼]

The systematic use of Caesarean section in "double muscled" Belgian Blue cattle can induce ethical concerns. The aims of the following study was to characterise mother-young relationships in such a situation and to assess the effect of parity. Fifteen heifers and 15 cows of the Belgian Blue breed were observed using video recording when isolated with their calf during the 3 days following Caesarean, a rapid surgery with rare occurrence of aggressive behaviour and no sign of cows' discomfort or weakness. All calves were bottle-fed mother's colostrum once before first suckling occurred. Heifers' calves received a supplementary number of three such artificial meals, while cows' calves needed only one. The overall median time to first licking of the calf by the mother was 3.3min without any effect of parity. The mean licking frequency was 29.2+/-15.8 per 24h: heifers licked their calf less frequently than cows, respectively 23.4+/-15.3 per 24h versus 35.1+/-14.5 per 24h (P<0.05). The mean total licking duration was 42.2+/-25.9min per 24h: there was no significant difference between heifers and cows. The overall median time to first suckling was 6.1h, without any effect of parity. The mean suckling frequency was 8.4+/-4.8 per 24h: for half of these suckling bouts, the calf was situated on the left side of the mother, i.e. the side of the scar. The suckling frequency was negatively correlated with the number of artificial meals (r(s)=-0.45,P<0.05). Heifers suckled their calf less often than cows, respectively 6.1+/-3.1 per 24h versus 10.7+/-5.2 per 24h (P<0.01), but the left side proportion was not significantly different. The mean suckling total duration was 35.3+/-21.0min per 24h. The calf was on the left side of the mother during half of this time. Heifers suckled their calf during a shorter time than cows, respectively 26.9+/-20.0min per 24h versus 43.8+/-19.1min per 24h (P<0.05), and the left side proportion was not significantly different. Licking frequency and suckling duration were positively correlated (r=0.43,P<0.05). Only 10% of the mothers (one heifer and two cows) butted their calf and kicking was never observed. Despite the difficult comparison with results of the literature according to various methodologies, mother-young relationships were considered as similar to those reported after natural calving. In our study, cows can be considered as better mothers than heifers. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimisation des arcs paraboliques et en chaînette – aide à la conception sur base d'indicateurs morphologiques
Latteur, Pierre ULg; Samyn, Philippe; De Wilde, Patrick

in Revue Française de Génie Civil (2001), 5

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See detailLa fin de la vie en médecine intensive
Ferdinande, P.; Berré, J.; Colardyn, F. et al

in Réanimation (2001), 10

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See detailEtude de la diversité et des plantes hôtes des Coccinellidae de Belgique
Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Notes Fauniques de Gembloux (2001), 44

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See detailDirect and indirect pCO2 measurements in a wide range of pCO2 and salinity values
Frankignoulle, Michel; Borges, Alberto ULg

in Aquatic Geochemistry (2001), 7

Recent improvements in both Infra-red spectroscopy and equilibrator techniques have allowed to determine, for the first time, pCO2 using simultaneously and continuously both the direct and indirect ... [more ▼]

Recent improvements in both Infra-red spectroscopy and equilibrator techniques have allowed to determine, for the first time, pCO2 using simultaneously and continuously both the direct and indirect methods in an estuary where pCO2 values range from 500 to 8500 µatm and salinity from 0 to 30. Our results show that both methods are in excellent agreement in the whole estuary (r2 = 0.999, n = 1075, p < 0.0001). Thus, the NBS (US National Bureau of Standards) scale, although inadequate for seawater samples, is appropriate for estuarine waters and can be applied with confidence to calculate pCO2. [less ▲]

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See detailIgE-mediated anaphylaxis after first intravenous infusion of cyclosporine.
Ebo, D. G.; Piel, Géraldine ULg; Conraads, V. et al

in Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (2001), 87(3), 243-5

BACKGROUND: Intravenous administration of cyclosporine, which contains Cremophor EL (a polyethoxylated castor oil; BASF, Berlin, Germany), has occasionally resulted in an anaphylactic reaction. An ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Intravenous administration of cyclosporine, which contains Cremophor EL (a polyethoxylated castor oil; BASF, Berlin, Germany), has occasionally resulted in an anaphylactic reaction. An apparent hypersensitivity reaction (bronchospasm and decrease in blood pressure) had occurred during heart transplantation in a 59-year-old woman after intravenous infusion of cyclosporine. Subsequent oral administration of cyclosporine precipitated no reaction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to attempt to ascertain the mechanism responsible for the anaphylactic reaction. METHODS: Hypersensitivity investigations, including total serum IgE and allergen-specific IgE quantifications, skin testing, and basophil activation tests by flow cytometric determination of CD63 upregulation were undertaken in the study patient and in two healthy control subjects who were free of medication. RESULTS: The results of intradermal testing with Cremophor EL were positive after 15 minutes in the study patient only. Both cyclosporine and Cremophor EL induced considerable activation of the basophils from our study patient, with an upregulation of CD63 expression from 1% to 39% and 55%, respectively. In contrast, the expression of CD63 on basophils from the two control subjects remained essentially unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: The negative investigative findings in the control subjects, the patient's clinical manifestations in temporal relationship to the infusion, her positive results on intradermal testing with Cremophor, the basophil activation test results, and her uneventful course after oral administration of cyclosporine strongly support the presence of IgE antibodies to Cremophor EL in our patient. [less ▲]

