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See detailSimultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor
Mounir, Majid ULg; shafiei, rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh et al

in Journal of Bioscience & Bioengineering (2016), 121(2), 166-171

The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to ... [more ▼]

The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. [less ▲]

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See detailL'arrêt de mort des (trop) petites circonscriptions électorales wallonnes
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2016), 6634

Cet article propose un commentaire de l'arrêt n° 169/2015 de la Cour constitutionnelle belge, par lequel elle a considéré que les règles législatives qui instaurent les plus petites circonscriptions ... [more ▼]

Cet article propose un commentaire de l'arrêt n° 169/2015 de la Cour constitutionnelle belge, par lequel elle a considéré que les règles législatives qui instaurent les plus petites circonscriptions utilisées pour les élections du Parlement wallon sont inconstitutionnelles. L'article revient sur les enjeux du découpage du territoire en circonscriptions électorales, sur la jurisprudence antérieure en la matière et suggère un certain nombre d'adaptations que le législateur wallon pourrait adopter pour réagir à l'arrêt. [less ▲]

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See detailNumerical modeling of the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste in a bioreactor landfill
Hubert, Julien ULg; Collin, Frédéric ULg; Xianfeng, Liu

in Computers and Geotechnics (2016), 72

This paper presents a thermo-hydro–biochemo-mechanical model for simulating the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in a bioreactor landfill, in which the multi-physics coupling mechanism ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a thermo-hydro–biochemo-mechanical model for simulating the long term behavior of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) in a bioreactor landfill, in which the multi-physics coupling mechanism plays a dominant role. In the model, a two-stage anaerobic biochemical model based on McDougall’s formulation is incorporated into a fully coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical models originally developed for unsaturated porous medium. The mechanical model is a modified Camclay model allowing for biochemical hardening/softening, while the thermal model is described by a classical energy balance equation with a source term accounting for the heat generation from the biodegradation of organic matter. The hydraulic model is an unsaturated flow model using Richard’s equation. The derived coupled model is implemented into an in-house built multi-physics finite element code. Finally, numerical simulations were performed to illustrate the capability of the proposed model for estimating long-term settlement of a bioreactor landfill and its aptitude as a landfill management tool for optimizing the landfill operation [less ▲]

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See detailCoeur de crèche
Courtejoie, Fabienne ULg

in A+ Architecture en Belgique (2016), 258

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See detailDoes biobased polymer achieve better environmental impacts than fossil polymer? Comparison of fossil HDPE and biobased HDPE produced from sugar beet and wheat
Belboom, Sandra ULg; Léonard, Angélique ULg

in Biomass & Bioenergy (2016), 85

Polymers are one of the most used materials and the majority of their production is based on fossil fuels. Due to the decrease of oil resources and concerns about climate change, alternatives are needed ... [more ▼]

Polymers are one of the most used materials and the majority of their production is based on fossil fuels. Due to the decrease of oil resources and concerns about climate change, alternatives are needed, the transformation of biobased ethanol into biobased polymer being one of them. This paper undertakes an environmental evaluation of the production of biobased polymer produced from two different feedstock cultivated in Belgium: sugar beet and wheat. Both crops cultivation are studied as well as their transformation into biobased ethanol, first, and then to biobased ethylene, focusing on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) as final product. These scenarios are analyzed and compared with the production of conventional polymer using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology with reference to relevant environmental impact categories. This study shows a reduction of impact of around 60% for both climate change and fossil fuel depletion categories when using biobased HDPE instead of its fossil counterpart. For all other impact categories, fossil HDPE achieves better results than the biobased product. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of carbon - chlorine dual isotope analysis to assess the degradation pathways of 1,1,1-trichloroethane in groundwater
Palau, Jordi; Jamin, Pierre ULg; Badin, Alice et al

in Water Research (2016)

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool to track contaminant fate in groundwater. However, the application of CSIA to chlorinated ethanes has received little attention so far. These ... [more ▼]

Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is a powerful tool to track contaminant fate in groundwater. However, the application of CSIA to chlorinated ethanes has received little attention so far. These compounds are toxic and prevalent groundwater contaminants of environmental concern. The high susceptibility of chlorinated ethanes like 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) to be transformed via different competing pathways (biotic and abiotic) complicates the assessment of their fate in the subsurface. In this study, the use of a dual C-Cl isotope approach to identify the active degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA is evaluated for the first time in an aerobic aquifer impacted by 1,1,1-TCA and trichloroethylene (TCE) with concentrations of up to 20 mg/L and 3.4 mg/L, respectively. The reaction-specific dual carbon-chlorine (C-Cl) isotope trends determined in a recent laboratory study illustrated the potential of a dual isotope approach to identify contaminant degradation pathways of 1,1,1-TCA. Compared to the dual isotope slopes (Δδ13C/Δδ37Cl) previously determined in the laboratory for dehydrohalogenation / hydrolysis (DH/HY, 0.33 ± 0.04) and oxidation by persulfate (∞), the slope determined from field samples (0.6 ± 0.2, r2 = 0.75) is closer to the one observed for DH/HY, pointing to DH/HY as the predominant degradation pathway of 1,1,1-TCA in the aquifer. The observed deviation could be explained by a minor contribution of additional degradation processes. This result, along with the little degradation of TCE determined from isotope measurements, confirmed that 1,1,1-TCA is the main source of the 1,1-dichlorethylene (1,1-DCE) detected in the aquifer with concentrations of up to 10 mg/L. This study demonstrates that a dual C-Cl isotope approach can strongly improve the qualitative and quantitative assessment of 1,1,1-TCA degradation processes in the field. [less ▲]

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See detailData-driven selection of the minimum-gradient support parameter in time-lapse focused electrical imaging
Nguyen, Frédéric ULg; Kemna, Andreas; Robert, Tanguy et al

in Geophysics (2016), 81(1), 1-5

We have considered the problem of the choice of the minimum-gradient support (MGS) parameter in focused inversion for time-lapse (TL) electric resistivity tomography. Most existing approaches have relied ... [more ▼]

We have considered the problem of the choice of the minimum-gradient support (MGS) parameter in focused inversion for time-lapse (TL) electric resistivity tomography. Most existing approaches have relied either on an arbitrary choice of this parameter or one based on the prior information, such as the expected contrast in the TL image. We have decided to select the MGS parameter using a line search based on the value of the TL data root-mean-square misfit at the first iteration of the nonlinear inversion procedure. The latter was based on a Gauss-Newton scheme minimizing a regularized objective function in which the regularization functional was defined by the MGS functional. The regularization parameter was optimized to achieve a certain target level, following the Occam principles. We have validated our approach on a synthetic benchmark using a complex and heterogeneous model and determined its effectiveness on electric tomography TL data collected during a salt tracer experiment in fractured limestone. Our results have determined that the approach was successful in retrieving the focused anomaly and did not rely on prior information. [less ▲]

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See detailIdentités, préférences et attitudes des parlementaires envers le fédéralisme belge après la sixième réforme de l’État
Dodeigne, Jérémy ULg; Reuchamps, Min; Sinardet, Dave

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2016), 33

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See detailA comparative study of models for shear strength of reinforced concrete deep beams
Liu, Jian ULg; Mihaylov, Boyan ULg

in Engineering Structures (2016), 112(April), 81-89

Since the 1960s, researchers have proposed different empirical formulas and analytical models for the shear strength of deep reinforced concrete beams. Some of these approaches have shown adequate ... [more ▼]

Since the 1960s, researchers have proposed different empirical formulas and analytical models for the shear strength of deep reinforced concrete beams. Some of these approaches have shown adequate accuracy when applied to small sets of beam tests, while their ability to predict the effect of a large range of test variables remains unknown. This paper presents a summary of models for deep beams from 73 publications, and focuses on a detailed evaluation of ten more recent models by using a database of 574 deep beam tests. It is found that a semi-empirical strut-and-tie model (STM) and a two-parameter kinematic theory (2PKT) for deep beams produce the least scattered predictions. The former model produced an average shear strength experimental-to-predicted ratio Vexp/Vpred of 1.00 with a coefficient of variation (COV) of 19.8%, while the latter resulted in an average of 1.08 with a COV of 15.4%. The two models are also compared by plotting the Vexp/Vpred ratios against different tests variables, and by performing parametric studies with individual test series. It is shown that the semi-empirical STM exhibits certain bias with respect to the shear-span-to-depth ratio, while the 2PKT produces uniform results across the entire range of experimental data. It is also noted that the semi-empirical STM requires somewhat less computational effort than the 2PKT approach. [less ▲]

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See detailSoil-specific calibration of capacitance sensors considering clay content and bulk density
Parvin, Nargish ULg; Degré, Aurore ULg

in Australian Journal of Soil Research (2016)

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See detailTradeoffs between Maize Silage Yield and Nitrate Leaching in a Mediterranean Nitrate- Vulnerable Zone under Current and Projected Climate Scenarios
Basso, Bruno; Giola, Pietro; Dumont, Benjamin ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(1): e0146360

Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i ... [more ▼]

Future climatic changes may have profound impacts on cropping systems and affect the agronomic and environmental sustainability of current N management practices. The objectives of this work were to i) evaluate the ability of the SALUS crop model to reproduce experimental crop yield and soil nitrate dynamics results under different N fertilizer treatments in a farmer’s field, ii) use the SALUS model to estimate the impacts of different N fertilizer treatments on NO3- leaching under future climate scenarios generated by twenty nine different global circulation models, and iii) identify the management system that best minimizes NO3- leaching and maximizes yield under projected future climate conditions. A field experiment (maize-triticale rotation) was conducted in a nitrate vulnerable zone on the west coast of Sardinia, Italy to evaluate N management strategies that include urea fertilization (NMIN), conventional fertilization with dairy slurry and urea (CONV), and no fertilization (N0). An ensemble of 29 global circulation models (GCM) was used to simulate different climate scenarios for two Representative Circulation Pathways (RCP6.0 and RCP8.5) and evaluate potential nitrate leaching and biomass production in this region over the next 50 years. Data collected from two growing seasons showed that the SALUS model adequately simulated both nitrate leaching and crop yield, with a relative error that ranged between 0.4% and 13%. Nitrate losses under RCP8.5 were lower than under RCP6.0 only for NMIN. Accordingly, levels of plant N uptake, N use efficiency and biomass production were higher under RCP8.5 than RCP6.0. Simulations under both RCP scenarios indicated that the NMIN treatment demonstrated both the highest biomass production and NO3- losses. The newly proposed best management practice (BMP), developed from crop N uptake data, was identified as the optimal N fertilizer management practice since it minimized NO3- leaching and maximized biomass production over the long term. [less ▲]

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See detailLa médecine dans l’œil du cyclone
COUCKE, Philippe ULg

in Le spécialiste (2016)

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See detailFeasibility of improving a priori regional climate model estimates of Greenland ice sheet surface mass loss through assimilation of measured ice surface temperatures
Navari, M.; Margulis, S.A.; Bateni, S.M. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its considerable impact on sea level rise. Accurate estimates of surface mass fluxes would contribute to understanding the cause ... [more ▼]

The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has been the focus of climate studies due to its considerable impact on sea level rise. Accurate estimates of surface mass fluxes would contribute to understanding the cause of its recent changes and would help to better estimate the past, current and future contribution of the GrIS to sea level rise. Though the estimates of the GrIS surface mass fluxes have improved significantly over the last decade, there is still considerable disparity between the results from different methodologies (e.g., Rae et al., 2012; Vernon et al., 2013). The data assimilation approach can merge information from different methodologies in a consistent way to improve the GrIS surface mass fluxes. In this study, an ensemble batch smoother data assimilation approach was developed to assess the feasibility of generating a reanalysis estimate of the GrIS surface mass fluxes via integrating remotely sensed ice surface temperature measurements with a regional climate model (a priori) estimate. The performance of the proposed methodology for generating an improved posterior estimate was investigated within an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE) framework using synthetically generated ice surface temperature measurements. The results showed that assimilation of ice surface temperature time series were able to overcome uncertainties in near-surface meteorological forcing variables that drive the GrIS surface processes. Our findings show that the proposed methodology is able to generate posterior reanalysis estimates of the surface mass fluxes that are in good agreement with the synthetic true estimates. The results also showed that the proposed data assimilation framework improves the root-mean-square error of the posterior estimates of runoff, sublimation/evaporation, surface condensation, and surface mass loss fluxes by 61, 64, 76, and 62 %, respectively, over the nominal a priori climate model estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of thermal comfort in existing pre-1945 residential building stock
Kumar Singh, Manoj; Attia, Shady ULg; Mahapatra, Sadha et al

in Energy (2016), 98(March), 122-134

The building sector is the third-largest consumer of primary energy in Belgium. This is partly because of the high percentage of old buildings (buildings constructed before 1945) in its building stock ... [more ▼]

