References of "Article"
     in
Bookmark and Share    
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDo single, double or triple fungicide sprays differentially affect the grain quality in winter wheat?
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; kOUADIO, Louis; Junk et al

in Field Crops Research (2015), 183(257-266),

Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple ... [more ▼]

Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple treatments] on four different grain quality parameters [thousand grain weight (TGW), test weight (TW), grain protein content (GPC), and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV)] during the 2006–2009 period at two sites in Luxembourg. The fungicides used were generally a mix of chlorothalonil and triazoles. At Burmerange, (cultivar Cubus), the values of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV ranged from 38 to 62 g, 67 to 83 kg hl−1, 12.0% to 14.7% dry matter (DM), and 27 to 54 ml, respectively. Whereas, at Everlange (cultivar Achat), the ranges of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV were 42 to 65 g, 65 to 81 kg hl−1, 11.0% to 15.0% DM, and 21 to 66 ml, respectively. In more than 75% cases, the results indicate that fungicides did not significantly affect TW or ZSV at either sites (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant and positive fungicide effect on GPC in 2006 and 2009 at Burmerange, and only in 2006 at Everlange (P < 0.05). On the contrary, TGW was significantly affected at Burmerange in all years, except 2008 when a positive increase was observed compared to control plots; and in 2006 and 2007 at Everlange. Interestingly, when there was an effect of fungicides on a quality parameter, there was no difference among different fungicide treatments. Thus under conditions prevailing in Luxembourg, a single fungicide treatment applied with judicious timing generally resulted in statistically similar grain quality parameters when compared with a double or triple fungicide treatment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe pouvoir des sentiments : Kluge, Adorno, Ferenczi
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Cahiers d'Etudes Germaniques (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA Parallel Processing Approach to Dynamic Simulations of Combined Transmission and Distribution Systems
Aristidou, Petros ULg; Van Cutsem, Thierry ULg

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2015), 72

Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is ... [more ▼]

Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is proposed to provide accurate, detailed dynamic simulations of such systems. The simulation procedure is accelerated with the use of parallel programming techniques, taking advantage of the parallelization opportunities inherent to domain decomposition algorithms. The proposed algorithm is general, portable and scalable on inexpensive, shared-memory, multi-core machines. A large-scale test system is used for its performance evaluation. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (13 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe harmonic balance method for bifurcation analysis of large-scale nonlinear mechanical systems
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Renson, Ludovic ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2015), 296

The harmonic balance (HB) method is widely used in the literature for analyzing the periodic solutions of nonlinear mechanical systems. The objective of this paper is to exploit the method for bifurcation ... [more ▼]

The harmonic balance (HB) method is widely used in the literature for analyzing the periodic solutions of nonlinear mechanical systems. The objective of this paper is to exploit the method for bifurcation analysis, i.e., for the detection and tracking of bifurcations of nonlinear systems. To this end, an algorithm that combines the computation of the Floquet exponents with bordering techniques is developed. A new procedure for the tracking of Neimark–Sacker bifurcations that exploits the properties of eigenvalue derivatives is also proposed. The HB method is demonstrated using numerical experiments of a spacecraft structure that possesses a nonlinear vibration isolation device. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 13 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDerivation and Application of Sensitivities to Assess Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor Swings
Weckesser, Tilman; Johannsson, Hjortur; Ostergaard, Jacob et al

in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2015), 72

The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from ... [more ▼]

The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from the algebraic network equations. These provide information on the impact of a generator on the voltage magnitude at a load bus and the e ffect of load variation on the generator's power injection. It is shown that these sensitivities give valuable information to identify critical generator-load pairs and locations for applying preventive control measures. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTentative insight into the multiplicity of the persistent dust maker WR 106 from X-ray observations
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in New Astronomy (2015), 41

This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust ... [more ▼]

This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust makers (WCd stars). The issue of the multiplicity of these dust makers is pivotal to understand the dust formation process, and in this context X-ray observations may allow to reveal an X-ray emission attributable to colliding-winds in a binary system. The main result of this analysis is the lack of detection of X-rays coming from WR 106. Upper limits on the X-ray flux are estimated, but the derived numbers are not sufficient to provide compelling constraints on the existence or not of a colliding-wind region. Detailed inspection of archive data bases reveals that persistent dust makers have been poorly investigated by the most sensitive X-ray observatories. Certainly, the combination of several approaches to indirectly constrain their multiplicity should be applied to lift a part of the veil on the nature of these persistent dust makers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAvant-propos
Cormann, Grégory ULg; Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Letawe, Céline ULg

in Cahiers d'Etudes Germaniques (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAnalytical model for composite joints under sagging moment
Bennacer, M.A.; Berouai, A; Kriker, A et al

in Engineering Structures (2015), 101

Nowadays, modern codes and standards such as the (Eurocode 4, 2004) deal with the characterisation of steel–concrete composite joints in building structures, mainly under hogging bending moments in the ... [more ▼]

Nowadays, modern codes and standards such as the (Eurocode 4, 2004) deal with the characterisation of steel–concrete composite joints in building structures, mainly under hogging bending moments in the beam. However, in sway composite frames or when the composite structure is subjected to an accidental/exceptional event such as earthquake or column loss, the beam-to-column joint may be subjected to sagging bending moment, a loading situation which is not yet covered by the codes. This paper deals with the behaviour of composite beam-to-column external joints under sagging bending moments, mainly focusing on the specific joint component “concrete slab in compression”. Indeed, if reference is made to Eurocodes, the method recommended to characterise structural joints is the component method and the “concrete slab in compression” component has been identified as the missing component to be able to apply this method to composite joints subjected to sagging bending moment. In this article, the finite element method is used to model the slab using VecTor 2 software. Through the performed numerical simulations, the behaviour of the slab is studied in detail and an analytical model is proposed. With the proposed model, it is possible to characterise the concrete slab in compression component and so, to apply the component method to predict the mechanical properties of composite joints subjected to sagging bending moment. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA performance indicator for structures under natural fire
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Franssen, Jean-Marc ULg

in Engineering Structures (2015), 100

Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire ... [more ▼]

Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire engineering. Indeed the actual requirement of non-occurrence of structural failure at peak temperature does not guarantee against a delayed failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire, which puts at risk the fire brigades and people proceeding to a building inspection after a fire. Therefore there is an urgent need to better comprehend and characterize the materials and structures behavior under decreasing temperatures. Sensitivity to delayed failure of a structural component depends on its typology and constituting materials. In particular, two structural components with the same Fire Resistance rating (R) under standardized fire may exhibit very distinct behavior under natural fire, one of them being more prone to delayed failure than the other. With the aim of quantifying this effect, a new indicator is proposed that characterizes the performance of structures under natural fire conditions. The paper presents the methodology to derive this new indicator as well as results for different typologies of structural components. Parametric analyses highlight the prime influence of constitutive material and thermal inertia of the element on the post-peak behavior. Used in conjunction with the Fire Resistance rating, it is shown how the new indicator carries additional and significant information for classifying structural systems in terms of their fire performance and propensity to delayed failure. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (12 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPhotorefractive holographic camera for monitoring deformations of MEMS
Georges, Marc ULg; Thizy, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS (2015), 14(4), 041301

We present the development of a holographic interferometer based on dynamic hologram recording with photorefractive crystals of the sillenite family and which is adapted for the observation of MEMS. A ... [more ▼]

We present the development of a holographic interferometer based on dynamic hologram recording with photorefractive crystals of the sillenite family and which is adapted for the observation of MEMS. A compact portable system was already presented in the past and used in various metrology and nondestructive applications on large scattering objects. It was emphasized the great versatility of the instrument which allows high resolution measurements. Here we show the development and achievement of an optical module which can be easily interfaced on the basic instrument, allowing small specular objects observation. Results of deformation of electrically actuated MEMS are shown. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn Ant Colony System for Responsive Dynamic Vehicle Routing
Schyns, Michael ULg

in European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 245(3), 704-718

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets ... [more ▼]

We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets (DVRPTWSD). Besides the traditional distance criterion, we address the important case of responsiveness. Responsiveness is defined here as completing a delivery as soon as possible, within the time window, such that the client or the truck may restart its activities. This is crucial for many production or service activities in different fields: express parcel deliveries, taxi services, Just in Time production, express repair services, medical care, petrol station replenishment, etc. We develop an interactive web-based solution to allow dispatchers to take new information into account in real-time. The algorithm and its parametrization were tested on real and artificial instances. We first illustrate our approach with a problem submitted by Liege Airport, the 8th biggest cargo airport in Europe. The goal is to develop a decision system to optimize the journey of the refueling trucks. We then consider some classical VRP benchmarks with extensions for more complex problems. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 102 (24 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOrganocatalytic promoted coupling of carbon dioxide with epoxides: a rational investigation of the cocatalytic activity of various hydrogen bond donors
Alves, Margot ULg; Grignard, Bruno ULg; Gennen, Sandro ULg et al

in Catalysis Science & Technology (2015), 5(9), 4636-4643

A catalytic platform based on an onium salt used in combination with organic cocatalysts of various structures was developed for the efficient CO2/epoxide coupling under mild conditions. Through detailed ... [more ▼]

A catalytic platform based on an onium salt used in combination with organic cocatalysts of various structures was developed for the efficient CO2/epoxide coupling under mild conditions. Through detailed kinetic studies by in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, a rational investigation of the efficiency of a series of commercially available hydrogen bond donors co-catalysts was realized and the influence of different parameters such as the pressure, the temperature, the catalyst loading, and the nature of the epoxide on the reaction kinetics was evaluated. Fluorinated alcohols were found to be more efficient than other hydrogen bond donor activators proposed previously in the literature under similar conditions. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 40 (17 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe changing UV and X-ray properties of the Of?p star CPD -28°2561
Nazé, Yaël ULg; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Fullerton, Alex W. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 452

The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55 per cent with rotational ... [more ▼]

The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55 per cent with rotational phase. These changes occur in phase with optical variations, as expected for magnetically confined winds; there are two maxima and two minima in X-rays during the 73 d rotational period of CPD -28°2561. However, contrary to previously studied cases, no significant hardness variation is detected between minima and maxima, with the exception of the second minimum which is slightly distinct from the first one. In the UV domain, broad-band fluxes remain stable while line profiles display large variations. Stronger absorptions at low velocities are observed when the magnetic equator is seen edge-on, which can be reproduced by a detailed 3D model. However, a difference in absorption at high velocities in the C IV and N V lines is also detected for the two phases where the confined wind is seen nearly pole-on. This suggests the presence of strong asymmetries about the magnetic equator, mostly in the free-flowing wind (rather than in the confined dynamical magnetosphere). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA stochastic computational multiscale approach; Application to MEMS resonators
Lucas, Vincent ULg; Golinval, Jean-Claude ULg; Paquay, Stéphane et al

in Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2015), 294

The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro ... [more ▼]

The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro-structure using a random Voronoi tessellation, each grain being assigned a random orientation. Then, we apply a computational homogenization procedure on statistical volume elements to obtain a stochastic characterization of the elasticity tensor at the meso-scale. A random field of the meso-scale elasticity tensor can then be generated based on the information obtained from the SVE simulations. Finally, using a stochastic finite element method, these meso-scale uncertainties are propagated to the coarser scale. As an illustration we study the resonance frequencies of MEMS micro-beams made of poly-silicon materials, and we show that the stochastic multiscale approach predicts results in agreement with a Monte Carlo analysis applied directly on the fine finite-element model, i.e. with an explicit discretization of the grains. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 68 (45 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailIdentification of cardiac repercussions after intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise in young sedentary people
LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Couffignal, Vincent et al

in Clinical physiology and functional imaging (2015), 35(5), 368-375

INTRODUCTION: Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among ... [more ▼]

INTRODUCTION: Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among those who are unaware of their heart condition. The development of cardiospecific biochemical markers has led to a reconsideration of the role of biology in the diagnosis of cardiovascular illnesses. The aim of this study therefore was, through the use of cardiac biomarker assays, to highlight the impact of sustained physical effort in the form of intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise and to research potential cardiovascular risks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen subjects participated in a maximal concentric isokinetic exercise involving 30 knee flexion-extensions for each leg. Five blood tests were taken to study the kinetics of the cardiac biomarkers. Haemodynamic parameters were measured continuously using a Portapres, and respiratory parameters were measured using a Sensormedics Vmax 29C. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in the creatine kinase, myoglobin, homocysteine and haemoglobin cardiac markers. Evolutionary trends were also observed for the following biomarkers: NT-proBNP, myeloperoxydase and C-reactive protein. All the physiological parameters measured presented statistically significant changes. CONCLUSION: Isokinetic effort leads to the release of cardiac markers in the blood, but these do not exceed the reference values in healthy subjects. Maximal concentric isokinetic exercise does not, therefore, lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 91 (41 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn enhanced version of a bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory.
Mengoni, Marlène ULg; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe ULg

in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2015), 18(12), 1367-1376

The purpose of this work is to propose an enhancement of Doblaré and García's internal bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory. In their paper, they stated that the evolution ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this work is to propose an enhancement of Doblaré and García's internal bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory. In their paper, they stated that the evolution of the internal variables of the bone microstructure, and its incidence on the modification of the elastic constitutive parameters, may be formulated following the principles of Continuum Damage Mechanics, although no actual damage was considered. The resorption and apposition criteria (similar to the damage criterion) were expressed in terms of a mechanical stimulus. However, the resorption criterion is lacking a dimensional consistency with the remodelling rate. We here propose an enhancement to this resorption criterion, insuring the dimensional consistency while retaining the physical properties of the original remodelling model. We then analyse the change in the resorption criterion hypersurface in the stress space for a 2D analysis. We finally apply the new formulation to analyse the structural evolution of a 2D femur. This analysis gives results consistent with the original model but with a faster and more stable convergence rate. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 70 (24 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCoupled modeling of Excavation Damaged Zone in Boom clay: Strain localization in rock and distribution of contact pressure on the gallery’s lining
Salehnia, Fatemeh ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Li, Xiang Ling et al

in Computers and Geotechnics (2015), 69

Around galleries excavated at depth in geological media, the creation of a damaged zone with significant irreversible deformation is generally unavoidable. In the case of a geological disposal system for ... [more ▼]

