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See detailChina’s new relations with Panama and Costa Rica are another step towards a Beijing Consensus in Central America
Wintgens, Sophie ULiege

in LSE Latin America and the Caribbean (2017)

Increased trade, aid, investment, and diplomatic engagement between China and both Costa Rica and Panama signal a more general projection of Chinese economic and political standards in international trade ... [more ▼]

Increased trade, aid, investment, and diplomatic engagement between China and both Costa Rica and Panama signal a more general projection of Chinese economic and political standards in international trade policy. [less ▲]

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See detailGreenland Ice Sheet Surface Mass Loss: Recent Developments in Observation and Modeling
van den Broeke, M.; Box, J.; Fettweis, Xavier ULiege et al

in Current Climate Change Reports (2017)

Surface processes currently dominate Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) mass loss. We review recent developments in the observation and modeling of GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), published after the July 2012 ... [more ▼]

Surface processes currently dominate Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) mass loss. We review recent developments in the observation and modeling of GrIS surface mass balance (SMB), published after the July 2012 deadline for the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5). Since IPCC AR5, our understanding of GrIS SMB has further improved, but new observational and model studies have also revealed that temporal and spatial variability of many processes are still poorly quantified and understood, e.g., bio-albedo, the formation of ice lenses and their impact on lateral meltwater transport, heterogeneous vertical meltwater transport (‘piping’), the impact of atmospheric-circulation changes and mixed-phase clouds on the surface energy balance, and the magnitude of turbulent heat exchange over rough ice surfaces. As a result, these processes are only schematically or not at all included in models that are currently used to assess and predict future GrIS surface mass loss. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment and evaluation of injectable nanosized drug delivery systems for apigenin
Karim, Reatul ULiege; Palazzo, Claudio ULiege; Laloy, Julie et al

in International Journal of Pharmaceutics (2017), 532(2), 757-768

The purpose of this study was to develop different injectable nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDSs) i.e. liposome, lipid nanocapsule (LNC) and polymeric nanocapsule (PNC) encapsulating apigenin (AG) and ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this study was to develop different injectable nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDSs) i.e. liposome, lipid nanocapsule (LNC) and polymeric nanocapsule (PNC) encapsulating apigenin (AG) and compare their characteristics to identify the nanovector(s) that can deliver the largest quantity of AG while being biocompatible. Two liposomes with different surface characteristics (cationic and anionic), a LNC and a PNC were prepared. A novel tocopherol modified poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyphosphate block-copolymer was used for the first time for the PNC preparation. The NDDSs were compared by their physicochemical characteristics, AG release, storage stability, stability in serum, complement consumption and toxicity against a human macrovascular endothelial cell line (EAhy926). The diameter and surface charge of the NDDSs were comparable with previously reported injectable nanocarriers. The NDDSs showed good encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, the NDDSs were stable during storage and in fetal bovine serum for extended periods, showed low complement consumption and were non-toxic to EAhy926 cells up to high concentrations. Therefore, they can be considered as potential injectable nanocarriers of AG. Due to less pronounced burst effect and extended release characteristics, the nanocapsules could be favorable approaches for achieving prolonged pharmacological activity of AG using injectable NDDS. [less ▲]

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See detailDark ice dynamics of the south-west Greenland Ice Sheet
Tedstone, A.; Bamber, J.; Cook, J. et al

in Cryosphere (The) (2017), 11

Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have ... [more ▼]

Runoff from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has increased in recent years due largely to changes in atmospheric circulation and atmospheric warming. Albedo reductions resulting from these changes have amplified surface melting. Some of the largest declines in GrIS albedo have occurred in the ablation zone of the south-west sector and are associated with the development of dark ice surfaces. Field observations at local scales reveal that a variety of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs) can be present on the surface, ranging from inorganic particulates to cryoconite materials and ice algae. Meanwhile, satellite observations show that the areal extent of dark ice has varied significantly between recent successive melt seasons. However, the processes that drive such large interannual variability in dark ice extent remain essentially unconstrained. At present we are therefore unable to project how the albedo of bare ice sectors of the GrIS will evolve in the future, causing uncertainty in the projected sea level contribution from the GrIS over the coming decades. Here we use MODIS satellite imagery to examine dark ice dynamics on the south-west GrIS each year from 2000 to 2016. We quantify dark ice in terms of its annual extent, duration, intensity and timing of first appearance. Not only does dark ice extent vary significantly between years but so too does its duration (from 0 to > 80 % of June–July–August, JJA), intensity and the timing of its first appearance. Comparison of dark ice dynamics with potential meteorological drivers from the regional climate model MAR reveals that the JJA sensible heat flux, the number of positive minimum-air-temperature days and the timing of bare ice appearance are significant interannual synoptic controls. We use these findings to identify the surface processes which are most likely to explain recent dark ice dynamics. We suggest that whilst the spatial distribution of dark ice is best explained by outcropping of particulates from ablating ice, these particulates alone do not drive dark ice dynamics. Instead, they may enable the growth of pigmented ice algal assemblages which cause visible surface darkening, but only when the climatological prerequisites of liquid meltwater presence and sufficient photosynthetically active radiation fluxes are met. Further field studies are required to fully constrain the processes by which ice algae growth proceeds and the apparent dependency of algae growth on melt-out particulates. [less ▲]

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See detailEvaluation of adaptive facades: The case study of Al Bahr Towers in the UAE
Attia, Shady ULiege

in Shaping Qatar’s Sustainable Built Environment (2017), 2(6), 1-13

The assessment of adaptive facades presents a barrier as there is no established assessment technique. Many of the available facade performance evaluation systems or frameworks have limited applicability ... [more ▼]

The assessment of adaptive facades presents a barrier as there is no established assessment technique. Many of the available facade performance evaluation systems or frameworks have limited applicability for such advanced building facades. The complexity of adaptive or dynamic facades’ evaluation is related to the performance evaluation of facade elements, systems, and overall building performance coupled with occupant behavior and occupant satisfaction. In this context, this paper presents a case study of an adaptive sunscreen facade and evaluation of its performance and occupant behavior. The evaluation mainly focuses on pre- and post-construction phases of adaptive facades: the design assist phase (including the durability test, visual mockup, onsite mashrabiya mounting, and weather stripping), the commissioning phase (field verification and performance testing), and the monitoring phase. The selected project is a 150-meter-high twin tower that stands with a honeycombinspired structure and automated dynamic solar screen that responds to the sun’s movement. These solar screens respond dynamically and automatically to the angle of the sun, which improves the control over energy consumption, solar radiation, and glare with the ability to allow natural light into the building. This paper is part of the research activities of working group 3 of the European COST Action 1403 on “Adaptive Facades”. Different methods were used for evaluation and these include the following: interviews with the architect, facade engineer, technical control specialist and occupants, reviews of standards and codes, review of energy models, and a systematic design process mapping. A documentation of the case study describing the post-construction occupant comfort and facade operation was prepared. This paper’s audience comprises mainly project managers, architects, and building facade engineers together with facility managers who are concerned with the process of design, construction, and operation of adaptive sunscreens facades. The outcome of this study identifies quantifiable performance indicators and effective strategies for the design and performance evaluation of optimal adaptive facades. [less ▲]

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See detailSeismic inversion of the solar entropy. A case for improving the standard solar model
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege; Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 607

Context. The Sun is the most constrained and well-studied of all stars. As a consequence, the physical ingredients entering solar models are used as a reference to study all other stars observed in the ... [more ▼]

Context. The Sun is the most constrained and well-studied of all stars. As a consequence, the physical ingredients entering solar models are used as a reference to study all other stars observed in the Universe. However, our understanding of the solar structure is still imperfect, as illustrated by the current debate on the heavy element abundances in the Sun. <BR /> Aims: We provide additional information on the solar structure by carrying out structural inversions of a new physical quantity, a proxy of the entropy of the solar plasma whose properties are very sensitive to the temperature gradient below the convective zone. <BR /> Methods: We use new structural kernels to carry out direct inversions of an entropy proxy of the solar plasma and compare the solar structure to various standard solar models built using various opacity tables and chemical abundances. We also link our results to classical tests commonly found in the literature. <BR /> Results: Our analysis allows us to probe more efficiently the uncertain regions of the solar models, just below the convective zone, paving the way for new in-depth analyses of the Sun taking into account additional physical uncertainties of solar models beyond the specific question of chemical abundances. [less ▲]

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See detailTwenty-year tracking of lighting savings and power density in the residential sector
Attia, Shady ULiege; Hamdy, Mohamed; Ezzeldin, Sherif

in Energy and Buildings (2017), 154

Lighting energy consumption represents a significant percentage of total energy consumption in residential building sector. During the last 20 years, advanced energy-efficient lighting fixtures have been ... [more ▼]

Lighting energy consumption represents a significant percentage of total energy consumption in residential building sector. During the last 20 years, advanced energy-efficient lighting fixtures have been introduced worldwide to conserve the energy consumption in residences. In the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, very few studies have been conducted to evaluate the association between the introduced lighting fixtures and the resulted energy savings using valid measurements and verification techniques. This study evaluates the techno-economic impact of replacing new energy efficient lighting in residences in Egypt (a representative MENA region country). A quantitative analysis is applied by tracking the utility bills of 150 residential apartments in Cairo. The average measured power consumption before (1993-1998) and after (2009-2014) installation energy efficient lighting fixtures is analyzed. A building performance simulation model is developed to back the findings. The findings indicate a significant disparity between the estimated savings based on simulation and the real measured savings due to penetration, rebound effect and low quality lamps. Moreover, the findings present an example of quantified benefits of energy efficient lighting, which is very important to inform the decision making of public policy makers, investors and building occupants. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving fungal disease forecasts in winter wheat: A critical role of intra-day variations of meteorological conditions in the development of Septoria leaf blotch
El Jarroudi, Moussa ULiege; kOUADIO, Louis; EL JARROUDI, Mustapha et al

in Field Crops Research (2017), 213

Meteorological conditions are important factors in the development of fungal diseases in winter wheat and are the main inputs of the decision support systems used to forecast disease and thus determine ... [more ▼]

Meteorological conditions are important factors in the development of fungal diseases in winter wheat and are the main inputs of the decision support systems used to forecast disease and thus determine timing for efficacious fungicide application. This study uses the Fourier transform method (FTM) to characterize temporal patterns of meteorological conditions between two neighbouring experimental sites used in a regional fungal disease monitoring and forecasting experiment in Luxembourg. Three meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation) were included, all conducive to infection of wheat by Zymoseptoria tritici cause of Septoria leaf blotch (STB) in winter wheat, from 2006 to 2009. The intraday, diurnal, dekadal and intra-seasonal variations of the meteorological variables were assessed using FTM, and the impact of existing contrasts between sites on the development of STB was analyzed. Although STB severities varied between sites and years (P ≤ 0.0003), the results indicated that the two sites presented the same patterns of meteorological conditions when compared at larger temporal scales (diurnal to intra-seasonal scales, with time periods >11 h). However, the intraday variations of all the variables were well discriminated between the sites and were highly correlated to STB severities. Our findings highlight and confirm the importance of intraday meteorological variation in the development of STB in winter wheat fields. Furthermore, the FTM approach has potential for identifying microclimatic conditions prevailing at given sites and could help in improving the prediction of disease forecast models used in regional warning systems. [less ▲]

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See detailA coupled electro-thermal Discontinuous Galerkin method
Homsi, Lina ULiege; Geuzaine, Christophe ULiege; Noels, Ludovic ULiege

in Journal of Computational Physics (2017), 348

This paper presents a Discontinuous Galerkin scheme in order to solve the nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations of coupled electro-thermal problems. In this paper we discuss the fundamental ... [more ▼]

This paper presents a Discontinuous Galerkin scheme in order to solve the nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations of coupled electro-thermal problems. In this paper we discuss the fundamental equations for the transport of electricity and heat, in terms of macroscopic variables such as temperature and electric potential. A fully coupled nonlinear weak formulation for electro-thermal problems is developed based on continuum mechanics equations expressed in terms of energetically conjugated pair of fluxes and fields gradients. The weak form can thus be formulated as a Discontinuous Galerkin method. The existence and uniqueness of the weak form solution are proved. The numerical properties of the nonlinear elliptic problems i.e., consistency and stability, are demonstrated under specific conditions, i.e. use of high enough stabilization parameter and at least quadratic polynomial approximations. Moreover the prior error estimates in the H1-norm and in the L2-norm are shown to be optimal in the mesh size with the polynomial approximation degree. [less ▲]

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See detailAn X-ray view of HD 166734, a massive supergiant system
Nazé, Yaël ULiege; Gosset, Eric ULiege; Mahy, Laurent ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 607(A97), 1-10

The X-ray emission of the O+O binary HD 166734 was monitored using Swift and XMM-Newton observatories, leading to the discovery of phase-locked variations. The presence of an f line in the He-like ... [more ▼]

The X-ray emission of the O+O binary HD 166734 was monitored using Swift and XMM-Newton observatories, leading to the discovery of phase-locked variations. The presence of an f line in the He-like triplets further supports a wind-wind collision as the main source of the X-rays in HD 166734. While temperature and absorption do not vary significantly along the orbit, the X-ray emission strength varies by one order of magnitude, with a long minimum state (Δ(φ) 0.1) occurring after a steep decrease. The flux at minimum is compatible with the intrinsic emission of the O-stars in the system, suggesting a possible disappearance of colliding wind emission. While this minimum cannot be explained by eclipse or occultation effects, a shock collapse may occur at periastron in view of the wind properties. Afterwards, the recovery is long, with an X-ray flux proportional to the separation d (in hard band) or to d[SUP]2[/SUP] (in soft band). This is incompatible with an adiabatic nature for the collision (which would instead lead to F[SUB]X[/SUB] ∝ 1 /d), but could be reconciled with a radiative character of the collision, though predicted temperatures are lower and more variable than in observations. An increase in flux around φ 0.65 and the global asymmetry of the light curve remain unexplained, however. Based on observations collected with Swift and the ESA science mission XMM-Newton, an ESA Science Mission with instruments and contributions directly funded by ESA Member States and the USA (NASA). [less ▲]

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See detailIncreasing plant functional diversity is not the key for supporting pollinators in wildflower strips
Uyttenbroeck, Roel ULiege; Piqueray, Julien; Hatt, Séverin ULiege et al

in Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment (2017), 249

Intensification of agriculture has been one of the major drivers for biodiversity loss in recent decades. Pollinators, which serve an important role in pollinating crops as well as wild plants, have shown ... [more ▼]

Intensification of agriculture has been one of the major drivers for biodiversity loss in recent decades. Pollinators, which serve an important role in pollinating crops as well as wild plants, have shown a decline in species richness. Flower strips can be used to support pollinators in agro-ecosystems, however the question remains as to how their design can be optimized in order to best benefit pollinators. Increasing plant species diversity has been shown to be beneficial for pollinators, and it is often suggested that functional traits are driving this relationship. Therefore, increasing plant functional diversity could be a tool to support pollinator abundance and diversity. As experimental evidence on this relationship is scarce, we developed a field study with experimental sown flower strips with four functional diversity levels, based on multiple flower traits and with equal plant species richness. We monitored vegetation development, as well as the flower-visiting pollinator community and their interaction networks with flowers. We were able to create a functional diversity gradient while controlling for plant species richness and evenness. However, in contrast to our expectations, pollinator species richness and evenness were not influenced by functional diversity, and increasing functional diversity even resulted in lower flower visitation rates. Network stability metrics showed no effect or negative relationships with functional diversity. We conclude that increasing functional diversity was not the key for supporting pollinators in wildflower strips. Our results also suggest that, for a constant amount of flower resources, increasing plant functional diversity and thus decreasing redundancy of potential pollinator feeding niches, decreases the amount of flower resources present per feeding niche. As pollinator species tended to have less overlap in their feeding niches in flower strips with increased functional diversity, this may lead to a reduction of flower resources available for pollinator species with a more specialized feeding niche. [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW VII: cosmic evolution of the correlation between black hole mass and host galaxy luminosity
Ding, Xuheng; Treu, Tommaso; Suyu, Sherry H. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 472

Strongly lensed active galactic nuclei (AGN) provide a unique opportunity to make progress in the study of the evolution of the correlation between the mass of supermassive black holes (M_BH) and their ... [more ▼]

