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See detailThe SH2 domain containing 5-phosphatase SHIP2 is expressed in the germinal layers of embryo and adult mouse brain : increased expression in N_CAM deficient mice.
Muraille, Eric; Dassesse, Donald; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie et al

in Neuroscience (2001), 105

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See detailPancreas development in zebrafish: early dispersed appearance of endocrine hormone expressing cells and their convergence to form the definitive islet.
Biemar, F.; Argenton, F.; Schmidtke, R. et al

in Developmental Biology (2001), 230(2), 189-203

To begin to understand pancreas development and the control of endocrine lineage formation in zebrafish, we have examined the expression pattern of several genes shown to act in vertebrate pancreatic ... [more ▼]

To begin to understand pancreas development and the control of endocrine lineage formation in zebrafish, we have examined the expression pattern of several genes shown to act in vertebrate pancreatic development: pdx-1, insulin (W. M. Milewski et al., 1998, Endocrinology 139, 1440-1449), glucagon, somatostatin (F. Argenton et al., 1999, Mech. Dev. 87, 217-221), islet-1 (Korzh et al., 1993, Development 118, 417-425), nkx2.2 (Barth and Wilson, 1995, Development 121, 1755-1768), and pax6.2 (Nornes et al., 1998, Mech. Dev. 77, 185-196). To determine the spatial relationship between the exocrine and the endocrine compartments, we have cloned the zebrafish trypsin gene, a digestive enzyme expressed in differentiated pancreatic exocrine cells. We found expression of all these genes in the developing pancreas throughout organogenesis. Endocrine cells first appear in a scattered fashion in two bilateral rows close to the midline during mid-somitogenesis and converge during late-somitogenesis to form a single islet dorsal to the nascent duodenum. We have examined development of the endocrine lineage in a number of previously described zebrafish mutations. Deletion of chordamesoderm in floating head (Xnot homolog) mutants reduces islet formation to small remnants, but does not delete the pancreas, indicating that notochord is involved in proper pancreas development, but not required for differentiation of pancreatic cell fates. In the absence of knypek gene function, which is involved in convergence movements, the bilateral endocrine primordia do not merge. Presence of trunk paraxial mesoderm also appears to be instrumental for convergence since the bilateral endocrine primordia do not merge in spadetail mutants. We discuss our findings on zebrafish pancreatogenesis in the light of evolution of the pancreas in chordates. [less ▲]

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See detailA simplified one-pot synthesis of 9-[(3-[18F]fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine([18F]FHPG) and 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG) for gene therapy.
Shiue, Grace G.; Shiue, Ching-Yann; Lee, Roland L. et al

in Nuclear Medicine & Biology (2001), 28(7), 875-83

9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N(2)-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-[[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3-toluenesulfonylox y ... [more ▼]

9-[(3-[18F]Fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([18F]FHPG, 2) has been synthesized by nucleophilic substitution of N(2)-(p-anisyldiphenylmethyl)-9-[[1-(p-anisyldiphenylmethoxy)-3-toluenesulfonylox y-2-propoxy]methyl]guanine (1) with potassium [18F]fluoride/Kryptofix 2.2.2 followed by deprotection with 1 N HCl and purification with different methods in variable yields. When both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 90 degrees C and the product was purified by HPLC (method A), the yield of compound 2 was 5-10% and the synthesis time was 90 min from EOB. However, if both the nucleophilic substitution and deprotection were carried out at 120 degrees C and the product was purified by HPLC, the yield of compound 2 decreased to 2%. When compound 2 was synthesized at 90 degrees C and purified by Silica Sep-Pak (method B), the yield increased to 10-15% and the synthesis time was 60 min from EOB. Similarly, 9-(4-[18F]fluoro-3-hydroxymethylbutyl)guanine ([18F]FHBG, 4) was synthesized with method A and method B in 9% and 10-15% yield, respectively, in a synthesis time of 90 and 60 min, respectively, from EOB. Compound 2 was relatively unstable in acidic medium at 120 degrees C while compound 4 was stable under the same condition. Both compound 2 and compound 4 had low lipid/water partition coefficient (0.126 +/- 0.022, n=5 and 0.165 +/- 0.023, n=5, respectively). Although it contains non-radioactive ganciclovir ( approximately 5-30 microg) as a chemical by-product, compound 2 synthesized by method B has a similar uptake in 9L glioma cells as that synthesized by method A, and is a potential tracer for imaging herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene expression in tumors using PET. Similarly, compound 4 synthesized by method B contains approximately 10-25 microg of penciclovir as a chemical by-product. Thus, the simplified one pot synthesis (method B) is a useful method for synthesizing both compound 2 and compound 4 in good yield for routine clinical use, and the method is readily amenable for automation. [less ▲]

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See detailA recombinant beta-O-glucosidase from Caldocellum saccharolyticum to hydrolyse desulfo-glucosinolates
Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg; Iori, R.; Leoni, O. et al

in Biotechnology Letters (2001), 23(6), 443-446

Glucosinolates, natural compounds found in Brassicaceae, can easily be transformed into desulfo-glucosinolates by action of Helix pomatia sulfatase. The recombinant beta -O-glucosidase from Caldocellum ... [more ▼]

Glucosinolates, natural compounds found in Brassicaceae, can easily be transformed into desulfo-glucosinolates by action of Helix pomatia sulfatase. The recombinant beta -O-glucosidase from Caldocellum saccharolyticum does not catalyse glucosinolate degradation but can hydrolyse desulfo-glucosinolates (thio-D-glucosidic substrates) to produce the corresponding pure nitriles, including valuable homochiral representatives. [less ▲]

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See detailGranulométrie et Morphométrie des matériaux granulaires en laboratoire
Pirard, Eric ULg

in Techniques de l'Industrie Minérale (2001), 12

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See detailCore-shell-corona micelles with a responsive shell
Gohy, Jean-François; Willet, Nicolas ULg; Varshney, Sunil et al

in Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) (2001), 40(17), 3214-3216

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See detailQualité des soins et qualité de vie des enfants atteients de pathologies anorectales et de leurs familles
Noirhomme-Renard, Florence ULg

in Bulletin d'Education du Patient à sa Maladie (2001)

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See detailOrientation And Effects Of Mastoparan X On Phospholipid Bicelles
Whiles, Ja.; Brasseur, Robert ULg; Glover, Kj. et al

in Biophysical Journal (2001), 80(1), 280-93

Mastoparan X (MPX: INWKGIAAMAKKLL-NH2) belongs to a family of ionophoric peptides found in wasp venom. Upon binding to the membrane, MPX increases the cell's permeability to cations leading to a ... [more ▼]

Mastoparan X (MPX: INWKGIAAMAKKLL-NH2) belongs to a family of ionophoric peptides found in wasp venom. Upon binding to the membrane, MPX increases the cell's permeability to cations leading to a disruption in the electrolyte balance and cell lysis. This process is thought to occur either through a membrane-thinning mechanism, where the peptide resides on the membrane surface thereby disrupting lipid packing, or through formation of an oligomeric pore. To address this issue, we have used both high-resolution and solid-state 2H NMR techniques to study the structure and orientation of MPX when associated with bicelles. NOESY and chemical shift analysis showed that in bicelles, MPX formed a well-structured amphipathic alpha-helix. In zwitterionic bicelles, the helical axis was found to rest generally perpendicular to the membrane normal, which could be consistent with the "carpet" mechanism for lytic activity. In anionic bicelles, on the other hand, the helical axis was generally parallel to the membrane normal, which is more consistent with the pore model for lytic activity. In addition, MPX caused significant disruption in lipid packing of the negatively charged phospholipids. Taken together, these results show that MPX associates differently with zwitterionic membranes, where it rests parallel to the surface, compared with negatively charged membranes, where it penetrates longitudinally. [less ▲]

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See detailPumping picosecond optical parametric oscillators by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser mode locked using a nonlinear mirror
Mani, A. A.; Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Hollander, Ph. et al

in Applied Physics Letters (2001), 79(13), 1945-1947

We report on the performances of the mode locking of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a frequency-doubling nonlinear mirror combined with a two-photon absorber. Pulse lengths from 12 to 8 ps are ... [more ▼]

We report on the performances of the mode locking of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a frequency-doubling nonlinear mirror combined with a two-photon absorber. Pulse lengths from 12 to 8 ps are generated. We show that the flat shape of the pulse-train envelope generated by the oscillator is adapted for the synchronous pumping of optical parametric oscillators and we demonstrate the efficient generation of an infrared beam tunable from 3800 to 1100 cm-1 with bandwidth of 2 cm-1 in one single conversion stage in LiNbO3 or AgGaS2. The "all-solid-state" laser system enables surface sum-frequency generation spectroscopy to be performed with high sensitivity and high resolution. [less ▲]

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See detailAbsence of protective effect of oral insulin on residual ß-cell function in type 1 diabetes
Geenen, Vincent ULg

in International Diabetes Monitor (2001), 13

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See detailOn the exact solutions of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick model
Debergh, N.; Stancu, Floarea ULg

in Journal of Physics : A Mathematical & General (2001), A34

We present the many-particle Hamiltonian model of Lipkin, Meshkov and Glick in the context of deformed polynomial algebras and show that its exact solutions can be easily and naturally obtained within ... [more ▼]

We present the many-particle Hamiltonian model of Lipkin, Meshkov and Glick in the context of deformed polynomial algebras and show that its exact solutions can be easily and naturally obtained within this formalism. The Hamiltonian matrix of each $j$ multiplet can be split into two submatrices associated to two distinct irreps of the deformed algebra. Their invariant subspaces correspond to even and odd numbers of particle-hole excitations. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards a post-ethnic Europe
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Patterns of Prejudice (2001), 35(1), 59-69

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See detailIs Aggregation Of Beta-Amyloid Peptides A Mis-Functioning Of A Current Interaction Process?
Festy, F.; Lins, Laurence ULg; Peranzi, G. et al

in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta-Protein Structure and Molecular Enzymology (2001), 1546(2), 356-64

In a previous study, Hughes et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 2065-2070] demonstrated that the amyloid peptide is able to interact with itself in a two-hybrid system and that interaction is ... [more ▼]

In a previous study, Hughes et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93 (1996) 2065-2070] demonstrated that the amyloid peptide is able to interact with itself in a two-hybrid system and that interaction is specific. They further supported that the method could be used to define the sequences that might be important in nucleation-dependent aggregation. The sequence of the amyloid peptide can be split into four clusters, two hydrophilic (1-16 and 22-28) and two hydrophobic (17-21 and 29-42). We designed by molecular modeling and tested by the two-hybrid approach, series of mutations spread all over the sequence and changing the distribution of hydrophobicity and/or the spatial hindrance. In the two-hybrid assay, interaction of native Abeta is reproduced. Screening of mutations demonstrates that the C-domain (residues 29-40 (42)), the median domain (residues 17-22) and the N-domain (1-16) are all crucial for interaction. This demonstrates that almost all fragments of the amyloid peptide but a loop (residues 23-28) and the C-term amino acid are important for the native interaction. We support that the folded three-dimensional (3D) structure is the Abeta-Abeta interacting species, that the whole sequence is involved in that 3D fold which has a low secondary structure propensity and a high susceptibility to mutations and thus should have a low stability. The native fold of Abeta could be stabilized in Abeta-Abeta complexes which could in other circumstances facilitate the nucleation event of aggregation that leads to the formation of stable senile plaques. [less ▲]