Around galleries excavated at depth in geological media, the creation of a damaged zone with significant irreversible deformation is generally unavoidable. In the case of a geological disposal system for high-level radioactive waste, the resulting change in the host rock properties in this damaged zone may potentially be important with respect to the long-term evolution and the performance of that system. In this context, predicting the extent of the so-called Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and, possibly, the fractures' network topology remains a challenge. This study is aimed to simulate numerically the extension of this zone at the large scale's excavation, around the Connecting gallery (HADES URL, Mol, Belgium), in Boom clay host rock through analyzing the evolution of strain localization in shear bands mode. To realistically model the involved phenomena, the concrete lining is considered on the gallery wall highlighting its impacts on the evolution of convergence and EDZ around the gallery. The focus of the current paper is made on analyzing the coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of Boom clay host rock during and after the gallery excavation with respect to the evolution of localized shear bands around the gallery. This study is accompanied by the analysis of the contact mechanism on the interface between the clay massive and the lining. The obtained results reveal some interesting features regarding the contact phenomenon relatively to the evolution pattern of shear bands within the clay around the gallery. To assess the reliability of the proposed approach, a discussion on some in-situ observations during the gallery's construction is also performed based on which a good agreement is found between the in-situ evidence and simulated results. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (9 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDermatophytosis, Trends in Epidemiolgy and Diagnostic Approach
HAYETTE, Marie-Pierre ULg; SACHELI, Rosalie ULg

in Current Fungal Infections report (2015), 9(3), 164-179

Dermatophytes are among the common fungal agents implicated in superficial skin infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide but the ... [more ▼]

Dermatophytes are among the common fungal agents implicated in superficial skin infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide but the prevalence of several species of dermatophytes varies through different areas around the world. This review summarizes the current status of dermatophytes infection in Europe, Africa, Asia and America and gives an overview of the molecular biology laboratory methods currently available for the diagnosis of dermatomycoses. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPlasma riche en plaquettes pour le traitements de lésions tendineuses
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Drion, Pierre ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Journal de Réadaptation Médicale (2015), 35(3), 181-191

Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to ... [more ▼]

Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 30 September 2014 dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, 5 addressed lateral epicondylitis, 2 addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, 10 dealt with patellar tendinopathies and 3 looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon's healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRetrieval of ammonia from ground-based FTIR solar spectra
Dammers, Enrico; Vigouroux, C; Palm, M et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15

We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E ... [more ▼]

We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E), Reunion (20.9° S, 55.50° E) and Jungfraujoch (46.55° N, 7.98° E) were used to illustrate the capabilities of the method. NH3 mean total columns ranging three orders of magnitude were obtained with higher values at Bremen (mean of 13.47 × 1015 molecules cm-2) to the lower values at Jungfraujoch (mean of 0.18 × 1015 molecules cm-2). In conditions with high surface concentrations of ammonia, as in Bremen, it is possible to retrieve information on the vertical gradient as two layers can be discriminated. The retrieval there is most sensitive to ammonia in the planetary boundary layer, where the trace gas concentration is highest. For conditions with low concentrations only the total column can be retrieved. Combining the systematic and random errors we have a mean total error of 26 % for all spectra measured at Bremen (Number of spectra (N) = 554), 30 % for all spectra from Lauder (N =2412), 25 % for spectra from Reunion (N =1262) and 34 % for spectra measured at Jungfraujoch (N =2702). The error is dominated by the systematic uncertainties in the spectroscopy parameters. Station specific seasonal cycles were found to be consistent with known seasonal cycles of the dominant ammonia sources in the station surroundings. The developed retrieval methodology from FTIR-instruments provides a new way to obtain highly time-resolved measurements of ammonia burdens. FTIR-NH3 observations will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation. It will also provide additional information to constrain the global ammonia budget. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOccupational stress among textile workers in the Democratic Republic of Congo
Panda Lukongo, Kitronza ULg; Mairiaux, Philippe ULg

in tropical medicine and health (2015), In Press(In Press),

Abstract. Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), scientific studies on occupational health are scarce. The present study aims at estimating the level of occupational stress, as well as ... [more ▼]

Abstract. Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), scientific studies on occupational health are scarce. The present study aims at estimating the level of occupational stress, as well as associated factors, in a textile company. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey among textile workers in DRC. Data (N= 192 subjects) were collected through a self-questionnaire validated for the assessment of stress (Karasek and Siegrist’s scale); supplemented by a medical examination. Frequencies and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for descriptive analyses. Adjusted ORs were calculated through a logistic regression model to investigate associations between socio-demographic and organisational variable and stress. Results: Our study highlighted a high level of stress among individuals: 28% of them were suffering from stress, according to Karasek, and 22%, when applying Siegrist’s model. A 14%-isostrain was calculated when considering all workers. A statistically significant association was observed between stress and age, seniority and perceived no-adaptation to work, considering both approaches. Furthermore, when job strain was determined according to Karasek, it was related to the status of worker, the poor perception of organisation and alcohol consumption, while stress estimated by applying Siegrist’s model showed an association with education level and the occurrence of cardiac symptoms. Conclusion: The present study gives evidence of stress among individuals through both models. Several socio-professional factors are associated with stress, which determines populations at risk. The study revealed that both stress models offer complementary information, thus increasing the probability to model workers’ health more exactly and to make recommendations on prevention and management. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSeeing Central African forests through their largest trees
Bastin, Jean-François ULg; Barbier, Nicolas; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime et al

in Scientific Reports (2015)

Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which ... [more ▼]

Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which are essential to understand, predict and monitor forest functions and composition over large, often poorly accessible territories. Here we show that the above-ground biomass (AGB) of the whole forest can be predicted from a few large trees and that the relationship is proved strikingly stable in 175 1-ha plots investigated across 8 sites spanning Central Africa. We designed a generic model predicting AGB with an error of 14% when based on only 5% of the stems, which points to universality in forest structural properties. For the first time in Africa, we identified some dominant species that disproportionally contribute to forest AGB with 1.5% of recorded species accounting for over 50% of the stock of AGB. Consequently, focusing on large trees and dominant species provides precise information on the whole forest stand. This offers new perspectives for understanding the functioning of tropical forests and opens new doors for the development of innovative monitoring strategies. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 32 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDesign of hybrid nanovehicles for remotely triggered drug release: an overview
Liu, Ji; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg; Mornet, Stéphane et al

in Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2015), 3(30), 6117-6147

n the past few decades, various nanovehicles have been developed as drug delivery systems, in which inorganic and organic components are integrated within a nano-object. Upon the application of remote ... [more ▼]

n the past few decades, various nanovehicles have been developed as drug delivery systems, in which inorganic and organic components are integrated within a nano-object. Upon the application of remote stimuli, e.g. alternating magnetic field, near infrared or ultrasound radiations, the release of guest molecules can be triggered in a quite controlled manner. Herein, we review different hybrid nanostructures which have already been reported for the remotely triggered release, such as those based on (1) host–guest conjugates, (2) core–corona nanoparticles, (3) polymer nanogels, (4) polymer micelles, (5) liposomes, (6) mesoporous silica particles and (7) hollow nanoparticles. Moreover, we also summarize six underlying mechanisms that govern such a kind of remotely triggered release behaviours: (1) enhanced diffusion and/or permeation, (2) thermo- or photo-labile bond cleavage, (3) fusion of phase-changed materials, (4) photo-induced isomerisation, (5) thermo-induced swelling/de-swelling of thermo-responsive polymers, and (6) destruction of the nanostructures. The ways in which different components are incorporated into an integrated hybrid nanostructure and how they contribute to the remotely triggered release behaviours are detailed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInterlaboratory study to evaluate the robustness of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for peptide mapping
Wenz, Christian; Barbas, Coral; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Angeles et al

in Journal of Separation Science (2015)

A collaborative study on the robustness and portability of a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry method for peptide mapping was performed by an international team, consisting of 13 independent ... [more ▼]

A collaborative study on the robustness and portability of a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry method for peptide mapping was performed by an international team, consisting of 13 independent laboratories from academia and industry. All participants used the same batch of samples, reagents and coated capillaries to run their assays, whereas they utilized the capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry equipment available in their laboratories. The equipment used varied in model, type and instrument manufacturer. Furthermore, different types of sheath-flow capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry interfaces were used. Migration time, peak height and peak area of ten representative target peptides of trypsin-digested bovine serum albumin were determined by every laboratory on two consecutive days. The data were critically evaluated to identify outliers and final values for means, repeatability (precision within a laboratory) and reproducibility (precision between laboratories) were established. For relative migration time the repeatability was between 0.05 and 0.18% RSD and the reproducibility between 0.14 and 1.3% RSD. For relative peak area repeatability and reproducibility values obtained were 3–12 and 9–29% RSD, respectively. These results demonstrate that capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is robust enough to allow a method transfer across multiple laboratories and should promote a more widespread use of peptide mapping and other capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry applications in biopharmaceutical analysis and related fields. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAll Poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymers by sequential controlled radical copolymerization of vinylimidazolium monomers
Cordella, Daniela ULg; Kermagoret, Anthony; Debuigne, Antoine ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2015), 48(15), 5230-5243

The organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers, featuring the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide counteranion (Tf2N–), in the presence of Co(acac)2 as ... [more ▼]

The organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers, featuring the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide counteranion (Tf2N–), in the presence of Co(acac)2 as controlling agent, is reported. Polymerizations of monomers with methyl, ethyl, and butyl substituents are fast, reaching high monomer conversion in ethyl acetate as solvent at 30 °C, and afford structurally well-defined hydrophobic poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) of N-vinyl type. Block copolymer synthesis is also achieved by sequential OMRP of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium salts carrying different alkyl chains and different counteranions (Tf2N– or Br–). These block copolymerizations are carried out at 30 °C, either under homogeneous solution in methanol or in a biphasic medium consisting of a mixture of ethyl acetate and water. Unprecedented PIL-b-PIL block copolymers are thus prepared under these conditions. However, anion exchange occurs at the early stage of the growth of the second block. Finally, diblock copolymers generated in the biphasic medium can be readily coupled by addition of isoprene, forming all PIL-based and symmetrical ABA-type triblock copolymers in a one-pot process. Such a direct block copolymerization method, involving vinylimidazolium monomers bearing different alkyl chains, thus opens new opportunities in the precision synthesis of all PIL-based block copolymers of tunable properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailRecent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past-temperature reconstructions
Masson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H.; Ortega, P. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2015), 9

Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from ... [more ▼]

Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterise the isotope–temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815–1825 and 1836–1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multidecadal accumulation–temperature and δ18O–temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979–2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2 % °C−1 and the δ18O–temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2 ‰ °C−1, about twice as large as previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Airline Container Loading Problem with Pickup and Delivery
Lurkin, Virginie ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg

in European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 244(3), 955-965

This paper considers the loading optimization problem for a set of containers and pallets transported into a cargo aircraft that serves multiple airports. Because of pickup and delivery operations that ... [more ▼]

This paper considers the loading optimization problem for a set of containers and pallets transported into a cargo aircraft that serves multiple airports. Because of pickup and delivery operations that occur at intermediate airports, this problem is simultaneously a Weight & Balance Problem and a Sequencing Problem. Our objective is to minimize fuel and handling operation costs. This problem is shown to be NP-hard. We resort to a mixed integer linear program. Based on real-world data from a professional partner (TNT Airways), we perform numerical experiments using a standard B&C library. This approach yields better solutions than traditional manual planning, which results in substantial cost savings. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 174 (62 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOptical study of diffraction grating/Fresnel lens combinations applied to a spectral-splitting solar concentrator for space applications
Michel, Céline ULg; Loicq, Jerôme ULg; Thibert, Tanguy ULg et al

in Applied Optics (2015), 54(22), 6666-6673

This paper presents a new design of a planar solar concentrator with spectral splitting of light for space applications. This concentrator spectrally splits the incident light into mainly two parts. Each ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a new design of a planar solar concentrator with spectral splitting of light for space applications. This concentrator spectrally splits the incident light into mainly two parts. Each part is then focused onto specific spatially separated photovoltaic cells, allowing for independent control of respective cells output power. These advantages of both spectral splitting and light focusing are here combined thanks to a specific diffraction grating superimposed on a Fresnel lens. The theoretical principle of the optical design is presented, with optimization of each element and improvement steps, including optimization of grating period evolution along the lens, and testing of two kinds of gratings (a blazed and a lamellar one). First numerical results are presented, highlighting the possibility to design a concentrator at about 10× or more for each cell, with an output power larger than that of a classical concentrator focusing on a GaAs SJ cell, and less than 10% of losses for tracking errors up to ±0.8°. Some experimental results are also presented. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHigh-resolution spectra of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)
Rousselot, P.; Decock, A.; Korsun, P. P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 580

Context. High-resolution spectra of comets permit deriving the physical properties of the coma. In the optical range, relative production rates can be computed, and information about isotopic ratios and ... [more ▼]