The building sector is the third-largest consumer of primary energy in Belgium. This is partly because of the high percentage of old buildings (buildings constructed before 1945) in its building stock. Existing international standards on thermal comfort focus primarily on new construction and commercial buildings but tend to overlook old buildings. This study involves a thermal comfort assessment of fully functional (in use) residential buildings constructed before 1945 in Liège (Belgium). The research methodology is based on continuous long term monitoring of the indoor environment (November 2011 to May 2012) and followed by comfort surveys for selected houses in the city. The analysis of the collected data shows that family composition, envelope performance and the occupants' interaction with the indoor environment greatly affected occupant preferences and functioning of the indoor thermal environment. This study reveals that the occupants' interaction with the indoor thermal environment to restore comfortable thermal conditions varies throughout the day, by adjusting the temperature in different rooms of the house at different times of the day. This study argues that modern comfort standards have failed to estimate the comfort level in these old buildings and, if applied, they would lead to under estimation of their thermal comfort. [less ▲]

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See detailTranscriptome-wide distribution and function of RNA hydroxymethylcytosine
Delatte, Benjamin; Wang, F; Ngoc, LV et al

in Science (2016), 351(6270), 282-285

Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the ... [more ▼]

Hydroxymethylcytosine, well described in DNA, occurs also in RNA. Here, we show that hydroxymethylcytosine preferentially marks polyadenylated RNAs and is deposited by Tet in Drosophila. We map the transcriptome-wide hydroxymethylation landscape, revealing hydroxymethylcytosine in the transcripts of many genes, notably in coding sequences, and identify consensus sites for hydroxymethylation. We found that RNA hydroxymethylation can favor mRNA translation. Tet and hydroxymethylated RNA are found to be most abundant in the Drosophila brain, and Tet-deficient fruitflies suffer impaired brain development, accompanied by decreased RNA hydroxymethylation. This study highlights the distribution, localization, and function of cytosine hydroxymethylation and identifies central roles for this modification in Drosophila. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing the toxicity of Pb- and Sn-based perovskite solar cells in model organism Danio rerio
Babayigit, Aslihan; Dinh Duy Thanh, ULg; Ethirajan, Anitha et al

in Scientific Reports (2016), 6

Intensive development of organometal halide perovskite solar cells has lead to a dramatic surge in power conversion efficiency up to 20%. Unfortunately, the most efficient perovskite solar cells all ... [more ▼]

Intensive development of organometal halide perovskite solar cells has lead to a dramatic surge in power conversion efficiency up to 20%. Unfortunately, the most efficient perovskite solar cells all contain lead (Pb), which is an unsettling flaw that leads to severe environmental concerns and is therefore a stumbling block envisioning their large-scale application. Aiming for the retention of favorable electro-optical properties, tin (Sn) has been considered the most likely substitute. Preliminary studies have however shown that Sn-based perovskites are highly unstable and, moreover, Sn is also enlisted as a harmful chemical, with similar concerns regarding environment and health. To bring more clarity into the appropriateness of both metals in perovskite solar cells, we provide a case study with systematic comparison regarding the environmental impact of Pb- and Sn-based perovskites, using zebrafish (Danio Rerio) as model organism. Uncovering an unexpected route of intoxication in the form of acidification, it is shown that Sn based perovskite may not be the ideal Pb surrogate. [less ▲]

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See detailColor in the urban environment: A user-oriented protocol for chromatic characterization and the development of a parametric typology
Nguyen, Ngoc Luan ULg; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Color Research and Application (2016)

This article presents a user-oriented protocol that can be used to characterize chromatic attributes of an urban area. A need for both affordable and reliable assessment method of color has been observed ... [more ▼]

This article presents a user-oriented protocol that can be used to characterize chromatic attributes of an urban area. A need for both affordable and reliable assessment method of color has been observed in the field of urban design. The challenge is to provide statistical answers to these two questions: how is color organized, how does it develop its own structure in the city? The main purpose of the research is hence to investigate mean color types within the city via the implementation of a characterization tool; an urban area of the four main classes (historic center, periurban housing districts, working-class neighborhoods, and commercial zones) being characterized by a specific color palette, or a layout of specific color types. The developed instrumentation allows the assessment of the homogeneous and consistent features of an urban district. Their characterization protocol was tested through an application to several streets of the city of Liège (Belgium). [less ▲]

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See detailA comparison of two stretching programs for hamstring muscles: A randomized controlled assessor-blinded study
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Wolfs, Sébastien ULg; Chevalier, Madeline et al

in Physiotherapy Theory & Practice (2016)

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See detailEffects of regional climate change on brown rust disease in winter wheat
JUNK, Jürgen; Kouadio, Louis; Delfosse, Philippe et al

in Climatic Change (2016)

Projected climate changes will affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. We assessed the ... [more ▼]

Projected climate changes will affect wheat crop production both in the main processes of plant growth and development but also in the occurrences and severities of plant diseases. We assessed the potential infection periods of wheat leaf rust (WLR) at two climatologically differentsites in Luxembourg. A threshold-based model, taking hourlyvalues of air temperatures, relative humidity and precipitation during night-time into account, was used for calculating favourable WLR infection days during three periods throughout the cropping season. Field experiments were conducted during the 2003–2013 period at the selected sites. Projected climate data, from a multi model ensemble of regional climate models (spatial resolution 25 km) as well as an additional projection with a higher spatial resolution of 1.3 km, were used for investigating the potential WLR infection periods for two future time spans. Results showed that the infections of WLR were satisfactorily simulated during the development of wheat at both sites for the 2003–2013 period. The probabilities of WLR detection were close to 1 and the critical success index ranged from 0.80 to 0.94 (perfect score = 1 for both). Moreover, the highest proportions of favourable days of WLR infection were simulated during spring and summer at both sites. Regional climate projections showed an increase in temperatures by 1.6 K for 2041–2050 and by 3.7 K for 2091–2100 compared to the reference period1991–2000. Positivetrends infavourableWLR infection conditions occur at both sites more conducive than in the reference period due to projected climatic conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailCollaborative analysis of multi-gigapixel imaging data using Cytomine
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Rollus, Loïc; Stévens, Benjamin et al

in Bioinformatics (2016)

Motivation: Collaborative analysis of massive imaging datasets is essential to enable scientific discoveries. Results: We developed Cytomine to foster active and distributed collaboration of ... [more ▼]

Motivation: Collaborative analysis of massive imaging datasets is essential to enable scientific discoveries. Results: We developed Cytomine to foster active and distributed collaboration of multidisciplinary teams for large-scale image-based studies. It uses web development methodologies and machine learning in order to readily organize, explore, share, and analyze (semantically and quantitatively) multi-gigapixel imaging data over the internet. We illustrate how it has been used in several biomedical applications. Availability: Cytomine (http://www.cytomine.be/) is freely available under an open-source license from http://github.com/cytomine/. A documentation wiki (http://doc.cytomine.be) and a demo server (http://demo.cytomine.be) are also available. [less ▲]

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See detailFar beyond primary poly(vinylamine)s through free radical copolymerization and amide hydrolysis
Dréan, Mathilde ULg; Guégan, Philippe; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(1), 69-78

Due to their affinity for many supports, their pH responsiveness, metal binding capacity and polyelectro- lyte complexation, poly(vinylamine) derivatives have attracted attention for many applications ... [more ▼]

Due to their affinity for many supports, their pH responsiveness, metal binding capacity and polyelectro- lyte complexation, poly(vinylamine) derivatives have attracted attention for many applications including coatings, water purification, or gas membrane separation. Nevertheless, most of them possess only pendant primary amines despite the possible benefits of incorporating different amino groups along the chain. In this work, a straightforward and scalable synthesis route towards polymers bearing primary and secondary amines, as well as imidazole groups, is reported. The general strategy relies on the radical copolymerization of different vinylamides and vinyl imidazoles followed by the hydrolysis of the resulting poly(vinylamide) derivatives. Binary and ternary free radical copolymerizations of N-vinylacetamide (NVA), N-methyl vinylacetamide (NMVA) and 1-vinylimidazole (VIm) were investigated and the reactivity ratios for each copolymerization system were determined. Thanks to these values a series of statistical copolymers with predictable composition and low deviation over the chain distribution could then be synthesized. Finally, the acidic hydrolysis of the acetamide functions towards the corresponding amine was performed and optimized. Copolymers containing various pendant amino groups and with low dispersity in the chain composition could be obtained, which opens new perspectives for the above mentioned applications. [less ▲]

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See detailSpin texture induced by oxygen vacancies in strontium perovskite (001) surfaces: A theoretical comparison between SrTiO3 and SrHfO3
Garcia Castro, Andrés Camilo ULg; Vergniory, Maia G.; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and SrHfO3 (001) surfaces with oxygen vacancies is studied by means of first-principles calculations. We reveal how oxygen vacancies within the first atomic layer of the ... [more ▼]

The electronic structure of SrTiO3 and SrHfO3 (001) surfaces with oxygen vacancies is studied by means of first-principles calculations. We reveal how oxygen vacancies within the first atomic layer of the SrTiO3 surface (i) induce a large antiferrodistortive motion of the oxygen octahedra at the surface, (ii) drive localized magnetic moments on the Ti 3d orbitals close to the vacancies, and (iii) form a two-dimensional electron gas localized within the first layers. The analysis of the spin texture of this system exhibits a splitting of the energy bands according to the Zeeman interaction, lowering of the Ti 3dxy level in comparison with dxz and dyz, and also an in-plane precession of the spins. No Rashba-like splitting for the ground state or for the ab initio molecular dynamics trajectory at 400 K is recognized as suggested recently by A. F. Santander-Syro et al. [Nat. Mater. 13, 1085 (2014)]. Instead, a sizable Rashba-like splitting is observed when the Ti atom is replaced by a heavier Hf atom with a much larger spin-orbit interaction. However, we observe the disappearance of the magnetism and the surface two-dimensional electron gas when full structural optimization of the SrHfO3 surface is performed. Our results uncover the sensitive interplay of spin-orbit coupling, atomic relaxations, and magnetism when tuning these Sr-based perovskites. [less ▲]

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See detailProcessing of a new class of multifunctional hybrid for electromagnetic absorption based on a foam filled honeycomb
Bollen, Pierre; Quievy, Nicolas; Detrembleur, Christophe ULg et al

in Materials & Design (2016), 89

A multifunctional hybrid material class in the form of a sandwich panel has been developed towards the com- bined optimization of mechanical and electromagnetic absorption performance. The faces of the ... [more ▼]

A multifunctional hybrid material class in the form of a sandwich panel has been developed towards the com- bined optimization of mechanical and electromagnetic absorption performance. The faces of the panel are made of glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites and the core is made of carbon nanotube reinforced polymer foam filling a metallic honeycomb. The different processing strategies and options tested to fabricate the core material are described aswell as the associated scientific and technological issues. The most efficient processing route is by foaming the nanocomposite with a chemical foaming agent directly inside the honeycomb. This route offers a good surface finish and the operation can be achieved in one step. But, in order to produce large panels with a semi-continuous process, thermo-mechanical insertion of the foamed nanocomposite with supercritical CO2 can be more suitable. The characterization of the electromagnetic absorption of the panels produced by dif- ferent routes shows that the performance is not much sensitive to processing defects making possible upscaling to mass production. [less ▲]

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See detailA prospective cohort study of the clinical presentation of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head: spine and knee symptoms as clinical presentation of hip osteonecrosis.
HAUZEUR, Jean-Philippe ULg; Malaise, Michel ULg; de MARTELAER, v

in International Orthopaedics (2016)

To study the clinical presentation of femoral head osteonecrosis (ONFH). Publications dedicated to this aspect of ONFH are rare. Our aim was to systematically collect and describe the clinical data.