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See detailLa démocratie : utopie ou projet ? Balibar, Negri, Spinoza
Herla, Anne ULg

in Cahiers Internationaux de Symbolisme (2001), 98-99-100

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See detailRhabdomyolyse fatale sous cerivastatine.
Scheen, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(8), 592-4

Cerivastatin was recently withdrawn from the market after the report of more than 30 deaths in the United-States among patients receiving a combination of cerivastatin and gemfibrozil, a fibrate which is ... [more ▼]

Cerivastatin was recently withdrawn from the market after the report of more than 30 deaths in the United-States among patients receiving a combination of cerivastatin and gemfibrozil, a fibrate which is not anymore on the Belgian market. The cause of death was attributed to severe rhabdomyolysis. Cases were also reported among patients treated by cerivastatin only. Recommendations for better use of lipid-lowering drugs are given in order to optimize the benefit/risk ratio of such treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailRobust Validation of Measurements on jet Engines
Dewallef, Pierre ULg; Léonard, Olivier ULg

in European Journal of Mechanical and Environmental Engineering (2001), 46(4), 237-242

Nowadays, most of turbine engine tests are processed using an open loop, i.e. the measurements are verified and treated a posteriori, sometimes weeks or months after the end of the test. The scope of the ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, most of turbine engine tests are processed using an open loop, i.e. the measurements are verified and treated a posteriori, sometimes weeks or months after the end of the test. The scope of the present project is to develop a new methodology which enables real time detection of faulty measurements and the suppression of the source of these faults during the test. This implies the development of a method which is sufficiently robust to cope with a lot of faulty data (up to 20 to 30 % of the measurements). Most of the existing methods make use of a least square approach so that a set of parameters is sought which minimizes the RMS error between the measurements and the values provided by a numerical model of the installation. This type of approach is efficient in finding whether a set of measurements is valid but cannot locate the fault(s). In this paper an alternative is proposed based on a distribution of the measurement noise introduced by Huber. This so-called robust validation method has been tested on a single spool, single flow and variable geometry nozzle turbojet. Both the least square and Huber's function approaches have been tested and compared in terms of efficiency. The robust estimator based on Huber's error function has shown to be much more powerful for both finding an invalid set of measurements and locating the faulty measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailUne révision critique de la distribution de Tortula inermis en Belgique
Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Stieperaere, H.; Sotiaux, André ULg

in Dumortiera (2001), 77

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See detailComment j'explore ... la musculature paravertebrale lombaire dans les radiculopathies par electromyographie.
Tomasella, Marco ULg; Crielaard, Jean-Michel ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(10), 716-22

Lumbar paraspinal muscles examination is an interesting part of the electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected lumbosacral radiculopathy. However, many electromyographers hesitate to ... [more ▼]

Lumbar paraspinal muscles examination is an interesting part of the electrodiagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected lumbosacral radiculopathy. However, many electromyographers hesitate to routinely include that technique in their study of lower limbs. The purpose of this paper is to specify the anatomy and electrophysiologic data of multifidus lumbar paraspinal muscle. Previous anatomic studies indicate that the medial lumbar multifidus and lumbar interspinalis muscles share unisegmental innervation by the dorsal ram of the spinal nerve. Electromyography of these muscles can improve the sensitivity of lumbosacral radiculopathy detection. Multi-MUP analysis of quantitative electromyographic parameters in lumbar paraspinal muscles, in a population of 75 healthy subjects without back pain, allowed to set up normal values for the L5 myotome. [less ▲]

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See detailUn sujet obese par une approche multidisciplinaire: l'exemple du Centre de l'Obesite du CHU Ourthe-Ambleve.
Scheen, André ULg; Rorive, Marcelle ULg; Letiexhe, Michel ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(7), 474-9

Obesity is a mulfactorial disease whose prevalence is progressively increasing. Ideally, it requires a multidisciplinary management by medical doctors, dieticians, psychologists and kinetherapists. The ... [more ▼]

Obesity is a mulfactorial disease whose prevalence is progressively increasing. Ideally, it requires a multidisciplinary management by medical doctors, dieticians, psychologists and kinetherapists. The new "Centre de l'Obesite" at the University of Liege aims at fulfilling such objectives with: 1) a first outpatient visit including the simultaneous participation of an endocrinologist, a dietician and a psychologist; 2) a structured and individualized programme of physical rehabilitation; 3) an individualized management of obese subjects as in-(hospital) and/or outpatients, using medical and/or surgical approaches; and 4) an opportunity to benefit of other specialized medical advices, if necessary, in order to increase both the efficacy and safety of the treatment. Owing to the increasing importance of obesity and the well-known difficulties to succeed in treating it, general practitioners should consider this new centre as a valuable help rather than a competitive structure for the management of their patients, especially those with severe or morbid obesity. [less ▲]

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See detailAnthesis effects on Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile phenology in the Bay of Calvi (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea)
Gobert, Sylvie ULg; Defawe, Olivier; Lepoint, Gilles ULg et al

in Hydrobiologia (2001), 455

In Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, anthesis induces a decrease in the number of juvenile leaves resulting in a significant reduction in the number of leaves on the flowering shoots. All the leaves of the ... [more ▼]

In Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile, anthesis induces a decrease in the number of juvenile leaves resulting in a significant reduction in the number of leaves on the flowering shoots. All the leaves of the flowering shoots are narrower than the leaves of nonflowering shoots. A modification of the leaf growth also appears in flowering shoots: the oldest leaves are longer and the leaves induced during or after anthesis are shorter. At 10 m depth, in the Bay of Calvi, anthesis lasts roughly 3 months and the flowering is induced 7 months before anthesis. [less ▲]

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See detailCardiac surgery in octogenarians: who, when and how?
Pierard, Luc ULg

in European heart journal (2001), 22(14), 1159-61

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See detailFine-mapping and construction of a bovine contig spanning the ovine callipyge locus.
Shay, T. L.; Berghmans, S.; SEGERS, Karin ULg et al

in Mammalian Genome : Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society (2001), 12(2), 141-9

The callipyge (CLPG) gene was fine-mapped by linkage analysis to a 4.6-cM chromosome interval on distal ovine OAR18q, flanked by microsatellite markers IDVGA30 and OY3. The OAR18q linkage map and human ... [more ▼]

The callipyge (CLPG) gene was fine-mapped by linkage analysis to a 4.6-cM chromosome interval on distal ovine OAR18q, flanked by microsatellite markers IDVGA30 and OY3. The OAR18q linkage map and human HSA14q transcript map were aligned by genotyping two bovine-hamster whole-genome radiation hybrid panels with the microsatellite markers, as well as with sequences corresponding to HSA 14q genes. Using Type I loci mapping to the IDVGA30-OY3 interval as anchor points, we have constructed a 1.4-Mb bovine BAC contig containing the IDVGA30-OY3 interval. We demonstrate that the IDVGA30-OY3 interval spans approximately 770 kb and contains at least four genes: YY1, WARS, DLK1, and GTL2. [less ▲]

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See detailEndothelin in the equine hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictive response to acute hypoxia
Benamou, A. E.; Marlin, D. J.; Lekeux, Pierre ULg

in Equine Veterinary Journal (2001), 33(4), 345-353

Elevated concentrations of endothelin (ET), a potent endothelium-derived vasoactive peptide, have been reported in a number of pathophysiological conditions associated with pulmonary hypertension, both in ... [more ▼]

Elevated concentrations of endothelin (ET), a potent endothelium-derived vasoactive peptide, have been reported in a number of pathophysiological conditions associated with pulmonary hypertension, both in the horse and other species. We have previously shown, both in vitro and in vivo, that the pulmonary and systemic vascular response to exogenous ET is mediated predominantly via ET(A) receptors. Our hypothesis in the present study was that ET is involved in the equine hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictive response to acute hypoxia. In this study, we investigated the effects of a selective ET(A) receptor antagonist on hypoxic pulmonary hypertension in the mature horse. Horses were exposed to a 10 min period of hypoxia (F(I)O2 approximately 0.11) on 2 occasions, with and without pretreatment with the selective ET(A) receptor antagonist TBC11251 (10 mg/kg bwt i.v.). Hypoxia increased mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 18.3+/-0.9 (mean +/- s.e. normoxia) to 28.0+/-0.8 mmHg (hypoxia) in the session without ET(A) receptor antagonism. Carotid arterial pressure (CAP) also increased progressively throughout the period of hypoxic challenge and at the end was 153+/-5 mmHg (hypoxia) compared to during normoxia (140+/-5 mmHg). There was no significant overall effect of ET(A) receptor antagonism on the haemodynamic or ventilatory responses to acute hypoxia. However, between 5 and 10 min of hypoxia there was a trend for the mean PAP to diverge in the 2 treatments, which just failed to reach significance at 10 min of hypoxia (P = 0.053). In conclusion, this study describes the haemodynamic and ventilatory changes in response to a period of acute hypoxia in the adult horse. The results do not support a role for ET as a mediator of acute HPV in the horse, but suggest that it may be involved as a modulator or in the slower (>10 min) phase of HPV. [less ▲]

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See detailLe cas clinique du mois. Syndrome d'hypertension porto-pulmonaire associe a une hypoxemie severe.
Kolan, C.; Ghuysen, Alexandre ULg; Lambermont, Bernard ULg et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2001), 56(8), 543-7

We report the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis who was admitted to the emergency room for rapid occurrence of dyspnea and severe hypoxemia at rest. Lung CT-scan and echocardiography did not disclose ... [more ▼]

We report the case of a patient with liver cirrhosis who was admitted to the emergency room for rapid occurrence of dyspnea and severe hypoxemia at rest. Lung CT-scan and echocardiography did not disclose any right-to-left shunt and right-sided heart catheterization evidenced major precapillary pulmonary hypertension. The present feature supports the hypothesis that the pulmonary complications of cirrhosis, the hepatopulmonary syndrome and the portopulmonary hypertension, which are usually considered as mutually exclusive, may coexist. In such circumstances, the right failing heart is the major determinant to the immediate prognosis. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of allelochemicals from first (Brassicaceae) and second (Myzus persicae and Brevicoryne brassicae) trophic levels on Adalia bipunctata
Francis, Frédéric ULg; Lognay, Georges ULg; Wathelet, Jean-Paul ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical Ecology (2001), 27(2), 243-256

Three Brassicaceae species, Brassica napus (low glucosinolate content), Brassica nigra (including sinigrin), and Sinapis alba (including sinalbin) were used as host plants for two aphid species: the ... [more ▼]

