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See detailNon-isocyanate polyurethanes from carbonated soybean oil Using monomeric or oligomeric diamines To achieve thermosets or thermoplastics
Poussard, Loïc; Mariage, J.; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Macromolecules (2016), 49(6), 2162-2171

Fully bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) were synthesized by reaction of carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) either with biobased short diamines or amino-telechelic oligoamides derived ... [more ▼]

Fully bio- and CO2-sourced non-isocyanate polyurethanes (NIPUs) were synthesized by reaction of carbonated soybean oil (CSBO) either with biobased short diamines or amino-telechelic oligoamides derived from fatty acids to achieve respectively thermoset or thermoplastic NIPUs. Biobased carbonated vegetable oils were first obtained by metal-free coupling reactions of CO2 with epoxidized soybean oils under supercritical conditions (120 °C, 100 bar) before complete characterization by FTIR, 1H NMR, and electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS). In a second step, biobased NIPUs were produced by melt-blending of the so-produced cyclocarbonated oil with the biobased aminated derivatives. The thermal and mechanical properties of resulting polymers were found to be depending on the cyclocarbonated vegetable oil/amine ratio. More precisely, short diamines and CSBO led to the formation of cross-linked NIPUs, and the resulting tensile and thermal properties were poor. In contrast, elastomeric NIPUs derived from oligoamides and CSBO exhibited a better rigidity, an improved elongation at break (εr up to 400%), and a higher thermal stability (T95 wt% > 350 °C) than those of starting oligoamides. These results are impressive and highlight the potentiality of this environmental friendly approach to prepare renewable NIPU materials of high performances. [less ▲]

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See detailEstimating carbon fluxes in a Posidonia oceanica system: Paradox of the bacterial carbon demand
Velimirov, Branko; Lejeune, Pierre; Kirschner, A. et al

in Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science (2016), 171

A mass balance ecosystemic approach, based on bacterial carbon demands and primary production data, was used to investigate if the bacterial community (freewater bacterioplankton and benthic bacteria of ... [more ▼]

A mass balance ecosystemic approach, based on bacterial carbon demands and primary production data, was used to investigate if the bacterial community (freewater bacterioplankton and benthic bacteria of the oxygenated sediment layer) could be sustained by the main primary producers (Posidonia oceanica and its epiphytes, adjacent macroalgae and phytoplankton communities; hereafter called the P. oceanica system) of a non-eutrophic Mediterranean bay. Unexpectedly, the findings of this study differed from previous works that used benthic incubation chamber and O2 optode methods. In this study, data were grouped in two categories, corresponding to two time periods, according to the seawater temperature regime (<18 °C or >18 °C): from May to October and from November to April. Between May and October, the produced benthic macrophyte tissues could not provide the carbon required by the bacteria of the oxygenated sediment layer, showing that the balance production of the investigated bay was clearly heterotrophic (i.e. negative) during this time period. In contrast, between November and April, benthic bacteria respiration nearly equated to carbon production. When integrating the open water carbon dynamics above the meadow in the model, a negative carbon balance was still observed between May and October, while a slight carbon excess was noticed between November and April. In the light of these findings, the carbon balance being negative on an annual basis, alternative carbon sources are required for the maintenance of the bacterial carbon production. [less ▲]

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See detailChecklist of Aphidiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Aphelinus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) species from Belgium with respectively four and three new records
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Libert, Pierre-Nicolas; Starý, Petr et al

in Zootaxa (2016), 4092(4)

Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the ... [more ▼]

Aphid parasitoids have good potential for crop protection. However, they have been poorly studied in Belgium, especially in terms of species diversity. Therefore, the aim of this work was to establish the first checklist for the country. To complete the list, aphid parasitoids were sampled in wheat and pea fields near Gembloux (Belgium), in 2013 and 2014. Among the identified species, Aphelinus asychis Walker, Aphelinus daucicola Kurdjumov, Aphelinus fusciscapus (Förster), Aphidius asteris Haliday, Aphidius eadyi Starý, Gonzalez & Hall, Praon barbatum Mackauer, and Trioxys auctus (Haliday) were recorded for the first time in Belgium. Thirty-two Aphidiinae and seven Aphelinus species were included in the checklist. It is hoped this study will stimulate further research, as species diversity is still low compared with neighbouring countries. [less ▲]

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See detailProcedural learning as a measure of functional impairment in a mouse model of ischemic stroke
Linden, Jérôme ULg; Van de Beek, Lise; Plumier, Jean-Christophe ULg et al

in Behavioural Brain Research (2016), 307

Basal ganglia stroke is often associated with functional deficits in patients, including difficulties to learn and execute new motor skills (procedural learning). To measure procedural learning in a ... [more ▼]

Basal ganglia stroke is often associated with functional deficits in patients, including difficulties to learn and execute new motor skills (procedural learning). To measure procedural learning in a murine model of stroke (30min. right MCAO), we submitted C57Bl/6J mice to various sensorimotor tests, then to an operant procedure (Serial Order Learning) specifically assessing the ability to learn a simple motor sequence. Results showed that MCAO affected the performance in some of the sensorimotor tests (accelerated rotating rod and amphetamine rotation test) and the way animals learned a motor sequence. The later finding seems to be caused by difficulties regarding the chunking of operant actions into a coherent motor sequence; the appeal for food rewards and ability to press levers appeared unaffected by MCAO. We conclude that assessment of motor learning in rodent models of stroke might improve the translational value of such models. [less ▲]

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See detailIntercomparison of in-situ NDIR and column FTIR measurements of CO2 at Jungfraujoch
Schibig, M. F.; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Henne, S. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2016), 2016

We compare two CO2 time series measured at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland) in the period from 2005 to 2013 with an in-situ surface measurement system using a ... [more ▼]

We compare two CO2 time series measured at the High Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland) in the period from 2005 to 2013 with an in-situ surface measurement system using a nondispersive infrared analyzer (NDIR) and a ground-based remote sensing system using solar absorption Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Although the two data sets show an absolute shift of about 13 ppm, the slopes of the annual CO2 increase are in good agreement within their uncertainties. They are 2.04 ± 0.07 ppm yr-1 and 1.97 ± 0.05 ppm yr-1 for the FTIR and the NDIR system, respectively. The seasonality of the FTIR and the NDIR system is 4.46 ± 1.11 ppm and 10.10 ± 0.73 ppm, respectively. The difference is caused by a dampening of the CO2 signal with increasing altitude due to mixing processes. While the minima of both data series occur in the middle of August, the maxima of the two datasets differ by about ten weeks, the maximum of the FTIR measurements is in middle of January, whereas the maximum of the NDIR measurements is found at the end of March. Sensitivity analyses revealed that the air masses measured by the NDIR system at the surface of Jungfraujoch are mainly influenced by central Europe, whereas the air masses measured by the FTIR system in the column above Jungfraujoch are influenced by regions as far west as the Caribbean and the United States. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom commensalism to parasitism in Carapidae (Ophidiiformes): heterochronic modes of development?
Parmentier, Eric ULg; Lanterbecq, Déborah; Eeckhaut, Igor

in PeerJ (2016), 4

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See detailStructural basis for recognition of histone H3K36me3 nucleosome by human de novo DNA methyltransferases 3A and 3B
Rondelet, Grégoire; Dal Maso, Thomas; Willems, Luc ULg et al

in Journal of Structural Biology (2016), 194

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in chromatin organization and gene expression. The function of DNA methylation depends on cell context and is correlated with histone ... [more ▼]

DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification involved in chromatin organization and gene expression. The function of DNA methylation depends on cell context and is correlated with histone modification patterns. In particular, trimethylation of Lys36 on histone H3 tail (H3K36me3) is associated with DNA methylation and elongation phase of transcription. PWWP domains of the de novo DNA methyltransferases DNMT3A and DNMT3B read this epigenetic mark to guide DNA methylation. Here we report the first crystal structure of the DNMT3B PWWP domain–H3K36me3 complex. Based on this structure, we propose a model of the DNMT3A PWWP domain–H3K36me3 complex and build a model of DNMT3A (PWWP-ADD-CD) in a nucleosomal context. The trimethylated side chain of Lys36 (H3K36me3) is inserted into an aromatic cage similar to the ‘‘Royal” superfamily domains known to bind methylated histones. A key interaction between trimethylated Lys36 and a conserved water molecule stabilized by Ser270 explains the lack of affinity of mutated DNMT3B (S270P) for the H3K36me3 epigenetic mark in the ICF (Immunodeficiency, Centromeric instability and Facial abnormalities) syndrome. The model of the DNMT3A-DNMT3L heterotetramer in complex with a dinucleosome highlights the mechanism for recognition of nucleosome by DNMT3s and explains the periodicity of de novo DNA methylation. [less ▲]

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See detailDepressive symptomatology and the influence of the behavioral avoidance and activation: A gender-specific investigation
Wagener, Aurélie ULg; Baeyens, Céline; Blairy, Sylvie ULg

in Journal of Affective Disorders (2016), 193

BACKGROUNG: Depression is a highly prevalent disorder which is usually considered as differentially experienced depending on gender. Behavioral theories of depression pinpoint the importance of the ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUNG: Depression is a highly prevalent disorder which is usually considered as differentially experienced depending on gender. Behavioral theories of depression pinpoint the importance of the behavioral avoidance in the maintenance of depression. However, little is known about the specific impact of the behavioral avoidance and activation on each depressive symptom as well as on gender differences on the behavioral features of depression. METHODS: This study’s aim was two-fold: (1) to assess the presence of gender differences on the BDI-II; (2) to investigate the respective predictive value of behavioral avoidance and of behavioral activation on each depressive symptom assessed by the BDI-II depending on gender. Community adults and adults attending mental healthcare composed the sample. RESULTS: Results showed differences in symptomatology profiles depending on gender (e.g. higher scores of sadness, self-criticalness in women, higher scores of past failure and loss of pleasure in men). Behavioral avoidance positively predicted almost all depressive symptoms in women and in men while behavioral activation negatively predicted almost all symptoms in both gender. Nevertheless, the strengths of these relationships were different for some symptoms (e.g. pessimism). LIMITATIONS: The use of self-report instruments; the lack of assessment of causal or precipitating factors of the depressive symptomatology; the higher number of women in the sample. CONCLUSIONS: Results are discussed with respect to previous findings and present clinical implications: (1) to underline the relevance of the combination of gender-specific assessment tools; (2) to highlight the need of tailored psychological intervention. [less ▲]

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See detailRetrieval of HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra: Atmospheric increase since 1989 and comparison with surface and satellite measurements
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Lejeune, Bernard ULg; Bovy, Benoît ULg et al

in Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer (2016)

We have developed an approach for retrieving HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra, using its ν7 band Q branch in the 900–906 cm-1 interval. Interferences by HNO3 ... [more ▼]

We have developed an approach for retrieving HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) from ground-based high-resolution infrared solar spectra, using its ν7 band Q branch in the 900–906 cm-1 interval. Interferences by HNO3, CO2 and H2O have to be accounted for. Application of this approach to observations recorded within the framework of long-term monitoring activities carried out at the northern mid-latitude, high-altitude Jungfraujoch station in Switzerland (46.5°N, 8.0°E, 3580 m above sea level) has provided a total column times series spanning the 1989 to mid-2015 time period. A fit to the HCFC-142b daily mean total column time series shows a statistically-significant long-term trend of (1.23±0.08×1013 molec cm-2) per year from 2000 to 2010, at the 2-σ confidence level. This corresponds to a significant atmospheric accumulation of (0.94±0.06) ppt (1 ppt=10-12) per year for the mean tropospheric mixing ratio, at the 2−σ confidence level. Over the subsequent time period (2010–2014), we note a significant slowing down in the HCFC-142b buildup. Our ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) results are compared with relevant data sets derived from surface in situ measurements at the Mace Head and Jungfraujoch sites of the AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) network and from occultation measurements by the ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on-board the SCISAT satellite. [less ▲]

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See detailThe transition to conservation agriculture : an insularization process towards sustainability
Vankeerberghen, Audrey ULg; Stassart, Pierre M ULg

in International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability (2016)

Part of the Sustainability Transition Studies, this work addresses the question of the relationship between niches and regimes by examining the transition to conservation agriculture. It seeks to ... [more ▼]

Part of the Sustainability Transition Studies, this work addresses the question of the relationship between niches and regimes by examining the transition to conservation agriculture. It seeks to understand how farmers' transition to conservation agriculture can contribute to a better understanding of the transition of agro-food systems towards sustainability. Based on an analysis of farmers' trajectories in the Walloon region in Belgium, the paper develops the notion of insularization in order to characterize the emergence of conservation agriculture as a niche that is a dynamic process, growing from within and progressively detaching itself from the conventional agricultural regime. The analysis of farmers' transition shows how, after an initial phase of destabilization of the conventional ploughing regime, learning and experiencing processes can lead to a transformation in soil and soil quality management perceptions. Our hypothesis is that this cognitive transformation constitutes a tipping point in the insularization process because of its effects on agricultural practices, which increase the detachment of conservation agriculture from the regime and thus embed the irreversibility and sustainability of the transition. The term insularization is used to describe an ecologization pathway of agricultural practices endogenous to the regime that can not only lead to adaptive changes on the periphery of the system, but might also induce a deep and systemic transformation of conventional agricultural practices. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of DOPA and dopamine coupling on protein loading of hydroxyapatite
Ozhukil Kollath, Vinayaraj ULg

in Materials Technology: Advanced Performance Materials (2016)

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a promising carrier material for oral delivery of biomolecules such as proteins and drugs. Ways to increase the loading of such molecules on HA will lead to better nanomedicine ... [more ▼]

Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a promising carrier material for oral delivery of biomolecules such as proteins and drugs. Ways to increase the loading of such molecules on HA will lead to better nanomedicine. This study reports the surface functionalisation of HA particles using the mussel inspired molecules dopamine (DA) and 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (DOPA), in order to increase protein loading. The adsorption mechanisms are discussed based on the adsorption isotherms, zeta potential, thermal analysis and theoretical models. Results show that DA functionalisation enhanced the loading, while DOPA functionalisation was ineffective. [less ▲]

