References of "Article"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 201 to 300 of 53391     1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8     New insight on Carboniferous (Viséan) brachiopods from eastern Tafilalt (Morocco)Mottequin, Bernard; Denayer, Julien ; Herbig, Hans-Georg et alin Geological Journal (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Modelling the influence of strain localisation and viscosity on the behaviour of underground drifts drilled in claystonePardoen, Benoît ; Collin, Frédéric in Computers and Geotechnics (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (2 ULg) Review: Implementing biostimulants and biocontrol strategies in the agroecological management of cultivated ecosystemsLe Mire, Géraldine ; Nguyen, Minh ; Fassotte, Bérénice et alin Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of ... [more ▼]This review describes the current methods for exploiting and applying plant growth-promoting rhizbacteria (PGPR), elicitors and semiochemical products in contemporary agricultural systems. The future of these biostimulant and biocontrol tools for the sustainable management of agricultural practices is also discussed. Special attention is given to the formulation of these products and the network of interactions taking place in cultivated ecosystems [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 249 (57 ULg) Neomelodica music: pop superstars behind a normative wall. Formal, informal and criminal dimensions of the Neapolitan entertainment industryMazzola, Alessandro in The European Review of Organised Crime (in press), 14(2), Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) p16ink4 and cytokeratin 7 immunostaining in predicting HSIL outcome for low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions: A case series, literature review and commentaryHuang, Eric; Tomic, Mary; Hanamornroongruang, Suchanan et alin Modern Pathology : An Official Journal of the United States & Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg) Fibre concentrate from artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) stem by-products: Characterization and application as a bakery product ingredientBoubaker, Maroua; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Blecker, Christophe et alin Food Science & Technology International (in press)The potential of fibre concentrate from artichoke stem by-product in bakery application was investigated. The elaboration of fibre concentrate was characterized by an extraction yield of 48.5%. The ... [more ▼]The potential of fibre concentrate from artichoke stem by-product in bakery application was investigated. The elaboration of fibre concentrate was characterized by an extraction yield of 48.5%. The chemical composition showed high total dietary fibre (85 g/100 g d.m) and low lipid contents (0.5 g/100 g d.m). The fibre concentrate showed good water holding capacity (8.17 g/g) and high oil holding capacity (16.17 g/g). The effect of fibre concentrate incorporation to wheat dough, at level of 2%, on the rheological properties and physical characteristics of bread was also evaluated. The results showed that the addition of fibre concentrate in wheat flour significantly improved (P<0.05) dough properties inducing an increase of water absorption, stability and tenacity, and a reduction of extensibility and softening in comparison to the dough without fibre. The colour values of the crust and crumb were significantly (P<0.05) altered by the addition of fibre concentrate. It was also found that incorporation of fibre concentrate to bread produced a comparable specific volume and enhanced the shelf life, as textural studies revealed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (10 ULg) John of Trevisa légitimise la traduction en langue anglaise (vers 1387)Dor, Juliette in The Medieval Translator. Traduire au Moyen Âge (in press), TMT 16A l'instar de Chaucer ou des milieux wyclifiens, Trevisa revendique pour le nouveau lectorat/auditorat vernaculaire le droit d'accéder au savoir. Il s'appuie notamment sur la "translatio studii", le ... [more ▼]A l'instar de Chaucer ou des milieux wyclifiens, Trevisa revendique pour le nouveau lectorat/auditorat vernaculaire le droit d'accéder au savoir. Il s'appuie notamment sur la "translatio studii", le modèle français et l'autorité culturelle qu'avait connue l'anglais avant Hastings. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (7 ULg) Epistémologie de la théorie du complotJamin, Jérôme in Cahiers de l'Éducation Permanente (Les) (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 64 (10 ULg) High-throughput sequencing analysis reveals the genetic diversity of different regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro replicationMauroy, Axel ; Taminiau, Bernard ; Nezer, Carine et alin Archives of Virology (in press)In this study, we report the genetic diversity and nucleotide mutation rates of five representative regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro passages. The mutation rates were similar in ... [more ▼]In this study, we report the genetic diversity and nucleotide mutation rates of five representative regions of the murine norovirus genome during in vitro passages. The mutation rates were similar in genomic regions encompassing partial coding sequences for non-structural (NS) 1-2, NS5, NS6, NS7 proteins within open reading frame (ORF) 1. In a region encoding a portion of the major capsid protein (VP1) within ORF2 (also including the ORF4 region) and a portion of the minor structural protein (VP2), the mutation rates were estimated to be at least one order of magnitude higher. The VP2 coding region was found to have the highest mutation rate. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (3 ULg) The Poetics of (In)visibility: A Stylistic Analysis of Caryl Phillips's Foreigners: Three English LivesTunca, Daria in Ariel : A Review of International English Literature (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 66 (5 ULg) From Ontology to Psychoanalysis. Benussi and Musatti on the Concept of Mental RealityBoccaccini, Federico in Meinong Studies / Meinong Studien (2018), 9Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) The diversity of cultural expressions to the digital age between multilateral confrontation and technological determinismVlassis, Antonios in Quaderns del CAC (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) Magnetic Shielding Above 1 T at 20 K With Bulk, Large Grain YBCO Tubes Made by Buffer-aided Top Seeded Melt GrowthWera, Laurent ; Fagnard, Jean-François ; Kumar, Numbury Devendra et alin IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (2017), 27(4), YBCO tubes of ~ 10 mm diameter closed at one extremity were engineered by a Buffer-Aided Top Seeded Melt Growth fabrication process (BA-TSMG). These tubes can act as efficient “dc” magnetic shields and ... [more ▼]YBCO tubes of ~ 10 mm diameter closed at one extremity were engineered by a Buffer-Aided Top Seeded Melt Growth fabrication process (BA-TSMG). These tubes can act as efficient “dc” magnetic shields and are observed to reduce axial flux densities of 1.5 T by a factor of 100 at 20 K. Such performances are comparable in magnitude to the record threshold inductions reported for bulk MgB2 and Bi-2212 materials at lower temperatures. Magnetic shielding measurements for open and closed tubes at 77 K also show that the presence of the cap improves substantially the shielding performance at the closed extremity since it reduces the penetration through the open end. This fabrication technique is extremely promising for shielding “dc” stray fields generated by HTS magnets operated in a temperature range obtained by cryocoolers, liquid hydrogen (20 K) or liquid neon (27 K). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (10 ULg) Identification of non-stationary dynamical systems using multivariate ARMA modelsBertha, Mathieu ; Golinval, Jean-Claude in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing (2017), 88This paper is concerned by the modal identification of time-varying mechanical systems. Based on previous works about autoregressive moving average models in vector form (ARMAV) for the modal ... [more ▼]This paper is concerned by the modal identification of time-varying mechanical systems. Based on previous works about autoregressive moving average models in vector form (ARMAV) for the modal identification of linear time invariant systems, and time-varying autoregressive moving average models (TV-ARMA) for the identification of nonstationary systems, a time-varying ARMAV (TV-ARMAV) model is presented for the multivariate identification of time-varying systems. It results in the identification of not only the time-varying poles of the system but also of its respective time-varying mode shapes. The method is applied on a time-varying structure composed of a beam on which a mass is moving. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (4 ULg) Finite element model reduction for space thermal analysisJacques, Lionel ; Béchet, Eric ; Kerschen, Gaëtan in Finite Elements in Analysis and Design (2017), 127To alleviate the computational burden of the nite element method for thermal analyses involving conduction and radiation, this paper proposes an automatic conductive-radiative reduction process based on ... [more ▼]To alleviate the computational burden of the nite element method for thermal analyses involving conduction and radiation, this paper proposes an automatic conductive-radiative reduction process based on the clustering of a detailed mesh coming from a structural model for instance. The proposed method leads to a signi cant reduction of the number of radiative exchange factors (REFs) to compute and size of the corresponding matrix. It further keeps accurate conduction information by introducing the concept of physically meaningful super nodes. The REFs between the super nodes are computed through Monte Carlo ray-tracing on the partitioned mesh, preserving the versatility of the method. The resulting conductive-radiative reduced model is solved using standard iterative techniques and the detailed mesh temperatures can be recovered from the super nodes temperatures for further thermo-mechanical analysis. The proposed method is applied to a structural component of the Meteosat Third Generation mission and is benchmarked against ESATAN-TMS, the standard thermal analysis software used in the European aerospace industry. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) The Semiotics of Design in Media Visualization: Mereology and Observation StrategiesDondero, Maria Giulia in Information Design Journal (2017)The purpose of this paper is to discern in what ways the semiotic methods of the Post- Greimasian French structuralist and the American Peircian traditions can enrich the study of contemporary methods of ... [more ▼]The purpose of this paper is to discern in what ways the semiotic methods of the Post- Greimasian French structuralist and the American Peircian traditions can enrich the study of contemporary methods of computational analysis of culture, particularly in the field of Cultural Analytics as implemented by the Russian Art Historian and Computer Scientist Lev Manovich. These semiotic approaches will be helpful in understanding what kinds of visualizations are being generated for use in Cultural Analytics, and what kinds of operations the observer must perform in order to experiment with scientific visualizations of this information. [less ▲] International norms and regions: Mercosur and ASEAN at the time of cultural diversityVlassis, Antonios in Política & Sociedade (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Impact of tillage on greenhouse gas emissions by an agricultural crop and dynamics of N2O fluxes: Insights from automated closed chamber measurementsLognoul, Margaux ; Theodorakopoulos, Nicolas ; Hiel, Marie-Pierre et alin Soil & Tillage Research (2017), 167Our experiment aimed at studying the impact of long term tillage treatments – reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), on CO2 and N2O emissions by soil and at describing the dynamics of N2O ... [more ▼]Our experiment aimed at studying the impact of long term tillage treatments – reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), on CO2 and N2O emissions by soil and at describing the dynamics of N2O fluxes. Gas measurements were performed from June to October 2015 in a Belgian maize crop, with homemade automated closed chambers, allowing continuous measurement at a high temporal resolution. After 7 years of treatment, CO2 and N2O average emissions were significantly larger in the RT parcel than in the CT parcel. This observation was attributed to the effect of tillage on the distribution of crop residues within the soil profile, leading to higher soil organic C and total N contents and a greater microbial biomass in the upper layer in RT. A single N2O emission peak triggered by a sudden increase of water- filled pore space (WFPS) was observed in the beginning of the measuring campaign. The absence of large emission afterwards was most likely due to a decreasing availability of N as crop grew. N2O background fluxes showed to be significantly correlated to CO2 fluxes but not to WFPS, while the influence of soil temperature remained unclear. Our results question the suitability of reduced tillage as a “climate-smart” practice and suggest that more experiments be conducted on conservation practices and their potent negative effect on environment. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (10 ULg) Baelo dans l'Antiquité tardive. L'occupation du secteur sud-est du forum entre les IIIe et VIe s.Brassous, Laurent; Deru, Xavier ; Rodriguez, Oliva et alin Melanges de la Casa de Velazquez (2017), 47(1), Les recherches archéologiques conduites au sud-est du forum de la ville romaine de Baelo claudia ont permis de mettre au jour au-dessus du secteur monumental, plusieurs phases de transformation, d’abandon ... [more ▼]Les recherches archéologiques conduites au sud-est du forum de la ville romaine de Baelo claudia ont permis de mettre au jour au-dessus du secteur monumental, plusieurs phases de transformation, d’abandon et de réoccupation entre les IIIe et VIe s. Les structures découvertes ainsi que le nombreux mobilier qui leur était associé (monnaies, céramique, verre, métal, faune, etc.) fournissent un éclairage nouveau sur l’histoire et la nature de l’agglomération dans l’antiquité tardive, qui entre la fin du IVe s. et son abandon définitif au VIe s. ressemble moins à une ville qu’à un gros village. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (1 ULg) Bioavailability enhancement of itraconazole-based solid dispersions produced by hot melt extrusion in the framework of the Three Rs ruleThiry, Justine ; Kok, Miranda ; Collard, Laurence et alin European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2017), 99Solid dispersion formulations made of itraconazole (ITZ) and Soluplus® (polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinylcaprolactame-based graft copolymer abbreviated SOL) were produced using hot melt ... [more ▼]Solid dispersion formulations made of itraconazole (ITZ) and Soluplus® (polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl acetate and polyvinylcaprolactame-based graft copolymer abbreviated SOL) were produced using hot melt extrusion. Since ITZ possesses a water solubility of less than 1 ng/mL, the aim of this work was to enhance the aqueous solubility of ITZ, and thereby improve its bioavailability. The three formulations consisted of a simple SOL/ITZ amorphous solid dispersion (ASD), an optimized SOL/ITZ/AcDiSol® (super-disintegrant) ASD and an equimolar inclusion complex of ITZ in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (substitution degree = 0.63, CD) with SOL. The three formulations were compared in vitro and in vivo to the marketed product Sporanox®. The in vitro enhancement of dissolution rate was evaluated using a biphasic dissolution test. In vitro dissolution results showed that all three formulations had a higher percentage of ITZ released than Sporanox® with the following ranking: SOL/ITZ/CD > SOL/ITZ/AcDiSol® > SOL/ITZ > Sporanox®. The bioavailability of these four formulations was evaluated in rats. The bioanalytical method was optimized so that only 10 μL of blood was withdrawn from the rats using specific volumetric absorptive microsampling devices. This enabled to keep the same rats during the whole study, which was in accordance with the Three Rs rules (reduction, refinement and replacement). Furthermore, this technique allowed the suppression of inter-individual variability. Higher Cmax and AUC were obtained after the administration of all three formulations compared to the levels after the use of Sporanox® as follows: SOL/ITZ/AcDiSol® > SOL/ITZ/CD > SOL/ITZ > Sporanox®. The inversion in the ranking between SOL/ITZ/CD and SOL/ITZ/AcDiSol® made impossible the establishment of an in vitro–vivo correlation. Indeed, very different release rates were obtained in vitro and in vivo for the two optimized formulations. These results suggest that ITZ would be protected inside the core of the SOL micelles even during the absorption step at the intestine, while some agents present in the intestinal fluids could displace ITZ from the hydrophobic cavity of CD by competition. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 21 (10 ULg) WASP-South transiting exoplanets: WASP-130b, WASP-131b, WASP-132b, WASP-139b, WASP-140b, WASP-141b & WASP-142bHellier, Coel; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465We describe seven new exoplanets transiting stars of V = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a "warm Jupiter" having an orbital period of 11.6 d, the longest yet found by WASP. It transits a V = 11.1, G6 star with ... [more ▼]We describe seven new exoplanets transiting stars of V = 10.1 to 12.4. WASP-130b is a "warm Jupiter" having an orbital period of 11.6 d, the longest yet found by WASP. It transits a V = 11.1, G6 star with [Fe/H] = +0.26. Warm Jupiters tend to have smaller radii than hot Jupiters, and WASP-130b is in line with this trend (1.23 Mjup; 0.89 Rjup). WASP-131b is a bloated Saturn-mass planet (0.27 Mjup; 1.22 Rjup). Its large scale height coupled with the V = 10.1 brightness of its host star make the planet a good target for atmospheric characterisation. WASP-132b is among the least irradiated and coolest of WASP planets, being in a 7.1-d orbit around a K4 star. It has a low mass and a modest radius (0.41 Mjup; 0.87 Rjup). The V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.22 star shows a possible rotational modulation at 33 d. WASP-139b is the lowest-mass planet yet found by WASP, at 0.12 Mjup and 0.80 Rjup. It is a "super-Neptune" akin to HATS-7b and HATS-8b. It orbits a V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.20, K0 star. The star appears to be anomalously dense, akin to HAT-P-11. WASP-140b is a 2.4-Mjup planet in a 2.2-d orbit that is both eccentric (e = 0.047) and with a grazing transit (b = 0.93) The timescale for tidal circularisation is likely to be the lowest of all known eccentric hot Jupiters. The planet's radius is large (1.4 Rjup), but uncertain owing to the grazing transit. The host star is a V = 11.1, [Fe/H] = +0.12, K0 dwarf showing a prominent 10.4-d rotational modulation. The dynamics of this system are worthy of further investigation. WASP-141b is a typical hot Jupiter, being a 2.7 Mjup, 1.2 Rjup planet in a 3.3-d orbit around a V = 12.4, [Fe/H] = +0.29, F9 star. WASP-142b is a typical bloated hot Jupiter (0.84 Mjup, 1.53 Rjup) in a 2.1-d orbit around a V = 12.3, [Fe/H] = +0.26, F8 star. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Structure impact of two galactomannan fractions on their viscosity properties in dilute solution, unperturbed state and gel stateGillet, Sébastien; Aguedo, Mario ; Petrut, Raoul et alin International Journal of Biological Macromolecules (2017), 96Detailed reference viewed: 21 (2 ULg) Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis as a processing route for templated electrochromic tungsten oxide filmsChatzikyriakou, Dafni ; Maho, Anthony ; Cloots, Rudi et alin Microporous and Mesoporous Materials (2017), 240Detailed reference viewed: 20 (6 ULg) Effect of different tillage systems on aggregate structure and inner distribution of organic carbonGao, Lili ; Beckers, Eléonore ; Liang, Guopeng et alin Geoderma (2017), 288Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. Pore network geometries are crucial to oxygen concentration, gas diffusivity, water location and water movement ... [more ▼]Tillage is a common agricultural practice affecting soil structure and biogeochemistry. Pore network geometries are crucial to oxygen concentration, gas diffusivity, water location and water movement. Soil aggregates, 4–6 mm in diameter and collected from silty loam in Belgium and sandy loam in China, were scanned using a micro-computed tomography scanner. Images with a pixel size of 6.9 μm were then processed with ImageJ software for pore network analysis. The treatments were no tillage (C-NT) and conventional tillage (C-CT) in China, and shallow tillage (G-ST) and conventional tillage (G-CT) in Belgium. The results showed that aggregates in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) had numerous connected pores compared with conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT). The Euler number (Ev) was significantly lower and visible total porosity and surface area (SA) were significantly higher in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) than in conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) in both studied locations. The predominant size of pores was significantly higher in conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT) than in conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) (> 150 μm vs 90–120 μm). Pore location within the aggregates also showed differences, with porosity being evenly distributed in the aggregates under conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT). Under conservational tillage (G-ST and C-NT), the aggregates were heterogeneous, showing higher porosity at the center of the aggregates. There was a higher soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the external layer than in the internal layer in conservational tillage in Belgium (G-ST). In no tillage in China (C-NT), the SOC in the external and internal layers, however, showed similar results. Overall, conventional tillage (G-CT and C-CT) reduced the proportion of the largest pores within soil aggregates, whereas there was no significant relationship between pore morphologies and SOC content. Further investigation is required to measure the active and slow carbon pool distribution in the different layers and under different tillage practices. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (4 ULg) A new asteroseismic diagnostic for internal rotation in γ Doradus starsOuazzani, Rhita-Maria; Salmon, Sébastien ; Antoci, V. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465With four years of nearly-continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to $\gamma$ Doradus stars. In particular several analyses have demonstrated the ... [more ▼]With four years of nearly-continuous photometry from Kepler, we are finally in a good position to apply asteroseismology to $\gamma$ Doradus stars. In particular several analyses have demonstrated the possibility to detect non-uniform period spacings, which have been predicted to be directly related to rotation. In the present work, we define a new seismic diagnostic for rotation in $\gamma$ Doradus stars that are too rapidly rotating to present rotational splittings. Based on the non uniformity of their period spacings, we define the observable $\Sigma$ as the slope of the period spacing when plotted as a function of period. We provide a one-to-one relation between this observable $\Sigma$ and the internal rotation, which applies widely in the instability strip of $\gamma$ Doradus stars. We apply the diagnostic to a handful of stars observed by Kepler. Thanks to g-modes in $\gamma$ Doradus stars, we are now able to determine the internal rotation of stars on the lower main sequence, which is still not possible for Sun-like stars. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg) Strong XUV irradiation of the Earth-sized exoplanets orbiting the ultracool dwarf TRAPPIST-1Wheatley, Peter J.; Louden, Tom; Bourrier, Vincent et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 465We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of TRAPPIST-1, which is an ultracool dwarf star recently discovered to host three transiting and temperate Earth-sized planets. We find the star is a relatively ... [more ▼]We present an XMM-Newton X-ray observation of TRAPPIST-1, which is an ultracool dwarf star recently discovered to host three transiting and temperate Earth-sized planets. We find the star is a relatively strong and variable coronal X-ray source with an X-ray luminosity similar to that of the quiet Sun, despite its much lower bolometric luminosity. We find L_x/L_bol=2-4x10^-4, with the total XUV emission in the range L_xuv/L_bol=6-9x10^-4. Using a simple energy-limited model we show that the relatively close-in Earth-sized planets, which span the classical habitable zone of the star, are subject to sufficient X-ray and EUV irradiation to significantly alter their primary and perhaps secondary atmospheres. Understanding whether this high-energy irradiation makes the planets more or less habitable is a complex question, but our measured fluxes will be an important input to the necessary models of atmospheric evolution. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) Quantitative determination of salbutamol sulfate impurities using achiral supercritical fluid chromatographyDispas, Amandine ; Desfontaine, Vincent; Andri, Bertyl et alin Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biomedical Analysis (2017), 134In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography has largely been acknowledged as a singular and performing technique in the field of separation sciences. Recent studies highlighted the interest of ... [more ▼]In the last years, supercritical fluid chromatography has largely been acknowledged as a singular and performing technique in the field of separation sciences. Recent studies highlighted the interest of SFC for the quality control of pharmaceuticals, especially in the case of the determination of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).Nevertheless, quality control requires also the determination of impurities. The objectives of the present work were to i) demonstrate the interest of SFC as a reference technique for the determination of impurities in salbutamol sulfate API and ii) to propose an alternative to a reference HPLC method from the European Pharmacopeia (EP) involving ionpairing reagent. Firstly, a screening was carried out to select the most adequate and selective stationary phase. Secondly, in the context of robust optimization strategy, the method was developed using design space methodology. The separation of salbutamol sulfate and related impurities was achieved in 7 minutes, which is seven times faster than the LC-UV method proposed by European Pharmacopeia (total run time of 50 minutes). Finally, full validation using accuracy profile approach was successfully achieved for the determination of impurities B, D, F and G in salbutamol sulfate raw material. The validated dosing range covered 50 to 150 % of the targeted concentration (corresponding to 0.3 % concentration level), LODs close to 0.5 μg/mL were estimated. The SFC method proposed in this study could be presented as a suitable fast alternative to EP LC method for the quantitative determination of salbutamol impurities. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg) Residential heat pump as flexible load for direct control service with parametrized duration and rebound effectGeorges, Emeline ; Cornélusse, Bertrand ; Ernst, Damien et alin Applied Energy (2017), 187This paper addresses the problem of an aggregator controlling residential heat pumps to offer a direct control flexibility service. The service consists of a power modulation, upward or downward, that is ... [more ▼]This paper addresses the problem of an aggregator controlling residential heat pumps to offer a direct control flexibility service. The service consists of a power modulation, upward or downward, that is activated at a given time period over a fixed number of periods. The service modulation is relative to an optimized baseline that minimizes the energy costs. The load modulation is directly followed by a constrained rebound effect, consisting of a delay time with no deviations from the baseline consumption and a payback time to return to the baseline state. The potential amount of modulation and the constrained rebound effect are computed by solving mixed integer linear problems. Within these problems, the thermal behavior of the building is modeled by an equivalent thermal network made of resistances and lumped capacitances. Simulations are performed for different sets of buildings typical of the Belgian residential building stock and are presented in terms of achievable modulation amplitude, deviations from the baseline and associated costs. A cluster of one hundred ideal buildings, corresponding to retrofitted freestanding houses, is then chosen to investigate the influence of each parameter defined within the service. Results show that with a set of one hundred heat pumps, a load aggregator could expect to harvest mean modulation amplitudes of up to 138 kW for an upward modulation and up to 51 kW for a downward modulation. The obtained values strongly depend on the proposed flexibility service. For example, they can decrease down to 2.6 kW and 0.4 kW, respectively, if no rebound effect is allowed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 265 (25 ULg) Clinical settings in knee osteoarthritis: Pathophysiology guides treatmentHerrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Bruyère, Olivier et alin Maturitas (2017), 96Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disorder and its prevalence increases rapidly during midlife. Complex interactions of genetic alterations, sex hormone deficit, and aging with ... [more ▼]Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic joint disorder and its prevalence increases rapidly during midlife. Complex interactions of genetic alterations, sex hormone deficit, and aging with mechanical factors and systemic inflammation-associated metabolic syndrome lead to joint damage. Thus, the expression of a clinical phenotype in the early stages of OA relies on the main underlying pathway and predominant joint tissue involved at a given time. Moreover, OA often coexists with other morbidities in the same patient, which in turn condition the OA process. In this scenario, an appropriate identification of clinical phenotypes, especially in the early stages of the disease, may optimize the design of individualized treatments in OA. An ESCEO-EUGMS (European Union Geriatric Medicine Society) working group has recently suggested possible patient profiles in OA. Hereby, we propose the existence of 4 clinical phenotypes – biomechanical, osteoporotic, metabolic and inflammatory – whose characterization would help to properly stratify patients with OA in clinical trials or studies. Further research in this field is warranted. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 15 (1 ULg) The importance of open data and software: Is energy research lagging behind?Pfenninger, Stefan; DeCariolis, Joseph; Hirth, Lion et alin Energy Policy (2017)Energy policy often builds on insights gained from quantitative energy models and their underlying data. As climate change mitigation and economic concerns drive a sustained transformation of the energy ... [more ▼]Energy policy often builds on insights gained from quantitative energy models and their underlying data. As climate change mitigation and economic concerns drive a sustained transformation of the energy sector, transparent and well-founded analyses are more important than ever. We assert that models and their associated data must be openly available to facilitate higher quality science, greater productivity through less duplicated effort, and a more effective science-policy boundary. There are also valid reasons why data and code are not open: ethical and security concerns, unwanted exposure, additional workload, and institutional or personal inertia. Overall, energy policy research ostensibly lags behind other fields in promoting more open and reproducible science. We take stock of the status quo and propose actionable steps forward for the energy research community to ensure that it can better engage with decision-makers and continues to deliver robust policy advice in a transparent and reproducible way. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (2 ULg) Learning from blind tests: Determining the function of experimental grinding stones through use-wear and residue analysisHayes, Elspeth H.; Cnuts, Dries ; Lepers, Christian et alin Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports (2017), 11Abstract Blind tests provide an objective means to evaluate the accuracy of functional interpretations based on the presence of use-wear and residue traces on stone tools. Previous blind tests have ... [more ▼]Abstract Blind tests provide an objective means to evaluate the accuracy of functional interpretations based on the presence of use-wear and residue traces on stone tools. Previous blind tests have highlighted interpretive errors commonly associated with use-wear and residue analyses leading to significant methodological developments in each of the respective fields. While a number of blind tests have been performed on flaked stone tools, only a single blind test has been published for use-wear on grinding tools. We present the results of a two-part blind test performed on 15 experimental grinding implements that were used in a controlled setting, designed to evaluate the relative importance of residue analysis for determining the worked material (1) when contextual information is available and (2) when contextual information is absent. We argue that use-wear and residue analyses are successful procedures to identify the use of grinding stones, and that residue analysis may be a particularly valuable means for determining the worked material on tools that have insufficient use-wear development. We suggest that residues should be sufficiently abundant to infer use, if we are to avoid the potential confusion caused by contamination. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (2 ULg) Chez Froidmont au Nord : lectures polyphoniques d’une quête identitaireBaiwir, Esther ; Adams, Juliette; Demonchaux, Chloé et alin Tortue verte. Revue en ligne des littératures francophones (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Voyage[s] à travers le thymusGeenen, Vincent in Science et Culture (2017), (465), 14-15Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Photocleavable stabilizer for the preparation of PHEMA nanogels by dispersion polymerization in supercritical carbon dioxideAlaimo, David; Grignard, Bruno ; Kuppan, Chandrasekar et alin Polymer Chemistry (2017), 8(3), 581-591A new photo-sensitive diblock copolymer composed of a hydrophilic sequence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) linked to a CO2-philic sequence of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) (PFDA) by a ... [more ▼]A new photo-sensitive diblock copolymer composed of a hydrophilic sequence of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) linked to a CO2-philic sequence of poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate) (PFDA) by a light sensitive o- nitrobenzyl group was successfully synthesized by RAFT polymerization and used as stabilizer for the free radical polymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in dispersion in ?,?,?-trifluorotoluene and supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). Thanks to this fluorinated stabilizer, well-defined particles of PHEMA down to 350 nm of diameter were produced in scCO2. Advantageously, the photocleavable group at the block junction of the stabilizer could be cleaved by exposing the particles to UV light so that the fluorinated block could be extracted in TFT or scCO2. As supported by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, up to 80 % of the fluorinated block of the stabilizer can be removed, leading to efficient swelling and dispersion of the resulting PHEMA nanogels in water. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 31 (10 ULg) Present-day central African forest is a legacy of the 19th century human historyMorin, Julie ; Fayolle, Adeline ; Favier, Charly et alin eLife (2017)The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850 ... [more ▼]The populations of light-demanding trees that dominate the canopy of central African forests are now aging. Here, we show that the lack of regeneration of these populations began ca. 165 ya (around 1850) after major anthropogenic disturbances ceased. Since 1885, less itinerancy and disturbance in the forest has occurred because the colonial administrations concentrated people and villages along the primary communication axes. Local populations formerly gardened the forest by creating scattered openings, which were sufficiently large for the establishment of light-demanding trees. Currently, common logging operations do not create suitable openings for the regeneration of these species, whereas deforestation degrades landscapes. Using an interdisciplinary approach, which included paleoecological, archaeological, historical, and dendrological data, we highlight the long-term history of human activities across central African forests and assess the contribution of these activities to present-day forest structure and composition. The conclusions of this sobering analysis present challenges to current silvicultural practices and to those of the future. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (2 ULg) Cryopreservation of chicken primordial germ cells by vitrification and slow-freezing: a comparative studyTonus, Céline ; Connan, Delphine ; Waroux, Olivier et alin Theriogenology (2017), 88In the present study, we compare a classical slow freezing method and an aseptic vitrification technique to cryopreserve a stable Primordial Gem Cells (PGCs) line issued from the Ardennaise chicken breed ... [more ▼]In the present study, we compare a classical slow freezing method and an aseptic vitrification technique to cryopreserve a stable Primordial Gem Cells (PGCs) line issued from the Ardennaise chicken breed. Viability immediately after warming was close to 80% and did not differ between the two cryopreservation methods. Proliferation tended to be slower for both cryopreservation methods compared to controls, but the difference was significant only for vitrification. No difference was found between the two methods after flow cytometry analysis of SSEA-1 expression and RT-PCR on several factors related to PGCs phenotype. After one week in culture, all cryopreserved cells reached controls main morphological and expanding (viability/proliferation) features. However, slow freezing generated more unwanted cells clusters than vitrification. After injection of the PGCs into recipient embryos, vitrified PGCs showed a clear, yet not significant, tendency to colonize the gonad at a higher rate than slow frozen PGCs. Slow freezing in cryovials remains simple, inexpensive and less technically demanding than vitrification. Nevertheless, the intrinsic advantages of our aseptic vitrification method and the present study suggest that this should be considered as safer than classical slow freezing for cryopreserving chicken PGCs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 40 (18 ULg) Microbiological load of edible insects found in BelgiumCaparros Megido, Rudy ; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe et alin Insects (2017)Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are ... [more ▼]Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg) What is the use of shaping a tang? Tool use and hafting of tanged tools in the Aterian of Northern AfricaTomasso, Sonja ; Rots, Veerle in Archaeological and Anthropological sciences (2017)We present the results of detailed microscopic examination of tanged tools from the site of Ifri n'Ammar. The rock shelter has a particularly rich and well-preserved stratigraphy that has yielded a large ... [more ▼]We present the results of detailed microscopic examination of tanged tools from the site of Ifri n'Ammar. The rock shelter has a particularly rich and well-preserved stratigraphy that has yielded a large variety of tanged tools, thus offering a possibility to test hypotheses on the possible links between tangs and hafting. Earlier methodological work has demonstrated that patterned wear forms on the non-active part of the tool as the result of hafted tool use, and that the characteristics of the wear traces depend on the exact hafting arrangement used. In the present study, wear analyses were combined with further experiments that involved the hafting of tanged tools with various materials and arrangements and aimed at understanding the development of this important morphological innovation. We suggest that functional data are needed to understand the relevance of the "Aterian tang" for hafting (or use), and whether this innovation was triggered by functional, cultural or environmental factors. [less ▲] Coronary microvascular reserve and outcome in aortic stenosis: Pathophysiological significance vs. clinical relevance.Lancellotti, Patrizio ; Nchimi Longang, Alain in European Heart Journal (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 16 (1 ULg) Fermi-LAT kills dark matter interpretations of AMS-02 data. Or not?Belotsky, Konstantin; Budaev, Ruslan; Kirillov, Alexander et alin Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (2017)A number of papers attempt to explain the positron anomaly in cosmic rays, observed by PAMELA and AMS-02, in terms of dark matter (DM) decays or annihilations. However, the recent progress in cosmic gamma ... [more ▼]A number of papers attempt to explain the positron anomaly in cosmic rays, observed by PAMELA and AMS-02, in terms of dark matter (DM) decays or annihilations. However, the recent progress in cosmic gamma-ray studies challenges these attempts. Indeed, as we show, any rational DM model explaining the positron anomaly abundantly produces final state radiation and Inverse Compton gamma rays, which inevitably leads to a contradiction with Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background measurements. Furthermore, the Fermi-LAT observation of Milky Way dwarf satellites, supposed to be rich in DM, revealed no significant signal in gamma rays. We propose a generic approach in which the major contribution to cosmic rays comes from the dark matter disc and prove that the tension between the DM origin of the positron anomaly and the cosmic gamma-ray observations can be relieved. We consider both a simple model, in which DM decay/annihilate into charged leptons, and a model-independent minimal case of particle production, and we estimate the optimal thickness of DM disk. Possible mechanisms of formation and its properties are briefly discussed. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Simultaneous anionic ring-opening and condensation reactions for the synthesis of aliphatic–N-alkyl aromatic copolyamidesBakkali-Hassani, Camille; Tunc, Deniz; Roos, Kevin et alin Macromolecules (2017), 50(1), 175-181The copolymerization of ε-caprolactam with ethyl 4-(butylamino)benzoate was shown to occur in the presence of sodium salts and an acyllactam as activator in a one-step bulk reaction. The mechanism is ... [more ▼]The copolymerization of ε-caprolactam with ethyl 4-(butylamino)benzoate was shown to occur in the presence of sodium salts and an acyllactam as activator in a one-step bulk reaction. The mechanism is based on the deprotonation of the two monomers yielding activated species able to attack an acyllactam or an ester group at the polymer chain ends. Novel copolyamides with different percentages of aromatic/aliphatic units were synthesized in a one-step bulk copolymerization within a few minutes at 140 °C and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography, and thermal analysis (DSC). This methodology, combining simultaneous anionic ring-opening and condensation reactions, affords a new synthetic pathway to introduce an aromatic unit in an aliphatic polyamide backbone, and more specifically a polyamide 6 containing about 20 mol % of N-alkyl aromatic amides was prepared. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 14 (6 ULg) Re-emergence of the Schmallenberg virus associated triad hydranencephaly-micromyelia-arthrogryposis in a newborn calf in Belgium, 2016Bayrou, Calixte ; Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ; Cassart, Dominique et alin Veterinary Record Case Reports (2017), 4(1), 000342Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, then spread rapidly across Europe, causing an epizootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological ... [more ▼]Schmallenberg virus (SBV) emerged in Germany in 2011, then spread rapidly across Europe, causing an epizootic outbreak of abortion, stillbirth and birth at term of lambs, kids and calves with neurological signs and/or musculo-skeletal malformations. SBV-associated disease in newborns disappeared in Belgium in 2013. Here, we describe a SBV genomic RNA-positive malformed calf born in May 2016. It reveals the return of SBV circulation during the fall 2015 in the said area. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg) First scattered-light images of the gas-rich debris disk around 49 CetiChoquet, É.; Milli, J.; Wahhaj, Z. et alin Astrophysical Journal Letters (2017), 834(2), 12We present the first scattered-light images of the debris disk around 49 ceti, a ~40 Myr A1 main sequence star at 59 pc, famous for hosting two massive dust belts as well as large quantities of atomic and ... [more ▼]We present the first scattered-light images of the debris disk around 49 ceti, a ~40 Myr A1 main sequence star at 59 pc, famous for hosting two massive dust belts as well as large quantities of atomic and molecular gas. The outer disk is revealed in reprocessed archival Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS F110W images, as well as new coronagraphic H band images from the Very Large Telescope SPHERE instrument. The disk extends from 1.1" (65 AU) to 4.6" (250 AU), and is seen at an inclination of 73degr, which refines previous measurements at lower angular resolution. We also report no companion detection larger than 3 M_Jup at projected separations beyond 20 AU from the star (0.34"). Comparison between the F110W and H-band images is consistent with a grey color of 49 ceti's dust, indicating grains larger than >2microns. Our photometric measurements indicate a scattering efficiency / infrared excess ratio of 0.2-0.4, relatively low compared to other characterized debris disks. We find that 49 ceti presents morphological and scattering properties very similar to the gas-rich HD 131835 system. From our constraint on the disk inclination we find that the atomic gas previously detected in absorption must extend to the inner disk, and that the latter must be depleted of CO gas. Building on previous studies, we propose a schematic view of the system describing the dust and gas structure around 49 ceti and hypothetic scenarios for the gas nature and origin. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) Pollen nutrients better explain bumblebee colony development than pollen diversityMoerman, Romain; Vanderplanck, Maryse ; Fournier, Denis et alin Insect Conservation and Diversity (2017)1. Bumblebees are valuable pollinators of numerous wild and cultivated plants. They can forage on variable pollen resources. As some pollen species lack particular nutrients or have global low nutritional ... [more ▼]1. Bumblebees are valuable pollinators of numerous wild and cultivated plants. They can forage on variable pollen resources. As some pollen species lack particular nutrients or have global low nutritional quality, it has been suggested that bumblebees mix their pollen incomes to ensure a global balanced diet. The hypothesis that a mixed pollen diet better supports bumblebee colony development than a single pollen diet has been poorly explored. 2. We compared the impact of mono-, di- and trifloral diets on microcolony development of Bombus terrestris using three pollen resources with different nutrient contents (Cytisus scoparius, Erica sp. and Sorbus aucuparia) as well as their mixes. Nine parameters (e.g. pollen efficacy: total weight of larvae/total weight of pollen collection) were used to compare the microcolony performances. Moreover, we measured the influence of the pollen diversity and nutritional composition on relevant parameters. 3. We showed that microcolonies can potentially better develop on mixed pollen diets, but single pollen diet can also be as good as mixed pollen diet. Moreover, the sterol concentration appeared as a key factor to establish the impact of a pollen diet on the bumblebee colony development. 4. This study reveals that diverse pollen diet does not necessary equate with good colony development and supports the importance of selecting floral resources by considering their nutrient contents for bee conservation management. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (0 ULg) Segregation and pattern formation in dilute granular media under microgravity conditionsOpsomer, Eric ; Noirhomme, Martial ; Vandewalle, Nicolas et alin NPJ Microgravity (2017), 3Space exploration and exploitation face a major challenge: the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environments. Indeed, grains behave quite differently in space than on Earth, and the ... [more ▼]Space exploration and exploitation face a major challenge: the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environments. Indeed, grains behave quite differently in space than on Earth, and the dissipative nature of the collisions between solid particles leads to clustering. Within poly-disperse materials, the question of segregation is highly relevant but has not been addressed so far in microgravity. From parabolic flight experiments on dilute binary granular media, we show that clustering can trigger a segregation mechanism, and we observe, for the first time, the formation of layered structures in the bulk. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (1 ULg) How should proxies of Cognitive Reserve be evaluated in a population of healthy older adults?Grotz, Catherine ; Seron, Xavier; Van Wissen, Marie et alin International Psychogeriatrics (2017), 29(1), 123-136Background: While some tools have been developed to estimate an individual’s cognitive reserve (CR), no study has assessed the adequacy of the method used for assessing these CR proxy indicators ... [more ▼]Background: While some tools have been developed to estimate an individual’s cognitive reserve (CR), no study has assessed the adequacy of the method used for assessing these CR proxy indicators. Therefore, we aimed to determine the most appropriate method to estimate CR by comparing two approaches: 1) the common assessment of CR proxies in the literature (e.g., years of education) and 2) the calculation of a comprehensive index based on most significant parameters used in the estimation of CR. Methods: Data on CR proxies: (i.e., education, occupation and leisure activities) were obtained in a sample of 204 older adults. Regression analyses were used to develop the two indices of CR (i.e., ICR-standard and ICR-detailed) and to determine which index best represented the level of one’s CR. Results: The ICR-standard was calculated using a combination of the three most common measures of reserve in the literature: number of schooling years, complexity of the primary occupation and amount of current participation in stimulating activities. The ICR-detailed was calculated using the most significant parameters (established in initial analyses) of CR: highest level of education combined with the number of training courses, last occupation and amount of current participation in social and intellectual activities. The comparison of both indices showed that higher levels of ICR-standard and ICR-detailed were associated with a greater minimization of the effects of age on cognition. However, the ICR-detailed was more strongly associated to this minimization than the ICR-standard, suggesting that the ICR-detailed best reflect one’s CR. Conclusion: This study is the first to show that it is of great importance to question methods measuring CR proxies in order to develop a clinical tool allowing a comprehensive and accurate estimation of CR. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 81 (6 ULg) Hot-Melt Extrusion as a Continuous Manufacturing Process to Form Ternary Cyclodextrin Inclusion ComplexesThiry, Justine ; Krier, Fabrice; Ratwatte, Shenelka et alin European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences (2017), 96Detailed reference viewed: 41 (14 ULg) Rossiter-McLaughlin models and their effect on estimates of stellar rotation, illustrated using six WASP systemsBrown, D. J. A.