Three Brassicaceae species, Brassica napus (low glucosinolate content), Brassica nigra (including sinigrin), and Sinapis alba (including sinalbin) were used as host plants for two aphid species: the generalist Myzus persicae and the specialist Brevicoryne brassicae. Each combination of aphid species and prey host plant was used to Feed the polyphagous ladybird beetle, Adalia bipunctata. Experiments with Brassicaceae species including different amounts and kinds of glucosinolates (GLS) showed increased ladybird larval mortality at higher GLS concentrations. When reared on plants with higher GLS concentrations, the specialist aphid, B. brassicae, was found to be more toxic than M. persicae. Identification of GLS and related degradation products, mainly isothiocyanates (ITC), was investigated in the first two trophic levels, plant and aphid species, by high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. While only GLS were detected in M. persicae on each Brassicaceae species, high amounts of ITC were identified in B. brassicae samples (allyl-ITC and benzyl-ITC from B. nigra and S. alba, respectively) from all host plants. Biological effects of allelochemicals from plants on predators through aphid prey are discussed in relation to aphid species to emphasize the role of the crop plant in integrated pest management in terms of biological control efficacy. [less ▲]

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See detailA psycho-endocrinological overview of transsexualism
Michel, Aude; Mormont, Christian ULg; Legros, Jean-Jacques ULg

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2001), 145(4), 365-376

The technical possibility of surgical sex change has opened up a debate concerning the legitimacy and utility of carrying out such an intervention at the request of the transsexual. Diagnostic ... [more ▼]

The technical possibility of surgical sex change has opened up a debate concerning the legitimacy and utility of carrying out such an intervention at the request of the transsexual. Diagnostic, psychological, medical and ethical arguments have been brought forth, both for and against. Nonetheless, anatomical transformation by surgical means has currently become a practice as the frequency of serious gender identity disorders is constantly progressing. After a brief introduction, the present paper will consider typological, aetiological and epidemiological aspects of transsexualism. Treatment of the sex change applicant is then defined and discussed in terms of psychological, psychiatric, endocrinological and surgical aspects. Finally, the question of post-operation follow-up will be examined. [less ▲]

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See detailFactors inftuencing ribavirin-induced hemolysis
Van Vlierberghe, H.; Delanghe, J. R.; De Vos, M. et al

in Journal of Hepatology (2001), 34

BackgroundlAims: One of the major side eft'ects of the combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C is ribavirininduced hemolytic anemia. Little is known about variables inftuencing tbis anemia. Our study ... [more ▼]

BackgroundlAims: One of the major side eft'ects of the combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C is ribavirininduced hemolytic anemia. Little is known about variables inftuencing tbis anemia. Our study tried to search for these variables in a large group of patients with hepatitis C treated with the combination therapy. Methods: Two hundred and forty-four patients chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus were treated either with induction treatment (daily dose ofinterferon) or with a standard treatment (interferon thrice weekly). Both groups received 1000-1200 mg of ribavirin from week 4 until the end of the treatment. The drop in hemoglobin level was defined as the dift'erence between the pretreatment hemoglobin level and the hemoglobin level at week 8. Seventeen variables which could possibly influencê'this drop in hemoglobin level were examined. Results: After multivariate analysis, the drop in hemoglobin level was only significant influenced by pretreatment platelet level, treatment and haptoglobin phenotype. The ribavirin dose did not influence the drop in hemoglobin level or the early virological response. Conclusions: Ribavirin-induced hemolysis is inftuenced by the pretreatment platelet level, the administered amount of a-interferon and the haptoglobin phenotype. A careful search for the minimal dose of ribavirin needed in combination treatment is necessary. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the sources of work hardening in multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity
Jacques, Pascal J.; Furnémont, Quentin; Mertens, Anne ULg et al

in Philosophical Magazine A (2001), 81(7), 1789-1812

The mechanisms effectively responsible for the enhancement of the work-hardening capabilities of multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity are highlighted. Different microstructures ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms effectively responsible for the enhancement of the work-hardening capabilities of multiphase steels assisted by transformation-induced plasticity are highlighted. Different microstructures, some containing a proportion of retained austenite with various mechanical stabilities, are studied. The dislocation density generated within ferrite by the mechanically induced martensitic transformation of retained austenite is shown to scale with the incremental work-hardening exponent. The acoustic emission generated during tensile straining was also measured. The acoustic emission was revealed to result mainly from dislocation motion, especially from the motion of the additional dislocation density generated in intercritical ferrite by the strain-induced martensitic transformation. [less ▲]

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See detailLe kimbanguisme : un millénarisme dynamique de la terre aux Cieux
Melice, Anne ULg

in Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer = Mededelingen der Zittingen van de Koninklijke Academie voor Overzeese Wetenschappen (2001), 47 (suppl.)

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See detailExpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the native class C beta-lactamase from Enterobacter cloacae 908R and two mutants.
Wouters, J.; Charlier, Paulette ULg; Monnaie, D. et al

in Acta Crystallographica Section D-Biological Crystallography (2001), 57(Pt 1), 162-4

Crystals have been obtained of the Enterobacter cloacae 908R beta-lactamase and two point mutants by the vapour-diffusion method using similar conditions [pH 9.0, polyethylene glycol (M(r) = 6000) as ... [more ▼]

Crystals have been obtained of the Enterobacter cloacae 908R beta-lactamase and two point mutants by the vapour-diffusion method using similar conditions [pH 9.0, polyethylene glycol (M(r) = 6000) as precipitant]. The three crystal forms belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2, with roughly the same unit-cell parameters; i.e. for the wild-type crystals a = 46.46, b = 82.96, c = 95.31 A. In the best cases, the crystals diffract to about 2.1 A resolution on a rotating-anode X-ray source at room temperature. Co-crystallization experiments of poor substrates with the wild-type protein and the active-site serine mutant (S64C) are planned and should lead to a better understanding of the catalytic mechanism of class C beta-lactamases. [less ▲]

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See detailStudy of the water/poly(ethylene glycol) interface by IR-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy
Dreesen, Laurent ULg; Humbert, C.; Hollander, P. et al

in Chemical Physics Letters (2001), 333

We used infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy to investigate the vibrational properties of the water/poly(ethylene glycol) interface in the 2800-3800 cm-1 spectral range. The vibrational ... [more ▼]

We used infrared-visible sum-frequency generation spectroscopy to investigate the vibrational properties of the water/poly(ethylene glycol) interface in the 2800-3800 cm-1 spectral range. The vibrational fingerprint of the interface differs significantly from the one associated with the aire/poly(ethylene glycol) interface. It is shown that the poly(ethylene glycol) molecular arrangement, originally relatively well-ordered, becomes disorganised in the presence of water. Moreover, a new OH band is identified demonstrating the strong interaction of water with the polymer. [less ▲]

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See detailUn oracle médical de Sarpédon à Séleucie du Calycadnos
Nissen, Cécile ULg

in Kernos : Revue Internationale et Pluridisciplinaire de Religion Grecque (2001), 14

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See detailHistologic localization of PLAG1 (pleomorphic adenoma gene 1) in pleomorphic adenoma of the salivary gland: cytogenetic evidence of common origin of phenotypically diverse cells.
Debiec-Rychter, M.; Van Valckenborgh, I.; Van den Broeck, C. et al

in Laboratory Investigation : Journal of Technical Methods & Pathology (2001), 81(9), 1289-97

Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), a zinc finger transcription factor gene, is consistently rearranged and overexpressed in human pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands with 8q12 translocations. In ... [more ▼]

Pleomorphic adenoma gene 1 (PLAG1), a zinc finger transcription factor gene, is consistently rearranged and overexpressed in human pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary glands with 8q12 translocations. In this report, we describe the immunohistochemical localization of PLAG1 protein in pleomorphic adenomas of the salivary gland and corresponding normal tissue, in relation to cytokeratin, vimentin, and BCL-2 expression. Normal salivary gland tissue was not immunoreactive for PLAG1. In primary pleomorphic adenomas, cells strongly immunoreactive for PLAG1 were detected in the outer layer of tubulo-ductal structures, which are thought to be the origin of cells with bi-directional, epithelial, and mesenchymal phenotypes. In contrast, epithelial cells with abundant cytokeratin in the inner tubulo-ductal structures only sporadically expressed PLAG1. BCL-2 immunoreactivity was found mainly in the cells surrounding the tubulo-ductal structures and in the solid undifferentiated cellular masses, within the areas that had moderate PLAG1 immunoreactivity. The variability of PLAG1 expression in neoplastic cells seemed to reflect the morphologic heterogeneity that correlated with the stage of differentiation of the tumor cells. Immunohistochemical/cytogenetic evaluation of two pleomorphic adenomas with t(3;8)(p21;q12) or t(5;8)(p13;q12) translocations demonstrated the clonal nature of immunophenotypically diverse cells. This finding confirms the theory that pleomorphic adenoma cells share a common single-cell origin, most likely from the epithelial progenitor basal duct cells. [less ▲]

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See detailThe role of the Technical Barrier to Trade Agreement in the development of transparency
Munoz, Rodolphe ULg

in Cambridge Yearbook of European Legal Studies (2001), 4

Cet article vise à donner une explication générale du fonctionnement de l'accord OTC. Il s'attarde plus particulièrement sur les aspects concernant le contrôles des barrières techniques au commerce. En ... [more ▼]

Cet article vise à donner une explication générale du fonctionnement de l'accord OTC. Il s'attarde plus particulièrement sur les aspects concernant le contrôles des barrières techniques au commerce. En effet, celles-ci sont aujourd'hui les plus entraventes pour les entreprises. [less ▲]

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See detailLes empreintes globales en prothèse fixée
Lamy, Marc ULg; Mainjot, Amélie ULg

in Revue Belge de Médecine Dentaire = Belgisch Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde (2001), 56(3), 168-80

The global impression technique allows to obtain in a single stage the impression of the abutment as well as their neighboring teeth. This technique often requires the placement of one or two retraction ... [more ▼]

The global impression technique allows to obtain in a single stage the impression of the abutment as well as their neighboring teeth. This technique often requires the placement of one or two retraction cords in the sulcus. The impression technique herein described is the double mix method. This method is based on the use of two elastomers with different viscosities, but from the same group thus allowing a simultaneous polymerization. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of insecticide treatments on insect density and diversity in vegetable open fields.
Colignon, P.; Hastir, Pierre; Gaspar, Charles ULg et al

in Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen (Rijksuniversiteit te Gent) (2001), 66(2a), 403-411

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest ... [more ▼]

Vegetable open field areas increased for 15 years in Wallonia, mainly in Hesbaye. To be in accordance with quality standards, especially in terms of agro-chimical residues (R.M.L.), biological pest control was developed and allowed to reduce the insecticide use, leading to have safer fresh products. Among cultivated species in Wallonia, leguminous crops represent more than 85% of the vegetable production. To assess the impact of insecticide treatment on both pests (mainly aphids) and beneficial insects (predators and parasitoids), broad bean (Vicia faba L.) fields were investigated during all the production duration. Twelve fields between Waremme and Hannut were visited weakly from May to July. In each field, control untreated and treated plots were investigated. Insects were caught using yellow traps and determined until the family level. Approximately 90.000 insects belonging to 59 major families (99% of captures) and 64 minor families were identified. These results showed that biodiversity in terms of family numbers was significantly higher in unsprayed plots. In addition, biodiversity and biomass (insect density) increased gradually during the season. Evaluation of pest and beneficial diversity and density was discussed in relation to aphicid (lambda-cyhalothrin, pirimicarb) treatments and the development of I.P.M. program in vegetable crops. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Bestiaire des philosophes indiens
Verpoorten, Jean-Marie ULg

in Acta Orientalia Belgica (2001)