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See detailComprehensive comparison of the chemical and structural characterization of landfill leachate and leonardite humic fractions
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Richel, Aurore ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg et al

in Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (2016)

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil ... [more ▼]

Humic substances (HS) are complex and heterogeneous mixtures of organic compounds that occur everywhere in the environment. They represent most of the dissolved organic matter in soils, sediments (fossil), water, and landfills. The exact structure of HS macromolecules has not yet been determined because of their complexity and heterogeneity. Various descriptions of HS are used depending on specific environments of origin and research interests. In order to improve the understanding of the structure of HS extracted from landfill leachate (LHS) and commercial HS from leonardite (HHS), this study sought to compare the composition and characterization of the structure of LHS and HHS using elemental composition, chromatographic (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), and spectroscopic techniques (UV–vis, FTIR, NMR, and MALDI-TOF). The results showed that LHS molecules have a lower molecular weight and less aromatic structure than HHS molecules. The characteristics of functional groups of both LHS and HHS, however, were basically similar, but there was some differences in absorbance intensity. There were also less aliphatic and acidic functional groups and more aromatic and polyphenolic compounds in the humic acid (HA) fraction than in the fulvic acid (FA) and other molecules (OM) fractions of both origins. The differences between LHS and HHS might be due to the time course of humification. Combining the results obtained from these analytical techniques cold improve our understanding of the structure of HS of different origins and thus enhance their potential use. [less ▲]

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See detailVariability in the super-Earth 55 Cnc e
Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michaël ULg; Madhusudhan, Nikku et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 455

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in ... [more ▼]

Considerable progress has been made in recent years in observations of atmospheric signatures of giant exoplanets, but processes in rocky exoplanets remain largely unknown due to major challenges in observing small planets. Numerous efforts to observe spectra of super-Earths, exoplanets with masses of 1-10 Earth masses, have thus far revealed only featureless spectra. In this paper, we report a 4σ detection of variability in the dayside thermal emission from the transiting super-Earth 55 Cancri e. Dedicated space-based monitoring of the planet in the mid-infrared over eight eclipses revealed the thermal emission from its dayside atmosphere varying by a factor of 3.7 between 2012 and 2013. The amplitude and trend of the variability are not explained by potential influence of star spots or by local thermal or compositional changes in the atmosphere over the short span of the observations. The possibility of large-scale surface activity due to strong tidal interactions possibly similar to Io, or the presence of circumstellar/circumplanetary material appear plausible and motivate future long-term monitoring of the planet. [less ▲]

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See detailAmplitude and frequency variations of oscillation modes in the pulsating DB white dwarf star KIC~08626021. The likely signature of nonlinear resonant mode coupling
Zong, W.; Charpinet, S.; Vauclair, G. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 585

Context. The signatures of nonlinear effects affecting stellar oscillations are difficult to observe from ground observatories because of the lack of continuous high-precision photometric data spanning ... [more ▼]

Context. The signatures of nonlinear effects affecting stellar oscillations are difficult to observe from ground observatories because of the lack of continuous high-precision photometric data spanning extended enough time baselines. The unprecedented photometric quality and coverage provided by the Kepler spacecraft offers new opportunities to search for these phenomena. Aims: We use the Kepler data accumulated on the pulsating DB white dwarf KIC 08626021 to explore in detail the stability of its oscillation modes, searching, in particular, for evidence of nonlinear behaviors. Methods: We analyze nearly two years of uninterrupted short-cadence data, concentrating on identified triplets that are caused by stellar rotation and that show intriguing behaviors during the course of the observations. Results: We find clear signatures of nonlinear effects that could be attributed to resonant mode coupling mechanisms. These couplings occur between the components of the triplets and can induce different types of behaviors. We first notice that a structure at 3681 μHz, identified as a triplet in previous published studies, is in fact forming a doublet, with the third component being an independent mode. We find that a triplet at 4310 μHz and this doublet at 3681 μHz (most likely the two visible components of an incomplete triplet) have clear periodic frequency and amplitude modulations, which are typical of the so-called intermediate regime of the resonance, with timescales consistent with theoretical expectations. Another triplet at 5073 μHz is likely in a narrow transitory regime in which the amplitudes are modulated while the frequencies are locked. Using nonadiabatic pulsation calculations, based on a model representative of KIC 08626021 to evaluate the linear growth rates of the modes in the triplets, we also provide quantitative information that could be useful for future comparisons with numerical solutions of the amplitude equations. Conclusions: The observed modulations are the clearest hints of nonlinear resonant couplings occurring in white dwarf stars identified so far. These should resonate as a warning to projects that aim at measuring the evolutionary cooling rate of KIC 08626021, and of white dwarf stars in general. Nonlinear modulations of the frequencies can potentially jeopardize any attempt to measure such rates reliably, unless they can be corrected beforehand. These results should motivate further theoretical work to develop the nonlinear stellar pulsation theory. [less ▲]

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See detailInsan her şeyin ölçüsü şüdür? Çağdas dünya ısiğinda Protagoras
Gavray, Marc-Antoine ULg

in Sabah Ülkesi (2016), 46

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See detailThe effects of a documentary film about schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation
Thonon, Bénédicte ULg; Pletinx, Amandine; Grandjean, Allison et al

in Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry (2016), 50

Background and Objectives: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to ... [more ▼]

Background and Objectives: Stereotypes about schizophrenia may lead to prejudicial attitudes and discrimination with debilitating effects on people diagnosed with schizophrenia. There is thus a need to develop interventions aiming to prevent, reduce or eliminate such stereotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a documentary film on schizophrenia on cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of stigmatisation. Methods: Forty-nine participants were assessed on measures of stereotypes and social distance, and on the Model of Stereotype Content, which includes measures of stereotypes, emotional reactions and behavioural tendencies. Participants were randomly assigned into either a condition in which they viewed the documentary film (Film group), or into a control condition in which no intervention was conducted (Control group). Results: Only participants in the Film group revealed a significant decrease of negative stereotypes (Dangerousness and Unpredictability) and desired Social distance, and a significant increase in the perception of sociability in persons with schizophrenia. Limitations: Small sample size and its reduced generalizability are the main limitations in this study. Conclusions: These findings suggest that a documentary film promoting indirect contact with people diagnosed with schizophrenia is a promising tool to prevent and reduce stigmatisation regarding schizophrenia. [less ▲]

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See detailAutomatic artifacts and arousals detection in whole-night sleep EEG recordings
Coppieters't Wallant, Dorothée ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg; Gaggioni, Giulia ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2016), 258

In sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, artifacts and arousals marking are usually part of the processing. This visual inspection by a human expert has two main drawbacks: it is very time ... [more ▼]

In sleep electroencephalographic (EEG) signals, artifacts and arousals marking are usually part of the processing. This visual inspection by a human expert has two main drawbacks: it is very time consuming and subjective. To detect artifacts and arousals in a reliable, systematic and reproducible automatic way, we developed an automatic detection based on time and frequency analysis with adapted thresholds derived from data themselves. The automatic detection performance is assessed using 5 statistic parameters, on 60 whole night sleep recordings coming from 35 healthy volunteers (male and female) aged between 19 and 26. The proposed approach proves its robustness against inter- and intra-, subjects and raters’ scorings, variability. The agreement with human raters is rated overall from substantial to excellent and provides a significantly more reliable method than between human raters. Existing methods detect only specific artifacts or only arousals, and/or these methods are validated on short episodes of sleep recordings, making it difficult to compare with our whole night results. The method works on a whole night recording and is fully automatic, reproducible, and reliable. Furthermore the implementation of the method will be made available online as open source code. [less ▲]

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See detailElectrical resistivity tomography to monitor enhanced biodegradation of hydrocarbons with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 at a pilot scale
Masy, Thibaut ULg; Caterina, David; Tromme, Oliver et al

in Journal of Contaminant Hydrology (2016), 184

Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of ... [more ▼]

Petroleum hydrocarbons (HC) represent the most widespread contaminants and in-situ bioremediation remains a competitive treatment in terms of cost and environmental concerns. However, the efficiency of such a technique (by biostimulation or bioaugmentation) strongly depends on the environment affected and is still difficult to predict a priori. In order to overcome these uncertainties, Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) appears as a valuable non-invasive tool to detect soil heterogeneities and to monitor biodegradation. The main objective of this study was to isolate an electrical signal linked to an enhanced bacterial activity with ERT, in an aged HC-contaminated clayey loam soil. To achieve this, a pilot tank was built to mimic field conditions. Compared to a first insufficient biostimulation phase, bioaugmentation with Rhodococcus erythropolis T902.1 led to a HC depletion of almost 80% (6900 to 1600 ppm) in 3 months in the center of the contaminated zone, where pollutants were less bioavailable. In the meantime, lithological heterogeneities and microbial activities (growth and biosurfactant production) were successively discriminated by ERT images. In the future, this cost-effective technique should be more and more transferred to the field in order to monitor biodegradation processes and assist in selecting the most appropriate remediation technique. [less ▲]

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See detailSmall-Angle Neutron Scattering investigation of cholesterol-doped DMPC liposomes interacting with β-cyclodextrin
Joset, Arnaud ULg; Grammenos, Angeliki; Hoebeke, Maryse ULg et al

in Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry (2016), 84(1), 153-161

The Small-Angle Neutron Scattering technique (SANS) has been applied to characterize the influence of a randomly methylated β–cyclodextrin (CD), called RAMEB, on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC ... [more ▼]

The Small-Angle Neutron Scattering technique (SANS) has been applied to characterize the influence of a randomly methylated β–cyclodextrin (CD), called RAMEB, on dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) liposomes doped with cholesterol. From the modelling of the experimental neutron scattering crosssections, the detailed response of the vesicle structure upon addition of increasing amounts of RAMEB up to 30 mM has been assessed. This study has been performed below and above the DMPC bilayer phase transition temperature and shows that cholesterol extraction by RAMEB is linked to a decrease of the average radius and of the aggregation number of the vesicles. This extraction takes place in a dose-dependent way until a more monodisperse population of cholesterol-free liposomes was obtained. In addition, the bilayer thickness evolution was inferred, as well as the liposome coverage by RAMEB. [less ▲]

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See detailVaricella paediatric hospitalisations in Belgium: a 1-year national survey.
Blumental, Sophie; Sabbe, Martine; Lepage, Philippe et al

in Archives of disease in childhood (2016), 101(1), 16-22

BACKGROUND: Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Varicella universal vaccination (UV) has been implemented in many countries for several years. Nevertheless, varicella UV remains debated in Europe and few data are available on the real burden of infection. We assessed the burden of varicella in Belgium through analysis of hospitalised cases during a 1-year period. METHODS: Data on children admitted to hospital with varicella were collected through a national network from November 2011 to October 2012. Inclusion criteria were either acute varicella or related complications up to 3 weeks after the rash. RESULTS: Participation of 101 hospitals was obtained, covering 97.7% of the total paediatric beds in Belgium. 552 children were included with a median age of 2.1 years. Incidence of paediatric varicella hospitalisations reached 29.5/10(5) person-years, with the highest impact among those 0-4 years old (global incidence and odds of hospitalisation: 79/10(5) person-years and 1.6/100 varicella cases, respectively). Only 14% (79/552) of the cohort had an underlying chronic condition. 65% (357/552) of children had >/=1 complication justifying their admission, 49% were bacterial superinfections and 10% neurological disorders. Only a quarter of children (141/552) received acyclovir. Incidence of complicated hospitalised cases was 19/10(5) person-years. Paediatric intensive care unit admission and surgery were required in 4% and 3% of hospitalised cases, respectively. Mortality among Belgian paediatric population was 0.5/10(6) and fatality ratio 0.2% among our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Varicella demonstrated a substantial burden of disease in Belgian children, especially among the youngest. Our thorough nationwide study, run in a country without varicella UV, offers data to support varicella UV in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailPremière consultation de contraception chez les adolescentes
BELIARD, Aude ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(1), 28-33

Adequate contraception prescription is mandatory for teenagers to avoid any unwanted pregnancy. Counselling and description of side effect improve compliance. Use of condom is important to avoid sexually ... [more ▼]

Adequate contraception prescription is mandatory for teenagers to avoid any unwanted pregnancy. Counselling and description of side effect improve compliance. Use of condom is important to avoid sexually transmitted infections. Combined estroprogestin contraception has multiple non-contraceptive benefits, e.g. dysmenorrhea improvement. Familial and personal history is needed before contraception prescription. Further consultation 3 months later has to be planned to evaluate compliance, side effects and to adapt contraception if needed. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamical thermalization in Bose-Hubbard systems
Schlagheck, Peter ULg; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2016), 93

We numerically study a Bose-Hubbard ring of finite size with disorder containing a finite number of bosons that are subject to an on-site two-body interaction. Our results show that moderate interactions ... [more ▼]

We numerically study a Bose-Hubbard ring of finite size with disorder containing a finite number of bosons that are subject to an on-site two-body interaction. Our results show that moderate interactions induce dynamical thermalization in this isolated system. In this regime the individual many-body eigenstates are well described by the standard thermal Bose-Einstein distribution for well-defined values of the temperature and the chemical potential, which depend on the eigenstate under consideration. We show that the dynamical thermalization conjecture works well at both positive and negative temperatures. The relations to quantum chaos, quantum ergodicity, and the Åberg criterion are also discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailRe-visiting plant plasma membrane lipids in tobacco: a focus on sphingolipids
Cacas, Jean Luc; Buré, Corinne; Grosjean, Kevin et al

in Plant Physiology (2016), 170

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See detailCross-Modal Decoding of Neural Patterns Associated with Working Memory: Evidence for Attention-Based Accounts of Working Memory
Majerus, Steve ULg; Cowan, Nelson; Peters, Frédéric ULg et al

in Cerebral Cortex (2016), 26

Recent studies suggest common neural substrates involved in verbal and visual working memory (WM), interpreted as reflecting shared attention-based, short-term retention mechanisms. We used a machine ... [more ▼]