Strongly lensed active galactic nuclei (AGN) provide a unique opportunity to make progress in the study of the evolution of the correlation between the mass of supermassive black holes (M_BH) and their host galaxy luminosity (L[SUB]host[/SUB]). We demonstrate the power of lensing by analysing two systems for which state-of-the-art lens modelling techniques have been applied to deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging data. We use (i) the reconstructed images to infer the total and bulge luminosity of the host and (ii) published broad-line spectroscopy to estimate M_BH using the so-called virial method. We then enlarge our sample with new calibration of previously published measurements to study the evolution of the correlation out to z ˜ 4.5. Consistent with previous work, we find that without taking into account passive luminosity evolution, the data points lie on the local relation. Once the passive luminosity evolution is taken into account, we find that black holes in the more distant Universe reside in less luminous galaxies than today. Fitting this offset as M_BH/L[SUB]host[/SUB] ∝ (1 + z)[SUP]γ[/SUP], and taking into account selection effects, we obtain γ = 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.1 for the case of M_BH-L[SUB]bulge[/SUB] and M_BH-L[SUB]total[/SUB], respectively. To test for systematic uncertainties and selection effects we also consider a reduced sample that is homogeneous in data quality. We find consistent results but with considerably larger uncertainty due to the more limited sample size and redshift coverage (γ = 0.7 ± 0.4 and 0.2 ± 0.5 for M_BH-L[SUB]bulge[/SUB] and M_BH-L[SUB]total[/SUB], respectively), highlighting the need to gather more high-quality data for high-redshift lensed quasar hosts. Our result is consistent with a scenario where the growth of the black hole predates that of the host galaxy. [less ▲]

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See detailConstraining the geometry and kinematics of the quasar broad emission line region using gravitational microlensing. I. Models and simulations
Braibant, Lorraine ULiege; Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Sluse, Dominique ULiege et al

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 607

Recent studies have shown that line profile distortions are commonly observed in gravitationally lensed quasar spectra. Often attributed to microlensing differential magnification, line profile ... [more ▼]

Recent studies have shown that line profile distortions are commonly observed in gravitationally lensed quasar spectra. Often attributed to microlensing differential magnification, line profile distortions can provide information on the geometry and kinematics of the broad emission line region (BLR) in quasars. We investigate the effect of gravitational microlensing on quasar broad emission line profiles and their underlying continuum, combining the emission from simple representative BLR models with generic microlensing magnification maps. Specifically, we considered Keplerian disk, polar, and equatorial wind BLR models of various sizes. The effect of microlensing has been quantified with four observables: μ[SUP]BLR[/SUP], the total magnification of the broad emission line; μ[SUP]cont[/SUP], the magnification of the underlying continuum; as well as red/blue, RBI and wings/core, WCI, indices that characterize the line profile distortions. The simulations showed that distortions of line profiles, such as those recently observed in lensed quasars, can indeed be reproduced and attributed to the differential effect of microlensing on spatially separated regions of the BLR. While the magnification of the emission line μ[SUP]BLR[/SUP] sets an upper limit on the BLR size and, similarly, the magnification of the continuum μ[SUP]cont[/SUP] sets an upper limit on the size of the continuum source, the line profile distortions mainly depend on the BLR geometry and kinematics. We thus built (WCI,RBI) diagrams that can serve as diagnostic diagrams to discriminate between the various BLR models on the basis of quantitative measurements. It appears that a strong microlensing effect puts important constraints on the size of the BLR and on its distance to the high-magnification caustic. In that case, BLR models with different geometries and kinematics are more prone to produce distinctive line profile distortions for a limited number of caustic configurations, which facilitates their discrimination. When the microlensing effect is weak, there is a larger overlap between the characteristics of the line profile distortions produced by the different models, and constraints can only be derived on a statistical basis. [less ▲]

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See detailTree species and time since afforestation drive soil C and N mineralization on former cropland
Rahman, Md Masudur ULiege; Bàrcena, Teresa G; Vesterdal, L

in Geoderma (2017), 305

Conversion from agriculture to forestry is considered a measure for mitigation of atmospheric CO2 but the impacts on soil C and N processes remain still unclear. We investigated heterotrophic respiration ... [more ▼]

Conversion from agriculture to forestry is considered a measure for mitigation of atmospheric CO2 but the impacts on soil C and N processes remain still unclear. We investigated heterotrophic respiration (RH), specific carbon mineralization (CMIN) and nitrogen mineralization (NMIN) in Norway spruce (Picea abies (Karst.) L.) and oak (Quercus robur L.) chronosequences on former cropland by laboratory incubation. The RH was estimated as the release of C per gram soil and CMIN as the release of C per gram of soil organic matter (SOM). Seven Norway spruce stands (16–44 years), eight oak stands (4–43 years), a cropland, a 35 years old permanent pasture and a 200-year-old oak-dominated forest were sampled (0–5 cm and 5–15 cm soil layers) in early spring. The SOM content gradually increased with stand age in 0–5 cm but remained the same in the 5–15 cm soil layer. The RH in the 0–5 cm layer gradually increased with time since afforestation in both tree species while there was no change in CMIN. In 5–15 cm, neither RH nor CMIN changed significantly after afforestation, but oak stands had significantly higher RH than Norway spruce. The NMIN and nitrification in 0–5 cm significantly increased with stand age and only nitrification was higher in oak. In 5–15 cm, only NMIN in oak increased with stand age, but both NMIN and nitrification were significantly higher in oak than spruce. Cropland RH, CMIN and NMIN rates were comparable to those found within the first decades of afforestation, whereas the 200-year-old forest and the pasture generally had RH and NMIN rates similar to the older chronosequence stands. We conclude that potential RH and soil N mineralization increased with time since afforestation and were tree species specific. Soil organic C stock gains observed in this area during the first 45 years after afforestation were not driven by decreased SOM decomposability, leaving increased litter C inputs as a more likely explanation. The lower CMIN in the 200-year-old forest suggests that future studies should include older forests to assess if the stability of C and the retention of N may increase in a longer term perspective. [less ▲]

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See detailInappropriate claims from non-equivalent medications in osteoarthritis: a position paper endorsed by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO)
Bruyère, Olivier ULiege; Cooper, Cyrus ULiege; Al-Daghri, Nasser ULiege et al

in Aging Clinical and Experimental Research (2017), (Online first),

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease, that occurs frequently in the aging population and is a major cause of disability worldwide. Both glucosamine and chondroitin are biologically active ... [more ▼]

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease, that occurs frequently in the aging population and is a major cause of disability worldwide. Both glucosamine and chondroitin are biologically active molecules that are substrates for proteoglycan, an essential component of the cartilage matrix. Evidence supports the use of glucosamine and chondroitin as symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) with impact on OA symptoms and disease-modifying effects in the long term. Glucosamine and chondroitin are administered in exogenous form as a sulfate salt and multiple formulations of these agents are available, both as prescription-grade products and nutritional supplements. However, while all preparations may claim to deliver a therapeutic level of glucosamine or chondroitin not all are supported by clinical evidence. Only patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate (pCGS) is shown to deliver consistently high glucosamine bioavailability and plasma concentration in humans, which corresponds to demonstrated clinical efficacy. Similarly, clinical evidence supports only the pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) advocates, through careful consideration of the evidence base, that judicious choice of glucosamine and chondroitin formulation is essential to maximize clinical benefit, patient adherence and satisfaction with treatment. In future, the ESCEO recommends that complex molecules with biological activity such as pCGS may be treated as “biosimilars” akin to the European Medicines Agency guidance on biological medicinal products. It seems likely that for all other complex molecules classed as SYSADOAs, the recommendation to use only formulations clearly supported by the evidence-base should apply. [less ▲]

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See detailUltrasonic roll bite measurements in cold rolling - roll stress and deformation
Carretta, Yves; Hunter, Andrew; Boman, Romain ULiege et al

in Journal of Materials Processing Technology (2017), 249

In cold rolling of thin metal strip, contact conditions between the work rolls and the strip are of great importance: roll deformations and their effect on strip thickness variation may lead to strip ... [more ▼]

In cold rolling of thin metal strip, contact conditions between the work rolls and the strip are of great importance: roll deformations and their effect on strip thickness variation may lead to strip flatness defects and thickness inhomogeneity. To control the process, several online measurements are usually carried out such as the rolling load, forward slip and strip tensions at each stand. Shape defects of the strip are usually evaluated after the last stand of a rolling mill thanks to a flatness measuring roll. However, none of these measurements is made within the roll bite itself due to the harsh conditions taking place in that area. This paper presents a sensor capable of monitoring roll deformations as well as roll radial stresses in situ and in real time. The sensor emits ultrasonic pulses that reflect from the roll surface. The time-of-flight (ToF) of the pulses is recorded during the testing. The sensor system was incorporated into a work roll and tested on a pilot rolling mill. Measurements were taken as steel strips were rolled under different strip elongation. Roll deformation and radial stresses obtained from the experimental data are in good agreement with numerical results computed with a cold rolling model developed in non-linear Finite Element software. [less ▲]

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See detailL'enquête sur le fragment apulien Kiev 147 a
Cuvelier, Graham ULiege

in Mètis : Revue d'Anthropologie du Monde Grec Ancien : Philologie, Histoire, Archéologie (2017), 15

Starting with a drawing of the late 19th century, completed by a recent and unpublished picture, this article presents the journey of an Apulian fragment attributed to the circle of the Darius Painter ... [more ▼]

Starting with a drawing of the late 19th century, completed by a recent and unpublished picture, this article presents the journey of an Apulian fragment attributed to the circle of the Darius Painter. This journey is associated with the history of the research related to this fragment, from its discovery in Ruvo in 1869 until its rediscovery in 2000 in Kiev. Then come a description and an iconographic analysis of the scene depicted on it, followed by the interpretations which have been given to it. [less ▲]

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See detailDemeter's Arrival at Eleusis on an Apulian Oinochoe kept in Foggia
Cuvelier, Graham ULiege

in Babesch : Bulletin Antieke Beschaving (2017), 92

This article offers an interpretation of the scene depicted on the body of an Apulian red-figured oinochoe, assigned to the Darius Painter, now kept in the storage of the Museo Civico of Foggia. This ... [more ▼]

This article offers an interpretation of the scene depicted on the body of an Apulian red-figured oinochoe, assigned to the Darius Painter, now kept in the storage of the Museo Civico of Foggia. This interpretation is based on the analysis of the iconographic language of the Apulian imagery as well as on the connexion in series of this scene with those appearing on contemporary vases produced in the same cultural community. This article is also accompanied by a set of previously unpublished colour pictures (of the entire vase and of several details) taken on site by the author. [less ▲]

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See detailLong-term trends in trait structure of riverine communities facing predation risk increase and trophic resource decline
Latli, Adrien; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Mondy, Cédric P et al

in Ecological Applications (2017), 27(8), 2458-2474

Many large European rivers have undergone multiple pressures which have strongly impaired ecosystem functioning at different spatial and temporal scales. Global warming and other environmental changes ... [more ▼]

Many large European rivers have undergone multiple pressures which have strongly impaired ecosystem functioning at different spatial and temporal scales. Global warming and other environmental changes have favoured the success of invasive species, deeply modifying the structure of aquatic communities in large rivers. Some exogenous species could alter trophic interactions within assemblages by increasing the predation risk for potential prey species (top-down effect) and limiting the dynamics of others via resource availability limitation (bottom-up effect). Furthermore, large transboundary rivers are complex aquatic ecosystems which have often been poorly investigated so that data for assessing long-term ecological trends are missing. In this study, we propose an original approach for investigating long-term combined effects of global warming, trophic resource decrease, predation risk and water quality variations on the trait-based structure of macroinvertebrate and fish assemblages over 26 years (1985-2011) and 427-km stretch of the river Meuse (France and Belgium). The study of temporal variations in biological, physiological and ecological traits of macroinvertebrate and fish allowed identifying community trends and distinguishing impacts of environmental perturbations from those induced by biological alterations. We provide evidence, for this large European river, of an increase in water temperature (close to 1°C) and a decrease in phytoplankton biomass (- 85%), as well as independent effects of these changes on both invertebrate and fish communities. The reduction of trophic resources in the water column by invasive molluscs has dramatically affected the density of omnivorous fish in favour of invertebrate-feeders, while scrapers became the major feeding guild among invertebrates. Macroinvertebrate and fish communities have shifted from large-sized organisms with low fecundity to prolific, small-sized organisms, with early maturity, as a response to increased predation pressure. [less ▲]

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See detailWho takes care of non-standard career paths? The role of labour market intermediaries
Lorquet, Nadège; Orianne, Jean-François ULiege; Pichault, François ULiege

in European Journal of Industrial Relations (2017)

As flexible career paths become more common in European labour markets, how to combine the flexibility required by non-standard work with new patterns of security is the focus of political debate. Some ... [more ▼]

As flexible career paths become more common in European labour markets, how to combine the flexibility required by non-standard work with new patterns of security is the focus of political debate. Some European Union (EU) countries have launched radical labour market reforms, while in others such reforms remain limited. This paves the way for bottom-up solutions developed by private and non-profit labour market intermediaries in order to support the job transitions of non-standard workers. We map these initiatives through a multidimensional grid and explore the extent to which they contribute to renewed regulation of modern labour markets. We outline two ideal-typical approaches. The first extends internal labour markets to triangular employment relationships by considering workers as ‘quasi-employees’. The second involves more disruptive solutions by treating non-standard workers as ‘quasi-self-employed’. [less ▲]

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See detailL’événement énonciatif en sémiotique de l’image : de Roland Barthes à la sémiotique tensive
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULiege; Colas-Blaise, Marion

in La part de l'oeil (2017), 31

Dans cet article, nous visons à montrer que la sémiotique tensive développée par Zilberberg permet de revisiter utilement les notions barthésiennes de studium et de punctum et, leur permet de surcroît, de ... [more ▼]

Dans cet article, nous visons à montrer que la sémiotique tensive développée par Zilberberg permet de revisiter utilement les notions barthésiennes de studium et de punctum et, leur permet de surcroît, de devenir un outil pour l’analyse de l’image. [less ▲]

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See detailAn incremental-secant mean-field homogenization method with second statistical moments for elasto-visco-plastic composite materials
Wu, Ling ULiege; Adam, Laurent; Doghri, Issam et al

in Mechanics of Materials (2017), 114

This paper presents an extension of the recently developed incremental-secant mean-field homogenization (MFH) procedure in the context of elasto-plasticity to elasto-visco-plastic composite materials ... [more ▼]

This paper presents an extension of the recently developed incremental-secant mean-field homogenization (MFH) procedure in the context of elasto-plasticity to elasto-visco-plastic composite materials while accounting for second statistical moments. In the incrementalsecant formulation, a virtual elastic unloading is performed at the composite level in order to evaluate the residual stress and strain states in the different phases, from which a secant MFH formulation is applied. When applying the secant MFH process, the Linear-Comparison-Composite is built from the piece-wise heterogeneous residual strain-stress state using naturally isotropic secant tensors defined using either first or second statistical moment values. As a result non-proportional and non-radial loading conditions can be considered because of the incremental-secant formulation, and accurate predictions can be obtained as no isotropization step is required. The limitation of the incremental-secant formulation previously developed was the requirement in case of hard inclusions to cancel the residual stress in the matrix phase, resulting from the composite material unloading, to avoid over-stiff predictions. It is shown in this paper that in the case of hard inclusions by defining a proper second statistical moment estimate of the von Mises stress, the residual stress can be kept in the different composite phases. Moreover it is shown that the method can be extended to visco-plastic behaviors without modifying the homogenization process as the incremental-secant formulation only requires the definition of the secant operator of the different phase material models. Finally, it is shown that although it is also possible to define a proper second statistical moment estimate of the von Mises stress in the case of soft inclusions, this does not improve the accuracy as compared to the increment-secant method with first order statistical moment estimates. [less ▲]

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See detailCytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-Ig effectively controls immune activation and inflammatory disease in a novel murine model of leaky severe combined immunodeficiency.
Humblet-Baron, Stephanie; Schonefeldt, Susann; Garcia-Perez, Josselyn E. et al

in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (The) (2017), 140(5), 1394-1403

BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency can be caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in the DNA recombination machinery, such as recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1), RAG2, or DNA ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Severe combined immunodeficiency can be caused by loss-of-function mutations in genes involved in the DNA recombination machinery, such as recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1), RAG2, or DNA cross-link repair 1C (DCLRE1C). Defective DNA recombination causes a developmental block in T and B cells, resulting in high susceptibility to infections. Hypomorphic mutations in the same genes can also give rise to a partial loss of T cells in a spectrum including leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (LS) and Omenn syndrome (OS). These patients not only experience life-threatening infections because of immunodeficiency but also experience inflammatory/autoimmune conditions caused by the presence of autoreactive T cells. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop a preclinical model that fully recapitulates the symptoms of patients with LS/OS, including a model for testing therapeutic intervention. METHODS: We generated a novel mutant mouse (Dclre1cleaky) that develops a LS phenotype. Mice were monitored for diseases, and immune phenotype and immune function were evaluated by using flow cytometry, ELISA, and histology. RESULTS: Dclre1cleaky mice present with a complete blockade of B-cell differentiation, with a leaky block in T-cell differentiation resulting in an oligoclonal T-cell receptor repertoire and enhanced cytokine secretion. Dclre1cleaky mice also had inflammatory symptoms, including wasting, dermatitis, colitis, hypereosinophilia, and high IgE levels. Development of a preclinical murine model for LS allowed testing of potential treatment, with administration of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-Ig reducing disease symptoms and immunologic disturbance, resulting in increased survival. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4-Ig should be evaluated as a potential treatment of inflammatory symptoms in patients with LS and those with OS. [less ▲]

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See detailFixation Techniques in Lower Extremity Syndesmotic Injuries
D'Hooghe, Pieter; York, PJ; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege et al

in Foot & Ankle International (2017), 38(11), 1278-1288

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See detailAssessment of damage and residual load bearing capacity of a concrete slab after fire: Applied reliability-based methodology
Molkens, Tom; Van Coile, Ruben; Gernay, Thomas ULiege

in Engineering Structures (2017), 150

For most fires occurring in buildings with a concrete structural frame, the structural elements do not collapse during fire exposure, and further use of the building after fire may be possible. Fire can ... [more ▼]

For most fires occurring in buildings with a concrete structural frame, the structural elements do not collapse during fire exposure, and further use of the building after fire may be possible. Fire can nevertheless result in a permanent loss of strength and thus a post-fire evaluation of the residual load bearing capacity has to be made to inform decisions on continued use and the need for structural repairs. This evaluation is however particularly difficult due to the many uncertainties associated with both the fire exposure and the characteristics of the structural elements. These uncertainties cannot be neglected when determining the residual capacity since adequate safety is a major societal concern as indicated by the predominance of safety in current design standards and guidance documents. In this paper a comprehensive methodology is presented for the assessment of the residual capacity of concrete structures after exposure to fire. The methodology is introduced through application to a real-life case study of an apartment fire with a focus on the end-span of the affected continuous concrete slab. It results in a reliability-based evaluation of the maximum allowable characteristic value for the imposed load on the slab. The presented methodology is useful to make informed decision about continued use of structures after a fire event. [less ▲]

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See detailChine-Costa Rica : la projection des normes chinoises en Amérique centrale
Wintgens, Sophie ULiege

in Cahiers du Cevipol (2017), 3

The People’s Republic of China (China) has now become an obvious trading partner, a major provider of foreign direct investment, and a large financial loans provider to an increasing number of South ... [more ▼]

The People’s Republic of China (China) has now become an obvious trading partner, a major provider of foreign direct investment, and a large financial loans provider to an increasing number of South American countries. This trend is now being seen in Central America. The increase in economic and trade exchanges with Costa Rica, the first Centro-American country to establish diplomatic relations and to sign a free trade agreement with Beijing, goes along with the projection of Chinese economic and political standards of international trade policy. This paper analyses the strategic issues of the Chinese presence in Costa Rica to assess the scope of the influence of China’s political and economic project in Central America. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermining the metallicity of the solar envelope using seismic inversion techniques
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege; Noels-Grötsch, Arlette ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 472(1), 751-764

The solar metallicity issue is a long-lasting problem of astrophysics, impacting multi- ple fields and still subject to debate and uncertainties. While spectroscopy has mostly been used to determine the ... [more ▼]

The solar metallicity issue is a long-lasting problem of astrophysics, impacting multi- ple fields and still subject to debate and uncertainties. While spectroscopy has mostly been used to determine the solar heavy elements abundance, helioseismologists at- tempted providing a seismic determination of the metallicity in the solar convective enveloppe. However, the puzzle remains since two independent groups prodived two radically different values for this crucial astrophysical parameter. We aim at provid- ing an independent seismic measurement of the solar metallicity in the convective enveloppe. Our main goal is to help provide new information to break the current stalemate amongst seismic determinations of the solar heavy element abundance. We start by presenting the kernels, the inversion technique and the target function of the inversion we have developed. We then test our approach in multiple hare-and-hounds exercises to assess its reliability and accuracy. We then apply our technique to solar data using calibrated solar models and determine an interval of seismic measurements for the solar metallicity. We show that our inversion can indeed be used to estimate the solar metallicity thanks to our hare-and-hounds exercises. However, we also show that further dependencies in the physical ingredients of solar models lead to a low accuracy. Nevertheless, using various physical ingredients for our solar models, we determine metallicity values between 0.008 and 0.014. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Gravity of International Crimes as a Challenge to the (Full) Protection of Human Rights before International Criminal Tribunals? A Strasbourg Perspective
Deprez, Christophe ULiege

in Nordic Journal of International Law (2017), 86

While it goes undisputed that international criminal tribunals (ICTs) are, in general terms, bound to respect human rights standards, there is no consensus on whether their obligations should be identical ... [more ▼]

While it goes undisputed that international criminal tribunals (ICTs) are, in general terms, bound to respect human rights standards, there is no consensus on whether their obligations should be identical in scope to those of national criminal tribunals. Most commentators seem to value the idea of equality in protection for international and domestic defendants alike. Yet, according to others, the human rights obligations of ICTs should be contextualised, that is, adapted to the specificities of international justice – and most critically to the gravity of international crimes. This article seeks to shed some light on this debate. It does so, in particular, by pointing out the intrinsic flexibility of human rights, and by drawing on the practice of the European Court of Human Rights with respect to gravity-based contextualism. [less ▲]

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See detailDetermination of loading scenarios on buildings due to column damage
Colomer, Carles Segura; Hamra, Lotfi; D'Antimo, Marina ULiege et al

in Structures (2017), Volume 12

The majority of imaginable (and relevant) accidental scenarios on building structures are initiated at the ground level by a column suffering damage, mainly due to a localized explosion or a vehicle ... [more ▼]

The majority of imaginable (and relevant) accidental scenarios on building structures are initiated at the ground level by a column suffering damage, mainly due to a localized explosion or a vehicle impact. The transmitted vertical forces from the column to the structure are decisive in understanding the response of the building and are the subject of analysis of this paper. The classic definition of a column loss scenario is extended here by means of a simplified analytical approach to characterize the axial forces appearing in the column during the damage process. A simple closed-form solution is proposed to define the loading scenario on the structure and compared to the classic rectangular (un)loading approach. In certain cases, the proposed analysis shows a more unfavorable loading situation for the structure, which needs to be accounted for during design. [less ▲]

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See detailDu texte à la pratique : pour une sémiotique expérimentale
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULiege

in Semiotica (2017), 219

Our essay aims at continuing the work of Jacques Fontanille, who developed a Semiotics of Practice next to a Semiotics of Text. This work, and especially Pratiques sémiotiques (2008), takes up a problem ... [more ▼]

Our essay aims at continuing the work of Jacques Fontanille, who developed a Semiotics of Practice next to a Semiotics of Text. This work, and especially Pratiques sémiotiques (2008), takes up a problem already formulated by Jean-Marie Floch in the article « Êtes-vous arpenteurs ou somnambules ? L’élaboration d’une typologie comportementale des voyageurs du métro » (1990). We will initially retrace the debate about the epistemological relationship between text and practice, outlining the forms of enunciative praxis. Secondly, we propose the concept of we will consider the visualization that we call ‘notation’: this analytical form of mediation between text and practice does not have the same status of in-vivo textualisations, but it works like an ex-post reconstruction which highlights the main gestures and exchanges while performing their grammaticalization. A more general aim of this essay is an enquiry into the legitimate objects of textual semiotics: what are the objects that it can analyze without betraying its principle of immanence, but also without being unable to analyze practice [less ▲]

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See detailKülpe on Cognitive Attitudes
Dewalque, Arnaud ULiege

in Discipline Filosofiche (2017), 27(2), 157-176

This paper offers a reconstruction of Külpe’s theory of cognitive attitudes from the perspective of contemporary debates about cognitive phenomenology. I argue that Külpe’s view constrasts with analytic ... [more ▼]

This paper offers a reconstruction of Külpe’s theory of cognitive attitudes from the perspective of contemporary debates about cognitive phenomenology. I argue that Külpe’s view constrasts with analytic mainstream approaches to the same phenomena in at least two respects. First, Külpe claims, cognitive experiences are best described in terms of occurrent cognitive acts or attitudes toward sensory, imagistic or intellectual contents. Second, occurrent cognitive attitudes are intransitively conscious in the sense that they are experienced by, or phenomenally manifest to, the subject. I call the combination of those two claims the conscious cognitive attitudes theory. I suggest that, despite some difficulties, this theory offers a worth-considering alternative to contentual and/or nonphenomenological theories of cognitive phenomena. [less ▲]

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See detailInversions of the Ledoux discriminant: a closer look at the tachocline
Buldgen, Gaël ULiege; Salmon, Sébastien ULiege; Godart, Mélanie ULiege et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society : Letters (2017), 472(1), 70-74

Modelling the base of the solar convective envelope is a tedious problem. Since the first rotation inversions, solar modellers are confronted with the fact that a region of very limited extent has an ... [more ▼]

Modelling the base of the solar convective envelope is a tedious problem. Since the first rotation inversions, solar modellers are confronted with the fact that a region of very limited extent has an enormous physical impact on the Sun. Indeed, it is the transition region from differential to solid body rotation, the tachocline, which furthermore is influenced by turbulence and is also supposed to be the seat of the solar magnetic dynamo. Moreover, solar models show significant disagreement with the sound speed profile in this region. In this paper, we show how helioseismology can provide further constraints on this region by carrying out an inversion of the Ledoux discriminant. We compare these inversions for Standard Solar Models built using various opacity tables and chemical abundances and discuss the origins of the discrepancies between Solar Models and the Sun. [less ▲]

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See detailCrowdsourcing for agricultural applications: A review of uses and opportunities for a farmsourcing approach
Minet, Julien ULiege; Curnel, Yannick; Gobin, Anne et al

in Computers & Electronics in Agriculture (2017), 142, Part A

Abstract Crowdsourcing, understood as outsourcing tasks or data collection by a large group of non-professionals, is increasingly used in scientific research and operational applications. In this paper ... [more ▼]

Abstract Crowdsourcing, understood as outsourcing tasks or data collection by a large group of non-professionals, is increasingly used in scientific research and operational applications. In this paper, we reviewed crowdsourcing initiatives in agricultural science and farming activities and further discussed the particular characteristics of this approach in the field of agriculture. On-going crowdsourcing initiatives in agriculture were analysed and categorised according to their crowdsourcing component. We identified eight types of agricultural data and information that can be generated from crowdsourcing initiatives. Subsequently we described existing methods of quality control of the crowdsourced data. We analysed the profiles of potential contributors in crowdsourcing initiatives in agriculture, suggested ways for increasing farmers’ participation, and discussed the on-going initiatives in the light of their target beneficiaries. While crowdsourcing is reported to be an efficient way of collecting observations relevant to environmental monitoring and contributing to science in general, we pointed out that crowdsourcing applications in agriculture may be hampered by privacy issues and other barriers to participation. Close connections with the farming sector, including extension services and farm advisory companies, could leverage the potential of crowdsourcing for both agricultural research and farming applications. This paper coins the term of farmsourcing as a professional crowdsourcing strategy in farming activities and provides a source of recommendations and inspirations for future collaborative actions in agricultural crowdsourcing. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental and theoretical analysis of shear bolted connections for tubular structures
D'Antimo, Marina ULiege; Demonceau, Jean-François ULiege; Jaspart, Jean-Pierre ULiege et al

in Journal of Constructional Steel Research (2017), 138

In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations devoted to the evaluation of the bearing resistance of tubular members with gusset plates and through-all long bolts are presented. Unlike lap ... [more ▼]

In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations devoted to the evaluation of the bearing resistance of tubular members with gusset plates and through-all long bolts are presented. Unlike lap shear joints, the analysed connection evidences a reduced confinement of the bearing area associated to the use of long bolts and the presence of a gap in the member, which can lead, consequently, to a reduction of the bearing resistance. In order to investigate the behaviour of shear connections made up of thin and thick SHS (Square Hollow Section) profiles and long bolts, an experimental test campaign including 24 specimens and FE simulations have been conducted. Both experimental and FE results have confirmed the influence of local instability on the hole in bearing resistance of thin profiles and the poor accuracy of the available standards for this particular joint typology. In particular, the performed comparisons have shown that, for thin profiles, EC3 model is likely to overestimate the resistance, while for higher thickness of the SHS conservative predictions are obtained. The present paper presents the conducted experimental and numerical investigations, highlighting at the end the need for a proper formulation able to account for the local instability effect on the bearing resistance. [less ▲]

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See detailAvoidance of protein oxidation correlates with the desiccation and radiation resistance of hot and cold desert strains of the cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis
Fagliarone, Claudia; Mosca, Claudia; Ubaldi, Ilaria et al

in Extremophiles : Life Under Extreme Conditions (2017), 21

In order to investigate the relationship between desiccation and the extent of protein oxidation in desert strains of Chroococcidiopsis a selection of 10 isolates from hot and cold deserts and the ... [more ▼]

In order to investigate the relationship between desiccation and the extent of protein oxidation in desert strains of Chroococcidiopsis a selection of 10 isolates from hot and cold deserts and the terrestrial cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis thermalis sp. PCC 7203, were exposed to desiccation (air-drying) and analysed for survival. Strain CCMEE 029 from the Negev desert and the aquatic cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were further investigated for protein oxidation after desiccation (drying over silica gel), treatment with H2O2 up to 1M and exposure to γ-rays up to 25 kGy. Then a selection of desert strains of Chroococcidiopsis with different survival rates after prolonged desiccation, as well as Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and Chroococcidiopsis thermalis sp. PCC 7203, were analysed for protein oxidation after treatment with 10 mM and 100 mM of H2O2. Results suggest that in the investigated strains a tight correlation occurs between desiccation and radiation tolerance and avoidance of protein oxidation [less ▲]

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See detailComparison of nanofluidic and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for high sensitive pharmacokinetic studies of estrogens starting from whole blood microsampling
Nys, Gwenaël ULiege; COBRAIVILLE, Gaël ULiege; Kok, Miranda ULiege et al

in Journal of Chromatography. A (2017), 1524

Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies on small animals are challenging as only small volumes of samples are available, in which the analyte is present at low concentration in a complex matrix. In this context, the ... [more ▼]

Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies on small animals are challenging as only small volumes of samples are available, in which the analyte is present at low concentration in a complex matrix. In this context, the use of miniaturized analytical techniques may provide undeniable advantages in terms of sensitivity, sample and solvent consumption compared to the reference UHPLC-MS/MS methods In this study, we present the development of a nanofluidic-LC-MS/MS method to analyze two model analytes of therapeutic interest, namely estradiol (E2) and estetrol (E4) after microsampling with volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) devices, an innovative sampling technique to collect small volumes of whole blood. The nanofluidic LC-MS/MS method was developed using an experimental design to find the optimal conditions to analyze both E2 and E4 with the highest sensitivity. Subsequently, the optimized method was validated according to ICH guidelines and compared to a previously developed UHPLC-MS/MS method. A limit of quantitation of 50. pg/ml was reached with the LC-chip method, which is 50 times better than UHPLC-MS/MS. Both methods were then critically evaluated from the analytical and operational points of view. Finally, the quantitation of estrogens after whole blood microsampling was compared with the results obtained with the corresponding plasma samples. © 2017 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]