Compilation de textes (avec leurs traductions) relatifs aux animaux dans les œuvres de deux grammairiens (Patañjali I et Bhartṛhari II) et de cinq courants philosophiques (MīmāṃsāIII, NyāyaIV, VaiśeṣikaV ... [more ▼]

Compilation de textes (avec leurs traductions) relatifs aux animaux dans les œuvres de deux grammairiens (Patañjali I et Bhartṛhari II) et de cinq courants philosophiques (MīmāṃsāIII, NyāyaIV, VaiśeṣikaV, Sāṃkhya VI et YogaVII). L’animal le plus souvent mentionné est le « bovin » dont le nom (go) pose le problème de sa dénotation : est-ce l’animal individuel ou la classe « bovin » ? Il faut qu’il dénote l’individu, car, dans la phrase « il donne la vache au médecin », go ne peut pas s’appliquer à l’espèce «vache » Un second problème (I et II) est celui de la « comparaison » (upamāna) : qu’est-ce qui permet de reconnaître un bovin sauvage à partir de la connaissance d’un bovin domestique ? Quel nom donner à tel animal à partir de similitudes partielles avec tel autre ? Où est le détail caractéristique qui distingue le bovin du gayal (I, III) ? Une trop grande différence entre deux entités (par ex.un bovin et un cheval) rend impossible l’upamāna (IV). Le serpent et ses anneaux sont analogues à un substrat permanent et à ses formes changeantes (IV) Quand on regarde soit un cerf courir, soit un merle ou un cygne voler, c’est l’animal qu’on voit et non l’acte de courir ou voler (II) . En effet un acte comme tel n’est pas comparable à un autre car tous deux sont inachevés. En épistémologie, l’erreur est souvent illustrée par la confusion dans la pénombre entre une corde et un serpent (II) Des problèmes sont soulevés à propos des injonctions et interdictions rituelles. Tel animal à immoler, dont le nom est au singulier, vaut pour un groupe entier ou une espèce ; telle interdiction ne mentionne explicitement que le chien et le chat comme à écarter du gâteau sacrificiel, alors que le corbeau devrait l’être aussi (III). D’autre part, s’il faut immoler un lion ou un bœuf , on se gardera d’immoler soit un homme sous prétexte qu’il est courageux comme un lion ou balourd comme un boeuf. Le problème est parfois d’ordre grammatical. L’adjectif kāpota « de pigeon » qualifie ce qui appartient à l’oiseau vivant ; peut-on dès lors l’employer pour une «soupe de pigeon » où manifestement l’oiseau est mort (I) ? D’autre part, comment le mot go peut-il s’appliquer à des vaches de terre cuite, puisqu’elles ne sont pas vivantes (IV). Et si des gâteaux de farine en forme de lions c’est par ressemblance aux lions vivants. Le métaphorique est fondé sur ce qui ne l’est pas(III) Au plan ontologique, le bouddhiste soutient que les qualités existent sans le support d’une substance L’illustre le fait qu’une cigogne dans la pénombre se limite à une tache de couleur (IV) La logique est abordée en V via la confrontation entre deux raisonnements, le bon : « puisque c’est cornu, c’est un bovin » et le mauvais : « puisque c’est cornu, c’est un cheval » Notons enfin que VI classe animaux et insectes en qualité de résidences pour les humains réincarnés et que VII énumère des postures yogiques qui portent des noms d’animaux. Une liste de ceux-ci clôt cette étude. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Human Vpac(1) Receptor - Three-Dimensional Model And Mutagenesis Of The N-Terminal Domain
Lins, Laurence ULg; Couvineau, A.; Rouyer-Fessard, C. et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(13),

The human VPAC(1) receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide belongs to the class II family of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane ... [more ▼]

The human VPAC(1) receptor for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide belongs to the class II family of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane segments. Like for all class II receptors, the extracellular N-terminal domain of the human VPAC(1) receptor plays a predominant role in peptide ligand recognition. To determine the three-dimensional structure of this N-terminal domain (residues 1-144), the Protein Data Bank (PDB) was screened for a homologous protein. A subdomain of yeast lipase B was found to have 27% sequence identity and 50% sequence homology with the N-terminal domain (8) of the VPAC(1) receptor together with a good alignment of the hydrophobic clusters. A model of the N-terminal domain of VPAC(1) receptor was thus constructed by homology. It indicated the presence of a putative signal sequence in the N-terminal extremity. Moreover, residues (Glu(36), Trp(67), Asp(68), Trp(73), and Gly(109)) which were shown to be crucial for VIP binding are gathered around a groove that is essentially negatively charged. New putatively important residues for VIP binding were suggested from the model analysis. Site-directed mutagenesis and stable transfection of mutants in CHO cells indicated that Pro(74), Pro(87), Phe(90), and Trp(110) are indeed important for VIP binding and activation of adenylyl cyclase activation. Combination of molecular modeling and directed mutagenesis provided the first partial three-dimensional structure of a VIP-binding domain, constituted of an electronegative groove with an outspanning tryptophan shell at one end, in the N-terminal extracellular region of the human VPAC(1) receptor. [less ▲]

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See detailMorphological and ecological complexity in early eukaryotic ecosystems
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULg; Knoll, A. H.; Walter, M. R.

in Nature (2001), 412(6842), 66-69

Molecular phylogeny and biogeochemistry indicate that eukaryotes differentiated early in Earth history. Sequence comparisons of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes suggest a deep evolutionary divergence of ... [more ▼]

Molecular phylogeny and biogeochemistry indicate that eukaryotes differentiated early in Earth history. Sequence comparisons of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes suggest a deep evolutionary divergence of Eukarya and Archaea(1); C-27-C-29 steranes (derived from sterols synthesized by eukaryotes) and strong depletion of C-13 (a biogeochemical signature of methanogenic Archaea) in 2,700 Myr old kerogens independently place a minimum age on this split(2,3). Steranes, large spheroidal microfossils, and rare macrofossils of possible eukaryotic origin occur in Palaeoproterozoic rocks(4-6). Until now, however, evidence for morphological and taxonomic diversification within the domain has generally been restricted to very late Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic successions(7). Here we show that the cytoskeletal and ecological prerequisites for eukaryotic diversification were already established in eukaryotic microorganisms fossilized nearly 1,500 Myr ago in shales of the early Mesoproterozoic Roper Group in northern Australia. [less ▲]

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See detailOn Conducting Burden-of-Osteoporosis Studies: A Review of the Core Concepts and Practical Issues. A Study Carried out under the Auspices of a Who Collaborating Center
Ben Sedrine, Wafa ULg; Radican, L.; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Rheumatology (2001), 40(1), 7-14

Osteoporosis is a problem that is relevant to public health from the clinical, economic and social viewpoints. Except in a handful of industrialized countries, there is a considerable void in our ... [more ▼]

Osteoporosis is a problem that is relevant to public health from the clinical, economic and social viewpoints. Except in a handful of industrialized countries, there is a considerable void in our knowledge of the magnitude of the problem. By exploring both the epidemiological and the economic impact of osteoporosis and the fractures associated with it in a particular country, studies of the 'burden of illness' (BOI) can fill that void. BOI analysis raises many questions at both the conceptual and the practical level. The purpose of this paper is to review the methodology underlying analyses of this type, to discuss its limitations and to provide a general format to improve their implementation in the field of osteoporosis. Investigators involved in BOI analysis should be very clear and explicit regarding the methods they adopt, so that studies in different countries can be interpreted and compared appropriately by interested parties. [less ▲]

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See detailIncrease of Plasma Ecg Binding Rate after Administration of Repeated High Dose of Ecg to Cows
Drion, Pierre ULg; De Roover, R.; Houtain, J. Y. et al

in Reproduction Nutrition Development (2001), 41(3), 207-215

Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) is still used to promote follicular growth in cattle and, more recently with an increased frequency of administration, in ovum pick-up protocols. The aim of this ... [more ▼]

Equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) is still used to promote follicular growth in cattle and, more recently with an increased frequency of administration, in ovum pick-up protocols. The aim of this experiment was to verify the possible effect of high frequency of administration on the immune response to eCG. The profiles of eCG binding rate, in the blood of two groups (A, B) of 4 primiparous cross breed beef cows (3-3.5 years old) submitted weekly for 5 to 10 weeks to repeated high doses (1000-2000 IU) of equine chorionic gonadotrophin, are presented in this paper. A sensitive radiometric method was used to detect antibodies in plasma. The profiles clearly indicated a marked increase of eCG binding rate after 3 to 5 injections of the exogenous hormone to the females. The statistical analysis of the results established that treatments induced a significant increase (P < 0.01) in binding rates after 6 and 3 injections in group A and B respectively. These binding rates remained elevated for at least 1 week following the last injection and decreased afterwards. The values of plasma binding rates following repeated eCG administration differed significantly between groups (0.90+/-1.04 and 1.04+/-0.11 for groups A and B before treatment versus 11.77+/-0.92, 6.70+/-0.85 for groups A and B after treatment, P < 0.01) and from one cow to another (P < 0.01) with some cows presenting no significant immune response while others were more reactive against the hormone (at least 3 injections). [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modelling of lateral-torsional buckling of steel I-beams under fire conditions - Comparison with Eurocode 3
Vila Real, Paulo M. M.; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Journal of Fire Protection Engineering (2001), 11(2), 112-128

A geometrically and materially non-linear finite element program, i.e., a general model, has been used to determine the lateral-torsional resistance of steel I-beams under fire conditions, according to ... [more ▼]

A geometrically and materially non-linear finite element program, i.e., a general model, has been used to determine the lateral-torsional resistance of steel I-beams under fire conditions, according to the same material properties of Eurocode 3, Part 1-2. Two yield strengths, one cross section, one type of load and four different time exposures to the ISO 834 standard fire have been considered. The numerical results have been compared to the results of the simple model presented in Eurocode 3, Part 1-2. When compared with the general model, this simple model leads to a safety level that depends on the slenderness of the beam, being unsafe for intermediate non-dimensional slenderness. A new proposal has been made for a simple model that ensures a conservative result when compared to the general model. [less ▲]

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See detailSpirometric performance in Belgian Blue calves: II. Analysis of environmental factors and estimation of genetic parameters.
Bureau, Fabrice ULg; Michaux, C.; Coghe, J. et al

in Journal of Animal Science (2001), 79(5), 1162-1165

Genetic parameters and environmental effects for spirometric variables (SV) in calves were estimated using 734 Belgian Blue calves (15 to 297 d of age), sired by 20 AI bulls. For each calf, the following ... [more ▼]

