References of "Article"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 301 to 400 of 47928     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9     A linear Hf isotope-age array despite different granitoid sources and complex Archean geodynamics: Example from the Pietersburg block (South Africa)Laurent, Oscar ; Zeh, Arminin Earth and Planetary Science Letters (2015), 430Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg) Synthesis of polyphosphodiesters by ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphates bearing allyl phosphoester protecting groupsClément, Benoit; Molin, Daniel G.; Jérôme, Christine et alin Journal of Polymer Science. Part A-1, Polymer Chemistry (2015), 53(22), 2642-2648The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl ... [more ▼]The allyl phosphoester group is shown to be a protecting group for the synthesis of anionic polyphosphodiesters. Our strategy relies on the synthesis of a cyclic phosphate monomer bearing a pendant allyl phosphoester group, its easy purification by fractional distillation, its organocatalyzed ring-opening polymerization by 1,8-diazobicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) and 1-[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-3-cyclohexyl-thiourea (TU). Finally, the deprotection of the allyl phosphoester group is carried out by reaction with sodium benzenethiolate in the absence of any detectable degradation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (5 ULg) Do single, double or triple fungicide sprays differentially affect the grain quality in winter wheat?El Jarroudi, Moussa ; kOUADIO, Louis; Junk et alin Field Crops Research (2015), 183(257-266), Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple ... [more ▼]Foliar fungicides in wheat are typically used to safeguard against economic losses from diseases. In this study, we assessed the effects of three fungicide spray regimes [single, double, and triple treatments] on four different grain quality parameters [thousand grain weight (TGW), test weight (TW), grain protein content (GPC), and Zeleny sedimentation volume (ZSV)] during the 2006–2009 period at two sites in Luxembourg. The fungicides used were generally a mix of chlorothalonil and triazoles. At Burmerange, (cultivar Cubus), the values of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV ranged from 38 to 62 g, 67 to 83 kg hl−1, 12.0% to 14.7% dry matter (DM), and 27 to 54 ml, respectively. Whereas, at Everlange (cultivar Achat), the ranges of TGW, TW, GPC and ZSV were 42 to 65 g, 65 to 81 kg hl−1, 11.0% to 15.0% DM, and 21 to 66 ml, respectively. In more than 75% cases, the results indicate that fungicides did not significantly affect TW or ZSV at either sites (P > 0.05). However, there was a significant and positive fungicide effect on GPC in 2006 and 2009 at Burmerange, and only in 2006 at Everlange (P < 0.05). On the contrary, TGW was significantly affected at Burmerange in all years, except 2008 when a positive increase was observed compared to control plots; and in 2006 and 2007 at Everlange. Interestingly, when there was an effect of fungicides on a quality parameter, there was no difference among different fungicide treatments. Thus under conditions prevailing in Luxembourg, a single fungicide treatment applied with judicious timing generally resulted in statistically similar grain quality parameters when compared with a double or triple fungicide treatment. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (0 ULg) X-ray emission from the giant magnetosphere of the magnetic O-type star NGC 1624-2Petit, V.; Cohen, D. H.; Wade, G. A. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 453We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray ... [more ▼]We observed NGC 1624-2, the O-type star with the largest known magnetic field (B[SUB]p[/SUB] ˜ 20 kG), in X-rays with the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS-S) camera on-board the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Our two observations were obtained at the minimum and maximum of the periodic Hα emission cycle, corresponding to the rotational phases where the magnetic field is the closest to equator-on and pole-on, respectively. With these observations, we aim to characterize the star's magnetosphere via the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks. Our main findings are as follows. (i) The observed spectrum of NGC 1624-2 is hard, similar to the magnetic O-type star θ[SUP]1[/SUP] Ori C, with only a few photons detected below 0.8 keV. The emergent X-ray flux is 30 per cent lower at the Hα minimum phase. (ii) Our modelling indicated that this seemingly hard spectrum is in fact a consequence of relatively soft intrinsic emission, similar to other magnetic Of?p stars, combined with a large amount of local absorption (˜1-3× 10[SUP]22[/SUP] cm[SUP]-2[/SUP]). This combination is necessary to reproduce both the prominent Mg and Si spectral features, and the lack of flux at low energies. NGC 1624-2 is intrinsically luminous in X-rays (log L^{em}_X˜ 33.4) but 70-95 per cent of the X-ray emission produced by magnetically confined wind shocks is absorbed before it escapes the magnetosphere (log L^{ISMcor}_X˜ 32.5). (iii) The high X-ray luminosity, its variation with stellar rotation, and its large attenuation are all consistent with a large dynamical magnetosphere with magnetically confined wind shocks. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Le pouvoir des sentiments : Kluge, Adorno, FerencziHamers, Jérémy ; Cormann, Grégory in Cahiers d'Etudes Germaniques (2015), 69Detailed reference viewed: 34 (8 ULg) The harmonic balance method for bifurcation analysis of large-scale nonlinear mechanical systemsDetroux, Thibaut ; Renson, Ludovic ; Masset, Luc et alin Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering (2015), 296The harmonic balance (HB) method is widely used in the literature for analyzing the periodic solutions of nonlinear mechanical systems. The objective of this paper is to exploit the method for bifurcation ... [more ▼]The harmonic balance (HB) method is widely used in the literature for analyzing the periodic solutions of nonlinear mechanical systems. The objective of this paper is to exploit the method for bifurcation analysis, i.e., for the detection and tracking of bifurcations of nonlinear systems. To this end, an algorithm that combines the computation of the Floquet exponents with bordering techniques is developed. A new procedure for the tracking of Neimark–Sacker bifurcations that exploits the properties of eigenvalue derivatives is also proposed. The HB method is demonstrated using numerical experiments of a spacecraft structure that possesses a nonlinear vibration isolation device. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (4 ULg) Avant-proposCormann, Grégory ; Hamers, Jérémy ; Letawe, Céline in Cahiers d'Etudes Germaniques (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 24 (3 ULg) Amphibians forgo aquatic life in response to alien fish introductionWinandy, Laurane ; Darnet, Elodie; Denoël, Mathieu in Animal Behaviour (2015), 109Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by ... [more ▼]Species with complex life cycles are good models to understand trade-offs between life in hostile and favourable habitats. Newts remain in breeding wetlands for a long period and are strongly affected by fish introduction; however, mechanisms of the exclusion observed in the field are still not well known. In particular, whether newts skip breeding and leave water for land in response to fish introduction and how aquatic shelter may influence their choice remain open questions. To investigate these questions, we experimentally studied the use of aquatic and terrestrial habitats during the breeding season of palmate newts, Lissotriton helveticus, in the presence and absence of goldfish, Carassius auratus. We determined the consequences of habitat choice on newt fitness by assessing sexual activity and number of eggs. There was a strong, significant avoidance of the aquatic environment in the presence of fish, particularly when no aquatic shelter was available. This escape from the water had an impact on reproduction: newts decreased their sexual activity and laid fewer eggs. The availability of shelters favoured coexistence but did not prevent a large proportion of the newts from leaving water and skipping reproduction. This study shows how the presence of fish and the absence of aquatic shelters can lead to newts forgoing aquatic life, thus improving our understanding of the mechanisms behind the coexistence and exclusion patterns found in the wild. More broadly, these data contribute to explaining aquatic versus terrestrial life in favourable and unfavourable environments. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 169 (26 ULg) A Parallel Processing Approach to Dynamic Simulations of Combined Transmission and Distribution SystemsAristidou, Petros ; Van Cutsem, Thierry in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2015), 72Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is ... [more ▼]Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is proposed to provide accurate, detailed dynamic simulations of such systems. The simulation procedure is accelerated with the use of parallel programming techniques, taking advantage of the parallelization opportunities inherent to domain decomposition algorithms. The proposed algorithm is general, portable and scalable on inexpensive, shared-memory, multi-core machines. A large-scale test system is used for its performance evaluation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 74 (14 ULg) Tentative insight into the multiplicity of the persistent dust maker WR 106 from X-ray observationsDe Becker, Michaël in New Astronomy (2015), 41This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust ... [more ▼]This paper presents the results of the analysis of the very first dedicated X-ray observation with XMM-Newton of WR 106. This carbon-rich WC9d Wolf–Rayet star belongs to the category of persistent dust makers (WCd stars). The issue of the multiplicity of these dust makers is pivotal to understand the dust formation process, and in this context X-ray observations may allow to reveal an X-ray emission attributable to colliding-winds in a binary system. The main result of this analysis is the lack of detection of X-rays coming from WR 106. Upper limits on the X-ray flux are estimated, but the derived numbers are not sufficient to provide compelling constraints on the existence or not of a colliding-wind region. Detailed inspection of archive data bases reveals that persistent dust makers have been poorly investigated by the most sensitive X-ray observatories. Certainly, the combination of several approaches to indirectly constrain their multiplicity should be applied to lift a part of the veil on the nature of these persistent dust makers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (2 ULg) Derivation and Application of Sensitivities to Assess Transient Voltage Sags caused by Rotor SwingsWeckesser, Tilman; Johannsson, Hjortur; Ostergaard, Jacob et alin International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (2015), 72The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from ... [more ▼]The paper introduces an approach to investigate voltage sags, which are caused by large generator rotor swings following a transient disturbance. Therefore, the method exploits sensitivities derived from the algebraic network equations. These provide information on the impact of a generator on the voltage magnitude at a load bus and the e ffect of load variation on the generator's power injection. It is shown that these sensitivities give valuable information to identify critical generator-load pairs and locations for applying preventive control measures. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (6 ULg) The far-ultraviolet main auroral emission at Jupiter – Part 1: Dawn–dusk brightness asymmetriesBonfond, Bertrand ; Gustin, Jacques ; Gérard, Jean-Claude et alin Annales Geophysicae (2015), 33The main auroral emission at Jupiter generally appears as a quasi-closed curtain centered around the magnetic pole. This auroral feature, which accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted ... [more ▼]The main auroral emission at Jupiter generally appears as a quasi-closed curtain centered around the magnetic pole. This auroral feature, which accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted by the aurorae in the ultraviolet range, is related to corotation enforcement currents in the middle magnetosphere. Early models for these currents assumed axisymmetry, but significant local time variability is obvious on any image of the Jovian aurorae. Here we use far-UV images from the Hubble Space Telescope to further characterize these variations on a statistical basis. We show that the dusk side sector is ~ 3 times brighter than the dawn side in the southern hemisphere and ~ 1.1 brighter in the northern hemisphere, where the magnetic anomaly complicates the interpretation of the measurements. We suggest that such an asymmetry between the dawn and the dusk sectors could be the result of a partial ring current in the nightside magnetosphere. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (11 ULg) A zigzag antiferromagnetic quantum ground state in monoclinic honeycomb lattice antimonates A3Ni2SbO6 (A=Li, Na)Zvereva, E.A.; Stratan, M.I.; Ovchenkov, Y.A. et alin Physical Review. B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (2015), 92We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb-lattice monoclinic compounds A3Ni2SbO6 (A=Li, Na ... [more ▼]We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the electronic and magnetic properties of two quasi-two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb-lattice monoclinic compounds A3Ni2SbO6 (A=Li, Na). Magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data are consistent with the onset of antiferromagnetic (AFM) long range order at low temperatures with Néel temperatures ~ 14 and 16 K for Li3Ni2SbO6 and Na3Ni2SbO6, respectively. The effective magnetic moments of 4.3 Bohr magnetons/f.u. (Li3Ni2SbO6) and 4.4 Bohr magnetons/f.u. (Na3Ni2SbO6) indicate that Ni2+ is in a high-spin configuration (S=1). The temperature dependence of the inverse magnetic susceptibility follows the Curie-Weiss law in the high-temperature region and shows positive values of the Weiss temperature ~ 8 K (Li3Ni2SbO6) and ~12 K (Na3Ni2SbO6) pointing to the presence of non-negligible ferromagnetic interactions, although the system orders AFM at low temperatures. In addition, the magnetization curves reveal a field-induced (spin-flop type) transition below TN that can be related to the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in these systems. These observations are in agreement with density functional theory calculations, which show that both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic intralayer spin exchange couplings between Ni2+ ions are present in the honeycomb planes supporting a zigzag antiferromagnetic ground state. Based on our experimental measurements and theoretical calculations we propose magnetic phase diagrams for the two compounds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (1 ULg) Halomethyl-cobalt(bis-acetylacetonate) for the controlled synthesis of functional polymersDemarteau, Jérémy ; Kermagoret, Anthony; German, Ian et alin Chemical Communications (2015), 51(76), 14334-14337Novel organocobalt complexes featuring weak C–CoL2 bonds (L = acetylacetonate) are prepared and used as sources of halomethyl radicals. They permit the precision synthesis of a-halide functionalized and ... [more ▼]Novel organocobalt complexes featuring weak C–CoL2 bonds (L = acetylacetonate) are prepared and used as sources of halomethyl radicals. They permit the precision synthesis of a-halide functionalized and telechelic polymers in organic media or in water. Substitution of halide by azide allows derivatization of polymers using the CuAAC click reaction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (9 ULg) The far-ultraviolet main auroral emission at Jupiter – Part 2: Vertical emission profileBonfond, Bertrand ; Gustin, Jacques ; Gérard, Jean-Claude et alin Annales Geophysicae (2015), 33The aurorae at Jupiter are made up of many different features associated with a variety of generation mechanisms. The main auroral emission, also known as the main oval, is the most prominent of them as ... [more ▼]The aurorae at Jupiter are made up of many different features associated with a variety of generation mechanisms. The main auroral emission, also known as the main oval, is the most prominent of them as it accounts for approximately half of the total power emitted by the aurorae in the ultraviolet range. The energy of the precipitating electrons is a crucial parameter to characterize the processes at play which give rise to these auroral emissions, and the altitude of the emissions directly depends on this energy. Here we make use of far-UV (FUV) images acquired with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope and spectra acquired with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to measure the vertical profile of the main emissions. The altitude of the brightness peak as seen above the limb is ~ 400 km, which is significantly higher than the 250 km measured in the post-dusk sector by Galileo in the visible domain. However, a detailed analysis of the effect of hydrocarbon absorption, including both simulations and FUV spectral observations, indicates that FUV apparent vertical profiles should be considered with caution, as these observations are not incompatible with an emission peak located at 250 km. The analysis also calls for spectral observations to be carried out with an optimized geometry in order to remove observational ambiguities. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (8 ULg) KIC 4768731: a bright long-period roAp star in the Kepler fieldSmalley, B.; Niemczura, E.; Murphy, S. J. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 452We report the identification of 61.45 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] (711.2 μHz) oscillations, with amplitudes of 62.6 μmag, in KIC 4768731 (HD 225914) using Kepler photometry. This relatively bright (V = 9.17 ... [more ▼]We report the identification of 61.45 d[SUP]-1[/SUP] (711.2 μHz) oscillations, with amplitudes of 62.6 μmag, in KIC 4768731 (HD 225914) using Kepler photometry. This relatively bright (V = 9.17) chemically peculiar star with spectral type A5 Vp SrCr(Eu) has previously been found to exhibit rotational modulation with a period of 5.21 d. Fourier analysis reveals a simple dipole pulsator with an amplitude that has remained stable over a 4-yr time span, but with a frequency that is variable. Analysis of high-resolution spectra yields stellar parameters of T[SUB]eff[/SUB] = 8100 ± 200 K, log g = 4.0 ± 0.2, [Fe/H] = +0.31 ± 0.24 and v sin i = 14.8 ± 1.6 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP]. Line profile variations caused by rotation are also evident. Lines of Sr, Cr, Eu, Mg and Si are strongest when the star is brightest, while Y and Ba vary in antiphase with the other elements. The abundances of rare earth elements are only modestly enhanced compared to other roAp stars of similar T[SUB]eff[/SUB] and log g. Radial velocities in the literature suggest a significant change over the past 30 yr, but the radial velocities presented here show no significant change over a period of 4 yr. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Kepler's first view of O-star variability: K2 data of five O stars in Campaign 0 as a proof of concept for O-star asteroseismologyBuysschaert, B.; Aerts, C.; Bloemen, S. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 453We present high-precision photometric light curves of five O-type stars observed with the refurbished Kepler satellite during its Campaign 0. For one of the stars, we also assembled high-resolution ground ... [more ▼]We present high-precision photometric light curves of five O-type stars observed with the refurbished Kepler satellite during its Campaign 0. For one of the stars, we also assembled high-resolution ground-based spectroscopy with the HERMES spectrograph attached to the 1.2 m Mercator telescope. The stars EPIC 202060097 (O9.5V) and EPIC 202060098 (O7V) exhibit monoperiodic variability due to rotational modulation with an amplitude of 5.6 and 9.3 mmag and a rotation period of 2.63 and 5.03 d, respectively. EPIC 202060091 (O9V) and EPIC 202060093 (O9V:pe) reveal variability at low frequency but the cause is unclear. EPIC 202060092 (O9V:p) is discovered to be a spectroscopic binary with at least one multiperiodic β Cep-type pulsator whose detected mode frequencies occur in the range [0.11, 6.99] d[SUP]-1[/SUP] and have amplitudes between 0.8 and 2.0 mmag. Its pulsation spectrum is shown to be fully compatible with the ones predicted by core-hydrogen burning O-star models. Despite the short duration of some 33 d and the limited data quality with a precision near 100 μmag of these first K2 data, the diversity of possible causes for O-star variability already revealed from campaigns of similar duration by the MOST and CoRoT satellites is confirmed with Kepler. We provide an overview of O-star space photometry and give arguments why future K2 monitoring during Campaigns 11 and 13 at short cadence, accompanied by time-resolved high-precision high-resolution spectroscopy, opens up the possibility of in-depth O-star seismology. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Stroboscopic phenomena in superconductors with dynamic pinning landscapeJelic, Zeljko ; Milosevic, Milorad; Van de Vondel, Joris et alin Scientific Reports (2015), 5Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain ... [more ▼]Introducing artificial pinning centers is a well established strategy to trap quantum vortices and increase the maximal magnetic field and applied electric current that a superconductor can sustain without dissipation. In case of spatially periodic pinning, a clear enhancement of the superconducting critical current arises when commensurability between the vortex configurations and the pinning landscape occurs. With recent achievements in (ultrafast) optics and nanoengineered plasmonics it has become possible to exploit the interaction of light with superconductivity, and create not only spatially periodic imprints on the superconducting condensate, but also temporally periodic ones. Here we show that in the latter case, temporal matching phenomena develop, caused by stroboscopic commensurability between the characteristic frequency of the vortex motion under applied current and the frequency of the dynamic pinning. The matching resonances persist in a broad parameter space, including magnetic field, driving current, or material purity, giving rise to unusual features such as externally variable resistance/impedance and Shapiro steps in current-voltage characteristics. All features are tunable by the frequency of the dynamic pinning landscape. These findings open further exploration avenues for using flashing, spatially engineered, and/or mobile excitations on superconductors, permitting us to achieve advanced functionalities. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 61 (4 ULg) Photorefractive holographic camera for monitoring deformations of MEMSGeorges, Marc ; Thizy, Cédric in Journal of Micro/Nanolithography, MEMS, and MOEMS (2015), 14(4), 041301We present the development of a holographic interferometer based on dynamic hologram recording with photorefractive crystals of the sillenite family and which is adapted for the observation of MEMS. A ... [more ▼]We present the development of a holographic interferometer based on dynamic hologram recording with photorefractive crystals of the sillenite family and which is adapted for the observation of MEMS. A compact portable system was already presented in the past and used in various metrology and nondestructive applications on large scattering objects. It was emphasized the great versatility of the instrument which allows high resolution measurements. Here we show the development and achievement of an optical module which can be easily interfaced on the basic instrument, allowing small specular objects observation. Results of deformation of electrically actuated MEMS are shown. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) Greenhouse gas emissions from livestock production in rural area of Algeria, the case of Chemini (Kabylie)Moula, Nassim ; Salhi, A.; Touazi, L. et alin Livestock Research for Rural Development (2015), 27(10), The Algerian agricultural sector faces the challenge to meet the food needs of its population despite low agricultural capacity, resulting in increasing pressure on natural resources. This paper aims to ... [more ▼]The Algerian agricultural sector faces the challenge to meet the food needs of its population despite low agricultural capacity, resulting in increasing pressure on natural resources. This paper aims to inventory the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to livestock sector in the rural area of Chemini (province of Bejaia), taking into account the emissions due to enteric fermentation, in the form of methane, and manure management, in the form of methane and nitrous oxide. Emissions intensity, expressed in CO2- equivalents (CO2-eq) per kg of edible protein, was included in the study. Ruminants contribute to 94% of livestock GHG emissions and to 53% of protein production, with a large share due to cattle. The main part of emissions is related to enteric fermentation. High-producing cattle present the lowest emission intensity of the ruminant category with 24 kg CO2-eq per kg protein. Chickens produce 2.7% of livestock related emissions but provide 47% of animal protein. It results in low emission intensities whereas important difference is noticed between backyard and industrialized systems (around 21 versus 1 kg CO2-eq per kg protein, respectively). Improvement of animal performance should contribute to mitigate the environmental impact of livestock production in Algeria. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 52 (23 ULg) Heritability of milk fat composition is considerably lower for Meuse-Rhine-Yssel compared to Holstein Friesian cattleMaurice-Van Eijndhoven, Myrthe; Veerkamp, Roel; Soyeurt, Hélène et alin Livestock Science (2015), 180The aim of this paper is to identify differences in genetic variation of fatty acid (FA) composition in milk in different breeds. Data used included Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY) and Holstein Friesian (HF ... [more ▼]The aim of this paper is to identify differences in genetic variation of fatty acid (FA) composition in milk in different breeds. Data used included Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY) and Holstein Friesian (HF) cattle breeds which were raised in the Netherlands. Both populations participated in the same milk recording system, but differed in selection history, where in the MRY there has been relatively very little emphasis on selection for high-input high-output production systems compared to HF. Differences in genetic variation were investigated by estimating breed specific additive genetic variances and heritabilities for FA contents in milk of MRY and HF. Mid Infrared Spectrometry spectra were used to predict total fat percentage and detailed FA contents in milk (14 individual FA and 14 groups of FA in g of fat/dL of milk). The dataset for MRY contained 2916 records from 2049 registered cows having at least 50% genes of MRY origin and the dataset used for HF contained 155,319 records from 96,315 registered cows having at least 50% genes of HF origin. Variance components of individual FA content in milk for the different breeds were estimated using a single trait animal model. Additive genetic variances for FA produced through de novo synthesis (short chain FA, C12:0, C14:0, and partly C16:0), C14:1 c-9 and C16:1 c-9 were significantly higher (. P<0.001) for HF compared to MRY. Heritabilities of the individual FA, C4:0 to C18:0, for HF ranged from 0.28 to 0.52 and for MRY from 0.17 to 0.34. Heritabilities of the individual C18 unsaturated FA for HF ranged from 0.11 to 0.34 and for MRY from 0.10 to 0.26. Although the mean content in milk for the FA C18:2 c-9, t-11 was low in both breeds, the additive genetic variance in our dataset was significantly higher for MRY (P<0.05) compared to HF. Heritabilities of the groups of FA for HF ranged from 0.19 to 0.53 and for MRY from 0.11 to 0.28. For the majority of the FA, the additive genetic variances for HF were significantly higher compared to MRY, except for most of the poly-unsaturated FA. The results for the poly-unsaturated FA, however, may be affected by the lower accuracy of the predictions for these FA. In conclusion, our results show that the HF breed has substantially larger genetic variance for most FA compared to MRY. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Analytical model for composite joints under sagging momentBennacer, M.A.; Berouai, A; Kriker, A et alin Engineering Structures (2015), 101Nowadays, modern codes and standards such as the (Eurocode 4, 2004) deal with the characterisation of steel–concrete composite joints in building structures, mainly under hogging bending moments in the ... [more ▼]Nowadays, modern codes and standards such as the (Eurocode 4, 2004) deal with the characterisation of steel–concrete composite joints in building structures, mainly under hogging bending moments in the beam. However, in sway composite frames or when the composite structure is subjected to an accidental/exceptional event such as earthquake or column loss, the beam-to-column joint may be subjected to sagging bending moment, a loading situation which is not yet covered by the codes. This paper deals with the behaviour of composite beam-to-column external joints under sagging bending moments, mainly focusing on the specific joint component “concrete slab in compression”. Indeed, if reference is made to Eurocodes, the method recommended to characterise structural joints is the component method and the “concrete slab in compression” component has been identified as the missing component to be able to apply this method to composite joints subjected to sagging bending moment. In this article, the finite element method is used to model the slab using VecTor 2 software. Through the performed numerical simulations, the behaviour of the slab is studied in detail and an analytical model is proposed. With the proposed model, it is possible to characterise the concrete slab in compression component and so, to apply the component method to predict the mechanical properties of composite joints subjected to sagging bending moment. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (3 ULg) Synthesis of aliphatic polyamide bearing fluorinated groups from ε-caprolactam and modified cyclic lysineTunc, Deniz; Bouchekiv, Hassen; Améduri, Bruno et alin European Polymer Journal (2015), 71Aliphatic polyamide (PA) bearing fluorinated groups was synthesized in bulk with perfluorobutyryl-substituted α-amino-ε-caprolactam and ε-caprolactam by anionic ring-opening polymerization (AROP). The ... [more ▼]Aliphatic polyamide (PA) bearing fluorinated groups was synthesized in bulk with perfluorobutyryl-substituted α-amino-ε-caprolactam and ε-caprolactam by anionic ring-opening polymerization (AROP). The fluorinated monomer was obtained by condensation between cyclic lysine (i.e. α-amino-ε-caprolactam) and perfluorobutyrylchloride. The effect of the fluorinated monomer fraction onto the AROP of ε-caprolactam was monitored by the exothermicity of this polymerization versus time. The properties and characteristics of the resulting polymers were studied by with differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, magic angle spining NMR, FT-IR, and contact angle measurements. Polyamides bearing fluorinated groups exhibited better thermal stability than polyamide 6 (PA6) as well as a higher hydrophobic surface character as evidenced by surface tension measurements. The glass transition temperature of polyamide 6 was 53 °C and rose to 58 °C for a PA bearing fluorinated moieties, while fluorinated monomer insertion induced a decrease of the melting points from 216 to 198 °C. These copolymers displayed a maximum degradation temperature of 390 °C as compared to the 310 °C for PA6, and their surface energies decreased from 49.4 mN.cm-1 (PA6 value) to 44.1 mN.cm-1. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (6 ULg) A performance indicator for structures under natural fireGernay, Thomas ; Franssen, Jean-Marc in Engineering Structures (2015), 100Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire ... [more ▼]Fires in buildings are characterized by a heating phase followed by a cooling phase, yet the effects of the latter on structures are not well covered in the current approaches to structural fire engineering. Indeed the actual requirement of non-occurrence of structural failure at peak temperature does not guarantee against a delayed failure during or after the cooling phase of a fire, which puts at risk the fire brigades and people proceeding to a building inspection after a fire. Therefore there is an urgent need to better comprehend and characterize the materials and structures behavior under decreasing temperatures. Sensitivity to delayed failure of a structural component depends on its typology and constituting materials. In particular, two structural components with the same Fire Resistance rating (R) under standardized fire may exhibit very distinct behavior under natural fire, one of them being more prone to delayed failure than the other. With the aim of quantifying this effect, a new indicator is proposed that characterizes the performance of structures under natural fire conditions. The paper presents the methodology to derive this new indicator as well as results for different typologies of structural components. Parametric analyses highlight the prime influence of constitutive material and thermal inertia of the element on the post-peak behavior. Used in conjunction with the Fire Resistance rating, it is shown how the new indicator carries additional and significant information for classifying structural systems in terms of their fire performance and propensity to delayed failure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 54 (13 ULg) La forma diagrammatica tra matematica e artiDondero, Maria Giulia in Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio (2015), numéro spécialThis paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of ... [more ▼]This paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of diagram states that a diagram is a configuration characterized as a totality (form) that is necessary and at the same time dynamic and experimental. In his lectures about the relation between the local and the global in art (Apologie du logos, 1990), Thom traces a theory of forms that can be compared to the conception of diagram in Peirce’s semiotics. For Thom, beauty is the result of strategies of framing and of composing parts in a dynamic totality. Van Lier’s develops the idea of a perfect totality characterized by a syntax of traits that are at the right place and that couldn’t be organized in any other way, without which the work of art would have no efficacy. For my part, I explore these conceptions of a necessary totality in the arts (aesthetic necessity) and in mathematical diagrams (the demonstration through perceptual forms) in order to describe the differences and the similarities between the theories and the domains of application. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) La forma diagrammatica tra matematica e artiDondero, Maria Giulia in Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio (2015), numéro spécialThis paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of ... [more ▼]This paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of diagram states that a diagram is a configuration characterized as a totality (form) that is necessary and at the same time dynamic and experimental. In his lectures about the relation between the local and the global in art (Apologie du logos, 1990), Thom traces a theory of forms that can be compared to the conception of diagram in Peirce’s semiotics. For Thom, beauty is the result of strategies of framing and of composing parts in a dynamic totality. Van Lier’s develops the idea of a perfect totality characterized by a syntax of traits that are at the right place and that couldn’t be organized in any other way, without which the work of art would have no efficacy. For my part, I explore these conceptions of a necessary totality in the arts (aesthetic necessity) and in mathematical diagrams (the demonstration through perceptual forms) in order to describe the differences and the similarities between the theories and the domains of application. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) La forma diagrammatica tra matematica e artiDondero, Maria Giulia in Rivista Italiana di Filosofia del Linguaggio (2015), numéro spécialThis paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of ... [more ▼]This paper aims to compare the theory of diagram presented in Peirce’s philosophy of mathematics and the reflections on the work of art formulated by Henry Van Lier and René Thom. The Peircean Theory of diagram states that a diagram is a configuration characterized as a totality (form) that is necessary and at the same time dynamic and experimental. In his lectures about the relation between the local and the global in art (Apologie du logos, 1990), Thom traces a theory of forms that can be compared to the conception of diagram in Peirce’s semiotics. For Thom, beauty is the result of strategies of framing and of composing parts in a dynamic totality. Van Lier’s develops the idea of a perfect totality characterized by a syntax of traits that are at the right place and that couldn’t be organized in any other way, without which the work of art would have no efficacy. For my part, I explore these conceptions of a necessary totality in the arts (aesthetic necessity) and in mathematical diagrams (the demonstration through perceptual forms) in order to describe the differences and the similarities between the theories and the domains of application. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) My Friend is a WWI Soldier: A Semiopragmatic Approach to Docufictions on Social NetworksDondero, Maria Giulia ; Bouko, Catherinein Punctum. International Journal of Semiotics (2015), 1(1), 94-107At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, notable for the triumph of both fiction and a taste for reality (Veyrat-Masson 2008), interactive documentary-dramas appeared on social networks. These ... [more ▼]At the beginning of the twentieth-first century, notable for the triumph of both fiction and a taste for reality (Veyrat-Masson 2008), interactive documentary-dramas appeared on social networks. These Internet-based audiovisual productions invite semiotics to reconsider its tools in order to grasp their complex, hybrid nature, above and beyond the binary opposition of reality and fiction. After considering the semiotic systems which characterize social networks and condition enunciation (Van Dijck, 2013), we proceed to examine the Léon Vivien, Louis Castel and Little Suzon documentary-dramas from a semio-pragmatic point of view. We will examine the relationship between reality, fiction and realism on the basis of the semiopragmatic models developed by Hanot (2002) and Jost (2001) in order to analyse these audiovisual productions on four levels: profilmic, plastic, iconic and diegetic. By adapting these models to Internet, we will be able to identify the authenticating and fictional strategies employed in such online productions to make the archive images waver between the status of index and icon. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) WIND-STORM: A Decision Support System for the Strategic Management of Windthrow Crises by the Forest CommunityRiguelle, Simon ; Hebert, Jacques ; Jourez, Benoît in Forests (2015), 6Storms are one of the most damaging agents for European forests and can cause huge and long-term economic impacts on the forest sector. Recent events and research have contributed to a better ... [more ▼]Storms are one of the most damaging agents for European forests and can cause huge and long-term economic impacts on the forest sector. Recent events and research have contributed to a better understanding and management of destructive storms, but public authorities still lack appropriate decision-support tools for evaluating their strategic decisions in the aftermath of a storm. This paper presents a decision support system (DSS) that compares changes in the dynamics of the regional forest-based sector after storm events under various crisis management options. First, the development and implementation of a regional forest model is addressed; then, the potential application of the model-based DSS WIND-STORM is illustrated. The results of simulated scenarios reveal that this DSS type is useful for designing a cost-effective regional strategy for storm-damage management in the context of scarce public resources and that public strategies must encompass the whole forest-based sector to be efficient. Additional benefits of such a DSS is to bring together decision-makers and forest stakeholders for a common objective and therefore to enhance participatory approaches to crisis management. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (3 ULg) Double hydrophilic polyphosphoester containing copolymers as efficient templating agents for calcium carbonate microparticlesErgül, Zeynep ; Debuigne, Antoine ; Calvignac, Brice et alin Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2015), 3(36), 7227-7236The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially in biomedical applications in which the fine tuning of the size, morphology and ... [more ▼]The use of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) microparticles is becoming more and more attractive in many fields especially in biomedical applications in which the fine tuning of the size, morphology and crystalline form of the CaCO3 particles is crucial. Although some structuring compounds, like hyaluronic acid, give satisfying results, the control of the particle structure still has to be improved. To this end, we evaluated the CaCO3 structuring capacity of novel well-defined double hydrophilic block copolymers composed of poly(ethylene oxide) and a polyphosphoester segment with an affinity for calcium like poly(phosphotriester)s bearing pendent carboxylic acids or poly(phosphodiester)s with a negatively charged oxygen atom on each repeating monomer unit. These copolymers were synthesized by a combination of organocatalyzed ring opening polymerization, thiol–yne click chemistry and protection/deprotection methods. The formulation of CaCO3 particles was then performed in the presence of these block copolymers (i) by the classical chemical pathway involving CaCl2 and Na2CO3 and (ii) by a process based on supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) technology in which CO32− ions are generated in aqueous media and react with Ca2+ ions. Porous CaCO3 microspheres composed of vaterite nanocrystals were obtained. Moreover, a clear dependence of the particle size on the structure of the templating agent was emphasized. In this work, we show that the use of the supercritical process and the substitution of hyaluronic acid for a carboxylic acid containing copolymer decreases the size of the CaCO3 particles by a factor of 6 (∼1.5 μm) while preventing their aggregation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg) Multifractality of quantum wave functions in the presence of perturbationsDubertrand, Rémy ; Garcia-Mata, Ignacio; Georgeot, Bertrand et alin Physical Review. E : Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics (2015), 92We present a comprehensive study of the destruction of quantum multifractality in the presence of perturbations. We study diverse representative models displaying multifractality, including a ... [more ▼]We present a comprehensive study of the destruction of quantum multifractality in the presence of perturbations. We study diverse representative models displaying multifractality, including a pseudointegrable system, the Anderson model, and a random matrix model. We apply several types of natural perturbations which can be relevant for experimental implementations. We construct an analytical theory for certain cases and perform extensive large-scale numerical simulations in other cases. The data are analyzed through refined methods including double scaling analysis. Our results confirm the recent conjecture that multifractality breaks down following two scenarios. In the first one, multifractality is preserved unchanged below a certain characteristic length which decreases with perturbation strength. In the second one, multifractality is affected at all scales and disappears uniformly for a strong-enough perturbation. Our refined analysis shows that subtle variants of these scenarios can be present in certain cases. This study could guide experimental implementations in order to observe quantum multifractality in real systems. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (6 ULg) Towards understanding the variability in biospheric CO2 fluxes: using FTIR spectrometry and a chemical transport model to investigate the sources and sinks of carbonyl sulfide and its link to CO2Wang, Y.; Deutscher, N. M.; Palm, M. et alin Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15(18), 26025--26065Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric ... [more ▼]Understanding carbon dioxide (CO2) biospheric processes is of great importance because the terrestrial exchange drives the seasonal and inter-annual variability of CO2 in the atmosphere. Atmospheric inversions based on CO2 concentration measurements alone can only determine net biosphere fluxes, but not differentiate between photosynthesis (uptake) and respiration (production). Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) could provide an important additional constraint: it is also taken up by plants during photosynthesis but not emitted during respiration, and therefore is a potential mean to differentiate between these processes. Solar absorption Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometry allows for the retrievals of the atmospheric concentrations of both CO2 and OCS from measured solar absorption spectra. Here, we investigate co-located and quasi-simultaneous FTIR measurements of OCS and CO2 performed at three selected sites located in the Northern Hemisphere. These measurements are compared to simulations of OCS and CO2 using a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem). The OCS simulations are driven by different land biospheric fluxes to reproduce the seasonality of the measurements. Increasing the plant uptake of Kettle et al. (2002a) by a factor of three resulted in the best comparison with FTIR measurements. However, there are still discrepancies in the latitudinal distribution when comparing with HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) data spanning both hemispheres. The coupled biospheric fluxes of OCS and CO2 from the simple biosphere model (SiB) are used in the study and compared to measurements. The CO2 simulation with SiB fluxes agrees with the measurements well, while the OCS simulation reproduced a weaker drawdown than FTIR measurements at selected sites, and a smaller latitudinal gradient in the Northern Hemisphere during growing season. An offset in the timing of the seasonal cycle minimum between SiB simulation and measurements is also seen. Using OCS as a photosynthesis proxy can help to understand how the biospheric processes are reproduced in models and to further understand the carbon cycle in the real world. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg) Acetylene (C2H2) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from IASI satellite observations: global distributions, validation, and comparison with modelDuflot, V.; Wespes, C.; Clarisse, L. et alin Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15We present global distributions of C2H2 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) for the years 2008–2010. These distributions are ... [more ▼]We present global distributions of C2H2 and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) total columns derived from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) for the years 2008–2010. These distributions are obtained with a fast method allowing to retrieve C2H2 abundance globally with a 5% precision and HCN abundance in the tropical (subtropical) belt with a 10% (25 %) precision. IASI data are compared for validation purposes with ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer measurements at four selected stations. We show that there is an overall agreement between the ground-based and space measurements with correlation coefficients for daily mean measurements ranging from 0.28 to 0.81, depending on the site. Global C2H2 and subtropical HCN abundances retrieved from IASI spectra show the expected seasonality linked to variations in the anthropogenic emissions and seasonal biomass burning activity, as well as exceptional events, and are in good agreement with previous spaceborne studies. Total columns simulated by the Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4 (MOZART-4) are compared to the ground-based FTIR measurements at the four selected stations. The model is able to capture the seasonality in the two species in most of the cases, with correlation coefficients for daily mean measurements ranging from 0.50 to 0.86, depending on the site. IASI measurements are also compared to the distributions from MOZART-4. Seasonal cycles observed from satellite data are reasonably well reproduced by the model with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.31 to 0.93 for C2H2 daily means, and from 0.09 to 0.86 for HCN daily means, depending on the considered region. However, the anthropogenic (biomass burning) emissions used in the model seem to be overestimated (underestimated), and a negative global mean bias of 1% (16 %) of the model relative to the satellite observations was found for C2H2 (HCN). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) Multimodality imaging assessment of the deleterious role of the intraluminal thrombus on the growth of abdominal aortic aneurysm in a rat modelNCHIMI LONGANG, Alain ; COURTOIS, Fernand ; EL HACHEMI, Mounia et alin European Radiology (2015), onlineObjectives To evaluate imaging changes occurring in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with emphasis on the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) occurrence. Methods The post-induction ... [more ▼]Objectives To evaluate imaging changes occurring in a rat model of elastase-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), with emphasis on the intraluminal thrombus (ILT) occurrence. Methods The post-induction growth of the AAA diameter was characterized using ultrasound in 22 rats. ILT was reported on 13 rats that underwent 14 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 2-18 days post-surgery, and on 10 rats that underwent 18 fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/microcomputed tomography examinations 2-27 days post-surgery. Logistic regressions were used to establish the evolution with time of AAA length, diameter, ILT thickness, volume, stratification, MRI and FDG PET signalling properties, and histological assessment of inflammatory infiltrates. Results All of the following significantly increased with time post-induction (p < 0.001): AAA length, AAA diameter, ILT maximal thickness, ILT volume, ILT iron content and related MRI signalling changes, quantitative uptake on FDG PET, and the magnitude of inflammatory infiltrates on histology. However, the aneurysm growth peak followed occurrence of ILT approximately 6 days after elastase infusion. Conclusion Our model emphasizes that occurrence of ILT precedes AAA peak growth. Aneurysm growth is associated with increasing levels of iron, signalling properties changes in both MRI and FDG PET, relating to its biological activities. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Influence of the macromolecular surfactant features and reactivity on morphology and surface properties of emulsion-templated porous polymersMathieu, Kevin ; Jérôme, Christine ; Debuigne, Antoine in Macromolecules (2015), 48(18), 6489-6498This work investigates key parameters of a straightfor- ward macromolecular surfactant-assisted functionalization strategy of porous polymers produced by high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization ... [more ▼]This work investigates key parameters of a straightfor- ward macromolecular surfactant-assisted functionalization strategy of porous polymers produced by high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) polymerization. For that purpose, a series of well-defined amphiphilic poly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(styrene) (PEO-b-PS) copolymers with various compositions and molar masses were synthesized by radical addition−fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and used as macromolecular surfactants for the emulsion-templated polymerization of styrene/divinylbenzene (S/DVB). The morphology of the resulting foams, referred to as polyHIPEs, was found dependent on the PS block length and concentration of the block copolymer surfactant in the emulsion. Moreover, we determined the lowest PS block length required for preserving the anchoring of the copolymer at the surface by physical entanglement within the S/DVB cross-linked matrix leading to a PEO-coated porous material. The functionalization of the porous monoliths with PEO was evidenced by sessile drop shape analyses and water uptake experiments. The chemical anchoring of the PEO-b-PS at the surface of polyHIPEs was also explored by interfacial initiation of the HIPE polymerization from a PEO-b-PS-RAFT macroinitiator leading to porous structures with permanent PEO coatings. In this case, copolymerizing DVB with acrylate instead of styrene improved the interconnectivity of the porous monoliths. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (5 ULg) What Darkens the Greenland Ice Sheet?Teddesco, M; Doherty, S.; Warren, S. et alin EOS : Transactions, American Geophysical Union (2015)Most of the massive ice sheet that covers roughly four fifths of Greenland melts at the surface in summer. As long as the ice sheet regains its mass in the winter, this is not catastrophic. However, if ... [more ▼]Most of the massive ice sheet that covers roughly four fifths of Greenland melts at the surface in summer. As long as the ice sheet regains its mass in the winter, this is not catastrophic. However, if the ice sheet melted entirely, sea levels would rise by more than 7 meters, with obvious and severe consequences for human civilization. Not surprisingly, scientists are working hard to determine if and when the ice sheet will transition (or if it has already transitioned) from a stable state to a net mass loss state. The impact of increasing greenhouse gas levels on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) depends on many complex and interacting factors. One is the ice sheet’s albedo—the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is reflected from the surface of the ice sheet. Indeed, scientists have determined that net solar radiation reaching the ice is the largest contributor to the energy balance driving melting [e.g., van den Broeke et al., 2011]. Despite the crucial role of albedo in energy balance, we have yet to quantify the role of the different processes driving it. Such an understanding is crucial to determining the past behavior of the GrIS and projecting its future contribution to sea level rise. Scientists seeking to quantify how much various factors contribute to ice sheet albedo face numerous challenges. These include intrinsic limitations in current observational capabilities (e.g., spatial and radiometric resolution of currently available spaceborne sensors) and limitations on how accurately surface energy balance models handle ice sheet albedo. Moreover, the sparseness in space and time of in situ observations of quantities such as impurity concentrations, biological processes, and grain growth impedes our ability to separate their respective contributions to broadband albedo (integrated over the entire spectrum). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg) Faecal microbiota characterisation of horses using 16 rdna barcoded pyrosequencing, and carriage rate of clostridium difficile at hospital admissionRodriguez Diaz, Cristina ; Taminiau, Bernard ; Brévers, Bastien et alin BMC Microbiology (2015), 15Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been ... [more ▼]Background The equine faecal microbiota is very complex and remains largely unknown, while interspecies interactions have an important contribution to animal health. Clostridium difficile has been identified as an important cause of diarrhoea in horses. This study provides further information on the nature of the bacterial communities present in horses developing an episode of diarrhoea. The prevalence of C. difficile in hospitalised horses at the time of admission is also reported. Results Bacterial diversity of the gut microbiota in diarrhoea is lower than that in non-diarrhoeic horses in terms of species richness (p-value <0.002) and in population evenness (p-value: 0.02). Statistical differences for Actinobacillus, Porphyromonas, RC9 group, Roseburia and Ruminococcaceae were revealed. Fusobacteria was found in horses with diarrhoea but not in any of the horses with non-diarrheic faeces. In contrast, Akkermansia was among the three predominant taxa in all of the horses studied. The overall prevalence of C. difficile in the total samples of hospitalised horses at admission was 3.7 % (5/134), with five different PCR-ribotypes identified, including PCR-ribotype 014. Two colonised horses displayed a decreased bacterial species richness compared to the remaining subjects studied, which shared the same Bacteroides genus. However, none of the positive animals had diarrhoea at the moment of sampling. Conclusions The abundance of some taxa in the faecal microbiota of diarrhoeic horses can be a result of microbiome dysbiosis, and therefore a cause of intestinal disease, or some of these taxa may act as equine enteric pathogens. Clostridium difficile colonisation seems to be transient in all of the horses studied, without overgrowth to trigger infection. A large proportion of the sequences were unclassified, showing the complexity of horses’ faecal microbiota. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (3 ULg) An Ant Colony System for Responsive Dynamic Vehicle RoutingSchyns, Michael in European Journal of Operational Research (2015), 245(3), 704-718We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets ... [more ▼]We present an algorithm based on an Ant Colony System to deal with a broad range of Dynamic Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problems with Time Windows, (partial) Split Delivery and Heterogeneous fleets (DVRPTWSD). Besides the traditional distance criterion, we address the important case of responsiveness. Responsiveness is defined here as completing a delivery as soon as possible, within the time window, such that the client or the truck may restart its activities. This is crucial for many production or service activities in different fields: express parcel deliveries, taxi services, Just in Time production, express repair services, medical care, petrol station replenishment, etc. We develop an interactive web-based solution to allow dispatchers to take new information into account in real-time. The algorithm and its parametrization were tested on real and artificial instances. We first illustrate our approach with a problem submitted by Liege Airport, the 8th biggest cargo airport in Europe. The goal is to develop a decision system to optimize the journey of the refueling trucks. We then consider some classical VRP benchmarks with extensions for more complex problems. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 105 (25 ULg) Origin of high-frequency TEC disturbances observed by GPS over the European mid-latitude regionWautelet, Gilles ; Warnant, René in Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics (2015)High-frequency variability of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) can strongly affect precise positioning with GNSS. The occurrence rate as well as the amplitude of such disturbances has been ... [more ▼]High-frequency variability of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) can strongly affect precise positioning with GNSS. The occurrence rate as well as the amplitude of such disturbances has been extensively studied over the last decade. Mainly, one can distinguish disturbances due to space-weather events and the others, qualified as “quiet-time” as they are observed during quiet geomagnetic conditions. The latter, which represent more than 75% of the total number of disturbances over mid-latitudes, are then divided into two categories: the Winter Daytime (WD) and the Summer Nighttime (SN). The first category, representing the bulk of quiet-time disturbances, corresponds to classical Medium-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (MSTIDs), that are the result of the interaction of gravity waves and the ionospheric plasma. On the other hand, SN disturbances are generally understood as non-classical MSTIDs of electrical origin. The paper investigates the origin of these two types of disturbance based on GPS measurements, ionospheric soundings and wind speed data at a tropospheric level. If one cannot exclude the solar terminator as a potential source of gravity waves responsible for WD events, it is thought that the major contribution comes from the lower atmosphere. More precisely, tropospheric jetstream is considered as the favorite candidate for daytime MSTIDs. Turning to SN disturbances, our analysis reveals that they are related to spread-F phenomenon, linked to the appearance of sporadic E-layers. The related instabilities are responsible for field-aligned irregularities in the F-region, which are thought to be responsible for noise-like fluctuations of the GPS TEC observed during SN events. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Dynamics of hybrid switching diffusions SIRS modelSettati, Adel; Lahrouz, Aadil; El Jarroudi, Mustapha et alin Journal of Applied Mathematics and Computing (2015)The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of the environmental noises in the asymptotic properties of a stochastic version of the classical SIRS epidemic model. The model studied here include ... [more ▼]The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of the environmental noises in the asymptotic properties of a stochastic version of the classical SIRS epidemic model. The model studied here include white noise and telegraph noise modeled by Markovian switching. We obtained conditions for extinction both in probability one and in pth moment. We also established the persistence of disease under different conditions on the intensities of noises, the parameters of the model and the stationary distribution of the Markov chain. The highlight point of our work is that our conditions are sufficient and almost necessary for extinction and persistence of the epidemic. The presented results are demonstrated by numerical simulations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Pelagic photoferrotrophy and iron cycling in a modern ferruginous basinLlirós, Marc; García–Armisen, Tamara; Darchambeau, François et alin Scientific Reports (2015), 5Iron-rich (ferruginous) ocean chemistry prevailed throughout most of Earth’s early history. Before the evolution and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis, biological production in the ferruginous ... [more ▼]Iron-rich (ferruginous) ocean chemistry prevailed throughout most of Earth’s early history. Before the evolution and proliferation of oxygenic photosynthesis, biological production in the ferruginous oceans was likely driven by photoferrotrophic bacteria that oxidize ferrous iron {Fe(II)} to harness energy from sunlight, and fix inorganic carbon into biomass. Photoferrotrophs may thus have fuelled Earth’s early biosphere providing energy to drive microbial growth and evolution over billions of years. Yet, photoferrotrophic activity has remained largely elusive on the modern Earth, leaving models for early biological production untested and imperative ecological context for the evolution of life missing. Here, we show that an active community of pelagic photoferrotrophs comprises up to 30% of the total microbial community in illuminated ferruginous waters of Kabuno Bay (KB), East Africa (DR Congo). These photoferrotrophs produce oxidized iron {Fe(III)} and biomass, and support a diverse pelagic microbial community including heterotrophic Fe(III)-reducers, sulfate reducers, fermenters and methanogens. At modest light levels, rates of photoferrotrophy in KB exceed those predicted for early Earth primary production, and are sufficient to generate Earth’s largest sedimentary iron ore deposits. Fe cycling, however, is efficient, and complex microbial community interactions likely regulate Fe(III) and organic matter export from the photic zone. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg) De la maladie chronique à la multimorbidité : quel impact sur l’organisation des soins de santé ?Belche, Jean-Luc ; Berrewaerts, Marie-Astrid ; Ketterer, Frédéric et alin Presse Médicale (2015)Healthcare systems are concerned with the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Single disease approach, based on the Chronic Care Model, is known to improve specific indicators for the targeted disease ... [more ▼]Healthcare systems are concerned with the growing prevalence of chronic diseases. Single disease approach, based on the Chronic Care Model, is known to improve specific indicators for the targeted disease. However, the co-existence of several chronic disease, or multimorbidity, within a same patient is the most frequent situation. The fragmentation of care, as consequence of the single disease approach, has negative impact on the patient and healthcare professionals. A person centred approach is a method addressing the combination of health issues of each patient. The coordination and synthesis role is key to ensure continuity of care for the patient within a network of healthcare professionals from several settings of care. This function is the main characteristic of an organized first level of care. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (0 ULg) Past changes in the vertical distribution of ozone – Part 3: Analysis and interpretation of trendsHarris, N. R. P.; Hassler, B.; Tummon, F. et alin Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2015), 15(17), 9965--9982Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by ... [more ▼]Trends in the vertical distribution of ozone are reported and compared for a number of new and recently revised data sets. The amount of ozone-depleting compounds in the stratosphere (as measured by equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine – EESC) was maximised in the second half of the 1990s. We examine the periods before and after the peak to see if any change in trend is discernible in the ozone record that might be attributable to a change in the EESC trend, though no attribution is attempted. Prior to 1998, trends in the upper stratosphere (~45 km, 4 hPa) are found to be -5 to -10% per decade at mid-latitudes and closer to -5% per decade in the tropics. No trends are found in the mid-stratosphere (28 km, 30 hPa). Negative trends are seen in the lower stratosphere at mid-latitudes in both hemispheres and in the deep tropics. However, it is hard to be categorical about the trends in the lower stratosphere for three reasons: (i) there are fewer measurements, (ii) the data quality is poorer, and (iii) the measurements in the 1990s are perturbed by aerosols from the Mt Pinatubo eruption in 1991. These findings are similar to those reported previously even though the measurements for the main satellite and groundbased records have been revised. There is no sign of a continued negative trend in the upper stratosphere since 1998: instead there is a hint of an average positive trend of ~2% per decade in mid-latitudes and ~3% per decade in the tropics. The significance of these upward trends is investigated using different assumptions of the independence of the trend estimates found from different data sets. The averaged upward trends are significant if the trends derived from various data sets are assumed to be independent (as in Pawson et al., 2014) but are generally not significant if the trends are not independent. This occurs because many of the underlying measurement records are used in more than one merged data set. At this point it is not possible to say which assumption is best. Including an estimate of the drift of the overall ozone observing system decreases the significance of the trends. The significance will become clearer as (i) more years are added to the observational record, (ii) further improvements are made to the historic ozone record (e.g. through algorithm development), and (iii) the data merging techniques are refined, particularly through a more rigorous treatment of uncertainties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (1 ULg) Trend analysis in ecological status and macrophytic characterization of watercourses: case of the Semois-Chiers basin, Belgium WalloniaSossey Alaoui, Khadija ; Rosillon, Francis ; Tychon, Bernard in Journal of Water Resource and Protection (2015), Vol.7 No.13 2015In order to analyze the distribution and evolution of the aquatic vegetation and ecological status of the Semois-Chiers basin (Semois sub-basin and Chiers sub-basin), macrophyte surveys were conducted at ... [more ▼]In order to analyze the distribution and evolution of the aquatic vegetation and ecological status of the Semois-Chiers basin (Semois sub-basin and Chiers sub-basin), macrophyte surveys were conducted at 48 sites in 2007 and 2013. Environmental parameters were also measured in order to characterize the waterbodies in terms of physico-chemical properties and anthropogenic pressure. The two-way clustering and indicator value (INDVAL) methods were used to assess groups of sites according to their macrophytic composition and species communities. The results showed a clear difference between streams in the Lorraine area (calcareous watercourses) and in the Ardennes (siliceous). Within each natural region, those with natural vegetation of high ecological status were separated from those dominated by resistant species. The Macrophytical Biological Index for Rivers (IBMR), was calculated for the sites visited in 2010 and 2013 and the results show a trend towards an increase of IBMR values of polluted sites. For the latter, the Wilcoxon test was performed to assess the significance of the difference in quality between 2010 and 2013. This showed a statistically significant difference (p-value= 0.035). Our results showed similarities with previous data, as well as some differences. The differences observed might indicate a gradual change in the composition of the vegetation in the study area, caused by changes in environmental conditions. They could also reflect a lack of information about the ecology of certain groups of plants, mainly bryophytes and macroalgae that were not considered in previous studies. Despite the measures implemented under the EU’s Water Framework Directive (WFD), the current vegetation of the Semois river differs little from that observed in 1996. There is a slight improvement in the headwaters of a Semois river, described in previous studies as polytrophic and devoid of vegetation, with the appearance of macrophytic species. In some parts of the Chiers sub-basin, however, resistant species observed in 1999 persist. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (2 ULg) Progenitor potential of nkx6.1-expressing cells throughout zebrafish life and during beta cell regeneration.Ghaye, Aurelie P.; Bergemann, David ; Tarifeño Saldivia, Estefania et alin BMC biology (2015), 13BACKGROUND: In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: In contrast to mammals, the zebrafish has the remarkable capacity to regenerate its pancreatic beta cells very efficiently. Understanding the mechanisms of regeneration in the zebrafish and the differences with mammals will be fundamental to discovering molecules able to stimulate the regeneration process in mammals. To identify the pancreatic cells able to give rise to new beta cells in the zebrafish, we generated new transgenic lines allowing the tracing of multipotent pancreatic progenitors and endocrine precursors. RESULTS: Using novel bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic nkx6.1 and ascl1b reporter lines, we established that nkx6.1-positive cells give rise to all the pancreatic cell types and ascl1b-positive cells give rise to all the endocrine cell types in the zebrafish embryo. These two genes are initially co-expressed in the pancreatic primordium and their domains segregate, not as a result of mutual repression, but through the opposite effects of Notch signaling, maintaining nkx6.1 expression while repressing ascl1b in progenitors. In the adult zebrafish, nkx6.1 expression persists exclusively in the ductal tree at the tip of which its expression coincides with Notch active signaling in centroacinar/terminal end duct cells. Tracing these cells reveals that they are able to differentiate into other ductal cells and into insulin-expressing cells in normal (non-diabetic) animals. This capacity of ductal cells to generate endocrine cells is supported by the detection of ascl1b in the nkx6.1:GFP ductal cell transcriptome. This transcriptome also reveals, besides actors of the Notch and Wnt pathways, several novel markers such as id2a. Finally, we show that beta cell ablation in the adult zebrafish triggers proliferation of ductal cells and their differentiation into insulin-expressing cells. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that, in the zebrafish embryo, nkx6.1+ cells are bona fide multipotent pancreatic progenitors, while ascl1b+ cells represent committed endocrine precursors. In contrast to the mouse, pancreatic progenitor markers nkx6.1 and pdx1 continue to be expressed in adult ductal cells, a subset of which we show are still able to proliferate and undergo ductal and endocrine differentiation, providing robust evidence of the existence of pancreatic progenitor/stem cells in the adult zebrafish. Our findings support the hypothesis that nkx6.1+ pancreatic progenitors contribute to beta cell regeneration. Further characterization of these cells will open up new perspectives for anti-diabetic therapies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (1 ULg) The changing UV and X-ray properties of the Of?p star CPD -28°2561Nazé, Yaël ; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Fullerton, Alex W. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 452The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55 per cent with rotational ... [more ▼]The Of?p star CPD -28°2561 was monitored at high energies with XMM-Newton and HST. In X-rays, this magnetic oblique rotator displays bright and hard emission that varies by ~55 per cent with rotational phase. These changes occur in phase with optical variations, as expected for magnetically confined winds; there are two maxima and two minima in X-rays during the 73 d rotational period of CPD -28°2561. However, contrary to previously studied cases, no significant hardness variation is detected between minima and maxima, with the exception of the second minimum which is slightly distinct from the first one. In the UV domain, broad-band fluxes remain stable while line profiles display large variations. Stronger absorptions at low velocities are observed when the magnetic equator is seen edge-on, which can be reproduced by a detailed 3D model. However, a difference in absorption at high velocities in the C IV and N V lines is also detected for the two phases where the confined wind is seen nearly pole-on. This suggests the presence of strong asymmetries about the magnetic equator, mostly in the free-flowing wind (rather than in the confined dynamical magnetosphere). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (0 ULg) Organocatalytic promoted coupling of carbon dioxide with epoxides: a rational investigation of the cocatalytic activity of various hydrogen bond donorsAlves, Margot ; Grignard, Bruno ; Gennen, Sandro et alin Catalysis Science & Technology (2015), 5(9), 4636-4643A catalytic platform based on an onium salt used in combination with organic cocatalysts of various structures was developed for the efficient CO2/epoxide coupling under mild conditions. Through detailed ... [more ▼]A catalytic platform based on an onium salt used in combination with organic cocatalysts of various structures was developed for the efficient CO2/epoxide coupling under mild conditions. Through detailed kinetic studies by in-situ FT-IR spectroscopy, a rational investigation of the efficiency of a series of commercially available hydrogen bond donors co-catalysts was realized and the influence of different parameters such as the pressure, the temperature, the catalyst loading, and the nature of the epoxide on the reaction kinetics was evaluated. Fluorinated alcohols were found to be more efficient than other hydrogen bond donor activators proposed previously in the literature under similar conditions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 44 (18 ULg) A stochastic computational multiscale approach; Application to MEMS resonatorsLucas, Vincent ; Golinval, Jean-Claude ; Paquay, Stéphane et alin Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics & Engineering (2015), 294The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro ... [more ▼]The aim of this work is to develop a stochastic multiscale model for polycrystalline materials, which accounts for the uncertainties in the micro-structure. At the finest scale, we model the micro-structure using a random Voronoi tessellation, each grain being assigned a random orientation. Then, we apply a computational homogenization procedure on statistical volume elements to obtain a stochastic characterization of the elasticity tensor at the meso-scale. A random field of the meso-scale elasticity tensor can then be generated based on the information obtained from the SVE simulations. Finally, using a stochastic finite element method, these meso-scale uncertainties are propagated to the coarser scale. As an illustration we study the resonance frequencies of MEMS micro-beams made of poly-silicon materials, and we show that the stochastic multiscale approach predicts results in agreement with a Monte Carlo analysis applied directly on the fine finite-element model, i.e. with an explicit discretization of the grains. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (54 ULg) Lamost Observations in the Kepler Field. I. Database of Low-resolution SpectraDe Cat, P.; Fu, J. N.; Ren, A. B. et alin Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series (2015), 220The nearly continuous light curves with micromagnitude precision provided by the space mission Kepler are revolutionizing our view of pulsating stars. They have revealed a vast sea of low-amplitude ... [more ▼]The nearly continuous light curves with micromagnitude precision provided by the space mission Kepler are revolutionizing our view of pulsating stars. They have revealed a vast sea of low-amplitude pulsation modes that were undetectable from Earth. The long time base of Kepler light curves allows for the accurate determination of the frequencies and amplitudes of pulsation modes needed for in-depth asteroseismic modeling. However, for an asteroseismic study to be successful, the first estimates of stellar parameters need to be known and they cannot be derived from the Kepler photometry itself. The Kepler Input Catalog provides values for the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity, but not always with sufficient accuracy. Moreover, information on the chemical composition and rotation rate is lacking. We are collecting low-resolution spectra for objects in the Kepler field of view with the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (lamost, Xinglong observatory, China). All of the requested fields have now been observed at least once. In this paper, we describe those observations and provide a useful database for the whole astronomical community. ) located at the Xinglong observatory, China. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) Erythropoietin therapy after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation has no impact on long-term survivalJASPERS, Aurélie ; Baron, Frédéric ; SERVAIS, Sophie et alin American Journal of Hematology (2015), 90(9), 199-197Detailed reference viewed: 14 (2 ULg) Dermatophytosis, Trends in Epidemiolgy and Diagnostic ApproachHAYETTE, Marie-Pierre ; SACHELI, Rosalie in Current Fungal Infections report (2015), 9(3), 164-179Dermatophytes are among the common fungal agents implicated in superficial skin infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide but the ... [more ▼]Dermatophytes are among the common fungal agents implicated in superficial skin infections. The anthropophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum is still the most frequent causative agent worldwide but the prevalence of several species of dermatophytes varies through different areas around the world. This review summarizes the current status of dermatophytes infection in Europe, Africa, Asia and America and gives an overview of the molecular biology laboratory methods currently available for the diagnosis of dermatomycoses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg) Stress, psychosocial mediators and cognitive mediators in parents of child cancer patients and cancer survivors: Attention and working memory pathway perspectivesVander Haegen, Marie ; Luminet, Olivierin The Journal Of Psychosocial Oncology (2015), 33Objective: This review examines stress and its consequences on attention and working memory, stress symptoms in parents of child cancer patients and survivors and long term consequences of stress on ... [more ▼]Objective: This review examines stress and its consequences on attention and working memory, stress symptoms in parents of child cancer patients and survivors and long term consequences of stress on cognitive processing in parents of child cancer survivors. Method: Eligible studies were experimental, meta-analyses and qualitative (2000–2013) from Pubmed, Medline, the Cochrane Library, PsycArticles and Google Scholar. Results: We identified 92 eligible papers. They showed that elevated stress can impede performances on tasks requiring attention and memory patterns. In paediatric oncology, parental stress increased shortly after diagnosis involving depression and anxiety. Consequences of stress on cognitive performances were observed mainly among depressed individuals. As regards parents of child cancer survivors, female gender, low SES, innate traits of anxiety/anger predicted the development of PTSS. Conclusion: Evidence of stress on attention and working memory processes in parents of child cancer survivors is insufficient developed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (6 ULg) Developing biodiversity indicators on a stakeholders' opinions basis: the gypsum industry Key Performance Indicators framework.Pitz, Carline ; Mahy, Grégory ; Vermeulen, Cédric et alin Environmental Science and Pollution Research (2015)Aims: To establish a common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) framework for reporting about the gypsum industry biodiversity at the European level. Methods: In order to integrate different opinions and to ... [more ▼]Aims: To establish a common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) framework for reporting about the gypsum industry biodiversity at the European level. Methods: In order to integrate different opinions and to reach a consensus framework, an original participatory process approach has been developed among different stakeholder groups: Eurogypsum, European and regional authorities, universities scientists, consulting offices, European and regional associations for the conservation of nature and the extractive industry. The strategy is developed around four main steps: (i) building of a maximum set of indicators to be submitted to stakeholders based on the literature (Focus Group method); (ii) evaluating the consensus about indicators through a policy Delphi survey aiming at the prioritization of indicator classes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method (AHP) and of individual indicators; (iii) testing acceptability and feasibility through analysis of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and visits to three European quarries; (iv) Eurogypsum final decision and communication. Results: The resulting framework contains a set of 11 indicators considered the most suitable for all the stakeholders. Conclusions: Our KPIs respond to European legislation and strategies for biodiversity. The framework aims at improving sustainability in quarries and at helping to manage biodiversity as well as to allow the creation of coherent reporting systems. The final goal is to allow for the definition of the actual biodiversity status of gypsum quarries and allow for enhancing it. The framework is adaptable to the local context of each gypsum quarry. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 92 (23 ULg) Water conflicts in tropical watersheds: hydroeconomic simulations of water sharing policies between upstream small private irrigators and downstream large public irrigation schemes in Burkina FasoKpadonou, Rivaldo; Barbier, Bruno; Wellens, Joost et alin Water International (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) Comprendre le contenu des programmes électoraux. Comparaison des méthodes d’encodage manuel et automatiquePiet, Grégory ; Dandoy, Régis; Joly, Jeroenin Mots. Les Langages du Politique (2015), 108In political science, the analysis of political documents is crucial as it helps assessing a wide range of hypotheses related to the priorities set before political actors and institutions. The most ... [more ▼]In political science, the analysis of political documents is crucial as it helps assessing a wide range of hypotheses related to the priorities set before political actors and institutions. The most widely used and most efficient of the too many methods of assessing political documents are those carried out manually, though. And yet, automatic encoding bears fundamental advantages as well. This paper sets out to compare and contrast the results of two distinct methods applied on the same corpus of texts: one method uses manual encoding content of political documents whereas the other relies on computer-based data encoding. Electoral manifestoes of Belgian main political parties between 1987 and 2007 constitute the basis of the study. Identifying and comparing the major thematics dealt with in the corpus enable us to point out a range of differences and similarities. The paper discusses both methods of encoding so as a set of conclusions is drawn and available for future analyses of political texts. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (5 ULg) Pourquoi travailler systématiquement avec des exponentielles de base e ?Bair, Jacques ; Henry, Valérie ; Justens, Danielin Tangente (2015), 166Le nombre e est omniprésent en mathématiques: on le retrouve en analyse, en trigonométrie, en calcul des probabilités. Il apparaît dans nombre d'applications en finance, en physique, en actuariat. Nous ... [more ▼]Le nombre e est omniprésent en mathématiques: on le retrouve en analyse, en trigonométrie, en calcul des probabilités. Il apparaît dans nombre d'applications en finance, en physique, en actuariat. Nous montrons dans cet article ce qui fait de ce nombre une base incontournable. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Variation in swim bladder drumming sounds from three doradid catfish species with similar sonic morphologiesBoyle, Kelly; Riepe, Ségolène; Bolen, Géraldine et alin Journal of Experimental Biology (2015), 218Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Influence du Kinésiotape® sur les performances musculaires des ischio-jambiersBAUVIR, Philippe ; Kaux, Jean-François ; Pondant, Laurent et alin Journal de Traumatologie du Sport (2015), 32(3), 110-115Objective The aim of this controlled, randomized, and double-blind study was to determine whether Kinesiotape® placed on healthy hamstrings could influence the isokinetic performances of this muscle group ... [more ▼]Objective The aim of this controlled, randomized, and double-blind study was to determine whether Kinesiotape® placed on healthy hamstrings could influence the isokinetic performances of this muscle group and of its antagonist, the quadriceps. Methods Twelve healthy men, aged 18–30 years, were subjected to an isokinetic evaluation in 3 different conditions (without Kinesiotape®, placebo Kinesiotape® to hamstrings, facilitation Kinesiotape® to hamstrings) in randomized order. The 3 sessions assessed peak torque (N.m), work (J) and angle to peak torque (°) in concentric 60 and 240°/s for hamstrings and quadriceps, and in eccentric 30°/s for hamstrings. Results Isokinetic performances in the 3 different conditions were not significantly different (P>0.05) in particular for the hamstrings concentric and eccentric peak torques. Only the angle to peak torque for hamstrings in eccentric 30°/s was modified when comparing placebo Kinesiotape® with no Kinesiotape® condition (P<0.05). Conclusion Kinesiotape® intervention in healthy subjects’ hamstrings did not influence neither the strength of this muscular group nor the performances of its antagonist, the quadriceps. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (37 ULg) An overview of potamodromous fish upstream movements in medium-sized rivers, by means of fish passes monitoringBenitez, Jean-Philippe ; Nzau Matondo, Billy ; Dierckx, Arnaud et alin Aquatic Ecology (2015)This study aims to investigate the upstream movement patterns of potamodromous fish species using multi-annual monitoring of modern multi-species fish passes in two medium-sized Belgian rivers: the ... [more ▼]This study aims to investigate the upstream movement patterns of potamodromous fish species using multi-annual monitoring of modern multi-species fish passes in two medium-sized Belgian rivers: the Berwinne and the Ambleve. During a 6-year monitoring period including a frequency of 1–5 times per week, the captured individuals were identified, measured and weighed to determine species abundance, and the periodicity of their seasonal movement patterns was investigated in relation to environmental factors. In the Ambleve, 22 different fish species were monitored (n = 1513 individuals; biomass of 154 kg) and 14 species in the Berwinne (n = 3720; 408 kg). In both fish passes, inter-annual differences were observed, but the first year of monitoring was the best in terms of biomass, indicating the existence of an opening effect just after the fish passes opening, which allowed new migration routes. Salmonids and rheophilic cyprinids were predominant in terms of biomass, while minnow and spirlin were predominant in terms of number of fishes. The diversity in sizeranged from 46 to 760 mm demonstrating the importance of movements in various life stages. The capture periodicity showed different mobility patterns between the adult and juvenile stages in most species. Movements occurred frequently during the circus reproduction period for some species, but many species moved also apart from spawning period. This study highlights the omnipresence of patrimonial holobiotic potamodromous fish at different life stages that reflect their biological needs to move throughout the annual cycle. They must be considered as target species in river continuity restoration programmes and fish-pass design. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (3 ULg) Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation for PREVention and Acute treatment of chronic cluster headache (PREVA): A randomised controlled study.Gaul, Charly; Diener, Hans-Christoph; Silver, Nicholas et alin Cephalalgia : An International Journal of Headache (2015)Background: Chronic cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating disorder for which few well-controlled studies demonstrate effectiveness of available therapies. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) was ... [more ▼]Background: Chronic cluster headache (CH) is a debilitating disorder for which few well-controlled studies demonstrate effectiveness of available therapies. Non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation (nVNS) was examined as adjunctive prophylactic treatment of chronic CH. Methods: PREVA was a prospective, open-label, randomised study that compared adjunctive prophylactic nVNS (n=48) with standard of care (SoC) alone (control (n=49)). A two-week baseline phase was followed by a four-week randomised phase (SoC plus nVNS vs control) and a four-week extension phase (SoC plus nVNS). The primary end point was the reduction in the mean number of CH attacks per week. Response rate, abortive medication use and safety tolerability were also assessed. Results: During the randomised phase, individuals in the intent-to-treat population treated with SoC plus nVNS (n=45) had a significantly greater reduction in the number of attacks per week vs controls (n=48) (-5.9 vs -2.1, respectively) for a mean therapeutic gain of 3.9 fewer attacks per week (95% CI: 0.5, 7.2; p=0.02). Higher #50% response rates were also observed with SoC plus nVNS (40% (18/45)) vs controls (8.3% (4/48); p<0.001). No serious treatment-related adverse events occurred. Conclusion: Adjunctive prophylactic nVNS is a well-tolerated novel treatment for chronic CH, offering clinical benefits beyond those with SoC. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Similarities between the target and the intruder in naturally occurring repeated person naming errorsBrédart, Serge ; Dardenne, Benoît in Frontiers in Psychology (2015), 6(art 1474), Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Culture in the post-2015 development agenda: the anatomy of an international mobilisationVlassis, Antonios in Third World Quarterly (2015), 36(9), 1649-1662Throughout 2012–15 several actors were advocating that culture be explicitly integrated within the post-2015 UN development agenda. My article offers an anatomy of the recent international mobilisation in ... [more ▼]Throughout 2012–15 several actors were advocating that culture be explicitly integrated within the post-2015 UN development agenda. My article offers an anatomy of the recent international mobilisation in order to understand the cleavages and the contrasting visions. In doing so, it seeks to analyse the policy process through which the agenda is made, why and how a critical mass of actors is attempting to embrace the inclusion of culture in the post-2015 agenda and the political reactions vis-à-vis this mobilisation. The article argues, on the one hand, that the promotion of culture in the post-2015 agenda is largely based on UNESCO’s will to advance its policy agenda and enhance its position within the UN system and, on the other hand, that this mobilisation lacks political support from the most influential governments; therefore its chances of success are more than contingent. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (1 ULg) Analyse critique des traitements conservateurs classiques des tendinopathiesKAUX, Jean-François ; Croisier, Jean-Louis ; Forthomme, Bénédicte et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (2015), 70(9), 456-460Les thérapeutiques «passives» classiques (anti-inflammatoires, infiltrations de corticoïdes…) des tendinopathies, utilisées de manière relativement empirique, réduisent la douleur et l’inflammation, sans ... [more ▼]Les thérapeutiques «passives» classiques (anti-inflammatoires, infiltrations de corticoïdes…) des tendinopathies, utilisées de manière relativement empirique, réduisent la douleur et l’inflammation, sans modifier fondamentalement la structure du tendon, expliquant leur vocable et caractère «passif». La rééducation excentrique a été appliquée aux tendinopathies chroniques, non seulement de par l’échec des traitements classiques, mais aussi en raison d’une meilleure compréhension physiopathologique des tendinopathies. Diverses études soulignent l’efficacité de la rééducation excentrique qui, après 20-30 séances, entraîne la guérison et surtout prévient le risque de chronicité. Les ondes de choc, modifiant la structure tendineuse, permettraient une guérison à plus long terme. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (2 ULg) Comparison of isotopic turnover dynamics in two different muscles of a coral reef fish during the settlement phaseGajdzik, Laura ; Lepoint, Gilles ; Lecchini, David et alin Scientia Marina (2015), 79(3), 325-333The temporal variation in carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (noted as δ13C and δ15N) was investigated in the convict surgeonfish (Acanthurus triostegus) at Moorea (French Polynesia). Over a period ... [more ▼]The temporal variation in carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions (noted as δ13C and δ15N) was investigated in the convict surgeonfish (Acanthurus triostegus) at Moorea (French Polynesia). Over a period of 24 days, juveniles were reared in aquaria and subjected to two different feeding treatments: granules or algae. The dynamics of δ13C and δ15N in two muscles (the adductor mandibulae complex and the epaxial musculature) having different functions were compared. At the end of experiments, a steady-state isotopic system in each muscle tissue was not reached. Especially for the algal treatment, we found different patterns of variation in isotopic compositions over time between the two muscles. The turnovers of δ13C showed opposite trends for each muscle but differences are mitigated by starvation and by the metamorphosis. Our study highlighted that the metabolism of coral reef fish may be subjected to catabolism or anabolism of non-protein precursors at settlement, inducing variation in isotopic compositions that are not linked to diet change. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg) Identification of cardiac repercussions after intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise in young sedentary peopleLE GOFF, Caroline ; Kaux, Jean-François ; Couffignal, Vincent et alin Clinical physiology and functional imaging (2015), 35(5), 368-375INTRODUCTION: Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among ... [more ▼]INTRODUCTION: Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among those who are unaware of their heart condition. The development of cardiospecific biochemical markers has led to a reconsideration of the role of biology in the diagnosis of cardiovascular illnesses. The aim of this study therefore was, through the use of cardiac biomarker assays, to highlight the impact of sustained physical effort in the form of intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise and to research potential cardiovascular risks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen subjects participated in a maximal concentric isokinetic exercise involving 30 knee flexion-extensions for each leg. Five blood tests were taken to study the kinetics of the cardiac biomarkers. Haemodynamic parameters were measured continuously using a Portapres, and respiratory parameters were measured using a Sensormedics Vmax 29C. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in the creatine kinase, myoglobin, homocysteine and haemoglobin cardiac markers. Evolutionary trends were also observed for the following biomarkers: NT-proBNP, myeloperoxydase and C-reactive protein. All the physiological parameters measured presented statistically significant changes. CONCLUSION: Isokinetic effort leads to the release of cardiac markers in the blood, but these do not exceed the reference values in healthy subjects. Maximal concentric isokinetic exercise does not, therefore, lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 91 (41 ULg) Implementation of a damage evolution law for dual-phase steels in Gurson-type modelsBalan, Tudor; Lemoine, Xavier; Maire, eric et alin Materials and Design (2015), (88), 1213-1222This paper is a contribution to the phenomenological modeling of damage evolution in DP steels in the framework of Gurson’s approach. It is based on recent results of X-ray tomography in-situ tensile ... [more ▼]This paper is a contribution to the phenomenological modeling of damage evolution in DP steels in the framework of Gurson’s approach. It is based on recent results of X-ray tomography in-situ tensile tests and subsequent one-dimensional metallurgical void nucleation models proposed in [C. Landron et al., Scripta Materialia 63 (2010) 973—976]. A macroscopic void nucleation law for DP steels is proposed, covering a wide range of stress triaxialities. The respective effects of nucleation, growth and coalescence are clearly separated. Validations with respect to experimental porosity measurements were performed for several monotonic loading cases and for two loading sequences involving large strains and strain-path changes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) An enhanced version of a bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory.Mengoni, Marlène ; Ponthot, Jean-Philippe in Computer Methods in Biomechanics & Biomedical Engineering (2015), 18(12), 1367-1376The purpose of this work is to propose an enhancement of Doblaré and García's internal bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory. In their paper, they stated that the evolution ... [more ▼]The purpose of this work is to propose an enhancement of Doblaré and García's internal bone remodelling model based on the continuum damage mechanics theory. In their paper, they stated that the evolution of the internal variables of the bone microstructure, and its incidence on the modification of the elastic constitutive parameters, may be formulated following the principles of Continuum Damage Mechanics, although no actual damage was considered. The resorption and apposition criteria (similar to the damage criterion) were expressed in terms of a mechanical stimulus. However, the resorption criterion is lacking a dimensional consistency with the remodelling rate. We here propose an enhancement to this resorption criterion, insuring the dimensional consistency while retaining the physical properties of the original remodelling model. We then analyse the change in the resorption criterion hypersurface in the stress space for a 2D analysis. We finally apply the new formulation to analyse the structural evolution of a 2D femur. This analysis gives results consistent with the original model but with a faster and more stable convergence rate. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 78 (25 ULg) Vibrational spectroscopy and microspectroscopy analyzing qualitatively and quantitatively pharmaceutical hot melt extrudatesNetchacovitch, Lauranne ; Thiry, Justine ; De Bleye, Charlotte et alin Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2015), 113Detailed reference viewed: 101 (41 ULg) NetBenchmark: a bioconductor package for reproducible benchmarks of gene regulatory network inferenceBellot, Pau; Olsen, Catharina; Salembier, Philippe et alin BMC Bioinformatics (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Plasma riche en plaquettes pour le traitements de lésions tendineusesKaux, Jean-François ; Drion, Pierre ; Croisier, Jean-Louis et alin Journal de Réadaptation Médicale (2015), 35(3), 181-191Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to ... [more ▼]Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 30 September 2014 dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, 5 addressed lateral epicondylitis, 2 addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, 10 dealt with patellar tendinopathies and 3 looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon's healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (4 ULg) Lumbopelvic motor control and low back pain in elite soccer players: a cross-sectional studyGROSDENT, Stéphanie ; Demoulin, Christophe ; Rodriguez de la Cruz, Carlos et alin Journal of Sports Sciences (2015)This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1 ... [more ▼]This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the history of low back pain and quality of lumbopelvic motor control in soccer players. Forty-three male elite soccer players (mean age, 18.2 ± 1.4 years) filled in questionnaires related to low back pain and attended a session to assess lumbopelvic motor control by means of five tests (the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test, the sitting knee extension test, the waiter ’ s bow and the transversus abdominis test). A physiotherapist, blinded to the medical history of the participants, scored (0 = failed, 1 = correct) the performance of the players for each of the tests resulting in a lumbopelvic motor control score ranging from 0 to 5. Forty-seven per cent of the soccer players reported a disabling low back pain episode lasting at least two consecutive days in the previous year. These players scored worse lumbopelvic motor control than players without a history of low back pain (lumbopelvic motor control score of 1.8 vs. 3.3, P < 0.01). The between-groups difference was particularly marked for the bent knee fall out test, the knee lift abdominal test and the transversus abdominis test (P < 0.01). In conclusion, most soccer players with a history of low back pain had an altered lumbopelvic motor control. Further research should examine whether lumbopelvic motor control is etiologically involved in low back pain episodes in soccer players. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Quantify ing cereal - reaping microwear on flint tools: an experimental approachLinton, Jimmy ; Monna, Fabrice; Martineau, Rémi et alin Archaeometry (2015)From the earliest Neolithic in the Near East to the last Chalcolithic cultures in Western Europe, certain flint tools have been used as sickles to harvest cereals. Such harvesting tools can be identified ... [more ▼]From the earliest Neolithic in the Near East to the last Chalcolithic cultures in Western Europe, certain flint tools have been used as sickles to harvest cereals. Such harvesting tools can be identified through use-wear analyses, because cutting herbaceous plants produces specific wear-traces on the working edge of flint blades. The aim of this work is to explore harvesting-driven microwear variability and, more particularly, intensity of use as a governing factor. To achieve this objective, an experiment was designed consisting in the production of flint replicas to be used as harvesting tools, in various controlled conditions. A simple, cost-effective method of quantifying wear-traces by meas uring polish extent is developed, requiring only classical use-wear observation equipment. Polish extent shows monotonic correlation with the amount of work, expressed either in terms of time or as the quantity of cereals harvested. Polish extent measurement is therefore proposed as a reliable and powerful descriptor of use intensity. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Design and implementation of a MASH2-0 Electromechanical Sigma-Delta Modulator for capacitive MEMS sensors using dual quantization methodAlmutairi, Bader; Alsheri, Ali; Kraft, Michael in Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems (2015)In this paper, a new control structure based on the dual quantization technique is presented for an electromechanical sigma–delta modulator (EM-SD M) applied to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS ... [more ▼]In this paper, a new control structure based on the dual quantization technique is presented for an electromechanical sigma–delta modulator (EM-SD M) applied to a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometer. The modulator adopts a 2-0 multistage noise shaping structure (MASH2-0), taking the advantage of the intrinsic linearity of single-bit quantization and the reduced quantization error of multibit quantization in a single modulator. The sensor system is studied by the system-level modeling and the hardware implementation based on the field-programmable gate array technology. The study shows that, MASH2-0 shares the benefits of a MASH2-2 architecture of having an inherent stability, a high overload input level, and a high dynamic range compared with single-loop EM-SD M. However, the MASH2-0 architecture benefits from a considerably simpler implementation, while achieving a higher dynamic range and a higher signal-to-noise ratio compared with a MASH2-2 and a fourth-order single-loop SDM architecture. A capacitive MEMS accelerometer was designed and employed with this control system. Within a bandwidth of 1 kHz, the sensor achieved a noise floor level of −130 dB and a bias instability as low as 20 μg at an integration time of 40 s. Simulation estimated a full scale of ±20 g acceleration. The investigation confirms the concept of the MASH2-0 structure and shows its potential as a closed-loop interface for high-performance capacitive MEMS accelerometers. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Civilian deaths from weapons used in the Syrian conflictGuha-Sapir, Debarati; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose; Hicks, Madelyn et alin British Medical Journal (2015), 351Detailed reference viewed: 12 (0 ULg) Coupled modeling of Excavation Damaged Zone in Boom clay: Strain localization in rock and distribution of contact pressure on the gallery’s liningSalehnia, Fatemeh ; Collin, Frédéric ; Li, Xiang Ling et alin Computers and Geotechnics (2015), 69Around galleries excavated at depth in geological media, the creation of a damaged zone with significant irreversible deformation is generally unavoidable. In the case of a geological disposal system for ... [more ▼]Around galleries excavated at depth in geological media, the creation of a damaged zone with significant irreversible deformation is generally unavoidable. In the case of a geological disposal system for high-level radioactive waste, the resulting change in the host rock properties in this damaged zone may potentially be important with respect to the long-term evolution and the performance of that system. In this context, predicting the extent of the so-called Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and, possibly, the fractures' network topology remains a challenge. This study is aimed to simulate numerically the extension of this zone at the large scale's excavation, around the Connecting gallery (HADES URL, Mol, Belgium), in Boom clay host rock through analyzing the evolution of strain localization in shear bands mode. To realistically model the involved phenomena, the concrete lining is considered on the gallery wall highlighting its impacts on the evolution of convergence and EDZ around the gallery. The focus of the current paper is made on analyzing the coupled hydro-mechanical behavior of Boom clay host rock during and after the gallery excavation with respect to the evolution of localized shear bands around the gallery. This study is accompanied by the analysis of the contact mechanism on the interface between the clay massive and the lining. The obtained results reveal some interesting features regarding the contact phenomenon relatively to the evolution pattern of shear bands within the clay around the gallery. To assess the reliability of the proposed approach, a discussion on some in-situ observations during the gallery's construction is also performed based on which a good agreement is found between the in-situ evidence and simulated results. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (12 ULg) Retrieval of ammonia from ground-based FTIR solar spectraDammers, Enrico; Vigouroux, C; Palm, M et alin Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussions (2015), 15We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E ... [more ▼]We present a retrieval method for ammonia (NH3) total columns from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) observations. Observations from Bremen (53.10° N, 8.85° E), Lauder (45.04° S, 169.68° E), Reunion (20.9° S, 55.50° E) and Jungfraujoch (46.55° N, 7.98° E) were used to illustrate the capabilities of the method. NH3 mean total columns ranging three orders of magnitude were obtained with higher values at Bremen (mean of 13.47 × 1015 molecules cm-2) to the lower values at Jungfraujoch (mean of 0.18 × 1015 molecules cm-2). In conditions with high surface concentrations of ammonia, as in Bremen, it is possible to retrieve information on the vertical gradient as two layers can be discriminated. The retrieval there is most sensitive to ammonia in the planetary boundary layer, where the trace gas concentration is highest. For conditions with low concentrations only the total column can be retrieved. Combining the systematic and random errors we have a mean total error of 26 % for all spectra measured at Bremen (Number of spectra (N) = 554), 30 % for all spectra from Lauder (N =2412), 25 % for spectra from Reunion (N =1262) and 34 % for spectra measured at Jungfraujoch (N =2702). The error is dominated by the systematic uncertainties in the spectroscopy parameters. Station specific seasonal cycles were found to be consistent with known seasonal cycles of the dominant ammonia sources in the station surroundings. The developed retrieval methodology from FTIR-instruments provides a new way to obtain highly time-resolved measurements of ammonia burdens. FTIR-NH3 observations will be useful for understanding the dynamics of ammonia concentrations in the atmosphere and for satellite and model validation. It will also provide additional information to constrain the global ammonia budget. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 25 (2 ULg) Smart Grid Energy Flexible Buildings through the use of Heat Pumps and Building Thermal Mass as Energy Storage in the Belgian contextMasy, Gabrielle; Georges, Emeline ; Verhelst, Clara et alin Science and Technology for the Built Environment (2015), 21(6), 800-811Detailed reference viewed: 32 (2 ULg) River geochemistry, chemical weathering, and atmospheric CO2 consumption rates in the Virunga Volcanic Province (East Africa)Balagizi, Charles M.; Darchambeau, François ; Bouillon, Steven et alin Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems (2015), 16Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Occupational stress among textile workers in the Democratic Republic of CongoPanda Lukongo, Kitronza ; Mairiaux, Philippe in Tropical Medicine and Health (2015)Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), scientific studies on occupational health are scarce. The present study aims at estimating the level of occupational stress, as well as associated ... [more ▼]Context: In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), scientific studies on occupational health are scarce. The present study aims at estimating the level of occupational stress, as well as associated factors, in a textile company. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional survey among textile workers in DRC. Data (N= 192 subjects) were collected through a self-questionnaire validated for the assessment of stress (Karasek and Siegrist’s scale); supplemented by a medical examination. Frequencies and odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for descriptive analyses. Adjusted ORs were calculated through a logistic regression model to investigate associations between socio-demographic and organisational variable and stress. Results: Our study highlighted a high level of stress among individuals: 28% of them were suffering from stress, according to Karasek, and 22%, when applying Siegrist’s model. A 14%-isostrain was calculated when considering all workers. A statistically significant association was observed between stress and age, seniority and perceived no-adaptation to work, considering both approaches. Furthermore, when job strain was determined according to Karasek, it was related to the status of worker, the poor perception of organisation and alcohol consumption, while stress estimated by applying Siegrist’s model showed an association with education level and the occurrence of cardiac symptoms. Conclusion: The present study gives evidence of stress among individuals through both models. Several socio-professional factors are associated with stress, which determines populations at risk. The study revealed that both stress models offer complementary information, thus increasing the probability to model workers’ health more exactly and to make recommendations on prevention and management. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (10 ULg) Detection of anthropogenic particles in fish stomachs: an isolation method adapted to identification by Raman spectroscopyCollard, France ; Gilbert, Bernard ; Eppe, Gauthier et alin Archives of Environmental Contamination & Toxicology (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 29 (14 ULg) Seeing Central African forests through their largest treesBastin, Jean-François ; Barbier, Nicolas; Réjou-Méchain, Maxime et alin Scientific Reports (2015)Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which ... [more ▼]Large tropical trees and a few dominant species were recently identified as the main structuring elements of tropical forests. However, such result did not translate yet into quantitative approaches which are essential to understand, predict and monitor forest functions and composition over large, often poorly accessible territories. Here we show that the above-ground biomass (AGB) of the whole forest can be predicted from a few large trees and that the relationship is proved strikingly stable in 175 1-ha plots investigated across 8 sites spanning Central Africa. We designed a generic model predicting AGB with an error of 14% when based on only 5% of the stems, which points to universality in forest structural properties. For the first time in Africa, we identified some dominant species that disproportionally contribute to forest AGB with 1.5% of recorded species accounting for over 50% of the stock of AGB. Consequently, focusing on large trees and dominant species provides precise information on the whole forest stand. This offers new perspectives for understanding the functioning of tropical forests and opens new doors for the development of innovative monitoring strategies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (14 ULg) Samaras and seedlings of Acer pseudoplatanus are potential sources of hypoglycin A intoxication in atypical myopathy without necessarily inducing clinical signsBaise, Etienne ; Habyarimana, Jean ; Amory, Hélène et alin Equine Veterinary Journal (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 32 (15 ULg) Design of hybrid nanovehicles for remotely triggered drug release: an overviewLiu, Ji; Detrembleur, Christophe ; Mornet, Stéphane et alin Journal of Materials Chemistry B (2015), 3(30), 6117-6147n the past few decades, various nanovehicles have been developed as drug delivery systems, in which inorganic and organic components are integrated within a nano-object. Upon the application of remote ... [more ▼]n the past few decades, various nanovehicles have been developed as drug delivery systems, in which inorganic and organic components are integrated within a nano-object. Upon the application of remote stimuli, e.g. alternating magnetic field, near infrared or ultrasound radiations, the release of guest molecules can be triggered in a quite controlled manner. Herein, we review different hybrid nanostructures which have already been reported for the remotely triggered release, such as those based on (1) host–guest conjugates, (2) core–corona nanoparticles, (3) polymer nanogels, (4) polymer micelles, (5) liposomes, (6) mesoporous silica particles and (7) hollow nanoparticles. Moreover, we also summarize six underlying mechanisms that govern such a kind of remotely triggered release behaviours: (1) enhanced diffusion and/or permeation, (2) thermo- or photo-labile bond cleavage, (3) fusion of phase-changed materials, (4) photo-induced isomerisation, (5) thermo-induced swelling/de-swelling of thermo-responsive polymers, and (6) destruction of the nanostructures. The ways in which different components are incorporated into an integrated hybrid nanostructure and how they contribute to the remotely triggered release behaviours are detailed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (2 ULg) All Poly(ionic liquid)-based block copolymers by sequential controlled radical copolymerization of vinylimidazolium monomersCordella, Daniela ; Kermagoret, Anthony; Debuigne, Antoine et alin Macromolecules (2015), 48(15), 5230-5243The organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers, featuring the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide counteranion (Tf2N–), in the presence of Co(acac)2 as ... [more ▼]The organometallic-mediated radical polymerization (OMRP) of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium-type monomers, featuring the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide counteranion (Tf2N–), in the presence of Co(acac)2 as controlling agent, is reported. Polymerizations of monomers with methyl, ethyl, and butyl substituents are fast, reaching high monomer conversion in ethyl acetate as solvent at 30 °C, and afford structurally well-defined hydrophobic poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) of N-vinyl type. Block copolymer synthesis is also achieved by sequential OMRP of N-vinyl-3-alkylimidazolium salts carrying different alkyl chains and different counteranions (Tf2N– or Br–). These block copolymerizations are carried out at 30 °C, either under homogeneous solution in methanol or in a biphasic medium consisting of a mixture of ethyl acetate and water. Unprecedented PIL-b-PIL block copolymers are thus prepared under these conditions. However, anion exchange occurs at the early stage of the growth of the second block. Finally, diblock copolymers generated in the biphasic medium can be readily coupled by addition of isoprene, forming all PIL-based and symmetrical ABA-type triblock copolymers in a one-pot process. Such a direct block copolymerization method, involving vinylimidazolium monomers bearing different alkyl chains, thus opens new opportunities in the precision synthesis of all PIL-based block copolymers of tunable properties. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Interlaboratory study to evaluate the robustness of capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry for peptide mappingWenz, Christian; Barbas, Coral; Lopez-Gonzalvez, Angeles et alin Journal of Separation Science (2015)A collaborative study on the robustness and portability of a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry method for peptide mapping was performed by an international team, consisting of 13 independent ... [more ▼]A collaborative study on the robustness and portability of a capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry method for peptide mapping was performed by an international team, consisting of 13 independent laboratories from academia and industry. All participants used the same batch of samples, reagents and coated capillaries to run their assays, whereas they utilized the capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry equipment available in their laboratories. The equipment used varied in model, type and instrument manufacturer. Furthermore, different types of sheath-flow capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry interfaces were used. Migration time, peak height and peak area of ten representative target peptides of trypsin-digested bovine serum albumin were determined by every laboratory on two consecutive days. The data were critically evaluated to identify outliers and final values for means, repeatability (precision within a laboratory) and reproducibility (precision between laboratories) were established. For relative migration time the repeatability was between 0.05 and 0.18% RSD and the reproducibility between 0.14 and 1.3% RSD. For relative peak area repeatability and reproducibility values obtained were 3–12 and 9–29% RSD, respectively. These results demonstrate that capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is robust enough to allow a method transfer across multiple laboratories and should promote a more widespread use of peptide mapping and other capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry applications in biopharmaceutical analysis and related fields. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (1 ULg) Recent changes in north-west Greenland climate documented by NEEM shallow ice core data and simulations, and implications for past-temperature reconstructionsMasson-Delmotte, V.; Steen-Larsen, H.; Ortega, P. et alin Cryosphere (The) (2015), 9Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from ... [more ▼]Combined records of snow accumulation rate, δ18O and deuterium excess were produced from several shallow ice cores and snow pits at NEEM (North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling), covering the period from 1724 to 2007. They are used to investigate recent climate variability and characterise the isotope–temperature relationship. We find that NEEM records are only weakly affected by inter-annual changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation. Decadal δ18O and accumulation variability is related to North Atlantic sea surface temperature and is enhanced at the beginning of the 19th century. No long-term trend is observed in the accumulation record. By contrast, NEEM δ18O shows multidecadal increasing trends in the late 19th century and since the 1980s. The strongest annual positive δ18O values are recorded at NEEM in 1928 and 2010, while maximum accumulation occurs in 1933. The last decade is the most enriched in δ18O (warmest), while the 11-year periods with the strongest depletion (coldest) are depicted at NEEM in 1815–1825 and 1836–1846, which are also the driest 11-year periods. The NEEM accumulation and δ18O records are strongly correlated with outputs from atmospheric models, nudged to atmospheric reanalyses. Best performance is observed for ERA reanalyses. Gridded temperature reconstructions, instrumental data and model outputs at NEEM are used to estimate the multidecadal accumulation–temperature and δ18O–temperature relationships for the strong warming period in 1979–2007. The accumulation sensitivity to temperature is estimated at 11 ± 2 % °C−1 and the δ18O–temperature slope at 1.1 ± 0.2 ‰ °C−1, about twice as large as previously used to estimate last interglacial temperature change from the bottom part of the NEEM deep ice core. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) Simultaneous X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the Oef supergiant λ CepheiRauw, Grégor ; Hervé, A.; Nazé, Yaël et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 580Probing the structures of stellar winds is of prime importance for the understanding of massive stars. Based on their optical spectral morphology and variability, it has been suggested that the stars in ... [more ▼]Probing the structures of stellar winds is of prime importance for the understanding of massive stars. Based on their optical spectral morphology and variability, it has been suggested that the stars in the Oef class feature large-scale structures in their wind. High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy and time-series of X-ray observations of presumably single O-type stars can help us understand the physics of their stellar winds. We have collected XMM-Newton observations and coordinated optical spectroscopy of the O6 Ief star λ Cep to study its X-ray and optical variability and to analyse its high-resolution X-ray spectrum. We investigate the line profile variability of the He ii λ 4686 and Hα emission lines in our time series of optical spectra, including a search for periodicities. We further discuss the variability of the broadband X-ray flux and analyse the high-resolution spectrum of λ Cep using line-by-line fits as well as a code designed to fit the full high-resolution X-ray spectrum consistently. During our observing campaign, the He ii λ 4686 line varies on a timescale of ~18 h. On the contrary, the Hα line profile displays a modulation on a timescale of 4.1 days which is likely the rotation period of the star. The X-ray flux varies on timescales of days and could in fact be modulated by the same 4.1-day period as Hα, although both variations are shifted in phase. The high-resolution X-ray spectrum reveals broad and skewed emission lines as expected for the X-ray emission from a distribution of wind-embedded shocks. Most of the X-ray emission arises within less than 2 R∗ above the photosphere. The properties of the X-ray emission of λ Cep generally agree with the expectations of the wind-embedded shock model. There is mounting evidence for the existence of large-scale structures that modulate the Hα line and about 10% of the X-ray emission of λ Cep. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) Optical study of diﬀraction grating/Fresnel lens combinations applied to a spectral-splitting solar concentrator for space applicationsMichel, Céline ; Loicq, Jerôme ; Thibert, Tanguy et alin Applied Optics (2015), 54(22), 6666-6673This paper presents a new design of a planar solar concentrator with spectral splitting of light for space applications. This concentrator spectrally splits the incident light into mainly two parts. Each ... [more ▼]This paper presents a new design of a planar solar concentrator with spectral splitting of light for space applications. This concentrator spectrally splits the incident light into mainly two parts. Each part is then focused onto speciﬁc spatially separated photovoltaic cells, allowing for independent control of respective cells output power. These advantages of both spectral splitting and light focusing are here combined thanks to a speciﬁc diﬀraction grating superimposed on a Fresnel lens. The theoretical principle of the optical design is presented, with optimization of each element and improvement steps, including optimization of grating period evolution along the lens, and testing of two kinds of gratings (a blazed and a lamellar one). First numerical results are presented, highlighting the possibility to design a concentrator at about 10× or more for each cell, with an output power larger than that of a classical concentrator focusing on a GaAs SJ cell, and less than 10% of losses for tracking errors up to ±0.8°. Some experimental results are also presented. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (5 ULg) A Coordinated X-Ray and Optical Campaign of the Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, δ Orionis Aa. IV. A Multiwavelength, Non-LTE Spectroscopic AnalysisShenar, T.; Oskinova, L.; Hamann, W.-R. et alin Astrophysical Journal (2015), 809Eclipsing systems of massive stars allow one to explore the properties of their components in great detail. We perform a multi-wavelength, non-LTE analysis of the three components of the massive multiple ... [more ▼]Eclipsing systems of massive stars allow one to explore the properties of their components in great detail. We perform a multi-wavelength, non-LTE analysis of the three components of the massive multiple system δ Ori A, focusing on the fundamental stellar properties, stellar winds, and X-ray characteristics of the system. The primary’s distance-independent parameters turn out to be characteristic for its spectral type (O9.5 II), but usage of the Hipparcos parallax yields surprisingly low values for the mass, radius, and luminosity. Consistent values follow only if δ Ori lies at about twice the Hipparcos distance, in the vicinity of the σ-Orionis cluster. The primary and tertiary dominate the spectrum and leave the secondary only marginally detectable. We estimate the V-band magnitude difference between primary and secondary to be {{Δ }}V≈ 2\buildrel{{m}}\over{.} 8. The inferred parameters suggest that the secondary is an early B-type dwarf (≈B1 V), while the tertiary is an early B-type subgiant (≈B0 IV). We find evidence for rapid turbulent velocities (∼200 km s[SUP]‑1[/SUP]) and wind inhomogeneities, partially optically thick, in the primary’s wind. The bulk of the X-ray emission likely emerges from the primary’s stellar wind ({log}{L}[SUB]{{X[/SUB]}}/{L}[SUB]{Bol[/SUB]}≈ -6.85), initiating close to the stellar surface at {R}[SUB]0[/SUB]∼ 1.1 {R}[SUB]*[/SUB]. Accounting for clumping, the mass-loss rate of the primary is found to be {log}\dot{M}≈ -6.4 ({M}[SUB]ȯ [/SUB] {{yr}}[SUP]-1[/SUP]), which agrees with hydrodynamic predictions, and provides a consistent picture along the X-ray, UV, optical, and radio spectral domains. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) What effects do rater bias and assessment method haveon disease severity estimation with regard to hypothesis testing?Chiang, Kuo-Szu; Bock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa et alin Plant Pathology (2015)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Preovulatory follicle diameter, growth rate and time of ovulation during induced oestrus using a CIDR® in trypanotolerant female Bos taurus N'Dama cattle.Okouyi, M'foumou W'otari Marcel; Drion, Pierre ; Hanzen, Christian in Tropical Animal Health and Production (2015), 47The aim of this study was to assess the dose (300 to 600 IU) effects of equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) on the preovulatory follicle diameter, growth rate, and time of ovulation characterized by ... [more ▼]The aim of this study was to assess the dose (300 to 600 IU) effects of equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG) on the preovulatory follicle diameter, growth rate, and time of ovulation characterized by echography. The eCG was injected at the end (D0) of the 7-day treatment with a controlled internal device release (CIDR) and a PGF2a being injected 2 days before the removal of the CIDR (D-2). The 120 female N'Dama cattle were distributed into five experimental groups. The control group (n = 26) was treated with physiological saline at the removal of the CIDR®, while the animals in the four treated groups received, respectively, 300 IU (n = 25), 400 IU (n = 24), 500 IU (n = 22) and 600 IU (n = 23) of eCG (Folligon®). Follicle growth rate (FGR) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in animals treated using eCG (1.0 ± 0.4mm/day) than in the control group (0.9 ± 0.4mm/day). The diameter of the preovulatory follicle was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the animals treated with 300 IU (10.1 ± 1.4mm) than in untreated animals (9.3 ± 1.2mm). Follicle growth rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) inn the animals treated with 300 IU (10,1 ± 1,4 mm) than in the control group (0.9±0,4 mm/day). The average interval between the time of eCG injection and ovulation was similar in the non-treated (83.7 ± 14.4 h) and treated animals (79.7 ± 11.9). Treated animals sowed a significant increase in the percentga of ovulation (94,7 %) compared to 73,1 %) (P<0.01). Use of eCG combined contributed towards synchronising the time of ovulation between 72 to 96 hours, which would facilitate the use of systematic insemination. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg) A Coordinated X-Ray and Optical Campaign of the Nearest Massive Eclipsing Binary, δ Orionis Aa. II. X-Ray VariabilityNichols, J.; Huenemoerder, D. P.; Corcoran, M. F. et alin Astrophysical Journal (2015), 809We present time-resolved and phase-resolved variability studies of an extensive X-ray high-resolution spectral data set of the δ Ori Aa binary system. The four observations, obtained with Chandra ACIS ... [more ▼]We present time-resolved and phase-resolved variability studies of an extensive X-ray high-resolution spectral data set of the δ Ori Aa binary system. The four observations, obtained with Chandra ACIS HETGS, have a total exposure time of ≈ 479 ks and provide nearly complete binary phase coverage. Variability of the total X-ray flux in the range of 5–25 Å is confirmed, with a maximum amplitude of about ±15% within a single ≈ 125 ks observation. Periods of 4.76 and 2.04 days are found in the total X-ray flux, as well as an apparent overall increase in the flux level throughout the nine-day observational campaign. Using 40 ks contiguous spectra derived from the original observations, we investigate the variability of emission line parameters and ratios. Several emission lines are shown to be variable, including S xv, Si xiii, and Ne ix. For the first time, variations of the X-ray emission line widths as a function of the binary phase are found in a binary system, with the smallest widths at ϕ = 0.0 when the secondary δ Ori Aa2 is at the inferior conjunction. Using 3D hydrodynamic modeling of the interacting winds, we relate the emission line width variability to the presence of a wind cavity created by a wind–wind collision, which is effectively void of embedded wind shocks and is carved out of the X-ray-producing primary wind, thus producing phase-locked X-ray variability. Based on data from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission, jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies, and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (0 ULg) A force sensor based on three weakly coupled resonators with ultrahigh sensitivityZhao, Chun; Wood, Graham; Xie, J.B. et alin Sensors and Actuators. A, Physical (2015), 232A proof-of-concept force sensor based on three degree-of-freedom (DoF) weakly coupled resonatorswas fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process and electrically tested in 20 Torr vacuum.Compared ... [more ▼]A proof-of-concept force sensor based on three degree-of-freedom (DoF) weakly coupled resonatorswas fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) process and electrically tested in 20 Torr vacuum.Compared to the conventional single resonator force sensor with frequency shift as output, by measuringthe amplitude ratio of two of the three resonators, the measured force sensitivity of the 3DoF sensor was4.9 × 106/N, which was improved by two orders magnitude. A bias stiffness perturbation was applied toavoid mode aliasing effect and improve the linearity of the sensor. The noise floor of the amplitude ratiooutput of the sensor was theoretically analyzed for the first time, using the transfer function model ofthe 3DoF weakly coupled resonator system. It was shown based on measurement results that the outputnoise was mainly due to the thermal–electrical noise of the interface electronics. The output noise spectraldensity was measured, and agreed well with theoretical estimations. The noise floor of the force sensoroutput was estimated to be approximately 1.39nN for an assumed 10 Hz bandwidth of the output signal,resulting in a dynamic range of 74.8 dB. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (2 ULg) Time series of high-resolution spectra of SN 2014J observed with the TIGRE telescopeJack, D.; Mittag, M.; Schröder, K.-P. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2015), 451We present a time series of high-resolution spectra of the Type Ia supernova 2014J, which exploded in the nearby galaxy M82. The spectra were obtained with the HEROS échelle spectrograph installed at the ... [more ▼]We present a time series of high-resolution spectra of the Type Ia supernova 2014J, which exploded in the nearby galaxy M82. The spectra were obtained with the HEROS échelle spectrograph installed at the 1.2-m TIGRE telescope. We present a series of 33 spectra with a resolution of R ≈ 20 000, which covers the important bright phases in the evolution of SN 2014J during the period from 2014 January 24 to April 1. The spectral evolution of SN 2014J is derived empirically. The expansion velocities of the Si II P-Cygni features were measured and show the expected decreasing behaviour, beginning with a high velocity of 14 000 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] on January 24. The Ca II infrared triplet feature shows a high-velocity component with expansion velocities of >20 000 km s[SUP]-1[/SUP] during the early evolution apart from the normal component showing similar velocities as Si II. Further broad P-Cygni profiles are exhibited by the principal lines of Ca II, Mg II and Fe II. The TIGRE SN 2014J spectra also resolve several very sharp Na I D doublet absorption components. Our analysis suggests interesting substructures in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy M82, as well as in our Milky Way, confirming other work on this SN. We were able to identify the interstellar absorption of M82 in the lines of Ca II H & K at 3933 and 3968 Å as well as K I at 7664 and 7698 Å. Furthermore, we confirm several diffuse interstellar bands, at wavelengths of 6196, 6283, 6376, 6379and 6613 Å and give their measured equivalent widths. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Disease Severity Estimates – Effects of Rater Accuracy and Assessment Methods for Comparing TreatmentsBock, Clive; El Jarroudi, Moussa ; Kouadio, Louis et alin Plant Disease (2015), 99(1104-1112), Assessment of disease severity is required for several purposes in plant pathology; most often the estimates are made visually. It is established that visual estimates can be inaccurate and unreliable ... [more ▼]Assessment of disease severity is required for several purposes in plant pathology; most often the estimates are made visually. It is established that visual estimates can be inaccurate and unreliable. The ramifications of biased or imprecise estimates by raters have not been fully explored using empirical data; partly because of the logistical difficulties involved in different raters assessing the same leaves for which actual disease has been measured in a replicated experiment with multiple treatments. In this study nearest percent estimates (NPEs) of Septoria leaf blotch (SLB) on leaves of winter wheat from non-treated and fungicide treated plots were assessed in both 2006 and 2007 by four raters and compared to assumed true values measured using image analysis. Lin’s concordance correlation (LCC, ρc) was used to assess agreement between the two approaches. NPEs were converted to Horsfall-Barratt (HB) mid-points and again compared for agreement with true values. The estimates of SLB severity from fungicide-treated and non-treated plots were analyzed using generalized linear mixed modeling to ascertain effects of rater using both the NPE and HB values. Rater 1 showed good agreement with image analysis (ρc = 0.986 to 0.999), while raters 3 and 4 had less good agreement (ρc = 0.205 to 0.936). Conversion to the HB scale had little effect on bias or accuracy, but reduced both precision and agreement for most raters on most assessment dates (precision, r = -0.001 to -0.132; and agreement, ρc = -0.003 to -0.468). Inter-rater reliability was also reduced slightly by conversion of estimates to HB midpoint values. Estimates of mean SLB severity were significantly different between image analysis and raters 2, 3 and 4, and there were frequently significant differences among raters (F=151 to 1260, P=0.001 to <0.0001). Conversion to the HB scale changed the means separation ranking of rater estimates on 26 June 2007. Nonetheless, image analysis and all raters were able to differentiate control and treated plots treatments (F=116 to 1952, P=0.002 to <0.0001, depending on date and rater). Conversion of NPEs to the HB scale tended to reduce F-values slightly (2006: NPEs, F=116 to 276, P=0.002 to 0.0005, and for the HB converted values F=101 to 270, P=0.002 to 0.0005, and in 2007, NPEs, F=164 to 1952 P=0.001 to <0.0001, and for HB converted values F=126 to 1633 P=0.002 to <0.0001). The results demonstrated the need for accurate and reliable disease assessment to minimize over or underestimates compared to actual disease, and where multiple raters are deployed, they should be assigned in a manner to reduce any potential effect of rater differences on the analysis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) High-resolution spectra of comet C/2013 R1 (Lovejoy)Rousselot, P.; Decock, A.; Korsun, P. P. et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2015), 580Context. High-resolution spectra of comets permit deriving the physical properties of the coma. In the optical range, relative production rates can be computed, and information about isotopic ratios and ... [more ▼]Context. High-resolution spectra of comets permit deriving the physical properties of the coma. In the optical range, relative production rates can be computed, and information about isotopic ratios and the origin of oxygen atoms can be obtained.