Context. High-resolution spectra of comets permit deriving the physical properties of the coma. In the optical range, relative production rates can be computed, and information about isotopic ratios and the origin of oxygen atoms can be obtained. <BR /> Aims: The main objective of the work presented here was to obtain information about the chemical composition of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy), a bright and long-period comet that passed perihelion (0.81 au) on 22 December 2013. <BR /> Methods: We used the HARPS-North echelle spectrograph at the 3.5 m telescope TNG to obtain high-resolution spectra of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy) in the optical range immediately after its perihelion passage during four consecutive nights in the period December 23 to 26, 2013. <BR /> Results: Our results demonstrate the ability of HARPS-North to efficiently obtain cometary spectra. Very faint emission lines, such as those of [SUP]15[/SUP]NH[SUB]2[/SUB], have been detected, leading to a rough estimate of the [SUP]14[/SUP]N/[SUP]15[/SUP]N ratio in NH[SUB]2[/SUB]. The [SUP]12[/SUP]C/[SUP]13[/SUP]C ratio was measured in the C[SUB]2[/SUB] lines and is equal to 80 ± 30. The oxygen lines were studied as well (green to red line intensity ratios and widths), confirming that H[SUB]2[/SUB]O is the main parent molecule that photodissociates to produce oxygen atoms. This suggests that this comet has a high CO[SUB]2[/SUB] abundance. Relative production rates for C[SUB]2[/SUB] and NH[SUB]2[/SUB] were computed, but we found no significant deviation from a typical NH[SUB]2[/SUB]/C[SUB]2[/SUB] ratio. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundación Galileo Galilei of the INAF (Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWhat effects do rater bias and assessment method haveon disease severity estimation with regard to hypothesis testing?
Chiang, Kuo-Szu; Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg et al

in Plant Pathology (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA force sensor based on three weakly coupled resonators with ultrahigh sensitivity
Zhao, Chun; Wood, Graham; Xie, J.B. et al

in Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical (2015), 232

A proof-of-concept force sensor based on three degree-of-freedom (DoF) weakly coupled resonatorswas fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process and electrically tested in 20 Torr vacuum.Compared ... [more ▼]

A proof-of-concept force sensor based on three degree-of-freedom (DoF) weakly coupled resonatorswas fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process and electrically tested in 20 Torr vacuum.Compared to the conventional single resonator force sensor with frequency shift as output, by measuringthe amplitude ratio of two of the three resonators, the measured force sensitivity of the 3DoF sensor was4.9 × 106/N, which was improved by two orders magnitude. A bias stiffness perturbation was applied toavoid mode aliasing effect and improve the linearity of the sensor. The noise floor of the amplitude ratiooutput of the sensor was theoretically analyzed for the first time, using the transfer function model ofthe 3DoF weakly coupled resonator system. It was shown based on measurement results that the outputnoise was mainly due to the thermal–electrical noise of the interface electronics. The output noise spectraldensity was measured, and agreed well with theoretical estimations. The noise floor of the force sensoroutput was estimated to be approximately 1.39nN for an assumed 10 Hz bandwidth of the output signal,resulting in a dynamic range of 74.8 dB. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTime series of high-resolution spectra of SN 2014J observed with the TIGRE telescope
Jack, D.; Mittag, M.; Schröder, K.-P. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 451

We present a time series of high-resolution spectra of the Type Ia supernova 2014J, which exploded in the nearby galaxy M82. The spectra were obtained with the HEROS échelle spectrograph installed at the ... [more ▼]

We present a time series of high-resolution spectra of the Type Ia supernova 2014J, which exploded in the nearby galaxy M82. The spectra were obtained with the HEROS échelle spectrograph installed at the 1.2-m TIGRE telescope. We present a series of 33 spectra with a resolution of R ≈ 20 000, which covers the important bright phases in the evolution of SN 2014J during the period from 2014 January 24 to April 1. The spectral evolution of SN 2014J is derived empirically. The expansion velocities of the Si II P-Cygni features were measured and show the expected decreasing behaviour, beginning with a high velocity of 14 000 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on January 24. The Ca II infrared triplet feature shows a high-velocity component with expansion velocities of >20 000 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] during the early evolution apart from the normal component showing similar velocities as Si II. Further broad P-Cygni profiles are exhibited by the principal lines of Ca II, Mg II and Fe II. The TIGRE SN 2014J spectra also resolve several very sharp Na I D doublet absorption components. Our analysis suggests interesting substructures in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy M82, as well as in our Milky Way, confirming other work on this SN. We were able to identify the interstellar absorption of M82 in the lines of Ca II H & K at 3933 and 3968 Å as well as K I at 7664 and 7698 Å. Furthermore, we confirm several diffuse interstellar bands, at wavelengths of 6196, 6283, 6376, 6379and 6613 Å and give their measured equivalent widths. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDisease Severity Estimates – Effects of Rater Accuracy and Assessment Methods for Comparing Treatments
Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ULg; Kouadio, Louis et al

in Plant Disease (2015), 99(1104-1112),

Assessment of disease severity is required for several purposes in plant pathology; most often the estimates are made visually. It is established that visual estimates can be inaccurate and unreliable ... [more ▼]

Assessment of disease severity is required for several purposes in plant pathology; most often the estimates are made visually. It is established that visual estimates can be inaccurate and unreliable. The ramifications of biased or imprecise estimates by raters have not been fully explored using empirical data; partly because of the logistical difficulties involved in different raters assessing the same leaves for which actual disease has been measured in a replicated experiment with multiple treatments. In this study nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB) on leaves of winter wheat from non-treated and fungicide treated plots were assessed in both 2006 and 2007 by four raters and compared to assumed true values measured using image analysis. Lin’s concordance correlation (LCC, ρc) was used to assess agreement between the two approaches. NPEs were converted to Horsfall-Barratt (HB) mid-points and again compared for agreement with true values. The estimates of SLB severity from fungicide-treated and non-treated plots were analyzed using generalized linear mixed modeling to ascertain effects of rater using both the NPE and HB values. Rater 1 showed good agreement with image analysis (ρc = 0.986 to 0.999), while raters 3 and 4 had less good agreement (ρc = 0.205 to 0.936). Conversion to the HB scale had little effect on bias or accuracy, but reduced both precision and agreement for most raters on most assessment dates (precision, r = -0.001 to -0.132; and agreement, ρc = -0.003 to -0.468). Inter-rater reliability was also reduced slightly by conversion of estimates to HB midpoint values. Estimates of mean SLB severity were significantly different between image analysis and raters 2, 3 and 4, and there were frequently significant differences among raters (F=151 to 1260, P=0.001 to <0.0001). Conversion to the HB scale changed the means separation ranking of rater estimates on 26 June 2007. Nonetheless, image analysis and all raters were able to differentiate control and treated plots treatments (F=116 to 1952, P=0.002 to <0.0001, depending on date and rater). Conversion of NPEs to the HB scale tended to reduce F-values slightly (2006: NPEs, F=116 to 276, P=0.002 to 0.0005, and for the HB converted values F=101 to 270, P=0.002 to 0.0005, and in 2007, NPEs, F=164 to 1952 P=0.001 to <0.0001, and for HB converted values F=126 to 1633 P=0.002 to <0.0001). The results demonstrated the need for accurate and reliable disease assessment to minimize over or underestimates compared to actual disease, and where multiple raters are deployed, they should be assigned in a manner to reduce any potential effect of rater differences on the analysis. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailChemical spying in coral reef fish larvae at recruitment
Roux, Natacha; Brooker, Rohan M.; Lecellier, Gaël et al

in Comptes Rendus Biologies (2015)

When fish larvae recruit back to a reef, chemical cues are often used to find suitable habitat or to find juvenile or adult conspecifics. We tested if the chemical information used by larvae was ... [more ▼]

When fish larvae recruit back to a reef, chemical cues are often used to find suitable habitat or to find juvenile or adult conspecifics. We tested if the chemical information used by larvae was intentionally produced by juvenile and adult conspecifics already on the reef (communication process) or whether the cues used result from normal biochemical processes with no active involvement by conspecifics (‘‘spying’’ behavior by larvae). Conspecific chemical cues attracted the majority of larvae (four out of the seven species tested); although while some species were equally attracted to cues from adults and juveniles (Chromis viridis, Apogon novemfasciatus), two exhibited greater sensitivity to adult cues (Pomacentrus pavo, Dascyllus aruanus). Our results indicate also that spying cues are those most commonly used by settling fishes (C. viridis, P. pavo, A. novemfasciatus). Only one species (D. aruanus) preferred the odour of conspecifics that had had visual contact with larvae (communication). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPerformance, robustness and sensitivity analysis of the nonlinear tuned vibration absorber
Detroux, Thibaut ULg; Habib, Giuseppe ULg; Masset, Luc ULg et al

in Mechanical Systems & Signal Processing (2015), 60-61

The nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) is a recently developed nonlinear absorber which generalizes Den Hartog׳s equal peak method to nonlinear systems. If the purposeful introduction of ... [more ▼]

The nonlinear tuned vibration absorber (NLTVA) is a recently developed nonlinear absorber which generalizes Den Hartog׳s equal peak method to nonlinear systems. If the purposeful introduction of nonlinearity can enhance system performance, it can also give rise to adverse dynamical phenomena, including detached resonance curves and quasiperiodic regimes of motion. Through the combination of numerical continuation of periodic solutions, bifurcation detection and tracking, and global analysis, the present study identifies boundaries in the NLTVA parameter space delimiting safe, unsafe and unacceptable operations. The sensitivity of these boundaries to uncertainty in the NLTVA parameters is also investigated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailShort-term responses of glass eels transported from UK to small Belgian streams
Ovidio, Michaël ULg; Tarrago-Bes, Frédérique; Nzau Matondo, Billy ULg

in Annales de Limnologie = International Journal of Limnology (2015), 51(3), 219-226

Restocking of inland waters with glass eels is one of the recovery options to prevent the decline of European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) populations. We studied the growth, dispersion, density and habitat ... [more ▼]

Restocking of inland waters with glass eels is one of the recovery options to prevent the decline of European eel Anguilla anguilla (L.) populations. We studied the growth, dispersion, density and habitat preferences in the imported glass eels from United-Kingdom and stocked in three typologically different small Belgian streams, using electrofishing surveys around the single release point, 1 year following stocking. Our results clearly support that the recaptured individuals stocked in our streams farther from the sea, survived, grew, dispersed upstream and downstream. Elvers exploited the complete transversal section of stream, with preference for the sheltered microhabitats near the banks with slower water velocity and low depth. Length-weight relationship was different between streams in terms of allometric coefficient (b). We assume that microhabitats and food availabilities lead to contrasted results in terms of growth and absolute occurrence. Restocking of glass eels in small middle-land streams was found to be an interesting and unconventional option that requires adequate stream and habitat selection. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailCharacterizing activity sequences using Profile Hidden Markov Models
Liu, Feng; Janssens, Davy; Cui, JianXun et al

in Expert Systems with Applications (2015), 42(13), 57055722

In literature, activity sequences, generated from activity-travel diaries, have been analyzed and classified into clusters based on the composition and ordering of the activities using Sequence Alignment ... [more ▼]

In literature, activity sequences, generated from activity-travel diaries, have been analyzed and classified into clusters based on the composition and ordering of the activities using Sequence Alignment Methods (SAM). However, using these methods, only the frequent activities in each cluster are extracted and qualitatively described; the infrequent activities and their related travel episodes are disregarded. Thus, to quantify the occurrence probabilities of all the daily activities as well as their sequential orders, we develop a novel process to build multiple alignments of the sequences and subsequently derive profile Hidden Markov Models (pHMMs). This process consists of 4 major steps. First, activity sequences are clustered based on a pre-defined scheme. The frequent activities along with their sequential orders are then identified in each cluster, and they are subsequently used as a template to guide the construction of a multiple alignment of the cluster of sequences. Finally, a pHMM is employed to convert the multiple alignment into a position-specific scoring system, representing the probability of each frequent activity at each important position of the alignment as well as the probabilities of both insertion and deletion of infrequent activities. By applying the derived pHMMs to a set of activity-travel diaries collected in Belgium as well as a group of mobile phone call location data recorded in Switzerland, the potential and effectiveness of the models in capturing the sequential features of each cluster and distinguishing them from those of other clusters, are demonstrated. The proposed method can also be utilized to improve activity-based transportation model validation and travel survey designs. Furthermore, it offers a wide application in characterizing a group of any related sequences, particularly sequences varying in length and with a high frequency of short sequences that are typically present in human behavior. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 25 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa lutte contre les moustiques (Diptera: Culicidae): diversité des approches et application du contrôle biologique
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane ULg et al

in Canadian Entomologist (2015), 147(4), 476-500

Many mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species are zoonotic vectors responsible for numerous infectious diseases of medical and veterinary importance. Currently, changes in the vectors’ geographical ... [more ▼]

Many mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) species are zoonotic vectors responsible for numerous infectious diseases of medical and veterinary importance. Currently, changes in the vectors’ geographical distribution induced chiefly by anthropogenic factors are accompanied by emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in Europe and North America. Since the advent of synthetic insecticides during the Second World War, mosquitoes are the object of considerably expanded and deepened research. In an integrated pest management context, means of control are now mainly classified as: (1) environmental management and physical control, (2) chemical control, (3) genetic control, and (4) biological control by means of entomophagous predators and entomopathogenic microorganisms. In this context, these last have significant potential because of their ability to infect and kill their host with more or less targeted selectivity. This article proposes to emphasize biological control among other techniques in mosquito control, and to assess the potential and the opportunities offered by entomopathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. Finally, their use as biopesticides is discussed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 99 (28 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPharmacists' role in handling problems with prescriptions for atithrombotic medication in Belgian community pharmacies
Desmaele; De Wulf, I; Dupont, AG et al

in International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy [=IJCP] (2015), 37(4), 656-668

Background Community pharmacists have an important task in the follow-up of patients treated with antithrombotics. When delivering these medicines, pharmacists can encounter drug–related problems (DRPs ... [more ▼]