Genetic parameters and environmental effects for spirometric variables (SV) in calves were estimated using 734 Belgian Blue calves (15 to 297 d of age), sired by 20 AI bulls. For each calf, the following SV were measured: 1) the average ventilation (l/min) recorded during the 15 s of maximal ventilatory changes induced by lobeline administration (0.25 mg/kg, i.v.) (15-s MV(L)); 2) the vital capacity, and the maximal peak expiratory and inspiratory flows recorded after lobeline administration; and 3) the ventilatory reserve (15-s MV(L) - ventilation at rest). Analysis of environmental factors showed age of calf, herd, sex, and vaccination status had significant effects on SV. A sire model and a multiple-trait derivative-free REML procedure were used to estimate genetic parameters for SV, body weight, and muscling score. Heritabilities for SV ranged from 0.28 +/- 0.11 to 0.44 +/- 0.16. Genetic correlations among SV varied from 0.76 to 0.98 and environmental correlations from 0.69 to 0.80. Genetic correlations of SV with body weight (0.25 to 0.56) and with muscling score (0.21 to 0.76) were positive, as were environmental correlations of SV with body weight (0.44 to 0.70) and muscling score (0.09 to 0.25). These results suggest that selection may improve SV without impairing other traits of economic importance. [less ▲]

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See detailLe martin-pêcheur (Alcedo atthis) va-t-il bientôt manquer de sites de nidification ?
Libois, Roland ULg

in Aves (2001), 38(4), 161-178

In south-west Belgium, the breeding of the kingfisher was monitored for more than 10 years. During this period, 158 banks were regularly surveyed. Alterations or potential threats were identified: natural ... [more ▼]

In south-west Belgium, the breeding of the kingfisher was monitored for more than 10 years. During this period, 158 banks were regularly surveyed. Alterations or potential threats were identified: natural erosion, cattle trampling, disturbance from kayak-riders or anglers and, last but not least, consolidation works. Only 56 banks (35.4 %) can de considered as "safe". However, since the recent (2001) legal restrictions about the navigation on small rivers, 12 more banks are now safe too. Cattle trampling appears as the main threat (55 sites). However, the enforcement of the law regulating the fences along the rivers could easily solve the problem. Nineteen banks were completely destroyed for different purposes: navigation, road retaining walls or simply anti-erosive measures. Most of these works were undertaken along the river Meuse, the best nidification habitat of the area. (11 photos) [less ▲]

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See detailTetraethyl(Pyrrolidine-2,2-diyl)Bisphosphonate
Olive, Gilles ULg; Jacques, Alain

in Molecules (2001), 6

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See detailComparison between Solution-Phase Stability and Gas-Phase Kinetic Stability of Oligodeoxynucleotide Duplexes
Gabelica, Valérie ULg; De Pauw, Edwin ULg

in Journal of Mass Spectrometry [=JMS] (2001), 36(4), 397-402

The relative kinetic stabilities of different 16-mer oligonucleotide duplexes were investigated by source collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a heated capillary electrospray ion source. They were ... [more ▼]

The relative kinetic stabilities of different 16-mer oligonucleotide duplexes were investigated by source collision-induced dissociation (CID) in a heated capillary electrospray ion source. They were compared with the relative stabilities in solution obtained by thermal denaturation monitored by UV spectrophotometry. The results clearly show that both hydrogen bonding and base stacking interactions that are present in solution are maintained in the gas phase. This suggests that the electrospray process preserves the double-helix structure of DNA. A step by step opening of the double helix structure is proposed for the gas-phase dissociation, competing with the covalent bond cleavage of bases. We also draw attention to the fact that by source CID, it is the kinetic stability of the complexes that is probed. In particular, this implies that only complexes of the same size can be compared. [less ▲]

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See detailAlternative mating tactics in the alpine newt Triturus alpestris alpestris
Denoël, Mathieu ULg; Poncin, Pascal ULg; Ruwet, Jean-Claude

in Journal of Herpetology (2001), 35(1), 62-67

Sexual behaviors in dyadic encounters in the alpine newt, Triturus alpestris alpestris, is described to test whether male behavior is influenced by external cues, that is, female responsiveness. Depending ... [more ▼]

Sexual behaviors in dyadic encounters in the alpine newt, Triturus alpestris alpestris, is described to test whether male behavior is influenced by external cues, that is, female responsiveness. Depending on this factor, a male exhibits one of the two following tactics during the sperm transfer phase. The male either waits for a positive response from the female before initiating sperm transfer ("waiting" tactic), or creeps and deposits a spermatophore in front of a nonresponsive female ("luring" tactic). The sperm transfer success rates of these tactics are 31% and 6%, respectively,and encounter success rates, 64% and 8%, respectively. The success of the second tactic is linked to behaviors that lure the female, notably quiver and distal lure. The same individual can exhibit both tactics, and neither body size nor condition appears to influence the tactic a male exhibits. These tactics can be interpreted as the result of a conditional strategy, that is, a strategy that allows an individual to incorporate information about its ability to obtain fitness through alternative tactics and then express the tactic that maximizes its fitness. More particularly, these tactics are examples of a side-payment strategy, that is, a strategy that allows individuals to achieve small gains by capitalizing on passing opportunities. [less ▲]

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See detailSémiotique et sciences cognitives : une mise en contexte
Badir, Sémir ULg

in Bulletin de l'Association française de sémiotique (2001), 1

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See detailDoes F2 need a hard pomeron?
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Soyez, G.

in Physics Letters B (2001), 516

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See detailDuck plague: a permanent threat for domestic and wild anatids
Marlier, Didier ULg; Jaumin, F.; Delleur, V. et al

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2001), 145(5, NOV-DEC), 287-291

Duck plague: a permanent threat for domestic and wild anatids. Duck plague, also named duck virus enteritis is a disease of ducks, geese and swans of all ages. The authors present a review of the current ... [more ▼]

Duck plague: a permanent threat for domestic and wild anatids. Duck plague, also named duck virus enteritis is a disease of ducks, geese and swans of all ages. The authors present a review of the current knowledge about this viral infection. [less ▲]

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See detailFracture prevention
Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Reginster, Jean-Yves ULg

in Clinical Evidence (2001), 5

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See detailExperimental Hafting Traces. Identification and Characteristics
Rots, Veerle ULg; Pirnay, Louis; Pirson, Philippe et al

in Notae Praehistoricae (2001), 21

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See detailLarge-Scale Phenotypic Analysis Reveals Identical Contributions To Cell Functions Of Known And Unknown Yeast Genes
Bianchi, Mm.; Ngo, S.; Vandenbol, Micheline ULg et al

in Yeast (2001), 18(15),

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See detailIntact Implicit learning in Schizophrenia
Danion, Jean-Marie; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Kauffmann-Muller, F. et al

in American Journal of Psychiatry (The) (2001), 158(6), 944-948

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See detailExperimental M1 Transition Rates in Highly Charged Krypton Ions
Träbert, E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V. et al

in Physical Review. A (2001), 64

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See detailWhen should triptans be taken during a migraine attack?
Schoenen, Jean ULg

in CNS Drugs (2001), 15(8), 583-7

The common strategy to treat a migraine attack as soon as it begins, made for classical acute antimigraine treatments such as ergotamine and analgesics, has not been transposed to the triptans. The ... [more ▼]

The common strategy to treat a migraine attack as soon as it begins, made for classical acute antimigraine treatments such as ergotamine and analgesics, has not been transposed to the triptans. The recommendation to delay triptan intake until headache intensity is at least moderate is merely a habit generated by the protocol used in triptan trials and a nonvalidated attempt to reduce costs. It is also favoured by the few studies suggesting that sumatriptan is less effective when given early in an attack, especially during the aura phase. Recent retrospective analyses of small numbers of 'protocol violators' in controlled trials of sumatriptan suggest that the drug is more efficient when taken while the headache is mild. Pain-free responses and therapeutic gains over aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid)-metoclopramide or ergotamine-caffeine combinations were increased under these conditions. The available circumstantial evidence is reviewed and discussed. Before any conclusion can be drawn and recommendation made, results are awaited from randomised controlled trials specifically addressing whether or not triptans are more efficient in mild headache. Meanwhile, there seems to be no medical reason to withhold treatment of a mild headache with a triptan as long as triptan intake does not exceed 1 or 2 doses per week. Most mild headaches in patients with migraine appear indeed to be mild migraine attacks, even when the headache characteristics are those of tension-type headache. [less ▲]

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See detailLa réforme de la procédure fiscale : le point de vue de la Cour d’arbitrage
Orban, Lionel ULg

in Fiscalité 2001. Le point sur les réformes », Journée d’études du Mercredi 31 octobre 2001, organisée par le Service de droit fiscal de la Faculté de droit de l’Université de Liège (2001)

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See detailLe diagnostic des dermatophytoses passe par l'examen de laboratoire
Mignon, Bernard ULg

in Hebdo Vétérinaire (2001), 57

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See detailOptimisation of Stiffened Structures
Rigo, Philippe ULg

in Dept. of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering (2001)

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See detailPositron emission tomography (PET) with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) for the staging of low-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Beguin, Yves ULg; Najjar, F. et al

in Annals of Oncology (2001), 12(6), 825-30

BACKGROUND: Although PET has been shown to be highly sensitive in the primary staging of lymphoma, previous studies with small numbers of patients indicated that low-grade NHL may not always be adequately ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Although PET has been shown to be highly sensitive in the primary staging of lymphoma, previous studies with small numbers of patients indicated that low-grade NHL may not always be adequately detected by PET. We undertook this study to determine factors influencing the detection of lesions by PET in low-grade NHL and to evaluate the utility of PET in this indication. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients underwent conventional staging procedures (clinical examination, oto-rhino-laryngologic examination, computed tomography of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, gastroscopy and bone marrow biopsy as well as whole-body non-attenuation corrected 18F-FDG-PET RESULTS: PET detected 40% more abnormal lymph node areas than conventional staging in follicular lymphoma but was inappropriate for the staging of small lymphocytic lymphoma where it detected less than 58% of abnormal lymph node areas. PET showed more lesions than conventional staging for peripheral (34% more lymph node areas detected) and thoracic lymph node (39% more) areas but not for abdominal or pelvic lymph nodes (26% fewer areas detected). The sensitivity to detect bone marrow infiltration was unacceptably low for PET. In contrast, PET was as effective as standard procedures for the detection of other extranodal localizations, although a few localizations were detected only by PET and a few others only by conventional procedures. CONCLUSIONS: PET may contribute to the management of patients with low-grade follicular NHL. For the other low-grade lymphoma subtypes, the role of PET is less evident. Further studies using PET to evaluate the results of treatment or to diagnose disease recurrence are warranted in low-grade follicular NHL. [less ▲]