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Doyle, A. P. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464We present new measurements of the projected spin--orbit angle $\lambda$ for six WASP hot Jupiters, four of which are new to the literature (WASP-61, -62, -76, and -78), and two of which are new analyses ... [more ▼]We present new measurements of the projected spin--orbit angle $\lambda$ for six WASP hot Jupiters, four of which are new to the literature (WASP-61, -62, -76, and -78), and two of which are new analyses of previously measured systems using new data (WASP-71, and -79). We use three different models based on two different techniques: radial velocity measurements of the Rossiter--McLaughlin effect, and Doppler tomography. Our comparison of the different models reveals that they produce projected stellar rotation velocities ($v \sin I_{\rm s}$) measurements often in disagreement with each other and with estimates obtained from spectral line broadening. The Bou\'e model for the Rossiter--McLaughlin effect consistently underestimates the value of $v\sin I_{\rm s}$ compared to the Hirano model. Although $v \sin I_s$ differed, the effect on $\lambda$ was small for our sample, with all three methods producing values in agreement with each other. Using Doppler tomography, we find that WASP-61\,b ($\lambda=4^\circ.0^{+17.1}_{-18.4}$), WASP-71\,b ($\lambda=-1^\circ.9^{+7.1}_{-7.5}$), and WASP-78\,b ($\lambda=-6^\circ.4\pm5.9$) are aligned. WASP-62\,b ($\lambda=19^\circ.4^{+5.1}_{-4.9}$) is found to be slightly misaligned, while WASP-79\,b ($\lambda=-95^\circ.2^{+0.9}_{-1.0}$) is confirmed to be strongly misaligned and has a retrograde orbit. We explore a range of possibilities for the orbit of WASP-76\,b, finding that the orbit is likely to be strongly misaligned in the positive $\lambda$ direction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 6 (0 ULg) Water loss from terrestrial planets orbiting ultracool dwarfs: implications for the planets of TRAPPIST-1Bolmont, E.; Selsis, F.; Owen, J. E. et alin Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464Ultracool dwarfs (UCD; $T_{\rm eff}<\sim3000~$K) cool to settle on the main sequence after $\sim$1 Gyr. For brown dwarfs, this cooling never stops. Their habitable zone (HZ) thus sweeps inward at least ... [more ▼]Ultracool dwarfs (UCD; $T_{\rm eff}<\sim3000~$K) cool to settle on the main sequence after $\sim$1 Gyr. For brown dwarfs, this cooling never stops. Their habitable zone (HZ) thus sweeps inward at least during the first Gyr of their lives. Assuming they possess water, planets found in the HZ of UCDs have experienced a runaway greenhouse phase too hot for liquid water prior to entering the HZ. It has been proposed that such planets are desiccated by this hot early phase and enter the HZ as dry worlds. Here we model the water loss during this pre-HZ hot phase taking into account recent upper limits on the XUV emission of UCDs and using 1D radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. We address the whole range of UCDs but also focus on the planets recently found around the $0.08~M_\odot$ dwarf TRAPPIST-1. Despite assumptions maximizing the FUV-photolysis of water and the XUV-driven escape of hydrogen, we find that planets can retain significant amounts of water in the HZ of UCDs, with a sweet spot in the $0.04$-$0.06~M_\odot$ range. We also studied the TRAPPIST-1 system using observed constraints on the XUV-flux. We find that TRAPPIST-1b and c may have lost as much as 15 Earth Oceans and planet d -- which might be inside the HZ -- may have lost less than 1 Earth Ocean. Depending on their initial water contents, they could have enough water to remain habitable. TRAPPIST-1 planets are key targets for atmospheric characterization and could provide strong constraints on the water erosion around UCDs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 10 (0 ULg) First limits on the occurrence rate of short-period planets orbiting brown dwarfsHe, Matthias Y.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.; Gillon, Michaël in Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (2017), 464Planet formation theories predict a large but still undetected population of short-period terrestrial planets orbiting brown dwarfs. Should specimens of this population be discovered transiting relatively ... [more ▼]Planet formation theories predict a large but still undetected population of short-period terrestrial planets orbiting brown dwarfs. Should specimens of this population be discovered transiting relatively bright and nearby brown dwarfs, the Jupiter-size and the low luminosity of their hosts would make them exquisite targets for detailed atmospheric characterisation with JWST and future ground-based facilities. The eventual discovery and detailed study of a significant sample of transiting terrestrial planets orbiting nearby brown dwarfs could prove to be useful not only for comparative exoplanetology but also for astrobiology, by bringing us key information on the physical requirements and timescale for the emergence of life. In this context, we present a search for transit-signals in archival time-series photometry acquired by the Spitzer Space Telescope for a sample of 44 nearby brown dwarfs. While these 44 targets were not particularly selected for their brightness, the high precision of their Spitzer light curves allows us to reach sensitivities below Earth-sized planets for 75% of the sample and down to Europa-sized planets on the brighter targets. We could not identify any unambiguous planetary signal. Instead, we could compute the first limits on the presence of planets on close-in orbits. We find that within a 1.28 day orbit, the occurrence rate of planets with a radius between 0.75 and 3.25 R$_\oplus$ is {\eta} < 67 $\pm$ 1%. For planets with radii between 0.75 and 1.25 R$_\oplus$, we place a 95% confident upper limit of {\eta} < 87 $\pm$ 3%. If we assume an occurrence rate of {\eta} = 27% for these planets with radii between 0.75 and 1.25 R$_\oplus$, as the discoveries of the Kepler-42b and TRAPPIST-1b systems would suggest, we estimate that 175 brown dwarfs need to be monitored in order to guarantee (95%) at least one detection. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (1 ULg) H.M. Enzensberger contre l'amertume du vieillard. Des "groupes vidéos" à Youtube (et retour).Hamers, Jérémy in Cahier Louis-Lumière (2017), 10By interrelating several texts on the editing and juxtaposition of heterogeneous images by the German essayist and media theorist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, this article brings up to date an aesthetic link ... [more ▼]By interrelating several texts on the editing and juxtaposition of heterogeneous images by the German essayist and media theorist Hans Magnus Enzensberger, this article brings up to date an aesthetic link between various past and contemporary media devices. The identification of this link makes it possible to free theoretical critique of the evolutionary paradigm of failure and progress (technological and political), opening it up to a set of reciprocal and non-linear insights. In this context, the use of Enzensberger texts also goes beyond any form of periodisation. By engaging a dialogue with his “Jeu de construction pour une théorie des medias” / Constituents of a Theory of the Media (1970), several essays gathered in Médiocrité et folie / Mediocrity and Madness (1988), as well as his recent autobiographical interview Erinnerungen an einen Tumult (2014), this text shows how criticism by the German writer, while constantly revitalised by the emergence of “new” objects (tabloid press, mobile video, television, Internet, smartphones), invites us to overcome any technological determinism to simultaneously consider the political potential of the first activist video groups and platforms dominating the Internet today. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (2 ULg) Bioclimatism in Architecture : an evolutionary perspectiveNguyen, Anh Tuan; Reiter, Sigrid in International Journal of Design and Nature and Ecodynamics (2017), 12(1), 16-29Fundamentals of vernacular architecture have been used in bioclimatic architecture which has gradually become the inspiration of various movements in contemporary architecture. The study points out that ... [more ▼]Fundamentals of vernacular architecture have been used in bioclimatic architecture which has gradually become the inspiration of various movements in contemporary architecture. The study points out that the development of bioclimatism in architecture has followed the pattern of a natural evolutionary process in which “natural selection” is likely motivated by several factors, including resources and environment problems, and driven by different mechanisms including novel building design concepts and methods, new standards and codes, discoveries in building science and construction costs. This study is an effort aimed to clarify the evolution process of the bioclimatic approach in architecture over time and its influences on contemporary movements in architecture. The paper shows also that the evolutionary theory generated new scientific tools able to improve building design thanks to simulation-based optimization methods applied to building performances. Finally, this study investigates new motivations in the era of climate change whose effects are expected to introduce more challenges as well as more trends towards a sustainable built environment through the new concept of Eco-adaptive architecture. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (8 ULg) Silicate mineralogy at the surface of MercuryNamur, Olivier ; Charlier, Bernard in Nature Geoscience (2017)NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury’s volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate ... [more ▼]NASA’s MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury’s volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate minerals, magnesium sulfide minerals in hollows and a darkening component attributed to graphite, but existing spectral data is insufficient to build a mineralogical map for the planet. Here we investigate the mineralogical variability of silicates in Mercury’s crust using crystallization experiments on magmas with compositions and under reducing conditions expected for Mercury. We find a common crystallization sequence consisting of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxenes and tridymite for all magmas tested. Depending on the cooling rate, we suggest that lavas on Mercury are either fully crystallized or made of a glassy matrix with phenocrysts. Combining the experimental results with geochemical mapping, we can identify several mineralogical provinces: the Northern Volcanic Plains and Smooth Plains, dominated by plagioclase, the High-Mg province, strongly dominated by forsterite, and the Intermediate Plains, comprised of forsterite, plagioclase and enstatite. This implies a temporal evolution of the mineralogy from the oldest lavas, dominated by mafic minerals, to the youngest lavas, dominated by plagioclase, consistent with progressive shallowing and decreasing degree of mantle melting over time. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 19 (0 ULg) Enonciation et modes d'existenceDondero, Maria Giulia in Nouveaux Actes Sémiotiques (2017)Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique ... [more ▼]Cet article aborde les relations entre sémiotique et philosophie latourienne à partir de la théorie de l’énonciation, cette dernière se situant tant aux fondements du projet disciplinaire de la sémiotique francophone contemporaine qu’à la base de la réflexion de Bruno Latour, des années 1970 jusqu’à présent . Notre propos se déploie en deux moments : dans un premier temps, nous revenons sur l’article "Petite Philosophie de l’énonciation" (1998), et nous en suivons le développement dans l’Enquête sur les modes d’existence (2012). Dans un second temps, nous réalisons une rapide archéologie de la théorie de l’énonciation dans la sémiotique contemporaine, afin de mettre en lumière les liens entre différentes traditions sémiotiques et la théorie latourienne. Plus précisément, nous nous attachons aux propositions récentes de Jacques Fontanille et de Claudio Paolucci, en prenant également en considération les contributions d’Umberto Eco et Patrizia Violi. Il s’agit de voir comment les sémioticiens peuvent tirer profit de la théorie latourienne des modes d’existence et vice versa. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (4 ULg) Spatial variation in the accumulation of POPs and mercury in bottlenose dolphins of the Lower Florida Keys and the coastal Everglades (South Florida)Damseaux, France ; Kiszka, J.; Heithaus, M.R. et alin Environmental Pollution (2017), 220The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an upper trophic level predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of southern Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK ... [more ▼]The bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) is an upper trophic level predator and the most common cetacean species found in nearshore waters of southern Florida, including the Lower Florida Keys (LFK) and the Florida Coastal Everglades (FCE). The objective of this study was to assess contamination levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in skin and persistent organic pollutants (PCBs, PBDEs, DDXs, HCHs, HCB, Σ PCDD/Fs and Σ DL-PCBs) in blubber samples of bottlenose dolphins from LFK (n = 27) and FCE (n = 24). PCBs were the major class of compounds found in bottlenose dolphin blubber and were higher in individuals from LFK (Σ 6 PCBs LFK males: 13421 ± 7730 ng.g-1 lipids, Σ 6 PCBs LFK females: 9683 ± 19007 ng.g-1 lipids) than from FCE (Σ 6 PCBs FCE males: 5638 ng.g-1 ± 3627 lipids, Σ 6 PCBs FCE females: 1427 ± 908 ng.g-1 lipids). These levels were lower than previously published data from the southeastern USA. The Σ DL-PCBs were the most prevalent pollutants of dioxin and dioxin like compounds (Σ DL-PCBs LFK: 739 ng.g-1 lipids, Σ DL-PCBs FCE: 183 ng.g-1 lipids) since PCDD/F concentrations were low for both locations (mean 0.1 ng.g-1 lipids for LFK and FCE dolphins). The toxicity equivalences of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs expressed as TEQ in LFK and FCE dolphins is mainly expressed by DL-PCBs (81% LFK - 65% FCE). T-Hg concentrations in skin were significantly higher in FCE (FCE median 9314 ng.g-1 dw) compared to LFK dolphins (LFK median 2941 ng.g-1 dw). These bottlenose dolphins concentrations are the highest recorded in the southeastern USA, and may be explained, at least partially, by the biogeochemistry of the Everglades and mangrove sedimentary habitats that create favourable conditions for the retention of mercury and make it available at high concentrations for aquatic predators. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 60 (18 ULg) MICROPALEONTOLOGY OF THE LOWER MESOPROTEROZOIC ROPER GROUP, AUSTRALIA, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY EUKARYOTIC EVOLUTIONJavaux, Emmanuelle ; Knoll, Andrew H.in Journal of Paleontology (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 8 (1 ULg) Post-embryonic development of sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus: a staging tool based on externally visible anatomical traitsSchnitzler, Joseph ; Dussenne, Mélanie ; Frederich, Bruno et alin Ichthyological Research (2017), 64The sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus has become a favoured model for laboratory studies because of their small size, rapid development, and tolerance of laboratory conditions. Here, we analyse ... [more ▼]The sheepshead minnow Cyprinodon variegatus has become a favoured model for laboratory studies because of their small size, rapid development, and tolerance of laboratory conditions. Here, we analyse sheepshead minnow post-embryonic development with the goal of providing a generally useful method for staging fish after embryogenesis. Groups of three females and two males were placed in breeding chambers designed for this experiment. More than 100 eggs were collected and maintained in seawater. Embryos were selected under a dissection microscope and placed in incubation dishes (50 per dish) at 26 °C. On day six, embryos hatched and larvae were transferred to 1 L beakers. To define a simplified normalization table for sheepshead minnow development, we measured each fish for its standard length and examined the fish for four externally evident traits: pigmentation pattern, caudal fin morphology, anal fin morphology, and dorsal fin morphology. The four traits were chosen, because they are easily visualized with standard laboratory equipment such as the stereomicroscope and camera. We have provided criteria for staging sheepshead minnows in studies of post-embryonic development. Our data suggest that dorsal and anal fin morphology may serve as a useful phenotype for defining metamorphic climax stages throughout post-embryonic development in C. variegatus. The staging systems we propose should facilitate detailed anatomical and developmental analyses in relation to ecotoxicological studies on potential disruption of the thyroid axis by xenobiotics and endocrine-disrupting compounds. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (11 ULg) Tracing Migrant-Mothers’ ‘Return’ Narratives in the Mexico-U.S and Peru-Belgium Migratory Circuits.Vivas Romero, Maria ; Sanchez-Martinez, Anabelain Travaux et recherches dans les amériques du centre (2017)How do contemporary migrant mothers strategize return to their home countries? And how does the social protections available for their bi-national children in sending and destination countries factor in ... [more ▼]How do contemporary migrant mothers strategize return to their home countries? And how does the social protections available for their bi-national children in sending and destination countries factor in the decision to return? Through this contribution, we aimed to tackle these questions. We draw from the analysis of two longitudinal migratory careers and argue that our participant’s return decisions were influenced both by their children’s effective access to social protection and their subjective perceptions of ‘good-motherhood’. This Trans-Atlantic comparison shows how different situated-institutional-contexts, cultures of care and motherhood resulted into different patterns of mobility for these women and their families. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 28 (8 ULg) Relevance of vitamin D in the pathogenesis and therapy of frailty.Bruyère, Olivier ; Cavalier, Etienne ; Buckinx, Fanny et alin Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care (2017), 20(1), 26-29PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recently published evidence regarding the role of vitamin D in the physiopathology of physical frailty in elderly populations and its role in the management of this ... [more ▼]PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recently published evidence regarding the role of vitamin D in the physiopathology of physical frailty in elderly populations and its role in the management of this geriatric condition. RECENT FINDINGS: Some recent studies have found a low level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, considered the best marker of vitamin D status, in frail individuals. All prospective studies consistently report that low vitamin D status is associated with an increased risk of becoming frail. Recent studies also suggest that the relationship between vitamin D status and frailty is largely mediated by the development of sarcopenia. Very few well designed randomized controlled trials are available that assess the effectiveness of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention or management of frailty. In the absence of specific guidelines, a minimal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 75 nmol/l is proposed for frail elderly patients by some scientific societies. The doses necessary to reach this target are between 800 and 2000 IU/day. SUMMARY: Several studies suggest a potential effect of vitamin D on physical frailty but large clinical trials are lacking at this time to provide solid evidence of clinical benefit. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (2 ULg) Methane balance of an intensively grazed pasture and estimation of the enteric methane emissions from cattleDumortier, Pierre ; Aubinet, Marc ; Beckers, Yves et alin Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (2017), 232The methane turbulent fluxes of an intensively grazed pasture were measured continuously from June 2012 to December 2013 at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO) in Belgium. During grazing periods ... [more ▼]The methane turbulent fluxes of an intensively grazed pasture were measured continuously from June 2012 to December 2013 at the Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO) in Belgium. During grazing periods, the fluxes were dominated by enteric fermentation and were found to be strongly related to cow stocking density. In 2013, total emission from the pasture was found between 9 and 11 g CH4 m−2, 97% of which being emitted during grazing periods. Emission per LU (livestock unit) was estimated in a non-invasive way by integrating eddy covariance fluxes over large periods and by assuming a homogeneous average cattle disposition on the pasture. This estimate was compared to the one obtained during confinement periods, where cows were confined in a small part of the pasture. The emission per LU varied between 104 and 134 g CH4 LU−1 day−1 (13 and 17 g CH4 kg DMI−1), depending on the dataset and the computation method used. Diel course was characterized by two emission peaks, one in the morning and a larger one in the afternoon. For rest periods (no cattle on the pasture), small emissions were observed (median and mean values of 0.5 and 1.5 mg CH4 m−2 day−1, respectively). [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (15 ULg) Assessment of vitamin D status - a changing landscape.Herrmann, Markus; Farrell, Christopher-John L.; Pusceddu, Irene et alin Clinical Chemistry & Laboratory Medicine (2017)In recent years it has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence as well as the progression of a broad range of diseases including osteoporosis, rickets ... [more ▼]In recent years it has been shown that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased incidence as well as the progression of a broad range of diseases including osteoporosis, rickets, cardiovascular disease, autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis and cancer. Consequently, requests for the assessment of vitamin D status have increased dramatically. Despite significant progress in the analysis of vitamin D metabolites and an expansion of our pathophysiological knowledge of vitamin D, the assessment of vitamin D status remains a challenging and partially unresolved issue. Current guidelines from scientific bodies recommend the measurement of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OHD) in blood as the preferred test. However, growing evidence indicates significant limitations of this test, including analytical aspects and interpretation of results. In addition, the relationships between 25-OHD and various clinical indices, such as bone mineral density and fracture risk, are rather weak and not consistent across races. Recent studies have systematically investigated new markers of vitamin D status including the vitamin D metabolite ratio (VMR) (ratio between 25-OHD and 24,25-dihydroxy vitamin D), bioavailable 25-OHD [25-OHD not bound to vitamin D binding protein (DBP)], and free 25-OHD [circulating 25-OHD bound to neither DBP nor albumin (ALB)]. These parameters may potentially change how we will assess vitamin D status in the future. Although these new biomarkers have expanded our knowledge about vitamin D metabolism, a range of unresolved issues regarding their measurement and the interpretation of results prevent their use in daily practice. It can be expected that some of these issues will be overcome in the near future so that they may be considered for routine use (at least in specialized centers). In addition, genetic studies have revealed several polymorphisms in key proteins of vitamin D metabolism that affect the circulating concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. The affected proteins include DBP, 7-dehydrocholesterol synthase and the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Here we aim to review existing knowledge regarding the biochemistry, physiology and measurement of vitamin D. We will also provide an overview of current and emerging biomarkers for the assessment of vitamin D status, with particular attention methodological aspects and their usefulness in clinical practice. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg) Habitat selection and reproduction of newts in networks of fish and fishless aquatic patchesWinandy, Laurane ; Legrand, Pauline ; Denoël, Mathieu in Animal Behaviour (2017), 123The spatial distribution of organisms in patchy environments can be determined by the relationship between habitat quality and animal behaviour. In species with complex life cycles, such as pond-breeding ... [more ▼]The spatial distribution of organisms in patchy environments can be determined by the relationship between habitat quality and animal behaviour. In species with complex life cycles, such as pond-breeding amphibians, the selection of a suitable wetland is crucial. While the traditional view of amphibian ecology suggests strong site fidelity and low vagility, more recent research highlights mechanisms involving active site choice through avoidance behaviour and bet-hedging strategies in heterogeneous environments. The introduction of fish to the aquatic environment is one of the factors that may alter site selection and lead to local dispersal. In this context, we investigated the habitat choice of Alpine newts, Ichthyosaura alpestris, in networks of fish (Carassius auratus) and fishless aquatic patches. Using a laboratory design consisting of aquaria divided into two water tanks connected by a terrestrial platform, we assessed newt distribution and movement between patches. During the breeding period, we compared the reproductive success of individuals in two types of networks. We found that newts escaped fish by rapidly changing aquatic patches and then aggregating in safe aquatic patches that were free of fish. In the fish network, newts maintained reproduction, but the high local abundance resulted in decreased sexual activity and egg production and increased use of the terrestrial habitat. However, in the fishless network, newts moved between aquatic patches several times, exhibited more courtship behaviour and laid more eggs than they did in the fish networks. Our results showed both adaptive habitat switching due to environmental risks in the fish network and habitat supplementation (i.e. use of alternative resources) in the fishless network. Such studies on movement behaviour and habitat selection have conservation implications in showing that the persistence of native species in invaded networks depends on the rescue effect, with immigration to fish-free habitats potentially preventing local extinction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (12 ULg) Morphology of the filtration apparatus of three planktivorous fishes and relation with ingested anthropogenic particlesCollard, France ; Gilbert, Bernard ; Eppe, Gauthier et alin Marine Pollution Bulletin (2017)Anthropogenic particles (APs), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. Exposure of Clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their ... [more ▼]Anthropogenic particles (APs), including microplastics, are ingested by a wide variety of marine organisms. Exposure of Clupeiformes (e.g. herrings, anchovies, sardines) is poorly studied despite their economic and ecological importance. This study aims to describe the morphology of the filtration apparatus of three wild-caught Clupeiformes (Sardina pilchardus, Clupea harengus and Engraulis encrasicolus) and to relate the results to ingested APs. Consequently, the species with the more efficient filtration apparatus will be more likely to ingest APs. We hypothesized that sardines were the most exposed species. The filtration area and particle retention threshold were determined in the three species, with sardines displaying the highest filtration area and the closest gill rakers. Sardines ingested more fibers and smaller fragments, confirming that it is the most efficient filtering species. These two results lead to the conclusion that, among the three studied, the sardine is the species most exposed to APs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 169 (4 ULg) Impact of food type on respiration, fractionation and turnover of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in the marine amphipod Gammarus aequicauda (Martynov, 1931).Remy, François ; Darchambeau, François ; Melchior, Aurélie et alin Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology (2017), 486This study experimentally determined the impact of food source type on turnover rate and trophic enrichment factors (TEFs or ∆) of δ13C and δ15N, as well as on respiration rate, in captive populations of ... [more ▼]This study experimentally determined the impact of food source type on turnover rate and trophic enrichment factors (TEFs or ∆) of δ13C and δ15N, as well as on respiration rate, in captive populations of the marine amphipod Gammarus aequicauda. Gammarus aequicauda (318 individuals) were fed ad libitum with three food sources animal, algae, and dead Posidonia oceanica leaves (also called “litter”), varying in palatability, digestibility, nutritional qualities and isotopic compositions, for between four and six weeks in a controlled feeding experiment. The resulting death rate was lower for the amphipods fed with animal treatment (30.9%) than for individuals fed with algal (65.9%) or litter treatment (64.4%), indicating a better fitness of the individuals fed with the animal food source. Respiration rates also differed highly among the treatments. Animal treatment showed higher respiration rates than algal and litter treatments, potentially due to the toxicity of the algae and the very low nutritional quality of the litter. Amphipods fed with these treatments might have entered in a “low activity state” to cope with these unsuitable food sources, inducing low respiration rates. Due to the very low assimilation and toxicity of the algae source, turnover rate for δ13C was impossible to determine. Turnover rate for δ13C was much faster (half-life = 12.55 days) for amphipods fed with the animal food source than for amphipods fed with litter (half-life = 51.62 days), showing the faster assimilation of the most nutritionally optimal food sources by G. aequicauda. Turnover for δ15N was impossible to determine because the amphipods were already at isotopic equilibrium at the beginning of the experiment. Despite the detritus feeder status of Gammarus aequicauda, TEFs for the animal treatments were in accordance with values generally found for carnivorous organisms (∆13C = 0.9 ± 0.7‰; ∆15N = 2.9 ± 0.6‰). TEFs for the litter treatment were in accordance with values generally corresponding to detritivorous organisms (∆13C = 1.2‰; ∆15N = 1.0 ± 0.4‰). SIAR mixing model outputs obtained with these new TEF values were more constrained and coherent than outputs obtained with general literature TEFs. This study thus demonstrated the non-negligible impact of the food source on Gammarus aequicauda physiological status, fitness and turnover rates, but also on TEFs—highlighting the importance of TEF experimental calculations for every potential food source of a given organism to ensure more robust isotopic data interpretation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (9 ULg) L’accès des filles à l’enseignement supérieur au Burkina Faso : choix parentaux, parcours d’étudiantes et défisWouango, Joséphine in International Review of Education (2017), 63(2), Qu'est-ce qui motive les parents des milieux moins aisés à investir dans une scolarisation prolongée de leurs filles ? Qu'est-ce qui amène les filles issues de ces milieux à se maintenir dans le système ... [more ▼]Qu'est-ce qui motive les parents des milieux moins aisés à investir dans une scolarisation prolongée de leurs filles ? Qu'est-ce qui amène les filles issues de ces milieux à se maintenir dans le système scolaire jusqu'à l'université ? De nombreuses recherches sur le système éducatif burkinabé montrent qu'il existe encore des disparités entre filles et garçons à tous les niveaux, avec une aggravation de l'écart à mesure que le niveau d'études augmente. Dans ces conditions, la perspective pour des filles issues de familles moins aisées de poursuivre des études supérieures est moins certaine. Pourtant, on remarque une relative présence de filles issues de ces milieux à l'université de Ouagadougou. À partir d'une enquête qualitative auprès d'étudiantes et de leurs parents, cet article met en exergue les logiques sociales qui expliquent le parcours scolaire particulier de ces filles. Le niveau de scolarisation des aînés, la place de la fille dans la fratrie ou le souci d'équité sont des facteurs à l'origine du choix de certains parents de scolariser leurs filles. Les parents se réfèrent à plusieurs formes de justification en faveur des études universitaires des filles, parmi lesquelles la logique de fidélité des filles dans le retour de l’aide revient à de multiples reprises. Quant aux étudiantes, elles évoquent des motivations diverses pour expliquer leur parcours scolaire et universitaire, souvent émaillé de difficultés, notamment la volonté d’aider leurs parents. L’article montre en outre l’importance du soutien familial dans l’entrée des filles à l’école et à l’université, ainsi que dans la poursuite et la réussite de leurs études. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 16 (3 ULg) Habitat selection by marine larvae in changing chemical environmentsLecchini, David; Dixson, Danielle L.; Lecellier, Gael et alin Marine Pollution Bulletin (2017), 114The replenishment and persistence of marine species is contingent on dispersing larvae locating suitable habitat and surviving to a reproductive stage. Pelagic larvae rely on environmental cues to make ... [more ▼]The replenishment and persistence of marine species is contingent on dispersing larvae locating suitable habitat and surviving to a reproductive stage. Pelagic larvae rely on environmental cues to make behavioural decisions with chemical information being important for habitat selection at settlement. We explored the sensory world of crustaceans and fishes focusing on the impact anthropogenic alterations (ocean acidification, red soil, pesticide) have on conspecific chemical signals used by larvae for habitat selection. Crustacean (Stenopus hispidus) and fish (Chromis viridis) larvae recognized their conspecifics via chemical signals under control conditions. In the presence of acidified water, red soil or pesticide, the ability of larvae to chemically recognize conspecific cues was altered. Our study highlights that recruitment potential on coral reefs may decrease due to anthropogenic stressors. If so, populations of fishes and crustaceans will continue their rapid decline; larval recruitment will not replace and sustain the adult populations on degraded reefs. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Linking pollutant exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean to their feeding habits and feeding areas off AntarcticaDas, Krishna ; Malarvannan, Govindan; Dirtu, Alin et alin Environmental Pollution (2017), 220Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter ... [more ▼]Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Analyses of stable isotopes δ13C and δ15N in skin resulted in further insight in their feeding ecology, which was in agreement with a diet focused mainly on low trophic level prey species, such as krill from Antarctica. POPs were measured in all humpback whales in the order of HCB > DDTs > CHLs > HCHs > PCBs > PBDEs > MeO-BDEs. HCB (median: 24 ng.g-1 lw) and DDTs (median: 7.7 ng.g-1 lw) were the predominant compounds in all whale biopsies. Among DDT compounds, p,p’-DDE was the major organohalogenated pollutant, reflecting its long-term accumulation in humpback whales. Significantly lower concentrations of HCB and DDTs were found in females than in males (p<0.001). Other compounds were similar between the two genders (p>0.05). Differences in the HCB and DDTs suggested gender-specific transfer of some compounds to the offspring. POP concentrations were lower than previously reported results for humpback whales sampled near the Antarctic Peninsula, suggesting potential influence of their nutritional status and may indicate different exposures of the whales according to their feeding zones. Further investigations are required to assess exposure of southern humpback whales throughout their feeding zones. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 57 (10 ULg) La gestion des ressources publiques : acteurs, enjeux et processusPiron, Damien ; Weerts, Audrey ; Wintgens, Sophie in Pyramides : Revue du Laboratoire d'Etudes et de Recherches en Administration Publique (2017), 28Detailed reference viewed: 23 (3 ULg) European consensus-based (S2k) Guideline on the Management of Herpes Zoster - guided by the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) in cooperation with the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV), Part 1: DiagnosisWERNER R. N.; NIKKELS, Arjen ; MARINOVIC B. et alin Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2017), 31Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. The aim ... [more ▼]Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. The aim of this European project was the elaboration of a consensus-based guideline on the management of patients who present with HZ, considering different patient populations and different localizations. This interdisciplinary guideline aims at an improvement of the outcomes of the acute HZ management concerning disease duration, acute pain and quality of life of the affected patients and at a reduction of the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia and other complications. The guideline development followed a structured and predefined process, considering the quality criteria for guidelines development as suggested by the AGREE II instrument. The steering group was responsible for the planning and the organization of the guideline development process (Division of Evidence based Medicine, dEBM). The expert panel was nominated by virtue of clinical expertise and/or scientific experience and included experts from the fields of dermatology, virology/infectiology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, neurology and anaesthesiology. Recommendations for clinical practice were formally consented during the consensus conference, explicitly considering different relevant aspects. The guideline was approved by the commissioning societies after an extensive internal and external review process. In this first part of the guideline, diagnostic means have been evaluated. The expert panel formally consented recommendations for the management of patients with (suspected) HZ, referring to the assessment of HZ patients, considering various specific clinical situations. Users of the guideline must carefully check whether the recommendations are appropriate for the context of intended application. In the setting of an international guideline, it is generally important to consider different national approaches and legal circumstances with regard to the regulatory approval, availability and reimbursement of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (1 ULg) Influence of the balls kinematics of axially loaded ball bearings on Coulombic frictional dissipationsBozet, Jean-Luc ; Servais, Christophe in Journal of Tribology (2017), 139(1), Ball bearings have been used for a long time. Nevertheless, the description of their behavior remains incomplete in spite of the large number of surveys dedicated to ball bearings. Particularly, the exact ... [more ▼]Ball bearings have been used for a long time. Nevertheless, the description of their behavior remains incomplete in spite of the large number of surveys dedicated to ball bearings. Particularly, the exact balls kinematics has still to be addressed in depth. This paper proposes a new way to calculate the balls kinematics by using a simplified quasi-static approach for dry lubricated and axially loaded ball bearings. This method does not use the classical restrictive race control assumptions. More specifically, the role played by the balls kinematics is emphasized by means of the power dissipated within contacts between balls and races. The need for a correct evaluation of the balls behavior is illustrated by using an example, viz. a ball bearing of cryogenic engine turbopump. Indeed, the dissipated power is one of the main concerns in this particular case. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (7 ULg) Attention et simultanéité intellectuelle chez Descartes, Clauberg et SpinozaDubouclez, Olivier in Les études philosophiques (2017), 1Abstract. – is paper deals with a classical problem, can we think or apprehend many things at once ? as it was understood and solved by Descartes and its followers. e idea that we can apprehend di erent ... [more ▼]Abstract. – is paper deals with a classical problem, can we think or apprehend many things at once ? as it was understood and solved by Descartes and its followers. e idea that we can apprehend di erent ideas at once is central in Descartes’ theory of knowledge, especially in the Rules, and it relies on the claim that attention can be divided between two objects or ideas. Clauberg considers on the contrary that the imagination alone can graps things simultaneously and holds the living body as the true paradigm of simultaneous activity. Spinoza has a synthetic point of view : simultaneity within the body and the mind are expressions of the power of the individ- ual and of his develoment. Attention is no more a condition of intellectual simultaneity, as in Descartes, but is rather an obstacle which needs to be overcome to reach a richer and better understanding of reality. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 24 (0 ULg) Usutu virus, Belgium, 2016Garigliany, Mutien-Marie ; Linden, Annick ; Gilliaux, Gautier et alin Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics of Infectious Diseases (2017), 48(1), 116-119During late summer 2016, in a northwest European region extending over Belgium, the Netherlands and the eastern border of the German state of North Rhine Westphalia, an outbreak of wild bird deaths ... [more ▼]During late summer 2016, in a northwest European region extending over Belgium, the Netherlands and the eastern border of the German state of North Rhine Westphalia, an outbreak of wild bird deaths occurred similar to those reported on the continent since 1996. Dead birds were necropsied and examined by complementary methods. Pathologic and immunohistological investigations strongly suggested an infection by Usutu virus. Subsequently, genomic segments of the said virus were detected, the virus was isolated and its complete genome was sequenced. The strain, designated Usutu-LIEGE, is a close phylogenetic relative of those isolated in Germany which form a distinct group within the USUV phylogeny, the so-called Europe_3 lineage. Should this outbreak recapitulate the characteristics of those in southwest Germany in 2011 and in/around Vienna (Austria) in 2001, it is expected that specific avian populations in the affected area will face a significant reduction in size for a few years. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 13 (3 ULg) La polémique marxiste comme pouvoir de praxis : le rôle des revues dans la radicalisation d'un imaginaire politiqueFranck, Thomas in Dacoromania Litteraria (2017), 3On the basis of Antonio Gramsci’s praxis philosophy, taken up by André Tosel, and Cornelius Castoriadis’ works on radical imaginary, this article analyses the debate about Marxism, during the year 1946 ... [more ▼]On the basis of Antonio Gramsci’s praxis philosophy, taken up by André Tosel, and Cornelius Castoriadis’ works on radical imaginary, this article analyses the debate about Marxism, during the year 1946, between two intellectual reviews: Les Temps Modernes and Critique. If the creation of those reviews is deeply related to a social context and an interdiscourse influenced by the political and ideological rise of extreme left – particularly the French Communist Party –, their project consists in a critical questioning of communist discourses, returning to Marx’s and Hegel’s texts. References to these philosophies induce different rhetorical and argumentative particularities that we intend to study in order to understand the complex relations between the rhetoric of a sociohistorical interdiscourse and his ideological substructure. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (5 ULg) Vous êtes formidablesRADERMECKER, Régis in Revue de l'Association Belge du Diabète (2017), 60Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Characteristics of EoL Printed Wiring Boards processed by ElectroDynamic FragmentationMartino, Rémi ; Iseli, Cedric; Gaydardzhiev, Stoyan et alin Chemie Ingenieur Technik (2017), 89(1-2), 1-10The ElectroDynamic Fragmentation (EDF) is an innovative technique which enables selective fragmentation of material. Its inherent selective breakage principles enable liberation while avoiding fine ... [more ▼]The ElectroDynamic Fragmentation (EDF) is an innovative technique which enables selective fragmentation of material. Its inherent selective breakage principles enable liberation while avoiding fine grinding. In this study, the specific effects of the EDF on End-of-Life Printed Wiring Boards have been assessed. A novel methodology for their EDF processing has been developed and compared with hammer mill shredding. Various energy inputs and treatment stages have resulted in fragmentation degrees ranging from removal of components to structure delamination and subsequent size reduction. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (6 ULg) THE LACTOPEROXIDASE SYSTEM, A NATURAL BIOCHEMICAL BIOCONTROL AGENT FOR PRE- AND POST-HARVEST APPLICATIONSBafort, Françoise ; Parisi, Olivier ; Perraudin, Jean-Paul et alin Journal of Phytopathology (2017), 165(1), 22-34Detailed reference viewed: 12 (2 ULg) The Role of Companies in Smart City Initiatives: The Case of BelgiumAndre, Anne-Marie; Crutzen, Nathalie in Economia (2017)Detailed reference viewed: 26 (1 ULg) La cigarette électronique : état des connaissances à propos des aspects toxicologiquesDEVILLE, Marine ; CHARLIER, Corinne in Revue Médicale de Liège (2017), 72(1), 20-24La cigarette électronique, aussi appelée e-cigarette, est présentée comme une alternative au tabagisme qui serait moins nocive pour la santé. Son fonctionnement repose sur la conversion d’un liquide en ... [more ▼]La cigarette électronique, aussi appelée e-cigarette, est présentée comme une alternative au tabagisme qui serait moins nocive pour la santé. Son fonctionnement repose sur la conversion d’un liquide en vapeur, sous l’action de la chaleur générée par un filament présent dans un atomiseur. Le liquide est majoritairement composé de propylène glycol et/ou de glycérine, utilisé(s) pour produire l’effet de fumée, auxquels s’ajoutent des arômes et, éventuellement, de la nicotine. A l’exception de cette dernière, potentiellement létale lorsqu’elle est ingérée à haute dose, ces constituants sont généralement reconnus comme sans danger. Cependant, les conséquences d’une inhalation chronique de propylène glycol sont méconnues. Avantageusement, les composés qui rendent la cigarette traditionnelle particulièrement nuisible – nitrosamines, formaldéhyde, métaux, monoxyde de carbone,… - sont soit absents, soit présents en faible quantité dans la vapeur d’une e-cigarette, sans comparaison avec les taux mesurés dans la fumée d’une cigarette conventionnelle. Il en résulte un profil de toxicité rassurant pour la e-cigarette, bien que son efficacité dans le sevrage tabagique reste à démontrer. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (1 ULg) Invited CommentaryLancellotti, Patrizio ; Nchimi Longang, Alain in Annals of Thoracic Surgery (2017), 103(1), 81-82Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) European consensus-based (S2k) Guideline on the Management of Herpes Zoster - guided by the European Dermatology Forum (EDF) in cooperation with the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology (EADV), Part 2: TreatmentWERNER R.N.; NIKKELS, Arjen ; MARINOVIC B. et alin Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology (2017)Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. The aim ... [more ▼]Herpes zoster (HZ, shingles) is a frequent medical condition which may severely impact the quality of life of affected patients. Different therapeutic approaches to treat acute HZ are available. The aim of this European project was the elaboration of a consensus-based guideline on the management of patients who present with HZ, considering different patient populations and different localizations. This interdisciplinary guideline aims at an improvement of the outcomes of the acute HZ management concerning disease duration, acute pain and quality of life of the affected patients and at a reduction in the incidence of postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and other complications. The guideline development followed a structured and pre-defined process, considering the quality criteria for guidelines development as suggested by the AGREE II instrument. The steering group was responsible for the planning and the organization of the guideline development process (Division of Evidence-Based Medicine, dEBM). The expert panel was nominated by virtue of clinical expertise and/or scientific experience and included experts from the fields of dermatology, virology/infectiology, ophthalmology, otolaryngology, neurology and anaesthesiology. Recommendations for clinical practice were formally consented during the consensus conference, explicitly considering different relevant aspects. The guideline was approved by the commissioning societies after an extensive internal and external review process. In this second part of the guideline, therapeutic interventions have been evaluated. The expert panel formally consented recommendations for the treatment of patients with HZ (antiviral medication, pain management, local therapy), considering various clinical situations. Users of the guideline must carefully check whether the recommendations are appropriate for the context of intended application. In the setting of an international guideline, it is generally important to consider different national approaches and legal circumstances with regard to the regulatory approval, availability and reimbursement of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 12 (1 ULg) Organic Farming and Small-Scale Farmers: Main Opportunities and ChallengesJouzi, Zeynab; Azadi, Hossein ; Taheri, Fatemeh et alin Ecological Economics (2017), 132(February 2017), 144-154Producing enough food to meet the needs of a growing population has always been the greatest concern of food policy-makers around the world. Given the increasing attention to organic farming (OF), we ... [more ▼]Producing enough food to meet the needs of a growing population has always been the greatest concern of food policy-makers around the world. Given the increasing attention to organic farming (OF), we conducted this study to investigate the main opportunities and challenges of the food production system of small-scale farmers in developing countries with an emphasis on their livelihoods. The study showed that the most significant advantages of OF are environmental protection and a higher resilience to environmental changes, increasing farmers' income and reducing external input cost, enhancing social capacity and increasing employment opportunities. A s well as enhancing food security primarily by increasing the food purchasing power of local people. However, the main challenges of this food production system include lower yields in comparison to conventional systems, difficulties with soil nutrient management, certification and market barriers, and the educational and research needs of small-holders. The paper concludes that even though OF might present some significant challenges to small-scale farmers, it could/should still be considered as a part of the solution and means of improving their livelihoods. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (4 ULg) Discovery of a low-mass companion inside the debris ring surrounding the F5V star HD 206893Milli, J.; Hibon, P.; Christiaens, Valentin et alin Astronomy and Astrophysics (2017), 597