Recent studies suggest common neural substrates involved in verbal and visual working memory (WM), interpreted as reflecting shared attention-based, short-term retention mechanisms. We used a machine-learning approach to determine more directly the extent to which common neural patterns characterize retention in verbal WM and visual WM. Verbal WM was assessed via a standard delayed probe recognition task for letter sequences of variable length. Visual WM was assessed via a visual array WM task involving the maintenance of variable amounts of visual information in the focus of attention. We trained a classifier to distinguish neural activation patterns associated with high- and low-visual WM load and tested the ability of this classifier to predict verbal WM load (high–low) from their associated neural activation patterns, and vice versa. We observed significant between-task prediction of load effects during WM maintenance, in posterior parietal and superior frontal regions of the dorsal attention network; in contrast, between-task prediction in sensory processing cortices was restricted to the encoding stage. Furthermore, between-task prediction of load effects was strongest in those participants presenting the highest capacity for the visual WM task. This study provides novel evidence for common, attention-based neural patterns supporting verbal and visual WM. [less ▲]

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See detailPopulatieonderzoek naar de Hazelmuis in de Voerstreek
Verbeylen, Goedele; Mouton, Alice ULg; Driessens, Gerald et al

in De Levende Natuur (2016), (numero 1),

The Hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) is a habitat specialist that prefers dense shrub and tree vegetation and needs a high diversity of food plants on a limited area. Due to habitat degradation ... [more ▼]

The Hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius) is a habitat specialist that prefers dense shrub and tree vegetation and needs a high diversity of food plants on a limited area. Due to habitat degradation and fragmentation the Flemish distribution area of this critically endangered species has been reduced to the eastern part of the municipality of Voeren, where it forms a cross-border population with the Dutch Hazel dormice. Since 2003 the Mammal Working Group of Natuurpunt studies the remaining Flemish population to find out more about population parameters, habitat use, the influence of habitat quality and management actions. In 2007 a standardised monitoring started by counting autumnal nests along fixed transects. In 2013 an intensive capture-mark-recapture study was set up based on nest box and nest tube checks and live-trapping on custom made hanging platforms; also a first test with radiocollars took place. The information gathered from the combination of all these methods will be used to validate the monitoring method and to formulate better protection measures. First results show that late summer and autumn should not be considered as the main reproduction period, at least not in an early year like 2014 when first young were already born at the beginning of May. Hazel dormice do not only cross significant barriers like the railway during dispersal, but also do this regularly during their nightly movements within their home range. Expansion of the population on a location with sufficient connectivity seems to be hampered by a too low population density resulting from insufficient habitat quality and (in this case) a high predation pressure by house cats. On the scale of the Meuse-Rhine Euregion, genetic analyses carried out by the University of Liège reveal four genetically isolated clusters, for which a vision to interconnect these was computed in the Interreg-project ‘Habitat Euregio’. [less ▲]

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See detailProvenance of Ichthyosaura alpestris (Caudata: Salamandridae) introductions to France and New Zealand assessed by mitochondrial DNA analysis
Arntzen, Jan W.; King, Tania M.; Denoël, Mathieu ULg et al

in The Herpetological Journal (2016), 26(1), 49-56

The last century has seen an unparalleled movement of species around the planet as a direct result of human activity, which has been a major contributor to the biodiversity crisis. Amphibians represent a ... [more ▼]

The last century has seen an unparalleled movement of species around the planet as a direct result of human activity, which has been a major contributor to the biodiversity crisis. Amphibians represent a particularly vulnerable group, exacerbated by the devastating effects of chytrid fungi. We report the malicious translocation and establishment of the alpine newt (Ichthyosaura alpestris) to its virtual antipode in North Island of New Zealand. We use network analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes to identify the original source population as I. a. apuana from Tuscany, Italy. Additionally, a population in southern France, presumed to be introduced, is identified as I. a. alpestris from western Europe. However, the presence of two differentiated haplotypes suggests a mixed origin. This type of analysis is made possible by the recent availability of a phylogenetic analysis of the species throughout its natural range. We discuss the particulars of both introductions. [less ▲]

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See detailProjecting alternative urban growth patterns: The development and application of a remote sensing assisted calibration framework for the Greater Dublin Area
Van de Voorde, Tim; van der Kwast, Johannes; Poelmans, Lien et al

in Ecological Indicators (2016), 60

Land use change models are powerful tools that allow planners and policy makers to assess the long-term spatial and environmental impacts of their decisions. In order for these models to produce a ... [more ▼]

Land use change models are powerful tools that allow planners and policy makers to assess the long-term spatial and environmental impacts of their decisions. In order for these models to produce a realistic output, they should be properly calibrated. This is usually achieved by comparing simulated land-use maps of dates in the past to reference land-use maps of a corresponding date. As land-use data are often not readily or frequently available, we propose a two-stage calibration framework that includes existing land-use maps as well as remote sensing derived maps of the urban extent. Urban growth patterns for the Dublin area represented by remote sensing based maps were compared to simulated growth using spatial metrics in order to fine-tune the calibration of the MOLAND urban growth model of Dublin. We then used the calibrated model to forecast future urban growth according to four urban planning scenarios that have been defined for the Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Greater Dublin Area. We examined a selection of spatial metrics in order to determine their sensitivity to differences in spatial patterns between simulated and remote sensing derived data. We also investigated whether these metrics are useful to characterise future changes in the urban spatial structure that ensue from the planning scenarios. We found that with the exception of some metrics that strongly respond to differences in the amount of urban land, most metrics showed similar trends for simulated and remote sensing derived maps. Most metrics were also able to distinguish the growth patterns induced by the different spatial planning scenarios. The “business as usual scenario” in particular showed a clearly distinct trend compared to the other scenarios. We could also conclude that the urban growth pattern of Dublin as observed from both the remote sensing derived maps and the simulated maps of future land use seems to confirm the theory of alternating phases of diffusive growth and coalescence. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of seed traits variation on seedling performance of the invasive weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.
Ortmans, William ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Monty, Arnaud ULg

in Acta Oecologica: International Journal of Ecology (2016), 71

Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for ... [more ▼]

Seedling performance can determine the survival of a juvenile plant and impact adult plant performance. Understanding the factors that may impact seedling performance is thus critical, especially for annuals, opportunists or invasive plant species. Seedling performance can vary among mothers or populations in response to environmental conditions or under the influence of seed traits. However, very few studies have investigated seed traits variations and their consequences on seedling performance. Specifically, the following questions have been addressed by this work: 1) How the seed traits of the invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. vary among mothers and populations, as well as along the latitude; 2) How do seed traits influence seedling performance; 3) Is the influence on seedlings temperature dependent. With seeds from nine Western Europe ruderal populations, seed traits that can influence seedling development were measured. The seeds were sown into growth chambers with warmer or colder temperature treatments. During seedling growth, performance-related traits were measured. A high variability in seed traits was highlighted. Variation was determined by the mother identity and population, but not latitude. Together, the temperature, population and the identity of the mother had an effect on seedling performance. Seed traits had a relative impact on seedling performance, but this did not appear to be temperature dependent. Seedling performance exhibited a strong plastic response to the temperature, was shaped by the identity of the mother and the population, and was influenced by a number of seed traits. [less ▲]

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See detailLater learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in children with Specific Language Impairment
Desmottes, Lise ULg; Meulemans, Thierry ULg; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in Research in Developmental Disabilities (2016)

Background According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language ... [more ▼]

Background According to the Procedural Deficit Hypothesis (PDH), difficulties in the procedural memory system may contribute to the language difficulties encountered by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Most studies investigating the PDH have used the sequence learning paradigm; however these studies have principally focused on initial sequence learning in a single practice session. Aims The present study sought to extend these investigations by assessing the consolidation stage and longer-term retention of implicit sequence-specific knowledge in 42 children with or without SLI. Methods and procedures Both groups of children completed a serial reaction time task and were tested 24 h and one week after practice. Outcomes and results Results showed that children with SLI succeeded as well as children with typical development (TD) in the early acquisition stage of the sequence learning task. However, as training blocks progressed, only TD children improved their sequence knowledge while children with SLI did not appear to evolve any more. Moreover, children with SLI showed a lack of the consolidation gains in sequence knowledge displayed by the TD children. Conclusions and implications Overall, these results were in line with the predictions of the PDH and suggest that later learning stages in procedural memory are impaired in SLI. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of Methylmercury on Harbour Seal Peripheral Blood Leucocytes In Vitro Studied by Electron Microscopy
Dupont, Aurélie; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Schnitzler, Joseph ULg et al

in Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2016), 70(1), 133-142

Methylmercury MeHg is highly immunotoxic and can alter the health status of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, from the North Sea. To investigate the mechanism of MeHg-induced toxicity in harbour seal ... [more ▼]

Methylmercury MeHg is highly immunotoxic and can alter the health status of the harbour seal, Phoca vitulina, from the North Sea. To investigate the mechanism of MeHg-induced toxicity in harbour seal lymphocytes, ConA-stimulated peripheral blood leucocytes were exposed in vitro to sub-lethal concentrations of MeHgCl (0.2, 1 and 2 µM) for 72h, and then analysed for their viability and ultrastructure. After 72h of incubation, cells were counted with a propidium iodide staining technique, a metabolic MTS assay was performed, and cells exposed to 1 µM MeHgCl were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alive cell numbers decreased with increased MeHgCl concentrations. In presence of ConA and 1µM of MeHgCl, TEM images revealed a higher frequency of apoptotic cells. Exposed cells displayed condensation of the chromatin at the nuclear membrane and mitochondrial damages. The results suggest that in vitro MeHgCl induced apoptosis in harbour seal lymphocytes through a mitochondrial pathway. [less ▲]

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See detailCost-effectiveness of personalized supplementation with vitamin D-rich dairy products in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures
Ethgen, Olivier ULg; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Burlet, Nansa et al

in Osteoporosis International (2016), 27

Summary: Titrated supplementations with vitamin D-fortified yogurt, based on spontaneous calcium and vitamin D intakes, can be cost-effective in postmenopausal women with or without increased risk of ... [more ▼]

Summary: Titrated supplementations with vitamin D-fortified yogurt, based on spontaneous calcium and vitamin D intakes, can be cost-effective in postmenopausal women with or without increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Introduction: The objective of this study is to assess the costeffectiveness of the vitamin D-fortified yogurt given to women with and without an increased risk of osteoporotic fracture. Methods: Avalidated cost-effectiveness microsimulation Markov model of osteoporosis management was used. Three personalized supplementation scenarios to reflect the Ca/Vit D needs taking into account the well-known variations in dietary habits and a possible pharmacological supplementation in Ca/ Vit D, given above or in combination with anti-osteoporosis medications: one yogurt per day, i.e., 400 mg of Ca+200 IU of Vit D (scenario 1 U), two yogurts per day, i.e., 800 mg of Ca+ 400 IU of Vit D (scenario 2 U), or three yogurts per day, i.e., 1, 200 mg of Ca+600 IU of Vit D (scenario 3 U). Results: One yogurt is cost-effective in the general population above the age of 70 years and in all age groups in women with low bone mineral density (BMD) or prevalent vertebral fracture (PVF). The daily intake of two yogurts is cost-effective above 80 years in the general population and above 70 years in the two groups of women at increased risk of fractures. However, an intake of three yogurts per day is only cost-effective above 80 years old in the general population, as well as in women with low BMD or PVF. Conclusions: Our study is the first economic analysis supporting the cost-effectiveness of dairy products, fortified with vitamin D, in the armamentarium against osteoporotic fractures. [less ▲]

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See detailComment je traite... la sténose aortique asymptomatique
MEURICE, Caroline ULg; DULGHERU, Raluca Elena ULg; PIERARD, Luc ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), (71), 6-10

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See detail2D dynamic studies combined with the surface curvature analysis to predict Arias Intensity amplification
Torgoev, Almazbek ULg; Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg

in Journal of Seismology (2016)

A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings ... [more ▼]

A 2D elasto-dynamic modelling of the pure topographic seismic response is performed for six models with a total length of around 23.0 km. These models are reconstructed from the real topographic settings of the landslide-prone slopes situated in the Mailuu-Suu River Valley, Southern Kyrgyzstan. The main studied parameter is the Arias Intensity (Ia, m/sec), which is applied in the GIS-based Newmark method to regionally map the seismically-induced landslide susceptibility. This method maps the Ia values via empirical attenuation laws and our studies investigate a potential to include topographic input into them. Numerical studies analyse several signals with varying shape and changing central frequency values. All tests demonstrate that the spectral amplification patterns directly affect the amplification of the Ia values. These results let to link the 2D distribution of the topographically amplified Ia values with the parameter called as smoothed curvature. The amplification values for the low-frequency signals are better correlated with the curvature smoothed over larger spatial extent, while those values for the high-frequency signals are more linked to the curvature with smaller smoothing extent. The best predictions are provided by the curvature smoothed over the extent calculated according to Geli’s law. The sample equations predicting the Ia amplification based on the smoothed curvature are presented for the sinusoid-shape input signals. These laws cannot be directly implemented in the regional Newmark method, as 3D amplification of the Ia values addresses more problem complexities which are not studied here. Nevertheless, our 2D results prepare the theoretical framework which can potentially be applied to the 3D domain and, therefore, represent a robust basis for these future research targets. [less ▲]