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See detailEffet de l’environnement proche sur la biodiversité entomologique en culture maraîchères de plein champ
Colignon, P.; Haubruge, Eric ULg; Hastir, P. et al

in Parasitica (2001), 56

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See detailPositive Actie (Affirmative Action) : een middel tegen racisme ?
Martiniello, Marco ULg

in Noord-Zuid Cahier (2001), 26(1), 83-91

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See detailAutosomal recessive segregation of a truncating mutation of anti-Mullerian type II receptor in a family affected by the persistent Mullerian duct syndrome contrasts with its dominant negative activity in vitro.
Messika-Zeitoun, L.; Gouedard, L.; Belville, C. et al

in Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism (2001), 86(9), 4390-7

Anti-Mullerian hormone belongs to the TGFbeta family whose members exert their effects by signaling through two related serine/threonine kinase receptors. Mutations of the anti-Mullerian hormone type II ... [more ▼]

Anti-Mullerian hormone belongs to the TGFbeta family whose members exert their effects by signaling through two related serine/threonine kinase receptors. Mutations of the anti-Mullerian hormone type II receptor occur naturally, causing the persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. In a family with two members with persistent Mullerian duct syndrome and one normal sibling, we detected two novel mutations of the anti-Mullerian hormone type II receptor gene. One, transmitted by the mother to her three sons, is a deletion of a single base leading to a stop codon, causing receptor truncation after the transmembrane domain. The other, a missense mutation in the substrate-binding site of the kinase domain, is transmitted by the father to the two sons affected by persistent Mullerian duct syndrome, indicating a recessive autosomal transmission as in other cases of persistent Mullerian duct syndrome. Truncating mutations in receptors of the TGFbeta family exert dominant negative activity, which was seen only when each of the mutant anti-Mullerian hormone receptors was overexpressed in an anti-Mullerian hormone-responsive cell line. We conclude that assessment of dominant activity in vitro, which usually involves overexpression of mutant genes, does not necessarily produce information applicable to clinical conditions, in which mutant and endogenous genes are expressed on a one to one basis. [less ▲]

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See detailErratum: High-energy forward scattering and the Pomeron: Simple pole versus unitarized models [Phys. Rev. D 61, 034019 (2000)]
Cudell, Jean-René ULg; Ezhela, V.; Kang, K. et al

in Physical Review. D : Particles and Fields (2001), 63

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See detailKey criteria for the design of polymeric stabilizers for aqueous titanium dioxide dispersions of high solid content
Creutz, Serge; Jérôme, Robert ULg

in e-Polymers (2001), (14), 1-9

Amphiphilic copolymers consisting of an animated hydrophobic block and a hydrophilic poly(sodium methacrylate) one have been synthesized with different structures and tested as stabilizers for aqueous ... [more ▼]

Amphiphilic copolymers consisting of an animated hydrophobic block and a hydrophilic poly(sodium methacrylate) one have been synthesized with different structures and tested as stabilizers for aqueous dispersions of alumina coated titanium dioxide (80 wt.-% solid). The dispersion stability is ruled by the strength of the anchoring of the aminated block onto the pigment and by the dynamics of the micelles formed by the copolymer. Any decrease in the anchoring strength, for example as a result of higher steric hindrance for the adsorbing block or of random rather than blocky distribution of the aminated co-units, is detrimental to the dispersion stability and makes this stability more dependent on the copolymer composition. Indeed, the position and dynamics of the unimers micelles equilibrium then control the adsorption of the copolymer on the pigment during the grinding process. [less ▲]

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See detailEtude de la diversité et des plantes hôtes des Coccinellidae de Belgique
Francis, Frédéric ULg

in Notes Fauniques de Gembloux (2001), 44

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See detailAnaesthesia for laparoscopic surgery
Kaba, Abdourahmane ULg; Joris, Jean ULg

in Current Anaesthesia and Critical Care (2001), 12

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See detailLa stromelysine-1 en pathologie inflammatoire: signification, specificite et elements de regulation
Ribbens, Clio ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2001), 156(5-6), 275-281281-283

Stromelysin-1 or matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is a key enzyme of the degradation of the extracellular matrix in rheumatoid arthritis. MMP-3 is indeed induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and may in ... [more ▼]

Stromelysin-1 or matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) is a key enzyme of the degradation of the extracellular matrix in rheumatoid arthritis. MMP-3 is indeed induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines and may in turn activate other metalloproteinases. MMP-3 is a synovial parameter reflecting the local inflammatory reaction induced by inflammatory cytokines. It is not specific for rheumatoid arthritis nor for the erosive capacity of an arthropathy, which does not exclude its role in articular degradation. Serum MMP-3 is increased in diseases characterized by synovitis but also by steroid therapy. Although it is not disease-specific, serum MMP-3 could be useful as a synovial-derived marker of local inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis, in parallel to CRP which is a systemic marker of inflammation. Furthermore, early determination of serum MMP-3 could constitute a new tool predictive of the disease activity and the therapeutic response in rheumatoid arthritis. [less ▲]

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See detailInfluence of moderate temperatures on myristoyl-CoA metabolism and acyl-CoA thioesterase activity in the psychrophilic antarctic yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca.
Sabri, Ahmed ULg; Bare, G.; Jacques, Philippe ULg et al

in Journal of Biological Chemistry (2001), 276(16), 12691-6

The inability of psychrophilic microorganisms to grow at moderate temperatures (>20 degrees C) presently represents an unresolved thermodynamic paradox. Here we report for the psychrophilic yeast ... [more ▼]

The inability of psychrophilic microorganisms to grow at moderate temperatures (>20 degrees C) presently represents an unresolved thermodynamic paradox. Here we report for the psychrophilic yeast Rhodotorula aurantiaca A19, isolated from Antarctic ice, that the inability to grow at temperatures close to 20 degrees C is associated with profound alterations in cell morphology and integrity. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the intracellular acyl-CoA esters revealed an abnormal accumulation of myristoyl-CoA (C14-CoA) in cells cultivated close to the nonpermissive temperature. Its concentration (500 microm) was found to be 28-fold higher than in cells cultivated at 0 degrees C. If one considers its ability to disrupt membrane bilayers and to inhibit many cellular enzymes and functions, intracellular myristoyl-CoA accumulation in the psychrophile R. aurantiaca represents one of the principal causes of growth arrest at moderate temperatures. Intracellular acyl-CoA concentrations are believed to be regulated by thioesterase activity. Thus in an attempt to explore the mechanism by which temperature disrupts myristoyl-CoA metabolism, we isolated and characterized a long chain acyl-CoA thioesterase. The monomeric 80-kDa thioesterase from the psychrophilic yeast shows a very strong specificity for myristoyl-CoA. The affinity for substrate and the catalytic efficiency of the thioesterase are optimal below 5 degrees C (temperatures habitually experienced by the strain) and dramatically decrease with increasing temperature. The loss of affinity for substrate is related to the intracellular increase of myristoyl-CoA concentration. Our observations reveal one of the probable mechanisms by which temperature fixes the limit of growth for this psychrophilic yeast. [less ▲]

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See detailLes réserves d’interprétation dans la jurisprudence de la Cour d’arbitrage : une alternative à l’annulation
Rosoux, Géraldine ULg

in Revue Belge de Droit Constitutionnel (2001)

The article gives an overview upon constitutional decisions rejecting "under condition" actions for anulment.

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See detailExploring Consumer Evaluations of e-Services: A Portal Site
Van Riel, Allard ULg; Liljander, Veronica

in International Journal of Service Industry Management (2001), 12(4), 359-377

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See detailImportance of post-transcriptional regulation of chemokine genes by oxidative stress.
JOSSE, Claire ULg; Boelaert, J. R.; Best-Belpomme, M. et al

in Biochemical Journal (2001), 360(Pt 2), 321-33

The transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), is activated by various stimuli including cytokines, radiation, viruses and oxidative stress. Here we show that, although induction with H(2 ... [more ▼]

The transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), is activated by various stimuli including cytokines, radiation, viruses and oxidative stress. Here we show that, although induction with H(2)O(2) gives rise to NF-kappa B nuclear translocation in both lymphocyte (CEM) and monocyte (U937) cells, it leads only to the production of mRNA species encoding interleukin-8 (IL-8) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha in U937 cells. Under similar conditions these mRNA species are not observed in CEM cells. With the use of a transient transfection assay of U937 cells transfected with reporter constructs of the IL-8 promoter and subsequently treated with H(2)O(2), we show that (1) IL-8-promoter-driven transcription is stimulated in both U937 and CEM cells and (2) the NF-kappa B site is crucial for activation because its deletion abolishes activation by H(2)O(2). The production of IL-8 mRNA in U937 cells is inhibited by the NF-kappa B inhibitors clasto-lactacystin-beta-lactone and E-64D (l-3-trans-ethoxycarbonyloxirane-2-carbonyl-L-leucine-3-methyl amide) but requires protein synthesis de novo. Moreover, inhibition of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase also decreases the IL-8 mRNA up-regulation mediated by H(2)O(2). Taken together, these results show the importance of post-transcriptional events controlled by a p38-dependent pathway in the production of IL-8 mRNA in U937. The much lower activation of p38 in CEM cells in response to H(2)O(2) could explain the lack of stabilization of IL-8 mRNA in these cells. [less ▲]

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See detailConsumer Evaluations of Brand Extensions: Differences between Goods and Services
Van Riel, Allard ULg; Lemmink, Jos; Ouwersloot, Hans

in Journal of Service Research (2001), 3(3), 220-231

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See detailOrdovician cryptospores from the Oostduinkerke borehole, Brabant Massif, Belgium
Steemans, Philippe ULg

in Geobios (2001), 34(1), 3-12

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See detailNatural radiative lifetimes in Ce II
Zhang, Z. G.; Svanberg, S.; Jiang, Z. et al

in Physica Scripta (2001), 63

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See detailThe Developments of Cold-rolled TRIP-assisted Multiphase Steels. Al-alloyed TRIP-assisted Multiphase Steels
Jacques, Pascal J.; Girault, Etienne; Mertens, Anne ULg et al

in ISIJ International (2001), 41(9), 1068-1074

The influence of heat-treating conditions on the retention of carbon-enriched austenite of TRIP-assisted multiphase steel grades containing different amounts of silicon and/or aluminium is investigated ... [more ▼]

The influence of heat-treating conditions on the retention of carbon-enriched austenite of TRIP-assisted multiphase steel grades containing different amounts of silicon and/or aluminium is investigated. The ensuing mechanical properties resulting from the TRIP effect are also scrutinised. The bainite transformation kinetics was followed by dilatometry whereas a detailed characterisation of the microstructures led to the construction off transformation maps giving the volume fractions of the different phases and the carbon content of the austenite. The role of silicon and aluminium additions (i)on the retention of austenite by partial bainite transformation and (ii) on the mechanical properties is enlightened. A strong influence of the solid-solution strengthening effect of silicon is highlighted. Aluminium seems to be an effective alloying element for the retention of austenite in TRIP-aided steels even if lower strength levels can be attained. A mixed Al-Si TRIP-aided steel seems to be a very good compromise between the processing needs, the required mechanical properties and the industrial constraints. [less ▲]

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See detailIron bacterial and fungal mats, Bajocian stratotype (Mid-Jurassic, northern Normandy, France)
Préat; Mamet, B.; De Ridder, C. et al

in Sedimentary Geology (2001), 137

The Oolithe ferrugineuse de Bayeux Formation is located at the historical Bajocian stratotype of Sainte-Honorine-des-Pertes, north of Bayeux, Normandy. The condensed formation ranges from the base of the ... [more ▼]