Background Community pharmacists have an important task in the follow-up of patients treated with antithrombotics. When delivering these medicines, pharmacists can encounter drug–related problems (DRPs) with substantial clinical and economic impact. Objective To investigate the amount and type of antithrombotic related DRPs as well as how community pharmacists handled these DRPs. Setting Belgian community pharmacies. Methods MSc pharmacy students of six Belgian universities collected data about all DRPs encountered by a pharmacist during ten half days of their pharmacy internship. Data were registered about DRPs detected at delivery and in an a posteriori setting, when consulting the medical history of the patient. Classification of the DRP, cause of the DRP, intervention and result of the intervention were registered. Main outcome measure Amount and type of antotrombitocs related DRPs occurring in community pharmacies, as well as how community pharmacists handled these DRPs. Results 3.1 % of the 15,952 registered DRPs concerned antithrombotics. 79.3 % of these DRPs were detected at delivery and 20.7 % were detected a posteriori. Most antithrombotic-related DRPs concerned problems with the choice of the drug (mainly because of drug–drug interactions) or concerned logistic problems. Almost 80 % of the antithrombotic-related DRPs were followed by an intervention of the pharmacist, mainly at the patient’s level, resulting in 90.1 % of these DRPs partially or totally solved. Conclusion Different DRPs with antithrombotic medication occurred in Belgian community pharmacies. About 20 % was detected in an a posteriori setting, showing the benefit of medication review. Many of the encountered DRPs were of technical nature (60.7 %). These DRPs were time-consuming for the pharmacist to resolve and should be prevented. Most of the DRPs could be solved, demonstrating the added value of the community pharmacist as first line healthcare provider. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA study of composite laminates failure using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced damage mean-field homogenization model
Wu, Ling ULg; Sket, Federico; Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M et al

in Composite Structures (2015), 126

The failure of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates is studied using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced continuum damage model embedded in a mean-field homogenization scheme. In each ply, a homogenized ... [more ▼]

The failure of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates is studied using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced continuum damage model embedded in a mean-field homogenization scheme. In each ply, a homogenized material law is used to capture the intra-laminar failure. The anisotropy of the homogenized material model results from the homogenization method and from the reformulation of the non-local continuum damage theory to account for the material anisotropy. As a result the damage propagation direction in each ply is predicted with accuracy as compared to the experimental results, while the problems of losing uniqueness and strain localization, which occur in classical finite element simulations when strain softening of materials is involved, can be avoided. To model the delamination process, the hybrid discontinuous Galerkin/extrinsic cohesive law method is introduced at the ply interfaces. This hybrid method avoids the need to propagate topological changes in the mesh with the propagation of the delamination while it preserves the consistency and stability in the un-cracked interfaces. As a demonstration, open-hole coupons with different stacking sequences are studied numerically and experimentally. Both the intra- and inter-laminar failure patterns are shown to be well captured by the computational framework. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 92 (29 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDigestibility of solvent-treated Jatropha curcas kernel by broiler chickens in Senegal
Nesseim, Thierry Daniel Tamsir; Dieng, Abdoulaye; Mergeai, Guy ULg et al

in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2015)

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an ... [more ▼]

Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family. The kernel contains approximately 60 % lipid in dry matter, and the meal obtained after oil extraction could be an exceptional source of protein for family poultry farming, in the absence of curcin and, especially, some diterpene derivatives phorbol esters that are partially lipophilic. The nutrient digestibility of J. curcas kernel meal (JKM), obtained after partial physicochemical deoiling was thus evaluated in broiler chickens. Twenty broiler chickens, 6 weeks old, were maintained in individual metabolic cages and divided into four groups of five animals, according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design where deoiled JKM was incorporated into grinded corn at 0, 4, 8, and 12 % levels (diets 0, 4, 8, and 12 J), allowing measurement of nutrient digestibility by the differential method. The dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility of diets was affected to a low extent by JKM (85 and 86 % in 0 J and 81 % in 12 J, respectively) in such a way that DM and OM digestibility of JKM was estimated to be close to 50 %. The ether extract (EE) digestibility of JKM remained high, at about 90 %, while crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) digestibility were largely impacted by JKM, with values closed to 40 % at the highest levels of incorporation. J. curcas kernel presents various nutrient digestibilities but has adverse effects on CP and CF digestibility of the diet. The effects of an additional heat or biological treatment on JKM remain to be assessed. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 7 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe monopole de la légitimité démocratique
Debras, François ULg

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2015), 2

Loin d’être le résultat de facteurs externes, la contestation du régime démocratique semble être avant tout le résultat d’une critique inhérente au système. Différents indicateurs mesurables viennent ... [more ▼]

Loin d’être le résultat de facteurs externes, la contestation du régime démocratique semble être avant tout le résultat d’une critique inhérente au système. Différents indicateurs mesurables viennent étayer ce que certains auteurs qualifient de « syndrome de fatigue démocratique » ou encore de « corruption du régime constitutionnel pluraliste », tels que l’augmentation de l’abstentionnisme durant les périodes électorales, une volatilité et une instabilité croissante de l’électorat et une baisse des adhésions aux organisations collectives. Fait tout aussi significatif, il semblerait que les jeunes démocraties dans les pays de l’ex-Union soviétique, d’Asie ou d’Amérique latine n’échappent pas non plus à ces phénomènes. Cette situation illustre-t-elle une perte de légitimité démocratique, une crise démocratique ou ne correspond-elle pas plutôt à une volonté citoyenne de transformer nos démocraties en élargissant et en approfondissant certaines de ses dynamiques et procédures qui lui sont propres ? Pour répondre à cette question, nous proposons de nous concentrer sur trois éléments distincts, mais étroitement liés au sein de nos démocraties européennes au XXIe siècle : le lien représentant/représenté (la représentation), la reconnaissance des libertés individuelles vis-à-vis de l’organisation collective de la société (les citoyens) et l’action du pouvoir étatique (l’État). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 23 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’action du FDF dans les Régions et Communautés (1971-2014). I. Le Parlement de la Communauté française et le Parlement flamand
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), (2258-2259), 60

Depuis sa création, le FDF poursuit un triple objectif au plan institutionnel : assurer la solidarité entre Wallons et Bruxellois francophones, garantir les droits linguistiques des francophones de ... [more ▼]

Depuis sa création, le FDF poursuit un triple objectif au plan institutionnel : assurer la solidarité entre Wallons et Bruxellois francophones, garantir les droits linguistiques des francophones de Flandre (en particulier dans la périphérie) et bâtir une Région bruxelloise forte (avec si possible un territoire élargi). Pour promouvoir ses idées, le FDF a porté son combat non seulement sur le terrain communal et national, mais également dans les Régions et les Communautés. Le présent Courrier hebdomadaire retrace les principales lignes de force de l’action du FDF dans les organes des entités fédérées où il a été présent au cours des cinquante dernières années : le Parlement de la Communauté française, le Parlement flamand et les institutions bruxelloises. Quel rôle le FDF a-t-il joué à la Communauté française ? Quelle a été l’action de son député au Parlement flamand ? Comment s’est articulée la lutte du parti pour l’institutionnalisation d’une Région bruxelloise et, une fois celle-ci créée en 1989, dans quelle mesure y a-t-il appliqué son programme ? Le FDF a-t-il réussi à dépasser son image de parti focalisé sur les thématiques linguistiques pour se positionner en mouvement « urbain et culturel » se définissant comme « réformateur social » ? L’attention se porte sur la pratique du parti tant agissant seul qu’évoluant en partenariat avec le Rassemblement wallon ou, plus récemment, avec les libéraux. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’action du FDF dans les Régions et Communautés (1971-2014). II. Institutions bruxelloises
Lanneau, Catherine ULg

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2015), (2260-2261), 61

Depuis sa création, le FDF poursuit un triple objectif au plan institutionnel : assurer la solidarité entre Wallons et Bruxellois francophones, garantir les droits linguistiques des francophones de ... [more ▼]

Depuis sa création, le FDF poursuit un triple objectif au plan institutionnel : assurer la solidarité entre Wallons et Bruxellois francophones, garantir les droits linguistiques des francophones de Flandre (en particulier dans la périphérie) et bâtir une Région bruxelloise forte (avec si possible un territoire élargi). Pour promouvoir ses idées, le FDF a porté son combat non seulement sur le terrain communal et national, mais également dans les Régions et les Communautés. Le présent Courrier hebdomadaire retrace les principales lignes de force de l’action du FDF dans les organes des entités fédérées où il a été présent au cours des cinquante dernières années : le Parlement de la Communauté française, le Parlement flamand et les institutions bruxelloises. Quel rôle le FDF a-t-il joué à la Communauté française ? Quelle a été l’action de son député au Parlement flamand ? Comment s’est articulée la lutte du parti pour l’institutionnalisation d’une Région bruxelloise et, une fois celle-ci créée en 1989, dans quelle mesure y a-t-il appliqué son programme ? Le FDF a-t-il réussi à dépasser son image de parti focalisé sur les thématiques linguistiques pour se positionner en mouvement « urbain et culturel » se définissant comme « réformateur social » ? L’attention se porte sur la pratique du parti tant agissant seul qu’évoluant en partenariat avec le Rassemblement wallon ou, plus récemment, avec les libéraux. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFish consumption patterns and hair mercury levels in children and their mothers in 17 EU countries
Castano, Argelia; Cutanda, Francisco; Esteban, Marta et al

in Environmental Research (2015), 141

The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential ... [more ▼]

The toxicity of methylmercury (MeHg) in humans is well established and the main source of exposure is via the consumption of large marine fish and mammals. Of particular concern are the potential neurodevelopmental effects of early life exposure to low-​levels of MeHg. Therefore, it is important that pregnant women, children and women of childbearing age are, as far as possible, protected from MeHg exposure. Within the European project DEMOCOPHES, we have analyzed mercury (Hg) in hair in 1799 mother-​child pairs from 17 European countries using a strictly harmonized protocol for mercury anal. Parallel, harmonized questionnaires on dietary habits provided information on consumption patterns of fish and marine products. After hierarchical cluster anal. of consumption habits of the mother-​child pairs, the DEMOCOPHES cohort can be classified into two branches of approx. similar size: one with high fish consumption (H) and another with low consumption (L)​. All countries have representatives in both branches, but Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Portugal and Sweden have twice as many or more mother-​child pairs in H than in L. For Switzerland, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovenia and Slovakia the situation is the opposite, with more representatives in L than H. There is a strong correlation (r=0.72) in hair mercury concn. between the mother and child in the same family, which indicates that they have a similar exposure situation. The clustering of mother-​child pairs on basis of their fish consumption revealed some interesting patterns. One is that for the same sea fish consumption, other food items of marine origin, like seafood products or shellfish contribute significantly to the mercury levels in hair. We conclude that addnl. studies are needed to assess and quantify exposure to mercury from seafood products, in particular. The cluster anal. also showed that 95​% of mothers who consume once per wk fish only, and no other marine products, have mercury levels 0.55 μg​/g. Thus, the 95th percentile of the distribution in this group is only around half the US-​EPA recommended threshold of 1 μg​/g mercury in hair. Consumption of freshwater fish played a minor role in contributing to mercury exposure in the studied cohort. The DEMOCOPHES data shows that there are significant differences in MeHg exposure across the EU and that exposure is highly correlated with consumption of fish and marine products. Fish and marine products are key components of a healthy human diet and are important both traditionally and culturally in many parts of Europe. Therefore, the communication of the potential risks of mercury exposure needs to be carefully balanced to take into account traditional and cultural values as well as the potential health benefits from fish consumption. European harmonized human biomonitoring programs provide an addnl. dimension to national HMB programs and can assist national authorities to tailor mitigation and adaptation strategies (dietary advice, risk communication, etc.) to their country's specific requirements. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 104 (19 ULg)
Full Text
See detailOpérations militaires : entre prise de risque, solidarité, souveraineté et "entrée en premier"
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Sécurité & Stratégie (2015), (201),

Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOptimization of composite structures with curved fiber trajectories
Lemaire, Etienne; Zein, Samih; Bruyneel, Michaël ULg

in Composite Structures (2015), 131

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe Parc National Sahamalaza - Iles Radama serait-il l’ultime refuge pour certaines espèces de lémuriens du nord-ouest de Madagascar ?
Wilmet, Leslie ULg; Beudels-Jamar, Roseline C.; Schwitzer, Christoph et al

in Tropicultura (2015)

Depuis des millions d’années, la faune et la flore terrestre de Madagascar ont évolué dans un espace isolé. Suite à cette situation, le niveau d’endémisme y est très élevé et l’ensemble de l’île ... [more ▼]

Depuis des millions d’années, la faune et la flore terrestre de Madagascar ont évolué dans un espace isolé. Suite à cette situation, le niveau d’endémisme y est très élevé et l’ensemble de l’île représente un des plus importants hotspot de biodiversité. Madagascar fait aussi partie des pays les plus touchés en termes de destruction des habitats naturels ; 90 % de la végétation d’origine est aujourd’hui perdue. La déforestation et la fragmentation des habitats forestiers menace particulièrement les primates de l’île, les lémuriens. L’île est considérée par de nombreuses organisations internationales comme une priorité pour la conservation de la nature, autant dans le domaine zoologique que botanique. Les premières aires protégées de Madagascar ont été établies en 1927 et l’île en compte aujourd’hui 47. Cet article reprend l’historique et fait l’état des lieux du parc national Sahamalaza-Ile Radama, situé au nord-ouest de Madagascar. Nous nous intéressons spécifiquement à deux espèces de lémuriens emblématiques du parc ; Eulemur flavifrons et Lepilemur sahamalazensis ainsi qu’aux menaces qui pèsent sur leur écosystème. Différentes mesures ont été proposées dans le cadre d’un Plan d’Action de Conservation afin d’en améliorer la gestion et assurer la survie de ces espèces. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLayman versus Professional Musician: Who Makes the Better Judge?
Larrouy, Pauline ULg; Magis, David ULg; Grabenhorst, Matthias et al

in PLoS ONE (2015)

The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen ... [more ▼]