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See detailRespuesta transnacional frente a catástrofes naturales: mexicanos reaccionando desde Bélgica como resultado de los terremotos
Lara Guerrero, Larisa Viridiana ULiege

in La Clé des Langues (2017)

El transnacionalismo es un fenómeno ampliamente estudiado entre los científicos sociales para definir los lazos que mantienen las comunidades migrantes entre su lugar de origen y su lugar de residencia ... [more ▼]

El transnacionalismo es un fenómeno ampliamente estudiado entre los científicos sociales para definir los lazos que mantienen las comunidades migrantes entre su lugar de origen y su lugar de residencia. En este artículo se postula que, en tiempo de crisis, las comunidades migrantes explotan las redes transnacionales sociales, políticas y económicas que han construido y mantenido como resultado de su experiencia migratoria. Asimismo, se sugiere que el flujo de información e intercambios entre las comunidades migrantes y sus países de origen se intensifican en situaciones de emergencia. Este artículo presenta evidencia empírica recolectada con la comunidad migrante mexicana en Bélgica después de los devastadores terremotos que ocurrieron el 7 y 19 de septiembre del 2017 en México. [less ▲]

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See detailCoordinated Supervisory Control of Multi-Terminal HVDC Grids: a Model Predictive Control Approach
Papangelis, Lampros ULiege; Debry, Marie-Sophie; Panciatici, Patrick et al

in IEEE Transactions on Power Systems (2017), 32(6), 4673-4683

A coordinated supervisory control scheme for future multi-terminal High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC) grids is proposed. The purpose is to supervise the grid and take appropriate actions to ensure power ... [more ▼]

A coordinated supervisory control scheme for future multi-terminal High-Voltage Direct-Current (HVDC) grids is proposed. The purpose is to supervise the grid and take appropriate actions to ensure power balance and prevent or remove voltage or current limit violations. First, using DC current and voltage measurements, the power references of the various Voltage Sources Converters (VSC) are updated according to participation factors. Next, the setpoints of the converters are smoothly adjusted to track those power references, while avoiding or correcting limit violations. The latter function resorts to Model Predictive Control and a sensitivity model of the system. The efficiency of the proposed scheme has been tested through dynamic simulations of a five-terminal HVDC grid interconnecting two asynchronous AC areas and a wind farm. [less ▲]

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See detailLa vache Montbéliarde emportée par la génomique
Gaillard, Claire; Mougenot, Catherine ULiege; Petit, Sandrine

in Sesame Sciences et Société Alimentation Mondes agricoles et Environnement (2017), 2

La mise en œuvre de la sélection génomique basée sur une simple prise de sang constitue une étape majeure dans l’histoire de l’élevage bovin. C’est une véritable révolution qui s’accompagne de nombreux ... [more ▼]

La mise en œuvre de la sélection génomique basée sur une simple prise de sang constitue une étape majeure dans l’histoire de l’élevage bovin. C’est une véritable révolution qui s’accompagne de nombreux changements, qu’il s’agisse de la multiplicité des informations liées aux nouveaux outils, de la rapidité de leur renouvellement, de l’élargissement de l’offre génétique.Pour comprendre comment les outils génomiques s’imposent dans les pratiques de sélection et avec quelles implications, nous menons une recherche sur le terrain de la race Montbéliarde en Franche-Comté auprès d’éleveurs, d’inséminateurs et de techniciens-cadres des entreprises de sélection. [less ▲]

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See detailStand-level wind damage can be assessed using diachronic photogrammetric canopy height models
Renaud, Jean-Pierre; Vega, Cédric; Durrieu, Sylvie et al

in Annals of Forest Science : a Multidisciplinary and International Journal (2017)

-Key message Diachronic photogrammetric canopy height models can be used to quantify at a fine scale changes in dominant height and wood volume following storms. The regular renewal of aerial surveys ... [more ▼]

-Key message Diachronic photogrammetric canopy height models can be used to quantify at a fine scale changes in dominant height and wood volume following storms. The regular renewal of aerial surveys makes this approach appealing for monitoring forest changes. -Context The increasing availability of aerial photographs and the development of dense matching algorithms open up new possibilities to assess the effects of storm events on forest canopies. -Aims The objective of this research is to assess the potential of diachronic canopy height models derived from photogrammetric point clouds (PCHM) to quantify changes in dominant height and wood volume of a broadleaved forest following a major storm. -Methods PCHMs derived from aerial photographs acquired before and after a storm event were calibrated using 25 field plots to estimate dominant height and volume using various modeling approaches. The calibrated models were combined with a reference damage maps to estimate both the withinstand damage variability, and the amount of volume impacted. -Results Dominant height was predicted with a root mean squared error (RMSE) of 4%, and volume with RMSEs ranging from 24 to 32% according to the type of model. The volume impacted by storm was in the range of 42–76%. Overall, the maps of dominant height changes provided more details about within-stand damage variability than conventional photointerpretation do. -Conclusion The study suggests a promising potential for exploiting PCHM in pursuit of a rapid localization and quantification of wind-throw damages, given an adapted sampling design to calibrate models. [less ▲]

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See detailRelationships between employment quality and intention to quit: Focus on PhD candidates as traditional workers
Travaglianti, Fabrice ULiege; Babic, Audrey ULiege; Hansez, Isabelle ULiege

in Studies in Continuing Education (2017)

Current statistics show that the attrition rate among PhD candidates is high (i.e. from 30% to 40% depending on the discipline and the country). This high-attrition rate has an impact on both economic (e ... [more ▼]

Current statistics show that the attrition rate among PhD candidates is high (i.e. from 30% to 40% depending on the discipline and the country). This high-attrition rate has an impact on both economic (e.g. negative impact on the return-on investment in doctoral education) and human levels (e.g. negative consequences on candidates’ self-esteem and well-being). Therefore, it seems important to better understand and to prevent the attrition among PhD candidates. Based on the needs–supplies fit theory, the present research focused on the perception of a fit between several PhD candidates’ work-related needs in terms of employment quality and the characteristics of their job to explain their intention to quit their PhD thesis process. This study was based on 160 Belgian PhD candidates, viewed as traditional workers in the Belgian doctoral system, who were still in their thesis process. Data were collected in one Belgian university. Globally, results shown that only the fit perception between the needs for fairness/recognition from the supervisor and the current job situation was significantly associated with lower intention to quit. Thus, we encourage Universities to develop and boost fairness and recognition from thesis supervisors through notably specific training programmes including supportive and justice-based practices. [less ▲]

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See detailA mass spectrometry method for sensitive, specific and simultaneous detection of bovine blood meal, blood products and milk products in compound feed
Lecrenier, Marie-Caroline ULiege; Planque, Mélanie; Dieu, Marc et al

in Food Chemistry (2017)

Feed sustainability is one of the biggest challenges for the next few years. Solutions have to be found that take feed quality and safety into account. Animal by-products are one valuable source of ... [more ▼]

Feed sustainability is one of the biggest challenges for the next few years. Solutions have to be found that take feed quality and safety into account. Animal by-products are one valuable source of proteins. However, since the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, their use has been strictly regulated. The objective of this study was to propose a routine, sensitive and specific method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of blood-derived products and milk powder in feed. Contaminated aquafeeds were analysed in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the method. This new method meets both selectivity and sensitivity (0.1% (w/w)) requirements imposed by the European Commission for animal proteins detection methods. It offers an innovative and complementary solution for the simultaneously identification of authorised and unauthorised animal by-products such as processed animal proteins (PAPs). [less ▲]

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See detailThe Semiotics of Design in Media Visualization: Mereology and Observation Strategies
Dondero, Maria Giulia ULiege

in Information Design Journal (2017), 23(2), 208-218

The purpose of this paper is to discern in what ways the semiotic methods of the Post- Greimasian French structuralist and the American Peircian traditions can enrich the study of contemporary methods of ... [more ▼]

The purpose of this paper is to discern in what ways the semiotic methods of the Post- Greimasian French structuralist and the American Peircian traditions can enrich the study of contemporary methods of computational analysis of culture, particularly in the field of Cultural Analytics as implemented by the Russian Art Historian and Computer Scientist Lev Manovich. These semiotic approaches will be helpful in understanding what kinds of visualizations are being generated for use in Cultural Analytics, and what kinds of operations the observer must perform in order to experiment with scientific visualizations of this information. [less ▲]

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See detailMeasuring brain synaptic vesicle protein 2A with positron emission tomography and [18F]UCB-H.
Bahri, Mohamed Ali ULiege; Plenevaux, Alain ULiege; Aerts, Joël ULiege et al

in Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions (2017), 4(4), 481-486

Introduction: Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2Awas measured with fluorine-18 UCBH ([18F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Images of synaptic density were acquired in ... [more ▼]

Introduction: Brain distribution of synaptic vesicle protein 2Awas measured with fluorine-18 UCBH ([18F]UCB-H) and positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Images of synaptic density were acquired in healthy volunteers (two young participants and two seniors). Input function was measured by arterial blood sampling (arterial input function) and derived from PET images using carotid activity (image-derived input function). Logan graphical analysis was used to estimate regional synaptic vesicle protein 2A distribution volume. Results: [18F]UCB-H uptake was ubiquitous in cortical and subcortical gray matter. Arterial input function and image-derived input function provided regional distribution volume with a high linear relationship. Discussion: The cerebral distribution of [18F]UCB-H is similar to that recently observed with carbon-11 UCB-J ([11C]UCB-J). An accurate [18F]UCB-H quantification can be performed without invasive arterial blood sampling when no suitable reference region is available, using dynamic PET carotid activity. Brain synaptic density can be studied in vivo in normal and pathological aging. [less ▲]

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See detailImproving CFD prediction of drag on Paralympic tandem athletes: influence of grid resolution and turbulence model
Mannion, Paul; Toparlar, Yasin; Blocken, Bert et al

in Sports Engineering (2017)

Tandem cycling enables visually impaired athletes to compete in cycling in the Paralympics. Tandem aerodynamics can be analysed by track measurements, wind-tunnel experiments and numerical simulations ... [more ▼]

Tandem cycling enables visually impaired athletes to compete in cycling in the Paralympics. Tandem aerodynamics can be analysed by track measurements, wind-tunnel experiments and numerical simulations with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the proximity of the pilot (front) and the stoker (rear) and the associated strong aerodynamic interactions between both athletes present substantial challenges for CFD simulations, the results of which can be very sensitive to computational parameters such as grid topology and turbulence model. To the best of our knowledge, this paper presents the first CFD and wind-tunnel investigation on tandem cycling aerodynamics. The study analyses the influence of the CFD grid topology and the turbulence model on the aerodynamic forces on pilot and stoker and compares the results with wind-tunnel measurements. It is shown that certain combinations of grid topology and turbulence model give trends that are opposite to those shown by other combinations. Indeed, some combinations provide counterintuitive drag outcomes with the stoker experiencing a drag force up to 28% greater than the pilot. Furthermore, the application of a blockage correction for two athlete bodies in close proximity is investigated. Based on a large number of CFD simulations and validation with wind-tunnel measurements, this paper provides guidelines for the accurate CFD simulation of tandem aerodynamics. [less ▲]

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See detailCapabilités et sans-abrisme
De Backer, Renaud ULiege

in Cahiers Lutte Contre les Discriminations (2017), 5

L’expérience de sans-abrisme se caractérise par un non-recours important aux droits sociaux, notamment en matière de soins de santé. Alors que ce phénomène peut être appréhendé (par la population générale ... [more ▼]

L’expérience de sans-abrisme se caractérise par un non-recours important aux droits sociaux, notamment en matière de soins de santé. Alors que ce phénomène peut être appréhendé (par la population générale, par certains professionnels du champ psychomédicosocial) comme résultant de choix libres, force est de constater que les conditions d’existence et l’inadaptation du système de soins à la singularité du public empêche de poser, réellement, ce choix. Ainsi, à l’instar des tensions actuelles que connaît le secteur du sans-abrisme, le non-recours aux soins s’appréhende de façon ambivalente. En renouvelant le regard qui est porté sur ce phénomène, et plus largement sur le sans-abrisme, à travers l’approche par les capabilités, le présent article cherche à dépasser les grilles de lecture ressourcistes et utilitaristes au profit d’une analyse centrée sur la liberté des personnes. [less ▲]

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See detailDoes Oxidative Stress Play a Role in Altered Characteristics of Diabetic Bone? A Systematic Review
Bacevic, Miljana ULiege; Brkovic, Bozidar; Albert, Adelin ULiege et al

in Calcified Tissue International (2017)

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with increased bone fracture rates, impaired bone regeneration, delayed bone healing, and depressed osteogenesis. However, the plausible pathogenic mechanisms ... [more ▼]

Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been associated with increased bone fracture rates, impaired bone regeneration, delayed bone healing, and depressed osteogenesis. However, the plausible pathogenic mechanisms remain incompletely understood. The aim of the present systematic review was to investigate whether oxidative stress (OS) plays a role in altered characteristics of diabetic bone under in vivo conditions. An electronic search of the MEDLINE (via PubMed) and Embase databases was performed. In vivo animal studies involving DM and providing information regarding assessment of OS markers combined with analyses of bone histology/histomorphometry parameters were selected. A descriptive analysis of selected articles was performed. Ten studies were included in the present review. Both bone formation and bone resorption parameters were significantly decreased in the diabetic groups of animals compared to the healthy groups. This finding was consistent regardless of different animal/bone models employed or different evaluation periods. A statistically significant increase in systemic and/or local OS status was also emphasised in the diabetic groups in comparison to the healthy ones. Markers of OS were associated with histological and/or histomorphometric parameters, including decreased trabecular bone and osteoid volumes, suppressed bone formation, defective bone mineralisation, and reduced osteoclastic activity, in diabetic animals. Additionally, insulin and antioxidative treatment proved to be efficient in reversing the deleterious effects of high glucose and associated OS. The present findings support the hypotheses that OS in the diabetic condition contributes at least partially to defective bone features, and that antioxidative supplementation can be a valuable adjunctive strategy in treating diabetic bone disease, accelerating bone healing, and improving osteointegration. [less ▲]

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See detailHydrothermal self-assembly of sodium manganese iron phosphate particles: Growth mechanism and electrochemical performance in lithium-ion battery
Karegeya, claude; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULiege; Vertruyen, Bénédicte ULiege et al

in Solid State Ionics (2017), 312

Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 (NMFP) dandelion sphere-like particles were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal route without addition of any templates or surfactants (laboratory and pilot scales). The ... [more ▼]

Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 (NMFP) dandelion sphere-like particles were successfully synthesized via a hydrothermal route without addition of any templates or surfactants (laboratory and pilot scales). The hydrothermal reactor (pilot scale) is equipped with stirrer for continuous agitation of reagents during the reaction. The obtained materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 samples obtained from the reaction performed at laboratory scale have hierarchical dandelion sphere-like morphology and the dandelions consist of micro-/nano-rods. On the other hand, we obtained the self-assembly nano-rods morphology for the particles prepared using hydrothermal reactor. On the basis of the experimental results, a growth mechanism of Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 self-assembly and dandelion sphere-like particles was proposed. Temperature and time of hydrothermal reaction are found to be crucial parameters in controlling the growth of Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 particles. In addition, investigation of the effect of continuous stirring during the hydrothermal reaction shows that the reaction time can be optimized to obtain Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 with small particles size. The influence of stirring on the NMFP morphology has been clearly evidenced. Indeed, the stirring leads to homogeneous particles. Cycling studies have shown that the synthesized Na2Mn1.5Fe1.5(PO4)3 dandelions materials exhibit specific discharge capacities of about 62 and 57 mAh g−1 equivalent to about 1.2 and 1.05 lithium ions de-intercalated at C/15 and C/10 current density respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailExploring the link between innate immune activation and thymic function by measuring sCD14 and TRECs in HIV patients living in Belgium
DE VOEGHT, Adrien ULiege; Martens, Henri ULiege; RENARD, Jeanne de Chantal ULiege et al

in PLoS ONE (2017)

Microbial translocation is now viewed as a central event in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Thymic function failure is another crucial factor involved in HIV disease ... [more ▼]