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See detailTerpenoids from Phaulopsis imbricata (Acanthaceae)
Kengne, A.B.O.; Tene, M.; Tchinda Tiabou, Alembert ULg et al

in Journal of Medicinal Plants Research (2016), 10(10), 122-129

The whole plant of Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet (Acanthaceae) was collected at Bansoa, Cameroon, shade dried and extracted by maceration in methanol. This study was carried out to isolate ... [more ▼]

The whole plant of Phaulopsis imbricata (Forssk.) Sweet (Acanthaceae) was collected at Bansoa, Cameroon, shade dried and extracted by maceration in methanol. This study was carried out to isolate secondary metabolites from this plant species that has not been investigated so far. Two lupane-type triterpenoids, one β-type carotenoid, one eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoid, and one sterol glycoside were isolated from the dried methanol extract using solvent partitioning, column chromatography and re-crystallization. They were identified as lupeol, betulin, (all-E)-lutein, cryptomeridiol, and sitosterol 3- O-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods including 1D- and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR) and mass spectrometry (MS). This is the first report of these compounds from the genus Phaulopsis. To the best of our knowledge, P. imbricata is also the first species of the genus to be phytochemically studied. [less ▲]

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See detailResponse of CO2 fluxes and productivity to water availability in two contrasting ecosystems in northern Benin (West Africa)
Ago, Expédit Evariste ULg; Agbossou, Euloge Kossi; Cohard, Jean-Martial et al

in Annals of Forest Science (2016)

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See detailThree-parameter kinematic theory for shear-dominated reinforced concrete walls
Mihaylov, Boyan ULg; Hannewald, Pia; Beyer, Katrin

in Journal of Structural Engineering (2016)

This paper is aimed at addressing the need for physically accurate and computationally effective models for predicting the response of shear-dominated reinforced concrete walls. The presented theory is ... [more ▼]

This paper is aimed at addressing the need for physically accurate and computationally effective models for predicting the response of shear-dominated reinforced concrete walls. The presented theory is based on a three-degree-of-freedom kinematic model for the deformation patterns in walls with aspect ratios smaller than approximately 3. In the kinematic model, the wall is divided into two parts—a rigid block and a fan of struts—by a diagonal crack. The mechanisms of shear resistance across this crack are modeled with nonlinear springs to capture the prepeak and postpeak shear behavior of the member. The base section of the wall is also modeled to account for yielding of the reinforcement and crushing of the concrete. It is shown that this approach captures well the global and local deformations measured in a test specimen with detailed instrumentation. A more comprehensive validation of the theory is performed with 34 wall tests from the literature. The obtained peak load experimental-to-predicted ratios have an average of 1.03 with a coefficient of variation of 11.6%, while these values for the drift capacity are 0.99 and 16.4%. [less ▲]

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See detailProduction of two entomopathogenic Aspergillus species and insecticidal activity against the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus compared to Metarhizium anisopliae
Bawin, Thomas ULg; Seye, Fawrou; Boukraa, Slimane ULg et al

in Biocontrol Science & Technology (2016), 26(5), 617-629

Entomopathogenic micro-organisms including fungi have become increasingly studied for integrated pest management. The spore productivity and insecticidal activity of two opportunistic insect pathogenic ... [more ▼]

Entomopathogenic micro-organisms including fungi have become increasingly studied for integrated pest management. The spore productivity and insecticidal activity of two opportunistic insect pathogenic Aspergillus species (namely: Aspergillus clavatus Desmazieres and Aspergillus flavus Link (Ascomycota: Eurotiales, Trichocomaceae)) were compared to Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales, Clavicipitaceae) for mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) control. The production of aerial spores on wheat bran and white rice was investigated in solid-, semi-solid-, and liquid-state media supplemented with a nutritive solution. Wheat bran-based media were suitable for spore production and increased the spore yield in solid-state from 3 to 7 fold: A. clavatus produced 48.4 ± 5.2 and 15.7 ± 1.6 x 10^8 spores/g, A. flavus produced 22.3 ± 4.1 and 3.1 ± 2.5 x 10^8 spores/g, and M. anisopliae produced 39.6 ± 6.5 and 13.1 ± 2.6 x 10^8 spores/g of wheat bran or white rice, respectively. A. clavatus, A. flavus and M. anisopliae spores harvested from wheat bran-based solid-state media showed lethal concentrations (LC50) of 1.1, 1.8, and 1.3 x 10^8 spores/ml against Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae in 72 h. Because A. clavatus and M. anisopliae displayed similar features when cultured under these conditions, our results suggest that insect pathogenic Aspergillus species may be as productive and virulent against mosquito larvae as a well-recognized entomopathogenic fungus. Wheat bran could advantageously be used in large-scale fermentation for a possible cost-effective pest control using these fungi. [less ▲]

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See detailExtinction of fish-shaped marine reptiles associated with reduced evolutionary rates and global environmental volatility
Fischer, Valentin ULg; Bardet, Nathalie; Benson, Roger et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7(10825), 1-11

Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous ... [more ▼]

Despite their profound adaptations to the aquatic realm and their apparent success throughout the Triassic and the Jurassic, ichthyosaurs became extinct roughly 30 million years before the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. Current hypotheses for this early demise involve relatively minor biotic events, but are at odds with recent understanding of the ichthyosaur fossil record. Here, we show that ichthyosaurs maintained high but diminishing richness and disparity throughout the Early Cretaceous. The last ichthyosaurs are characterized by reduced rates of origination and phenotypic evolution and their elevated extinction rates correlate with increased environmental volatility. In addition, we find that ichthyosaurs suffered from a profound Early Cenomanian extinction that reduced their ecological diversity, likely contributing to their final extinction at the end of the Cenomanian. Our results support a growing body of evidence revealing that global environmental change resulted in a major, temporally staggered turnover event that profoundly reorganized marine ecosytems during the Cenomanian. [less ▲]

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See detailPerformance variation of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) across invasion levels in Western Europe
Ortmans, William ULg; Mahy, Grégory ULg; Chauvel, Bruno et al

in Flora (2016), 220

The occurrence of an invasive plant across a continent is generally not homogeneous; typically, some areas are highly invaded whereas others show moderate or low invasion levels. This situation might be a ... [more ▼]

The occurrence of an invasive plant across a continent is generally not homogeneous; typically, some areas are highly invaded whereas others show moderate or low invasion levels. This situation might be a snapshot of an ongoing spread, but it could also remain stable under the pressure of factors that constrain the invasion. Among those factors, plant performance variation among invasion levels can explain an invasion slowdown. However, few studies have investigated the large-scale variation of invasive plant performance in the field. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in Western Europe represents a good opportunity to address this issue, with areas of high, moderate and low invasion levels being documented across a ca. 1000 km transect. In this study, we compared in situ plant performance-related traits in 12 populations from areas of contrasting invasion levels. We also tested whether performance-related traits were influenced by the intra-and inter-specific competition, by the local climatic conditions or by latitude (a proxy for growing season length). Overall, we did not find differences in performance-related traits across invasion levels, and intra-and inter-specific competition had low effects on plant performance. This study highlights the fact that A. artemisiifolia individuals express similar performance across invasion levels, even beyond what can be considered the present invasion front. Further research has to expand this study northwards, and assess other factors that could constrain the invasion in order to highlight if the species invasion northward is constrained or if it has the potential to invade new areas. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamic calibration of piezoelectric transducers for ballistic high-pressure measurement
Elkarous, Lamine ULg; Robbe, Cyril; Pirlot, Marc et al

in International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering (2016)

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See detailLe casier judiciaire : un instrument mémoriel au passé tourmenté mais à l’avenir empreint de sérénité ?
Seron, Vincent ULg

in Journal des Tribunaux (2016)

Profondément réformé en 1997, le casier judiciaire n’en finit pas de faire l’objet de remaniements et de prêter le flanc à la critique. Des modifications régulièrement opérées s’agissant de la délivrance ... [more ▼]

Profondément réformé en 1997, le casier judiciaire n’en finit pas de faire l’objet de remaniements et de prêter le flanc à la critique. Des modifications régulièrement opérées s’agissant de la délivrance de ses extraits à sa mise à jour lacunaire, nombreux sont les éléments qui témoignent des difficultés récurrentes auxquelles cet instrument séculaire est confronté. En quatre temps, cet article propose de remettre en perspective les principaux éléments explicatifs de l’état transitoire au sein duquel le casier judiciaire est confiné depuis près de deux décennies, d’analyser son fonctionnement actuel, de focaliser l’attention sur les récents changements apportés à son contenu ainsi qu’à la communication des données qu’il contient, et de s’interroger sur la prétendue non fiabilité de ce casier. [less ▲]

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See detailThe darkening of the Greenland ice sheet: trends, drivers, and projections (1981–2100)
Tedesco, M.; Doherty, S.; Fettweis, Xavier ULg et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

The surface energy balance and meltwater production of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) are modulated by snow and ice albedo through the amount of absorbed solar radiation. Here we show, using space-borne ... [more ▼]

The surface energy balance and meltwater production of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) are modulated by snow and ice albedo through the amount of absorbed solar radiation. Here we show, using space-borne multispectral data collected during the 3 decades from 1981 to 2012, that summertime surface albedo over the GrIS decreased at a statistically significant (99 %) rate of 0.02 decade−1 between 1996 and 2012. Over the same period, albedo modelled by the Modèle Atmosphérique Régionale (MAR) also shows a decrease, though at a lower rate ( ∼ −0.01 decade−1) than that obtained from space-borne data. We suggest that the discrepancy between modelled and measured albedo trends can be explained by the absence in the model of processes associated with the presence of light-absorbing impurities. The negative trend in observed albedo is confined to the regions of the GrIS that undergo melting in summer, with the dry-snow zone showing no trend. The period 1981–1996 also showed no statistically significant trend over the whole GrIS. Analysis of MAR outputs indicates that the observed albedo decrease is attributable to the combined effects of increased near-surface air temperatures, which enhanced melt and promoted growth in snow grain size and the expansion of bare ice areas, and to trends in light-absorbing impurities (LAI) on the snow and ice surfaces. Neither aerosol models nor in situ and remote sensing observations indicate increasing trends in LAI in the atmosphere over Greenland. Similarly, an analysis of the number of fires and BC emissions from fires points to the absence of trends for such quantities. This suggests that the apparent increase of LAI in snow and ice might be related to the exposure of a "dark band" of dirty ice and to increased consolidation of LAI at the surface with melt, not to increased aerosol deposition. Albedo projections through to the end of the century under different warming scenarios consistently point to continued darkening, with albedo anomalies averaged over the whole ice sheet lower by 0.08 in 2100 than in 2000, driven solely by a warming climate. Future darkening is likely underestimated because of known underestimates in modelled melting (as seen in hindcasts) and because the model albedo scheme does not currently include the effects of LAI, which have a positive feedback on albedo decline through increased melting, grain growth, and darkening. [less ▲]

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See detailSomatic mosaicism underlies X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome in sporadic male subjects
Daly, Adrian Francis ULg; Yuan, Bo; Fina, Frederic et al

in Endocrine-Related Cancer (2016)

Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric ... [more ▼]

Somatic mosaicism has been implicated as a causative mechanism in a number of genetic and genomic disorders. X-linked acrogigantism (XLAG) syndrome is a recently characterized genomic form of pediatric gigantism due to aggressive pituitary tumors that is caused by submicroscopic chromosome Xq26.3 duplications that include GPR101. We studied XLAG syndrome patients (N=18) to determine if somatic mosaicism contributed to the genomic pathophysiology. Eighteen subjects with XLAG syndrome were identified with Xq26.3 duplications using high definition array comparative genome hybridization (HD-aCGH). We noted males with XLAG had a decreased log2 ratio compared with expected values, suggesting potential mosaicism, while females showed no such decrease. As compared with familial male XLAG cases, sporadic males had more marked evidence for mosaicism, with levels of Xq26.3 duplication between 16.1-53.8%. These characteristics were replicated using a novel, personalized breakpoint-junction specific quantification droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) technique. Using a separate ddPCR technique we studied the feasibility of identifying XLAG syndrome cases in a distinct patient population of 64 unrelated subjects with acromegaly/gigantism and identified one female gigantism patient that had increased copy number variation (CNV) threshold for GPR101 that was subsequently diagnosed as having XLAG syndrome on HD-aCGH. Employing a combination of HD-aCGH and novel ddPCR approaches, we have demonstrated that XLAG syndrome can be caused by variable degrees of somatic mosaicism for duplications at chromosome Xq26.3. Somatic mosaicism was shown to occur in sporadic males but not in females with XLAG syndrome, although the clinical characteristics of the disease were similarly severe in both sexes. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Central Role of FORS1/2 Spectropolarimetric Observations for the Progress of Stellar Magnetism Studies
Schöller, M.; Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I. et al

in The Messenger (2016), 163

The spectropolarimetric mode of the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrographs (FORS), which was first implemented in FORS1, and then moved to FORS2 seven years ago, has made it possible to probe the ... [more ▼]

The spectropolarimetric mode of the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrographs (FORS), which was first implemented in FORS1, and then moved to FORS2 seven years ago, has made it possible to probe the presence of magnetic fields in stars of different spectral classes at almost all stages of stellar evolution. While in the early days of FORS1, many of the observations were related to magnetic Ap/Bp stars and their progenitor Herbig Ae/Be stars, recent spectropolarimetric studies with FORS2 have involved more challenging targets, such as massive O- and B-type stars in clusters and in the field, very fast rotating massive stars with magnetospheres, Wolf-Rayet stars and central stars of planetary nebulae. The role of FORS observations for stellar magnetic field measurements is summarised and improvements in the measurement technique are described. [less ▲]

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See detailThe compositional evolution of C/2012 S1 (ISON) from ground-based high-resolution infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign
Dello Russo, N.; Vervack, R. J.; Kawakita, H. et al

in Icarus (2016), 266

Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ∼ 2.5 × 10[SUP]4[/SUP ... [more ▼]

Volatile production rates, relative abundances, rotational temperatures, and spatial distributions in the coma were measured in C/2012 S1 (ISON) using long-slit high-dispersion (λ/Δλ ∼ 2.5 × 10[SUP]4[/SUP]) infrared spectroscopy as part of a worldwide observing campaign. Spectra were obtained on UT 2013 October 26 and 28 with NIRSPEC at the W.M. Keck Observatory, and UT 2013 November 19 and 20 with CSHELL at the NASA IRTF. H[SUB]2[/SUB]O was detected on all dates, with production rates increasing markedly from (8.7 ± 1.5) × 10[SUP]27[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on October 26 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 1.12 AU) to (3.7 ± 0.4) × 10[SUP]29[/SUP] molecules s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on November 20 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 0.43 AU). Short-term variability of H[SUB]2[/SUB]O production is also seen as observations on November 19 show an increase in H[SUB]2[/SUB]O production rate of nearly a factor of two over a period of about 6 h. C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH and CH[SUB]4[/SUB] abundances in ISON are slightly depleted relative to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O when compared to mean values for comets measured at infrared wavelengths. On the November dates, C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], HCN and OCS abundances relative to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O appear to be within the range of mean values, whereas H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO and NH[SUB]3[/SUB] were significantly enhanced. There is evidence that the abundances with respect to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O increased for some species but not others between October 28 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 1.07 AU) and November 19 (R[SUB]h[/SUB] = 0.46 AU). The high mixing ratios of H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO/CH[SUB]3[/SUB]OH and C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB]/C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB] on November 19, and changes in the mixing ratios of some species with respect to H[SUB]2[/SUB]O between October 28 to November 19, indicates compositional changes that may be the result of a transition from sampling radiation-processed outer layers in this dynamically new comet to sampling more pristine natal material as the outer processed layer was increasingly eroded and the thermal wave propagated into the nucleus as the comet approached perihelion for the first time. On November 19 and 20, the spatial distribution for dust appears asymmetric and enhanced in the antisolar direction, whereas spatial distributions for volatiles (excepting CN) appear symmetric with their peaks slightly offset in the sunward direction compared to the dust. Spatial distributions for H[SUB]2[/SUB]O, HCN, C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]6[/SUB], C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB], and H[SUB]2[/SUB]CO on November 19 show no definitive evidence for significant contributions from extended sources; however, broader spatial distributions for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] and OCS may be consistent with extended sources for these species. Abundances of HCN and C[SUB]2[/SUB]H[SUB]2[/SUB] on November 19 and 20 are insufficient to account for reported abundances of CN and C[SUB]2[/SUB] in ISON near this time. Differences in HCN and CN spatial distributions are also consistent with HCN as only a minor source of CN in ISON on November 19 as the spatial distribution of CN in the coma suggests a dominant distributed source that is correlated with dust and not volatile release. The spatial distributions for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] and NH[SUB]2[/SUB] are similar, suggesting that NH[SUB]3[/SUB] is the primary source of NH[SUB]2[/SUB] with no evidence of a significant dust source of NH[SUB]2[/SUB]; however, the higher production rates derived for NH[SUB]3[/SUB] compared to NH[SUB]2[/SUB] on November 19 and 20 remain unexplained. This suggests a more complete analysis that treats NH[SUB]2[/SUB] as a distributed source and accounts for its emission mechanism is needed for future work. [less ▲]

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See detailCoordination des soins en première ligne de soins: et Mme Dupont?
Belche, Jean ULg; Buret, Laetitia ULg; Duchesnes, Christiane ULg et al

in Santé Conjuguée (2016), 74

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See detailMaking sense of residues on flaked stone artefacts: learning from blind tests
Rots, Veerle ULg; Hayes, Elspeth; Cnuts, Dries ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016)

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See detailComparaison de l’impact du « VeinoPlus Sport » et du « TENS » sur la récupération de jeunes footballeurs amateurs
God, Maxime; LE GOFF, Caroline ULg; Evrard, Frédéric et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2016), 33(1), 14-19

Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of “VeinoPlus Sport” on amateur soccer players’ recovery after an intense physical activity (2 drills). Method We proceeded to a comparative study ... [more ▼]

Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of “VeinoPlus Sport” on amateur soccer players’ recovery after an intense physical activity (2 drills). Method We proceeded to a comparative study between two devices: “VeinoPlus Sport” and “TENS” (used as a control system) on a population of 20 players (average age 17,1±0,8). Under identical conditions each player used the two devices during two separate sessions (called group “VeinoPlus Sport” and group “TENS”). The players performed an intense effort following the YoYo test concept. Four blood samples were taken from each participant and a Myotest evaluation was performed: one before the test, one just after the first intense effort, another after a short recovery time following the first effort, and the last one right after the second intense effort. For statistical analysis, we used the Anova algorithm of the “StatPlus” system and a Scheffé test. Results With both devices, we observed a significant elevation of lactate, HCO3− ions, and myoglobin as time progressed. The analysis of other blood parameters did not show any significant evolution in the course of the testing. The “VeinoPlus Sport” group, after the session, expressed feeling lighter and more fit than usual following an intense physical activity. They did not suffer any pain, tiredness, nor diminishment of strength. The same observation was made with the “TENS” group with the exception that some players felt a bit of soreness in their thigh and calf areas. In general, all participants admitted preferring the use of recovery machines instead of natural recovery. At the same time, none expressed any preferences between either of the devices. Conclusion The main asset of this study resided in the highlighting of minor differences as no way significant between the two machines tested on the chosen population. The “TENS” shows similar results as the “VeinoPlus Sport” even if a slight preference for the latter was expressed. Both devices permitted an equal or even better performance in the second drill in comparison to the first drill. [less ▲]

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See detailHCOOH distributions from IASI for 2008-2014: comparison with ground-based FTIR measurements and a global chemistry-transport model
Pommier, M.; Clerbaux, C.; Coheur, P.-F. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2016), 2016

Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. It is a major contributor to rain acidity in remote areas. There are however large uncertainties on its ... [more ▼]

Formic acid (HCOOH) is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere. It is a major contributor to rain acidity in remote areas. There are however large uncertainties on its sources and sinks, and HCOOH is misrepresented by global chemistry-transport models. This work presents global distributions from 2008 to 2014 as derived from the measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), based on conversion factors between brightness temperature differences and representative retrieved total columns over seven regions: Africa N, Africa S, Amazonia, Atlantic, Australia, Pacific and Russia. The dependence of the thermal contrast is taking account in the conversion method. This conversion presents errors lower than 20 % for total columns ranging between 0.5 and 1 × 1016 molec/cm2 but reaches higher values, up to 78 %, for columns lower than 0.3 × 1016 molec/cm2. Signatures from biomass burning events are highlighted, such as in the Southern Hemisphere and in Russia, as well as biogenic emission sources, e.g. over Eastern US. A comparison between 2008 and 2014 with ground-based FTIR measurements obtained at 4 locations (Maido and Saint-Denis at La Réunion, Jungfraujoch and Wollongong) is shown. Although IASI columns are found to correlate well with FTIR data, a large bias (> 100 %) is found over the two sites at La Réunion. A better agreement is found at Wollongong with a negligible bias. The comparison also highlights the difficulty for IASI to retrieve the total columns over mountainous regions such as Jungfraujoch. A comparison of the retrieved columns with the global chemistry-transport model IMAGESv2 is also presented, showing the good representation of the seasonal and inter-annual cycles over America, Australia, Asia and Siberia. A global model underestimation of the distribution and a misrepresentation of the seasonal cycle over India are also noted. A small positive trend in the IASI columns is also observed over Australia, Amazonia and India over 2008–2014 (from 0.7 to 1.5 %/year), while a decrease of ~ 0.8 %/year is measured over Siberia. [less ▲]

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See detailWeak magnetic field, solid-envelope rotation, and wave-induced N-enrichment in the SPB star zeta Cassiopeiae
Briquet, Maryline ULg; Neiner, C.; Petit, P. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 587

Aims. The main-sequence B-type star zeta Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 ... [more ▼]

Aims. The main-sequence B-type star zeta Cassiopeiae is known as a N-rich star with a magnetic field discovered with the Musicos spectropolarimeter. We model the magnetic field of the star by means of 82 new spectropolarimetric observations of higher precision to investigate the field strength, topology, and effect. Methods. We gathered data with the Narval spectropolarimeter installed at Télescope Bernard Lyot (TBL; Pic du Midi, France) and applied the least-squares deconvolution technique to measure the circular polarisation of the light emitted from zeta Cas. We used a dipole oblique rotator model to determine the field configuration by fitting the longitudinal field measurements and by synthesizing the measured Stokes V profiles. We also made use of the Zeeman-Doppler imaging technique to map the stellar surface and to deduce the difference in rotation rate between the pole and equator. Results. zeta Cas exhibits a polar field strength B_pol of 100-150 G, which is the weakest polar field observed so far in a massive main-sequence star. Surface differential rotation is ruled out by our observations and the field of zeta Cas is strong enough to enforce rigid internal rotation in the radiative zone according to theory. Thus, the star rotates as a solid body in the envelope. Conclusions. We therefore exclude rotationally-induced mixing as the cause of the surface N-enrichment. We discuss that the transport of chemicals from the core to the surface by internal gravity waves is the most plausible explanation for the nitrogen overabundance at the surface of zeta Cas. [less ▲]

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See detailStructural identifiability analysis of a cardiovascular system model
Pironet, Antoine ULg; Dauby, Pierre ULg; Chase, J. Geoffrey et al

in Medical engineering & physics (2016)

The six-chamber cardiovascular system model of Burkhoff and Tyberg has been used in several theoretical and experimental studies. However, this cardiovascular system model (and others derived from it) are ... [more ▼]

The six-chamber cardiovascular system model of Burkhoff and Tyberg has been used in several theoretical and experimental studies. However, this cardiovascular system model (and others derived from it) are not identifiable from any output set. In this work, two such cases of structural non-identifiability are first presented. These cases occur when the model output set only contains a single type of information (pressure or volume). A specific output set is thus chosen, mixing pressure and volume information and containing only a limited number of clinically available measurements. Then, by manipulating the model equations involving these outputs, it is demonstrated that the six-chamber cardiovascular system model is structurally globally identifiable. A further simplification is made, assuming known cardiac valve resistances. Because of the poor practical identifiability of these four parameters, this assumption is usual. Under this hypothesis, the six-chamber cardiovascular system model is structurally identifiable from an even smaller dataset. As a consequence, parameter values computed from limited but well-chosen datasets are theoretically unique. This means that the parameter identification procedure can safely be performed on the model from such a well-chosen dataset. Thus, the model may be considered suitable for use in diagnosis. [less ▲]

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See detailL’entretien de tutorat documenté : un accompagnement réflexif ?
Alonso Vilches, Vincent ULg; Pirard, Florence ULg

in Education Permanente (2016), 206(1), 131-138

Notre contribution interroge l’activité tutorale dans un métier adressé à autrui, celui des professionnels de l’enfance. Elle souligne la complexité d’une telle activité dans un travail fondé sur des ... [more ▼]

Notre contribution interroge l’activité tutorale dans un métier adressé à autrui, celui des professionnels de l’enfance. Elle souligne la complexité d’une telle activité dans un travail fondé sur des référents multiples, qui nécessitent le développement d’une réflexivité sensible à la singularité des situations quotidiennes. Elle propose une analyse de moments d’entretien de tutorat accompagnés par un professionnel sur base d’une documentation vidéo. Elle montre que ces moments ne permettent pas forcément au stagiaire de développer une représentation signifiante de la situation ni d’en dégager les inférences nécessaires pour ajuster son action. [less ▲]

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See detailDrying induced shrinkage of Boom Clay: an experimental investigation
Prime, Noémie; Levasseur, Séverine; Miny, Laurent et al

in Canadian Geotechnical Journal (2016), 53(3), 396-409

Drying induced shrinkage of geomaterials may have a strong effect on geostructure stability and deformation. Settlement of foundations, fracture opening on slopes, roads, tunnel walls may be due to drying ... [more ▼]

Drying induced shrinkage of geomaterials may have a strong effect on geostructure stability and deformation. Settlement of foundations, fracture opening on slopes, roads, tunnel walls may be due to drying shrinkage. However, there is still a lack of knowledge concerning shrinkage evolution in time and shrinkage propagation within the material. In this study, the shrinkage of a specific clayey rock, Boom Clay, under drying conditions is experimentally investigated. This rock is a deep geological formation which is under study for high-level and long-life radioactive waste storage in Belgium. Two experimental campaigns are here presented. The first one, based on vapour equilibrium drying technique and completed by sample size manual measurement, aims to characterize the material shrinkage in balanced states. The second one, based on convective drying technique completed by shape monitoring using X-ray tomography, aims to analyse how shrinkage develops before reaching a steady state. Both approaches put in evidence the shrinkage anisotropy of this structurally bedded rock, with a ratio around 2 between the direction of maximum strains and the direction of minimum strains. However, the two drying techniques also provide complementary results, as the relation between the amount of shrinkage and the retention curve (for the uniform drying imposed with saline solutions) and the kinetics of shrinkage propagation inside the material (for the non-uniform drying imposed with air convection). [less ▲]

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See detailDecoding intracranial EEG data with multiple kernel learning method
Schrouff, Jessica ULg; Mourao-Miranda, Janaina; Phillips, Christophe ULg et al

in Journal of Neuroscience Methods (2016), 261

Machine learning models have been successfully applied to neuroimaging data to make predictions about behavioral and cognitive states of interest. While these multivariate methods have greatly advanced ... [more ▼]

Machine learning models have been successfully applied to neuroimaging data to make predictions about behavioral and cognitive states of interest. While these multivariate methods have greatly advanced the field of neuroimaging, their application to electrophysiological data has been less common especially in the analysis of human intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG, also known as electrocorticography or ECoG) data, which contains a rich spectrum of signals recorded from a relatively high number of recording sites. In the present work, we introduce a novel approach to determine the contribution of different bandwidths of EEG signal in different recording sites across different experimental conditions using the Multiple Kernel Learning (MKL) method. To validate and compare the usefulness of our approach, we applied this method to an ECoG dataset that was previously analysed and published with univariate methods. Our findings proved the usefulness of the MKL method in detecting changes in the power of various frequency bands during a given task and selecting automatically the most contributory signal in the most contributory site(s) of recording. With a single computation, the contribution of each frequency band in each recording site in the estimated multivariate model can be highlighted, which then allows formulation of hypotheses that can be tested a posteriori with univariate methods if needed. [less ▲]

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See detailLe Sart Tilman et les universités à l'heure de la "métapolisation"
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

in Dérivations. Pour le débat urbain. (2016), 2

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See detailIncidence and risk factors for early renal dysfunction after liver transplantation.
WIESEN, Patricia ULg; MASSION, Paul ULg; JORIS, Jean ULg et al

in World journal of transplantation (2016), 6(1), 220-232

AIM: To determine renal dysfunction post liver transplantation, its incidence and risk factors in patients from a Belgian University Hospital. METHODS: Orthotopic liver transplantations performed from ... [more ▼]

AIM: To determine renal dysfunction post liver transplantation, its incidence and risk factors in patients from a Belgian University Hospital. METHODS: Orthotopic liver transplantations performed from January 2006 until September 2012 were retrospectively reviewed (n = 187). Patients with no renal replacement therapy (RRT) before transplantation were classified into four groups according to their highest creatinine plasma level during the first postoperative week. The first group had a peak creatinine level below 12 mg/L, the second group between 12 and 20 mg/L, the third group between 20 and 35 mg/L, and the fourth above 35 mg/L. In addition, patients who needed RRT during the first week after transplantation were also classified into the fourth group. Perioperative parameters were recorded as risk factors, namely age, sex, body mass index (BMI), length of preoperative hospital stay, prior bacterial infection within one month, preoperative ascites, preoperative treatment with beta-blocker, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, preoperative creatinine and bilirubin levels, donor status (cardiac death or brain death), postoperative lactate level, need for intraoperative vasopressive drugs, surgical revision, mechanical ventilation for more than 24 h, postoperative bilirubin and transaminase peak levels, postoperative hemoglobin level, amount of perioperative blood transfusions and type of immunosuppression. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed using logistic ordinal regression method. Post hoc analysis of the hemostatic agent used was also done. RESULTS: There were 78 patients in group 1 (41.7%), 46 in group 2 (24.6%), 38 in group 3 (20.3%) and 25 in group 4 (13.4%). Twenty patients required RRT: 13 (7%) during the first week after transplantation. Using univariate analysis, the severity of renal dysfunction was correlated with presence of ascites and prior bacterial infection, preoperative bilirubin, urea and creatinine level, need for surgical revision, use of vasopressor, postoperative mechanical ventilation, postoperative bilirubin and urea, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), and hemoglobin levels and the need for transfusion. The multivariate analysis showed that BMI (OR = 1.1, P = 0.004), preoperative creatinine level (OR = 11.1, P < 0.0001), use of vasopressor (OR = 3.31, P = 0.0002), maximal postoperative bilirubin level (OR = 1.44, P = 0.044) and minimal postoperative hemoglobin level (OR = 0.059, P = 0.0005) were independent predictors of early post-liver transplantation renal dysfunction. Neither donor status nor ASAT levels had significant impact on early postoperative renal dysfunction in multivariate analysis. Absence of renal dysfunction (group 1) was also predicted by the intraoperative hemostatic agent used, independently of the extent of bleeding and of the preoperative creatinine level. CONCLUSION: More than half of receivers experienced some degree of early renal dysfunction after liver transplantation. Main predictors were preoperative renal dysfunction, postoperative anemia and vasopressor requirement. [less ▲]

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See detailCalcifications articulaires, péri et juxtarticulaires « physiologiques » chez le chien
François, Marion; Bolen, Géraldine ULg

in Monde Vétérinaire (Le) (2016), (158), 14-17

Il existe, chez le chien, de nombreuses petites calcifications péri-, juxta- et articulaires « physiologiques » avec une présence inconstante, qui peuvent être confondues avec des lésions type fragment ... [more ▼]

Il existe, chez le chien, de nombreuses petites calcifications péri-, juxta- et articulaires « physiologiques » avec une présence inconstante, qui peuvent être confondues avec des lésions type fragment. Une bonne connaissance de leur localisation anatomique permet de distinguer les variations anatomiques normales des lésions pathologiques. Cet article reprend une liste de ces principales calcifications « physiologiques » pouvant être retrouvées sur des radiographies. [less ▲]

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See detailEditorial: Special issue on natural language processing and text analytics in industry
Ittoo, Ashwin ULg; Nguyen, Le Min; van den Bosch, Antal

in Computers in Industry (2016)

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See detailDes nouvelles de votre revue
RADERMECKER, Régis ULg

in Revue de l'Association Belge du Diabète (2016), 59

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See detailCollective vortex behaviors: diversity, proximate, and ultimate causes of circular animal group movements
Delcourt, Johann ULg; Bode, W.F. Nikolaï; Denoël, Mathieu ULg

in Quarterly Review of Biology (2016), 91(1), 1-24

Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These ... [more ▼]

Ant mill, caterpillar circle, bat doughnut, amphibian vortex, duck swirl, and fish torus are different names for rotating circular animal formations, where individuals turn around a common center. These “collective vortex behaviors” occur at different group sizes from pairs to several million individuals and have been reported in a large number of organisms, from bacteria to vertebrates, including humans. However, to date, no comprehensive review and synthesis of the literature on vortex behaviors has been conducted. Here, we review the state of the art of the proximate and ultimate causes of vortex behaviors. The ubiquity of this behavioral phenomenon could suggest common causes or fundamental underlying principles across contexts. However, we find that a variety of proximate mechanisms give rise to vortex behaviors. We highlight the potential benefits of collective vortex behaviors to individuals involved in them. For example, in some species, vortices increase feeding efficiency and could give protection against predators. It has also been argued that vortices could improve collective decision making and information transfer. We highlight gaps in our understanding of these ubiquitous behavioral phenomena and discuss future directions for research in vortex studies. [less ▲]

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See detailCobalt-mediated radical polymerization of vinyl acetate and acrylonitrile in supercritical carbon dioxide
Kermagoret; Chau, Ngoc Do Quyen; Grignard, Bruno ULg et al

in Macromolecular Rapid Communications (2016), 39(6), 539-544

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of vinyl acetate (VAc) is successfully achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ). CMRP of VAc is conducted using an alkyl-cobalt(III) adduct that is ... [more ▼]

Cobalt-mediated radical polymerization (CMRP) of vinyl acetate (VAc) is successfully achieved in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO 2 ). CMRP of VAc is conducted using an alkyl-cobalt(III) adduct that is soluble in scCO2 . Kinetics studies coupled to visual observations of the polymerization medium highlight that the melt viscosity and PVAc molar mass ( Mn ) are key parameters that affect the CMRP in scCO2. It is noticed that CMRP is controlled for M n up to 10 000 g mol−1 , but loss of control is progressively observed for higher molar masses when PVAc precipitates in the polymerization medium. Low molar mass PVAc macroinitiator, prepared by CMRP in scCO2 , is then successfully used to initiate the acrylonitrile polymerization. PVAc-b-PAN block copolymer is collected as a free flowing powder at the end of the process although the dispersity of the copolymer increases with the reaction time. Although optimization is required to decrease the dispersity of the polymer formed, this CMRP process opens new perspectives for macromolecular engineering in scCO2 without the utilization of fluorinated comonomers or organic solvents. [less ▲]

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See detailTraumatologie du joueur de tennis
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Schaus, Jean; Delvaux, François ULg et al

in Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2016), 33(1), 43-47

Tennis is a racquet sport with approximately 10 million licensees and 26 million unaffiliated players in Europe. Tennis injuries represent 21%of those generated by rackets sports. Tennis players are ... [more ▼]

Tennis is a racquet sport with approximately 10 million licensees and 26 million unaffiliated players in Europe. Tennis injuries represent 21%of those generated by rackets sports. Tennis players are subject to traumatic and microtraumatic pathologies. This epidemiological review oftennis-related injuries addresses their type and locations, the cause and time of absence, the demographic and gender differences, as well as theinfluence of technique of play and type of field on their impact. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonal variability of surface and column carbon monoxide over megacity Paris, high altitude Jungfraujoch and Southern Hemispheric Wollongong stations
Té, Y; Jeseck, P; Franco, Bruno ULg et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2016)

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an atmospheric key species due to its toxicity and its impact on the atmospheric oxidizing capacity, both factors affecting air quality. The paper studies the altitude dependent ... [more ▼]

Carbon monoxide (CO) is an atmospheric key species due to its toxicity and its impact on the atmospheric oxidizing capacity, both factors affecting air quality. The paper studies the altitude dependent seasonal variability of CO at the three different sites Paris, Jungfraujoch and Wollongong, with an emphasis on establishing a link between the CO vertical distribution and the nature of CO emission sources. The CO seasonal variability obtained from the total columns and from the free tropospheric partial columns shows a maximum around March-April and a minimum around September-October in the Northern Hemisphere (Paris and Jungfraujoch). In the Southern Hemisphere (Wollongong) this seasonal variability is shifted by about 6 months. Satellite observations by IASI-MetOp and MOPITT instruments confirm this seasonality. Ground-based FTIR is demonstrated to provide useful complementary information due to good sensitivity in the boundary layer. In situ surface measurements of CO volume mixing ratios in Paris and at Jungfraujoch reveal a time-lag of the near surface seasonal variability of about 2 months with respect to the total column variability at the same sites. The chemical transport model GEOS-Chem is employed to interpret our observations. GEOS-Chem sensitivity runs allow identifying the emission sources influencing the seasonal cycle of CO. In Paris and on top of Jungfraujoch, the surface seasonality is mainly driven by anthropogenic emissions, while the total column seasonality is also controlled by air masses transported from distant sources. In the case of Wollongong, where the CO seasonality is mainly affected by biomass burning, no time shift is observed between surface and above the boundary layer. [less ▲]

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See detailTénotomie chez le veau
Djebala, Salem ULg; Sartelet, Arnaud ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2016), 363

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See detailReduced Order Model for Accounting for High Frequency Effects in Power Electronic Components
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg; Hasan, Md. Rokibul et al

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016)

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See detailA One-year Survey of Microsporum audouinii infections in Belgium: epidemiological and genotypic characterisation
SACHELI, Rosalie ULg; ADJETEY BAHUN, Akolé ULg; DARFOUF, Rajae ULg et al

in Clinical Microbiology and Infection (2016), 22(3), 2859-28517

During recent years the proportion of tinea capitis (TC) infections due to Microsporum audouinii (M. audouinii) has increased both in Belgium and other European countries. To better understand the ... [more ▼]

During recent years the proportion of tinea capitis (TC) infections due to Microsporum audouinii (M. audouinii) has increased both in Belgium and other European countries. To better understand the emergence of this species in the country, the Belgian National Reference Center (NRC) for dermatophytes launched an epidemiological survey on the main anthropophilic dermatophytes causing TC in Belgium and including the genomic characterization of M. audouinii isolates. In total, 116 strains of M. audouinii were confirmed and characterized by the DiversiLab® system (bioMérieux). Six genotypic variants were identified, among which one major group included 90 isolates and the reference strain. Another variant group (11 strains) was exclusively confined to a geographical region in South Belgium. Analysis of epidemiological characteristics of the infected population showed that the main age category concerned 5-9 year-old children with a sex ratio (Male/Female) of 1.97. Data concerning the geographic origin of the family revealed a majority of Belgian nationality (44.7%), suggesting that the contamination has originated in Belgium. Other nationalities primarily originated from Africa. At this time, no clear correlation has been established between one particular strain and a specific country of origin. [less ▲]

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See detailActive Management of Low-Voltage Networks for Mitigating Overvoltages due to Photovoltaic Units
Olivier, Frédéric ULg; Aristidou, Petros ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg et al

in IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid (2016), 2(7), 926-936

In this paper, the overvoltage problems that might arise from the integration of photovoltaic panels into low-voltage distribution networks is addressed. A distributed scheme is proposed that adjusts the ... [more ▼]

In this paper, the overvoltage problems that might arise from the integration of photovoltaic panels into low-voltage distribution networks is addressed. A distributed scheme is proposed that adjusts the reactive and active power output of inverters to prevent or alleviate such problems. The proposed scheme is model-free and makes use of limited communication between the controllers, in the form of a distress signal, only during emergency conditions. It prioritizes the use of reactive power, while active power curtailment is performed only as a last resort. The behavior of the scheme is studied using dynamic simulations on a single low-voltage feeder and on a larger network composed of 14 low-voltage feeders. Its performance is compared to a centralized scheme based on the solution of an Optimal Power Flow problem, whose objective function is to minimize the active power curtailment. The proposed scheme successfully mitigates overvoltage situations due to high photovoltaic penetration and performs almost as well as the Optimal Power Flow based solution with significantly less information and communication requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailTrois méthodes pédagogiques en formations médicale et pharmaceutique : L’APP, les Tests de Progression et les ECOS
Leclercq, Dieudonné ULg; Philippe, Geneviève; van der Vleuten, Cees

in Journal de Pharmacie Clinique (2016), 35(1), 7-22

During the four last decades, Higher Education has tried to re-equilibrate the ratio between the acquisition of knowledge and they development of competencies (being able to act efficiently and ethically ... [more ▼]

During the four last decades, Higher Education has tried to re-equilibrate the ratio between the acquisition of knowledge and they development of competencies (being able to act efficiently and ethically in complex situations). Pursuing this objective, in faculties of pharmacy and of medicine, a series of methods – audacious in their time- have been initiated. Three of them are described hereafter. For each of them, we will consider how their field implementation has evolved as well as validity and efficiency issues. The first one is The Problem Based Learning (PBL) approach, in which teaching is replaced by learning, i.e. in which students themselves, after having been motivated by a case presented b y a simulated patient, decide which contents to study and search, in an autonomous way, pieces of information in a huge “Study landscape” full of books and on the internet. In the second strategy, named “Progress Tests”, students have to pass, four times per year, a test on the medical knowledge that should be mastered by a general practitioner. Since during the 6 years of their medical studies he/she passes 24 (not identical but equivalent) tests, each student can observe his/her own progression. The third strategy deals both with training and with evaluation, and, as PBL, relies on role playing. It consists in students spending a few minutes (7 for instance) in various “stations” where they play the role of the professional (a pharmacist, a doctor) facing a concrete situation presented by a simulated patient. These three methods are described on the basis of their concrete implementation in two universities, the Maastricht and the Liège ones. An important common point they share is that they could be implemented thanks to the adoption of a program-referenced approach. This article presents these three educational strategies and the concepts that underpin them. [less ▲]

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See detailUsing platelet-rich plasma to treat jumper’s knees: Exploring the effect of a second closely-timed infiltration
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Croisier, Jean-Louis ULg; Forthomme, Bénédicte ULg et al

in Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport (2016), 19(3), 200-204

Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathy. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove ... [more ▼]

Some clinical series have evaluated the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of proximal patellar tendinopathy. Although it is possible that a single infiltrative administration may prove to be an effective treatment for this indication, most of the existing studies evaluated the effects of two or three successive infiltrations. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether two infiltrations of PRP proves more effective than a single treatment. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized and comparative study of level 2. METHODS: Twenty patients suffering from chronic proximal patellar tendinopathy were enrolled into the study and split into two randomized groups (one or two infiltrations of PRP, respectively). The 3-month follow-up evaluation consisted of VAS, IKDC and VISA-P scores, along with algometer, isokinetic and ultrasounds evaluations. After 1 year, subjects were contacted to define their functional evolution. RESULTS: The concentration of the PRP used for each infiltration was similar in both groups, and contained no red or white cells. Results revealed no difference in treatment efficacy between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: The comparison between one or two infiltrations of PRP did not reveal any difference between the two groups at short to mid term. A second closely-timed infiltration of PRP to treat proximal patellar tendinopathies is not necessary to improve the efficacy of this treatment in the short term. [less ▲]

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See detailOption Replication and the Performance of a Market Timer
Hübner, Georges ULg

in Studies in Economics & Finance (2016), 33(1), 2-25

The Treynor and Mazuy framework is a widely used return-based model of market timing. However, existing corrections to the regression intercept can be manipulated through derivatives trading. We propose ... [more ▼]

The Treynor and Mazuy framework is a widely used return-based model of market timing. However, existing corrections to the regression intercept can be manipulated through derivatives trading. We propose an adjustment based on Merton's option replication approach. The linear and quadratic coefficients of the regression are exploited to assess the cost of the replicating option that yields similar convexity for a passive portfolio. A similar reasoning applies for various timing patterns and in multi-factor models. The proposed framework induces a potential rebalancing risk and involves the delicate issue of choosing the cheapest option. We show that these issues can be overcome for reasonable tolerance levels. [less ▲]

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See detailLe médicament du mois. Le dulaglutide (Trulicity®) : Nouvel agoniste des récepteurs du Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 en injection hebdomadaire pour traiter le diabète de type 2
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71

Summary : Dulaglutide (Trulicity®) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Phase III clinical trials in AWARD programme ... [more ▼]

Summary : Dulaglutide (Trulicity®) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Phase III clinical trials in AWARD programme demonstrated the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes treated by diet and exercise, metformin, a combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea or metformin and pioglitazone or even by supplements of prandial insulin. In the AWARD programme, dulaglutide (subcutaneous 0.75 or 1.5 mg once weekly) exerted a greater glucose-lowering activity than metformin, sitagliptin, exenatide or insulin glargine, and was non-inferior to liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily. Dulaglutide is currently reimbursed in Belgium after failure of and in combination with a dual oral therapy with metformin and a sulfonylurea or metformin and pioglitazone. [less ▲]

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See detailLatex, un peu, beaucoup (11. Multitraitement)
Dupont, Pascal ULg

in Losanges (2016), 32

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See detailInhibition of mitochondrial 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase impairs viability of cancer cells in a cell-specific metabolismdependent manner
Bunik, Victoria; Mkrtchyan, Garait; Grabarska, Aneta et al

in Oncotarget (2016), 7(26400), 26421

2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often implied to be inactive in cancer, but this was not experimentally tested. We addressed the question through specific ... [more ▼]

2-Oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH) of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is often implied to be inactive in cancer, but this was not experimentally tested. We addressed the question through specific inhibition of OGDH by succinyl phosphonate (SP). SP action on different cancer cells was investigated using indicators of cellular viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS), metabolic profiling and transcriptomics. Relative sensitivity of various cancer cells to SP changed with increasing SP exposure and could differ in the ATP- and NAD(P)H-based assays. Glioblastoma responses to SP revealed metabolic sub-types increasing or decreasing cellular ATP/NAD(P)H ratio under OGDH inhibition. Cancer cell homeostasis was perturbed also when viability indicators were SPresistant, e.g. in U87 and N2A cells. The transcriptomics database analysis showed that the SP-sensitive cells, such as A549 and T98G, exhibit the lowest expression of OGDH compared to other TCA cycle enzymes, associated with higher expression of affiliated pathways utilizing 2-oxoglutarate. Metabolic profiling confirmed the dependence of cellular SP reactivity on cell-specific expression of the pathways. Thus, oxidative decarboxylation of 2-oxoglutarate is significant for the interdependent homeostasis of NAD(P)H, ATP, ROS and key metabolites in various cancer cells. Assessment of cellspecific responses to OGDH inhibition is of diagnostic value for anticancer strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailDynamics of upstream movements of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in an inland area of the River Meuse over the last 20 years
Nzau Matondo, Billy ULg; Ovidio, Michaël ULg

in Environmental Biology of Fishes (2016), 99

The dynamics of upstream movements of the yellow eel Anguilla anguilla were investigated at Lixhe on the Belgian River Meuse in an inland fish pass regularly monitored from 1992 to 2014. Based on a ... [more ▼]

The dynamics of upstream movements of the yellow eel Anguilla anguilla were investigated at Lixhe on the Belgian River Meuse in an inland fish pass regularly monitored from 1992 to 2014. Based on a constant year-to-year sampling effort, we examined the abundance of ascending yellow eels and their body size, seasonal movement, and the associated water temperature and flow. Over the last 23 years, the number of ascending yellow eels has declined at an average 4.2% per year since 1992. The abundance of eels in 2014 is estimated at 4.5% of the ascending stock in 1992. We observed that some annual variations in eel abundance at Lixhe might be related to opening fish passes downstream of the study site. The results clearly demonstrated that long-term declining abundance of eels has resulted in increased sizes (mean increase, 4.1 mm per year since 1992) and temperatures triggering the upstream movement process (1.03°C per decade), with earlier dates for the last eel passages reducing the difference between temperature extremes of eel passages through the fish pass during the migration season. Eel movements occurred in spring and summer at low river discharge and were mainly triggered by high-temperature events. Eels have become larger with time because of improved feeding opportunities and more growth habitats available resulting from the long-term reduction in recruitment. This study highlights the importance of investigating long time spans for a better comprehension of the changes observed in yellow eels and for the optimization of management measures and future research. [less ▲]

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See detailControlling the profile of high aspect ratio gratings in diamond
Vargas Catalan, Ernesto; Forsberg, Pontus; Absil, Olivier ULg et al

in Diamond & Related Materials (2016), 63

Diamond is an excellent material for infrared optics and for applications in harsh environments. Some of those desirable properties, i.e. hardness and chemical inertness, also make it a challenging ... [more ▼]

Diamond is an excellent material for infrared optics and for applications in harsh environments. Some of those desirable properties, i.e. hardness and chemical inertness, also make it a challenging material to machine and etch. In this study we have tested a wide range of etch parameters in an inductively coupled plasma etcher, in order to produce highly controlled, high aspect ratio gratings in diamond. We discuss the effects of pressure, bias power, and some gas mixture variation (pure oxygen and argon-oxygen) on the etch results and how it impacts the etch mask sputtering and redeposition. We also present a method for applying a fresh aluminum mask, in order to etch even deeper optical grating. Gratings with aspect ratios as high as 1:13.5 have been achieved with a 1.42 μm grating period. [less ▲]

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See detailDe la nécessaire articulation entre une formation théorique et une formation pratique.présentation d'un dispositif pédagogique réflexif en contexte de stages cliniques
Vierset, Viviane ULg

in Pédagogie Médicale (2016)

Résumé. Contexte. La formation clinique au département de Gynécologie-Obstétrique (G-O) constitue le centre du projet pédagogique mis en place avec les stagiaires de 3° master et les médecins qui les ... [more ▼]

Résumé. Contexte. La formation clinique au département de Gynécologie-Obstétrique (G-O) constitue le centre du projet pédagogique mis en place avec les stagiaires de 3° master et les médecins qui les accompagnent. Problématique. Bien que la formation théorique soit organisée majoritairement sous la forme d’Apprentissage Par Problèmes (APP), d’Apprentissage du Raisonnement Clinique (ARC) et d’Apprentissage à la Résolution de Problèmes complexes (ARPc), le transfert des apprentissages n’est pas organisé sur le parcours des stages. Or, par essence, les stages cliniques correspondent au lieu de résurgence optimal des savoirs acquis et de leur mobilisation dans une logique de développement des compétences professionnelles. Finalité. Susciter l’articulation entre les lieux d’apprentissage in vitro (en laboratoire facultaire)) et in vivo (en terrain clinique) par l’apprentissage du transfert et de la pratique réflexive. Dispositif réflexif. Planifié dès 2008-2009 dans le cadre de la formation clinique des stagiaires de 3° master au sein du département de G-O, ce travail d’implantation est précédé de deux analyses, l’une concernant les besoins nécessaires à la profession (compétences professionnelles) et l’autre, les besoins des acteurs du terrain pédagogique clinique (stagiaires et superviseurs). Afin de répondre aux besoins évoqués tout en poursuivant l’objectif global du projet, le cadre conceptuel de l’Apprentissage et de l’Enseignement Contextualisé Authentiques (AECA) est proposé en tant que source de régulation du dispositif questionnant les situations vécues par l’apprenant ainsi que les postures d’apprentissage et d’accompagnement réflexifs. Bilan d’expérience. Tout en répondant à certains critères de l’AECA, le dispositif réflexif installé vise l’articulation entre les lieux de formation et propose une réponse à la plupart des besoins identifiés lors des deux analyses préliminaires. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vignette diagnostique de l’étudiant. L’importance du facteur temps et de la chronologie des événements dans l’anamnèse médicale
SCHEEN, André ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71

Summary : Medical history taking represents a key step in the diagnostic approach. A structured interview with a special attention to the chronology of events is mandatory. The medical student often fails ... [more ▼]

Summary : Medical history taking represents a key step in the diagnostic approach. A structured interview with a special attention to the chronology of events is mandatory. The medical student often fails to use the information on time in an optimal way. The aim of this article is to draw the attention on a few key elements, especially the age of the patient, the duration of symptoms, the time of occurrence of complaints within the 24h period and, finally, how to interpret the simultaneous or sequential occurrence of two (or more) events. [less ▲]

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See detailAdolescence, et "double identité". Quand l’engagement radical violent devient une réponse à un questionnement identitaire
Garcet, Serge ULg

in L'Observatoire (2016), 86

L’engagement radical violent est caractérisé par la jeunesse de ses participants. Il apparaît comme une réponse individuelle à un questionnement identitaire dans lequel des processus cognitifs ... [more ▼]

L’engagement radical violent est caractérisé par la jeunesse de ses participants. Il apparaît comme une réponse individuelle à un questionnement identitaire dans lequel des processus cognitifs caractéristiques de l’adolescence sont associés aux représentations qu’engendre la problématique de la « double identité » chez les jeunes issus de l’immigration. L’article tente de décrire ce processus du point de vue psychologique tout en relevant le rôle déterminant tenu par les cognitions et les émotions sur l’adoption d’une posture victimaire derrière l’engagement radical. [less ▲]

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See detailNonlinear Interpolation on Manifold of Reduced Order Models in Magnetodynamic Problems
Paquay, Yannick ULg; Bruls, Olivier ULg; Geuzaine, Christophe ULg

in IEEE Transactions on Magnetics (2016), 52(3), 1-4

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See detailToxicity of organometal halide perovskite solar cells
Babayigit, Aslihan; Ethirajan, Anitha; Muller, Marc ULg et al

in Nature Materials (2016), 15

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See detailVille et Université : l'expérience liégeoise
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

in Dérivations. Pour le débat urbain. (2016)

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See detailSURVEYS OF APHIDS AND POTATO VIRUS Y IN POTATO FIELDS IN WALLONIA, BELGIUM: A FOUR YEAR OVERVIEW
Bosquée, Emilie ULg; Yattara, Almouner A.; Crutzen, François et al

in Journal of Plant Pathology [=JPP] (2016)

Populations of Potato virus Y (PVY) and aphids were characterized in potato seed and stock production fields in southern Belgium (Wallonia) from 2009 to 2012. More than 40 aphid species were identified ... [more ▼]

Populations of Potato virus Y (PVY) and aphids were characterized in potato seed and stock production fields in southern Belgium (Wallonia) from 2009 to 2012. More than 40 aphid species were identified using yellow pan traps. Four thousands potato leaf samples collected in 87 plots from 29 fields were analysed for the presence and typing of PVY strains by RT-PCR. PVY was detected in 26%, 20% and 60% of the seed plots tested from 2009 to 2011, respectively. A higher prevalence of PVY was observed in plots of stock potatoes (60% in 2010 and 67% in 2011). The N/NTN strain of PVY was predominant, representing 70-99% of the strains. [less ▲]

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See detailNoninvasive neurostimulation methods for migraine therapy: The available evidence
SCHOENEN, Jean ULg; Baschi, Roberta; MAGIS, Delphine ULg et al

in Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2016)

Abstract Background: Migraine is one of the most disabling neurological disorders. The current pharmacological armamentarium is not satisfying for a large proportion of patients because the responder rate ... [more ▼]

Abstract Background: Migraine is one of the most disabling neurological disorders. The current pharmacological armamentarium is not satisfying for a large proportion of patients because the responder rate does not exceed 50% on average and the most effective drugs often induce intolerable side effects. During recent years, noninvasive central and peripheral neuromodulation methods have been explored for migraine treatment. Overview: A review of the available evidence suggests that noninvasive neuromodulation techniques could be beneficial for migraine patients. The transcranial stimulation methods allow modulating selectively cortical activity and can thus be curtailed to the patient’s pathophysiological profile, while transcutaneous stimulation of pericranial nerves likely modulates central pain control centers. Occipital single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcutaneous supraorbital stimulation have the strongest evidence respectively for acute and preventive treatment. Transcranial direct current stimulation and repetitive magnetic stimulation are promising in pilot studies, but large sham-controlled trials are not yet available. Conclusions: The noninvasive neurostimulation methods are promising for migraine treatment and devoid of serious adverse effects allowing their combination with drug therapies. Their application in clinical practice will depend on the industry’s capacity to develop portable and user-friendly devices, and on the scientists’ capacity to prove their efficacy in randomized sham-controlled trials. [less ▲]

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See detailAnalyse qualitative interdisciplinaire du discours de travailleurs à l’aide d’un logiciel collaboratif : le cas de la flexicurité
Beuker, Laura ULg; DE CIA, Julie ULg; Dervaux, Amélie ULg et al

in Recherches Qualitatives (2016), 35(1), 29-55

L’ambition de cet article est double : explorer les vertus de l’utilisation d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative dans le cadre d’un travail interdisciplinaire sur la flexicurité, et réaliser une revue de ... [more ▼]

L’ambition de cet article est double : explorer les vertus de l’utilisation d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative dans le cadre d’un travail interdisciplinaire sur la flexicurité, et réaliser une revue de littérature transversale à partir des problématiques concrètes que ce concept cristallise dans le vécu des travailleurs. La flexicurité constitue un oxymore qui prône la recherche d’un équilibre entre besoins de flexibilité et de sécurité sur le marché du travail. Cet équilibre est avant tout un objectif politique, mais il reste fragile aux yeux des acteurs concernés. En cherchant à croiser le regard analytique de trois disciplines – psychologie, gestion et sociologie –, nous avons recouru au logiciel Cassandre (Lejeune, 2008) pour dégager des tensions discursives autour des notions de flexibilité et de sécurité dans un corpus de vingt entretiens qualitatifs. L’article permet ainsi de concrétiser l’intérêt et les limites de l’utilisation d’un logiciel d’analyse qualitative dans le cadre d’un travail interdisciplinaire. [less ▲]

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See detailDix références incontournables pour comprendre l'histoire urbaine des universités
Frankignoulle, Pierre ULg

in Dérivations. Pour le débat urbain. (2016), 2

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See detailLire un dossier de documents à visée informative et y circuler : un "objet enseignable" au début du secondaire?
De Croix, Séverine ULg; Penneman, Jessica

in Recherches en Education (2016), 25

Séverine De Croix et Jessica Penneman présentent un programme de recherche quasi-expérimental et longitudinal qui porte sur l’enseignement de la lecture et de l’écriture de textes informatifs chez des ... [more ▼]

Séverine De Croix et Jessica Penneman présentent un programme de recherche quasi-expérimental et longitudinal qui porte sur l’enseignement de la lecture et de l’écriture de textes informatifs chez des élèves du 1er degré de l’enseignement secondaire en Belgique francophone. Dans cette contribution, elles montrent combien les textes documentaires sont composites et comportent des obstacles liés aux schémas rhétoriques et aux finalités qui les caractérisent. La recherche vise, entre autres, à aider les élèves à construire un texte homogène à partir de données multiples et hétérogènes. Les premiers résultats indiquent que suite au dispositif mis en place, les élèves progressent légèrement dans la manipulation de nombreux documents, relevant de genres variés, et que les enseignants transforment l’outil didactique initial, notamment en sélectionnant les tâches qui sont les plus fermées. [less ▲]

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See detailText analytics in industry: Challenges, desiderata and trends
Ittoo, Ashwin ULg; Nguyen, Le Minh; van den Bosch, Antal

in Computers in Industry (2016), (78),

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See detailFaraday rotation, band splitting, and one-way propagation of plasmon waves on a nanoparticle chain
Pike, Nicholas ULg; Stroud, David

in Journal of Applied Physics (2016), 119

We calculate the dispersion relations of plasmonic waves propagating along a chain of semiconducting or metallic nanoparticles in the presence of both a static magnetic field B and a liquid crystalline ... [more ▼]

We calculate the dispersion relations of plasmonic waves propagating along a chain of semiconducting or metallic nanoparticles in the presence of both a static magnetic field B and a liquid crystalline host. The dispersion relations are obtained using the quasistatic approximation and a dipole-dipole approximation to treat the interaction between surface plasmons on different nanoparticles. For plasmons propagating along a particle chain in a nematic liquid crystalline host with both B and the director parallel to the chain, we find a small, but finite, Faraday rotation angle. For B perpendicular to the chain, but director still parallel to the chain, the field couples the longitudinal and one of the two transverse plasmonic branches. This coupling is shown to split the two branches at the zero field crossing by an amount proportional to |B||B|. In a cholesteric liquid crystal host and an applied magnetic field parallel to the chain, the dispersion relations for left- and right-moving waves are found to be different. For some frequencies, the plasmonic wave propagates only in one of the two directions. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between population density, fine-scale genetic structure, mating system and pollen dispersal in a timber tree from African rainforests
Duminil, Jérôme; Daïnou, Kasso ULg; Kaviriri, D.K. et al

in Heredity (2016), 116

Owing to the reduction of population density and/or the environmental changes it induces, selective logging could affect the demography, reproductive biology and evolutionary potential of forest trees ... [more ▼]

Owing to the reduction of population density and/or the environmental changes it induces, selective logging could affect the demography, reproductive biology and evolutionary potential of forest trees. This is particularly relevant in tropical forests where natural population densities can be low and isolated trees may be subject to outcross pollen limitation and/or produce low-quality selfed seeds that exhibit inbreeding depression. Comparing reproductive biology processes and genetic diversity of populations at different densities can provide indirect evidence of the potential impacts of logging. Here, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity, mating system and gene flow in three Central African populations of the self-compatible legume timber species Erythrophleum suaveolens with contrasting densities (0.11, 0.68 and 1.72 adults per ha). The comparison of inbreeding levels among cohorts suggests that selfing is detrimental as inbred individuals are eliminated between seedling and adult stages. Levels of genetic diversity, selfing rates (∼16%) and patterns of spatial genetic structure (Sp ∼ 0.006) were similar in all three populations. However, the extent of gene dispersal differed markedly among populations: the average distance of pollen dispersal increased with decreasing density (from 200m in the high-density population to 1000m in the low-density one). Overall, our results suggest that the reproductive biology and genetic diversity of the species are not affected by current logging practices. However, further investigations need to be conducted in low-density populations to evaluate (1) whether pollen limitation may reduce seed production and (2) the regeneration potential of the species. [less ▲]

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See detailGamma radiation induced modifications of tapioca starch
Atrous, Hager; Benbettaïeb, Nasreddine; Hosni, Faouzi et al

in Asian Academic Research Journal of Multidisciplinary (2016), 3(3), 187-220

The effect of gamma radiation (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 kGy) on the morphological, structural, physicochemical, pasting and thermal properties of tapioca starch was studied. Microphotographs of scanning ... [more ▼]

The effect of gamma radiation (3, 5, 10, 20, 35 and 50 kGy) on the morphological, structural, physicochemical, pasting and thermal properties of tapioca starch was studied. Microphotographs of scanning electron microscopy and polarized light microscopy revealed the absence of morphological changes induced by gamma radiation. The X-ray diffraction spectra showed that irradiation treatment did not influence the shape and intensity of X-ray diffraction peaks. The presence of free radicals in the irradiated tapioca starch was confirmed by electron spin resonance spectrometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the irradiated starch displayed a significant decrease in the intensity of the O–H and C–H stretches, bending modes of water and glycosidic linkages. Irradiation improved the water solubility index of starch granules and depressed the apparent amylose content. An increase in the swelling power was observed after irradiation treatment until 20 kGy, followed by a decrease at higher doses. Brabender viscoamylograph test showed that the maximal consistency of the starch paste decreased significantly with increasing irradiation dose. There was no significant difference in the gelatinization temperatures, as well as the corresponding transition enthalpies among native and irradiated tapioca starch samples, as shown in the differential scanning calorimetry thermograms. [less ▲]

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See detailLarge elasto-optic effect and reversible electrochromism in multiferroic BiFeO3
Sando, D.; Yang, Yurong; Bousquet, Eric ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7

The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous ... [more ▼]

The control of optical fields is usually achieved through the electro-optic or acousto-optic effect in single-crystal ferroelectric or polar compounds such as LiNbO3 or quartz. In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in ferroelectric oxide thin film technology—a field which is now a strong driving force in areas such as electronics, spintronics and photovoltaics. Here, we apply epitaxial strain engineering to tune the optical response of BiFeO3 thin films, and find a very large variation of the optical index with strain, corresponding to an effective elasto-optic coefficient larger than that of quartz. We observe a concomitant strain-driven variation in light absorption—reminiscent of piezochromism—which we show can be manipulated by an electric field. This constitutes an electrochromic effect that is reversible, remanent and not driven by defects. These findings broaden the potential of multiferroics towards photonics and thin film acousto-optic devices, and suggest exciting device opportunities arising from the coupling of ferroic, piezoelectric and optical responses. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Valeriana officinalis to cancer therapy: the success of a bio-sourced compound
Hamaïdia, Malik ULg; Barez, Pierre-Yves ULg; Carpentier, Alexandre ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (2016), 20

Over the centuries, bio-sourced compounds isolated from plants, insects and microorganisms have been a potent source of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. In this review, we recapitulate the story ... [more ▼]

Over the centuries, bio-sourced compounds isolated from plants, insects and microorganisms have been a potent source of drugs for the treatment of human diseases. In this review, we recapitulate the story of one of these compounds, 2-propylpentanoic acid, derived from the Valeriana officinalis flowering plant and its path to validation as a cancer treatment. [less ▲]

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See detailWitnessing Fukushima Secondhand: Collage, Archive and Travelling Memory in Jacques Ristorcelli’s Les Écrans
Crucifix, Benoît ULg

in The Comics Grid: Journal of Comics Scholarship (2016), 6

Cultural memory in comics studies mostly seems to revolve around nonfictional graphic novels tackling major historical events. Drawing on recent trends in cultural memory studies, this paper focuses on ... [more ▼]

Cultural memory in comics studies mostly seems to revolve around nonfictional graphic novels tackling major historical events. Drawing on recent trends in cultural memory studies, this paper focuses on Jacques Ristorcelli‘s Les Écrans (2014) as an experimental counterpoint where memory is animated by the author’s use of collage. Delving into an ‘archive’ of heterogeneous elements, Les Écrans borrows from old war comics in a way that reflexively constructs a discourse on the past of the medium and its memory. Through the analysis of Ristorcelli’s book, this paper highlights how collage can function in comics as a work of memory that reaches back to appropriative practices common to both readers and fine artists. [less ▲]

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See detailTowards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2
Wang, Y.; Deutscher, N. M.; Palm, M. et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2016), 16

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric ... [more ▼]

Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and interannual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric inversions based on CO2 concentration measurements alone can only determine net biosphere fluxes, but not differentiate between photosynthesis (uptake) and respiration (production). Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) could provide an important additional constraint: it is also taken up by plants during photosynthesis but not emitted during respiration, and therefore is a potential means to differentiate between these processes. Solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry allows for the retrievals of the atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and OCS from measured solar absorption spectra. Here, we investigate co-located and quasi-simultaneous FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 performed at five selected sites located in the Northern Hemisphere. These measurements are compared to simulations of OCS and CO2 using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The coupled biospheric fluxes of OCS and CO2 from the simple biosphere model (SiB) are used in the study. The CO2 simulation with SiB fluxes agrees with the measurements well, while the OCS simulation reproduced a weaker drawdown than FTIR measurements at selected sites, and a smaller latitudinal gradient in the Northern Hemisphere during growing season when comparing with HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) data spanning both hemispheres. An offset in the timing of the seasonal cycle minimum between SiB simulation and measurements is also seen. Using OCS as a photosynthesis proxy can help to understand how the biospheric processes are reproduced in models and to further understand the carbon cycle in the real world. [less ▲]

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See detailNon-collinear magnetism in multiferroic perovskites
Bousquet, Eric ULg; Cano, Andres

in Journal of Physics : Condensed Matter (2016), 28

We present an overview of the current interest in non-collinear magnetism in multiferroic perovskite crystals. We first describe the different microscopic mechanisms giving rise to the non-collinearity of ... [more ▼]

We present an overview of the current interest in non-collinear magnetism in multiferroic perovskite crystals. We first describe the different microscopic mechanisms giving rise to the non-collinearity of spins in this class of materials. We discuss, in particular, the interplay between non-collinear magnetism and ferroelectric and antiferrodistortive distortions of the perovskite structure, and how this can promote magnetoelectric responses. We then provide a literature survey on non-collinear multiferroic perovskites. We discuss numerous examples of spin cantings driving weak ferromagnetism in transition metal perovskites, and of spin- induced ferroelectricity as observed in the rare-earth based perovskites. These examples are chosen to best illustrate the fundamental role of non-collinear magnetism in the design of multiferroicity. [less ▲]

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See detailDoping TiO2 films with carbon nanotubes to simultaneously optimise antistatic, photocatalytic and superhydrophilic properties
Léonard, Géraldine ULg; Remy, Simon; Heinrichs, Benoît ULg

in Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology (2016)

Pure and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)- doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) films, synthesised from two sol–gel routes (alcoholic and aqueous) and deposited by dipcoating on glass, have been developed as ... [more ▼]

Pure and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT)- doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) films, synthesised from two sol–gel routes (alcoholic and aqueous) and deposited by dipcoating on glass, have been developed as conductive, photocatalytic and superhydrophilic materials. While already crystallised in anatase structure at low temperature when synthesised in water, samples prepared in alcohol are amorphous. Their crystallisation in air has been studied at increasing temperatures. Effective incorporation of functionalised MWCNTs is confirmed in both aqueous and alcoholic samples with a closer interaction with TiO2 particles in the case of aqueous synthesis. In alcoholic samples, 400 C seems to be an optimised calcination temperature since 300 C does not allow crystallisation into anatase and 500 C removes MWCNTs through burning. The purpose of MWCNT doping is to obtain coatings that exhibit easy-toclean or self-cleaning properties. This can be achieved through an optimised combination of electrical conductivity (for antistatic property), photoactivity and superhydrophilicity. These three properties require the crystallisation of TiO2 into anatase. MWCNT doping dramatically increases both conductivity and photocatalytic activity, especially in alcoholic samples for the former and in aqueous samples for the latter. On the other hand, MWCNT introduction does not significantly affect the (super)hydrophilicity of films, which depends solely on the crystallinity of TiO2. [less ▲]

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See detailMagnetic flux penetration in Nb superconducting films with lithographically defined micro-indentations
Brisbois, Jérémy ULg; Adami, Obaïd-Allah ULg; Avila Osses, Jonathan ULg et al

in Physical Review B (2016), 93(5), 054521

We present a thorough investigation by magneto-optical imaging of the magnetic flux penetration in Nb thin films with lithographically defined border indentations. We demonstrate that discontinuity lines ... [more ▼]

We present a thorough investigation by magneto-optical imaging of the magnetic flux penetration in Nb thin films with lithographically defined border indentations. We demonstrate that discontinuity lines (d-lines), caused by the abrupt bending of current streamlines around the indentations, depart from the expected parabolic trend close to the defect and depend on the shape and size of the indentation as well as on the temperature. These findings are backed up and compared with theoretical results obtained by numerical simulations and analytical calculations highlighting the key role played by demagnetization effects and the creep exponent n. In addition, we show that the presence of nearby indentations and submicrometer random roughness of the sample border can severely modify the flux front topology and dynamics. Strikingly, in contrast to what has been repeatedly predicted in the literature, we do not observe that indentations act as nucleation spots for flux avalanches, but they instead help to release the flux pressure and avoid thermomagnetic instabilities. [less ▲]

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See detailIntegrin αvβ3 and RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals
WITHOFS, Nadia ULg; HUSTINX, Roland ULg

in Médecine Nucléaire : Imagerie Fonctionnelle et Métabolique (2016), 40 (2016)

Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) using RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals allows quantification of tumour expression of integrin αvβ3 in vivo. Integrins and, in ... [more ▼]

Positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) using RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals allows quantification of tumour expression of integrin αvβ3 in vivo. Integrins and, in particular, integrin αvβ3 are involved in numerous physiologic and pathologic processes, including angiogenesis. RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals targeting integrin αvβ3, expressed by activated endothelial cells, have been developed in order to quantify angiogenesis. However, integrin αvβ3 is also frequently expressed by tumour cells and/or tumour microenvironment cells, e.g., bone marrow derived cells and osteoclasts in bone. Upregulation of integrin αvβ3 by tumour cells promotes cell survival, proliferation, invasion, metastasis and resistance to treatment. Therefore, the PET signal related to RGD-based radiopharmaceuticals may not reflect angiogenesis only. Moreover, tumours may develop mechanisms other than angiogenesis to ensure blood supply such as vascular mimicry, vessel co-option and intussusceptive angiogenesis that might not be assessed with RGD PET/CT. In the setting of treatment assessment, a drop of the RGD PET signal certainly means tumour response (endothelial and/or tumour cell apoptosis and/or vessel normalisation). On the other hand, a stable or increased RGD PET signal may be related to absence of response or upregulation of integrin αvβ3 in adaptative response to therapy, promoting resistance. This review illustrates the complexity of the role of integrin αvβ3 in oncology and its role in non-oncologic diseases such as osteoarthtitis and cardiovascular diseases. [less ▲]

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See detailPhenotypic characterization of the indigenous chickens (Gallus gallus) in the northwest of Algeria
Dalhoum, L.; Moula, Nassim ULg; Halbouche, M. et al

in Archiv für Tierzucht = Archives Animal Breeding (2016), 59

This study was conducted to characterize local chickens in the northwest of Algeria based on some phenotypic traits and to look at prediction of body weight from morphometric measurements (linear body ... [more ▼]

This study was conducted to characterize local chickens in the northwest of Algeria based on some phenotypic traits and to look at prediction of body weight from morphometric measurements (linear body). The results indicated that the predominant comb colour was dark red (77.8%), followed by light red (22.2%). Tarsus colour was either white (40.9%), grey (31%), yellow (15.39%), dark (8.05%), or green (4.51%). Most chickens (81.7%) had orange eyes, while 10.37 and 7.92% had yellow and dark-brown eyes, respectively. The dominant earlobe colour was white (73.96%), followed by red (16.81%). The remaining proportion included yellow and red-mottled yellow and black earlobes. Proportions of the adaptive genes were low. Incidences of Na, F, Pti, Cr, R, and P genes were 8.82, 0.45, 1.22, 5.54, 3.35, and 4.7%, respectively. The calculated gene frequencies ranged from 0.002 to 0.045. Variations were also found in quantitative morphological traits. Sex-associated differences (P<0.001) were observed in almost all the parameters evaluated with higher values recorded for males. Phenotypic correlations of body weight and biometric traits ranged from −0.13 to 0.88 and −0.15 to 0.97 for males and females, respectively. From the factor analysis with varimax rotation of the intercorrelated traits, three principal components which accounted for 71.6 and 73.2% of the total variance were extracted in males and females, respectively. Orthogonal body shape characters derived from the factor analysis accounted for 84.3 and 94.2% of the variation in body weight of males and females, respectively. Information obtained from this study could be useful in an appropriate management, breeding programmes for selection and utilization of Algerian chicken genetic resources. [less ▲]

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See detailThermal and quantum depletion of superconductivity in narrow junctions created by controlled electromigration
Baumans, Xavier ULg; Cerbu, Dorin; Adami, Obaïd-Allah ULg et al

in Nature Communications (2016), 7

Superconducting nanowires currently attract great interest due to their application in single-photon detectors and quantum-computing circuits. In this context, it is of fundamental importance to ... [more ▼]

Superconducting nanowires currently attract great interest due to their application in single-photon detectors and quantum-computing circuits. In this context, it is of fundamental importance to understand the detrimental fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter as the wire width shrinks. In this paper, we use controlled electromigration to narrow down aluminium nanoconstrictions. We demonstrate that a transition from thermally assisted phase slips to quantum phase slips takes place when the cross section becomes less than 150 nm2 . In the regime dominated by quantum phase slips the nanowire loses its capacity to carry current without dissipation, even at the lowest possible temperature. We also show that the constrictions exhibit a negative magnetoresistance at low-magnetic fields, which can be attributed to the suppression of superconductivity in the contact leads. These findings reveal perspectives of the proposed fabrication method for exploring various fascinating superconducting phenomena in atomic-size contacts. [less ▲]

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See detailInvasive occipital nerve stimulation for refractory chronic cluster headache: what evolution at long-term? Strengths and weaknesses of the method.
MAGIS, Delphine ULg; Gerard, Pascale; Schoenen, Jean ULg

in Journal of Headache & Pain (2016)

BACKGROUND: Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Invasive Occipital Nerve Stimulation (iONS) is a costly technique which appears effective in drug-refractory chronic cluster headache (drCCH) management. Available data on long-term effectiveness and safety of iONS in this indication are scarce, though they could be useful to neurologists and patients in daily practice. The purpose of this short report is to discuss the very long-term outcome of a drCCH cohort, including adverse events. FINDINGS: Previously, favourable results were obtained with iONS in 15 drCCH patients: 80 % were significantly improved and 60 % were pain free. We report here the very long-term follow-up (up to nine years) of 10 patients belonging to this cohort. Meanwhile 5 patients had to be definitively explanted because of device infection (3) or paresthesia intolerance (2). Four patients (40 %) evolved to an episodic form of CH. Six remained chronic but their attack frequency was decreased by 70 % on average. Intake of preventive drugs is still necessary in 80 % of patients. All patients needed at least one battery replacement. CONCLUSIONS: Up to nine years after implantation, iONS is still effective in most patients with drCCH. Concomitant preventive drugs remain often necessary. Forty percent of patients reverse to episodic CH, possibly by natural history. iONS is not a benign procedure but device-related complications appear similar to those reported with other invasive neurostimulators. [less ▲]

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See detailNanocarriers for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme: Current state-of-the-art
Karim, Reatul ULg; Palazzo, Claudio ULg; Evrard, Brigitte ULg et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2016)

Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of ... [more ▼]

Glioblastoma multiforme, a grade IV glioma, is the most frequently occurring and invasive primary tumor of the central nervous system, which causes about 4% of cancer-associated-deaths, making it one of the most fatal cancers. With present treatments, using state-of-theart technologies, the median survival is about 14 months and 2 year survival rate is merely 3–5%. Hence, novel therapeutic approaches are urgently necessary. However, most drug molecules are not able to cross the blood–brain barrier, which is one of the major difficulties in glioblastoma treatment. This review describes the features of blood–brain barrier, and its anatomical changes with different stages of tumor growth. Moreover, various strategies to improve brain drug delivery i.e. tight junction opening, chemical modification of the drug, efflux transporter inhibition, convection-enhanced delivery, craniotomy-based drug delivery and drug delivery nanosystems are discussed. Nanocarriers are one of the highly potential drug transport systems that have gained huge research focus over the last few decades for site specific drug delivery, including drug delivery to the brain. Properly designed nanocolloids are capable to cross the blood–brain barrier and specifically deliver the drug in the brain tumor tissue. They can carry both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, protect them from degradation, release the drug for sustained period, significantly improve the plasma circulation half-life and reduce toxic effects. Among various nanocarriers, liposomes, polymeric nanoparticles and lipid nanocapsules are the most widely studied, and are discussed in this review. For each type of nanocarrier, a general discussion describing their composition, characteristics, types and various uses is followed by their specific application to glioblastoma treatment. Moreover, some of the main challenges regarding toxicity and standardized evaluation techniques are narrated in brief. [less ▲]

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See detailForaging wireworms are attracted to root-produced volatile aldehydes
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin M.; Delaplace, Pierre ULg et al

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host ... [more ▼]

Soil-dwelling insects are known to react to chemical cues they encounter in the rhizosphere. Whether wireworms (Coleoptera, Elateridae) use root-emitted volatile organic chemicals to localize their host plant remains, however, poorly understood. Here, we aimed at identifying chemical cues released by barley roots that attract Agriotes sordidus. In a first behavioral experiment, we assessed the ability of wireworms to orient towards live barley roots, using dual-choice olfactometers suitable for belowground insects. Then, we collected the volatile organic compounds (VOC) produced by barley roots using a dynamic head-space sampling approach. VOC were quantified and identified using gas chromatography—mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The odorant blend is composed of four aldehydes, namely hexanal, (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-non-2-enal, and (E,Z)-nona-2,6-dienal. In a second set of dual-choice bioassays, wireworms were attracted towards a synthetic blend of these four major compounds. However, the synthetic blend was not as attractive as live roots, which is partially explained by the absence of CO2, commonly known as a strong attractant for soil-dwelling insects. While CO2 indicates the presence of living material in the vicinity, we hypothesize that additional VOC inform about the plant suitability. A better understanding of these belowground signals would contribute to the development of new integrated control strategies against wireworms. [less ▲]

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See detailThe scent of love: how important are semiochemicals in the sexual behavior of lady beetles?
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Journal of Pest Science (2016)

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the ... [more ▼]

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the role of cuticular chemicals involved in the reproduction of lady beetles, including gender recognition. Recent data have also demonstrated the presence of a volatile female sex pheromone that facilitates male attraction in some species. Here, we present a synthetic overview of the current knowledge about the sexual behavior of lady beetles and associated chemicals for which the function and identification have been provided. Because lady beetles are often reared as biological control agents, the chemical cues involved in their sexual behavior could be used as components in integrated management approaches against soft-bodied hemipterans. In conclusion, this review provides new perspectives and potential developments for sustainable insect management mainly based on the semiochemicals involved in the sexual behavior of lady beetles. A better understanding of these chemical signals would help maximize their presence in areas where their predatory behavior is requested, as a result of the application of formulations inducing behavioral manipulation. [less ▲]

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See detailThermally induced magnetization switching in Gd/Fe multilayers
Xu, Chudong; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, Roy

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy ... [more ▼]

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy required for thermally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) is present;with a larger number of interfaces, lower energy is required. The results of the layer resolved dynamics show that the reversal process of the multilayered structures, similar to that of a GdFeCo alloy, is driven by the antiferromagnetic interaction between the transition-metal and rare-earth components. Finally, while the presence of the interface drives the reversal process, we show here that the switching process does not initiate at the surface but from the layers furthest from it, a departure from the alloy behavior which expands the classes of material types exhibiting TIMS. [less ▲]

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See detailBenevolent Ideology and Women’s Economic Decision-Making: When Sexism Is Hurting Men’s Wallet
Silvestre, Aude ULg; Sarlet, Marie; Huart, Johanne ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(2),

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide ... [more ▼]

Can ideology, as a widespread “expectation creator,” impact economic decisions? In two studies we investigated the influence of the Benevolent Sexism (BS) ideology (which dictates that men should provide for passive and nurtured women) on women’s economic decision- making. In Study 1, using a Dictator Game in which women decided how to share amounts of money with men, results of a Generalized Linear Mixed Model analysis show that higher endorsement of BS and contextual expectations of benevolence were associated with more very unequal offers. Similarly, in an Ultimatum Game in which women received monetary offers from men, Study 2’s Generalized Linear Mixed Model’s results revealed that BS led women to reject more very unequal offers. If women’s endorsement of BS ideology and expectations of benevolence prove contrary to reality, they may strike back at men. These findings show that BS ideology creates expectations that shape malefemale relationships in a way that could be prejudicial to men. [less ▲]

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See detailThermally induced magnetization switching in Gd/Fe multilayers
Xu, Chudong; Ostler, Thomas ULg; Chantrell, Roy

in Physical Review B (2016), 93

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy ... [more ▼]

A theoretical model of Gd/Fe multilayers is constructed using the atomistic spin dynamics formalism. By varying the thicknesses and number of layers we have shown that a strong dependence of the energy required for thermally induced magnetization switching (TIMS) is present;with a larger number of interfaces, lower energy is required. The results of the layer resolved dynamics show that the reversal process of the multilayered structures, similar to that of a GdFeCo alloy, is driven by the antiferromagnetic interaction between the transition-metal and rare-earth components. Finally, while the presence of the interface drives the reversal process, we show here that the switching process does not initiate at the surface but from the layers furthest from it, a departure from the alloy behavior which expands the classes of material types exhibiting TIMS. [less ▲]

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See detailSolubility and speciation of ketoprofen and aspirin in supercritical CO2 by infrared spectroscopy
Champeau, Mathilde; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data (2016), 61(2), 968-978

The solubility of ketoprofen and aspirin in subcritical and supercritical CO2 was measured using FTIR absorption spectroscopy in the large range of temperature of 298.2−353.2 K and pressure of 5−35 MPa ... [more ▼]

The solubility of ketoprofen and aspirin in subcritical and supercritical CO2 was measured using FTIR absorption spectroscopy in the large range of temperature of 298.2−353.2 K and pressure of 5−35 MPa. The evolution of the solubility of both active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was fitted using the Chrastil’s equation. In addition, the speciation of both APIs in monomeric and dimeric forms was explored by analyzing the characteristic carbonyl stretching vibrations of the carboxylic acid functions assigned to the dimers and monomers, respectively. Moreover, the evolution of the dimerization constant K of the two drugs as a function of the temperature and the pressure of scCO2 has been reported. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrodynamics of long-duration urban floods: experiments and numerical modelling
Arrault; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal; Archambeau, Pierre ULg et al

in Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences (2016)

Flood risk in urbanized areas raises increasing concerns as a result of demographic and climate changes. Hydraulic modelling is a key component of urban flood risk analysis. Yet, detailed validation data ... [more ▼]

Flood risk in urbanized areas raises increasing concerns as a result of demographic and climate changes. Hydraulic modelling is a key component of urban flood risk analysis. Yet, detailed validation data are still lacking for comprehensively validating hydraulic modelling of inundation flow in urbanized floodplains. ln this study, we present an experimental model of inundation flow in a typical European urban district and we compare the experimental observations with predictions by a shallow-water numerical model. The setup is 5 ll\X Sm and involves seven streets along each direction, leading to 49 intersections. Different inflow discharges and flow partitions were tested. The performance ofthe numerical model is assessed and the upscaling ofthe experimental observations to the field is discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps
Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Baklouti, Samia; Mokni, Abir et al

in Food Chemistry (2016), 203

This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied ... [more ▼]

This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n = 0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n〰1) from 10 to 50 s‾1 respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50 s 1). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups. [less ▲]

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See detailComprehensive study of the thermo-reversibility of Diels-Alder based PCL polymer networks
Defize, Thomas ULg; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULg; Alexandre, Michaël et al

in Polymer (2016), 84

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL ... [more ▼]

Chemical crosslinking is an efficient tool to improve or impart new properties to conventional polymers. Especially, crosslinking imparts remarkable shapeememory properties to poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) materials. Nevertheless, the processing of networks is often tricky due to infusibility and insolubility of cross-linked chains. Therefore, the synthesis of PCL networks including thermo-reversible crosslinks based on (retro)-Diels-Alder (DA) reaction were developed to allowpreserving the melt-processing while keeping the required mechanical properties below the melting point. This paper aims at studying in depth, such thermo-dependent network formation and stability. Besides conventional swelling experi- ments, Raman spectroscopy was revealed as a powerful tool to follow the formation of the DA adduct during the crosslinking. In combination with rheological measurements, we were able to determine the most appropriate temperatures to form the network (DA crosslinking) and to process it (retro-DA re- action) without degradation of the material. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing and modeling economic and environmental impact of wheat nitrogen management in Belgium
Dumont, Benjamin ULg; Basso, Bruno; Bodson, Bernard ULg et al

in Environmental Modelling & Software (2016), 79

Future progress in wheat yield will rely on identifying genotypes and management practices better adapted to the fluctuating environment. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is probably the most important practice ... [more ▼]

Future progress in wheat yield will rely on identifying genotypes and management practices better adapted to the fluctuating environment. Nitrogen (N) fertilization is probably the most important practice impacting crop growth. However, the adverse environmental impacts of inappropriate N management (e.g., lixiviation) must be considered in the decision-making process. A formal decisional algorithm was developed to tactically optimize the economic and environmental N fertilization in wheat. Climatic uncertainty analysis was performed using stochastic weather time-series (LARS-WG). Crop growth was simulated using STICS model. Experiments were conducted to support the algorithm recommendations: winter wheat was sown between 2008 and 2014 in a classic loamy soil of the Hesbaye Region, Belgium (temperate climate). Results indicated that, most of the time, the third N fertilization applied at flag-leaf stage by farmers could be reduced. Environmental decision criterion is most of the time the limiting factor in comparison to the revenues expected by farmers. [less ▲]

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See detailSeasonality in human cognitive brain responses
Meyer, Christelle ULg; Muto, Vincenzo ULg; Jaspar, Mathieu ULg et al

in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2016)

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See detailComparison of explant responses treated with leachate and leonardite sources of humic substances during in vitro rooting of woody plants.
Tahiri, Abdelghani ULg; Destain, Jacqueline ULg; Thonart, Philippe ULg et al

in Communications in Agricultural and Applied Biological Sciences (2016), 81(1), 158-165

As heterogeneous mixtures of compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues, humic substances (HS) are mostly recognized for their biostimulation ... [more ▼]

As heterogeneous mixtures of compounds resulting from the physical, chemical and microbiological transformations of organic residues, humic substances (HS) are mostly recognized for their biostimulation of plant growth that firstly involve the root development and architecture before further putative improvement of nutrients uptakes. To avoid the interferences currently reported from external origins, the successive steps of rooting have been carried out using shoots and isolated leaves of birch and alder vitro-plants. Extracts issued from landfill leachate (LHS) has been compared to a stable formulation from leonardite ("Humifirst" 12% humic acid 3% and fulvic acid) commercialized by TRADECORP company's (HHS). Chemical analysis showed that LHS source typically contain much higher N (mainly as ammonium (93%) and chloride concentration than HHS. Used at low concentration (10 ppm) during root induction/initiation phase, both HS sources may be slightly unfavorable to the root formation (21% of reduction in primary root number) of alder but not of birch. While, in root elongation phase, there is an increase in the primary root length and lateral root number. The direct effects of HS on in vitro root development vary from one species to another depending on the root treatment stage. Results showed that both explants type response are equivalent in the development of a complete rooting system. [less ▲]

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See detailLE PASSÉ, LE PRÉSENT ET L’AVENIR DE LA TRADUCTION AU CAMEROUN
Oumarou Mal Mazou, Rachid ULg

in Atelier de Traduction (2016), n°24

The inactement of institutional bilingualism by the Constitution exposes Cameroon to translation every day, as all official texts/speeches produced in one of the two official languages (French and English ... [more ▼]

The inactement of institutional bilingualism by the Constitution exposes Cameroon to translation every day, as all official texts/speeches produced in one of the two official languages (French and English) must be translated into the other. This translation demand requires translators and training of translators/interpreters becomes compulsory. First Cameroonian translators were initially trained in universities and colleges abroad and later on, after independence, at home when the Advanced School of Translators and Interpreters (ASTI) was created in the mid 1980s. The main objective of the school was to train translators/interpreters for public service. This goal will lapse when the Government decided not to enroll systematically ASTI graduates in 1999. Meanwhile, other private institutes as ISTI of Yaoundé, or programs like those of the University of Yaounde I opened their doors with curricula almost modeled on that of ASTI. Moreover, there is no regulation body for the profession, the only professional associtation that has been existing since the 90s is yet to find its way. This communication aims at looking into the development of translation in Cameroon from independence. Some suggestions are also made towards the future of the profession in one of the few countries where bilingualism is institutional and whereby about 300 local languages interact in a daily basis. [less ▲]

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See detailHot Jupiters with relatives: discovery of additional planets in orbit around WASP-41 and WASP-47
Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Queloz, D.; Anderson, D. R. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 586

We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 $\pm$ 0.20 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and eccentricity 0.29 $\pm$ 0.02, and it orbits ... [more ▼]

We report the discovery of two additional planetary companions to WASP-41 and WASP-47. WASP-41 c is a planet of minimum mass 3.18 $\pm$ 0.20 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and eccentricity 0.29 $\pm$ 0.02, and it orbits in 421 $\pm$ 2 days. WASP-47 c is a planet of minimum mass 1.24 $\pm$ 0.22 M$_{\rm Jup}$ and eccentricity 0.13 $\pm$ 0.10, and it orbits in 572 $\pm$ 7 days. Unlike most of the planetary systems that include a hot Jupiter, these two systems with a hot Jupiter have a long-period planet located at only $\sim$1 au from their host star. WASP-41 is a rather young star known to be chromospherically active. To differentiate its magnetic cycle from the radial velocity effect induced by the second planet, we used the emission in the H$\alpha$ line and find this indicator well suited to detecting the stellar activity pattern and the magnetic cycle. The analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect induced by WASP-41 b suggests that the planet could be misaligned, though an aligned orbit cannot be excluded. WASP-47 has recently been found to host two additional transiting super Earths. With such an unprecedented architecture, the WASP-47 system will be very important for understanding planetary migration. [less ▲]

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See detailFe XXV line profiles in colliding wind binaries
Rauw, Grégor ULg; Mossoux, Enmanuelle; Nazé, Yaël ULg

in New Astronomy (2016), 43

Strong wind-wind collisions in massive binaries generate a very hot plasma that frequently produces a moderately strong iron line. The morphology of this line depends upon the properties of the wind ... [more ▼]

Strong wind-wind collisions in massive binaries generate a very hot plasma that frequently produces a moderately strong iron line. The morphology of this line depends upon the properties of the wind interaction zone and its orientation with respect to the line of sight. As the binary components revolve around their common centre of mass, the line profiles are thus expected to vary. With the advent of the next generation of X-ray observatories (Astro-H, Athena) that will offer high-resolution spectroscopy above 6 keV, it will become possible to exploit these changes as the most sensitive probe of the inner parts of the colliding wind interaction. Using a simple prescription of the wind-wind interaction in an early-type binary, we have generated synthetic line profiles for a number of configurations and orbital phases. These profiles can help constrain the properties of the stellar winds in such binary systems. [less ▲]

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See detailTwo Small Temperate Planets Transiting Nearby M Dwarfs in K2 Campaigns 0 and 1
Schlieder, Joshua E.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Petigura, Erik A. et al

in Astrophysical Journal (2016), 818

The prime Kepler mission revealed that small planets (<4 {R}[SUB]\oplus [/SUB]) are common, especially around low-mass M dwarfs. K2, the repurposed Kepler mission, continues this exploration of small ... [more ▼]

The prime Kepler mission revealed that small planets (<4 {R}[SUB]\oplus [/SUB]) are common, especially around low-mass M dwarfs. K2, the repurposed Kepler mission, continues this exploration of small planets around small stars. Here we combine K2 photometry with spectroscopy, adaptive optics imaging, and archival survey images to analyze two small planets orbiting the nearby field-age M dwarfs, K2-26 (EPIC 202083828) and K2-9. K2-26 is an {{M}}1.0+/- 0.5 dwarf at 93 ± 7 pc from K2 Campaign 0. We validate its planet with a day period of 14.5665 and estimate a radius of {2.67}[SUB]-0.42[/SUB][SUP]+0.46[/SUP] {R}[SUB]\oplus [/SUB]. K2-9 is an {{M}}2.5+/- 0.5 dwarf at 110 ± 12 pc from K2 Campaign 1. K2-9b was first identified by Montet et al.; here we present spectra and adaptive optics imaging of the host star and independently validate and characterize the planet. Our analyses indicate K2-9b is a {2.25}[SUB]-0.96[/SUB][SUP]+0.53[/SUP] {R}[SUB]\oplus [/SUB] planet with a 18.4498 day period. K2-26b exhibits a transit duration that is too long to be consistent with a circular orbit given its measured stellar radius. Thus, the long transits are likely due to the photoeccentric effect and our transit fits hint at an eccentric orbit. Both planets receive low incident flux from their host stars and have estimated equilibrium temperatures <500 K. K2-9b may receive approximately Earth-like insolation. However, its host star exhibits strong GALEX UV emission which could affect any atmosphere it harbors. K2-26b and K2-9b are representatives of a poorly studied class of small planets with cool temperatures that have radii intermediate to Earth and Neptune. Future study of these systems can provide key insight into trends in bulk composition and atmospheric properties at the transition from silicate dominated to volatile rich bodies. Based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, La Silla Observatory, Chile during program ID 194.C-0443. [less ▲]

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See detailDecreased antibiotic consumption in the Belgian community: Is it credible?
FRIPPIAT, Frédéric ULg; VERCHEVAL, Christelle ULg; LAYIOS, Nathalie ULg

in Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (2016), 62(3), 403-404

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See detailThe MiMeS survey of magnetism in massive stars: introduction and overview
Wade, G. A.; Neiner, C.; Alecian, E. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2016), 456

The MiMeS (Magnetism in Massive Stars) project is a large-scale, high-resolution, sensitive spectropolarimetric investigation of the magnetic properties of O- and early B-type stars. Initiated in 2008 and ... [more ▼]

The MiMeS (Magnetism in Massive Stars) project is a large-scale, high-resolution, sensitive spectropolarimetric investigation of the magnetic properties of O- and early B-type stars. Initiated in 2008 and completed in 2013, the project was supported by three Large Program allocations, as well as various programmes initiated by independent principal investigators, and archival resources. Ultimately, over 4800 circularly polarized spectra of 560 O and B stars were collected with the instruments ESPaDOnS (Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observation of Stars) at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, Narval at the Télescope Bernard Lyot and HARPSpol at the European Southern Observatory La Silla 3.6 m telescope, making MiMeS by far the largest systematic investigation of massive star magnetism ever undertaken. In this paper, the first in a series reporting the general results of the survey, we introduce the scientific motivation and goals, describe the sample of targets, review the instrumentation and observational techniques used, explain the exposure time calculation designed to provide sensitivity to surface dipole fields above approximately 100 G, discuss the polarimetric performance, stability and uncertainty of the instrumentation, and summarize the previous and forthcoming publications. [less ▲]

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