The increasing number of casting shows and talent contests in the media over the past years suggests a public interest in rating the quality of vocal performances. In many of these formats, laymen alongside music experts act as judges. Whereas experts' judgments are considered objective and reliable when it comes to evaluating singing voice, little is known about laymen’s ability to evaluate peers. On the one hand, layman listeners–who by definition did not have any formal training or regular musical practice–are known to have internalized the musical rules on which singing accuracy is based. On the other hand, lay- man listeners’ judgment of their own vocal skills is highly inaccurate. Also, when compared with that of music experts, their level of competence in pitch perception has proven limited. The present study investigates laypersons' ability to objectively evaluate melodies per- formed by untrained singers. For this purpose, laymen listeners were asked to judge sung melodies. The results were compared with those of music experts who had performed the same task in a previous study. Interestingly, the findings show a high objectivity and reliabil- ity in layman listeners. Whereas both the laymen's and experts' definition of pitch accuracy overlap, differences regarding the musical criteria employed in the rating task were evident. The findings suggest that the effect of expertise is circumscribed and limited and supports the view that laypersons make trustworthy judges when evaluating the pitch accuracy of untrained singers. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailA simple approach for ultrasensitive detection of bisphenols by multiplexed surface-enhanced Raman scattering
De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Dumont, Elodie ULg; Hubert, Cédric ULg et al

in Analytica Chimica Acta (2015), 888

Bisphenol A (BPA) is well known for its use in plastic manufacture and thermal paper production despite its risk of health toxicity as an endocrine disruptor in humans. Since the publication of new ... [more ▼]

Bisphenol A (BPA) is well known for its use in plastic manufacture and thermal paper production despite its risk of health toxicity as an endocrine disruptor in humans. Since the publication of new legislation regarding the use of BPA, manufacturers have begun to replace BPA with other phenolic molecules such as bisphenol F (BPF) and bisphenol B (BPB), but there are no guarantees regarding the health safety of these compounds at this time. In this context, a very simple, cheap and fast surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) method was developed for the sensitive detection of these molecules in spiked tap water solutions. Silver nanoparticles were used as SERS substrates. An original strategy was employed to circumvent the issue of the affinity of bisphenols for metallic surfaces and the silver nanoparticles surface was functionalized using pyridine in order to improve again the sensitivity of the detection. Semi-quantitative detections were performed in tap water solutions at a concentrations range from 0.25 to 20 µg L-1 for BPA and BPB and from 5 to 100 µg L-1 for BPF. Moreover, a feasibility study for performing a multiplex-SERS detection of these molecules was also performed before successfully implementing the developed SERS method on real samples. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailUse of specklegrams background terms for speckle photography combined with phase-shifting electronic speckle pattern interferometry
Zemmamouche, Redouane; Vandenrijt, Jean-François ULg; Medjahed, Aïcha et al

in Optical Engineering : The Journal of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (2015), 54(8), 084110

Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is combined with digital speckle photography (DSP) to measure out-of-plane deformation in the presence of large in-plane translation or rotation. ESPI is ... [more ▼]

Electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) is combined with digital speckle photography (DSP) to measure out-of-plane deformation in the presence of large in-plane translation or rotation. ESPI is used to measure out-of-plane displacements smaller than the speckle diameter. In-plane displacements larger than the speckle size are obtained by DSP using artifacts images computed from the phase-stepped specklegrams. Previous works use the specklegram modulation for that purpose, but we show that this can lead to errors in the case of low modulation. In order to avoid this, a simple averaging of phase-stepped specklegrams allows obtaining the average irradiance, which contains information on the speckled object image. The latter can be used more efficiently than the modulation in DSP and is simpler to compute. We also perform a numerical simulation of specklegrams, which show that the use of background terms is much more stable against some error sources as compared to modulation. We show experimental evidence of this in various experiments combining out-of-plane ESPI measurements with in-plane translations or rotations obtained by our DSP method. The latter has been used efficiently to restore phase loss in out-of-plane ESPI measurements due to large in-plane displacements. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSystematic analysis of site-specific yield distributions resulting from nitrogen management and climatic variability interactions
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Leemans, Vincent ULg et al

in Precision Agriculture (2015), 16(4), 361-384

At the plot level, crop simulation models such as STICS have the potential to evaluate risk associated with management practices. In nitrogen (N) management, however, the decision-making process is ... [more ▼]

At the plot level, crop simulation models such as STICS have the potential to evaluate risk associated with management practices. In nitrogen (N) management, however, the decision-making process is complex because the decision has to be taken without any knowledge of future weather conditions. The objective of this paper is to present a general methodology for assessing yield variability linked to climatic uncertainty and variable N rate strategies. The STICS model was coupled with the LARS-Weather Generator. The Pearson system and coefficients were used to characterise the shape of yield distribution. Alternatives to classical statistical tests were proposed for assessing the normality of distributions and conducting comparisons (namely, the Jarque-Bera and Wilcoxon tests, respectively). Finally, the focus was put on the probability risk assessment, which remains a key point within the decision process. The simulation results showed that, based on current N application practice among Belgian farmers (60 60 60 kgN ha-1), yield distribution was very highly significantly non normal, with the highest degree of asymmetry characterised by a skewness value of -1.02. They showed that this strategy gave the greatest probability (60%) of achieving yields that were superior to the mean (10.5 t ha-1) of the distribution. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (18 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDesign, Modeling, and Performance Optimization of a Reversible Heat Pump/Organic Rankine Cycle System for Domestic Application
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Dumont, Olivier ULg; Harley Hansen, Kristian et al

in Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power (2015)

In this paper, an innovative system combining a heat pump (HP) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process is proposed. This system is integrated with a solar roof, which is used as a thermal source to ... [more ▼]

In this paper, an innovative system combining a heat pump (HP) and an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) process is proposed. This system is integrated with a solar roof, which is used as a thermal source to provide heat in winter months (HP mode) and electricity in summer months (ORC mode) when an excess irradiation is available on the solar roof. The main advantage of the proposed unit is its similarity with a traditional HP: the HP/ORC unit only requires the addition of a pump and four-way valves compared to a simple HP, which can be achieved at a low cost. A methodology for the optimal sizing and design of the system is proposed, based on the optimization of both continuous parameters such as heat exchanger size or discrete variables such as working fluid. The methodology is based on yearly simulations, aimed at optimizing the system performance (the net yearly power generation) over its whole operating range instead of just nominal sizing operating conditions. The simulations allow evaluating the amount of thermal energy and electricity generated throughout the year, yielding a net electric power output of 3496 kWh throughout the year. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailMonitoring surface water content using visible and short-wave infrared SPOT-5 data of wheat plots in irrigated semi-arid regions
Benabdelouahab, Tarik ULg; Balaghi, Riad; Hadria, Rachid et al

in International Journal of Remote Sensing (2015), 36(15), 4018-4036

Irrigated agriculture is an important strategic sector in arid and semi-arid regions. Given the large spatial coverage of irrigated areas, operational tools based on satellite remote sensing can ... [more ▼]

Irrigated agriculture is an important strategic sector in arid and semi-arid regions. Given the large spatial coverage of irrigated areas, operational tools based on satellite remote sensing can contribute to their optimal management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of two spectral indices, calculated from SPOT-5 high-resolution visible (HRV) data, to retrieve the surface water content values (from bare soil to completely covered soil) over wheat fields and detect irrigation supplies in an irrigated area. These indices are the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the moisture stress index (MSI), covering the main growth stages of wheat. These indices were compared to corresponding in situ measurements of soil moisture and vegetation water content in 30 wheat fields in an irrigated area of Morocco, during the 2012–2013 and 2013–2014 cropping seasons. NDWI and MSI were highly correlated with in situ measurements at both the beginning of the growing season (sowing) and at full vegetation cover (grain filling). From sowing to grain filling, the best correlation (R2 = 0.86; p < 0.01) was found for the relationship between NDWI values and observed soil moisture values. These results were validated using a k-fold cross-validation methodology; they indicated that NDWI can be used to estimate and map surface water content changes at the main crop growth stages (from sowing to grain filling). NDWI is an operative index for monitoring irrigation, such as detecting irrigation supplies and mitigating wheat water stress at field and regional levels in semi-arid areas. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSpeed limit to the Abrikosov lattice in mesoscopic superconductors
Grimaldi, Gaia; Leo, Antonio; Sabatino, P. et al

in Physical Review. B : Condensed Matter (2015), 92

We study the instability of the superconducting state in a mesoscopic geometry for the low pinning material Mo3Ge characterized by a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We observe that in the current driven ... [more ▼]

We study the instability of the superconducting state in a mesoscopic geometry for the low pinning material Mo3Ge characterized by a large Ginzburg-Landau parameter. We observe that in the current driven switching to the normal state from a nonlinear region of the Abrikosov flux flow, the mean critical vortex velocity reaches a limiting maximum velocity as a function of the applied magnetic fi eld. Based on time dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations we argue that the observed behavior is owed to the high velocity vortex dynamics confi ned on a mesoscopic scale. We build up a general phase diagram which includes all possible dynamic confi gurations of Abrikosov lattice in a mesoscopic superconductor. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSpatio‑temporal dynamics of β‑tubulin isotypes during the development of the sensory auditory organ in rat
Renauld, Justine ULg; Johnen, Nicolas; Thelen, Nicolas ULg et al

in Histochemistry & Cell Biology (2015)

There are different β-tubulin isoforms in microtubules of vertebrate tissues. However, their functional significance is still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the localization of ... [more ▼]

There are different β-tubulin isoforms in microtubules of vertebrate tissues. However, their functional significance is still largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the localization of five β-tubulin isotypes (β1– 5) within the hearing organ during development in rat. By using confocal microscopy, we showed that with the exception of the β3-tubulin isoform that was specific to nerve fibres, all the different β-tubulin isoforms were mainly present in the supporting cells. Contrary to β1–4-tubulins, we also found that the β5-tubulin isoform appeared only at a key stage of the post-natal development in specific cell types (pillar cells and Deiters’ cells). By using transmission electron microscopy, we revealed further that this developmental stage coincided with the formation of two separate bundles of microtubules from a unique one in these supporting cells. Together, these results suggest that the β5-tubulin isoform might be involved in the generation of new microtubule bundles from a pre-existing one. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 29 (7 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailGlobally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters
Borges, Alberto ULg; Darchambeau, François ULg; Teodoru, Cristian R. et al

in Nature Geoscience (2015), advance online publication

Carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from inland waters[mdash]streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs[mdash]are nearly equivalent to ocean and land sinks globally. Inland waters can be an important ... [more ▼]

Carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from inland waters[mdash]streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs[mdash]are nearly equivalent to ocean and land sinks globally. Inland waters can be an important source of methane and nitrous oxide emissions as well, but emissions are poorly quantified, especially in Africa. Here we report dissolved carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide concentrations from 12 rivers in sub-Saharan Africa, including seasonally resolved sampling at 39 sites, acquired between 2006 and 2014. Fluxes were calculated from published gas transfer velocities, and upscaled to the area of all sub-Saharan African rivers using available spatial data sets. Carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions from river channels alone were about 0.4 Pg carbon per year, equivalent to two-thirds of the overall net carbon land sink previously reported for Africa. Including emissions from wetlands of the Congo river increases the total carbon dioxide-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions to about 0.9 Pg carbon per year, equivalent to about one quarter of the global ocean and terrestrial combined carbon sink. Riverine carbon dioxide and methane emissions increase with wetland extent and upland biomass. We therefore suggest that future changes in wetland and upland cover could strongly affect greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 47 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImmune Recovery after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation following Flu-TBI versus TLI-ATG Conditioning
HANNON, Muriel ULg; BEGUIN, Yves ULg; Ehx, Grégory ULg et al

in Clinical Cancer Research : An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research (2015), 21(14), 3131-9

Purpose: A conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) combining total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) plus anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) has been develop to induce graft ... [more ▼]

Purpose: A conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) combining total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) plus anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) has been develop to induce graft-versus-tumor effects without graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Experimental Design: We compared immune recovery in 53 patients included in a phase II randomized study comparing nonmyeloablative HCT following either fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI arm, n=28) or 8 Gy TLI plus anti-thymocyte globulin (TLI arm, n=25). Results: In comparison to TBI patients, TLI patients had a similarly low 6-month incidence of grade II-IV acute GVHD, a lower incidence of moderate/severe chronic GVHD (P=0.02), a higher incidence of CMV reactivation (P<0.001), and a higher incidence of relapse (P=0.01). While recovery of total CD8+ T cells was similar in the two groups, with median CD8+ T cell counts reaching the normal values 40-60 days after allo-HCT, TLI patients had lower percentages of naïve CD8 T cells. Median CD4+ T cell counts did not reach the lower limit of normal values the first year after allo-HCT in the two groups. Further, CD4+ T cell counts were significantly lower in TLI than in TBI patients the first 6 months after transplantation. Interestingly, while median absolute regulatory T cell (Treg) counts were comparable in TBI and TLI patients, Treg/naïve CD4+ T cell ratios were significantly higher in TLI than in TBI patients the 2 first years after transplantation. Conclusions: Immune recovery differs substantially between these two conditioning regimens possibly explaining the different clinical outcomes observed (NCT00603954). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 59 (10 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDrug loading of polymer implants by supercritical CO2 assisted impregnation: a review
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Tassaing, Thierry et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2015), 209

Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has ... [more ▼]

Drug loaded implants also called drug-eluting implants have proven their benefits over simple implants. Among the developed manufacturing processes, the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) assisted impregnation has attracted growing attention to load Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients into polymer implants since it enables to recover a final implant free of any solvent residue and to operate under mild temperature which is suitable for processing with thermosensitive drugs. This paper is a review of the state-of-the-art and the application of the scCO2 assisted impregnation process to prepare drug-eluting implants. It introduces the process and presents its advantages for biomedical applications. The influences of the characteristics of the implied binary systems and of the experimental conditions on the drug loading are described. Then, the various current applications of this process for manufacturing drug-eluting implants are reviewed. Finally, the new emerging variations of this process are described. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDevelopment, validation and comparison of NIR and Raman methods for the identification and assay of poor-quality oral quinine drops.
Mbinze Kidenge, Jérémie; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg; Yemoa, Achille et al

in Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2015), 111

Poor quality antimalarial drugs are one of the public’s major health problems in Africa. The depth of this problem may be explained in part by the lack of effective enforcement and the lack of efficient ... [more ▼]