The Oolithe ferrugineuse de Bayeux Formation is located at the historical Bajocian stratotype of Sainte-Honorine-des-Pertes, north of Bayeux, Normandy. The condensed formation ranges from the base of the Humphriesianum Zone to the Parkinsoni Zone and is divided into four beds of decimetric scale. Three main microfacies are present: (1) oncoid rudstones, (2) ooid bioclastic packstones and (3) silty burrowed wackestones/ packstones. Sedimentation took place in a very quiet environment, below the photic zone and below or near the storm wave base. The general setting is a distal carbonate ramp, its lower part characterized by hemipelagic sedimentation indicated by the presence of planktonic foraminifers. The inferred depth is around 100 m. Free oxygen concentration was low. Dysaerobic conditions are indicated by a scarcity of benthic macrofauna. Ferruginous structures are numerous in the first two microfacies, and absent in the last. Hematite staining is not uniform and follows many sedimentary patterns. Among the more widespread Fe structures are perforation infillings with endolithic microorganisms, microstromatolites, oncoids, ooids, blisters, coatings and hardgrounds. These structures can be associated and none are mutually exclusive. Hematite-coated filaments of different sizes and shapes are observed in the micrite matrix: the walls of various organisms; the calcite crystals associated with the Fe cortical laminations; the perforations and burrow; the hardgrounds; and microstromatolites. Petrographical and SEM examinations suggest that the laminated crusts (oncoids and hardgrounds) are formed by microbial iron mats dominated by filamentous bacteria and fungi. Seven types of microbes are recognized: filaments (five morphotypes), spheroidal bodies and stalked bodies. Filamentous microfossils of type 1 to 4 resemble the present-day filamentous bacteria (Beggiatoales and Cytophagaceae). Because of their large diameter and their branching nature, filaments of type 5 are possibly filamentous fungi. Another argument in favor of fungi is the presence of stalked and spheroidal bodies that resemble zoosporangia and oogonia of some Oomycota. In deep, calm and dysaerobic waters, many interfaces (e.g. between aerobic and dysaerobic waters) are present in the sediments. The stability of the soluble reduced state of iron (Fe2+) is higher at such interfaces, and many ferric iron-encrusted microbial fossils are observed. Iron could thus serve as an electron donor for microbial iron-oxidation processes. Other microbial iron deposition pathways are also possible. It appears that, regardless of geological age (Paleozoic, Mesozoic) and geographical location, the same microbiological mechanisms are probably responsible for the red color in calcareous stratified or unstratified bodies. The presence of fossilized iron-encrusted bacteria and fungi at interfaces may therefore serve as an indicator of anoxic to dysaerobic conditions in various paleo(micro)environments. [less ▲]

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See detailLes insectes aquatiques du ru de Targnon (Commune de Theux)
Dethier, Michel; Dopagne, Claude ULg

in Natura Mosana (2001), 54(4), 67-76

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See detailLes maisons de justice: une révolution tranquille?
Dantinne, Michaël ULg; Simon, Julie

in Actualités du Droit (2001)

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See detailJe lis, j'écris : la pratique du journal de lecture
De Croix, Séverine ULg

in Enjeux : Revue de Formation Continuée et de Didactique du Français (2001), 50

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See detailSerum transferrin receptor concentration indicates increased erythropoiesis in Kenyan children with asymptomatic malaria.
Verhoef, H.; West, C. E.; Ndeto, P. et al

in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2001), 74(6), 767-75

BACKGROUND: Serum transferrin receptor concentrations indicate both erythropoietic activity and the deficit of functional iron in the erythron. In contrast with serum ferritin concentrations, serum ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Serum transferrin receptor concentrations indicate both erythropoietic activity and the deficit of functional iron in the erythron. In contrast with serum ferritin concentrations, serum transferrin receptor concentrations are not or are only marginally influenced by the inflammatory response to infection. OBJECTIVE: We assessed iron status and examined the relation between serum transferrin receptor concentrations and malaria in children aged 2-36 mo who were asymptomatic for malaria. DESIGN: This was a community-based cluster survey (n = 318). RESULTS: Prevalences of malaria, anemia (hemoglobin concentration <110 g/L), iron deficiency (serum ferritin concentration <12 microg/L), and iron deficiency anemia were 18%, 69%, 53%, and 46%, respectively. Malaria was associated with lower mean hemoglobin concentrations (92.7 compared with 104.1 g/L; P = 0.0001) and higher geometric mean serum concentrations of transferrin receptor (11.4 compared with 7.8 mg/L; P = 0.005), ferritin (21.6 compared with 11.9 microg/L; P = 0.05), and C-reactive protein (12.5 compared with 6.8 mg/L; P = 0.004). There was no evidence for an association between serum concentrations of C-reactive protein and transferrin receptor. Children with malaria had higher serum transferrin receptor concentrations than expected for the degree of anemia, even after adjustment for inflammation indicated by serum C-reactive protein concentration quartiles (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with the notion that malaria-induced hemolysis is accompanied by increased erythropoiesis. Serum transferrin receptor concentration is not useful for detecting iron deficiency in individuals with malaria. Individuals with high concentrations of serum C-reactive protein or similar acute phase reactants should be excluded from analysis if serum ferritin concentrations <12 microg/L are to be used to measure iron deficiency in malaria-endemic areas. [less ▲]

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See detailLes manuels scolaires en Belgique francophone
Merenne-Schoumaker, Bernadette ULg

in Travaux de l’Institut de Géographie de Reims (2001), (109-110), 83-91

This article tries to evaluate the evolution of both the status and the content of geography’s textbooks in the French part of Belgium. With this aim in view, three periods are analysed : before the ... [more ▼]

This article tries to evaluate the evolution of both the status and the content of geography’s textbooks in the French part of Belgium. With this aim in view, three periods are analysed : before the renovation of the teaching, the years 1980-1990 and today. Through the mutations, narrows links are confirmed between the teaching’s aims and the role devoted to the textbooks. [less ▲]

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See detailLes etats preleucemiques: d'un modele experimental murin aux syndromes myelodysplasiques humains
Defresne, Marie-Paule ULg

in Bulletin et Mémoires de l'Académie Royale de Médecine de Belgique (2001), 156(1-2), 99-104105-6

Using a model of experimental leukemia in mice, we have demonstrated that tumor development depends upon interactions between preleukemic cells and their microenvironment whose functions are altered ... [more ▼]

Using a model of experimental leukemia in mice, we have demonstrated that tumor development depends upon interactions between preleukemic cells and their microenvironment whose functions are altered. Cytokine injections inhibit tumor development by inducing a functional restoration of this environment. Human myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are marrow pathologies considered as preleukemic stages. As in murine leukemias, it is possible that marrow environment could play a key role in their evolution. We currently establish a model of human hematopoiesis in NOD/SCID mice grafted with human bone fragments. We hope that this model would allow to analyse the role of the marrow stromal cells in MDS and to establish treatments restoring their functions. [less ▲]

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See detailBacterial Intestinal Flora Associated with Enterotoxaemia in Belgian Blue Calves
Manteca, Christophe; Daube, Georges ULg; Pirson, Vincianne et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2001), 81(1), 21-32

The enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves is characterised by a high case fatality rate, sudden death, lesions of haemorrhagic enteritis of the small intestine and, quite often an absence of ... [more ▼]

The enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves is characterised by a high case fatality rate, sudden death, lesions of haemorrhagic enteritis of the small intestine and, quite often an absence of other clinical signs but its cause has not been yet identified. As a first step in this identification, the aerobic and anaerobic intestinal flora of a population of 78 calves, originating from farms located in southern Belgium and that died in circumstances defined as "calf enterotoxaemia" (study population) and of 64 calves that died in other circumstances (control population) were studied qualitatively and quantitatively. The colonies were identified after subcultures with appropriate API sugar sets. Anaerobically Clostridium perfringens was isolated in higher numbers (mean values of 10(7)-10(7.5) colony forming units (CFU) versus 10(4)-10(5) CFU per ml of intestinal content) and from more animals (79 versus 19%) in the study population than in the control population, although individual results from both populations could overlap. Other clostridial species, i.e. mainly urease-negative C. sordellii and C. bifermentans, were isolated in high numbers (>10(6) CFU per ml of intestinal content) from a few animals in the study population only. All but one of the 705 C. perfringens isolates from both populations belonged to the A toxin type and none of the urease-negative C. sordellii was toxigenic. Gram-negative anaerobes were not isolated in high numbers from any of the samples. Aerobically beta-haemolytic E. coli were significantly more frequent among the study population, but were isolated from only 25% of the animals. Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from only two animals in the study population. Less than 1% of the E. coli isolated were verotoxigenic and one-third were necrotoxigenic. At this stage only non-enterotoxigenic type A C. perfringens are thus statistically associated with the enterotoxaemia syndrome in Belgian Blue calves and fulfil the first of the Koch's postulates. [less ▲]

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See detailFurther investigation of the supervisory attentional system in schizophrenia: Planning, inhibition, and rule abstraction
Marczewski, P.; Van der Linden, Martial ULg; Laroi, Frank ULg

in Cognitive Neuropsychiatry (2001), 6(3), 175-192

Investigated supervisory attentional system (SAS) functions in schizophrenic patients. 15 schizophrenic outpatients (mean age 29.93 yrs) and 15 normal controls matched for age, gender, and educational ... [more ▼]

Investigated supervisory attentional system (SAS) functions in schizophrenic patients. 15 schizophrenic outpatients (mean age 29.93 yrs) and 15 normal controls matched for age, gender, and educational level were compared. Three tasks (Tower of London, Hayling, and Brixton tests) were used to examine 3 executive processes (planning, inhibition, and rule detection). Schizophrenic patients performed significantly worse than normal controls on all 3 tasks. In addition, patients' performances on selected measures of the three tests were correlated, even when age and medication were partialled out. It is concluded that patients are impaired on all SAS functions. The possible role of a general impairment (processing speed or cognitive resources) is discussed [less ▲]

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See detailPlace de la tomographie d'émission de positons dans le suivi thérapeutique du cancer du sein
Jerusalem, Guy ULg; Belhocine, Tarik; Silvestre, Rose-Marie et al

in Médecine Nucléaire : Imagerie Fonctionnelle et Métabolique (2001), 25(6), 341-346

La tomographie à émission de positons (TEP) au 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) fait l'objet d'un nombre croissant d'applications cliniques en oncologie surtout dans le bilan d'extension et le bilan de fin de ... [more ▼]

La tomographie à émission de positons (TEP) au 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) fait l'objet d'un nombre croissant d'applications cliniques en oncologie surtout dans le bilan d'extension et le bilan de fin de traitement. Un domaine très prometteur mais peu étudié est l'utilisation de la TEP dans l'évaluation thérapeutique précoce. Nous passons en revue les données de la littérature concernant la place de la TEP dans l'évaluation précoce de la réponse thérapeutique chez des patientes atteintes de cancer du sein. La TEP permet d'identifier précocement les patientes qui ont une grande probabilité de présenter une réponse tumorale facorable à une chimiothérapie néoadjuvante (chimiothérapie première). Cependant, non propres travaux chez des patientes atteintes de cancer du sein métastatique sont moins prometteurs. La poursuite des travaux de recherche est indispensable pour mieux connaître le bénéfice réel et les limites d'une évaluation thérapeutique précoce. [less ▲]