Microbial translocation is now viewed as a central event in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation during HIV infection. Thymic function failure is another crucial factor involved in HIV disease progression. The goal of this study was to explore the hypothesis of potential links between microbial translocation and thymic function in HIV-1 patients living in Belgium. The extent of microbial translocation was assessed through the measurement of soluble CD14 (sCD14). T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTRECs and dβTRECs) were used as a measure of thymic function. Data were collected from 75 HIV-infected patients. Simple and complex linear regressions were done to analyze the link between these two processes. We found a statistically relevant negative correlation between thymopoiesis (sjTREC) and sCD14 level (p = 0.004). These results suggest a link between thymic function failure, microbial translocation and innate immune activation. [less ▲]

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See detailChemotherapy induces alternative transcription and splicing: Facts and hopes for cancer treatment
Lambert, Charles ULiege; Garbacki, Nancy ULiege; Colige, Alain ULiege

in International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology (2017), 91(B), 84-97

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See detailEffect of including a gas layer on the gel formation process during the drying of a polymer solution
Rabani, Ramin ULiege; Machrafi, Hatim ULiege; Dauby, Pierre ULiege

in The European Physical Journal E (2017), 40(89), 11579-3

In this paper, we study the influence of the upper gas layer on the drying and gelation of a polymer solution. The gel is formed due to the evaporation of the binary solution into (inert) air. A one ... [more ▼]

In this paper, we study the influence of the upper gas layer on the drying and gelation of a polymer solution. The gel is formed due to the evaporation of the binary solution into (inert) air. A one dimensional model is proposed, where the evaporation flux is more realistically described than in previous studies. The approach is based on general thermodynamic principles. A composition-dependent diffusion coefficient is used in the liquid phase and the local equilibrium hypothesis is introduced at the interface to describe the evaporation process. The results show that the high thickness of the gas layer reduces evaporation, thus leading to longer drying times. Our model is also compared with more phenomenological descriptions of evaporation, for which the mass flux through the interface is described by the introduction of a Peclet number. A global agreement is found for appropriate values of the Peclet numbers and our model can thus be considered as a tool allowing to link the value of the empirical Peclet number to the physics of the gas phase. Finally, in contrast with other models, our approach emphasizes the possibility of very fast gelation at the interface, which could prevent all Marangoni convection during the drying process. [less ▲]

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See detailBayesian single-step genomic evaluations combining local and foreign information in Walloon Holsteins
Colinet, Frédéric ULiege; Vandenplas, J.; Vanderick, Sylvie ULiege et al

in Animal (2017)

Most dairy cattle populations found in different countries around the world are small to medium sized and use many artificial insemination bulls imported from different foreign countries. The Walloon ... [more ▼]

Most dairy cattle populations found in different countries around the world are small to medium sized and use many artificial insemination bulls imported from different foreign countries. The Walloon population in the southern part of Belgium is a good example for such a small-scale population. Wallonia has also a very active community of Holstein breeders requesting high level genetic evaluation services. Single-step Genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP) methods allow the simultaneous use of genomic, pedigree and phenotypic information and could reduce potential biases in the estimation of genomically enhanced breeding values (GEBV). Therefore, in the context of implementing a Walloon genomic evaluation system for Holsteins, it was considered as the best option. However, in contrast to multi-step genomic predictions, natively ssGBLUP will only use local phenotypic information and is unable to use directly important other sources of information coming from abroad, for example Multiple Across Country Evaluation (MACE) results as provided by the Interbull Center (Uppsala, Sweden). Therefore, we developed and implemented single-step Genomic Bayesian Prediction (ssGBayes), as an alternative method for the Walloon genomic evaluations. The ssGBayes method approximated the correct system of equations directly using estimated breeding values (EBV) and associated reliabilities (REL) without any explicit deregression step. In the Walloon genomic evaluation, local information refers to Walloon EBV and REL and foreign information refers to MACE EBV and associated REL. Combining simultaneously all available genotypes, pedigree, local and foreign information in an evaluation can be achieved but adding contributions to left-hand and right-hand sides subtracting double-counted contributions. Correct propagation of external information avoiding double counting of contributions due to relationships and due to records can be achieved. This ssGBayes method computed more accurate predictions for all types of animals. For example, for genotyped animals with low Walloon REL (<0.25) without MACE results but sired by genotyped bulls with MACE results, the average increase of REL for the studied traits was 0.38 points of which 0.08 points could be traced to the inclusion of MACE information. For other categories of genotyped animals, the contribution by MACE information was also high. The Walloon genomic evaluation system passed for the first time the Interbull GEBV tests for several traits in July 2013. Recent experiences reported here refer to its use in April 2016 for the routine genomic evaluations of milk production, udder health and type traits. Results showed that the proposed methodology should also be of interest for other, similar, populations. [less ▲]

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See detailEffects of a ‘one film for 2 years’ system on the grain yield, water use efficiency and cost-benefit balance in dryland spring maize (Zea mays L.) on the Loess Plateau, China
Chen, Baoqing; Yan, Changrong; Garré, Sarah ULiege et al

in Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science (2017)

‘One film for 2 years’ (PM2) has been proposed as a practice to control the residual film pollution; however, its effects on grain-yield, water-use-efficiency and cost-benefit balance in dryland spring ... [more ▼]

‘One film for 2 years’ (PM2) has been proposed as a practice to control the residual film pollution; however, its effects on grain-yield, water-use-efficiency and cost-benefit balance in dryland spring maize production have still not been systematically explored. In this study, we compared the performance of PM2 with the annual film replacement treatment (PM1) and no mulch treatment (CK) on the Loess Plateau in 2015-2016. Our results indicated the following: (1) PM2 was effective at improving the topsoil moisture (0-20 cm) at sowing time and at seedling stage, but there was no significant influence on soil water storage, seasonal average soil moisture or evapotranspiration; (2) PM2 induced significantly higher cumulative soil temperatures compared to CK, and there was no significant difference between PM2 and PM1; (3) no significant differences were identified in grain-yield and water-use-efficiency between PM1 and PM2, and compared to CK, they improved by 16.3% and 15.5%, respectively; (4) because of lower cost of plastic film, tillage, film laying and remove in PM2, economic profits improved by 21% and 70% compared to PM1 and CK. This research suggested that PM2 was effective at alleviating the spring drought and was beneficial in reducing poverty traps in dryland. [less ▲]

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See detailExperimental validation of heat transport modelling in district heating networks.
Sartor, Kevin ULiege

in Energy (2017), 137

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling methods are required to ... [more ▼]

District heating networks (DHN) are generally considered as a convenient, economic and environmental-friendly way to supply heat to a large amount of buildings. Some modelling methods are required to consider the dynamic behaviour of district heating networks to design them correctly, spare the investment costs and limit the heat losses related to the use of a too high operating temperatures. For the same reasons, the DHN control or retrofit of installations also requires the assessment of the DHN dynamic behaviour. To achieve this, the heat transport in DHN, which is one of the key issues in the behaviour of a whole centralized heating system, has to be correctly modelled. Previous work evidenced current limitations of one dimensional finite volume method to model heat transport in pipes and proposed an alternative method considering the thermal losses and the inertia of the pipes. The present contribution intends to experimentally validate this model on a test rig available at the Thermodynamics laboratory of the University of Liège (ULg, Belgium) and on an existing district heating network. For both experimental facilities, the current model shows good agreement between the experimental data and the simulation results for a large range of water velocities. Moreover, it is shown that the thermal inertia of the pipe has a significant influence on the outlet pipe temperature profile. [less ▲]

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See detailImpact of Financial Assumptions on the Cost Optimality towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings- A case study
Hamdy, Mohamed; Siren, Kai; Attia, Shady ULiege

in Energy and Buildings (2017), 153

The energy efficiency challenge in Europe is mainly concerned with existing buildings and the investment scenarios to implement deep renovations. The cost-optimal approach imposed on EU-Member states by ... [more ▼]

The energy efficiency challenge in Europe is mainly concerned with existing buildings and the investment scenarios to implement deep renovations. The cost-optimal approach imposed on EU-Member states by the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive aims to identify the investment gap and challenges to transform existing buildings into nearly Zero Energy Buildings (nZEBs). The investment gap is function of several volatile financial parameters including discount rate (r), developing of energy price (e), decline rate of technology price (d), as well as nZEB’s incentives like feed-in-tariff (FiT) and investment grant (iG). In this context, the decision making process of individuals or investment institutions is hindered by complexity and uncertainty. In order to assist the decision making process and improve the visibility of financial energy benefits, a novel optimization-based parametric analysis scheme (OptnZEB-I) is developed. The scheme is designed to investigate a large number of economic scenarios (i.e., combinations of financial assumptions) in a short computational time while a holistic optimization approach is adopting for exploring all possible design options including energy conservation measures (ESMs); renewable energy sources (RETs) and mechanical systems (Sys). For demonstration, the scheme is applied to analyse the impact of several financial parameters on the cost-optimal energy performance level (CO-EPL) of a single family house in Finland. In line with the EU-directive, a large number of possible design options (∼3 × 109million) are optimized for 4608 cases of economic scenarios. The results of the address case study show that, in average, the CO-EPL ranges from 90 to 160 [kWh/m2]. The range has most frequent value of 145 kWh/m2. The CO-EPL is significantly sensitive to the e, f, then i, respectively. Less sensitivity is found to the other financial parameters. The robustness of the optimization results are verified by solving the addressed design problem by using four different optimization algorithms (i.e., pattern search, interior-point, simulated annealing and genetic algorithms). [less ▲]

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See detailReinforced poly(hydroxyurethane) thermosets as high performance adhesives for aluminum substrates
Panchireddy, Satyannarayana ULiege; Thomassin, Jean-Michel ULiege; Grignard, Bruno ULiege et al

in Polymer Chemistry (2017), 8(38), 5897-5909

Poly(hydroxyurethane) (PHU) thermosets reinforced with (functional) nanofillers were developed to design high performance adhesives for bare aluminum. Solvent-free cyclic carbonate/amine/PDMS formulations ... [more ▼]

Poly(hydroxyurethane) (PHU) thermosets reinforced with (functional) nanofillers were developed to design high performance adhesives for bare aluminum. Solvent-free cyclic carbonate/amine/PDMS formulations loaded with native, epoxy- or cyclic carbonate-functionalized ZnO nanofillers were premixed before deposition and thermal curing onto Al. The results highlight that the addition of PDMS prevents PHUs from delamination of the Al surface by increasing the adhesive hydrophobicity and thus limiting the water uptake. The dispersion of functional fillers within PHUs improves their thermal and mechanical properties. Benchmarking of the adhesive performances of the reinforced PHU glues with existing PHU formulations attests for the benefits of dispersing functional fillers and PDMS within the resin and evidences a 270% increase of the shear strength of reinforced PHUs adhesives compared to formulations reported in the literature. [less ▲]

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See detail1H, 13C and 15N backbone resonance assignments of the β-lactamase BlaP from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C and two mutational variants
Kay, Jennifer ULiege; Thorn, David; Rhazi, Noureddine ULiege et al

in Biomolecular NMR Assignments (2017)

Class A β-lactamases have been widely used as versatile scaffolds to create hybrid (or chimeric) proteins for a series of applications ranging from basic research to medicine. We have, in particular, used ... [more ▼]

Class A β-lactamases have been widely used as versatile scaffolds to create hybrid (or chimeric) proteins for a series of applications ranging from basic research to medicine. We have, in particular, used the β-lactamase BlaP from Bacillus licheniformis 749/C (BlaP) as a protein scaffold to create model polyglutamine (polyQ) proteins in order to better understand the mechanism(s) by which an expanded polyQ sequence triggers the formation of amyloid fibrils. The model chimeras were designed by inserting a polyQ sequence of various lengths at two different locations within BlaP (i.e. position 197 or position 216) allowing a detailed comparison of the effects of subtle differences in the environment of the polyQ sequence on its ability to trigger protein aggregation. In order to investigate the effects of the polyQ insertion at both positions on the structure, stability and dynamics of BlaP, a series of NMR experiments including H/D exchange are foreseen. Accordingly, as necessitated by these studies, here we report the NMR assignment of the wild-type BlaP (BlaP-WT) and of the two reference proteins BlaP197Q0 and BlaP216Q0, wherein a dipeptide Pro-Gly has been introduced at position 197 and 216, respectively; this dipeptide originates from the addition of the Sma1 restriction site at the genetic level to allow further polyQ sequence insertion. [less ▲]

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See detailGround-based FTIR retrievals of SF6 at Réunion Island
Zhou, M.; Langerock, B.; Vigouroux, C. et al

in Atmospheric Measurement Techniques. Papers in Open Discussion (2017), 2017

SF6 total columns are successfully retrieved from FTIR measurements (Saint Denis and Maïdo) at Réunion Island (21 S, 55 E) between 2004-2016 using the SFIT4 algorithm: the retrieval strategy and the error ... [more ▼]

SF6 total columns are successfully retrieved from FTIR measurements (Saint Denis and Maïdo) at Réunion Island (21 S, 55 E) between 2004-2016 using the SFIT4 algorithm: the retrieval strategy and the error budget are presented. The FTIR SF6 retrieval has independent information in only one individual layer, covering the whole troposphere and the lower stratosphere. The trend of SF6 is analysed based on the FTIR retrieved dry air column-averaged mole fractions (XSF6 ) at Réunion Island, the in-situ measurements at America Samoa (SMO) and the collocated satellite measurements (MIPAS and ACE-FTS) in the southern tropics. The SF6 annual growth rate from FTIR retrievals is 0.265±0.013 pptv/year for 2004–2016, which is slightly weaker than that from the SMO in-situ measurements (0.285±0.002 pptv/year) for the same time period. The SF6 trend in the troposphere from MIPAS and ACE-FTS observations is also close to the ones from the FTIR retrievals and the SMO in-situ measurements. [less ▲]

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See detailDusp3 deletion in mice promotes experimental lung tumour metastasis in a macrophage dependent manner
Vandereyken, Maud; Jacques, Sophie; Van Overmeire, Eva et al

in PLoS ONE (2017)

Vaccinia-H1 Related (VHR) dual-specificity phosphatase, or DUSP3, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation and its expression is altered in several human cancers. In mouse model, DUSP3 deletion ... [more ▼]

Vaccinia-H1 Related (VHR) dual-specificity phosphatase, or DUSP3, plays an important role in cell cycle regulation and its expression is altered in several human cancers. In mouse model, DUSP3 deletion prevents neo-angiogenesis and b-FGF-induced microvessel out- growth. Considering the importance of angiogenesis in metastasis formation, our study aimed to investigate the role of DUSP3 in tumour cell dissemination. Using a Lewis Lung carcinoma (LLC) experimental metastasis model, we observed that DUSP3-/- mice devel- oped larger lung metastases than littermate controls. DUSP3-/- bone marrow transfer to lethally irradiated DUSP3+/+ mice was sufficient to transfer the phenotype to DUSP3+/+ mice, indicating that hematopoietic cells compartment was involved in the increased tumour cell dissemination to lung tissues. Interestingly, we found a higher percentage of tumour- promoting Ly6Cint macrophages in DUSP3-/- LLC-bearing lung homogenates that was at least partially due to a better recruitment of these cells. This was confirmed by 1) the pres- ence of higher number of the Ly6Bhi macrophages in DUSP3-/- lung homogenates and by 2) the better migration of DUSP3-/- bone marrow sorted monocytes, peritoneal macrophages and bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs), compared to DUSP3+/+ monocytes, macrophages and BMDMs, in response to LLC-conditioned medium. Our study demon- strates that DUSP3 phosphatase plays a key role in metastatic growth through a mechanism involving the recruitment of macrophages towards LLC-bearing lungs. [less ▲]

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See detailOne-Tooth One-Time (1T1T): a straightforward approach to replace missing teeth in the posterior region
Lambert, France ULiege; Mainjot, Amélie ULiege

in Journal of Oral Implantology (The) (2017)

Advances in Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) composite materials and chair-side CAD-CAM systems offer a new landscape for the implant dentistry. Digital workflows are increasingly used ... [more ▼]

Advances in Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD-CAM) composite materials and chair-side CAD-CAM systems offer a new landscape for the implant dentistry. Digital workflows are increasingly used, especially for single-unit restorations, and they allow straightforward and cost-effective protocols that improve patient satisfaction. The efficacy of immediate loading on single implants has been demonstrated (1, 2). Currently, to 12 promote osseointegration, the use of resin-based provisional crowns out of occlusion is recommended for immediate loading. Such protocols require several appointments and a significant contribution of the dentist and the lab technician, which affects overall treatment cost. On the other hand, CAD-CAM composites, especially Polymer-Infiltrated Ceramic Network (PICN), are now competing with ceramics for definitive single-unit restorations, notably due to their better machinability (faster and in lower-thickness milling, with les edge chipping) (3) (4), the absence of post-milling firing and the ease of in-mouth adjustments. In particular, their higher resilience and lower elasticity modulus could indicate them for immediate loading of implants. Intraoral scanning (IOS) of single-unit implants right after surgery and the chair-side manufacturing of a PICN crown would allow delivery of a resilient final tooth on the same day. The aim of these two case reports is to describe, as a technical note, an innovative approach for a straightforward and cost-effective replacement of a single missing tooth in the posterior region, as a proof of concept. [less ▲]

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See detailSCENIC: single-cell regulatory network inference and clustering
Aibar, Sara; González-Blas, Carmen Bravo; Moerman, Thomas et al

in Nature Methods (2017), 14

We present SCENIC, a computational method for simultaneous gene regulatory network reconstruction and cell-state identification from single-cell RNA-seq data (http://scenic.aertslab.org). On a compendium ... [more ▼]

We present SCENIC, a computational method for simultaneous gene regulatory network reconstruction and cell-state identification from single-cell RNA-seq data (http://scenic.aertslab.org). On a compendium of single-cell data from tumors and brain, we demonstrate that cis-regulatory analysis can be exploited to guide the identification of transcription factors and cell states. SCENIC provides critical biological insights into the mechanisms driving cellular heterogeneity. [less ▲]

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See detailInefficacy of autologous bone marrow concentrate in stage three osteonecrosis: a randomized controlled double-blind trial
HAUZEUR, Jean-Philippe ULiege; De Maertelaer, Viviane ; BAUDOUX, Etienne ULiege et al

in International Orthopaedics (2017)

Purpose The fracture stage of non-traumatic osteonecrosis (ON stage 3) of the femoral head (ONFH) has an unfavourable prognosis frequently requiring total hip replacement (THR). The percentage could be ... [more ▼]

Purpose The fracture stage of non-traumatic osteonecrosis (ON stage 3) of the femoral head (ONFH) has an unfavourable prognosis frequently requiring total hip replacement (THR). The percentage could be lowered after core decompression. In earlier non-fracture ON stages, implantation of autologous bone marrow aspirate concentrate (BMAC) improved the effect of core decompression. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of BMAC in addition to core decompression in stage 3 ONFH. Methods A double blind RCT was conducted comparing two groups: core decompression plus saline injection or core decompression plus BMAC implantation. Both patients and assessors were blinded to the treatment assignments. Evaluations were done at baseline, three, six, 12, and 24 months, including pain (VAS), WOMAC, side-effects, radiological evolution including ARCO subclassifications, together with possible THR requirement. The primary endpoint was the need for THR. The second endpoints included the clinical symptoms such as pain and functional ability and the progression of the ON lesions as well as the appearance of osteoarthritis features (ARCO stage 4). Both groups included 23 hips (19 patients). Results No differences were found between the groups for THR requirements, clinical tests, and radiological evolution. In both groups, 15/23 hips needed THR. The radiological evolution of the ONFH lesions in term of location, extension, surface collapse, and dome depression was moderate in both groups and was not correlated with the need of THR. Conclusions Implantation of BMAC after core decompression did not produce any improvement of the evolution of ONFH stage 3. [less ▲]

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See detailPathways of running away among Belgian youth
Glowacz, Fabienne ULiege; Léonard, Julie; Courtain, Audrey ULiege

in Youth & Society (2017)

Runaway behaviors among teenagers have been studied for some 40 years. Still, because runaway and homeless youths have often been confounded, little is known about what really defines a runaway adolescent ... [more ▼]

Runaway behaviors among teenagers have been studied for some 40 years. Still, because runaway and homeless youths have often been confounded, little is known about what really defines a runaway adolescent. This study targets three objectives in a mixed-method design relying on data from official files and interviews: the descriptions of teenagers reported as missing (e.g., age, sex, runaway duration and reiteration, place left behind, type of caller reporting the child as missing, motivation for closing the file) and the understanding of runaway pathways and dynamics. These studies can contribute to prevention and intervention programs by providing new perspectives on how runaway experiences should be understood in light of the adolescent process. [less ▲]

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See detailA Mössbauer spectral study of degradation in La0.58Sr0.4Fe0.5Co0.5O3−x after long-term operation in solid oxide electrolysis cells
Mahmoud, Abdelfattah ULiege; Al Daroukh, Mahmoud; Lipinska-Chwalek, Marta et al

in Solid State Ionics (2017), 312

Degradation processes of oxygen electrodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ... [more ▼]

Degradation processes of oxygen electrodes in solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. La0.58Sr0.4Fe0.5Co0.5O3−x (LSCF) anodes (oxygen electrode) were analyzed after different longterm operations durations of 1774, 6100 and 9000 h. The results were compared with a cell in the initial state. Besides the LSCF anode, the SOECs were composed of a Ce0.8Gd0.2O1.9 barrier layer between the anode and electrolyte, yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) as electrolyte and Ni-YSZ as cathode (hydrogen electrode). Mössbauer spectra of the iron-containing anode were acquired in order to determine the alteration of the iron oxidation state and its local environment during operation. Mössbauer spectroscopy yields indirect information about the degradation mechanism, especially in combination with SEM, TEM, and XRD. XRD and TEM revealed the appearance of Co3O4 during the SOEC operation and SEM analyses confirmed the formation of SrZrO3 at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The spectral analysis confirmed the reduction of iron from Fe(IV) to Fe(III) in LSCF after long-term operation. The fraction of Fe(IV) in the electrode decreased with time and 18, 15, 13 and 11% were obtained for 0, 1774, 6100, and 9000 h of operation, respectively. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Photoelectron Spectroscopy of The Dichoroetylenes: The Geminal Isomer 1,1- Cl2C2H2. An Experimental and Quantum Chemical Study.
Locht, Robert ULiege; Dehareng, Dominique; Leyh, Bernard ULiege

in Journal of Physics Communications (2017), 1

This work analyzes the threshold photoelectron spectrum (TPES) and selected Constant Ion State (CIS) spectra of the 1,1-C2H2Cl2 isomer measured using synchrotron radiation. The TPES is compared to the HeI ... [more ▼]

This work analyzes the threshold photoelectron spectrum (TPES) and selected Constant Ion State (CIS) spectra of the 1,1-C2H2Cl2 isomer measured using synchrotron radiation. The TPES is compared to the HeI-, NeI- and ArII-photoelectron spectra (PES). In the HeI-PES nine photoelectron bands have been observed at vertical ionization energies of 9.992 eV, 11.652 eV, 12.157 eV, 12.536 eV, 13.633 eV, 14.195 eV, at about 15.9 eV and 16.2 eV and at 18.496 eV successively. For most of these bands the adiabatic ionization energy could be determined and a detailed vibrational analysis of the first four bands is presented. All these bands exhibit an extended vibrational structure. In particular, the ground electronic state and the third excited state display an extended vibrational structure upon excitation by the ArII-resonance line. The assignments of the electronic bands and of the vibrational structure are based on quantum chemical calculations. These allowed us to assign the nine electronic states in terms of ionization and double excitation in a molecular orbital scheme. The good correlation between predicted vibrational wavenumbers and the experimental values allowed us to assign all observed vibrational structures. The CIS spectrum of the eight first electronic states of 1,1-C2H2Cl2+ have also been recorded. Vibrationally resolved CIS spectra of the molecular ion ground state have been obtained and are discussed. [less ▲]

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See detailAntarctica-Regional Climate and Surface Mass Budget
Favier; Krinner; Amory, Charles ULiege et al

in Current Climate Change Repports (2017)

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See detailGrowth and carcass performances of guinea fowls reared under intensive system in Benin
Houndonougbo, Pascal ULiege; REIS MOTA, Rodrigo ULiege; Chrysostome, A.A.M. Christophe et al

in Livestock of Research for Rural Development (LRRD) (2017), 29(10),

Several local guinea fowl varieties continued to be reared in extensive systems in Benin, even though productivity remains low. Improving rearing conditions through feeding and housing may enhance local ... [more ▼]

Several local guinea fowl varieties continued to be reared in extensive systems in Benin, even though productivity remains low. Improving rearing conditions through feeding and housing may enhance local guinea fowls productivity in Benin. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify growth and carcass performances of five (Common, Bonaparte, Grey, White and Black) local guinea fowl varieties under intensive management conditions. At birth, 36 keets (young guinea fowls) of each identified variety were randomly divided into six batches and reared up to 16 weeks old under the same feeding and housing conditions. Body weights were recorded up to week 15. At week 16, carcass measurements were also taken. Growth performances and carcass measurements (morphological and visceral) differed among guinea fowl varieties. The heaviest body weight was observed in Common (832±24g) and the lowest in Black variety (698±39g). Highest carcass yield was observed in Grey variety. Liver weight, intestine length and caecum length were highest in Bonaparte variety. Gizzard weight and thigh proportion were highest in Common variety. Breast weight and breast proportion were highest in Grey guinea fowls. Body weight was moderately correlated with drumstick length, body length, wing size, tarsus diameter, thigh length and thorax circumference (range r = 0.34-0.60). The phenotypic variability and its impact on the characterization of these varieties implies that they are genetically different strains, supporting the hypothesis that the guinea fowl population in Benin presents opportunities for genetic improvement. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Structure of Chariklo’s Rings from Stellar Occultations
Bérard, D.; Sicardy, B.; Camargo, J. I. B. et al

in Astronomical Journal (The) (2017), 154

Two narrow and dense rings (called C1R and C2R) were discovered around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo during a stellar occultation observed on 2013 June 3. Following this discovery, we planned ... [more ▼]

Two narrow and dense rings (called C1R and C2R) were discovered around the Centaur object (10199) Chariklo during a stellar occultation observed on 2013 June 3. Following this discovery, we planned observations of several occultations by Chariklo’s system in order to better characterize the physical properties of the ring and main body. Here, we use 12 successful occulations by Chariklo observed between 2014 and 2016. They provide ring profiles (physical width, opacity, edge structure) and constraints on the radii and pole position. Our new observations are currently consistent with the circular ring solution and pole position, to within the ±3.3 km formal uncertainty for the ring radii derived by Braga-Ribas et al. The six resolved C1R profiles reveal significant width variations from ∼5 to 7.5 km. The width of the fainter ring C2R is less constrained, and may vary between 0.1 and 1 km. The inner and outer edges of C1R are consistent with infinitely sharp boundaries, with typical upper limits of one kilometer for the transition zone between the ring and empty space. No constraint on the sharpness of C2R’s edges is available. A 1σ upper limit of ∼20 m is derived for the equivalent width of narrow (physical width < 4 km) rings up to distances of 12,000 km, counted in the ring plane. [less ▲]

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See detailProbing dark matter substructure in the gravitational lens HE 0435‑1223 with the WFC3 grism
Nierenberg, A. M.; Treu, T.; Brammer, G. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 471

Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful test of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) as it enables the detection and mass measurement of low mass haloes even if they do not contain baryons. Compact lensed ... [more ▼]

Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful test of Cold Dark Matter (CDM) as it enables the detection and mass measurement of low mass haloes even if they do not contain baryons. Compact lensed sources such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are particularly sensitive to perturbing subhalos, but their use as a test of CDM has been limited by the small number of systems which have significant radio emission which is extended enough avoid significant lensing by stars in the plane of the lens galaxy, and red enough to be minimally affected by differential dust extinction. Narrow-line emission is a promising alternative as it is also extended and, unlike radio, detectable in virtually all optically selected AGN lenses. We present first results from a WFC3 grism narrow-line survey of lensed quasars, for the quadruply lensed AGN HE0435-1223. Using a forward modelling pipeline which enables us to robustly account for spatial blending, we measure the [OIII] 5007 \AA~ flux ratios of the four images. We find that the [OIII] fluxes and positions are well fit by a simple smooth mass model for the main lens. Our data rule out a $M_{600}>10^{8} (10^{7.2}) M_\odot$ NFW perturber projected within $\sim$1\farcs0 (0\farcs1) arcseconds of each of the lensed images, where $M_{600}$ is the perturber mass within its central 600 pc. The non-detection is broadly consistent with the expectations of $\Lambda$CDM for a single system. The sensitivity achieved demonstrates that powerful limits on the nature of dark matter can be obtained with the analysis of $\sim20$ narrow-line lenses. [less ▲]

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See detailOptical linear polarization measurements of quasars obtained with the 3.6 m telescope at the La Silla Observatory
Hutsemekers, Damien ULiege; Hall, P.; Sluse, Dominique ULiege

in Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 606

We report 192 previously unpublished optical linear polarization measurements of quasars obtained in April 2003, April 2007, and October 2007 with the European Southern Observatory Faint Object ... [more ▼]

We report 192 previously unpublished optical linear polarization measurements of quasars obtained in April 2003, April 2007, and October 2007 with the European Southern Observatory Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (EFOSC2) instrument attached to the 3.6 m telescope at the La Silla Observatory. Each quasar was observed once. Among the 192 quasars, 89 have a polarization degree p ≥ 0.6%, 18 have p ≥ 2%, and two have p ≥ 10%. Based on observations made with the ESO 3.6 m Telescope at the La Silla Observatory under program ID 071.B-0460, 079.A-0625, 080.A-0017.Full Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr</A> (<A href="http://130.79.128.5">http://130.79.128.5</A>) or via <A href="http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A101">http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/606/A101</A> [less ▲]

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See detailH0LiCOW - II. Spectroscopic survey and galaxy-group identification of the strong gravitational lens system HE 0435-1223
Sluse, Dominique ULiege; Sonnenfeld, A.; Rumbaugh, N. et al

in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 470

Galaxies located in the environment or along the line of sight towards gravitational lenses can significantly affect lensing observables, and can lead to systematic errors on the measurement of H[SUB]0 ... [more ▼]

Galaxies located in the environment or along the line of sight towards gravitational lenses can significantly affect lensing observables, and can lead to systematic errors on the measurement of H[SUB]0[/SUB] from the time-delay technique. We present the results of a systematic spectroscopic identification of the galaxies in the field of view of the lensed quasar HE 0435-1223 using the W. M. Keck, Gemini and ESO-Very Large telescopes. Our new catalogue triples the number of known galaxy redshifts in the direct vicinity of the lens, expanding to 102 the number of measured redshifts for galaxies separated by less than 3 arcmin from the lens. We complement our catalogue with literature data to gather redshifts up to 15 arcmin from the lens, and search for galaxy groups or clusters projected towards HE 0435-1223. We confirm that the lens is a member of a small group that includes at least 12 galaxies, and find 8 other group candidates near the line of sight of the lens. The flexion shift, namely the shift of lensed images produced by high-order perturbation of the lens potential, is calculated for each galaxy/group and used to identify which objects produce the largest perturbation of the lens potential. This analysis demonstrates that (i) at most three of the five brightest galaxies projected within 12 arcsec of the lens need to be explicitly used in the lens models, and (ii) the groups can be treated in the lens model as an external tidal field (shear) contribution. [less ▲]

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See detailA model-based approach to characterize individual inbreeding at both global and local genomic scales.
Druet, Tom ULiege; Gautier, M.

in Molecular Ecology (2017), 26

Inbreeding results from the mating of related individuals and may be associated with reduced fitness because it brings together deleterious variants in one individual. In general, inbreeding is estimated ... [more ▼]

Inbreeding results from the mating of related individuals and may be associated with reduced fitness because it brings together deleterious variants in one individual. In general, inbreeding is estimated with respect to an arbitrary base population consisting of ancestors that are assumed unrelated. We herein propose a model-based approach to estimate and characterize individual inbreeding at both global and local genomic scales by assuming the individual genome is a mosaic of homozygous-by-descent (HBD) and non-HBD segments. The HBD segments may originate from ancestors tracing back to different periods in the past defining distinct age-related classes. The lengths of the HBD segments are exponentially distributed with class-specific parameters reflecting that inbreeding of older origin generates on average shorter stretches of observed homozygous markers. The model is implemented in a hidden Markov model framework that uses marker allele frequencies, genetic distances, genotyping error rates and the sequences of observed genotypes. Note that genotyping errors, low-fold sequencing or genotype-by-sequencing data are easily accommodated under this framework. Based on simulations under the inference model, we show that the genomewide inbreeding coefficients and the parameters of the model are accurately estimated. In addition, when several inbreeding classes are simulated, the model captures them if their ages are sufficiently different. Complementary analyses, either on data sets simulated under more realistic models or on human, dog and sheep real data, illustrate the range of applications of the approach and how it can reveal recent demographic histories among populations (e.g., very recent bottlenecks or founder effects). The method also allows to clearly identify individuals resulting from extreme consanguineous matings. [less ▲]