Poor quality antimalarial drugs are one of the public’s major health problems in Africa. The depth of this problem may be explained in part by the lack of effective enforcement and the lack of efficient local drug analysis laboratories. To tackle part of this issue, two spectroscopic methods with the ability to detect and to quantify quinine dihydrochloride in children’s oral drops formulations were developed and validated. Raman and Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were selected for the drug analysis due to their low cost, non-destructive and rapid characteristics. Both of the methods developed were successfully validated using the total error approach in the range of 50-150% of the target concentration (20% W/V) within the 10% acceptance limits. Samples collected on the Congolese pharmaceutical market were analyzed by both techniques to detect potentially substandard drugs. After a comparison of the analytical performance of both methods, it has been decided to implement the method based on NIR spectroscopy to perform the routine analysis of quinine oral drop samples in the Quality Control Laboratory of Drugs at the University of Kinshasa (DRC). [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 51 (20 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailAn ecosystem-scale perspective of the net land methanol flux: synthesis of micrometeorological flux measurements
Wohlfahrt, G.; Amelynck, C.; Ammann, C. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), (15), 7413-7427

Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants ... [more ▼]

Methanol is the second most abundant volatile organic compound in the troposphere and plays a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. While there is consensus about the dominant role of living plants as the major source and the reaction with OH as the major sink of methanol, global methanol budgets diverge considerably in terms of source/sink estimates, reflecting uncertainties in the approaches used to model and the empirical data used to separately constrain these terms. Here we compiled micrometeorological methanol flux data from eight different study sites and reviewed the corresponding literature in order to provide a first cross-site synthesis of the terrestrial ecosystem-scale methanol exchange and present an independent data-driven view of the land–atmosphere methanol exchange. Our study shows that the controls of plant growth on production, and thus the methanol emission magnitude, as well as stomatal conductance on the hourly methanol emission variability, established at the leaf level, hold across sites at the ecosystem level. Unequivocal evidence for bi-directional methanol exchange at the ecosystem scale is presented. Deposition, which at some sites even exceeds methanol emissions, represents an emerging feature of ecosystem-scale measurements and is likely related to environmental factors favouring the formation of surface wetness. Methanol may adsorb to or dissolve in this surface water and eventually be chemically or biologically removed from it. Management activities in agriculture and forestry are shown to increase local methanol emission by orders of magnitude; however, they are neglected at present in global budgets. While contemporary net land methanol budgets are overall consistent with the grand mean of the micrometeorological methanol flux measurements, we caution that the present approach of simulating methanol emission and deposition separately is prone to opposing systematic errors and does not allow for full advantage to be taken of the rich information content of micrometeorological flux measurements. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailModes of Human T Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Transmission, Replication and Persistence
Carpentier, Alexandre ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Hamaïdia, Malik ULg et al

in Viruses (2015), 7

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic ... [more ▼]

Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus that causes cancer (Adult T cell Leukemia, ATL) and a spectrum of inflammatory diseases (mainly HTLV-associated myelopathy—tropical spastic paraparesis, HAM/TSP). Since virions are particularly unstable, HTLV-1 transmission primarily occurs by transfer of a cell carrying an integrated provirus. After transcription, the viral genomic RNA undergoes reverse transcription and integration into the chromosomal DNA of a cell from the newly infected host. The virus then replicates by either one of two modes: (i) an infectious cycle by virus budding and infection of new targets and (ii) mitotic division of cells harboring an integrated provirus. HTLV-1 replication initiates a series of mechanisms in the host including antiviral immunity and checkpoint control of cell proliferation. HTLV-1 has elaborated strategies to counteract these defense mechanisms allowing continuous persistence in humans. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailManagement of demented patients with urinary incontinence: A case study
de Codt, Aloïse; Grotz, Catherine ULg; Degaute, Marie-France et al

in Clinical Neuropsychologist (The) (2015)

Detailed reference viewed: 33 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFodder Biomass Monitoring in Sahelian Rangelands Using Phenological Metrics from FAPAR Time Series
Diouf, Abdoul Aziz; Brandt, Martin; Verger, Aleixandre et al

in Remote sensing (2015), 7(9122-9148),

Timely monitoring of plant biomass is critical for the management of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. The estimation of annual biomass production in the Sahel is based on a simple relationship ... [more ▼]

Timely monitoring of plant biomass is critical for the management of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. The estimation of annual biomass production in the Sahel is based on a simple relationship between satellite annual Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and in situ biomass data. This study proposes a new methodology using multi-linear models between phenological metrics from the SPOT-VEGETATION time series of Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) and in situ biomass. A model with three variables—large seasonal integral (LINTG), length of growing season, and end of season decreasing rate—performed best (MAE = 605 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.68) across Sahelian ecosystems in Senegal (data for the period 1999–2013). A model with annual maximum (PEAK) and start date of season showed similar performances (MAE = 625 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.64), allowing a timely estimation of forage availability. The subdivision of the study area in ecoregions increased overall accuracy (MAE = 489.21 kg·DM/ha; R2 = 0.77), indicating that a relation between metrics and ecosystem properties exists. LINTG was the main explanatory variable for woody rangelands with high leaf biomass, whereas for areas dominated by herbaceous vegetation, it was the PEAK metric. The proposed approach outperformed the established biomass NDVI-based product (MAE = 818 kg·DM/ha and R2 = 0.51) and should improve the operational monitoring of forage resources in Sahelian rangelands. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailBiomechanical Analysis of Abdominal Injury in Tennis Serves. A Case Report
Tubez, François ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Journal of Sports Science & Medicine (2015), 14

The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is ... [more ▼]

The serve is an important stroke in any high level tennis game. A well-mastered serve is a substantial advantage for players. However, because of its repeatability and its intensity, this stroke is potentially deleterious for upper limbs, lower limbs and trunk. The trunk is a vital link in the production and transfer of energy from the lower limbs to the upper limbs; therefore, kin-ematic disorder could be a potential source of risk for trunk injury in tennis. This research studies the case of a professional tennis player who has suffered from a medical tear on the left rectus abdominis muscle after tennis serve. The goal of the study is to understand whether the injury could be explained by an inappropriate technique. For this purpose, we analyzed in three dimensions the kinematic and kinetic aspects of the serve. We also performed isokinetic tests of the player’s knees. We then compared the player to five other professional players as refer-ence. We observed a possible deficit of energy transfer because of an important anterior pelvis tilt. Some compensation made by the player during the serve could be a possible higher abdominal contraction and a larger shoulder external rotation. These partic-ularities could induce an abdominal overwork that could explain the first injury and may provoke further injuries. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 129 (29 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailWASP-80b has a dayside within the T-dwarf range
Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Ehrenreich, David et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

WASP-80b is a missing link in the study of exoatmospheres. It falls between the warm Neptunes and the hot Jupiters and is amenable for characterization, thanks to its host star's properties. We observed ... [more ▼]

WASP-80b is a missing link in the study of exoatmospheres. It falls between the warm Neptunes and the hot Jupiters and is amenable for characterization, thanks to its host star's properties. We observed the planet through transit and during occultation with Warm Spitzer. Combining our mid-infrared transits with optical time series, we find that the planet presents a transmission spectrum indistinguishable from a horizontal line. In emission, WASP-80b is the intrinsically faintest planet whose dayside flux has been detected in both the 3.6 and 4.5 μm Spitzer channels. The depths of the occultations reveal that WASP-80b is as bright and as red as a T4 dwarf, but that its temperature is cooler. If planets go through the equivalent of an L-T transition, our results would imply that this happens at cooler temperatures than for brown dwarfs. Placing WASP-80b's dayside into a colour-magnitude diagram, it falls exactly at the junction between a blackbody model and the T-dwarf sequence; we cannot discern which of those two interpretations is the more likely. WASP-80b's flux density is as low as GJ 436b at 3.6 μm; the planet's dayside is also fainter, but bluer than HD 189733Ab's nightside (in the [3.6] and [4.5]Spitzer bands). Flux measurements on other planets with similar equilibrium temperatures are required to establish whether irradiated gas giants, such as brown dwarfs, transition between two spectral classes. An eventual detection of methane absorption in transmission would also help lift that degeneracy. We obtained a second series of high-resolution spectra during transit, using HARPS. We reanalyse the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. The data now favour an aligned orbital solution and a stellar rotation nearly three times slower than stellar line broadening implies. A contribution to stellar line broadening, maybe macroturbulence, is likely to have been underestimated for cool stars, whose rotations have therefore been systematically overestimated. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVersion française de la Distress Tolerance Scale et de la Discomfort Intolerance Scale
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science = Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement (2015), 3(47),

The perceived perspective of the distress tolerance refers to the perceived ability to experience and to withstand negative emotional states and/or other aversive sensations (e.g. physical discomfort ... [more ▼]

The perceived perspective of the distress tolerance refers to the perceived ability to experience and to withstand negative emotional states and/or other aversive sensations (e.g. physical discomfort). Two scales were developed to assess this construct: the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) and the Discomfort Intolerance Scale (DIS). The objective of this investigation is to present the validation of these two scales in French. 488 non-clinical adults completed an online survey assessing the distress tolerance and emotional regulation strategies. Factor analyses were performed to determine the factor structures of the French versions of these scales. CFA highlighted a four-factor solution (tolerance, absorption, appraisal, regulation) with one higher-order factor (general distress tolerance) as being the better fit for the DTS. CFA highlighted a two-factor solution (intolerance and avoidance) with one higher-order factor (general discomfort intolerance) as being the better fit for the DIS. Intern and extern validity were assessed and demonstrated good properties. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 37 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThree WASP-South Transiting Exoplanets: WASP-74b, WASP-83b, and WASP-89b
Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2015), 150

We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of three new transiting hot Jupiters by WASP-South together with the TRAPPIST photometer and the Euler/CORALIE spectrograph. WASP-74b orbits a star of V = 9.7, making it one of the brighter systems accessible to southern telescopes. It is a 0.95M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planet with a moderately bloated radius of 1.5 {R}[SUB]{Jup[/SUB]} in a 2 day orbit around a slightly evolved F9 star. WASP-83b is a Saturn-mass planet at 0.3 {M}[SUB]{Jup[/SUB]} with a radius of 1.0 {R}[SUB]{Jup[/SUB]}. It is in a 5 day orbit around a fainter (V = 12.9) G8 star. WASP-89b is a 6 M[SUB]Jup[/SUB] planet in a 3 day orbit with an eccentricity of e = 0.2. It is thus similar to massive, eccentric planets such as XO-3b and HAT-P-2b, except that those planets orbit F stars whereas WASP-89 is a K star. The V = 13.1 host star is magnetically active, showing a rotation period of 20.2 days, while star spots are visible in the transits. There are indications that the planet’s orbit is aligned with the stellar spin. WASP-89 is a good target for an extensive study of transits of star spots. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (14 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailPolarization alignments of quasars from the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys
Pelgrims, Vincent ULg; Hutsemekers, Damien ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

We test the hypothesis that the polarization vectors of flat-spectrum radio sources (FSRSs) from the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys are randomly oriented in the sky. A sample with robust polarization ... [more ▼]

We test the hypothesis that the polarization vectors of flat-spectrum radio sources (FSRSs) from the JVAS/CLASS 8.4-GHz surveys are randomly oriented in the sky. A sample with robust polarization measurements is made with 4155 objects. Redshift information is known for 1531 of them. We performed two statistical analyses: one in two dimensions and the other in three dimensions when distance is available. We find significant large-scale alignments of polarization vectors for samples containing only quasars among the varieties of FSRS. While these correlations prove difficult to explain either by a physical effect or by biases in the data set, that the quasars that have significantly aligned polarization vectors are found in regions of the sky where optical polarization alignments were previously found is striking. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailQuantitatively mimicking wet colloidal suspensions with dry granular media
Messina, René; Aljawhari, Sarah; Bécu, Lydiane et al

in Scientific Reports (2015)

Athermal two-dimensional granular systems are exposed to external mechanical noise leading to Brownian-like motion. Using tunable repulsive interparticle interaction, it is shown that the same ... [more ▼]

Athermal two-dimensional granular systems are exposed to external mechanical noise leading to Brownian-like motion. Using tunable repulsive interparticle interaction, it is shown that the same microstructure as that observed in colloidal suspensions can be quantitatively recovered at a macroscopic scale. To that end, experiments on granular and colloidal systems made up of magnetized particles as well as computer simulations are performed and compared. Excellent agreement throughout the range of the magnetic coupling parameter Γ is found for the pair distribution as well as the bond-orientational correlation functions. This finding opens new ways to efficiently and very conveniently explore phase transitions, crystallization, nucleation, etc in confined geometries. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailFrom the ocean to a reef habitat : how do the larvae of coral reef fishes find their wa y home? A state of art on the lat est advances
Barth, P; Berenshtein, I; Besson, M et al

in Vie et Milieu (2015), 65(2), 91-100

Detailed reference viewed: 30 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL’importance aux yeux de Strasbourg de l’effectivité des recours indemnitaires et préventifs en cas de dépassement du délai raisonnable
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Falque, Géraldine ULg

in Revue Trimestrielle des Droits de l'Homme [= RTDH] (2015), (2015/103), 741-758

The Belgian Government, on whom the burden of proof lies, has not shown that this compensatory remedy is garanteed in practice by the courts in the context of criminal proceedings. Accordingly, the remedy ... [more ▼]

The Belgian Government, on whom the burden of proof lies, has not shown that this compensatory remedy is garanteed in practice by the courts in the context of criminal proceedings. Accordingly, the remedy as currently organised in Belgium cannot be regarded as an effective means of complaining about the length of the criminal judicial investigation. The preventive remedies cannot, therefore, be regarded as effective in the present case. In fact, the Court noted that none of the measures in question was specifically directed at the delay which was the object of complaint. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailOne-year follow-up of platelet-rich plasma infiltration to treat chronic proximal patellar tendinopathies
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Bruyère, Olivier ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Acta Orthopaedica Belgica (2015), 81(2), 251-256