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See detailCharacterizing the morphology of suburban settlements: a method based on a semi-automatic classification of building clusters
de Smet, Fabian; Teller, Jacques ULg

in Landscape Research (2016), 41(1), 113-130

Urban sprawl is transforming our landscapes and rural areas at a spectacular pace. Measuring the strength of the phenomenon and proposing dynamic ways to delineate suburban areas have been the object of ... [more ▼]

Urban sprawl is transforming our landscapes and rural areas at a spectacular pace. Measuring the strength of the phenomenon and proposing dynamic ways to delineate suburban areas have been the object of much debate amongst scientists. The present article takes the view that, beyond measuring and delineating suburban areas, more efforts should be directed to qualifying the morphology of built settlements within these areas. Therefore it proposes a method based on a semi-automatic classification system of building clusters, designed to describe and interpret the phenomenon from a morphological perspective. This method is based on a combination of field surveys with numerical analyses of digital land cadastre maps. The application of this classification system to the suburban area around Liege reveals that, far from developing in a complete indifference of local conditions, contemporary suburban settlements are influenced by landscape structures inherited from the past. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of coil orientation on strength-duration time constant and I-wave activation with controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulation
D'Ostilio, Kevin ULg; Goetz, Stefan; Hannah, Ricci et al

in Clinical Neurophysiology (2016), 1

Objective: To compare the strength-duration (S-D) time constants of motor cortex structures activated by current pulses oriented posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) across the central ... [more ▼]

Objective: To compare the strength-duration (S-D) time constants of motor cortex structures activated by current pulses oriented posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) across the central sulcus. Methods: Motor threshold and input–output curve, along with motor evoked potential (MEP) latencies, of first dorsal interosseus were determined at pulse widths of 30, 60, and 120 μs using a controllable pulse parameter (cTMS) device, with the coil oriented PA or AP. These were used to estimate the S-D time constant and we compared with data for responses evoked by cTMS of the ulnar nerve at the elbow. Results: The S-D time constant with PA was shorter than for AP stimulation (230.9 ± 97.2 vs. 294.2 ± 90.9 us; p<0.001). These values were similar to those calculated after stimulation of ulnar nerve (197 ± 47us). MEP latencies to AP, but not PA stimulation were affected by pulse width, showing longer latencies following short duration stimuli. Conclusion: PA and AP stimuli appear to activate the axons of neurons with different time constants. Short duration AP pulses are more selective than longer pulses in recruiting longer latency corticospinal output. [less ▲]

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See detailL’infraction d’obstacle à la surveillance sous le spectre du droit au silence et du droit de ne pas s’auto-incriminer
Michiels, Olivier ULg; Falque, Géraldine ULg

in Orientations : la Revue du Droit Social et de la Gestion du Personnel (2016), (2006/1), 2-11

L'article fait le point sur le contrôle de l’application des lois sociales par les inspecteurs sociaux et le délit d’obstacle à la surveillance envisagé sous l'angle du droit au silence et du droit de ne ... [more ▼]

L'article fait le point sur le contrôle de l’application des lois sociales par les inspecteurs sociaux et le délit d’obstacle à la surveillance envisagé sous l'angle du droit au silence et du droit de ne pas s'auto-incriminer. Il envisage encore la cohabitation entre le délit d'obstacle et le droit au silence sous l’angle de la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme et du droit interne. [less ▲]

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See detailDeveloping Tourism Products and new Partnerships through Participative Action Research in Rural Cameroon
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Lekane Tsoubgou, Dieudonné

in Geographical Research (2016)

The paper explores possible synergies between microfinance institutions and small and medium medium tourism businesses in the West Cameron Chiefdooms. Based on a research action the authors emphasise the ... [more ▼]

The paper explores possible synergies between microfinance institutions and small and medium medium tourism businesses in the West Cameron Chiefdooms. Based on a research action the authors emphasise the obstacles to the formation of partnership and describe how the researchers facilitated networking. [less ▲]

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See detailXenobiotic and Immune-Relevant Molecular Biomarkers in Harbor Seals as Proxies for Pollutant Burden and Effects?
Lehnert, Kristina; Ronnenberg, Katrin; Weijs, Liesbeth et al

in Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2016), 70(1), 106-120

Harbor seals are exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in their marine environment. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace elements are hazardous contaminants which ... [more ▼]

Harbor seals are exposed to increasing pressure caused by anthropogenic activities in their marine environment. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace elements are hazardous contaminants which accumulate in tissues of harbor seals. POPs and trace elements can negatively affect the immune-system and have been reported e.g. to increase susceptibility to viral infections in seals. Biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism, cytokines and heat-shock-protein as cell mediators of the immune-system were established to evaluate the impact of environmental stressors on harbor seals. Harbor seals (n=54) were captured on sandbanks in the North Sea during 2009 to 2012. Medicals including hematology were performed, RNAlater blood samples were taken and analyzed using quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction. Normalized transcript copy numbers were correlated to hematology and POP concentration in blood, and trace metals in blood and fur. [less ▲]

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See detailBreakdown of Anderson localization in the transport of Bose-Einstein condensates through one-dimensional disordered potentials
Dujardin, Julien ULg; Engl, Thomas; Schlagheck, Peter ULg

in Physical Review A (2016), 93

We study the transport of an interacting Bose–Einstein condensate through a 1D correlated disorder potential. We use for this purpose the truncated Wigner method, which is, as we show, corresponding to ... [more ▼]

We study the transport of an interacting Bose–Einstein condensate through a 1D correlated disorder potential. We use for this purpose the truncated Wigner method, which is, as we show, corresponding to the diagonal approximation of a semiclassical van Vleck–Gutzwiller representation of this many-body transport process. We also argue that semiclassical corrections beyond this diagonal approximation are vanishing under disorder average, thus confirming the validity of the truncated Wigner method in this context. Numerical calculations show that, while for weak atom-atom interaction strengths Anderson localization is preserved with a slight modification of the localization length, for larger interaction strengths a crossover to a delocalized regime exists due to inelastic scattering. In this case, the transport is fully incoherent. [less ▲]

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See detailPre-employement examination for low back risk in workers exposesd to manual handling of loads : French guidelines
PETIT, Audrey; ROUSSEAU, Sandrine; HUEZ, Jean-François et al

in International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health (2016), 89

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See detailL'intentionnalité cognitive et ses modes. Reinach critique de Brentano
Dewalque, Arnaud ULg

in Philosophie (2016), 128(Janvier 2016), 20-33

Dans cet article, je suggère que la théorie reinachienne du jugement peut être vue comme une contribution à une théorie générale de l’intentionnalité cognitive et de ses modes. À cette fin, je focaliserai ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, je suggère que la théorie reinachienne du jugement peut être vue comme une contribution à une théorie générale de l’intentionnalité cognitive et de ses modes. À cette fin, je focaliserai mon attention sur certaines divergences significatives entre Reinach et Brentano. Après quelques réflexions introductives (§§ 1-2), j’examinerai plus exactement les questions suivantes : quels sont les motifs théoriques qui ont conduit Reinach à s’écarter de la théorie brentanienne du jugement (§§ 3-4) ? Et que retenir de ses analyses aujourd’hui (§§ 5-6) ? [less ▲]

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See detailarchiDART: an R package for the automated computation of plant root architectural traits
Delory, Benjamin ULg; Baudson, Caroline ULg; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Plant and Soil (2016), 398(1), 351-365

Background and Aims In order to analyse root system architectures (RSAs) from captured images, a variety of manual (e.g. Data Analysis of Root Tracings, DART), semi-automated and fully automated software ... [more ▼]

Background and Aims In order to analyse root system architectures (RSAs) from captured images, a variety of manual (e.g. Data Analysis of Root Tracings, DART), semi-automated and fully automated software packages have been developed. These tools offer complementary approaches to study RSAs and the use of the Root System Markup Language (RSML) to store RSA data makes the comparison of measurements obtained with different (semi-) automated root imaging platforms easier. The throughput of the data analysis process using exported RSA data, however, should benefit greatly from batch analysis in a generic data analysis environment (R software). Methods We developed an R package (archiDART) with five functions. It computes global RSA traits, root growth rates, root growth directions and trajectories, and lateral root distribution from DART-generated and/or RSML files. It also has specific plotting functions designed to visualise the dynamics of root system growth. Results The results demonstrated the ability of the package’s functions to compute relevant traits for three contrasted RSAs (Brachypodium distachyon [L.] P. Beauv., Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg. and Solanum lycopersicum L.). Conclusions This work extends the DART software package and other image analysis tools supporting the RSML format, enabling users to easily calculate a number of RSA traits in a generic data analysis environment. [less ▲]

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See detailShaping Pulses to Control Bistable Systems: Analysis, Computation and Counterexamples
Sootla, Aivar ULg; Oyarzun, Diego; Angeli, David et al

in Automatica (2016), 63

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See detailLa psychothérapie institutionnelle : un processus thérapeutique au service de la régulation émotionnelle et de l'empathie
Triffaux, Jean-Marc ULg; Gernay, Delphine; Servais, Catherine et al

in Encéphale (L') (2016)

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See detailQuand la force enfonce des portes ouvertes. Analyse du traitement de Star Wars Episode VII par la critique professionnelle et amateure.
Krywicki, Boris ULg

in Culture, le Magazine Culturel de l'Université de Liège (2016)

On a rarement aperçu des phénomènes cinématographiques de l’ampleur de Star Wars. La plupart des séances étaient déjà complètes plusieurs semaines avant la sortie du dernier épisode. Les spectateurs sont ... [more ▼]

On a rarement aperçu des phénomènes cinématographiques de l’ampleur de Star Wars. La plupart des séances étaient déjà complètes plusieurs semaines avant la sortie du dernier épisode. Les spectateurs sont tous conquis en amont par ce messie monolithique. Quand il s'agit d'aborder un film-événement comme Star Wars, la critique de cinéma se cherche. Les timides tentatives de la rigide presse professionnelle qui hésite toujours à critiquer les productions hollywoodiennes font face à des vidéos de youtubeurs décomplexés. Cet article analyse les contrats de lecture de ces différents énonciateurs et le lecteur-modèle qu'ils envisagent pour traiter de Star Wars Episode VII. [less ▲]

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See detailDecitabine improves progression-free survival in older high-risk MDS patients with multiple autosomal monosomies: results of a subgroup analysis of the randomized phase III study 06011 of the EORTC Leukemia Cooperative Group and German MDS Study Group
Lübbert, Michael; Suciu, Stefan; Hagemeijer, Anne et al

in Annals of Hematology (2016), 95

In a study of elderly AML patients treated with the hypomethylating agent decitabine (DAC), we noted a surprisingly favorable outcome in the (usually very unfavorable) subgroup with two or more autosomal ... [more ▼]

In a study of elderly AML patients treated with the hypomethylating agent decitabine (DAC), we noted a surprisingly favorable outcome in the (usually very unfavorable) subgroup with two or more autosomal monosomies (MK2+) within a complex karyotype (Lübbert et al., Haematologica 97:393-401, 2012). We now analyzed 206 myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients (88 % of 233 patients randomized in the EORTC/GMDSSG phase III trial 06011, 61 of them with RAEBt, i.e. AML by WHO) with cytogenetics informative for MK status.. Endpoints are the following: complete/partial (CR/PR) and overall response rate (ORR) and progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Cytogenetic subgroups are the following: 63 cytogenetically normal (CN) patients, 143 with cytogenetic abnormalities, 73 of them MKnegative (MK−), and 70 MK-positive (MK+). These MK+ patients could be divided into 17 with a single autosomal monosomy (MK1) and 53 with at least two monosomies (MK2+). ORR with DAC in CN patients: 36.1 %, in MK−patients: 16.7 %, in MK+ patients: 43.6 % (MK1: 44.4 %, MK2+ 43.3 %). PFS was prolonged by DAC compared to best supportive care (BSC) in the CN (hazard ratio (HR) 0.55, 99 % confidence interval (CI), 0.26; 1.15, p=0.03) and MK2+ (HR 0.50; 99%CI, 0.23; 1.06, p=0.016) but not in the MK−, MK+, and MK1 subgroups. OS was not improved by DAC in any subgroup. In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time in a randomized phase III trial that high-risk MDS patients with complex karyotypes harboring two or more autosomal monosomies attain encouraging responses and have improved PFS with DAC treatment compared to BSC. [less ▲]