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See detailRevue de la littérature sur les effets de la compression externe dynamique péristaltique type Normatec sur la récupération sportive
Kabore, Christophe; Kaux, Jean-François ULiege

in Science & Sports (2017), 32(5), 266-277

Aims. — Recently, several studies have emerged to evaluate the effects on sports recovery of theperistaltic dynamic pneumatic external compression device developed at Newton Center, MA,USA and marketed as ... [more ▼]

Aims. — Recently, several studies have emerged to evaluate the effects on sports recovery of theperistaltic dynamic pneumatic external compression device developed at Newton Center, MA,USA and marketed as the Normatec Pulse Recovery System, with an increased use recently inthe professional and recreational sports communities. Our objective in this review is to evaluatethe effects of Normatec on performance and sports recovery by reviewing the studies publishedto date.News. — We carried out a literature search from 1st July 2016 to 31st October 2016 on theMedline database via PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials viaOvid, at the end of which we retained for this review the comparative studies between Normatecand placebo, between Normatec and another sports recovery techniques as well as experimentalcontrolled trials, with no restriction on sex and level of training of the participants. All studieswere conducted on healthy subjects aged 18 to 40 years. There were 67 men and 61 women fora total of 128 participants. The selected studies were heterogeneous concerning the modalitiesof exercise before treatment by Normatec, as well as the duration of treatment by Normatec.No adverse effects have been described in the studies included in this review, but without anyspecific control described regarding the potential adverse effects.Conclusion. — Current investigations concerning the sport recovery method using the Normatecdevice have shown a favorable influence on blood lactate clearance, peripheral vascular reac-tivity, post-exercise muscle pain and motion amplitude. However, it does not bring significantgain interest compared to other methods of sport recovery that are cheaper, easier to accessand currently better studied, which must be known by athletes of all levels. However, theseinvestigations provide some insights into the mechanisms underlying the positive effects of thismode of treatment and pave the way for further studies that will contribute to the scientificvalidation of the method of sports recovery by Normatec. [less ▲]

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See detailAssessment of antioxidant potential of phenolic compounds fractions of Algerian Ceratonia siliqua L. pods during ripening stages
Ydjedd, Siham; Chaala, Makhlouf; Richard, Gaetan ULiege et al

in International Food Research Journal [=IFRJ] (2017), 24(5), 2041-2049

The consecutive extraction via different solvents of increasing/decreasing polarity, which allowed a pre-fractionation of the extracted compounds, is widely used as major method for extraction of ... [more ▼]

The consecutive extraction via different solvents of increasing/decreasing polarity, which allowed a pre-fractionation of the extracted compounds, is widely used as major method for extraction of polyphenols. Thus, the phenolic compounds of Ceratonia siliqua L., at unripe and ripe stages, were extracted by four solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and acetone/water (70:30, v/v), consecutively. The extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, while the antioxidant capacity was assessed in vitro using DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assays. The phenolic profile has been carried out by HPLC-MS/MS. The results showed that the phenolic contents and antioxidant capacity varied with the nature of extracts and the ripening stage. The 70% aqueous acetone and the ethyl acetate extracts contained the highest phenolic and flavonoid contents, and subsequently showed a pronounced scavenging activity on DPPH and hydrogen peroxide at unripe and ripe stages. The HPLC-MS/MS allowed the identification of five free phenolic acids (gallic, syringic, cinnamic, p-coumaric and ellagic acid for the first time) and five flavonoids (apigenin, naringenin, kaempferol, quercetin rhamnoside and myricetin rhamnoside) at both ripening stages. [less ▲]

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See detailOn the phase behaviour of oxetane-CO2 and propargylic alcohols-CO2 binary mixtures by in situ infrared micro-spectrometry
Zaky, Mohamed; Boyaval, Amélie ULiege; Grignard, Bruno ULiege et al

in Journal of Supercritical Fluids (2017), 128

The phase behaviour of carbon dioxide/propargylic alcohols and carbon dioxide/oxetanes mixtures has been investigated using in-situ FTIR microspectrometry that allows us determining the evolution of the ... [more ▼]

The phase behaviour of carbon dioxide/propargylic alcohols and carbon dioxide/oxetanes mixtures has been investigated using in-situ FTIR microspectrometry that allows us determining the evolution of the concentration of each component in the liquid phase as a function of temperature and pressure. It was at the same time possible to look inside the cell and to visualize the expansion of the liquid phase during the increase of the pressure. The measurements were performed at three different temperatures (40, 70 and 100◦C) for pressures ranging between 0.1 and 15 MPa. Propargylic alcohol (PA), 2-methyl-3-butyn-2-ol (MBOL), 3-butyn-1-ol (BOL) and trimethylene oxide (TMO) were selected as these molecules are used in the synthesis of cyclic or polycarbonates by coupling with CO2. Thus, we determined the CO2 sorption and the concentration of the substrate in the liquid phase. Thanks to these measurements, we established the pressure-composition phase diagram for the liquid phase of these substrate/CO2 binary mixtures. [less ▲]

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See detailMultidisciplinary rehabilitation program after breast cancer: benefits on physical function, anthropometry and quality of life.
Leclerc, Anne-France ULiege; Foidart-Dessalle, Marguerite ULiege; Tomasella, Marco ULiege et al

in European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (2017), 53(5), 633-642

BACKGROUND: Different clinical trials show beneficial effects of physical training offered during and / or after breast cancer treatment. However, given the variety of side effects that may be encountered ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND: Different clinical trials show beneficial effects of physical training offered during and / or after breast cancer treatment. However, given the variety of side effects that may be encountered, physical training could be combined with psychological, relational and social guidance. This kind of multidisciplinary program has been little studied so far. AIM: To determine the benefits of a three-month multidisciplinary rehabilitation program among women after breast cancer treatment. DESIGN: Controlled no-randomized trial. SETTING: University for outcomes, University Hospital Center for interventions. POPULATION: Two hundred and nine outpatients who have been treated for a primary breast carcinoma. METHODS: Patients were divided into a control group (n=106) and an experimental group (n=103) which has benefited from a rehabilitation program of three months including physical training and psycho-educational sessions. The assessments, performed before and after the program, included functional assessments ("Sit and Reach Test", maximal incremental exercise test and "Six-Minute Walk Test"), body composition measurements (body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage) and a questionnaire (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30). RESULTS: After three months, flexibility, walking distance and all parameters measured during the maximal incremental exercise, except maximal heart rate, were significantly improved in the experimental group. The body fat percentage was significantly decreased and a significant improvement was observed for perceived health status (quality of life), functional role, emotional state, physical, cognitive and social functions and for most symptoms. In the control group, most of these improvements didn't appear and a significant increase in BMI and body fat percentage was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This trial identifies the benefits of a well detailed multidisciplinary rehabilitation program, including physical re-conditioning and psycho-educational sessions, with important improvements in functional capacity, body composition and the majority of functions and symptoms among women after breast cancer treatment. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: Through its results, this study could contribute to the development of hospital quality standards for oncologic rehabilitation. Physiotherapists can efficiently propose this kind of multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. [less ▲]

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See detailWhere Ion Mobility and Molecular Dynamics Meet to Unravel the (Un)Folding Mechanisms of an Oligorotaxane Molecular Switch
Hanozin, Emeline ULiege; Mignolet, Benoît ULiege; Morsa, Denis ULiege et al

in ACS Nano (2017), 11(10), 10253-10263

At the interface between foldamers and mechanically interlocked molecules, oligorotaxanes exhibit a spring-like folded secondary structure with remarkable mechanical and physicochemical properties. Among ... [more ▼]

At the interface between foldamers and mechanically interlocked molecules, oligorotaxanes exhibit a spring-like folded secondary structure with remarkable mechanical and physicochemical properties. Among these properties, the ability of oligorotaxanes to act as molecular switches through controlled modulations of their spatial extension over (un)folding dynamics is of particular interest. The present study aims to assess and further characterize this remarkable feature in the gas phase using mass spectrometry tools. In this context, we focused on the [4]5NPR+12 oligorotaxane molecule complexed with PF6 - counterion and probed its co-conformational states as a function of the in-source-generated charge states. Data were interpreted in light of electronic secondary structure computations at the PM6 and DFT levels. Our results highlight two major co-conformational groups associated either with folded compact structures, notably stabilized by intramolecular π-π interactions and predominant for low charge states or with fully stretched structures resulting from significant Coulombic repulsions at high charge states. Between, the oligorotaxane adopts intermediate folded co-conformations, suggesting a stepwise unfolding pathway under increasing repulsive Coulombic constraints. The reversibility of this superstructural transition was next interrogated under electron-driven (nondissociative electron transfer) and heat-driven (collision-induced unfolding) activation stimuli. The outcomes support the feasibility to either unfold or (partially) refold the oligorotaxane foldamer on purpose in the gas phase. Our results show that the balance between the stabilizing π-π interactions and the versatile Coulomb interactions dictates the elongation state of the foldamer in the gas phase and emphasizes the adequacy of mass spectrometry tools for the superstructural characterization of desolvated prototypical artificial molecular machines. © 2017 American Chemical Society. [less ▲]

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See detailDiagnostic et traitement de la péricardite chez les bovins
Casalta, Hélène ULiege; Couffin, Claire ULiege; Bayrou, Calixte ULiege et al

in Point Vétérinaire (2017), 379

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See detailMerging supercritical carbon dioxide and organocatalysis for the precision and green synthesis of poly(lactide)-based (co)polymers
Grignard, Bruno ULiege; De Winter, Julien; Gerbaux, Pascal et al

in European Polymer Journal (2017), 95

Well-defined poly(lactide)-based block copolymers were synthesized by a heterogeneous solvent and metal-free green approach by using organocatalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). We first ... [more ▼]

Well-defined poly(lactide)-based block copolymers were synthesized by a heterogeneous solvent and metal-free green approach by using organocatalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). We first report on the homopolymerization of both L- and D,L- lactide by organocatalyzed Ring-Opening Polymerization (o-ROP) by using a bicomponent organocatalyst composed of a thiourea derivative and various tertiary amines as cocatalysts. Control over the molar mass and dispersity is achieved until high monomer conversion although the polylactides are insoluble in the polymerization medium. The precision synthesis of PLA-based block copolymers from various CO2-phobic hydroxyl end-capped macroinitiators such as polyethylene glycol, polycaprolactone, polybutylene succinate and polyphosphoester was then reported. Merging scCO2 with this organocatalytic system provides therefore a unique tool for the design under solvent-free conditions of poly(lactide)-based block copolymers that are insoluble in scCO2. [less ▲]

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See detailDevelopment, dissemination, and applications of a new terminological resource the Q-Code taxonomy for professional aspects of General Practice / Family Medicine.
Jamoulle, Marc ULiege; Resnick, Melissa; Grosjean, Julien et al

in European Journal of General Practice (2017), accepted

Abstract of Background Paper: Background: While documentation of clinical aspects of General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) is assured by the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC), there ... [more ▼]

Abstract of Background Paper: Background: While documentation of clinical aspects of General Practice/Family Medicine (GP/FM) is assured by the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC), there is no taxonomy for the professional aspects (context and management) of GP/FM. Aim: To present the development, dissemination, applications, and resulting face validity of the Q-Codes taxonomy specifically designed to describe contextual features of GP/FM, proposed as an extension to the ICPC Development: The Q-Codes taxonomy was developed from Lamberts’ seminal idea for indexing contextual content (1987) by a multi-disciplinary team of knowledge engineers, linguists and general practitioners, through a qualitative and iterative analysis of 1702 abstracts from six GP/FM conferences using Atlas.ti software. A total of 182 concepts, called Q-codes, representing professional aspects of GP/FM, were identified and organised in a taxonomy. Dissemination: The taxonomy is published as an on-line terminological resource, using semantic web techniques and Web ontology language (OWL) (www.hetop.eu/Q). Each Q-code is identified with an Unique Resource Identifier (URI), and provided with preferred terms, formal definitions in eight languages (pt, es, en, fr, nl, ko, vi, tr) and search filters for Medline and web searches. Applications. . This taxonomy has already been used to support queries in bibliographic databases (e.g. Medline), to facilitate indexing of grey literature in GP/FM as congress abstracts, master theses, websites and as an educational tool in vocational teaching, Conclusions: The rapidly growing list of practical applications provides face-validity for the usefulness of this freely available new terminological resource. [less ▲]

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See detailDu trou de ver au trou de serrure...
Gernay, Delphine; Moukhaiber, Sophie; Maenhout, Marine et al

in Revue des Hôpitaux de Jour Psychiatriques et des Thérapies Institutionnelles (2017), 19

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See detailObjectif #No Hep
DELWAIDE, Jean ULiege

in Tempo Médical (2017), 402

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See detailSpatiotemporal variation of drought characteristics in the Huang- Huai-Hai Plain, China under the climate change scenario
Li, Xiangxiang; Ju, Hui; Garré, Sarah ULiege et al

in Journal of Integrative Agriculture (2017), 16(10), 2308-2322

Understanding the potential drought characteristics under climate change is essential for reducing <br />vulnerability and establishing adaptation strategies, especially in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H ... [more ▼]

Understanding the potential drought characteristics under climate change is essential for reducing <br />vulnerability and establishing adaptation strategies, especially in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain (3H Plain) which is the grain production base in China. In this paper, the variation of drought characteristics including drought event frequency, duration, severity and intensity for the past 50 years (1961-2010) and future scenarios (2010-2099) based on observed meteorological data and RCP 8.5 projections were investigated, respectively. Firstly, the applicability of three climatic drought indices including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index based on the Penman–Monteith equation (SPEI-PM) and the Thornthwaite equation (SPEI-TH) were compared in tracing recorded agricultural drought areas. Then, the drought characteristics including drought event, duration, severity and intensity using “run theory” was analyzed for both historical observations and future RCP 8.5 scenarios based on the proper index. Correlation analysis between drought indexes and agricultural drought areas showed that SPEI-PM performed better than SPI and SPEI-TH in the 3H Plain. Based on the results of SPEI-PM, droughts over the past 50 years have experienced reduced drought with shorter durations, and weaker severity and intensity. However, for the future RCP 8.5 scenario, drought is predicted to rise in frequency, duration, severity and intensity from 2010-2099 although drought components during the 2010-2039 were milder compared to historical conditions. This study highlights that the estimations for atmospheric evaporative demand would bring in differences in long term drought trend of drought indexes and consequently the applicability in 3H Plain. The results of this paper can help inform researchers and local policy makers to establish drought risk management strategies. [less ▲]

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See detailPond drying cues and their effects on growth and metamorphosis in a fast developing amphibian
Székely, Diana ULiege; Denoël, Mathieu ULiege; Székely, Paul et al

in Journal of Zoology (2017), 303(2), 129-135

The hydroperiod of breeding habitats imposes a strong selection on amphibians and pond-breeding species usually exhibit a high degree of plasticity in the duration of larval period. However, the potential ... [more ▼]

The hydroperiod of breeding habitats imposes a strong selection on amphibians and pond-breeding species usually exhibit a high degree of plasticity in the duration of larval period. However, the potential for phenotypic plasticity in fast developing species was investigated only in a small number of anurans, and the specific response to environmental cues such as low water versus decreasing water level, as well as the effects of such cues on particular developmental stages, are even less understood. In this context, we investigated the plastic response to pond desiccation in a neotropical species (Ceratophrys stolzmanni) by raising tadpoles in three water level treatments: constant high, constant low and decreasing. The growth rates were the highest reported for amphibian tadpoles (up to 0.3g/day) and the time to metamorphosis was short in all treatments, with the fastest developing tadpole metamorphosing in only 16 days after egg deposition. Individuals from the constant high water level treatment had a higher growth rate than those in the other two treatments, whereas decreasing and constant low water levels had similar effects on development, speeding up metamorphosis. In turn, this involved a cost as these tadpoles had a lower body size and mass at metamorphosis than the ones raised in constant high water levels. The final stages of metamorphosis, when tadpoles are the most vulnerable, were shorter in tadpoles exposed to a decreasing water level, allowing them to leave water quickly. Our experiment demonstrates that phenotypic plasticity is maintained even in environments devoid of permanent aquatic habitats. Ceratophryd tadpoles are able to shorten their developmental time when they perceive a risk of desiccation and react similarly to cues coming from the two unfavorable water conditions showing their adaptation to ephemeral and unpredictable breeding habitats. [less ▲]

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See detailTravail et subjectivité : la conservation de l’ours brun pour métier.
Denayer, Dorothée ULiege; Collard, Damien

in Travailler : Revue Internationale de Psychopathologie et de Psychodynamique du Travail (2017)

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See detailPraxis et anti-praxis des revues intellectuelles de l’immédiat après-guerre
Franck, Thomas ULiege

in Argumentation et Analyse du Discours (2017), 19

The sociodiscursive analysis of post-war intellectual reviews’ editorials, especially Socialisme ou Barbarie, gives rise to rhetorical and argumentative interpretations determined by the socio-historical ... [more ▼]

The sociodiscursive analysis of post-war intellectual reviews’ editorials, especially Socialisme ou Barbarie, gives rise to rhetorical and argumentative interpretations determined by the socio-historical context, by reviews’ editorial features and by the Marxist discursive formation. On the one hand the polemic dimension of these discourses (structured by a logic of ideological dispute), the reproduction of the fixed formula “marxisme véritable” and the use of ironical “îlots textuels” (parts of discourse that quote words of the opponent to discredit him) are all rhetorical examples of the influence of an intellectual discourse’s instituted state. On the other hand the militant ethos developed by Socialisme ou Barbarie and the presupposition of the link between Stalinism and State capitalism are parts of a discursive innovation. This dialectical logic between a discursive determination and a power of innovation has to be studied from a materialist point of view. Thus the dialectical movement between a discursive creation – for example the militant activism of Socialisme ou Barbarie – and a discourse’s instituted state – for example the Marxist dogmatism – must be understood on the basis of different materialist notions. Also the notion of “group praxis” allows to overpass this movement between determination and innovation. Consequently the possibility arises to think the rhetorical particularities and the critical process of intellectual reviews. [less ▲]

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See detailFish habitat selection in a large hydropeaking river: Strong individual and temporal variations revealed by telemetry
Capra, Hervé; Plichard, Laura; Bergé, Julien et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2017), 578

Modeling individual fish habitat selection in highly variable environments such as hydropeaking rivers is required for guiding efficient management decisions. We analyzed fish microhabitat selection in ... [more ▼]

Modeling individual fish habitat selection in highly variable environments such as hydropeaking rivers is required for guiding efficient management decisions. We analyzed fish microhabitat selection in the heterogeneous hydraulic and thermal conditions (modeled in two-dimensions) of a reach of the large hydropeaking Rhône River locally warmed by the cooling system of a nuclear power plant. We used modern fixed acoustic telemetry techniques to survey 18 fish individuals (five barbels, six catfishes, seven chubs) signaling their position every 3 s over a three-month period. Fish habitat selection depended on combinations of current microhabitat hydraulics (e.g. velocity, depth), past microhabitat hydraulics (e.g. dewatering risk or maximum velocities during the past 15 days) and to a lesser extent substrate and temperature. Mixed-effects habitat selection models indicated that individual effects were often stronger than specific effects. In the Rhône, fish individuals appear to memorize spatial and temporal environmental changes and to adopt a “least constraining” habitat selection. Avoiding fast-flowing midstream habitats, fish generally live along the banks in areas where the dewatering risk is high. When discharge decreases, however, they select higher velocities but avoid both dewatering areas and very fast-flowing midstream habitats. Although consistent with the available knowledge on static fish habitat selection, our quantitative results demonstrate temporal variations in habitat selection, depending on individual behavior and environmental history. Their generality could be further tested using comparative experiments in different environmental configurations. [less ▲]

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See detailLes savoirs paysans pour coordonner la conservation de la nature et l’agriculture - Piste pour une prise en compte renforcée des compétences des agriculteurs dans l’action agro-environnementale.
Brédart, David; Hatt, Séverin ULiege; Méhu, Marie et al

in Mille Lieux (2017), 7

Lors d’un travail de recherche, nous avons rencontré des agriculteurs de la zone limoneuse en Wallonie, un territoire de culture des plus productifs. Ces agriculteurs ont en commun d’avoir installé des ... [more ▼]

Lors d’un travail de recherche, nous avons rencontré des agriculteurs de la zone limoneuse en Wallonie, un territoire de culture des plus productifs. Ces agriculteurs ont en commun d’avoir installé des bandes aménagées en bordure de parcelles dans le cadre des méthodes agro-environnementales (MAEC - dispositifs de la Politique Agricole Commune visant à protéger l’environnement dans les espaces agricoles). Nous avons tenté de comprendre ce que sont et ce que pourraient devenir les bandes aménagées pour ces agriculteurs. En effet, alors que de nombreux travaux se sont intéressés aux aspects techniques, notamment à la composition et à la gestion des mélanges semés, peu d’attention a été portée aux agriculteurs et à la façon dont ils intègrent ces mélanges dans leur pratique. Nous explorons, à travers notre analyse, la possibilité d’une co-construction des MAEC avec les agriculteurs pour une action agro-environnementale pertinente aussi du point de vue de la production agricole. [less ▲]

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See detailIsotopic composition of nitrogen species in groundwater under agricultural areas: A review
Nikolenko, Olha ULiege; Jurado Elices, Anna ULiege; Borges, Alberto ULiege et al

in Science of the Total Environment (2017)

This work reviews applications of stable isotope analysis to the studies of transport and transformation of N species in groundwater under agricultural areas. It summarizes evidence regarding factors ... [more ▼]

This work reviews applications of stable isotope analysis to the studies of transport and transformation of N species in groundwater under agricultural areas. It summarizes evidence regarding factors affecting the isotopic composition of NO3−, NH4+ and N2O in subsurface, and discusses the use of 11B, 18O, 13C, 34S, 87Sr/86Sr isotopes to support the analysis of δ15N values. The isotopic composition of NO3−, NH4+ and N2O varies depending on their sources and dynamics of N cycle processes. The reported δ15N-NO3− values for sources of NO3− are: soil organic N – +3‰–+8‰, mineral fertilizers – −8‰–+7‰; manure/household waste – +5‰ to +35‰. For NH4+ sources, the isotopic signature ranges are: organic matter – +2.4–+4.1‰, rainwater – −13.4–+2.3‰, mineral fertilizers –−7.4–+5.1‰, householdwaste –+5–+9‰; animalmanure–+8–+11‰. ForN2O, isotopic composition depends on isotopic signatures of substrate pools and reaction rates. δ15Nvalues of NO3− are influenced by fractionation effects occurring during denitrification (ɛ=5–40‰), nitrification (ɛ=5–35‰) and DNRA (ɛ not reported). The isotopic signature of NH4+ is also affected by nitrification and DNRA as well as mineralization (ɛ=1‰), sorption (ɛ=1–8‰), anammox (ɛ=4.3–7.4‰) and volatilization (ɛ=25‰). As for theN2O, production of N2O leads to its depletion in 15N, whereas consumption – to enrichment in 15N. The magnitude of fractionation effects occurring during the considered processes depends on temperature, pH, DO, C/NO3− ratio, size of the substrate pool, availability of electron donors, water content in subsoil, residence time, land use, hydrogeology. While previous studies have accumulated rich data on isotopic composition of NO3− in groundwater, evidence remains scarce in the cases of NH4+ and N2O. Further research is required to consider variability of δ15N-NH4+ and δ15N-N2O in groundwater across agricultural ecosystems. [less ▲]

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See detailDisseminated histoplasmosis: case report and review of the literature
Evrard, Séverine; CAPRASSE, Philippe ULiege; Gavage, Pierre et al

in Acta Clinica Belgica (2017)

Case report: We report the case of a young Cameroonian woman who presented with cough, hyperthermia, weight loss, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. A positive HIV serology was discovered and a chest ... [more ▼]

Case report: We report the case of a young Cameroonian woman who presented with cough, hyperthermia, weight loss, pancytopenia, and hepatosplenomegaly. A positive HIV serology was discovered and a chest radiography revealed a ‘miliary pattern’. Bone marrow aspiration pointed out yeast inclusions within macrophages. Given the morphological aspect, the clinical presentation and immunosuppression, histoplasmosis was retained as a working hypothesis. Antiretroviral and amphotericin B treatments were promptly initiated. Review: Given the immigration wave that Europe is currently experiencing, we think it is important to share experience and knowledge, especially in non-endemic areas such as Europe, where clinicians are not used to face this disease. Histoplasmosis is due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum, a dimorphic fungus. Infection occurs by inhaling spores contained in soils contaminated by bat or bird droppings. The clinical presentation depends on the immune status of the host and the importance of inoculum, varying from asymptomatic to disseminated forms. AIDS patients are particularly susceptible to develop a severe disease. Antigen detection, molecular biology techniques, and microscopic examination are used to make a rapid diagnosis. However, antigen detection is not available in Europe and diagnosis needs a strong clinical suspicion in non-endemic areas. Because of suggestive imagery, clinicians might focus on tuberculosis. Our case illustrates the need for clinicians to take histoplasmosis [less ▲]

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See detailRecent Evolutions and Trends in the Use of Computer Aided Chemical Engineering for Educational Purposes at the University of Liège
Léonard, Grégoire ULiege; Belboom, Sandra ULiege; Toye, Dominique ULiege et al

in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering (2017)

The present paper addresses the evolution and perspectives in the teaching of CAPE methods in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Liège. The transition that happened in the 90ies ... [more ▼]

The present paper addresses the evolution and perspectives in the teaching of CAPE methods in the Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Liège. The transition that happened in the 90ies with the arrival of commercial software is highlighted, as the learning outcomes evolved from the ability of building programs to solve chemical engineering problems towards the ability to use complex commercial software and to understand their limitations. Moreover, CAPE methods were extended to non-dedicated CAPE courses, which is illustrated here by the goals and challenges of their use in courses like “Reactor Engineering” and “Life Cycle Analysis”. It was observed that students sometimes assume that CAPE softwares provide straightforward and trustworthy solutions without the need of understanding their mathematical bases and assumptions. Thus, solutions to make students aware of these limitations are proposed, including the creation of an integrated project focussing on complex multi-disciplinary issues, evidencing the need for critical input from the operator. [less ▲]

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See detailCeci n'est pas de l'abolitionnisme. Le régime juridique de la prostitution : un surréalisme à la belge?
André, Sophie ULiege

in Revue de la Faculté de Droit de l'Université de Liège (2017)

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See detailThe influence of environmental factors on the upstream movements of rheophilic cyprinids according to their position in a river basin
Benitez, Jean-Philippe ULiege; Ovidio, Michaël ULiege

in Ecology of Freshwater Fish (2017)

Throughout their lives, fish accomplish frequent movements between functional habitats that are often triggered by environmental signals. We aimed to determine if rheophilic cyprinids (barbel, Barbus ... [more ▼]

Throughout their lives, fish accomplish frequent movements between functional habitats that are often triggered by environmental signals. We aimed to determine if rheophilic cyprinids (barbel, Barbus barbus and chub Squalius cephalus), living in different places of the same river basin, may develop similar movement periodicities and react identically to environmental cues to carry out their spawning migration. We used the capture data of three modern fish passes that were monitored continuously during three consecutive years (2010 to 2012) in three rivers of the Meuse basin in Belgium. We captured 418 individuals at adult stage, and the capture number per species was greater (80%) in spring (during the spawning migration period). The spawning migration of the barbel occurred earlier (median = 122nd day of the year) and at lower temperatures (median = 14.5°C) in the lowland rivers compared to the upland river (140th day of the year and 18.4°C). For the barbel, migration initiation differed depending on the river but finished under similar environmental conditions. In contrast, for the chub, no significant difference between rivers was observed regarding spawning migration periodicity and environmental cues. Within the same river basin, rheophilic cyprinids demonstrate flexibility in their responses to environmental variables and may optimise the start date of migration to spawning grounds depending on their local environment and individual experiences. This phenomenon was more pronounced in the barbel, which has more specific ecological requirements. [less ▲]

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See detailSurveillance de l'atmosphère terrestre depuis la station du Jungfraujoch : une épopée liégeoise entamée voici plus de 65 ans !
Mahieu, Emmanuel ULiege; Bader, Whitney ULiege; Bovy, Benoît ULiege et al

in Bulletin de la Société Géographique de Liège (2017), 68

It’s in the early 1950s that researchers from the University of Liège started to investigate the Earth’s atmosphere from the Jungfraujoch scientific station, in the Swiss Alps, at a time when concerns ... [more ▼]

It’s in the early 1950s that researchers from the University of Liège started to investigate the Earth’s atmosphere from the Jungfraujoch scientific station, in the Swiss Alps, at a time when concerns related to atmospheric composition changes were nonexistent. Since then, an infrared observational data base unique worldwide has been carefully collected. The exploitation of these observations has allowed constituting multi-decadal time series crucial for the characterization of the changes that affected our atmosphere and for the identification of their causes. In this paper, we first remind about the successive steps which led to establishing the observational program of the Liège team at the Jungfraujoch and we evoke important findings which justified its continuation. Then we present some recent results relevant to the Montreal and Kyoto Protocols, or related to the monitoring of air quality. [less ▲]

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See detailClinical classification criteria for radicular pain caused by lumbar disc herniation: the radicular pain caused by disc herniation (RAPIDH) criteria
Genevay, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine; Konstantinou, Kika et al

in Spine Journal (2017), 17(10), 1464-1471

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Classification criteria are recommended for diseases that lack specific biomarkers to improve homogeneity in clinical research studies. Because imaging evidence of lumbar disc ... [more ▼]

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Classification criteria are recommended for diseases that lack specific biomarkers to improve homogeneity in clinical research studies. Because imaging evidence of lumbar disc herniations (LDHs) may not be associated with symptoms, clinical classification criteria based on patient symptoms and physical examination findings are required. PURPOSE: This study aimed to produce clinical classification criteria to identify patients with radicular pain caused by LDH. STUDY DESIGN: The study design was a two-stage process. Phase 1 included a Delphi process and Phase 2 included a cohort study. PATIENT SAMPLE: The patient sample included outpatients recruited from spine clinics in five countries. OUTCOME MEASURES: The outcome measures were items from history and physical examination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In Phase 1, 17 spine experts participated in a Delphi process to select symptoms and signs suggesting radicular pain caused by LDH. In Phase 2, 19 different clinical experts identified patients they confidently classified as presenting with (1) radicular pain caused by LDH, (2) neurogenic claudication (NC) caused by lumbar spinal stenosis, or (3) non-specific low back pain (NSLBP) with referred leg pain. Patients completed survey items and specialists documented examination signs. A score to predict radicular pain caused by LDH was developed based on the coefficients of the multivariate model. An unrestricted grant of less than US$15,000 was received from MSD: It was used to support the conception of the Delphi, data management, and statistical analysis. No fees were allocated to participating spine specialists. RESULTS: Phase 1 generated a final list of 74 potential symptoms and signs. In Phase 2, 209 patients with pain caused by LDH (89), NC (63), or NSLBP (57) were included. Items predicting radicular pain caused by LDH (p<.05) were monoradicular leg pain distribution, patient-reported unilateral leg pain, positive straight leg raise test <60° (or femoral stretch test), unilateral motor weakness, and asymmetric ankle reflex. The score had an AUC of 0.91. An easy-to-use weighted set of criteria with similar psychometric characteristics is proposed (specificity 90.4%, sensitivity 70.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Classification criteria for identifying patients with radicular pain caused by LDH are proposed. Their use could improve the homogeneity of patients enrolled in clinical research studies. [less ▲]

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See detailThe Paleoproterozoic fossil record: Implications for the evolution of the biosphere during Earth's middle-age
Javaux, Emmanuelle ULiege; lepot, kevin

in Earth-Science Reviews (2017)

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