Infiltration of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) may be considered as a recent therapeutic option for chronic tendinopathies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical status and the return to sports ... [more ▼]

Infiltration of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) may be considered as a recent therapeutic option for chronic tendinopathies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical status and the return to sports activities in patients with chronic proximal patellar tendinopathies. Twenty subjects with chronic proximal patellar tendinopathy benefited from 1 infiltration of PRP coupled with a standardized eccentric rehabilitation. The follow-up (up to 1 year) was assessed by means of a Visual Anologue Scale (VAS), the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form and the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment (VISA-P) score. Moreover, subjects had to answer an information questionnaire concerning their life and sports activities. Seventy percents of the patients reported a favourable evolution with decrease of pain, and returned to sports activities. With time, VAS dropped significantly and both IKDC and VISA-P scores improved also significantly. This study confirms that a local injection of PRP coupled with a program of eccentric rehabilitation for treating a chronic jumper’s knee, improves pain symptoms and the functionaliti [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 50 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSpectroscopic survey of Kepler stars. I. HERMES/Mercator observations of A- and F-type stars
Niemczura, E.; Murphy, S. J.; Smalley, B. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 450

The Kepler space mission provided near-continuous and high-precision photometry of about 207,000 stars, which can be used for asteroseismology. However, for successful seismic modelling it is equally ... [more ▼]

The Kepler space mission provided near-continuous and high-precision photometry of about 207,000 stars, which can be used for asteroseismology. However, for successful seismic modelling it is equally important to have accurate stellar physical parameters. Therefore, supplementary ground-based data are needed. We report the results of the analysis of high-resolution spectroscopic data of A- and F-type stars from the Kepler field, which were obtained with the HERMES spectrograph on the Mercator telescope. We determined spectral types, atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances for a sample of 117 stars. Hydrogen Balmer, Fe I, and Fe II lines were used to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and microturbulent velocities. We determined chemical abundances and projected rotational velocities using a spectrum synthesis technique. The atmospheric parameters obtained were compared with those from the Kepler Input Catalogue (KIC), confirming that the KIC effective temperatures are underestimated for A stars. Effective temperatures calculated by spectral energy distribution fitting are in good agreement with those determined from the spectral line analysis. The analysed sample comprises stars with approximately solar chemical abundances, as well as chemically peculiar stars of the Am, Ap, and Lambda Boo types. The distribution of the projected rotational velocity, Vsini, is typical for A and F stars and ranges from 8 to about 280 km/s, with a mean of 134 km/s. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailShould ABO-incompatible deceased liver transplantation be reconsidered?
Detry, Olivier ULg

in Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation (2015), 28(7), 788-9

Detailed reference viewed: 19 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailThe Geoarchaeology of Utica, Tunisia: The Paleogeography of the Mejerda Delta and Hypotheses Concerning the Location of the Ancient Harbor
Delile, Hugo; Abichou; Gadhoum, Ahmed et al

in Geoarchaeology (2015), 30(4), 291-306

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe remplacement des F-16 belges : la dimension nucléaire
Dumoulin, André ULg

in Revue Défense Nationale (2015)

l'article aborde la question du remplacement des F-16 belges avec ou sans le critère d'emport des armes nucléaires aéroportées B-61 américaines

Detailed reference viewed: 42 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSemiótica de la acción: textualización y notación
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Tópicos del seminario (2015), 33

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining ... [more ▼]

Our essay focuses on some methodological issues concerning the semiotic analysis of practice. We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and action, outlining the forms of enunciative praxis through different levels of pertinence analysis. Secondly, we propose the concept of ‘textualization’ as a mediation between text and action: textualizations (photographs, videos, notes) organize and represent practices which are in themselves ephemeral and elusive. Finally, we will consider the textual diagrammatization that we call ‘notation’: this analytical form of mediation between text and practice does not have the same status of in-vivo textualisations, but it works like an ex-post reconstruction which highlights the main gestures and exchanges while performing their grammaticalization. A more general aim of this essay is an enquiry into the legitimate objects of textual semiotics: what are the objects that it can analyze without betraying its principle of immanence, but also without being confined to it and, as a consequence, being unable to analyze practices and respond to topical questions on social issues and on the research in the human sciences? [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailReinforcement Learning of Heuristic EV Fleet Charging in a Day-Ahead Electricity Market
Vandael, Stijn; Claessens, Bert; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid (2015), 6(4), 1795-1805

This paper addresses the problem of defining a day-ahead consumption plan for charging a fleet of electric vehicles (EVs), and following this plan during operation. A challenge herein is the beforehand ... [more ▼]

This paper addresses the problem of defining a day-ahead consumption plan for charging a fleet of electric vehicles (EVs), and following this plan during operation. A challenge herein is the beforehand unknown charging flexibility of EVs, which depends on numerous details about each EV (e.g., plug-in times, power limitations, battery size, power curve, etc.). To cope with this challenge, EV charging is controlled during opertion by a heuristic scheme, and the resulting charging behavior of the EV fleet is learned by using batch mode reinforcement learning. Based on this learned behavior, a cost-effective day-ahead consumption plan can be defined. In simulation experiments, our approach is benchmarked against a multistage stochastic programming solution, which uses an exact model of each EVs charging flexibility. Results show that our approach is able to find a day-ahead consumption plan with comparable quality to the benchmark solution, without requiring an exact day-ahead model of each EVs charging flexibility. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 38 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailImpacts of climate change on future flood damage on the river Meuse, with a distributed uncertainty analysis
Detrembleur, Sylvain; Stilmant, Frédéric ULg; Dewals, Benjamin ULg et al

in Natural Hazards (2015), 77(3), 1533-1549

Flood-risk assessments are an objective and quantitative basis for implementing harmonized flood mitigation policies at the basin scale. However, the generated results are subject to different sources of ... [more ▼]

Flood-risk assessments are an objective and quantitative basis for implementing harmonized flood mitigation policies at the basin scale. However, the generated results are subject to different sources of uncertainty arising from underlying assumptions, data availability and the random nature of the phenomenon. These sources of uncertainty are likely to bias conclusions because they are irregularly distributed in space. Therefore, this paper addresses the question of the influence of local features on the expected annual damage in different municipalities. Based on results generated in the frame of a transnational flood-risk-assessment project for the river Meuse (Western Europe) taking climate change into account, the paper presents an analysis of the relative contributions of different sources of uncertainty within one single administrative region (the Walloon region in Belgium, i.e. a river reach of approximately 150 km). The main sources of uncertainty are not only found to vary both from one municipality to the other and in time, but also to induce opposite effects on the computed damage. Nevertheless, practical conclusions for policy-makers can still be drawn. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 54 (31 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHPAEC-PAD profiles of maltooligosaccharide produced by hydrolysis of sorghum starches using amylases from various sources
Boudries, Nadia; Sindic, Marianne ULg; Belhaneche-Bensemra, Naima et al

in International Journal of Biotechnology and Food Science (2015), 3 (4)

Starches isolated from white and pigmented sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) were used to determine enzymatic activity of starch hydrolysis by fungal (Aspergillus Oryzae) and bacterial (Bacillus ... [more ▼]

Starches isolated from white and pigmented sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) were used to determine enzymatic activity of starch hydrolysis by fungal (Aspergillus Oryzae) and bacterial (Bacillus Subtilis) α-amylase and oligosaccharides profiles of hydrolysate was determinate in same conditions by High Performance Exchange Anion Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPEAC-PAD). Pure starches from potato, amylose and amylopectin were used for comparison. Oligosaccharide compositions ranging from glucose (DP1) to maloheptaose (DP7) as well as the significantly effect of α-amylase source and starch structure were determined. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 20 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluence of thermal expansion mismatch on residual stress profile in veneering ceramic layered on zirconia: Measurement by hole-drilling.
Mainjot, Amélie ULg; Najjar, Achref; Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D. et al

in Dental materials : official publication of the Academy of Dental Materials (2015)

OBJECTIVES: Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Deltaalpha=alphacore-alphaveneer, ppm/ degrees C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures ... [more ▼]

OBJECTIVES: Mismatch in thermal expansion coefficient between core and veneering ceramic (Deltaalpha=alphacore-alphaveneer, ppm/ degrees C) is reported as a crucial parameter influencing veneer fractures with Yttria-tetragonal-zirconia-polycrystal (Y-TZP) prostheses, which still constitutes a misunderstood problem. However, the common positive Deltaalpha concept remains empirical. The objective of this study is to investigate the Deltaalpha dependence of residual stress profiles in veneering ceramic layered on Y-TZP frameworks. METHODS: The stress profile was measured with the hole-drilling method in bilayered disc samples of 20mm diameter with a 0.7mm thick Y-TZP framework and a 1.5mm thick veneer layer. 3 commercial and 4 experimental veneering ceramics (n=3 per group) were used to obtain different Deltaalpha varying from -1.3ppm/ degrees C to +3.2ppm/ degrees C, which were determined by dilatometric analyses. RESULTS: Veneer fractures were observed in samples with Deltaalpha>/=+2.3 or </=-0.3ppm/ degrees C. Residual stress profiles measured in other groups showed compressive stresses in the surface, these stresses decreasing with depth and then becoming more compressive again near the interface. Small Deltaalpha variations were shown to induce significant changes in residual stress profiles. Compressive stress near the framework was found to decrease inversely to Deltaalpha. SIGNIFICANCE: Veneer CTE close to Y-TZP (+0.2ppm/ degrees C Deltaalpha) gived the most favorable stress profile. Yet, near the framework, Deltaalpha-induced residual stress varied inversely to predictions. This could be explained by the hypothesis of structural changes occurrence within the Y-TZP surface. Consequently, the optimum Deltaalpha value cannot be determined before understanding Y-TZP's particular behavior when veneered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (5 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailModel-based computation of total stressed blood volume from a preload reduction manoeuvre
Pironet, Antoine ULg; Desaive, Thomas ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey et al

in Mathematical Biosciences (2015), 265(0), 28-39

Total stressed blood volume is an important parameter for both doctors and engineers. From a medical point of view, it has been associated with the success or failure of fluid therapy, a primary treatment ... [more ▼]

Total stressed blood volume is an important parameter for both doctors and engineers. From a medical point of view, it has been associated with the success or failure of fluid therapy, a primary treatment to manage acute circulatory failure. From an engineering point of view, it dictates the cardiovascular system’s behavior in changing physiological situations. Current methods to determine this parameter involve repeated phases of circulatory arrests followed by fluid administration. In this work, a more straightforward method is developed using data from a preload reduction manoeuvre. A simple six-chamber cardiovascular system model is used and its parameters are adjusted to pig experimental data. The parameter adjustment process has three steps: (1) compute nominal values for all model parameters; (2) determine the five most sensitive parameters; and (3) adjust only these five parameters. Stressed blood volume was selected by the algorithm, which emphasizes the importance of this parameter. The model was able to track experimental trends with a maximal root mean squared error of 29.2%. Computed stressed blood volume equals 486 ± 117 ml or 15.7 ± 3.6 ml/kg, which matches previous independent experiments on pigs, dogs and humans. The method proposed in this work thus provides a simple way to compute total stressed blood volume from usual hemodynamic data. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 22 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLe syndrome tarsien antérieur
MILANTS, Christophe ULg; WANG, François-Charles ULg; Gomulinski, Léon et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(7-8), 400-404

The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It is unrecognized and may lead to misdiagnosis and ... [more ▼]

The anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the inferior extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It is unrecognized and may lead to misdiagnosis and delayed treatment. We report the case of a 77 years old patient complaining of anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome’s symptoms with neuropathic pain located at the dorsal part of the foot without any sensorimotor loss. The electroneuromyography was in favour of the motor impairment of the deep peroneal nerve. MRI exploration of the ankle showed a millimetric bony overgrowth of the upper pole of the navicular irritative to the deep peroneal nerve. Infiltration at overgrowth of the navicular provided a partial and temporary decrease in pain symptoms. Surgical nerve decompression was then considered. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 26 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailHybrid inventory, gravimetry and altimetry (HIGA) mass balance product for Greenland and the Canadian Arctic
Colgan, W.; Abdalati, W.; Citterio, M. et al

in Remote Sensing of Environment (2015), 168

We present a novel inversion algorithm that generates a mass balance field that is simultaneously consistent with independent observations of glacier inventory derived from optical imagery, cryosphere ... [more ▼]

We present a novel inversion algorithm that generates a mass balance field that is simultaneously consistent with independent observations of glacier inventory derived from optical imagery, cryosphere-attributed mass trends derived from satellite gravimetry, and ice surface elevation trends derived from airborne and satellite altimetry. We use this algorithm to assess mass balance across Greenland and the Canadian Arctic over the Sep-2003 to Oct- 2009 period at 26 km resolution. We evaluate local algorithm-inferred mass balance against forty in situ point observations. This evaluation yields an RMSE of 0.15 mWE/a, and highlights a paucity of in situ observations from regions of high dynamic mass loss and peripheral glaciers. We assess mass losses of 212 ± 67 Gt/a to the Greenland ice sheet proper, 38 ± 11 Gt/a to peripheral glaciers in Greenland, and 42 ± 11 Gt/a to glaciers in the Canadian Arctic. These magnitudes of mass loss are dependent on the gravimetry-derived spherical harmonic mass trend we invert. We spatially partition the transient glacier continuity equation by differencing algorithm-inferred mass balance from modeled surface mass balance, in order to solve the horizontal divergence of ice flux as a residual. This residual ice dynamic field infers flux divergence (or submergent flow) in the ice sheet accumu- lation area and at tidewater margins, and flux convergence (or emergent flow) in land-terminating ablation areas, which is consistent with continuum mechanics theory. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 39 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLong-term XMM-Newton investigation of two particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries in NGC6604: HD168112 and HD167971
De Becker, Michaël ULg