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See detailQuasi-periodic injections of relativistic electrons in Saturn's outer magnetosphere
Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Mitchell, D. G. et al

in Icarus (2016), 263

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See detailCorrelation between resting state fMRI total neuronal activity and PET metabolism in healthy controls and patients with disorders of consciousness
Soddu, Andrea ULg; Gomez, Francisco; Heine, Lizette ULg et al

in Brain and Behavior (2016)

Introduction: The mildly invasive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging technique to measure ‘resting state’ cerebral metabolism. This technique made ... [more ▼]

Introduction: The mildly invasive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) is a well-established imaging technique to measure ‘resting state’ cerebral metabolism. This technique made it possible to assess changes in metabolic activity in clinical applications, such as the study of severe brain injury and disorders of consciousness. Objective: We assessed the possi- bility of creating functional MRI activity maps, which could estimate the rela- tive levels of activity in FDG-PET cerebral metabolic maps. If no metabolic absolute measures can be extracted, our approach may still be of clinical use in centers without access to FDG-PET. It also overcomes the problem of recogniz- ing individual networks of independent component selection in functional mag- netic resonance imaging (fMRI) resting state analysis. Methods: We extracted resting state fMRI functional connectivity maps using independent component analysis and combined only components of neuronal origin. To assess neu- ronality of components a classification based on support vector machine (SVM) was used. We compared the generated maps with the FDG-PET maps in 16 healthy controls, 11 vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients and four locked-in patients. Results: The results show a significant similarity with q = 0.75  0.05 for healthy controls and q = 0.58  0.09 for vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome patients between the FDG- PET and the fMRI based maps. FDG-PET, fMRI neuronal maps, and the conjunction analysis show decreases in frontoparietal and medial regions in vegetative patients with respect to controls. Subsequent analysis in locked-in syndrome patients produced also consistent maps with healthy controls. Conclusions: The constructed resting state fMRI functional connectivity map points toward the possibility for fMRI resting state to estimate relative levels of activity in a metabolic map. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of total phenolic compounds content and antioxidant activity in cherry species and cultivars
Pissard, Audrey; Lateur, Marc; Baeten, V et al

in Journal of Berry Research (2016)

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that cherries, especially sour cultivars, contain substantial amounts of phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to (i) analyze the total phenolic compound ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that cherries, especially sour cultivars, contain substantial amounts of phenolic compounds. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to (i) analyze the total phenolic compound (TPC) content and the antioxidant capacity (AC) of a large range of cultivars using the same methodology in one laboratory, and (ii) determine the possible relationship between agronomic characteristics and AC. METHODS: A total of 245 samples including sweet, sour and hybrid cultivars from our collections were harvested at their optimum maturity and characterized according to their TPC, DPPH and ORAC values. RESULTS: The TPC content and DPPH and ORAC values varied greatly among the cherries, with the sour cultivars presenting higher levels than the sweet ones. The PCA plot showed a slight grouping by species and confirmed the high TPC content level in sour cultivars. The bi-colored cultivars had lower TPC and antioxidant capacity (AC) values than dark-colored ones, indicating that coloration could give an indication of the AC of fruits. No significant relationship between the agronomic and chemical properties was highlighted. CONCLUSIONS: Cherry fruits, especially from sour cultivars, represent an important source of bioactive compounds and could attract new interest as a ‘functional food’. [less ▲]

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See detailImprovement of malignant pleural mesothelioma immunotherapy by epigenetic modulators
Hamaïdia, Malik ULg; Staumont, Bernard ULg; DUYSINX, Bernard ULg et al

in Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry (2016), 16

In the absence of a satisfactory treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Among these, immunotherapy offers a series of advantages such as tumor ... [more ▼]

In the absence of a satisfactory treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), novel therapeutic strategies are urgently needed. Among these, immunotherapy offers a series of advantages such as tumor specificity and good tolerability. Unfortunately, MPM immunotherapy is frequently limited by incomplete cell differentiation or feedback loop regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we describe different components of the innate immune system and discuss strategies to improve MPM immunotherapy by using epigenetic modulators. [less ▲]

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See detailContinuous-Flow N-Heterocyclic Carbene Generation and Organocatalysis
Di Marco, Lorenzo; Hans, Morgan; Delaude, Lionel ULg et al

in Chemistry : A European Journal (2016)

Two methods were assessed for the generation of common N heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) from stable imidazol(in)¬ium precursors using convenient and straightforward continuous-flow setups with either a ... [more ▼]

Two methods were assessed for the generation of common N heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) from stable imidazol(in)¬ium precursors using convenient and straightforward continuous-flow setups with either a heterogeneous inorganic base (Cs2CO3 or K3PO4) or a homoge¬neous organic base (KN(SiMe3)2). In-line quenching with carbon disulfide revealed that the homogeneous strategy was most efficient for the preparation of a small library of NHCs. The generation of free nucleophilic carbenes was next telescoped with two benchmark NHC-catalyzed reactions, namely, the transesterification of vinyl acetate with benzyl alcohol and the amidation of N-Boc-glycine methyl ester with ethanolamine. Both organocatalytic transfor¬ma¬tions proceeded with total conversion and excellent yields were achieved after extraction, showcasing the first examples of continuous-flow organocatalysis with NHCs. [less ▲]

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See detailLA PARTICIPATION DES USAGERS COMME LEVIER DE L’INNOVATION DANS LES SERVICES PUBLICS : LE CAS DE LA GÉOMATIQUE WALLONNE
Fallon, Catherine ULg; Calay, Vincent

in Pyramides : Revue du Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique (2016)

La numérisation des données géographiques est une de ces techniques récentes qui transforment à la fois la structure politico-administrative et la construction des politiques elles-mêmes en transformant ... [more ▼]

La numérisation des données géographiques est une de ces techniques récentes qui transforment à la fois la structure politico-administrative et la construction des politiques elles-mêmes en transformant le réseau d’action publique. Ces données peuvent être utilisées dans la plupart des politiques, pourvu que les questions de distribution territoriales y soient pertinentes : on parle en ce sens d’une « géomatisation » de l’action publique. Le cadre européen avec la directive INSPIRE a donné l’impulsion et définit le cadre de référence pour une refonte des processus de production et de diffusion des données géographiques numériques. Les états doivent chacun établir une infrastructure de données géographiques numériques pour assurer l’interopérabilité entre bases de données et faciliter la diffusion, la disponibilité, l'utilisation et la réutilisation de l’information géographique au niveau de leur territoire et en Europe. En Belgique, ce sont les régions - et le niveau fédéral pour ses compétences - qui ont hérité de cette responsabilité : leurs données doivent être mises à disposition des utilisateurs, qu’ils soient décideurs ou citoyens dans des formats harmonisés afin d'en faciliter l'utilisation par tous et il faut aussi définir les principes d’échange, de tarification et les conditions d’utilisation propres à faciliter l’accès aux données et aux services en ligne. Les données géographiques numérisées ont ceci de particulier qu’elles sont produites de façon décentralisées par des acteurs publics mais aussi privés, lesquels cherchent à peser sur les choix stratégiques des autorités régionales. Au niveau de la Région wallonne a été mis en place récemment un ensemble de structure de coopération avec les usagers, les entreprises, et les autorités locales. L’administration a créé en son sein des groupes de travail transversaux pour améliorer l’intégration entre les approches thématiques contrôlées par les différentes directions. Le projet d’article trouve son origine dans l’accompagnement assuré par le SPIRAL au Département de la géomatique de la Région wallonne dans le cadre de la rédaction du plan stratégique et du plan opérationnel de la géomatique wallonne (2013-2015). L’article prendra appui sur les principes de la sociologie de la traduction (Callon, 1986) pour proposer une analyse des lieux et des processus qui contribuent à mettre en place une « gouvernance en réseau » mobilisant une logique d’innovation publique (Sørensen et al. 2011), sans suspendre pour autant les formes de coordination hiérarchiques et contractuelles. [less ▲]

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See detailCritical analysis of the paramagnetic to ferromagnetic phase transition in Pr0.55K0.05Sr0.4MnO3
Thaljaoui, R.; Pękała, M.; Fagnard, Jean-François ULg et al

in Physica B: Condensed Matter (2016), 482

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See detailA Mixed Integer Programming formulation for the three dimensional bin packing problem deriving from an air cargo application
Paquay, Célia ULg; Schyns, Michael ULg; Limbourg, Sabine ULg

in International Transactions in Operational Research (2016), 23(1-2), 187-213

The present paper looks into the problem of optimising the loading of boxes into containers. The goal is to minimise the unused volume. This type of problem belongs to the family of Multiple Bin Size Bin ... [more ▼]

The present paper looks into the problem of optimising the loading of boxes into containers. The goal is to minimise the unused volume. This type of problem belongs to the family of Multiple Bin Size Bin Packing Problems. The approach includes an extensive set of constraints encountered in real-world applications in the three-dimensional case: the stability, the fragility of the items, the weight distribution and the possibility to rotate the boxes. It also includes the specific situation in which containers are truncated parallelepipeds. This is typical in the field of air transportation. While most papers on cutting and packing problems describe ad-hoc procedures, this paper proposes a mixed integer linear program. The validity of this model is tested on small instances. [less ▲]

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See detailStaphylococcus aureus genotype B and other genotypes isolated from cow milk in European countries.
Cosandey, A.; Boss, R.; Luini, M. et al

in Journal of dairy science (2016), 99(1), 529-40

Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies, however, have demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from ... [more ▼]

Staphylococcus aureus is globally one of the most important pathogens causing contagious mastitis in cattle. Previous studies, however, have demonstrated in Swiss cows that Staph. aureus isolated from bovine intramammary infection is genetically heterogeneous, with Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB) and GTC being the most prominent genotypes. In addition, Staph. aureus GTB was found to be contagious, whereas Staph. aureus GTC and all the remaining genotypes were involved in individual cow disease. The aim of this study was to subtype strains of Staph. aureus isolated from bovine mastitic milk and bulk tank milk to obtain a unified view of the presence of bovine staphylococcal subtypes in 12 European countries. A total of 456 strains of Staph. aureus were subjected to different typing methods: ribosomal spacer PCR, detection of enterotoxin genes, and detection of gene polymorphisms (lukE, coa). Major genotypes with their variants were combined into genotypic clusters (CL). This study revealed 5 major CL representing 76% of all strains and comprised CLB, CLC, CLF, CLI, and CLR. The clusters were characterized by the same genetic properties as the Swiss isolates, demonstrating high clonality of bovine Staph. aureus. Interestingly, CLB was situated in central Europe whereas the other CL were widely disseminated. The remaining 24% of the strains comprised 41 genotypes and variants, some of which (GTAM, GTBG) were restricted to certain countries; many others, however, were observed only once. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenolic profile, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties of second grade date extract from Tunisian cultivars (Phoenix dactylifera L.)
Kchaou, Wissal; Abbès, Fatma; Ben Mansour, Riadh et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), (194), 1048-1055

The present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. Phenolic ... [more ▼]

The present study aimed to investigate the phenolic profile of second grade date extracts and evaluate their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities with regard to some pathogenic microorganisms. Phenolic content was analyzed by HPLC. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the agar disk diffusion method, and in vitro cytotoxic activity was examined by cell proliferation assay. The results revealed that second grade dates presented three benzoic acids, five cinnamic acids and two flavonoids, with the predominance of q-coumaric acid (1998.80 lg/100 g). The antimicrobial activities showed that the date extracts were active against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, showing marked activity against Escherichia coli with an inhibition zone of 25 mm. Cytotoxicity assays showed that the date extracts were able to inhibit the proliferation of HeLa cell lines. The results confirmed that the date extracts were rich in biologically active compounds that are highly valued in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge predatory marine reptiles from the Albian–Cenomanian of Annopol, Poland
Bardet, Nathalie; Fischer, Valentin ULg; Machalski, Marcin

in Geological Magazine (2016)

During the Early–Late Cretaceous transition, marine ecosystems in Eurasia hosted a diverse set of large predatory reptiles that occupied various niches. However, most of our current knowledge of these ... [more ▼]

During the Early–Late Cretaceous transition, marine ecosystems in Eurasia hosted a diverse set of large predatory reptiles that occupied various niches. However, most of our current knowledge of these animals is restricted to a small number of bonebed-like deposits. Little is known of the geographical and temporal extent of such associations. The middle Albian – middle Cenomanian phosphorite-bearing succession exposed at Annopol, Poland produces numerous ichthyosaurian and plesiosaurian fossils. These are mostly isolated skeletal elements (e.g. teeth, vertebrae), but disarticulated partial skeletons and an articulated, sub vertically embedded ichthyosaur skull are also available. The following taxa are identified: ‘Platypterygius’ sp., cf. Ophthalmosaurinae, Ichthyosauria indet., Polyptychodon interruptus, Pliosauridae indet., Elasmosauridae<indet. and Plesiosauria indet. The large-sized ichthyosaur ‘Platypterygius’ and the pliosaurid Polyptychodon interruptus predominate within the upper Albian – middle Cenomanian deposits. The Annopol record, combined with data from England, France and western Russia, suggests that ‘Platypterygius’ and Polyptychodon interruptus formed a long-term, stable ecological sympatry in marine ecosystems of the European archipelago, at least during the Albian – middle Cenomanian. In addition, the marine reptile assemblage from Annopol is distinct from other Eurasian ecosystems in containing also elasmosaurids in its Albian portion. [less ▲]

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See detailVolcanic eruptions boost tropical Pacific biological productivity
Chikamoto, Megumi O.; Timmermann, Axel; Yoshimori, Masakazu et al

in Geophysical Research Letters (2016)

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See detailSolidarity economy and its anarchist grammar
Frère, Bruno ULg

in Sociology and anthropology (2016), 5(24),

‘Solidarity economy’, a widely used term for which the most common French equivalent is economie solidaire, is generally thought of as comprising five distinct classes of activity : Micro-finance, Local ... [more ▼]

‘Solidarity economy’, a widely used term for which the most common French equivalent is economie solidaire, is generally thought of as comprising five distinct classes of activity : Micro-finance, Local Exange Trading Systems, proximity services, organic community supported agriculture and fairtrade distributions. Because they try to answer to the Aristotelian theoretical question “what can we do to live harmoniously together?”, these solidarity initiatives are deeply political in the philosophical sense of the term. They galvanize civic commitment at the “micro” level. But today, an important question arises regarding the kind of formal political institution that would speak in the name of all these initiatives. In France, some intellectuals who have an interest in these solidarity initiatives see them as new economic models with the potential to solve the current financial crisis, and they are eager for academic specialists and leaders of the movement to achieve some kind of consensus about the kind of concrete political identity such initiatives may be expected to generate. However this paper studies their way of establishing a basis for moving from micro level initiatives to substantial “macro” polity unity. Using the insights of french pragmatic sociology, and particularly the notion of grammar of justification, it aims to understand what the obstacles to this aim being realised are. [less ▲]

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See detailEnvironmental and economic benefits of variable rate nitrogen fertilization in a nitrate vulnerable zone
Basso, Bruno; Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Cammarano, Davide et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2016), 545/546

Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural fields despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial ... [more ▼]

Agronomic input and management practices have traditionally been applied uniformly on agricultural fields despite the presence of spatial variability of soil properties and landscape position. When spatial variability is ignored, uniform agronomic management can be both economically and environmentally inefficient. The objectives of this study were to: i) identify optimal N fertilizer rates using an integrated spatio-temporal analysis of yield and site-specific N rate response; ii) test the sensitivity of site specific N management to nitrate leaching in response to different N rates; and iii) demonstrate the environmental benefits of variable rate N fertilizer in a Nitrate Vulnerable Zone. This study was carried out on a 13.6 ha field near the Venice Lagoon, northeast Italy over four years (2005–2008). We utilized a validated crop simulation model to evaluate crop response to different N rates at specific zones in the field based on localized soil and landscape properties under rainfed conditions. The simulated rates were: 50 kg N ha -1 applied at sowing for the entire study area and increasing fractions, ranging from 150 to 350 kg N ha -1 applied at V6 stage. Based on the analysis of yield maps from previous harvests and soil electrical resistivity data, three management zones were defined. Two N rates were applied in each of these zones, one suggested by our simulation analysis and the other with uniform N fertilization as normally applied by the producer. N leaching was lower and net revenue was higher in the zones where variable rates of N were applied when compared to uniform N fertilization. This demonstrates the efficacy of using crop models to determine variable rates of N fertilization within a field and the application of variable rate N fertilizer to achieve higher profit and reduce nitrate leaching. [less ▲]

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See detailLes croyances délétères des patients lombalgiques : revue narrative de la littérature
Demoulin, Christophe ULg; Roussel, Nathalie; Marty, Marc et al

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(1), 40-46

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See detailReassessment of the acrylamide risk: Belgium as a case-study
Claes, Wendie; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Huyghebaert, André et al

in Food Control (2016), 59

Acrylamide is a food process contaminant with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. As a result of intensive research, numerous mitigation initiatives to prevent its formation were suggested and various ... [more ▼]

Acrylamide is a food process contaminant with carcinogenic and genotoxic properties. As a result of intensive research, numerous mitigation initiatives to prevent its formation were suggested and various of them were implemented in the food chain. To evaluate if the mitigation strategies applied were significant, a comparison was made between two time periods (2002e2007 versus 2008e2013) in terms of acrylamide food levels and dietary exposure in Belgian. The most important changes observed are a significant decrease of the acrylamide content in potato crisps and gingerbread, and a significant increase in (instant) coffee. Additionally, the acrylamide content of breakfast cereals, bread and rolls, chocolate and baby biscuits showed a downward trend, whereas for coffee substitute and ready-to-eat French fries (mainly obtained from catering facilities), an upward, although not significant, trend was observed. These changes resulted in only a slight, but insignificant decline of the overall dietary exposure of adults, adolescents and children. The mean and P95 intake estimated in the 2008e2013 period for these consumer groups corresponded to margins of exposure (MOE) ranging between 515 and 236 and between 155 and 71, respectively, when based on the endpoint for neoplastic effects (BMDL10 ¼ 0.17 mg/kg bw per day). Such low MOE values indicate that acrylamide remains an issue for public concern, requiring renewed attention. [less ▲]

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See detailOptimization of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province (Cambodia)
Caparros Megido, Rudy ULg; Alabi, Taofic ULg; Nieus, Clément et al

in Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture (2016)

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may ... [more ▼]

Background - Health status of the indigenous people of the Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia, is significantly lower compared to the rest of the nation. The domestication and mass production of insects may represent a sustainable, cost effective and high quality alternative source of protein to traditional livestock. This study aimed to optimise a cheap and residential cricket breeding system based on unused wild resources. The cricket development, Teleogryllus testaceus (Walker), under seven diets composed of taro aerial parts, young cassava leaves, young cashew leaves and brown rice flour (with or without banana slices), versus a traditionally used broiler feed diet was studied. Results - Cricket mortality was low in all diets, except the two cashew-based diets. Total biomass was significantly higher under the broiler feed, in addition to the two diets containing a combination of cassava leaf powder and brown rice. Yet, crickets fed with the taro diet had the highest percentage of protein. Concerning the breeding system cost, units using cassava leaves were the cheapest ones. Conclusion – Diets based of cassava leaves seems to be the most promising ones. Nevertheless, to produce crickets with a high body mass and a high protein level, a new experiment must be realised in which the cassava leaf maturity will be adapted to fit with the cricket growth stage. Moreover, to reduce the cost of the breeding units, handmade local products should be used instead of purchased components. [less ▲]

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See detail« La Théorie critique n’a aucun rapport avec la société. » Kluge, Adorno et l’indomptable Leni Peickert
Hamers, Jérémy ULg; Cormann, Grégory ULg

in Tijdschrift voor Filosofie (2016)

In Artists Under the Big Top: Perplexed (1968), Alexander Kluge’s second feature film, as well as in its short sequel The Indomitable Leni Peickert (1969), the filmmaker reflects about the possibility to ... [more ▼]

In Artists Under the Big Top: Perplexed (1968), Alexander Kluge’s second feature film, as well as in its short sequel The Indomitable Leni Peickert (1969), the filmmaker reflects about the possibility to create a « reformed circus » which aims at reintroducing some sensuality in the spectator’s experience. Taking this project as well as its central figure, the apparently passive elephant, as a metaphorical starting point, this article reconstitutes a virtual dialogue between the filmmaker and his friend and former master Theodor W. Adorno around the issue of communicability and effectiveness of Critical Theory. Crossing several text fragments by the philosopher (Dialectic of Enlightenment, Resignation and Education After Auschwitz a.o.) with film excerpts, short stories and interviews by Kluge, this dialogue made of real exchanges, as well as direct and indirect quotes of Adorno in Kluge’s films – considered here to be belated joint projects –, finally tries to give an answer to following crucial question: how can Adorno’s critical reflection remain politically, that is socially effective. [less ▲]

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See detailDiscretization of the divergence formulation of the bed slope term in the shallow-water equations and consequences in terms of energy balance
Bruwier, Martin ULg; Archambeau, Pierre ULg; Erpicum, Sébastien ULg et al

in Applied Mathematical Modelling (2016)

In this research, the influence on energy balance of the discretization scheme of the divergence formulation of the bed slope term in the shallow-water equations is analysed theoretically (for a single ... [more ▼]

In this research, the influence on energy balance of the discretization scheme of the divergence formulation of the bed slope term in the shallow-water equations is analysed theoretically (for a single topographic step) and based on two numerical tests. Different values of the main parameter controlling the discretization scheme of the divergence formulation are analysed to identify the formulation which minimizes the energy variation resulting from the discretization. For a wide range of ambient Froude numbers and relative step heights, the theoretical value of the control parameter minimizing the energy variation falls within a very narrow range, which can reasonably be approximated by a single “optimal” value. This is a result of high practical relevance for the design of accurate numerical schemes, as confirmed by the results of the numerical tests. [less ▲]

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See detailReconstruction of the Schmallenberg virus epidemic in Belgium: Complementary use of disease surveillance approaches
Poskin, A; Theron, Léonard ULg; Hanon, JB et al

in Veterinary Microbiology (2016), 183

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See detailInvestigation on possible transmission of monkeys' Plasmodium to human in a populations living in the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic republic of Congo
MVUMBI, Dieudonné; BOBANGA, Thierry; UMESUMBU, Solange et al

in International Journal for Parasitology: parasites and wild life (2016), 5

Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ... [more ▼]

Plasmodiums are protozoa that may infect various hosts. Only five species are now recognized as naturally parasitizing humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium knowlesi. This fifth species, P. knowlesi, previously identified as naturally parasitizing the monkey Macaca fascicularis, has been microscopically confused for a long time with P. malariae or P. falciparum and it was not possible to correctly differentiate them until the advent of molecular biology. To date, natural human infections with P. knowlesi only occur in Southeast Asia and a similar phenomenon of natural transmission of simian plasmodium to humans has not been reported elsewhere. This study was conducted to investigate a possible transmission of African small monkey's plasmodium to humans in populations living near the rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) where several species of non-human primates are living. Two successive real-time PCRs were identified in the literature and used in combination for purpose. Only P. falciparum was found in this study. However, studies with larger samples and with more advanced techniques should be conducted. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la perversion au pervers ; du sexuel à l’adaptatif
Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Psychosomatique Relationnelle (2016), 5(1),

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See detailEffet inflammatoire des extraits de Cupressus sempervirens planté dans l’Est de l’Algérie : du modèle murin à la stimulation des cellules BEAS-2B par l’allergène majeur Cup s 1
Bouguenoun, Imene; De Pauw-Gillet, Marie-Claire ULg; Bensakhri, Z et al

in Revue Française d'Allergologie (2016), 56

Cupressus sempervirens est l’une des espèces les plus répandues en Algérie ayant une capacité allergénique très élevée. Nous avons étudié,d’abord, comment l’instillation nasale des différentes fractions ... [more ▼]

Cupressus sempervirens est l’une des espèces les plus répandues en Algérie ayant une capacité allergénique très élevée. Nous avons étudié,d’abord, comment l’instillation nasale des différentes fractions de l’extrait pollinique de cette espèce peut moduler la réponse immunitaire chez les souris, et, ensuite, la stimulation des cellules épithéliales bronchiques humaines (BEAS-2B) par l’allergène majeur, identifié par spectrométrie de masse et purifié par chromatographie échangeuse d’ions. La sensibilisation des souris a révélé, d’une part, une diminution du nombre de neutrophiles et une augmentation des éosinophiles, et, d’autre part, une augmentation significative du total cellulaire dans le liquide du lavage bronchoalvéolaire.L’étude histologique des poumons a montré une présence d’infiltrat inflammatoire et d’oedème péri-bronchique. La spectrométrie de masse nous a permis de mettre en évidence la présence de l’allergène majeur Cup s 1 dans toutes les fractions avec une présence spécifique du Cup s 3 et Cupa 1 dans la fraction 4. Cet allergène avait le potentiel pour stimuler la libération de l’IL-8 et l’IL-6 par la ligné cellulaire, BEAS-2B, in vitro d’une manière dose-dépendante [less ▲]

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See detailUnveiling Network and Service Performance Degradation in the Wild with mPlane
Casas, Pedro; Fiadino, Pierdomenico; Wassermann, Sarah ULg et al

in IEEE Communications Magazine - Network Testing Series (2016)

Unveiling network and service performance issues in complex and highly decentralized systems such as the Internet is a major challenge. Indeed, the Internet is based on decentralization and diversity ... [more ▼]