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See detailA magnetic and conversion electron Mossbauer spectral study of amorphous Dy20Fe80-yCoy thin films
Fleury-Frenette, Karl ULg; Delwiche, Jacques ULg; Grandjean, Fernande ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2001), 37(4), 2311-2314

Amorphous thin films of Dy20Fe80-yCoy, with 0 < y < 20 and of ca. 40 nm thickness, have been prepared by sputtering on polyimide substrates. The 295 K conversion electron Mossbauer spectra (CEMS) of these ... [more ▼]

Amorphous thin films of Dy20Fe80-yCoy, with 0 < y < 20 and of ca. 40 nm thickness, have been prepared by sputtering on polyimide substrates. The 295 K conversion electron Mossbauer spectra (CEMS) of these films consist of broadened sextets which have been analyzed with a distribution of hyperfine fields in which the iron moments are oriented perpendicular to the plane of the film, an orientation which is in agreement with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy observed herein at 295 K by vibrating sample magnetrometry. The average hyperfine field and isomer shift increase linearly with increasing Co content. Both increases arise from an increase in the electron occupation of the 3d states as the cobalt content increases. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimation of additive and nonadditive genetic variances in Hereford, Gelbvieh, and Charolais by Method R.
Duangjinda, M.; Bertrand, K.; Misztal, I. et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2001), 79(12), 2997-3001

Parameters for direct and maternal dominance were estimated in models that included non-additive genetic effects. The analyses used weaning weight records adjusted for age of dam from populations of ... [more ▼]

Parameters for direct and maternal dominance were estimated in models that included non-additive genetic effects. The analyses used weaning weight records adjusted for age of dam from populations of Canadian Hereford (n = 467,814), American Gelbvieh (n = 501,552), and American Charolais (n = 314,552). Method R estimates of direct additive genetic, maternal additive genetic, permanent maternal environment, direct dominance, and maternal dominance variances as a proportion of the total variance were 23, 12, 13, 19, and 14% in Hereford; 27, 7, 10, 18, and 2% in Gelbvieh; and 34, 15, 15, 23, and 2% in Charolais. The correlations between direct and maternal additive genetic effects were -0.30, -0.23, and -0.47 in Hereford, Gelbvieh, and Charolais, respectively. The correlations between direct and maternal dominance were -0.38, -0.02, and -0.04 in Hereford, Gelbvieh, and Charolais, respectively. Estimates of inbreeding depression were -0.20, -0.18, and -0.13 kg per 1% of inbreeding for Hereford, Gelbvieh, and Charolais, respectively. Estimates of the maternal inbreeding depression were -0.01, -0.02, and -0.02 kg, respectively. The high ratio of direct dominance to additive genetic variances provided some evidence that direct dominance effects should be considered in beef cattle evaluation. However, maternal dominance effects seemed to be important only for Hereford cattle. [less ▲]

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See detailDissipative forces and external resonances
Jancart, Sylvie ULg; Lemaitre, Anne

in Celestial mechanics and Dynamical Astronomy (2001), 81

We analyze the process of resonance trapping due to Poynting-Robertson drag and Stokes drag in the frame of the restricted 3-body problem and in the case of external mean motion resonances. The numerical ... [more ▼]

We analyze the process of resonance trapping due to Poynting-Robertson drag and Stokes drag in the frame of the restricted 3-body problem and in the case of external mean motion resonances. The numerical simulations presented are computed by using the 3-dimensional extended Schubart averaging (ESA) integrator developed by Moons (1994) for all mean motion resonances. We complete it by adding the contributions of the dissipative forces. To follow the philosophy of the initial integrator, we average the drag terms, but we do not make any expansion in series of eccentricity or inclination. We show our results, especially capture around asymmetric equilibria, and compare them to those found by Beaué and Ferraz-Mello (1993, 1994) and Liou et al. (1979). [less ▲]

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