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See detailPotential impact of the main benthic amphipods on the eastern Weddell Sea shelf ecosystem (Antarctica)
Dauby, Patrick ULg; Scailteur, Yves; Chapelle, Gauthier et al

in Polar Biology (2001), 24

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See detailPrognostic value of decremental responses to repetitive nerve stimulation in ALS patients.
Wang, François-Charles ULg; De Pasqua, Victor ULg; Gerard, Pascale ULg et al

in Neurology (2001), 57(5), 897-9

Decrement of the thenar compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), after repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) of the median nerve at 3 Hz, was evaluated in patients with ALS before riluzole therapy. CMAP ... [more ▼]

Decrement of the thenar compound muscle action potentials (CMAP), after repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) of the median nerve at 3 Hz, was evaluated in patients with ALS before riluzole therapy. CMAP size as well as motor unit number and size estimates were evaluated twice before and after 1 year of riluzole therapy. The correlation between decrement and CMAP size reduction per year was highly significant (r = 0.77), but no relationship could be demonstrated between decrement and other variables. The authors thus propose that decrement after RNS may be used as a predictor of further drop in CMAP size. [less ▲]

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See detailVaricella-Zoster virus gene expression in latently infected rat dorsal root ganglia.
Kennedy, P. G.; Grinfeld, E.; Bontems, Sébastien ULg et al

in Virology (2001), 289(2), 218-23

Latent infection of human ganglia with Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is characterized by a highly restricted pattern of viral gene expression. To enhance understanding of this process we used in situ ... [more ▼]

Latent infection of human ganglia with Varicella-Zoster virus (VZV) is characterized by a highly restricted pattern of viral gene expression. To enhance understanding of this process we used in situ hybridization (ISH) in a rat model of VZV latency to examine expression of RNA corresponding to eight different VZV genes in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) at various times after footpad inoculation with wild-type VZV. PCR in situ amplification was also used to determine the cell specificity of latent VZV DNA. It was found that the pattern of viral gene expression at 1 week after infection was different from that observed at the later times of 1 and 18 months after infection. Whereas multiple genes were expressed at 1 week after infection, gene expression was restricted at the later time points when latency had been established. At the later time points after infection the RNA transcripts expressed most frequently were those for VZV genes 21, 62, and 63. Gene 63 was expressed more than any other gene studied. While VZV DNA was detected almost exclusively in 5-10% of neurons, VZV RNA was detected in both neurons and nonneuronal cells at an approximate ratio of 3:1. A newly described monoclonal antibody to VZV gene 63-encoded protein was used to detect this protein in neuronal nuclei and cytoplasm in almost half of the DRG studied. These results demonstrate that (1) this rat model of latency has close similarities in terms of viral gene expression to human VZV latency which makes it a useful tool for studying this process and its experimental modulation and (2) expression of VZV gene 63 appears to be the single most consistent feature of VZV latency. [less ▲]

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See detailThe prevalence of mycotoxins in Kashin-Beck disease
Haubruge, Eric ULg; Chasseur, Camille; Debouck, Catherine et al

in International Orthopaedics (2001), 25

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See detailRecent Progress in Livestock Genomics and Potential Impact on Breeding Programs
Georges, Michel ULg

in Theriogenology (2001), 55(1), 15-21

Most of the major livestock breeding organizations in the world are actively involved in using the emerging tools for genome analysis to obtain a better understanding of the molecular architecture of ... [more ▼]

Most of the major livestock breeding organizations in the world are actively involved in using the emerging tools for genome analysis to obtain a better understanding of the molecular architecture of their favourite production traits. This is bound to generate a considerable amount of novel biological information that will provide a competitive advantage to those that have access to it. At present, the preferred avenue to exploit this information is via marker-assisted selection (MAS), and several breeding organisations are starting to implement MAS in breeding programs. However, it seems unlikely that the exploitation of genomics information will be limited to MAS in the future. Even though it is difficult to anticipate the ultimate impact of genomics on animal production, it would be very surprising if it were not to revolutionize this industry as it is already revolutionizing the biomedical and plant breeding industries. [less ▲]

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See detailThe occurrence of the ilio-lumbar syndrome in a spinal cord injury patient
Chantraine, A.; Bosson, L.; Malaise, Michel ULg et al

in Spinal Cord : The Official Journal of the International Medical Society of Paraplegia (2001), 39(4), 237-239

STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a 71-year-old man having sustained a spinal cord injury (SCI) for 26 years. He started to suffer from low back pain 21 years after his onset and this was diagnosed as ilio ... [more ▼]

STUDY DESIGN: Case report of a 71-year-old man having sustained a spinal cord injury (SCI) for 26 years. He started to suffer from low back pain 21 years after his onset and this was diagnosed as ilio-lumbar syndrome (ILS). OBJECTIVES: To describe the problem of low back pain occurring after a change of wheelchair in a SCI, and to indicate the importance of the ilio-lumbar syndrome as a possible cause of low back complaint. OUTCOME: Clinical findings supported by echotomography confirmed the diagnosis of ILS in our case. CONCLUSION: ILS should be considered when some changes and deterioration of the status of SCI occur due to low back complaint. [less ▲]

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See detailTransfer of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to a hyperosmotic environment is associated with sustained expression of prolactin receptor in intestine, gill and kidney
Sandra, O.; Le Rouzic, P.; Rentier-Delrue, Françoise ULg et al

in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2001)

Expression of tilapia prolactin receptor (tiPRL-R) has been characterised in the intestine, gill and kidney of tilapia species Oreochromis niloticus and the levels of both tiPRL-R transcripts and tiPRL ... [more ▼]

Expression of tilapia prolactin receptor (tiPRL-R) has been characterised in the intestine, gill and kidney of tilapia species Oreochromis niloticus and the levels of both tiPRL-R transcripts and tiPRL binding sites have been analysed in these organs during adaptation tilapia to a hyperosmotic environment. [less ▲]

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See detailMapping Aging Effects on Polymer Surfaces : Specific Detection of Additives by Chemical Force Microscopy
Duwez, Anne-Sophie ULg; Nysten, Bernard

in Langmuir (2001), 17

We report in this contribution the successful application of chemical force microscopy to study aging of polymer surfaces at the submicroscopic scale. Adhesion force mapping using tips modified with ... [more ▼]

We report in this contribution the successful application of chemical force microscopy to study aging of polymer surfaces at the submicroscopic scale. Adhesion force mapping using tips modified with methyland hydroxyl-terminated alkanethiols was used to probe the chemical composition of polypropylene surfaces as a function of aging time. We have measured adhesion force distributions on polypropylene melt-pressed films stabilized with antioxidants, process-stabilizing agents, and UV-light stabilizers. These adhesion force distributions were correlated with the additive distribution at the surface. We were able to evidence modifications of the local adhesion properties on the polymer surface due to material aging. These results support the conclusion that the UV-light stabilizer migrates toward the surface and forms a film that makes the surface less hydrophobic. Laterally resolved adhesion force maps show chemically heterogeneous surfaces on a sub-100 nm scale [less ▲]

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See detailQuantitative cell dispersion analysis: new test to measure tumor cell aggressiveness
Nawrocki-Raby, Béatrice; Polette, Myriam; Gilles, Christine ULg et al

in International Journal of Cancer = Journal International du Cancer (2001), 93(5), 644-52

Tumor progression requires the dispersion of epithelial cells from neoplastic clusters and cell invasion of adjacent stromal connective tissue. Aiming at demonstrating the precise relationships between ... [more ▼]

Tumor progression requires the dispersion of epithelial cells from neoplastic clusters and cell invasion of adjacent stromal connective tissue. Aiming at demonstrating the precise relationships between cell dispersion and cell invasion, related respectively to expression of E-cadherin/catenin complex and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), we developed an original in vitro model of cell dispersion analysis. Our study reports the validation of this model that allowed us to analyze and quantify the cell cohesion level by means of time-lapse videomicroscopy and computer analysis based on the observation of spatial and temporal cell distribution. Our model was able to distinguish 2 groups among different human bronchial and mammary epithelial cells previously characterized for the expression of E-cadherin/catenin complex and MMPs and their invasive capacity in the Boyden chamber assay. The first group (16HBE14o-, MCF-7, T47D) that expressed membranous E-cadherin and -catenin, and was negative for MMP-2 expression and non-invasive, displayed a highly cohesive pattern corresponding to a cluster spatial distribution. The second group (Beas2B, BZR, BZR-T33, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435, BT549 and HS578T) that was invasive and showed lack of expression of E-cadherin and a cytoplasmic redistribution of -catenin, displayed a dispersed pattern corresponding to a random spatial distribution. Downregulation of E-cadherin by a blocking antibody induced a more random distribution. Conversely, expression of E-cadherin by cDNA transfection induced a cluster distribution. Moreover, tumor cell lines that co-expressed MT1-MMP and MMP-2 (Beas2B, BZR, BZR-T33, MDA-MB-435, BT549 and HS578T) showed a more dispersed pattern than tumor cell lines that did not express MMP-2 (MDA-MB-231). In conclusion, we demonstrated that the spatial group behavior of cell lines, i.e., their cohesion/dispersion ability, reflects their invasive properties. Thus, this model of cell dispersion analysis may represent a new test to measure tumor cell aggressiveness. [less ▲]

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See detailNotes sur la présence d'Indra dans le panthéon ârya
Swennen, Philippe ULg

in Studi Epigrafici e Linguistici sul Vicino Oriente Antico (2001), 18

The indo-iranian use of the compound adjective skt. haryaçva op. zariasba suggests that the god Indra was already known in the common ârya pantheon.

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See detailUnraveling Oligodendrocyte Origin and Function by Cell-Specific Transgenesis
Belachew, Shibeshih ULg; Yuan, Xiaoqing; Gallo, Vittorio

in Developmental Neuroscience (2001), 23(4-5), 287-98

Besides the role of mature oligodendrocytes in myelin synthesis during the development of the central nervous system (CNS), the oligodendrocyte lineage also encompasses the largest pool of postnatal ... [more ▼]

Besides the role of mature oligodendrocytes in myelin synthesis during the development of the central nervous system (CNS), the oligodendrocyte lineage also encompasses the largest pool of postnatal proliferating progenitors whose behavior in vivo remains broadly elusive in health and disease. We describe here transgenic models that allow us to track the functions and origins of such cells by using proteolipid protein and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP) gene promoters to direct oligodendroglial expression of different reporters, in particular the green fluorescent protein (GFP). We emphasize that the CNP-GFP mouse, which targets the entire oligodendroglial lineage from embryonic life to adulthood, provides an outstanding tool to study the in vivo properties of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in normal and damaged CNS. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 36 (3 ULg)