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 451(1), 5589-5599

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking ... [more ▼]

The long-term (over more than one decade) X-ray emission from two massive stellar systems known to be particle accelerators is investigated using XMM-Newton. Their X-ray properties are interpreted taking into account recent information about their multiplicity and orbital parameters. The two targets, HD168112 and HD167971 appear to be overluminous in X-rays, lending additional support to the idea that a significant contribution of the X-ray emission comes from colliding-wind regions. The variability of the X-ray flux from HD168112 is interpreted in terms of varying separation expected to follow the 1/D rule for adiabatic shocked winds. For HD167971, marginal decrease of the X-ray flux in September 2002 could tentatively be explained by a partial wind eclipse in the close pair. No long-term variability could be demonstrated despite the significant difference of separation between 2002 and 2014. This suggests the colliding-wind region in the wide orbit does not contribute a lot to the total X-ray emission, with a main contribution coming from the radiative shocked winds in the eclipsing pair. The later result provides evidence that shocks in a colliding-wind region may be efficient particle accelerators even in the absence of bright X-ray emission, suggesting particle acceleration may operate in a wide range of conditions. Finally, in hierarchical triple O-type systems, thermal X-rays do not necessarily constitute an efficient tracer to detect the wind-wind interaction in the long period orbit. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 43 (6 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailVitesse ou précipitation ? La question du temps dans le traitement des affaires pénales en France et en Belgique
Bastard, Benoit; Delvaux, David ULg; Mouhanna, Christian et al

in Droit et Société (2015), 90

Le temps a changé de valeur dans le fonctionnement des institutions pénales. La réponse instantanée à toute sollicitation est devenue l’objectif prioritaire dans le travail des parquets. L’efficacité de ... [more ▼]

Le temps a changé de valeur dans le fonctionnement des institutions pénales. La réponse instantanée à toute sollicitation est devenue l’objectif prioritaire dans le travail des parquets. L’efficacité de la réponse pénale impose de rapprocher autant que possible le temps de la sanction de celui de l’infraction. Les normes de bonne gestion publique passent par la quantification des affaires et la réduction des délais de traitement. Cette tendance générale est observée ici dans une perspective comparative : France et Belgique. Alors que, dans les deux pays, les discours tenus mettent uniformément l’accent sur l’efficacité accrue des services, les comparaisons effectuées font ressortir des décalages importants dans les modalités du traitement rapide. Une réflexion générale peut alors être engagée sur les régimes de changement qui prévalent au sein de l’institution judiciaire dans les deux pays. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailQuels critères utiliser pour questionner la qualité pédagogique des stages cliniques ?
Vierset, Viviane ULg; Frenay, Mariane; Bédard, Denis

in Revue Internationale de Pédagogie de l'Enseignement Supérieur (2015), 31-2

Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailTravelling-wave ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry as an alternative strategy for screening of multi-class pesticides in fruits and vegetables
Goscinny, Séverine ULg; Joly, Laure; De Pauw, Edwin ULg et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2015), 1405

This paper reports a novel approach to screening multi-class pesticides by ion mobility timeof- flight mass spectrometry detection. Nitrogen was selected as mobility gas. After optimization of the ... [more ▼]

This paper reports a novel approach to screening multi-class pesticides by ion mobility timeof- flight mass spectrometry detection. Nitrogen was selected as mobility gas. After optimization of the different ion mobility parameters, determination of matrix effect on the drift times was conducted using different matrix extracts. The results showed that drift time values are not influenced by the matrix and also are independent of the concentration within the working range for 100 pesticides tested, making drift time a powerful additional identification tool. Based on statistics, 2% variation criteria provides a good fit for all the pesticides targeted, and could be considered as a maximum acceptable criteria associated with the drift time parameter for identification purpose. This 2% value is in agreement with already reported criteria, for instance, for GC or LC retention time in European documents. Finally, the well-known feature of mobility to separate complex mixtures was also tested to obtain purified extracted mass spectra of pesticides in fruit extract. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 24 (8 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailSelective top-down control of epiphytic biomass by amphipods from Posidonia oceanica meadows: implications for ecosystem functioning
Michel, Loïc ULg; Dauby, Patrick ULg; Dupont, Alessandra et al

in Belgian Journal of Zoology (2015), 145(2), 83-93

Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows shelter an important biomass and biodiversity of amphipod crustaceans that graze on epiphytes. However, their actual significance for ecosystem functional ... [more ▼]

Mediterranean Posidonia oceanica meadows shelter an important biomass and biodiversity of amphipod crustaceans that graze on epiphytes. However, their actual significance for ecosystem functional processes is hard to estimate, due to the lack of adequate data. Here, a field microcosm-based inclusion experiment was used to test if three of the dominant taxa of the amphipod community (Apherusa chiereghinii, Dexamine spiniventris and Gammarus spp.) could exert top-down control on seagrass leaf epiphytes. Influence of amphipod activity on nutrient availability for the host species was also investigated. All grazer taxa significantly reduced biomasses of erect macroalgae and erect sessile animals present on leaves. None of them consumed encrusting epiflora or epifauna. This selective top-down control could have important implications for the structure of the epiphytic community of P. oceanica leaves, which is one of the most diverse and abundant of all seagrass species. Grazing activity of all taxa caused higher N content of seagrass leaves, likely through amphipod excretion and/or sloppy feeding. Since P. oceanica meadows often grow in oligotrophic zones where plant growth can be nutrient-limited, this N enrichment could enhance seagrass production. Overall, the ecological interaction between P. oceanica and amphipods could be seen as a facultative mutualistic relationship. Our results suggest that amphipod mesograzers are key-elements in some of the functional processes regulating these complex and yet endangered ecosystems, which are essential components of Mediterranean coastal zones. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 48 (3 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailL'éveil de la matrix-gla-protéine sonnera le glas des calcifications vasculaires
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Liabeuf, Sophie; BOUQUEGNEAU, Antoine ULg et al

in Néphrologie & Thérapeutique (2015), 11(4), 191-200

La matrix-gla-protéine (MGP) est principalement sécrétée par les chondrocytes et les cellules musculaires lisses des parois vasculaires. Son rôle est d’inhiber localement le développement des ... [more ▼]

La matrix-gla-protéine (MGP) est principalement sécrétée par les chondrocytes et les cellules musculaires lisses des parois vasculaires. Son rôle est d’inhiber localement le développement des calcifications vasculaires. MGP doit bénéficier de deux processus post-transcriptionnels avant d’être pleinement active : une phosphorylation de résidus sérine et une carboxylation de résidus glutamate. Cette carboxylation ne peut se faire qu’en présence de quantité suffisante de vitamine K. Plusieurs formes de MGP circulent donc dans le plasma, certaines étant totalement inactives (la MGP déphosphorylée et décarboxylée), d’autres possédant une activité biologique variable en fonction du nombre de sites carboxylés ou phosphorylés. Il existe un lien théorique étroit entre MGP, vitamine K, calcifications vasculaires et maladies cardiovasculaires et ce, particulièrement chez les patients souffrant d’insuffisance rénale chronique, a fortiori s’ils sont dialysés. Si l’existence de ce lien a été démontrée via de nombreuses et solides données fondamentales, les données cliniques restent, à ce jour, observationnelles et doivent donc être interprétées avec prudence. Mesurer une fraction de MGP dans le plasma pour estimer le degré de calcification d’un patient donné n’est pas encore d’actualité . La forme inactive pourrait être utile pour juger des réserves en vitamine K au niveau vasculaire. Dans cet article de revue, nous reviendrons sur les bases théoriques du rôle de MGP dans le processus de calcification vasculaire, sur le défi analytique que représente sa détermination dans le plasma, ainsi que sur les liens entre MGP, vitamine K et calcifications vasculaires en population géne´ rale et chez les patients insuffisants rénaux. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailComparaison de l’effet du guidage échographique sur les ponctions de liquide céphalo-rachidien entre les localisations cisternales et lombaires chez le chien : une étude ex vivo
Etienne, Anne-Laure ULg; Peeters, Dominique ULg; Busoni, Valeria ULg

in Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (2015), 158

RÉSUMÉ : Le placement échoguidé de l’aiguille spinale pour les ponctions cisternale et lombaire chez le chien a été décrit. L’objectif de ce travail était de comparer l’effet du guidage échographique pour ... [more ▼]

RÉSUMÉ : Le placement échoguidé de l’aiguille spinale pour les ponctions cisternale et lombaire chez le chien a été décrit. L’objectif de ce travail était de comparer l’effet du guidage échographique pour la ponction de liquide céphalo-rachidien entre les ponctions cisternale et lombaire. Quatre-vingt-trois opérateurs ont participé à l’étude. Ils étaient divisés en quatre groupes selon leur expérience. Après une formation théorique courte, chaque opérateur a réalisé une ponction cisternale et lombaire en aveugle et sous contrôle échographique sur des cadavres tirés au sort. L’échoguidage lombaire était direct alors que celui cisternal était indirect. Après chaque procédure, les opérateurs ont rempli un questionnaire sur leur expérience, leur performance et leur confiance en soi. L’échoguidage augmentait significativement le taux de réussite global de la ponction (comparée à la méthode en aveugle) mais plus clairement avec la localisation lombaire. Le guidage échographique cisternal améliorait significativement le nombre de tentatives, le temps et la confiance en soi chez les opérateurs inexpérimentés et expérimentés. La première cause d’échec citée était différente selon la localisation de la ponction et était liée à la nature de l’échoguidage. Cette étude démontre que les opérateurs inexpérimentés sont capables de réaliser des ponctions échoguidées après une formation théorique courte, justifiant l’utilité du guidage échographique à des fins pédagogiques. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailLa Belgique ‘officielle’ face à l’OAS (1961-1964). Cas d’une adaptation de Bruxelles à la politique du général De Gaulle
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Revue du Nord (2015), 406 (octobre-décembre 2014)(96), 917-935

Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailInfluence of soft ferromagnetic sections on the magnetic flux density profile of a large grain, bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor
Philippe, Matthieu ULg; Ainslie, Mark D; Wera, Laurent ULg et al

in Superconductor Science and Technology (2015), 28

Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this ... [more ▼]

Bulk, high temperature superconductors have significant potential for use as powerful permanent magnets in a variety of practical applications due to their ability to trap record magnetic fields. In this paper, soft ferromagnetic sections are combined with a bulk, large grain Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) high temperature superconductor to form superconductor/ferromagnet (SC/FM) hybrid structures. We study how the ferromagnetic sections influence the shape of the profile of the trapped magnetic induction at the surface of each structure and report the surface magnetic flux density measured by Hall probe mapping. These configurations have been modelled using a 2D axisymmetric finite element method based on the H-formulation and the results show excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental measurements. The model has also been used to study the magnetic flux distribution and predict the behaviour for other constitutive laws and geometries. The results show that the ferromagnetic material acts as a magnetic shield, but the flux density and its gradient are enhanced on the face opposite to the ferromagnet. The thickness and saturation magnetization of the ferromagnetic material are important and a characteristic ferromagnet thickness d* is derived: below d*, saturation of the ferromagnet occurs, and above d*, a weak thickness-dependence is observed. The influence of the ferromagnet is observed even if its saturation magnetization is lower than the trapped flux density of the superconductor. Conversely, thin ferromagnetic discs can be driven to full saturation even though the outer magnetic field is much smaller than their saturation magnetization. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 21 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailConnections between the design tool, design attributes, and user preferences in early stage design
Häggman, Anders; Tsai, Geoff; Elsen, Catherine ULg et al

in Journal of Mechanical Design (2015), 137(7), 13

Gathering user feedback on provisional design concepts early in the design process has the potential to reduce time-to-market and create more satisfying products. Among the parameters that shape user ... [more ▼]

Gathering user feedback on provisional design concepts early in the design process has the potential to reduce time-to-market and create more satisfying products. Among the parameters that shape user response to a product, this paper investigates how design experts use sketches, physical prototypes, and computer-aided design (CAD) to generate and represent ideas, as well as how these tools are linked to design attributes and multiple measures of design quality. Eighteen expert designers individually addressed a 2 hr design task using only sketches, foam prototypes, or CAD. It was found that prototyped designs were generated more quickly than those created using sketches or CAD. Analysis of 406 crowdsourced responses to the resulting designs showed that those created as prototypes were perceived as more novel, more aesthetically pleasing, and more comfortable to use. It was also found that designs perceived as more novel tended to fare poorly on all other measured qualities. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 46 (4 ULg)
Full Text
Peer Reviewed
See detailDetection of decomposition volatile organic compounds in soil following removal of remains from a surface deposition site
Perrault, Katelynn A.; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Stuart, Barbara H. et al

in Forensic Science, Medicine & Pathology (2015), 11(3), 376-387

Purpose Cadaver-detection dogs use volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to search for human remains including those deposited on or beneath soil. Soil can act as a sink for VOCs, causing loading of ... [more ▼]

Purpose Cadaver-detection dogs use volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to search for human remains including those deposited on or beneath soil. Soil can act as a sink for VOCs, causing loading of decomposition VOCs in the soil following soft tissue decomposition. The objective of this study was to chemically profile decomposition VOCs from surface decomposition sites after remains were removed from their primary location. Methods Pig carcasses were used as human analogues and were deposited on a soil surface to decompose for 3 months. The remains were then removed from each site and VOCs were collected from the soil for 7 months & Katelynn A. Perrault katelynn.perrault@uts.edu.au thereafter and analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography–time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC9GC–TOFMS). Results Decomposition VOCs diminished within 6 weeks and hydrocarbons were the most persistent compound class. Decomposition VOCs could still be detected in the soil after 7 months using Principal Component Analysis. Conclusions This study demonstrated that the decompo- sition VOC profile, while detectable by GC9GC–TOFMS in the soil, was considerably reduced and altered in com- position upon removal of remains. Chemical reference data is provided by this study for future investigations of canine alert behavior in scenarios involving scattered or scav- enged remains. [less ▲]

Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg)