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See detailLe règlement 650/2012 relatif aux successions internationales Aperçu et principes généraux
Wautelet, Patrick ULg; Mary, Julie

in Journal des Tribunaux (2016), 135(6651),

Ce texte dresse un panorama général du Règlement successions en s'appuyant sur quatre questions 1°) Quand et à quelles questions le règlement s'applique-t-il?; 2°) Quelles règles de compétence le ... [more ▼]

Ce texte dresse un panorama général du Règlement successions en s'appuyant sur quatre questions 1°) Quand et à quelles questions le règlement s'applique-t-il?; 2°) Quelles règles de compétence le Règlement retient-il?; 3°) Comment le droit applicable est-il déterminé; 4°) quelle est la portée du certificat successoral européen [less ▲]

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See detailStrand-specific, high-resolution mapping of modified RNA polymerase II
Milligan, Laura; Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh ULg; Delan-Forino, Clémentine et al

in Molecular Systems Biology (2016), 12(6), 874

Reversible modification of the RNAPII C-terminal domain links transcription with RNA processing and surveillance activities. To better understand this, we mapped the location of RNAPII carrying the five ... [more ▼]

Reversible modification of the RNAPII C-terminal domain links transcription with RNA processing and surveillance activities. To better understand this, we mapped the location of RNAPII carrying the five types of CTD phosphorylation on the RNA transcript, providing strand-specific, nucleotide-resolution information, and we used a machine learning-based approach to define RNAPII states. This revealed enrichment of Ser5P, and depletion of Tyr1P, Ser2P, Thr4P, and Ser7P in the transcription start site (TSS) proximal ~150 nt of most genes, with depletion of all modifications close to the poly(A) site. The TSS region also showed elevated RNAPII relative to regions further 3′, with high recruitment of RNA surveillance and termination factors, and correlated with the previously mapped 3′ ends of short, unstable ncRNA transcripts. A hidden Markov model identified distinct modification states associated with initiating, early elongating and later elongating RNAPII. The initiation state was enriched near the TSS of protein-coding genes and persisted throughout exon 1 of intron-containing genes. Notably, unstable ncRNAs apparently failed to transition into the elongation states seen on protein-coding genes. [less ▲]

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See detailBenchmarking for Bayesian Reinforcement Learning
Castronovo, Michaël ULg; Ernst, Damien ULg; Couëtoux, Adrien ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016)

In the Bayesian Reinforcement Learning (BRL) setting, agents try to maximise the col- lected rewards while interacting with their environment while using some prior knowledge that is accessed beforehand ... [more ▼]

In the Bayesian Reinforcement Learning (BRL) setting, agents try to maximise the col- lected rewards while interacting with their environment while using some prior knowledge that is accessed beforehand. Many BRL algorithms have already been proposed, but even though a few toy examples exist in the literature, there are still no extensive or rigorous benchmarks to compare them. The paper addresses this problem, and provides a new BRL comparison methodology along with the corresponding open source library. In this methodology, a comparison criterion that measures the performance of algorithms on large sets of Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) drawn from some probability distributions is defined. In order to enable the comparison of non-anytime algorithms, our methodology also includes a detailed analysis of the computation time requirement of each algorithm. Our library is released with all source code and documentation: it includes three test prob- lems, each of which has two different prior distributions, and seven state-of-the-art RL algorithms. Finally, our library is illustrated by comparing all the available algorithms and the results are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailFreeze-dried mucoadhesive polymeric system containing pegylated lipoplexes: Towards a vaginal sustained released system for siRNA
Furst, Tania ULg; Dakwar, George R.; Zagato, Elisa et al

in Journal of Controlled Release (2016)

Topical vaginal sustained delivery of siRNA presents a significant challenge due to the short residence time of formulations. Therefore, a drug delivery system capable to adhere to the vaginal mucosa is ... [more ▼]

Topical vaginal sustained delivery of siRNA presents a significant challenge due to the short residence time of formulations. Therefore, a drug delivery system capable to adhere to the vaginal mucosa is desirable, as it could allow a prolonged delivery and increase the effectiveness of the therapy. The aim of this project is to develop a polymeric solid mucoadhesive system, loaded with lipoplexes, able to be progressively rehydrated by the vaginal fluids to form a hydrogel and to deliver siRNA to vaginal tissues. To minimize adhesive interactions with vaginal mucus components, lipoplexes were coated with different derivatives of polyethylene glycol: DPSE-PEG2000, DPSE-PEG750 and ceramide-PEG2000. Based on stability and diffusion properties in simulated vaginal fluids, lipoplexes containing DSPE-PEG2000 were selected and incorporated in hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) hydrogels. Solid systems, called sponges, were then obtained by freeze-drying. Sponges meet acceptable mechanical characteristics and their hardness, eformability and mucoadhesive properties are not influenced by the presence of lipoplexes. Finally, mobility and stability of lipoplexes inside sponges rehydrated with vaginal mucus, mimicking in situ conditions, were evaluated by advanced fluorescence microscopy. The release rate was found to be influenced by the HEC concentration and consequently by the viscosity after rehydration. This study demonstrates the feasibility of entrapping pegylated lipoplexes into a solid matrix system for a prolonged delivery of siRNA into the vagina. [less ▲]

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See detailThe chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: Further insight into the nature of the P-S-M fluctuation and its relationship with the "low-wave" phenomenon at steady-state
Fratamico, Anthony ULg; Tocquin, Pierre ULg; Franck, Fabrice ULg

in Photosynthesis Research (2016), 128(3), 271-285

Chlorophyll fluorescence is an information-rich signal which provides an access to the management of light absorbed by PSII. A good example of this is the succession of fast fluorescence fluctuations ... [more ▼]

Chlorophyll fluorescence is an information-rich signal which provides an access to the management of light absorbed by PSII. A good example of this is the succession of fast fluorescence fluctuations during light-induced photosynthetic induction after dark-adaptation. During this period, the fluorescence trace exhibits several inflexion points: O-J-I-P-S-M-T. Thereas the OJIP part of this kinetics has been the subject of many studies, the processes that underly the PSMT transient are less understood. Here, we report an analysis of the PSMT phase in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis in terms of electron acceptors and light use by photochemistry, fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). We identify additional sub-phases between P and S delimited by an inflexion point, that we name Q, found in the second time-scale. The P-Q phase expresses a transient photochemical quenching specifically due to alternative electron transport to oxygen. During the transition from Q to S, the NPQ increases and then relaxes during the S-M phase in about 1 min. It is suggested that this transient NPQ observed during induction is a high energy state quenching (qE) dependent the alternative electron transport to molecular oxygen. We further show that this NPQ is of the same nature than the NPQ, known as the low-wave phenomenon, which is transiently observed after a saturating light pulse given at steady-state. In both cases, the NPQ is oxygen-dependent. This NPQ is observed at external pH 6.0, but not at pH 7.5, which seems correlated with faster saturation of the PQ pool at pH 6.0. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes sector-specific experience matter? The case of European higher education ministers
Jacqmin, Julien ULg; Lefebvre, Mathieu ULg

in Research Policy (2016), 45(5), 987998

This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher ... [more ▼]

This paper looks at the relationship between higher education ministers and the performance of the sector that they govern. Using an original panel dataset with the characteristics of European higher education ministers, we find that having a past experience in the sector leads to a higher level of performance, as measured by ranking data. Making a parallel with the literature about the impact of education on the educated, we discuss potential explanations behind the impact of this on-the-job learning experience. As we find that this characteristic has no impact on the spendings of the sector, we argue that this academic experience makes them more prone to introduce adequate reforms that makes the sector more attractive for top-researchers. Furthermore, we find that this result is driven by ministers with both sector-specific and electoral experience, the latter measured by a successful election at the regional or national level. This tends to show that political credibility should not be overshadowed by the importance of the sector-specific experience of ministers. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the fleas and louse (Insecta: Siphonaptera and Anoplura) of the garden dormouse, Eliomys quercinus (L. 1766) in Belgium
Libois, Roland ULg

in Annales de la Société entomologique de France (N.S.) (2016)

More than 3500 fleas, collected in southern Belgium, from 54 garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus) and from 58 nests of the rodent, were examined. Ceratophyllus s. sciurorum seems to be the only regular and ... [more ▼]

More than 3500 fleas, collected in southern Belgium, from 54 garden dormice (Eliomys quercinus) and from 58 nests of the rodent, were examined. Ceratophyllus s. sciurorum seems to be the only regular and abundant flea on the garden dormouse and in its nest whereas Myoxopsylla laverani is quite uncommon (5/31 infested animal and 11/52 infested nests). In comparison, 96 garden dormice were checked in France. M. laverani is present on nearly every infested animal (61/66). Other fleas were also found, some mammal-fleas (Megabothris turbidus, Hystrichopsylla talpae, several Ctenophthalmus spp.) and great numbers of bird-fleas (Ceratophyllus gallinae and Dasypsyllus gallinulae) because the dormouse-nests where the fleas were taken were built on old tit-nests (Parus spp). Finally, Schizophthirus pleurophaeus, a louse, was collected for the first time in Belgium. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring spore settling velocity for an improved assessment of dispersal rates in mosses
Zanatta, Florian ULg; Vanderpoorten, Alain ULg; Patiño, Jairo et al

in Annals of Botany (2016)

The settling velocity of diaspores is a key parameter for the measurement of dispersal ability in wind-dispersed plants and one of the most relevant parameters in explicit dispersal models, but remains ... [more ▼]

The settling velocity of diaspores is a key parameter for the measurement of dispersal ability in wind-dispersed plants and one of the most relevant parameters in explicit dispersal models, but remains largely undocumented in bryophytes. The settling velocities of moss spores were measured and it was determined whether settling velocities can be derived from spore diameter using Stokes’ Law or if specific traits of spore ornamentation cause departures from theoretical expectations. [less ▲]

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See detailAn Exact Method for Designing Shewhart X ̅ and S2 Control Charts to Guarantee the In-Control Performance
Faraz, Alireza ULg; Heuchenne, Cédric ULg

in Journal of Quality Technology (2016)

The in-control performance of the Shewhart X ̅ and S2 control charts with estimated in-control parameters has been evaluated by a number of authors. Results indicate an unrealistically large amount of ... [more ▼]

The in-control performance of the Shewhart X ̅ and S2 control charts with estimated in-control parameters has been evaluated by a number of authors. Results indicate an unrealistically large amount of Phase I data is needed to have the desired in-control average run length (ARL) value in Phase II. To overcome this problem, it has been recommended that the control limits be adjusted based on a bootstrap method to guarantee that the in-control ARL is at least a specified value with a certain specified probability. In our paper we present simple formulas for the required control limits so that practitioners do not have to use the bootstrap method. An assumption of normality is required. The advantage of our proposed method is in its simplicity; there is no bootstrapping and the control chart constants do not depend on the Phase I sample data. [less ▲]

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See detailDie Deutschsprachige Gemeinschaft nach der sechsten Staatsreform : Bestandsaufnahme, Debatten und Perspektiven
Bouhon, Frédéric ULg; Niessen, Christoph; Reuchamps, Min

in Courrier Hebdomadaire du CRISP (2016), 2266-2267

Genau wie bei allen anderen Bestandteilen Belgiens ist auch das Erscheinungsbild der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft durch die sechste Staatsreform grundlegend verändert worden. Sie verfügt fortan über die ... [more ▼]

Genau wie bei allen anderen Bestandteilen Belgiens ist auch das Erscheinungsbild der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft durch die sechste Staatsreform grundlegend verändert worden. Sie verfügt fortan über die konstitutive Autonomie – das bedeutet, die Funktionsweise ihrer Regierung und ihres Parlamentes zu regeln. Vor allem hat sich ihr Handlungsspielraum im Bereich der kulturellen und personenbezogenen Angelegenheiten ebenso wie bei der Französischen und Flämischen Gemeinschaft erweitert: Familienleistungen, Gesundheitsversorgung, Personenbeistand, Justizhaus, elektronische Überwachung, Industrielehre, … Zudem hat die Wallonische Region ihr die Ausübung neuer Zuständigkeiten im Bereich des Tourismus, der Beschäftigung und der Gemeinden übertragen. Der vorliegende Courrier hebdomadaire macht eine Bestandsaufnahme der Zuständigkeiten sowie der Finanzierung der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft und identifiziert dabei die Veränderungen, die die sechste Staatsreform in dieser Hinsicht gebracht hat. Er geht auf die politischen Debatten ein, die diese Reformen begleitet haben und auf die Art und Weise, wie diese bereites teilweise umgesetzt worden sind. Er rekapituliert auch wie die Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft innerhalb der Europäischen Union, auf föderaler Ebene, innerhalb der Wallonischen Region und in der Provinz Lüttich vertreten wird . Die Studie zeigt die Perspektiven auf, die sich der Deutschsprachigen Gemeinschaft in Zukunft eröffnen. Diese fordert dabei zum einen, die Gesamtheit der regionalen und provinzialen Zuständigkeiten auf ihrem Gebiet ausüben zu können und zum anderen, einen sichtbareren Platz in der institutionellen Architektur des Landes einzunehmen. Da diesen Ansprüchen bislang nicht nachgekommen wurde, möchten die deutschsprachigen politischen Verantwortlichen die Diskussion im Laufe der kommenden Jahre wieder aufgreifen. [less ▲]

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See detailExplaining the diversity of motivations behind community renewable energy
Bauwens, Thomas ULg

in Energy Policy (2016), 93

Community-based renewable energy initiatives may be important actors in the transition toward low-carbon energy systems. In turn, stimulating investments in renewable energy production at the community ... [more ▼]

Community-based renewable energy initiatives may be important actors in the transition toward low-carbon energy systems. In turn, stimulating investments in renewable energy production at the community level requires a better understanding of investors’ motives. This paper aims to study the heterogeneity of motivations that drive individuals to participate in community renewable energy projects and the underlying explanatory factors behind this, as well as the implications for their level of engagement in initiatives. Based on quantitative data from an original survey conducted with two renewable energy cooperatives in Flanders, the statistical analysis shows that cooperative members should not be considered as one homogeneous group. Several categories of members with different motives and levels of engagement can be distinguished. This heterogeneity is explained by contrasts in terms of institutional settings, spatial patterns and attitudes to the diffusion of institutional innovations. Regarding policy implications, the findings suggest that this heterogeneity should be taken into account in designing more effective supporting policies to stimulate investments at the community level. The activation of social norms is also shown to be a promising mechanism for triggering investment decisions, although the implications of its interplay with economic incentives should be further explored. [less ▲]

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See detailPLANET TOPERS: Planets, Tracing the Transfer, Origin, Preservation, and Evolution of their ReservoirS
Dehant, Véronique ULg; Kabamba Baludikay, Blaise ULg; Beghin, Jérémie ULg et al

in Origins of Life & Evolution of the Biosphere (2016), DOI 10.1007/s11084-016-9488

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See detailSustaining Inter-Organizational Relationships across Institutional Logics and Power Asymmetries: the Case of Fair Trade
Nicholls, Alex; Huybrechts, Benjamin ULg

in Journal of Business Ethics (2016), 135(4), 699-714

In Fair Trade (FT), as well as in other ‘mixed-form’ fields (Becchetti & Huybrechts 2008; Marwell & McInerney 2005), non-profit organizations and social enterprises have been partnering with large ... [more ▼]

In Fair Trade (FT), as well as in other ‘mixed-form’ fields (Becchetti & Huybrechts 2008; Marwell & McInerney 2005), non-profit organizations and social enterprises have been partnering with large corporations over long time periods despite the presence of conditions that might be expected to destabilize such relationships. These conditions include striking differences in size, economic power, and organizational goals or ‘logics’. Given these asymmetries, the collaborations are typically seen as problematic and temporary because the stronger party (the corporation) will impose its (market) logics upon the weaker one (the social enterprise), leading to either instrumentalizing and corrupting the latter or to the breakdown of the collaboration. Whilst some of the literature on FT and other market-oriented social movements has tended to depict corporate participation as a threat to the original goals of the social movement and to the integrity of partnering social enterprises (e.g. Fridell et al. 2008; Reed 2009), there is evidence of a set of social enterprise-corporate relationships that persist over time and cannot be simply summarized as dominated by the sole corporate, market logic. These examples illustrate the emergence of new working relationships across the conventional divides between distinct sectors – the public, private, and civil society – that offer new approaches to managing power asymmetries and apparently conflicting logics – typically, in FT and more generally in social entrepreneurship, market and social justice/welfare logics (Battilana & Lee 2014; Defourny & Nyssens 2006; Huybrechts & Nicholls 2012; Smith et al. forthcoming). This leads to the following research question: Under what conditions can inter-organizational relationships emerge and be sustained despite power asymmetries and the presence of distinct, potentially conflicting, institutional logics? The analysis in this paper aims to extend theory by providing an alternative to more deterministic analyses of inter-organizational relationships that suggest that the more powerful actor will always impose its logics upon the less powerful organization thus undermining the persistence of the relationship over time. In the process, this research adds a new construct to existing theory around the resolution of conflict in institutional logics by suggesting that dynamic persistence is also evident in contrast to examples of conflict resolution through dominance, compromise, hybridization, synthesis, or relationship breakdown. Based on the analysis of the relationships between commercial buyers and FTOs, initially embodying market and social justice logics respectively, this paper proposes a set of key conditions under which dynamic persistence can be observed even in the presence of power asymmetries. [less ▲]

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See detailThe scent of love: how important are semiochemicals in the sexual behavior of lady beetles?
Fassotte, Bérénice ULg; Francis, Frédéric ULg; Verheggen, François ULg

in Journal of Pest Science (2016), 89(2), 347-358

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the ... [more ▼]

Chemical signals are involved in the courtship behavior of many invertebrate and vertebrate species. Lady beetles are no exception to this rule; a significant number of published reports highlight the role of cuticular chemicals involved in the reproduction of lady beetles, including gender recognition. Recent data have also demonstrated the presence of a volatile female sex pheromone that facilitates male attraction in some species. Here, we present a synthetic overview of the current knowledge about the sexual behavior of lady beetles and associated chemicals for which the function and identification have been provided. Because lady beetles are often reared as biological control agents, the chemical cues involved in their sexual behavior could be used as components in integrated management approaches against soft-bodied hemipterans. In conclusion, this review provides new perspectives and potential developments for sustainable insect management mainly based on the semiochemicals involved in the sexual behavior of lady beetles. A better understanding of these chemical signals would help maximize their presence in areas where their predatory behavior is requested, as a result of the application of formulations inducing behavioral manipulation. [less ▲]

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See detailStatics and dynamics of magnetocapillary bonds
Lagubeau, Guillaume; Grosjean, Galien ULg; Darras, Alexis ULg et al

in Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2016), 93

When ferromagnetic particles are suspended at an interface under magnetic fields, dipole-dipole interactions compete with capillary attraction. This combination of forces has recently given promising ... [more ▼]

When ferromagnetic particles are suspended at an interface under magnetic fields, dipole-dipole interactions compete with capillary attraction. This combination of forces has recently given promising results towards controllable self-assemblies as well as low-Reynolds-number swimming systems. The elementary unit of these assemblies is a pair of particles. Although equilibrium properties of this interaction are well described, the dynamics remain unclear. In this paper, the properties of magnetocapillary bonds are determined by probing them with magnetic perturbations. Two deformation modes are evidenced and discussed. These modes exhibit resonances whose frequencies can be detuned to generate nonreciprocal motion. A model is proposed that can become the basis for elaborate collective behaviors. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of cord blood banking technologies on clinical outcome: a Eurocord/Cord Blood Committee (CTIWP), European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation and NetCord retrospective analysis
Saccardi, Riccardo; Tucunduva, Luciana; Ruggeri, Annalisa et al

in Transfusion (2016)

BACKGROUND Techniques for banking cord blood units (CBUs) as source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been developed over the past 20 years, aimed to improve laboratory efficiency without ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND Techniques for banking cord blood units (CBUs) as source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have been developed over the past 20 years, aimed to improve laboratory efficiency without altering the biologic properties of the graft. A large-scale, registry-based assessment of the impact of the banking variables on the clinical outcome is currently missing. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 677 single cord blood transplants (CBTs) carried out for acute leukemia in complete remission in centers affiliated with the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation were selected. An extensive set of data concerning CBU banking were collected and correlations with clinical outcome were assessed. Clinical endpoints were transplant-related mortality, engraftment, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). RESULTS The median time between collection and CBT was 4.1 years (range, 0.2-16.3 years). Volume reduction (VR) of CBUs before freezing was performed in 59.2% of available reports; in half of these the frozen volume was less than 30 mL. Cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment on Day 60, 100-day acute GVHD (II-IV), and 4-year chronic GVHD were 87, 29, and 21 ± 2%. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 100 days and 4-year NRM were, respectively, 16 ± 2 and 30 ± 2%. Neither the variables related to banking procedures nor the interval between collection and CBT influenced the clinical outcome. CONCLUSION These findings indicate a satisfactory validation of the techniques associated with CBU VR across the banks. Cell viability assessment varied among the banks, suggesting that efforts to improve the standardization of CBU quality controls are needed. [less ▲]

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See detailManagement of relapsed multiple myeloma: Recommendations of the international myeloma working group
Laubach, J.; Garderet, L.; Mahindra, A. et al

in Leukemia : Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K (2016), 30(5), 1005-1017

The prognosis for patients multiple myeloma (MM) has improved substantially over the past decade with the development of new, more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens that possess a high level ... [more ▼]

The prognosis for patients multiple myeloma (MM) has improved substantially over the past decade with the development of new, more effective chemotherapeutic agents and regimens that possess a high level of anti-tumor activity. In spite of this important progress, however, nearly all MM patients ultimately relapse, even those who experience a complete response to initial therapy. Management of relapsed MM thus represents a vital aspect of the overall care for patients with MM and a critical area of ongoing scientific and clinical research. This comprehensive manuscript from the International Myeloma Working Group provides detailed recommendations on management of relapsed disease, with sections dedicated to diagnostic evaluation, determinants of therapy, and general approach to patients with specific disease characteristics. In addition, the manuscript provides a summary of evidence from clinical trials that have significantly impacted the field, including those evaluating conventional dose therapies, as well as both autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Specific recommendations are offered for management of first and second relapse, relapsed and refractory disease, and both autologous and allogeneic transplant. Finally, perspective is provided regarding new agents and promising directions in management of relapsed MM. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessing steady-state, multivariate experimental data using Gaussian Processes: the GPExp open-source library
Quoilin, Sylvain ULg; Schrouff, Jessica ULg

in Energies (2016), 9(6),

Experimental data are subject to different sources of disturbance and errors, whose importance should be assessed. The level of noise, the presence of outliers or a measure of the “explainability” of the ... [more ▼]

Experimental data are subject to different sources of disturbance and errors, whose importance should be assessed. The level of noise, the presence of outliers or a measure of the “explainability” of the key variables with respect to the externally-imposed operating condition are important indicators, but are not straightforward to obtain, especially if the data are sparse and multivariate. This paper proposes a methodology and a suite of tools implementing Gaussian processes for quality assessment of steady-state experimental data. The aim of the proposed tool is to: (1) provide a smooth (de-noised) multivariate operating map of the measured variable with respect to the inputs; (2) determine which inputs are relevant to predict a selected output; (3) provide a sensitivity analysis of the measured variables with respect to the inputs; (4) provide a measure of the accuracy (confidence intervals) for the prediction of the data; (5) detect the observations that are likely to be outliers. We show that Gaussian processes regression provides insightful numerical indicators for these purposes and that the obtained performance is higher or comparable to alternative modeling techniques. Finally, the datasets and tools developed in this work are provided within the GPExp open-source package. [less ▲]

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See detailUse of Estetrol with other Steroids for Attenuation of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic brain injury:to combine or not to combine?
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; Pequeux, Christel ULg; Munaut, Carine ULg et al

in Oncotarget (2016)

Estetrol (E4), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) have important antioxidative and neuroprotective effects in neuronal system. We aimed to study the consequence of combined steroid therapy in neonatal ... [more ▼]

Estetrol (E4), estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) have important antioxidative and neuroprotective effects in neuronal system. We aimed to study the consequence of combined steroid therapy in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In vitro the effect of E4 combined with other steroids on oxidative stress and the cell viability in primary hippocampal cultures was evaluated by lactate dehydrogenase and cell survival assays. In vivo neuroprotective and therapeutic efficacy of E4 combined with other steroids was studied in HIE model of immature rats. The rat pups rectal temperature, body and brain weights were evaluated. The hippocampus and the cortex were investigated by histo/immunohistochemistry: intact cell number counting, expressions of markers for early gray matter lose, neuro- and angiogenesis were studied. Glial fibrillary acidic protein was evaluated by ELISA in blood samples. In vitro E4 and combinations of high doses of E4 with P4 and/or E2 significantly diminished the LDH activity and upregulated the cell survival. In vivo pretreatment or treatment by different combinations of E4 with other steroids had unalike effects on body and brain weight, neuro- and angiogenesis, and GFAP expression in blood. The combined use of E4 with other steroids has no benefit over the single use of E4. [less ▲]

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See detailRaised serum levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
GUIOT, Julien ULg; Bondue, B.; HENKET, Monique ULg et al

in BMC pulmonary medicine (2016), 16(1), 86

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disorder of unknown origin, which ultimately leads to death. Several growth factors such as IGFs (insulin-like-growth factor) and IGFBPs ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic lung disorder of unknown origin, which ultimately leads to death. Several growth factors such as IGFs (insulin-like-growth factor) and IGFBPs (insulin like growth factor binding proteins) seem to take part to the pathogenesis. We evaluated IGFs and IGFBPs in serum from patients with IPF and healthy subjects including 24 untreated IPF and 26 IPF receiving anti-fibrotic therapy and to compare them with healthy subjects. METHODS: Serum of 50 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 55 healthy subjects (HS) were analysed by ELISA for IGFs and IGFBPs, TGF-beta and KL-6, the latter being tested as positive control in IPF. RESULTS: Serum levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and KL-6 were significantly higher in the IPF group than in the healthy subjects (p < 0.05, p < 0.001 and p < 0.0001 respectively) while the picture was inversed regarding IGFs. By contrast there was no significant difference between the groups with respect to TGF-beta. IGFBP-2 was significantly reduced in the patients with specific anti-fibrotic therapy pirfenidone and nintedanib compared to untreated patients (p < 0.05) but still significantly elevated in comparison to HS (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Serum IGFBP-1 and -2 are increased in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and IGFBP-2 may be reduced by anti-fibrosing therapy. IGFBPs may be promising biomarkers in IPF. [less ▲]

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See detailHow Bees Deter Elephants: Beehive Trials with Forest Elephants (Loxodonta africana cyclotis) in Gabon
Ngama, Steeve ULg; Korte, Lisa; Bindelle, Jérôme ULg et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(5), 12

In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative ... [more ▼]

In Gabon, like elsewhere in Africa, crops are often sources of conflict between humans and wildlife. Wildlife damage to crops can drastically reduce income, amplifying poverty and creating a negative perception of wild animal conservation among rural people. In this context, crop-raiding animals like elephants quickly become “problem animals”. To deter elephants from raiding crops beehives have been successfully employed in East Africa; however, this method has not yet been tested in Central Africa. We experimentally examined whether the presence of Apis mellifera adansonii, the African honey bee species present in Central Africa, deters forest elephants (Loxodonta Africana cyclotis) from feeding on fruit trees. We show for the first time that the effectiveness of beehives as deterrents of elephants is related to bee activity. Empty hives and those housing colonies of low bee activity do not deter elephants all the time; but beehives with high bee activity do. Although elephant disturbance of hives does not impede honey production, there is a tradeoff between deterrence and the quantity of honey produced. To best achieve the dual goals of deterring elephants and producing honey colonies must maintain an optimum activity level of 40 to 60 bee movements per minute. Thus, beehives colonized by Apis mellifera adansonii bees can be effective elephant deterrents, but people must actively manage hives to maintain bee colonies at the optimum activity level. [less ▲]

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See detailDo evoked potentials contribute to the functional follow-up and clinical prognosis of multiple sclerosis?
GIFFROY, Xavier ULg

in Acta Neurologica Belgica (2016)

The clinical variability and complexity of multiple sclerosis (MS) challenges the individual clinical course prognostication. This study aimed to find out whether multimodal evoked potentials (EP ... [more ▼]

The clinical variability and complexity of multiple sclerosis (MS) challenges the individual clinical course prognostication. This study aimed to find out whether multimodal evoked potentials (EP) correlate with the motor components of multiple sclerosis functional composite (MSFCm) and predict clinically relevant motor functional deterioration. One hundred MS patients were assessed at baseline (T0) and about 7.5 years later (T1), with visual, somatosensory and motor EP and rated on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the MSFCm, including the 9 Hole Peg Test and the Timed 25 Foot Walk (T25FW). The Spearman correlation coefficient (rS) was used to evaluate the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between EP Z scores and clinical findings. The predictive value of baseline electrophysiological data for clinical worsening (EDSS, 9-HPT, T25FW, MSFCm) during follow-up was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Unlike longitudinal correlations, cross-sectional correlations between EP Z scores and clinical outcomes were all significant and ranged between 0.22 and 0.67 (p\0.05). The global EP Z score was systematically predictive of EDSS and MSFCm worsening over time (all p\0.05). EP latency was a better predictor than amplitude, although weaker than latency and amplitude aggregation in the global EP Z score. The study demonstrates that EP numerical scores can be used for motor function monitoring and outcome prediction in patients with MS. [less ▲]

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See detailOrbital, spin state and thermophysical characterization of near-Earth asteroid (3200) Phaethon
Hanus, Josef; Delbo, Marco; Vokrouhlický, D. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016)

The near-Earth asteroid (3200) Phaethon is an intriguing object: its perihelion is only at 0.14 au and is associated with the Geminid meteor stream. We aim to use all available disk-integrated optical ... [more ▼]

The near-Earth asteroid (3200) Phaethon is an intriguing object: its perihelion is only at 0.14 au and is associated with the Geminid meteor stream. We aim to use all available disk-integrated optical data to derive reliable convex shape model of Phaethon. By interpreting the available space- and ground-based thermal infrared data and Spitzer spectra using a thermophysical model, we also aim to further constrain its size, thermal inertia, and visible geometric albedo. We apply the convex inversion method to the new optical data obtained by six instruments together with the already existing observations. The convex shape model is then used as an input for the thermophysical modeling. We also study the long-term stability of Phaethon’s orbit and spin axis by a numerical orbital and rotation-state integrator We present a new convex shape model and rotational state of Phaethon – sidereal rotation period of 3.603958(2) h and ecliptic coordinates of the preferred pole orientation of (319◦ , −39◦) with a 5◦ uncertainty. Moreover, we derive its size (D=5.1±0.2 km), thermal inertia (Γ=600±200 J m-2s -1/2K -1), geometric visible albedo (pV=0.122±0.008), and estimate the macroscopic surface roughness. We also find that the Sun illumination at the perihelion passage during past thousands of years is not connected to a specific area on the surface implying non-preferential heating. [less ▲]

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See detailA New Approach for the Characterization of Organic Residues from Stone Tools Using GC×GC-TOFMS
Perrault, Katelynn ULg; Stefanuto, Pierre-Hugues ULg; Dubois, Lena ULg et al

in Separations (2016), 3(2), 16

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have traditionally been used, in combination with other analyses, for the chemical characterization of ... [more ▼]

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have traditionally been used, in combination with other analyses, for the chemical characterization of organic residues recovered from archaeological specimens. Recently in many life science fields, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) has provided numerous benefits over GC-MS. This study represents the first use of HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS to characterize specimens from an experimental modern reference collection. Solvent extractions and direct analyses were performed on materials such as ivory, bone, antlers, animal tissue, human tissue, sediment, and resin. Thicker film column sets were preferred due to reduced column overloading. The samples analyzed by HS-SPME directly on a specimen appeared to give unique signatures and generally produced a higher response than for the solvent-extracted residues. A non-destructive screening approach of specimens may, therefore, be possible. Resin and beeswax mixtures prepared by heating for different lengths of time appeared to provide distinctly different volatile signatures, suggesting that GC×GC-TOFMS may be capable of differentiating alterations to resin in future studies. Further development of GC×GC-TOFMS methods for archaeological applications will provide a valuable tool to uncover significant information on prehistoric technological changes and cultural behavior. [less ▲]

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See detailExtracellular vesicles in blood, milk and body fluids of the female and male urogenital tract and with special regard to reproduction
Foster, Brandon; Balassa, Timea; Benen, Thomas et al

in Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences (2016)

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See detailEmbargo on Lion Hunting Trophies from West Africa: An Effective Measure or a Threat to Lion Conservation ?
Bouché, Philippe; Crosmary, William; Kafando, Pierre et al

in PLoS ONE (2016), 11(5), 0155763

The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting ... [more ▼]

The W-Arly-Pendjari (WAP) ecosystem, shared among Benin, Burkina Faso and Niger, represents the last lion stronghold of West Africa. To assess the impact of trophy hunting on lion populations in hunting areas of the WAP, we analyzed trends in harvest rates from 1999 to 2014. We also investigated whether the hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity experienced steeper declines in lion harvest between 1999 and 2014, and whether lion densities in hunting areas were lower than in national parks. Lion harvest rate remained overall constant in the WAP. At initial hunting intensities below 1.5 lions/1000km2, most hunting areas experienced an increase in lion harvest rate, although that increase was of lower magnitude for hunting areas with higher initial hunting intensity. The proportion of hunting areas that experienced a decline in lion harvest rate increased at initial hunting intensities above 1.5 lions/1000km2. In 2014, the lion population of the WAP was estimated with a spoor count at 418 (230–648) adults and sub-adult individuals, comparable to the 311 (123–498) individuals estimated in the previous 2012 spoor survey. We found no significant lion spoor density differences between national parks and hunting areas. Hunting areas with higher mean harvest rates did not have lower lion densities. The ratio of large adult males, females and sub-adults was similar between the national parks and the hunting areas. These results suggested that the lion population was not significantly affected by hunting in the WAP. We concluded that a quota of 1 lion/1000km2 would be sustainable for the WAP. Based on our results, an import embargo on lion trophies from the WAP would not be justified. It could ruin the incentive of local actors to conserve lions in hunting areas, and lead to a drastic reduction of lion range in West Africa. [less ▲]

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See detailEfficacy of the RemoweLL cardiotomy reservoir for fat and leucocyte removal from shed mediastinal blood: a randomized controlled trial.
LAGNY, Marc-Gilbert ULg; GOTHOT, André ULg; HANS, Grégory ULg et al

in Perfusion (2016)

Efficacy of the RemoweLL cardiotomy reservoir for Fat and Leucocyte removal from shed mediastinal blood: a randomized controlled trial. ABSTRACT (176 words) Introduction Re-transfusion of lipid particles ... [more ▼]

Efficacy of the RemoweLL cardiotomy reservoir for Fat and Leucocyte removal from shed mediastinal blood: a randomized controlled trial. ABSTRACT (176 words) Introduction Re-transfusion of lipid particles and activated leucocytes with shed mediastinal blood (SMB) can aggravate cardiopulmonary bypass-associated inflammation and increase the embolic load. This study evaluated the fat and leucocyte removal capacity of the RemoweLL cardiotomy reservoir. Methods Forty-five patients undergoing elective on-pump cardiac surgery were randomly allocated to filtration of SMB using the RemoweLL or the Admiral cardiotomy reservoir. The primary outcome was the drop in leucocytes and lipid particles obtained with the two filters. The effect of the filters on other blood cells and inflammatory mediators such as myeloperoxidase (MPO) was also assessed. Results The RemoweLL cardiotomy filter removed 16.5 % of the leucocytes (P < 0.001) while no significant removal of leucocytes was observed with the Admiral (P = 0.48). The percentage reductions in lipid particles were similar in the two groups (26% vs 23 %, P = 0.2). Both filters similarly affected the level of MPO (P = 0.71). Discussion The RemoweLL filter more effectively removed leucocytes from SMB than the Admiral. It offered no advantage in term of lipid particle clearance. [less ▲]

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See detailQuelles sont les causes de la déforestation dans le bassin du Congo ? Synthèse bibliographique et études de cas
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Feintrenie, Laurène et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016), 20(2), 183-194

Les forêts du Bassin du Congo font partie des zones forestières les mieux préservées de la planète. Néanmoins, les facteurs qui entrainent la déforestation ailleurs dans le monde se manifestent également ... [more ▼]

Les forêts du Bassin du Congo font partie des zones forestières les mieux préservées de la planète. Néanmoins, les facteurs qui entrainent la déforestation ailleurs dans le monde se manifestent également dans cette sous-région du globe. Cet article propose une revue de la littérature des causes directes et des facteurs sous-jacents de la destruction du couvert forestier des régions tropicales, afin de mettre en exergue les moteurs de la déforestation dans le bassin du Congo, et plus particulièrement au Cameroun et au Gabon. Littérature. Les causes directes de déforestation, définies comme ayant un lien cause-conséquence immédiat avec la destruction du couvert forestier, sont renforcées par des facteurs sous-jacents tels que les facteurs économiques, les avancées technologiques, les mesures politiques ainsi que les pressions démographiques. Toutes ces causes interagissent de façons distinctes dans les différentes régions tropicales de par le monde et expliquent les divergences et similitudes entre les dynamiques de déforestation régionales. En plus de l’expansion de l’infrastructure, du développement du secteur minier et de l’extraction du bois, l’agriculture représente la cause directe de déforestation la plus importante dans le bassin du Congo. Au Cameroun, la déforestation actuelle est principalement liée à l’agriculture. Le plan d’émergence de ce pays prévoit le développement des infrastructures, la modernisation de l’appareil de production national ainsi que l’exploitation minière. Au Gabon, le taux de déforestation plus faible s’explique par la dynamique agricole et l’ouverture des routes. Le plan d’émergence ambitieux y prévoit la modernisation de l’infrastructure ainsi que le développement de l’agriculture agro-industrielle. Conclusions. Une mutation des socio-écosystèmes liée à la déforestation est attendue en différents points du bassin du Congo. Les recherches futures devraient maintenant aborder la description de socio-écosystèmes types représentant les différents stades de la transition forestière ainsi que l’identification des facteurs du changement à différentes échelles. [less ▲]

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See detailSpiral waves triggered by shadows in transition disks
Montesinos, Matias; Pérez, Sebastian; Casassus, Simon et al

in Astrophysical Journal Letters (2016)

Circumstellar asymmetries such as central warps have recently been shown to cast shadows on outer disks. We investigate the hydrodynamical consequences of such variable illumination on the outer regions ... [more ▼]

Circumstellar asymmetries such as central warps have recently been shown to cast shadows on outer disks. We investigate the hydrodynamical consequences of such variable illumination on the outer regions of a transition disk, and the development of spiral arms. Using 2D simulations, we follow the evolution of a gaseous disk passively heated by the central star, under the periodic forcing of shadows with an opening angle of $\sim$28$^\circ$. With a lower pressure under the shadows, each crossing results in a variable azimuthal acceleration, which in time develops into spiral density waves. Their pitch angles evolve from $\Pi \sim 15^\circ-22^\circ$ at the onset, to $\sim$11$^\circ$-14$^\circ$, over $\sim$65~AU to 150~AU. Self-gravity enhances the density contrast of the spiral waves, as also reported previously for spirals launched by planets. Our control simulations with unshadowed irradiation do not develop structures, except for a different form of spiral waves seen at later times only in the gravitationally unstable control case. Scattered light predictions in the $H$-band show that such illumination spirals should be observable. We suggest that spiral arms in the case-study transition disk HD~142527 could be explained as a result of shadowing from the tilted inner disk. [less ▲]

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See detailThe determinants of tropical forest deciduousness: disentangling the effects of rainfall and geology in central Africa
Ouedraogo, Dakis-Yaoba ULg; Fayolle, Adeline ULg; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie et al

in Journal of Ecology (2016)

1. Understanding the environmental determinants of forests deciduousness i.e. proportion of deciduous trees in a forest stand, is of great importance when predicting the impact of ongoing global climate ... [more ▼]

1. Understanding the environmental determinants of forests deciduousness i.e. proportion of deciduous trees in a forest stand, is of great importance when predicting the impact of ongoing global climate change on forests. In this study, we examine (i) how forest deciduousness varies in relation to rainfall and geology, and (ii) whether the influence of geology on deciduousness could be related to differences in soil fertility and water content between geological substrates. 2. The study was conducted in mixed moist semi-deciduous forests in the northern part of the Congo basin. We modelled the response of forest deciduousness to the severity of the dry season across four contrasting geological substrates (sandstone, alluvium, metamorphic and basic rocks). For this, we combined information on forest composition at genus level based on commercial forest inventories (62 624 0.5 ha plots scattered over 6 million of ha), leaf habit, and rainfall and geological maps. We further examined whether substrates differ in soil fertility and water-holding capacity using soil data from 37 pits in an area that was, at the time, relatively unexplored. 3. Forest deciduousness increased with the severity of the dry season, and this increase strongly varied with the geological substrate. Geology was found to be three times more important than the rainfall regime in explaining the total variation in deciduousness. The four substrates differed in soil properties, with higher fertility and water-holding capacity on metamorphic and basic rocks than on sandstone and alluvium. The increase in forest deciduousness was stronger on the substrates that formed resource-rich clay soils (metamorphic and basic rocks) than on substrates that formed resource-poor sandy soils (sandstone and alluvium). 4. Synthesis. We found evidence that tropical forest deciduousness is the result of both the competitive advantage of deciduous species in climates with high rainfall seasonality, and the persistence of evergreen species on resource-poor soils. Our findings offer a clear illustration of wellknown theoretical leaf carbon economy models, explaining the patterns in the dominance of evergreen versus deciduous species. And, this large-scale assessment of the interaction between climate and geology in determining forest deciduousness may help to improve future predictions of vegetation distribution under climate change scenarios. In central Africa, forest is likely to respond differently to variation in rainfall and/or evapotranspiration depending on the geological substrate. [less ▲]

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See detailEnhancing Spatio-Temporal Identity: States of Existence and Presence
Hallot, Pierre ULg; Billen, Roland ULg

in International Journal of Geo-Information (2016), 5(62),

This work presents a new approach that aims to characterize the spatio-temporal relationships that exist between geographical objects that are absent or non-existent at the moment of analysis. First, we ... [more ▼]

This work presents a new approach that aims to characterize the spatio-temporal relationships that exist between geographical objects that are absent or non-existent at the moment of analysis. First, we would like to propose a formal analysis of the spatio-temporal states of presence and existence of a geographical object. We will then use a combination of these states in order to define a set of life and motion configurations. The model developed then serves as a formal basis for the realization of a series of spatio-temporal queries based on an analysis of patterns in the succession of spatio-temporal states. The entire approach is then demonstrated by using the example of the organization of a scientific conference by defining the spatio-temporal relationships between the conference participants. The research methodology is finally compared with a real dataset taken from a geolocalized social network to show the efficiency of this type of management. [less ▲]

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See detailWhat Are the Impacts of Deforestation on the Harvest of Non-Timber Forest Products in Central Africa?
Gillet, Pauline ULg; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg; Doucet, Jean-Louis ULg et al

in Forests (2016), 7(5),

The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of forest transition on non-timber forest product (NTFP) harvesting in Central Africa. We analyze the evolution of several parameters, including ... [more ▼]

The objective of the study is to evaluate the impact of forest transition on non-timber forest product (NTFP) harvesting in Central Africa. We analyze the evolution of several parameters, including distance from NTFP harvest site to road, proportion of dietary intake and villagers’ incomes. The research is based on field surveys, participatory mapping and the geolocation of activities in three study sites representing different stages along the Mather’s forest transition curve: (i) intact forest; (ii) partially degraded forest; and (iii) small areas of degraded forest with plantations of useful trees. The results show that the maximum distance from harvest site to road is higher in Site 2 compared to Site 1 as a consequence of a lower availability of NTFPs; and that this distance is significantly lower in Site 3 due to a drastically smaller village territory. The diversity of bushmeat decreases as game evolves from large to small species, commensurate with the progression of forest transition. As a consequence, there is also a reduction in the proportion of these products represented both in household dietary intake and cash income. This analysis establishes a strong link between the Mather’s forest transition curve and a decline in the importance of NTFPs in village production and livelihoods. [less ▲]

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See detailLa médecine du futur en question(s): les objets connectés
Coucke, Philippe ULg

in Healthcare Executive (2016)

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See detailIntegrating Corporate Sustainability Assessment, Management Accounting, Control, and Reporting
Maas, Karen; Schaltegger, Stefan; Crutzen, Nathalie ULg

in Journal of Cleaner Production (2016)

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See detailA new classification of earthquake-induced landslide event sizes based on seismotectonic, topographic, climatic and geologic factors
Havenith, Hans-Balder ULg; Torgoev, Almazbek ULg; Braun, Anika et al

in Geoenvironmental Disasters (2016), 3(6), 2-24

Background This paper reviews the classical and some particular factors contributing to earthquake-triggered landslide activity. This analysis should help predict more accurately landslide event sizes ... [more ▼]

Background This paper reviews the classical and some particular factors contributing to earthquake-triggered landslide activity. This analysis should help predict more accurately landslide event sizes, both in terms of potential numbers and affected area. It also highlights that some occurrences, especially those very far from the hypocentre/activated fault, cannot be predicted by state-of-the-art methods. Particular attention will be paid to the effects of deep focal earthquakes in Central Asia and to other extremely distant landslide activations in other regions of the world (e.g. Saguenay earthquake 1988, Canada). Results The classification of seismically induced landslides and the related ‘event sizes’ is based on five main factors: ‘Intensity’, ‘Fault factor’, ‘Topographic energy’, ‘Climatic background conditions’, ‘Lithological factor’. Most of these data were extracted from papers, but topographic inputs were checked by analyzing the affected region in Google Earth. The combination and relative weight of the factors was tested through comparison with well documented events and complemented by our studies of earthquake-triggered landslides in Central Asia. The highest relative weight (6) was attributed to the ‘Fault factor’; the other factors all received a smaller relative weight (2–4). The high weight of the ‘Fault factor’ (based on the location in/outside the mountain range, the fault type and length) is strongly constrained by the importance of the Wenchuan earthquake that, for example, triggered far more landslides in 2008 than the Nepal earthquake in 2015: the main difference is that the fault activated by the Wenchuan earthquake created an extensive surface rupture within the Longmenshan Range marked by a very high topographic energy while the one activated by the Nepal earthquake ruptured the surface in the frontal part of the Himalayas where the slopes are less steep and high. Finally, the calibrated factor combination was applied to almost 100 other earthquake events for which some landslide information was available. This comparison revealed the ability of the classification to provide a reasonable estimate of the number of triggered landslides and of the size of the affected area. According to this prediction, the most severe earthquake-triggered landslide event of the last one hundred years would actually be the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008 followed by the 1950 Assam earthquake in India – considering that the dominating role of the Wenchuan earthquake data (including the availability of a complete landslide inventory) for the weighting of the factors strongly influences and may even bias this result. The strongest landslide impacts on human life in recent history were caused by the Haiyuan-Gansu earthquake in 1920 – ranked as third most severe event according to our classification: its size is due to a combination of high shaking intensity, an important ‘Fault factor’ and the extreme susceptibility of the regional loess cover to slope failure, while the surface morphology of the affected area is much smoother than the one affected by the Wenchuan 2008 or the Nepal 2015 earthquakes. Conclusions The main goal of the classification of earthquake-triggered landslide events is to help improve total seismic hazard assessment over short and longer terms. Considering the general performance of the classification-prediction, it can be seen that the prediction either fits or overestimates the known/observed number of triggered landslides for a series of earthquakes, while it often underestimates the size of the affected area. For several events (especially the older ones), the overestimation of the number of landslides can be partly explained by the incompleteness of the published catalogues. The underestimation of the extension of the area, however, is real – as some particularities cannot be taken into account by such a general approach: notably, we used the same seismic intensity attenuation for all events, while attenuation laws are dependent on regional tectonic and geological conditions. In this regard, it is likely that the far-distant triggering of landslides, e.g., by the 1988 Saguenay earthquake (and the related extreme extension of affected area) is due to a very low attenuation of seismic energy within the North American plate. Far-distant triggering of landslides in Central Asia can be explained by the susceptibility of slopes covered by thick soft soils to failure under the effect of low-frequency shaking induced by distant earthquakes, especially by the deep focal earthquakes in the Pamir – Hindukush seismic region. Such deep focal and high magnitude (> > 7) earthquakes are also found in Europe, first of all in the Vrancea region (Romania). For this area as well as for the South Tien Shan we computed possible landslide event sizes related to some future earthquake scenarios. [less ▲]

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See detailModelling the mortality of Hylotrupes bajulus (L.) larvae exposed to anoxic treatment for disinfestation of wooden art objects
de Streel, Géraud; Henin, Jean-Marc; Bogaert, Patrick et al

in Wood Science & Technology (2016)

Experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of several variables on the mortality of insects exposed to an anoxic treatment in order to generate a model linking mortality to these variables. This ... [more ▼]

Experiments were conducted to quantify the effect of several variables on the mortality of insects exposed to an anoxic treatment in order to generate a model linking mortality to these variables. This study aims to explore the possible interest of using such a model to determine the characteristics of treatment (especially duration) needed to guarantee insect mortality with a given level of probability. Trials were performed on Hylotrupes bajulus larvae, which is a widespread species known for its high tolerance to anoxic conditions. The studied variables are the initial mass of the larvae, the treatment temperature (21, 30 and 40 C), the treatment duration (four durations for each temperature tested) and whether the larva is held in wood or in a petri dish (directly exposed to anoxic atmosphere) during the experiment. It was found that, while the last variable is not correlated with mortality, treatment duration and temperature are significantly and positively correlated with it. Larvae with higher body mass were also shown to have a better resistance to the treatment. Based on these results, a model including insect initial mass, treatment temperature and duration, together with the interaction between these two variables, was determined. This relatively simple model appeared to be a useful tool in overcoming the difficulty in defining the modalities for anoxic treatment in order to reach a given level of mortality. [less ▲]

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See detailSteel hollow columns with an internal profile filled with self-compacting concrete under fire conditions
Chu, Thi Binh; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Proceeding of the Romanian Academy. Series A, Mathematics, Physics, Technical Sciences, Information Science (2016), 17(2), 152-159

A detailed experimental and numerical investigation has been performed on the behavior under fire conditions of concrete filled steel hollow section (CFSHS) columns. In this study the internal ... [more ▼]

A detailed experimental and numerical investigation has been performed on the behavior under fire conditions of concrete filled steel hollow section (CFSHS) columns. In this study the internal reinforcement consists of another profile (tube or H section) being embedded with the concrete, and filling is realized by self-compacting concrete (SCC). Ten columns filled with self-compacting concrete embedding another steel profile have been tested in the Fire Testing Laboratory of the University of Liege, Belgium. Numerical simulations on the thermal and structural behavior of these elements have been made using the non linear finite element software SAFIR developed at the University of Liege. There is a rather good agreement between numerical and experimental results, which can be slightly improved by using the ETC (Explicit Transient Creep) model incorporated in SAFIR. This shows that numerical analyses can predict well the behavior of CFSHS columns under fire conditions. The properties at high temperatures of self-compacting concrete are considered the same as those of ordinary concrete. [less ▲]

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See detailMechanisms involved in pearlfish resistance to holothuroid toxins
Brasseur, Lola; Parmentier, Eric ULg; Caulier, Guillaume et al

in Marine Biology (2016), 163(129), 1-14

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See detailSteel hollow columns with an internal profile filled with self-compacting concrete under fire conditions
Chu, Thi Binh; Gernay, Thomas ULg; Dotreppe, Jean-Claude ULg et al

in Proceeding of the Romanian Academy. Series A, Mathematics, Physics, Technical Sciences, Information Science (2016), 17(2), 152-159

A detailed experimental and numerical investigation has been performed on the behavior under fire conditions of concrete filled steel hollow section (CFSHS) columns. In this study the internal ... [more ▼]

A detailed experimental and numerical investigation has been performed on the behavior under fire conditions of concrete filled steel hollow section (CFSHS) columns. In this study the internal reinforcement consists of another profile (tube or H section) being embedded with the concrete, and filling is realized by self-compacting concrete (SCC). Ten columns filled with self-compacting concrete embedding another steel profile have been tested in the Fire Testing Laboratory of the University of Liege, Belgium. Numerical simulations on the thermal and structural behavior of these elements have been made using the non linear finite element software SAFIR developed at the University of Liege. There is a rather good agreement between numerical and experimental results, which can be slightly improved by using the ETC (Explicit Transient Creep) model incorporated in SAFIR. This shows that numerical analyses can predict well the behavior of CFSHS columns under fire conditions. The properties at high temperatures of self-compacting concrete are considered the same as those of ordinary concrete. [less ▲]

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See detailThe X-ray light curve of the massive colliding wind Wolf-Rayet + O binary WR 21a
Gosset, Eric ULg; Nazé, Yaël ULg

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 590

Our dedicated XMM-Newton monitoring, as well as archival Chandra and Swift datasets, were used to examine the behaviour of the WN5h+O3V binary WR 21a at high energies. For most of the orbit, the X-ray ... [more ▼]

Our dedicated XMM-Newton monitoring, as well as archival Chandra and Swift datasets, were used to examine the behaviour of the WN5h+O3V binary WR 21a at high energies. For most of the orbit, the X-ray emission exhibits few variations. However, an increase in strength of the emission is seen before periastron, following a 1 /D relative trend, where D is the separation between both components. This increase is rapidly followed by a decline due to strong absorption as the Wolf-Rayet (WR) comes in front. The fitted local absorption value appears to be coherent with a mass-loss rate of about 1 × 10[SUP]-5[/SUP] M[SUB]⊙[/SUB] yr[SUP]-1[/SUP] for the WR component. However, absorption is not the only parameter affecting the X-ray emission at periastron as even the hard X-ray emission decreases, suggesting a possible collapse of the colliding wind region near to or onto the photosphere of the companion just before or at periastron. An eclipse may appear as another potential scenario, but it would be in apparent contradiction with several lines of evidence, notably the width of the dip in the X-ray light curve and the absence of variations in the UV light curve. Afterwards, the emission slowly recovers, with a strong hysteresis effect. The observed behaviour is compatible with predictions from general wind-wind collision models although the absorption increase is too shallow. Based on observations collected at ESO as well as with Swift, Chandra, and the ESA science mission XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA). [less ▲]

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See detailPulsating hot O subdwarfs in ω Centauri: mapping a unique instability strip on the extreme horizontal branch
Randall, S. K.; Calamida, A.; Fontaine, G. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 589

We present the results of an extensive survey for rapid pulsators among Extreme Horizontal Branch (EHB) stars in ω Cen. The observations performed consist of nearly 100 h of time-series photometry for ... [more ▼]

We present the results of an extensive survey for rapid pulsators among Extreme Horizontal Branch (EHB) stars in ω Cen. The observations performed consist of nearly 100 h of time-series photometry for several off-centre fields of the cluster, as well as low-resolution spectroscopy for a partially overlapping sample. We obtained photometry for some 300 EHB stars, for around half of which we are able to recover light curves of sufficient quality to either detect or place meaningful non-detection limits for rapid pulsations. Based on the spectroscopy, we derive reliable values of log g, T[SUB]eff[/SUB] and log N(He) /N(H) for 38 targets, as well as good estimates of the effective temperature for another nine targets, whose spectra are slightly polluted by a close neighbour in the image. The survey uncovered a total of five rapid variables with multi-periodic oscillations between 85 and 125 s. Spectroscopically, they form a homogeneous group of hydrogen-rich subdwarf O stars clustered between 48 000 and 54 000 K. For each of the variables we are able to measure between two and three significant pulsations believed to constitute independent harmonic oscillations. However, the interpretation of the Fourier spectra is not straightforward due to significant fine structure attributed to strong amplitude variations. In addition to the rapid variables, we found an EHB star with an apparently periodic luminosity variation of ~2700 s, which we tentatively suggest may be caused by ellipsoidal variations in a close binary. Using the overlapping photometry and spectroscopy sample we are able to map an empirical ω Cen instability strip in log g - T[SUB]eff[/SUB] space. This can be directly compared to the pulsation driving predicted from the Montréal "second-generation" models regularly used to interpret the pulsations in hot B subdwarfs. Extending the parameter range of these models to higher temperatures, we find that the region where p-mode excitation occurs is in fact bifurcated, and the well-known instability strip between 29 000-36 000 K where the rapid subdwarf B pulsators are found is complemented by a second one above 50 000 K in the models. While significant challenges remain at the quantitative level, we believe that the same κ-mechanism that drives the pulsations in hot B subdwarfs is also responsible for the excitation of the rapid oscillations observed in the ω Cen variables. Intriguingly, the ω Cen variables appear to form a unique class. No direct counterparts have so far been found either in the Galactic field, nor in other globular clusters, despite dedicated searches. Conversely, our survey revealed no ω Cen representatives of the rapidly pulsating hot B subdwarfs found among the field population, though their presence cannot be excluded from the limited sample. Based on observations collected at the European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere, Chile (proposal IDs 083.D-0833, 386.D-0669, 087.D-0216 and 091.D-0791).The reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A1">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/589/A1</A> [less ▲]

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See detailTemperate Earth-sized planets transiting a nearby ultracool dwarf star
Gillon, Michaël ULg; Jehin, Emmanuel ULg; Lederer, Susan M. et al

in Nature (2016), 533

Star-like objects with effective temperatures of less than 2,700 kelvin are referred to as ‘ultracool dwarfs’. This heterogeneous group includes stars of extremely low mass as well as brown dwarfs ... [more ▼]

Star-like objects with effective temperatures of less than 2,700 kelvin are referred to as ‘ultracool dwarfs’. This heterogeneous group includes stars of extremely low mass as well as brown dwarfs (substellar objects not massive enough to sustain hydrogen fusion), and represents about 15 per cent of the population of astronomical objects near the Sun. Core-accretion theory predicts that, given the small masses of these ultracool dwarfs, and the small sizes of their protoplanetary disks, there should be a large but hitherto undetected population of terrestrial planets orbiting them—ranging from metal-rich Mercury-sized planets to more hospitable volatile-rich Earth-sized planets. Here we report observations of three short-period Earth-sized planets transiting an ultracool dwarf star only 12 parsecs away. The inner two planets receive four times and two times the irradiation of Earth, respectively, placing them close to the inner edge of the habitable zone of the star. Our data suggest that 11 orbits remain possible for the third planet, the most likely resulting in irradiation significantly less than that received by Earth. The infrared brightness of the host star, combined with its Jupiter-like size, offers the possibility of thoroughly characterizing the components of this nearby planetary system. [less ▲]

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See detailAtypical myopathy: an update
Votion, Dominique ULg

in In Practice (2016), 38(5), 241-246

This article gives an overview of atypical myopathy, discussing the mechanism involved, its aetiology and the clinical signs and management (therapeutic and prevention).

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See detailCross-cultural adaptation and validation of the victorian institute of sport assessment-patella questionnaire for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg; Delvaux, François ULg; Oppong-Kyei, Julian et al

in Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy (2016), 46(5), 384-393

Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment–Patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of ... [more ▼]

Study Design Clinical measurement study. Background The Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment–Patellar tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-P), originally developed in English, assesses the severity of patellar tendinopathy symptoms. No French version of the questionnaire exists. Objectives The aim of our study was to translate the VISA-P in French and verify its psychometric properties. Methods The translation and cultural adaptation were performed according to international recommendations in six steps: initial translation, translation merging, back translation to the original language, expert committee to reach a pre-final version, test of the pre-final version, and expert committee appraisal of a final version. Afterwards, the psychometric properties the final French version (VISA-PF) were assessed in 92 subjects, divided into three groups: pathological subjects (n = 28), asymptomatic subjects (n = 22) and sports-risk subjects (n = 42). Results All members of the expert committee agreed with the final version. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100 (asymptomatic subject), the average scores of the VISA-PF obtained were 53 (± 17) for the pathological group, 99 (± 2) for the healthy group and 86 (± 14) for the sports-risk group. The test-retest reliability of the VISA-PF was excellent and good internal consistency. Correlations between the VISA-PF and diverging validity of the SF-36 were low and the correlation coefficient values measured between the VISA-PF scores and converged items of the SF-36 were higher. Conclusion The VISA-PF is understandable, valid and suitable for French-speaking patients with patellar tendinopathy. [less ▲]

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See detailCarbon xerogels as model materials: toward a relationship between pore texture and electrochemical behavior as anodes for lithium-ion batteries
Piedboeuf, Marie-Laure ULg; Léonard, Alexandre ULg; Deschamps, Fabien ULg et al

in Journal of Materials Science (2016), 51(9), 4358-4370

The mechanisms of Li+ insertion in porous hard carbons used as anodes for Li-ion batteries are still a matter of debate, especially considering the divergence of electrochemical performances observed in ... [more ▼]

The mechanisms of Li+ insertion in porous hard carbons used as anodes for Li-ion batteries are still a matter of debate, especially considering the divergence of electrochemical performances observed in literature. Since these materials usually exhibit several levels of porosity, the pore texture vs. electrochemical behavior relationship is difficult to establish. In this paper, we propose to use carbon xerogels, prepared from aqueous resorcinol-formaldehyde mixtures, as model materials for Li-ion battery anodes to study the influence of the pore texture on the overall electrochemical behavior. Indeed, carbon xerogels are described as microporous nodules linked together to form meso- or macroporous voids inside a 3D gel structure; the size of these voids can be tuned by changing the synthesis conditions without affecting other parameters such as the micropore volume. The materials are chosen so as to obtain identical average particle sizes, homogeneous coatings with similar thicknesses and a comparable surface chemistry. The electrochemical behavior of carbon xerogels as Li-ion anodes are correlated with the surface accessible to the electrolyte and are not dependent on the total specific surface area calculated by the BET method from nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The key parameter proposed to understand their behavior is the external surface area of the nodules, which corresponds to the surface of the meso/macropores. [less ▲]

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See detailPhotoconductivity and photoconversion at a photorefractive thin crystal plate
Frejlich, Jaime; de Oliveira, Ivan; de Araujo, William R. et al

in Optical Materials (2016), 55

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See detailInsights into a million-year-scale Rhenohercynian carbonate platform evolution through a multi-disciplinary approach: example of a GIvetian carbonate record from Belgium
Pas, Damien ULg; Da Silva, Anne-Christine ULg; Devleeschouwer, Xavier et al

in Geological Magazine (2016)

In this paper we formulate answers to three important questions related to Givetian carbonate records and their use for reconstructing million-year past palaeoenvironmental changes. First, we provide ... [more ▼]

In this paper we formulate answers to three important questions related to Givetian carbonate records and their use for reconstructing million-year past palaeoenvironmental changes. First, we provide detailed illustrations of the fascinating diversity that shaped a significant shallow reefal platform during the early- to late-Givetian in the Rhenohercynian Ocean; secondly we improve the sedimentological model of the extensive Givetian carbonate platform in the Dinant Basin and thirdly we evaluate the application of magnetic susceptibility (MS) as a tool for long-term trend correlations and palaeoenvironmental reconstructions. These goals are reached by making sedimentological, geophysical and geochemical study of the La Thure section. Through the early-late Givetian interval we discerned eighteen microfacies ranging from a homoclinal ramp to a discontinuously rimmed shelf and then a drowning shelf. The comparison of these sedimentological results with those published in the south of the Dinant Syncline allowed us to provide an up to date model of the vertical and lateral environmental development for one of the largest Givetian carbonate platforms in Europe. This comparison also increased the knowledge on the facies belts distribution into the Dinant Basin and allowed us to highlight the Taghanic Event. Palaeo-redox proxies reveal a substantial change in the oxygenation level, from oxygen-depleted to more oxic condition, between middle and late Givetian. We demonstrated the relationship between variation in MS values and proxies for siliciclastic input (such as Si, Al). The La Thure is considered as a key section for the understanding of internal shelf settings bordering Laurussia’s south-eastern margin. [less ▲]

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See detailJIMMY JOHNSON - Bluesman majeur en mode mineur
Sacré, Robert ULg

in ABS Magazine (2016), (50), 36-48

Dossier : interview et biographie ; avec photos

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See detailEndométriose minime et légère: quel impact sur la fertilité?
BRICHANT, Géraldine ULg; AUDEBERT, Alain; NISOLLE, Michelle ULg

in Revue Médicale de Liège (2016), 71(5), 236-241

L’endométriose minime ou légère (stades I/II) est fréquemment identifiée chez les femmes hypofertiles, surtout en cas de stérilité inexpliquée. L’impact de ces lésions sur la fertilité est controversé ... [more ▼]

L’endométriose minime ou légère (stades I/II) est fréquemment identifiée chez les femmes hypofertiles, surtout en cas de stérilité inexpliquée. L’impact de ces lésions sur la fertilité est controversé, certains les considérant comme paraphysiologiques. Elles sont hétérogènes dans leur étendue, leur activité biologique, l’inflammation qui les caractérise ou les adhérences qu’elles peuvent induire. La diminution de la qualité ovocytaire, et de la mobilité des spermatozoïdes ainsi que les altérations endométriales apparaissent comme les mécanismes les plus pertinents pour expliquer l’hypofertilité. La fécondité spontanée des femmes présentant une endométriose minime ou légère est diminuée en comparaison avec celle des femmes pour lesquelles le diagnostic de stérilité inexpliquée a été posé. L’insémination intra-utérine avec stimulation de l’ovulation améliore la fertilité des femmes traitées. L’ablation coelioscopique des lésions endométriosiques améliore de façon modeste la fécondité, conduisant à recommander cette pratique compte tenu de ses faibles risques. La fécondation in vitro (FIV) est le moyen le plus efficace permettant d’obtenir des résultats similaires ou légèrement inférieurs à ceux observés chez les femmes témoins présentant une infertilité tubaire. L’impact des endométrioses minimes et légères sur la fertilité apparaît très probable, au moins pour certaines lésions qui demandent à être identifiées. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Sensitivity of Children with SLI to Phonotactic Probabilities During Lexical Access
Quémart, Pauline; Maillart, Christelle ULg

in Journal of Communication Disorders (2016), 61

The procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) has been proposed to account for the combination of linguistic and nonlinguistic deficits observed in specific language impairment (SLI ... [more ▼]

The procedural deficit hypothesis (Ullman & Pierpont, 2005) has been proposed to account for the combination of linguistic and nonlinguistic deficits observed in specific language impairment (SLI). According to this proposal, SLI results from a deficit in procedural memory that prevents children from developing sensitivity to probabilistic sequences. We tested the ability of children with SLI to rely on a specific type of probabilities characterizing sequences that occur in a given language: phonotactic probabilities. Twenty French-speaking children with SLI (M = 10;1), 20 typically developing children matched for chronological age (M = 10;0) and 20 typically developing children matched for receptive vocabulary (M = 7;4) performed an auditory lexical decision task. Pseudoword stimuli were built with combinations of either frequently associated phonemes (high phonotactic probability) or infrequently associated phonemes (low phonotactic probability). Phonotactic probabilities had a significant impact on the accuracy and speed of pseudoword rejection in children with SLI, but not in the two control groups. SLI children's greater reliance on phonotactic probabilities relative to typically developing children appears to contradict the PD hypothesis. Phonotactic probabilities may help them to partially overcome their difficulties in accessing the phonological lexicon during spoken word recognition. [less ▲]

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See detailEffect of Apremilast and Etanercept on Pruritus and Health-Related Quality of Life in Patients With Moderate to Severe Plaque Psoriasis : Results From the LIBERATE Study
Green, Lawrence; Thaçi, Diamant; Zhang, Zuoshun et al

in Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology (2016)

Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease with skin maniifestations resulting from a dysregulated immune response. Itching is one of the most bothersome psoriasis symptoms for patients and ... [more ▼]

Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disease with skin maniifestations resulting from a dysregulated immune response. Itching is one of the most bothersome psoriasis symptoms for patients and important factor contributing to disease severity. Apremilast , is an oral small-molecule phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitor, works intracellularly within immune cells to regulate the production of inflammatory médiators associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis by increasing cyclic adenosine monophophate (cAMP) levels. Apremilast was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with patients with active psoriatic arthritis and for patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Apremilast has since been approved in multiple countries, including those in European Union,as well as Switzerland, Canada and Australia. LIBERATE (Evaluation in Placebo-Controlled Study of Oral Apremilast and Etanercept in Plaque Psoriasis; NCT01690299) is global phase 3b study evaluating the efficacity, safety, and tolerability of apremilast or etarnercept, compared with placebo, for the treatment of biologic-naive patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. [less ▲]

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See detailLe communauté du renseignement belge : essai de définition
Leroy, Patrick ULg

in Revue militaire Belge (2016), 12

De Belgische inlichtingengemeenschap beschikt niet over een contextuele definitie. Een maximale innoverende benadering van deze netwerkgemeenschap zal een toegevoegde waarde betekenen in dit tijdskader ... [more ▼]

De Belgische inlichtingengemeenschap beschikt niet over een contextuele definitie. Een maximale innoverende benadering van deze netwerkgemeenschap zal een toegevoegde waarde betekenen in dit tijdskader waarin het denken over veiligheid de overhand heeft. De inbreng van de inlichtingen op het ope- rationele niveau enerzijds en als een vorm van “moderne ken- nisindustrie” anderzijds zal ook een troef zijn in het bereiken van een veeleer heilbrengende identiteit. [less ▲]

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See detailVolumetric Absorptive Microsampling for Hepcidin Peptide Extraction from Whole Blood
Houbart, Virginie ULg; COBRAIVILLE, Gaël ULg; Nys, Gwenaël ULg et al

in LCGC North America (2016), 34(5),

Whole blood analysis is an emerging trend in the field of bioanalysis. We developed a fast and simple protocol to extract and analyze a peptide, hepcidin, from whole blood. Sampling and extraction were ... [more ▼]

Whole blood analysis is an emerging trend in the field of bioanalysis. We developed a fast and simple protocol to extract and analyze a peptide, hepcidin, from whole blood. Sampling and extraction were carried out using volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS), a novel blood collection method that allows the sampling of a known blood volume independently from hematocrit. The composition of the extraction medium was optimized using an experimental design to get the most intense signal of hepcidin, considering different organic solvents and acidic additives. [less ▲]

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See detailImaging air volume fraction in sea ice using non-destructive X-ray tomography
Crabeck, O; Galley, R.J.; Delille, Bruno ULg et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2016), 10

Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly ... [more ▼]

Although the presence of a gas phase in sea ice creates the potential for gas exchange with the atmosphere, the distribution of gas bubbles and transport of gases within the sea ice are still poorly understood. Currently no straightforward technique exists to measure the vertical distribution of air volume fraction in sea ice. Here, we present a new fast and non-destructive X-ray computed tomography technique to quantify the air volume fraction and produce separate images of air volume inclusions in sea ice. The technique was performed on relatively thin (4–22 cm) sea ice collected from an experimental ice tank. While most of the internal layers showed air volume fractions <2 %, the ice–air interface (top 2 cm) systematically showed values up to 5 %. We suggest that the air volume fraction is a function of both the bulk ice gas saturation factor and the brine volume fraction. We differentiate micro bubbles (Ø<1 mm), large bubbles (1mm<Ø<5 mm) and macro bubbles (Ø>5 mm). While micro bubbles were the most abundant type of gas bubbles, most of the air porosity observed resulted from the presence of large and macro bubbles. The ice texture (granular and columnar) as well as the permeability state of ice are important factors controlling the air volume fraction. The technique developed is suited for studies related to gas transport and bubble migration. [less ▲]

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See detailArthrodèse du carpe chez le veau
Djebala, Salem ULg; Touati, Kamal ULg; Sartelet, Arnaud ULg

in Point Vétérinaire (2016), 365

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See detaill'intelligence stratégique et territoriale : outils de développement et de souveraineté
Leroy, Patrick ULg

in Péventique (2016), 146

Face aux menaces de perte de souveraineté et d’appauvrissement, l’intelligence stratégique et territoriale doivent guider la politique d’attractivité et de développement souverain des territoires. L ... [more ▼]

Face aux menaces de perte de souveraineté et d’appauvrissement, l’intelligence stratégique et territoriale doivent guider la politique d’attractivité et de développement souverain des territoires. L'expérience belge, wallonne en particulier, pour le développement de cette intelligence stratégique est utile. [less ▲]

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See detailAddressing the risk of maladaptation to climate change
Magnan, Alexandre; Schipper, E.L.F.; Burkett, Maxine et al

in WIREs Clim Change (2016)

This paper reviews the current theoretical scholarship on maladaptation and provides some speci!c case studies—in the Maldives, Ethiopia, South Africa, and Bangladesh—to advance the !eld by offering an ... [more ▼]

This paper reviews the current theoretical scholarship on maladaptation and provides some speci!c case studies—in the Maldives, Ethiopia, South Africa, and Bangladesh—to advance the !eld by offering an improved conceptual understanding and more practice-oriented insights. It notably highlights four main dimensions to assess the risk of maladaptation, that is, process, multiple drivers, temporal scales, and spatial scales. It also describes three examples of frameworks— the Pathways, the Precautionary, and the Assessment frameworks—that can help capture the risk of maladaptation on the ground. Both these conceptual and practical developments support the need for putting the risk of maladaptation at the top of the planning agenda. The paper argues that starting with the intention to avoid mistakes and not lock-in detrimental effects of adaptation-labeled initiatives is a !rst, key step to the wider process of adapting to climate variability and change. It thus advocates for the anticipation of the risk of maladaptation to become a priority for decision makers and stakeholders at large, from the international to the local levels. Such an ex ante approach, however, supposes to get a clearer understanding of what maladaptation is. Ultimately, the paper af!rms that a challenge for future research consists in developing context-speci!c guidelines that will allow funding bodies to make the best decisions to support adaptation (i.e., by better capturing the risk of maladaptation) and practitioners to design adaptation initiatives with a low risk of maladaptation. [less ▲]

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See detailPlatelet Rich Plasma for Treating Chronic Tendinopathy
Kaux, Jean-François ULg

in Aspetar Sports Medicine Journal (2016), 4(1), 118-122

Tendinopathy is a major problem in medicine and sports traumatology. It is due, inter alia, to mechanical overload. It remains a challenge for the medical world to the extent that its frequent resistance ... [more ▼]

Tendinopathy is a major problem in medicine and sports traumatology. It is due, inter alia, to mechanical overload. It remains a challenge for the medical world to the extent that its frequent resistance to conventional treatments never promises the patient a favourable response following therapeutic management. The development of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new hope when therapeutic treatments such as NSAIDs, corticosteroid injections, eccentric rehabilitation, shock waves, etc. have shown their limits. Furthermore, since January 2011, it is no longer included on the list of doping substances (http://www.wada-ama.org/). Indeed, platelets contain various growth factors (PDGF, TGF-β, FGF, VEGF, HGF, IGF-1) which participate to the tendon healing process. PRP is obtained by centrifugation of autologous blood to obtain a platelet concentration greater than that of the blood, which varies according to the production method. PRP also contains a variable amount of lymphocytes and erythrocytes that can have a detrimental effect on wound healing. Currently, there is no formal consensus regarding the production method or the biological composition of PRP. Many laboratory studies (in vitro and/or on animal) emphasize the acceleration of the healing tendon process after injection of PRP, each growth factor exerting a specific action during healing. PRP would cause the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells derived from circulation, improving the initial phase of the tendon healing. This anabolic process initiates the type I collagen synthesis. Although currently the effectiveness of PRP on tendon healing in vitro or in animals seems to be confirmed, clinical studies are currently still controversial. In addition, there is still only a limited number of randomized and controlled studies reviewing PRP for treating tendinopathy. However, it seems that PRP can be efficient to treat lateral epicondylitis, patellar tendinopathies and plantar fasciitis, even if the level of proofs remains low. Up to now there is not enough proofs concerning the use of PRP to treat rotator cuff or Achilles tendinopathies. More randomized, controlled and blinded studies remain needed. In conclusion, experimentally, PRP, through the local release of various growth factors stimulates tendon healing. This therapy could optimize the healing of pathological human tendons. PRP should be analysed to see whether it improves tendon healing in both humans and animals through other randomized controlled trials. [less ▲]

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See detailTrophic plasticity of Antarctic echinoids under contrasted environmental conditions
Michel, Loïc ULg; David, Bruno; Dubois, Philippe et al

in Polar Biology (2016), 39(5), 913-923

Echinoids are common members of Antarctic zoobenthos, and different groups can show important trophic diversity. As part of the ANT-XXIX/3 cruise of RV Polarstern, trophic plasticity of sea urchins was ... [more ▼]

Echinoids are common members of Antarctic zoobenthos, and different groups can show important trophic diversity. As part of the ANT-XXIX/3 cruise of RV Polarstern, trophic plasticity of sea urchins was studied in three neighbouring regions (Drake Passage, Bransfield Strait and Weddell Sea) featuring several depth-related habitats offering different trophic environments to benthic consumers. Three families with contrasting feeding habits (Cidaridae, Echinidae and Schizasteridae) were studied. Gut content examination and stable isotopes ratios of C and N suggest that each of the studied families showed a different response to variation in environmental and food conditions. Schizasteridae trophic plasticity was low, and these sea urchins were bulk sediment feeders relying on sediment-associated organic matter in all regions and/or depth-related habitats. Cidaridae consumed the most animal-derived material. Their diet varied according to the considered area, as sea urchins from Bransfield Strait relied mostly on living and/or dead animal material, while specimens from Weddell Sea fed on a mixture of dead animal material and other detritus. Echinidae also showed important trophic plasticity. They fed on various detrital items in Bransfield Strait, and selectivity of ingested material varied across depth-related habitats. In Weddell Sea, stable isotopes revealed that they mostly relied on highly 13C-enriched food items, presumably microbially-reworked benthic detritus. The differences in adaptive strategies could lead to family-specific responses of Antarctic echinoids to environmental and food-related changes. [less ▲]

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See detailTribute to an astronomer: the work of Max Ernst on Wilhelm Tempel
Nazé, Yaël ULg

in Journal for the History of Astronomy (2016), 47(2), 115-135

In 1964-1974, the German artist Max Ernst created, with the help of two friends, a series of works (books, movie, paintings) related to the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel. Mixing actual texts by Tempel and ... [more ▼]

In 1964-1974, the German artist Max Ernst created, with the help of two friends, a series of works (books, movie, paintings) related to the astronomer Wilhelm Tempel. Mixing actual texts by Tempel and artistic features, this series pays homage to the astronomer by recalling his life and discoveries. Moreover, the core of the project, the book Maximiliana or the Illegal Practice of Astronomy, actually depicts the way science works, making this artwork a most original tribute to a scientist. [less ▲]

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See detailCystatin C standardization decreases assay variation and improves assessment of glomerular filtration rate
Ebert, N; DELANAYE, Pierre ULg; Shlipak, M et al

in Clinica Chimica Acta (2016), 456

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See detailL’infirmier responsable de soins généraux en Belgique, perspective et défis
Dury, Cécile ULg

in Soins Cadres (2016), 98(Vol 25), 55-60

La formation de l’infirmier responsable de soins généraux est en cours de réforme en Belgique pour répondre aux exigences européennes. Il existe un paradoxe de deux niveaux d’enseignement très différents ... [more ▼]

La formation de l’infirmier responsable de soins généraux est en cours de réforme en Belgique pour répondre aux exigences européennes. Il existe un paradoxe de deux niveaux d’enseignement très différents conduisant à un même titre professionnel, dans un cadre institutionnel complexe. La formation relevant de l’enseignement supérieur dans la partie francophone est décrite, et plus spécifiquement son mécanisme de financement, le principe d’autonomie des Hautes Écoles et l’évolution du programme de formation. [less ▲]

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See detailTaupins: à la découverte des odeurs de racines
Barsics, Fanny ULg; Delory, Benjamin; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure ULg et al

in Phytoma : La Défense des Végétaux (2016), 694

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See detailLes paysans sans terre et REDD+ en RDC : les logiques locales faces aux interventions internationales
Reyniers, Camille; Karsenty, Alain; Vermeulen, Cédric ULg

in Cahiers africains (2016), 87

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See detailSelf-Medication Practice among Amateur Runners: Prevalence and Associated Factors
Locquet, Médéa ULg; Beaudart, Charlotte ULg; LARBUISSON, Robert ULg et al

in Journal of Sports Science & Medicine (2016), 15(2), 387-8

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See detailReflexive Loops on Scaling issues in Landscape Quality Assessment
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Vanderheyden, Vincent ULg

in Land Use Policy (2016), 53

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See detailDeveloping Tourism Products and new Partnerships through Participative Action Research in Rural Cameroon
Schmitz, Serge ULg; Lekane Tsoubgou, Dieudonné

in Geographical Research (2016), 54(2), 143-152

The paper explores possible synergies between microfinance institutions and small and medium medium tourism businesses in the West Cameron Chiefdooms. Based on a research action the authors emphasise the ... [more ▼]

The paper explores possible synergies between microfinance institutions and small and medium medium tourism businesses in the West Cameron Chiefdooms. Based on a research action the authors emphasise the obstacles to the formation of partnership and describe how the researchers facilitated networking. [less ▲]

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See detailNeonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: a new view of an old problem
Tskitishvili, Ekaterine ULg; VIELLEVOYE, Renaud ULg; Gérard, Céline et al

in Références en Gynécologie Obstétrique (2016), 17(1-1),

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a challenge of perinatal medicine. It is an important cause of long term morbidity, including motor and behavioral deficits, mental retardation ... [more ▼]

Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) remains a challenge of perinatal medicine. It is an important cause of long term morbidity, including motor and behavioral deficits, mental retardation, seizures and cerebral palsy, and mortality in newborns. This paper reviews the pathophysiology and current concepts of the management of neonatal HIE as well as the future potential neuroprotective strategies for attenuation of this disease. [less ▲]

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See detailPotentiel des véhicules aériens sans pilote dans la détection des activités humaines illégales dans les aires protégées en République Démocratique du Congo
Semeki Ngabinzeke, Jean; Linchant, Julie ULg; Quevauvillers, Samuel ULg et al

in Journal of Unmanned Vehicle Systems (2016), 4

The recent advent of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in natural resource management opens new opportunities to help protected area managers fighting against various human pressures. The Falcon UAV was ... [more ▼]

The recent advent of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in natural resource management opens new opportunities to help protected area managers fighting against various human pressures. The Falcon UAV was used for 15 missions to help detect human activities in Garamba National Park and its surrounding game reserves (Gangala na Bodio, Mondo Missa) in the North-Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. A Sony Block camera coupled with a Tamarisk thermal camera was used to record videos, whereas photos were acquired with a Sony Nex7 digital camera. Tests showed that it was possible to detect precise objects using the Falcon UAV. Houses, fields, bare ground patches, burned areas, roads and tracks were easily detectable and identified in the videos at a flight altitude of up to 250 m AGL. Artisanal gold mining sites (size ≤ 0.21 ha) are also recognizable on the video and still images. Improvements are needed, notably in photo overlap and georeferencing, but the system shows great potential to ensure detection and continuous surveillance of human activities within protected areas. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of a national EUCAST challenge panel for antimicrobial susceptibility testing
Desmet, Stefanie; Verhagen, Jan; Glupczynski, Youri et al

in Clinical Microbiology and Infection (2016)

A challenge panel of bacterial strains useful for clinical laboratories to validate their European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) system ... [more ▼]

A challenge panel of bacterial strains useful for clinical laboratories to validate their European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST) system was established. A total of 117 strains, obtained from Belgian Reference Centers (n=57) and from routine clinical samples (n=60) was selected based on resistance pattern. These strains were analyzed in 7 different laboratories by 3 different automated AST systems (Vitek (n=2), Phoenix (n=2) and Microscan (n=2)) and by disk diffusion from 5 different manufacturers (Rosco (n=2), Becton-Dickinson (n=2), Biomérieux (n=1), Bio-rad (n=1) and i2a (n=1)). To select the challenge panel, selection criteria were set for categorical agreement (CA) between the different systems and the number of very major errors (VME), major errors (ME) and minor errors (MI). VMEs or MEs for at least 2 antibiotics were observed in 43% of all strains, leading to the exclusion of these strains to be selected in the panel. In only 10% of all tested strains there was a 100% CA for all antibiotics. Finally, 28 strains (14 Gram-positive and 14 Gram-negative) covering a wide spectrum of resistance mechanisms were selected. Pilot-testing of this challenge panel in 20 laboratories mainly confirmed the results of the validation study. Only 6 strains withheld for the pilot-study could not be used as challenge strain due to an overall (very) major error rate of more than 5% for a particular antibiotic (n=5) or for two antibiotics (n=1). To conclude, this challenge panel should facilitate the implementation and use of EUCAST breakpoints in laboratories. [less ▲]

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See detailA Comparison of 3D Methods for Identifying the Stance Phase in Treadmill Running for Both Rearfoot and Forefoot Runners
Deflandre, Dorian ULg; Schwartz, Cédric ULg; Weertz et al

in Journal of sports Science (2016), 4

We compared six 3D methods, OptoGait, and Myotest Run for the determination of contact time for runners with different foot strike patterns. Twenty male participants were divided into two groups: the heel ... [more ▼]

We compared six 3D methods, OptoGait, and Myotest Run for the determination of contact time for runners with different foot strike patterns. Twenty male participants were divided into two groups: the heel group, who attack the ground with the heel (n = 12), and the toe group, who attack the ground with the middle/front of the foot (n = 8). They performed trials at speeds of 8 km/h then 16 km/h. To detect foot strike, the use of peak velocity of 3D markers located on the heel, the fifth metatarsal, and the great toe provided the best results for both groups. To detect the toe off, the minimum vertical position of a 3D marker placed in line with the great toe gave the most satisfactory results for both groups. In this way, the values of contact time measured with the 3D methods are consistent. Values measured with OptoGait appear consistent too, while those of the Myotest Run underestimate the contact time for both speeds. 3D analysis provides interesting opportunities for calculation of contact time for both rearfoot and forefoot runners, using specific peak velocities to determine foot strike and marker displacement to determine toe off. [less ▲]

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See detailNonbelieved memories in middle-aged and older adults
Brédart, Serge ULg; Bouffier, Marion

in Consciousness & Cognition (2016), 42(2), 352-357

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See detailRaisonnement analogique, connaissance relationnelle et troubles du langage.
Krzemien, Magali ULg

in Glossa (2016), 119

The construction grammar theory claims that language development is achieved thanks to the abstraction of schemas from different heard forms. This abstraction is allowed by analogical reasoning abilities ... [more ▼]

The construction grammar theory claims that language development is achieved thanks to the abstraction of schemas from different heard forms. This abstraction is allowed by analogical reasoning abilities. Analogical reasoning is a human ability, which allows to acquire new knowledge from known situations. Several theories tried to explain its development. Some of them claim that it is an ability that appears late in the development, while others support the hypothesis that it can be used early in the development under certain conditions. Some authors underline the influence of working memory, inhibition or relational knowledge. Relational knowledge about a specific domain will indeed allow to reason analogically and to move from a perceptual reasoning to a relational reasoning. Analogical reasoning and relational knowledge are both connected to language development, as these abilities influence each other. Because of this link, several authors investigated the analogical reasoning abilities of children with language disorders, and specifically of children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI). Those children seem to have poorer analogical reasoning abilities than their age-matched peers. This has implication for the use of analogies in the classroom context, but also for the language development of those children. [less ▲]

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See detailL’institutionnalisation du droit international (1869-1873). Les réseaux internationaux de Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns
Genin, Vincent ULg

in Journal of the History of International Law / Revue d'Histoire du Droit International (2016), 18(2-3), 181-196

This article deals with a phenomenon which appears in a particular context: the institutionalisation of international law between 1869 (creation of the Revue de droit international et de législation ... [more ▼]

This article deals with a phenomenon which appears in a particular context: the institutionalisation of international law between 1869 (creation of the Revue de droit international et de législation comparée) and 1873 (birth of the Institut de Droit International), through the international networks of the Belgian lawyer Gustave Rolin-Jaequemyns. He was close to Pasquale Mancini, John Westlake, James Lorimer, Franz Von Holtzendorff, but also to the least-known Michael Corr-Van der Maeren, a publicist. Until this period of crystallisation this field was not structured and represented an aggregate of individualities. What can we say about such a process of institutionalisation on the basis of unpublished archives? The history of international law, until today, especially studied by lawyers, was very neglected by historians, whose methods and sources are complementary to those of the lawyer. Our contribution wishes to contribute to the development of a history of international law written by historians. [less ▲]

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See detailObservation foncière : pour une observation partenariale. La Wallonie cherche un modèle
Sarciat, Jordane; Hendrickx, Sébastien ULg; Halleux, Jean-Marie ULg

in La Revue Foncière (2016), 11

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See detailDESIGN AND MODELIZATION OF ACONVEX GRATING FOR AN HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGER OF THE CHANDRAYAAN 2 INSTRUMENT FOR THE MOON PROBE IN THE INFRARED
Sabushimike, Bernard ULg; Horugavye, Georges ULg; Piron, Pierre ULg et al

in International Journal of Latest Research in Science and Technology (2016), 5(2), 69-74

For hyperspectral imaging, diffraction gratings based spectrometers exhibit high spectral resolution and optical performance. Among those spectrometers, the Offner type (which consists of an entrance slit ... [more ▼]

For hyperspectral imaging, diffraction gratings based spectrometers exhibit high spectral resolution and optical performance. Among those spectrometers, the Offner type (which consists of an entrance slit, two concave mirrors and convex grating) offers a lot of advantages. In this paper, we propose the design and modelization of a convex grating which covers a spectral band ranging from 0.7 μm to 5 μm with a minimum diffraction efficiency of 20% at 800 nm, 50% at 3000 nm and 25% at 5000 nm. For a so wide band, a grating with a single blaze cannot satisfy these requirements. We will therefore propose an approach of multi-blaze grating which is subdivided into different sections each with its own blaze angle. Meanwhile, we perform the diffraction efficiency prediction using the scalar and rigorous theories to prove the compliance of this design with the technical specifications. The rigorous theory will also allow us to study the polarization sensitivity of this grating and the calculation of the diffraction efficiency of a grating with a profile degraded by manufacturing errors to assess the impact on the diffraction efficiency and the sensitivity to polarization [less ▲]

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See detailCrop residue management in arable cropping systems under temperate climate. Part 1: Soil biological and chemical (phosphorus and nitrogen) properties. A review
Lemtiri, Aboulkacem ULg; Degrune, Florine ULg; Barbieux, Sophie ULg et al

in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment (2016)

Interacting soil organisms support biological processes that participate in soil functions, organic matter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Earthworms and microorganisms play a range of beneficial ... [more ▼]

Interacting soil organisms support biological processes that participate in soil functions, organic matter decomposition, and nutrient cycling. Earthworms and microorganisms play a range of beneficial roles in agricultural systems, including increased organic matter mineralization, nutrient cycling, and soil structure stabilization. The following aspects of crop residue management effects are examined in this paper: (i) earthworm composition and structure; (ii) soil microbial communities; and (iii) phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) element availability and distribution in the soil profile. Conventional tillage (ploughing) is often reported to generate decreased soil organism abundance and diversity, primarily earthworms and microorganisms, as well as a uniform distribution of the nutrients P and N within the ploughed soil horizon. Soil residue incorporation of mineral particles can maintain P and N levels, however returning soil also increases aeration and the activation of microbial activity. Hence, comparisons of tillage effects on soil biological functioning and nutrient cycling remain unclear. This review highlights the challenges in establishing definitive evidence regarding the effects of crop residue management on soil organisms and nutrient dynamics. The studies examined reported variability in soil and climate, and the complexity of soil processes contributed to the absence of clear findings. Further research is required under temperate climate conditions. [less ▲]

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See detailSensitivity of turbulent Schmidt number and turbulence model to simulations of jets in crossflow
Valero Huerta, Daniel ULg; Bung, Daniel B

in Environmental Modelling & Software (2016), 82

Environmental discharges have been traditionally designed by means of cost-intensive and timeconsuming experimental studies. Some extensively validated models based on an integral approach have been often ... [more ▼]

Environmental discharges have been traditionally designed by means of cost-intensive and timeconsuming experimental studies. Some extensively validated models based on an integral approach have been often employed for water quality problems, as recommended by USEPA (i.e.: CORMIX). In this study, FLOW-3D is employed for a full 3D RANS modelling of two turbulent jet-to-crossflow cases, including free surface jet impingement. Results are compared to both physical modelling and CORMIX to better assess model performance. Turbulence measurements have been collected for a better understanding of turbulent diffusion's parameter sensitivity. Although both studied models are generally able to reproduce jet trajectory, jet separation downstream of the impingement has been reproduced only by RANS modelling. Additionally, concentrations are better reproduced by FLOW-3D when the proper turbulent Schmidt number is used. This study provides a recommendation on the selection of the turbulence model and the turbulent Schmidt number for future outfall structures design studies. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical flow estimation in aerated flows
Bung, Daniel B.; Valero Huerta, Daniel ULg

in Journal of Hydraulic Research (2016)

Optical flow estimation is known from Computer Vision where it is used to determine obstacle movements through a sequence of images following an assumption of brightness conservation. This paper presents ... [more ▼]

Optical flow estimation is known from Computer Vision where it is used to determine obstacle movements through a sequence of images following an assumption of brightness conservation. This paper presents the first study on application of the optical flow method to aerated stepped spillway flows. For this purpose, the flow is captured with a high-speed camera and illuminated with a synchronized LED light source. The flow velocities, obtained using a basic Horn–Schunck method for estimation of the optical flow coupled with an image pyramid multi-resolution approach for image filtering, compare well with data from intrusive conductivity probe measurements. Application of the Horn–Schunck method yields densely populated flow field data sets with velocity information for every pixel. It is found that the image pyramid approach has the most significant effect on the accuracy compared to other image processing techniques. However, the final results show some dependency on the pixel intensity distribution, with better accuracy found for grey values between 100 and 150. [less ▲]

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See detailUnderground pumped storage hydroelectricity using abandoned works (deep mines or open pits) and the impact on groundwater flow
Pujades, Estanislao ULg; Willems, Thibault ULg; Bodeux, Sarah ULg et al

in Hydrogeology Journal (2016)

Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is ... [more ▼]

Underground pumped storage hydroelectricity (UPSH) plants using open-pit or deep mines can be used in flat regions to store the excess of electricity produced during low-demand energy periods. It is essential to consider the interaction between UPSH plants and the surrounding geological media. There has been little work on the assessment of associated groundwater flow impacts. The impacts on groundwater flow are determined numerically using a simplified numerical model which is assumed to be representative of open-pit and deep mines. The main impact consists of oscillation of the piezometric head, and its magnitude depends on the characteristics of the aquifer/geological medium, the mine and the pumping and injection intervals. If an average piezometric head is considered, it drops at early times after the start of the UPSH plant activity and then recovers progressively. The most favorable hydrogeological conditions to minimize impacts are evaluated by comparing several scenarios. The impact magnitude will be lower in geological media with low hydraulic diffusivity; however, the parameter that plays the more important role is the volume of water stored in the mine. Its variation modifies considerably the groundwater flow impacts. Finally, the problem is studied analytically and some solutions are proposed to approximate the impacts, allowing a quick screening of favorable locations for future UPSH plants. [less ▲]

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See detailAre BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season
Bachy, Aurélie ULg; Aubinet, Marc ULg; Schoon, Niels et al

in Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2016), 16(8),

Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale ... [more ▼]

Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m−2 h−1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m−2 h−1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m−2 h−1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately. [less ▲]

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See detailTropospheric water vapour isotopologue data (H216O, H218O and HD16O) as obtained from NDACC/FTIR solar absorption spectra
Barthlott, Sabine; Schneider, Matthias; Hase, Frank et al

in Earth System Science Data Discussions (2016)

We report on the ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) tropospheric water vapour isotopologue remote sensing data that have been recently made available via the database of NDACC (Network for the ... [more ▼]

We report on the ground-based FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) tropospheric water vapour isotopologue remote sensing data that have been recently made available via the database of NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change; ftp://ftp.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/ndacc/MUSICA/) and via doi:10.5281/zenodo.48902. Currently, data are available for 12 globally distributed stations. They have been centrally retrieved and quality filtered in the framework of the MUSICA project (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water). We explain particularities of retrieving the water vapour isotopologue state (vertical distribution of H162O, H182O and HD16O) and reveal the need for a new meta-data template for archiving such FTIR isotopologue data. We describe the format of different data components and give recommendations for correct data usage. Data are provided as two data types. The first type is best-suited for tropospheric water vapour distribution studies disregarding different isotopologues (comparison with radiosonde data, analyses of water vapour variability and trends, etc.). The second type is needed for analysing moisture pathways by means of {H2O,delta-D}-pair distributions. [less ▲]

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See detailNovel approaches for preventing acute graftversus- host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
SERVAIS, Sophie ULg; BEGUIN, Yves ULg; Delens, Loïc ULg et al

in Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs (2016)

Introduction Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) offers potential curative treatment for a wide range of malignant and nonmalignant hematological disorders. However, its success ... [more ▼]

Introduction Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) offers potential curative treatment for a wide range of malignant and nonmalignant hematological disorders. However, its success may be limited by post-transplant acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), a systemic syndrome in which donor’s immune cells attack healthy tissues in the immunocompromised host. aGVHD is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality after alloHSCT. Despite standard GVHD prophylaxis regimens, aGVHD still develops in approximately 40–60% of alloHSCT recipients. Areas covered In this review, after a brief summary of current knowledge on the pathogenesis of aGVHD, the authors review the current combination of a calcineurin inhibitor with an antimetabolite with or without added anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) and emerging strategies for GVHD prevention. Expert opinion A new understanding of the involvement of cytokines, intracellular signaling pathways, epigenetics and immunoregulatory cells in GVHD pathogenesis will lead to new standards for aGVHD prophylaxis allowing better prevention of severe aGVHD without affecting graft-versus-tumor effects. [less ▲]

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See detailDaily intake and bacteriological quality of meat consumed in the households of Kigali, Rwanda
Niyonzima, Eugene ULg; Ongol, Martin Patrick; Brostaux, Yves ULg et al

in Food Control (2016), 69

Meat is consumed worldwide as a source of animal proteins, but it is recognized as one of the most important vehicles for food borne infections in humans. This study was conducted to determine the daily ... [more ▼]

Meat is consumed worldwide as a source of animal proteins, but it is recognized as one of the most important vehicles for food borne infections in humans. This study was conducted to determine the daily intake; the levels of hygiene indicator bacteria, namely the total mesophilic bacteria (TMC) and Escherichia coli counts (ECC); and the prevalence of Salmonella in meat consumed within the households of Kigali (Rwanda). The survey on meat consumption was carried out in 400 households by using a questionnaire, whereas the bacteriological analyses of meat samples were performed by using conventional culture methods. The results from the survey indicated that beef was the type of meat mostly consumed in Kigali city households, and the daily meat intake significantly varied with the social category of the household. No significant difference was observed between daily meat intakes in different age classes of household members. In the samples where microorganisms were detected, the average levels of TMCs and ECCs in raw meat were found to be 5.4 and 1.6 log cfu/g, respectively, whereas in cooked meat they were significantly reduced to 3.1 and 1.1 log cfu/g, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was reduced from 21.4% in raw meat to 3.4% in ready-to-eat cooked meat. Salmonella was not detected in cooked meat consumed in high-income households. The results from this study highlight the need for hygiene improvements in meat shops as well as in the households of Kigali, particularly those with low and medium incomes. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment of the interfacial air layer in the non-aerated region of high-velocity spillway flows. Instabilities growth, entrapped air and influence on the self-aeration onset
Valero Huerta, Daniel ULg; Bung, Daniel B

in International Journal of Multiphase Flow (2016), 84

Self-aeration is traditionally explained by the water turbulent boundary layer outer edge intersection with the free surface. This paper presents a discussion on the commonly accepted hypothesis behind ... [more ▼]

Self-aeration is traditionally explained by the water turbulent boundary layer outer edge intersection with the free surface. This paper presents a discussion on the commonly accepted hypothesis behind the computation of the critical point of self-aeration in spillway flows and a new formulation is proposed based on the existence of a developing air flow over the free surface. Upstream of the inception point of self-aeration, some surface roughening has been often reported in previous studies which consequently implies some entrapped air transport and air–water flows coupling. Such air flow is proven in this study by presenting measured air velocities and computing the air boundary layer thickness for a 1V:2H smooth chute flow. Additionally, the growth rate of free surface waves has been analysed by means of Ultrasonic Sensors measurements, obtaining also the entrapped air concentration. High-speed camera imaging has been used for qualitative study of the flow perturbations. [less ▲]

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See detailNew paradigms in chemokine receptor signal transduction: Moving beyond the two-site model.
Kleist, Andrew B.; Getschman, Anthony E.; Ziarek, Joshua J. et al

in Biochemical pharmacology (2016)

Chemokine receptor (CKR) signaling forms the basis of essential immune cellular functions, and dysregulated CKR signaling underpins numerous disease processes of the immune system and beyond. CKRs, which ... [more ▼]

Chemokine receptor (CKR) signaling forms the basis of essential immune cellular functions, and dysregulated CKR signaling underpins numerous disease processes of the immune system and beyond. CKRs, which belong to the seven transmembrane domain receptor (7TMR) superfamily, initiate signaling upon binding of endogenous, secreted chemokine ligands. Chemokine-CKR interactions are traditionally described by a two-step/two-site mechanism, in which the CKR N-terminus recognizes the chemokine globular core (i.e. site 1 interaction), followed by activation when the unstructured chemokine N-terminus is inserted into the receptor TM bundle (i.e. site 2 interaction). Several recent studies challenge the structural independence of sites 1 and 2 by demonstrating physical and allosteric links between these supposedly separate sites. Others contest the functional independence of these sites, identifying nuanced roles for site 1 and other interactions in CKR activation. These developments emerge within a rapidly changing landscape in which CKR signaling is influenced by receptor PTMs, chemokine and CKR dimerization, and endogenous non-chemokine ligands. Simultaneous advances in the structural and functional characterization of 7TMR biased signaling have altered how we understand promiscuous chemokine-CKR interactions. In this review, we explore new paradigms in CKR signal transduction by considering studies that depict a more intricate architecture governing the consequences of chemokine-CKR interactions. [less ▲]

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See detailIn situ analysis of lipid oxidation in oilseedbased food products using near-infrared spectroscopy and chemometrics: The sunflower kernel paste (tahini) example
Mureșan; Danthine, Sabine ULg; Mureșan, Andruța Elena et al

in Talanta (2016), 155

A new near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method was developed for the analytical measurement of lipid oxidation in sunflower kernel paste (tahini), which was chosen as an example of a complex oilseed-based ... [more ▼]

A new near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method was developed for the analytical measurement of lipid oxidation in sunflower kernel paste (tahini), which was chosen as an example of a complex oilseed-based food product. The NIR spectra of sunflower tahini were acquired for the extracted fat phase (EFP) and for the intact sunflower tahini (IST) samples during controlled storage. The best peroxide value (PV) calibration models were considered suitable for quality control (ratio of performance of deviation [RPD] >5). The best PV partial least squares (PLS) model result for EFP (RPD 6.36) was obtained when using standard normal variate (SNV) and the Savitzky-Golay first derivative in the 1140-1184 nm, 1388-1440 nm and 2026-2194 nm regions. In the case of IST spectra, the best PV models (RPD 5.23) were obtained when either multiple scattering correction (MSC) or SNV were followed by the Savitzky-Golay second derivative for the 1148-1180 nm and 2064-2132 nm regions. There were poor correlations between the NIR-predicted values and the reference data of the panisidine value (pAV) for both EFP and IST. Overall, the results obtained showed that NIR spectroscopy is an appropriate analytical tool for monitoring sunflower paste PV in situ. Due to the nonexistence of the extraction step, it demonstrates a unique and substantial advantage over presently known methods. Based on these results it is strongly recommended that, when using NIR PLS models to assess lipid oxidation in situ in similar oilseedbased food products (e.g., sesame tahini, hazelnut and cocoa liquor used for chocolate production, peanut butter, hazelnut, almond, pistachio spreads), suitable calibration sets containing samples of different particle sizes and stored at different temperatures be selected. [less ▲]

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See detailFrom Near-Infrared and Raman to Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: Progress, Limitations, Perspectives in Bioanalysis
Dumont, Elodie ULg; De Bleye, Charlotte ULg; Sacre, Pierre-Yves ULg et al

in Bioanalysis (2016), 8(10), 1077-1103

Over recent decades, spreading environmental concern entailed the expansion of green chemistry analytical tools. Vibrational spectroscopy, belonging to this class of analytical tool, is particularly ... [more ▼]

Over recent decades, spreading environmental concern entailed the expansion of green chemistry analytical tools. Vibrational spectroscopy, belonging to this class of analytical tool, is particularly interesting taking into account its numerous advantages such as fast data acquisition and no sample preparation. In this context, Near-Infrared, Raman and mainly Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) have thus gained interest in many fields including bioanalysis. The two former techniques only ensure the analysis of concentrated compounds in simple matrices, whereas the emergence of SERS improved the performances of vibrational spectroscopy to very sensitive and selective analyses. Complex SERS substrates were also developed enabling biomarker measurements, paving the way for SERS immunoassays. Therefore, in this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of these techniques will be highlighted with a focus on recent progress. [less ▲]

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See detailPour une rhétorique sémiotique de l’image en sciences biologiques
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULg

in Argumentation et Analyse du Discours (2016), 16(1), 1-18

This article examines the rhetoric of images in the biological sciences. The epistemological context of our study is found in Bruno Latour’s sociology of science and Françoise Bastide’s semiotics of ... [more ▼]

This article examines the rhetoric of images in the biological sciences. The epistemological context of our study is found in Bruno Latour’s sociology of science and Françoise Bastide’s semiotics of scientific images, in the theory and methodology of post-Greimassian discourse semiotics, and in the rhetorical theories of Groupe µ and Jean-François Bordron. We use these different perspectives in an analysis of rhetorical operations (addition, deletion, selection, superposition, and more) performed by laboratory scientists, as represented in our corpus of images. Our particular focus is on a rhetoric that is “mereological”, so named because it is based on the relation between the whole and the parts. [less ▲]

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See detailFire Fragility Curves for Steel Buildings in a Community Context: A Methodology
Gernay, Thomas ULg; Elhami Khorasani, Negar; Garlock, Maria

in Engineering Structures (2016), 113

This paper proposes a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for an entire steel building - meaning that the function is not specific to a location within the building. The aim is to ... [more ▼]

This paper proposes a novel methodology for developing fire fragility functions for an entire steel building - meaning that the function is not specific to a location within the building. The aim is to characterize the probabilistic vulnerability of steel buildings to fire in the context of community resilience assessment. In developing the fragility functions, uncertainties in the fire model, the heat transfer model and the thermo-mechanical response are considered. In addition several fire scenarios at different locations in the building are studied. Monte Carlo Simulations and Latin Hypercube Sampling are used to generate the probability distributions of demand placed on the members and structural capacity relative to selected damage thresholds. By assessing demand and capacity in the temperature domain, the thermal and the structural problems can be treated separately to improve the efficiency of the probabilistic analysis. After the probability distributions are obtained for demand and capacity, the fragility functions can be obtained by convolution of the distributions. Finally, event tree analysis is used to combine the functions associated with fire scenarios in different building locations. The developed fire fragility functions yield the probability of exceedance of predefined damage states as a function of the fire load in the building. The methodology is illustrated on an example consisting in a prototype nine-story steel building based on the SAC project. [less ▲]

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See detailHighly-active Pd-Cu electrocatalysts for oxidation of ubiquitous oxygenated fuels
Serov, Alexey; Asset, Tristan ULg; Padilla, Monica et al

in Applied Catalysis B : Environmental (2016)

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See detailDirect one-pot synthesis of poly(ionic liquid) nanogels by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization in organic or aqueous media
Weiss-Maurin, Mathilde ULg; Cordella, Daniela ULg; Jérôme, Christine ULg et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2016), 7(14), 2521-2530

Nanogels of controlled kinetic chain length were synthesized by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization (CMRccP) involving a vinyl monomer and a divinyl cross-linker. This strategy was ... [more ▼]

Nanogels of controlled kinetic chain length were synthesized by cobalt-mediated radical cross-linking copolymerization (CMRccP) involving a vinyl monomer and a divinyl cross-linker. This strategy was first validated to achieve neutral poly(vinyl acetate) nanogels by CMRccP of vinyl acetate and divinyl adipate as cross-linker, at 40 °C, in presence of an alkyl- cobalt(III) serving both as initiator and controlling agent, using ethyl acetate as solvent. Poly(ionic liquid) nanogels were then directly obtained by CMRccP of N-vinyl-3-ethyl imidazolium bromide, in presence of 1,13-divinyl-3-decyl diimidazolium bromide as cross-linker. CMRccP experiments could be conducted either in organic solvent using dimethyl formamide or, more interestingly, in aqueous solution, demonstrating the robustness and the versatility of this one-step process. Chain extensions of PILs nanogels were also carried out in water, forming core-shell structures, thus opening new avenues in the design of functional nanogels. [less ▲]

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See detailNew 2016 MeSH addressing information gap, poverty, violence and danger of medicine set the tone for policy makers in patient care
Jamoulle, Marc ULg

in International Journal of Health Policy and Management (2016)

A careful review of the list of newly published Medical subject Heading in 2016 allows to identify 52 new or updated MESH in 2016 relevant to General Practice Family Medicine management (i.e. non-clinical ... [more ▼]

A careful review of the list of newly published Medical subject Heading in 2016 allows to identify 52 new or updated MESH in 2016 relevant to General Practice Family Medicine management (i.e. non-clinical) fields. Information society gap, poverty, violence and quaternary prevention related MeSH are outstandingly frequent. The 52 identified MeSH are proposed in supplementary material. [less ▲]

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See detailLow-rank plus sparse decomposition for exoplanet detection in direct-imaging ADI sequences. The LLSG algorithm
Gómez González, Carlos ULg; Absil, Olivier ULg; Absil, P.-A. et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2016), 589

Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is ... [more ▼]

Context. Data processing constitutes a critical component of high-contrast exoplanet imaging. Its role is almost as important as the choice of a coronagraph or a wavefront control system, and it is intertwined with the chosen observing strategy. Among the data processing techniques for angular differential imaging (ADI), the most recent is the family of principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithms. It is a widely used statistical tool developed during the first half of the past century. PCA serves, in this case, as a subspace projection technique for constructing a reference point spread function (PSF) that can be subtracted from the science data for boosting the detectability of potential companions present in the data. Unfortunately, when building this reference PSF from the science data itself, PCA comes with certain limitations such as the sensitivity of the lower dimensional orthogonal subspace to non-Gaussian noise. <BR /> Aims: Inspired by recent advances in machine learning algorithms such as robust PCA, we aim to propose a localized subspace projection technique that surpasses current PCA-based post-processing algorithms in terms of the detectability of companions at near real-time speed, a quality that will be useful for future direct imaging surveys. <BR /> Methods: We used randomized low-rank approximation methods recently proposed in the machine learning literature, coupled with entry-wise thresholding to decompose an ADI image sequence locally into low-rank, sparse, and Gaussian noise components (LLSG). This local three-term decomposition separates the starlight and the associated speckle noise from the planetary signal, which mostly remains in the sparse term. We tested the performance of our new algorithm on a long ADI sequence obtained on β Pictoris with VLT/NACO. <BR /> Results: Compared to a standard PCA approach, LLSG decomposition reaches a higher signal-to-noise ratio and has an overall better performance in the receiver operating characteristic space. This three-term decomposition brings a detectability boost compared to the full-frame standard PCA approach, especially in the small inner working angle region where complex speckle noise prevents PCA from discerning true companions from noise. [less ▲]

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See detailInventaire et mise en collection d’espèces de pucerons et de parasitoïdes collectés en grandes cultures, et premier enregistrement de Metopolophium frisicum (Hille Ris Lambers 1947) et Acyrthosiphon primulae (Theobald 1913) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) en Belgique
Chevalier Mendes Lopes, Thomas ULg; Hatt, Séverin ULg; Starý, Petr et al

in Entomologie Faunistique = Faunistic Entomology (2016), 69

The purpose of this study was to identify aphid and parasitoid species that were collected in wheat and pea crops situated in Gembloux (Belgium), and conserve them into collections. To do so, yellow traps ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to identify aphid and parasitoid species that were collected in wheat and pea crops situated in Gembloux (Belgium), and conserve them into collections. To do so, yellow traps (von Moericke) were used during 2012, 2013 and 2014 growing seasons. Fifty-two aphid species were identified and conserved in the entomological Conservatory of Gembloux. Among them, Metopolophium frisicum (Hille Ris Lambers 1947) and Acyrthosiphon primulae (Theobald 1913) were officially referenced for the first time in Belgium. Moreover, a collection composed by 16 parasitoid species was created. Their interest for biological control, as well as the methods that are studied in the laboratory of functional and evolutionary Entomology from Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech (University of Liège) to promote their presence in crops are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAnthropogenic forcing dominates global mean sea-level rise since 1970
Slagen, A.; Church, J.; Agosta, Cécile ULg et al

in Nature Climate Change (2016)

Sea-level change is an important consequence of anthropogenic climate change, as higher sea levels increase the frequency of sea-level extremes and the impact of coastal flooding and erosion on the ... [more ▼]

Sea-level change is an important consequence of anthropogenic climate change, as higher sea levels increase the frequency of sea-level extremes and the impact of coastal flooding and erosion on the coastal environment, infrastructure and coastal communities1, 2. Although individual attribution studies have been done for ocean thermal expansion3, 4 and glacier mass loss5, two of the largest contributors to twentieth-century sea-level rise, this has not been done for the other contributors or total global mean sea-level change (GMSLC). Here, we evaluate the influence of greenhouse gases (GHGs), anthropogenic aerosols, natural radiative forcings and internal climate variability on sea-level contributions of ocean thermal expansion, glaciers, ice-sheet surface mass balance and total GMSLC. For each contribution, dedicated models are forced with results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model archive6. The sum of all included contributions explains 74 ± 22% (±2σ) of the observed GMSLC over the period 1900–2005. The natural radiative forcing makes essentially zero contribution over the twentieth century (2 ± 15% over the period 1900–2005), but combined with the response to past climatic variations explains 67 ± 23% of the observed rise before 1950 and only 9 ± 18% after 1970 (38 ± 12% over the period 1900–2005). In contrast, the anthropogenic forcing (primarily a balance between a positive sea-level contribution from GHGs and a partially offsetting component from anthropogenic aerosols) explains only 15 ± 55% of the observations before 1950, but increases to become the dominant contribution to sea-level rise after 1970 (69 ± 31%), reaching 72 ± 39% in 2000 (37 ± 38% over the period 1900–2005). [less ▲]

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See detailMANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Pituitary "incidentaloma": Neuroradiological assessment and differential diagnosis.
Vasilev, Vladimir; Rostomyan, Liliya ULg; Daly, Adrian ULg et al

in European Journal of Endocrinology (2016)

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See detailEvaluating ethane and methane emissions associated with the development of oil and natural gas extraction in North America
Franco, Bruno ULg; Mahieu, Emmanuel ULg; Emmons, L. K. et al

in Environmental Research Letters (2016), 11(4), 044010

Sharp rises in the atmospheric abundance of ethane (C2H6) have been detected from 2009 onwards in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the unprecedented growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight ... [more ▼]

Sharp rises in the atmospheric abundance of ethane (C2H6) have been detected from 2009 onwards in the Northern Hemisphere as a result of the unprecedented growth in the exploitation of shale gas and tight oil reservoirs in North America. Using time series of C2H6 total columns derived from ground-based FTIR observations made at five selected NDACC sites, we characterize the recent C2H6 evolution and determine growth rates of ~5%/yr at mid-latitudes and of ~3%/yr at remote sites. Results from CAM-chem simulations with the HTAP2 bottom-up inventory for anthropogenic emissions are found to greatly underestimate the current C2H6 abundances. Doubling global emissions is required to reconcile the simulations and the observations prior to 2009. We further estimate that North American anthropogenic C2H6 emissions have increased from 1.6 Tg/yr in 2008 to 2.8 Tg/yr in 2014, i.e. by 75% over these six years. We also completed a second simulation with new top-down emissions of C2H6 from North American oil and gas activities, biofuel consumption and biomass burning, inferred from space-borne observations of methane (CH4) from GOSAT. In this simulation, GEOS-Chem is able to reproduce FTIR measurements at the mid-latitudinal sites, underscoring the impact of the North American oil and gas development on the current C2H6 abundance. Finally we estimate that the North American oil and gas emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas, grew from 20 to 35 Tg/yr over the period 2008 to 2014, in association with the recent C2H6 rise. [less ▲]

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