Unveiling network and service performance issues in complex and highly decentralized systems such as the Internet is a major challenge. Indeed, the Internet is based on decentralization and diversity. However, its distributed nature leads to operational brittleness and difficulty in identifying the root causes of performance degradation. In such a context, network measurements are a fundamental pillar to shed light and to unveil design and implementation defects. To tackle this fragmentation and visibility problem, we have recently conceived mPlane, a distributed measurement platform which runs, collects and analyses traffic measurements to study the operation and functioning of the Internet. In this paper, we show the potentiality of the mPlane approach to unveil network and service degradation issues in live, operational networks, involving both fixed-line and cellular networks. In particular, we combine active and passive measurements to troubleshoot problems in end-customer Internet access connections, or to automatically detect and diagnose anomalies in Internet-scale services (e.g., YouTube) which impact a large number of end-users. [less ▲]

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See detailNew Insight on the Performance of Equity Long/short Investment Styles
Fays, Boris ULg; Hübner, Georges ULg; Lambert, Marie ULg

in Bankers, Markets, Investors (2016), 140(January-February), 34-45

Long-short equity strategies have recently generated exceptional performance raising a set of concerns about the strategies’ propensity to deliver alpha or beta. This paper revisits the performance of ... [more ▼]

Long-short equity strategies have recently generated exceptional performance raising a set of concerns about the strategies’ propensity to deliver alpha or beta. This paper revisits the performance of equity long-short hedge funds across investments styles. We first categorize individual hedge funds with regard to their size and/or value factor investing along the generalization of Sharpe (1992) style analysis. Style weights on size and value factors are used to split the equity long-short universe in 5x5 hedge fund style portfolios. To analyze the performance of each style, we consider two sets of innovative factors. First, we apply sequential Fama-French model of Lambert, Fays and Hübner (2015). Besides, to captures downside and extreme risk embedded in hedge fund strategies we augment the model with the co-skewness and co-kurtosis factors developed by Lambert and Hübner (2013). Under this framework, we perform cross-sectional performance analyses of individual hedge funds as well as time-series analysis on the hedge fund style broad category. Our contributions are threefold; first, our alternative framework significantly improves the explanatory power of the multi-factor model in the context of long-short equity funds, second, considering higher-moment factors aim to capture part of the abnormal return of the downside and extreme risk exposures taken by a fund manager, and finally, long-short equity hedge funds are, to some extent, less exposed to small capitalisation stocks than expected and instead rather prefer higher momentum levels in their strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards Generic Image Classification using Tree-based Learning: an Extensive Empirical Study
Marée, Raphaël ULg; Geurts, Pierre ULg; Wehenkel, Louis ULg

in Pattern Recognition Letters (2016)

This paper considers the general problem of image classification without using any prior knowledge about image classes. We study variants of a method based on supervised learning whose common steps are ... [more ▼]

This paper considers the general problem of image classification without using any prior knowledge about image classes. We study variants of a method based on supervised learning whose common steps are the extraction of random subwindows described by raw pixel intensity values and the use of ensemble of extremely randomized trees to directly classify images or to learn image features. The influence of method parameters and variants is thoroughly evaluated so as to provide baselines and guidelines for future studies. Detailed results are provided on 80 publicly available datasets that depict very diverse types of images (more than 3800 image classes and over 1.5 million images). [less ▲]

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See detailMigration, prostitution and the representation of the black female subject in Nigerian video films about Italy
Jedlowski, Alessandro ULg

in Journal of Italian Cinema and Media Studies (2016), 4(1), 9-23

Much contemporary images of black women in Italian media are marked by the legacy of colonialist propaganda and tend to perpetuate a representation of black women as passive eroticized objects of the ... [more ▼]

Much contemporary images of black women in Italian media are marked by the legacy of colonialist propaganda and tend to perpetuate a representation of black women as passive eroticized objects of the white male gaze. In this sense, Ponzanesi’s call for ‘new and less biased representations, which could help to assess the multiple subject positions that black identities now occupy’ (2005: 179) is still relevant. This article responds to this call by analyzing two Nigerian video films that thematize migration and prostitution trafficking in Italy. By highlighting the complexity of the processes of ‘subjectivation’ taking place throughout the migratory process, these videos invite their viewers to look at the postcolonial subject’s responsibility in shaping the world in which s/he lives, and offer a representation of the black female subject able to go beyond the voyeuristic attitude that characterize much of the existing contemporary Italian visual culture about this topic. [less ▲]

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See detailL’impact des activités non agricoles sur la pauvreté et l’inégalité rurales dans les groupements Bugorhe et Irhambi-Katana (Territoire de Kabare, Province du Sud-Kivu)
Furaha Mirindi, Germaine ULg; Namegabe Mastaki, Jean Luc; Lebailly, Philippe ULg

in JOURNAL OF ORIENTAL AND AFRICAN STUDIES (2016), 25

Using a survey on the socio-economic situation of households in 2012, the study analyses the effect of non farm income on inequality and poverty alleviation in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of ... [more ▼]

Using a survey on the socio-economic situation of households in 2012, the study analyses the effect of non farm income on inequality and poverty alleviation in a rural area of the Democratic Republic of Congo, by comparing a group of households practicing agriculture only and another group which combines agriculture and nonfarm activities. The approach used considers non farm income as an exogenous transfer which completes the whole household income, and analyses the contribution of different sources of income on the inequality in using the Gini index. The results show that inequality increases when a segment of the population does not have access to non-agricultural income. In this case, non farm income is not a substitute of farm income, rather the complement. The poverty analysis is based on the Congolese rural threshold poverty in terms of basic needs to calculate the rate, depth and severity of poverty indexes in using of Foster- Greer-Thorbecke. The results show that households practicing agriculture only are poorer. [less ▲]

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See detailBrentano, la théorie des catégories et la définition de la substance
Boccaccini, Federico ULg

in Etudes Philosophiques (2016)

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See detailNeural correlates of event clusters in past and future thoughts: How the brain integrates specific episodes with autobiographical knowledge
Demblon, Julie ULg; Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULg; D'Argembeau, Arnaud ULg

in NeuroImage (2016), 127

When remembering the past or envisioning the future, events often come to mind in organized sequences or stories rather than in isolation from one another. The aim of the present fMRI study was to ... [more ▼]

When remembering the past or envisioning the future, events often come to mind in organized sequences or stories rather than in isolation from one another. The aim of the present fMRI study was to investigate the neural correlates of such event clusters. Participants were asked to consider pairs of specific past or future events: in one condition, the two events were part of the same event cluster (i.e., they were thematically and/or causally related to each other), whereas in another condition the two events only shared a surface feature (i.e., their location); a third condition was also included, in which the two events were unrelated to each other. The results showed that the processing of past and future events that were part of a same cluster was associated with higher activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), rostrolateral PFC, and left lateral temporal and parietal regions, compared to the two other conditions. Furthermore, functional connectivity analyses revealed an increased coupling between these cortical regions. These findings suggest that largely similar processes are involved in organizing events in clusters for the past and the future. The medial and rostrolateral PFC might play a pivotal role in mediating the integration of specific events with conceptual autobiographical knowledge ‘stored’ in more posterior regions. Through this integrative process, this set of brain regions might contribute to the attribution of an overarching meaning to representations of specific past and future events, by contextualizing them with respect to personal goals and general knowledge about one's life story. [less ▲]

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See detailInherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes: a genetic association study
Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke et al

in Lancet (2016)

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See detailMagnetic flux penetration in Nb superconducting films with lithographically defined micro-indentations
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Adami, Obaïd-Allah ULg; Avila Osses, Jonathan ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016)

We present a thorough investigation by magneto-optical imaging of the magnetic flux penetration in Nb thin films with lithographically defined border indentations. We demonstrate that discontinuity lines ... [more ▼]

We present a thorough investigation by magneto-optical imaging of the magnetic flux penetration in Nb thin films with lithographically defined border indentations. We demonstrate that discontinuity lines (d-lines), caused by the abrupt bending of current streamlines around the indentations, depart from the expected parabolic trend close to the defect and depend on the shape and size of the indentation as well as on the temperature. These findings are backed up and compared with theoretical results obtained by numerical simulations and analytical calculations highlighting the key role played by demagnetization effects and the creep exponent n. In addition, we show that the presence of nearby indentations and submicrometer random roughness of the sample border can severely modify the flux front topology and dynamics. Strikingly, in contrast to what has been repeatedly predicted in the literature, we do not observe that indentations act as nucleation spots for flux avalanches, but they instead help to release the flux pressure and avoid thermomagnetic instabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailPhysico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm
Makhouf-Gafsi, Ines; Mokni-Ghribi, Abir; Brahim, Bchir et al

in Scientia Agricola (2016), 73(1), 85-90

Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.), also known as "legmi", is a fresh juice ex¬tracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of ... [more ▼]

Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.), also known as "legmi", is a fresh juice ex¬tracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection) on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chro¬matography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD), respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficiency of delivery observed treatment in hemodialysis patients: the example of the native vitamin D therapy
DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; CAVALIER, Etienne ULg; Fafin, Coraline et al

in Journal of Nephrology (2016), 29(1), 99-103

Introduction Adherence to therapy is a relevant challenge in chronic hemodialysis patients. The directly observed therapy (DOT) could be an effective method to increase adherence for specific therapies ... [more ▼]

Introduction Adherence to therapy is a relevant challenge in chronic hemodialysis patients. The directly observed therapy (DOT) could be an effective method to increase adherence for specific therapies. We aimed to study the performance of DOT versus home medication. We follow the impact of providing native vitamin D directly by the nurse after a dialysis session on the 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] concentrations. Methods In this observational study, we included 38 dialysis patients treated by stable dosage of cholecalciferol. DOT was implemented in December 2010. We considered the concentrations of 25-OH vitamin D three times before (T1 = June 2010, T2 = July 2010 and T3 = September 2010) and three times after the modification of prescription (T4 = February 2011, T5 = March 2011 and T6 = April 2011). Results Median age was 72 [62; 79] years and 48 % were diabetics. Mean body mass index was 26 ± 5 kg/m2 and median dialysis vintage was 20 [8; 46] months. The patients were compared to themselves. Before DOT, median concentrations of 25(OH)D were 27 (14–36), 23 (17–31), 31 (22–38) ng/mL at T1, T2 and T3, respectively. When DOT was effective, the concentrations significantly increased to 34 (28–44), 35 (29–41), 39 (32–47) ng/mL at T4, T5 and T6, respectively. Before DOT, 19 patients (50 %) reached the target of 30 ng/mL. After DOT, 29 patients (76 %) reached the target concentration of 30 ng/ mL. Conclusions In hemodialysis patients, DOT is both simple and effective to increase the therapeutic impact to native vitamin D. [less ▲]

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See detailThe internal consistency of the North Sea carbonate system
Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Bozec, Yann et al

in Journal of Marine Systems (2016), 157

Abstract In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of \{CO2\} (pCO2) were ... [more ▼]

Abstract In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of \{CO2\} (pCO2) were measured on two re-occupations of the entire North Sea basin, with three parameters (AT, DIC, pCO2) measured on four additional re-occupations, covering all four seasons, allowing an assessment of the internal consistency of the carbonate system. For most of the year, there is a similar level of internal consistency, with \{AT\} being calculated to within ± 6 μmol kg− 1 using \{DIC\} and pH, \{DIC\} to ± 6 μmol kg− 1 using \{AT\} and pH, pH to ± 0.008 using \{AT\} and pCO2, and pCO2 to ± 8 μatm using \{DIC\} and pH, with the dissociation constants of Millero et al. (2006). In spring, however, we observe a significant decline in the ability to accurately calculate the carbonate system. Lower consistency is observed with an increasing fraction of Baltic Sea water, caused by the high contribution of organic alkalinity in this water mass, not accounted for in the carbonate system calculations. Attempts to improve the internal consistency by accounting for the unconventional salinity–borate relationships in freshwater and the Baltic Sea, and through application of the new North Atlantic salinity–boron relationship (Lee et al., 2010), resulted in no significant difference in the internal consistency. [less ▲]

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See detailL’enfant, l’institutrice et le tableau interactif : Corps relationnel et évolution numérique
Jadin, Aurore ULg; Englebert, Jérôme ULg

in Cahiers de Psychologie Clinique (2016), 46

In clinical psychology, the ecological observation of child in different life domains offers many inaccessible observations through the individual therapy sessions. The article proposes, from a clinical ... [more ▼]

In clinical psychology, the ecological observation of child in different life domains offers many inaccessible observations through the individual therapy sessions. The article proposes, from a clinical case, a reflection on the technological change of classes, particularly through the use of the interactive whiteboard, and the psychological and relational consequences of this revolution, for each of the protagonists. A consequence of this use of the digital device is that the body can appear less necessary and therefore be abandoned in favor of a poorly invested technicality. Our analysis values the development of a necessary compromise between digital and body. It proposes to find ways of arranging so that teacher's body is still a fundamental dimension of the educational process. [less ▲]

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