References of "Article"      in Complete repository Arts & humanities   Archaeology   Art & art history   Classical & oriental studies   History   Languages & linguistics   Literature   Performing arts   Philosophy & ethics   Religion & theology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Business & economic sciences   Accounting & auditing   Production, distribution & supply chain management   Finance   General management & organizational theory   Human resources management   Management information systems   Marketing   Strategy & innovation   Quantitative methods in economics & management   General economics & history of economic thought   International economics   Macroeconomics & monetary economics   Microeconomics   Economic systems & public economics   Social economics   Special economic topics (health, labor, transportation…)   Multidisciplinary, general & others Engineering, computing & technology   Aerospace & aeronautics engineering   Architecture   Chemical engineering   Civil engineering   Computer science   Electrical & electronics engineering   Energy   Geological, petroleum & mining engineering   Materials science & engineering   Mechanical engineering   Multidisciplinary, general & others Human health sciences   Alternative medicine   Anesthesia & intensive care   Cardiovascular & respiratory systems   Dentistry & oral medicine   Dermatology   Endocrinology, metabolism & nutrition   Forensic medicine   Gastroenterology & hepatology   General & internal medicine   Geriatrics   Hematology   Immunology & infectious disease   Laboratory medicine & medical technology   Neurology   Oncology   Ophthalmology   Orthopedics, rehabilitation & sports medicine   Otolaryngology   Pediatrics   Pharmacy, pharmacology & toxicology   Psychiatry   Public health, health care sciences & services   Radiology, nuclear medicine & imaging   Reproductive medicine (gynecology, andrology, obstetrics)   Rheumatology   Surgery   Urology & nephrology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Law, criminology & political science   Civil law   Criminal law & procedure   Criminology   Economic & commercial law   European & international law   Judicial law   Metalaw, Roman law, history of law & comparative law   Political science, public administration & international relations   Public law   Social law   Tax law   Multidisciplinary, general & others Life sciences   Agriculture & agronomy   Anatomy (cytology, histology, embryology...) & physiology   Animal production & animal husbandry   Aquatic sciences & oceanology   Biochemistry, biophysics & molecular biology   Biotechnology   Entomology & pest control   Environmental sciences & ecology   Food science   Genetics & genetic processes   Microbiology   Phytobiology (plant sciences, forestry, mycology...)   Veterinary medicine & animal health   Zoology   Multidisciplinary, general & others Physical, chemical, mathematical & earth Sciences   Chemistry   Earth sciences & physical geography   Mathematics   Physics   Space science, astronomy & astrophysics   Multidisciplinary, general & others Social & behavioral sciences, psychology   Animal psychology, ethology & psychobiology   Anthropology   Communication & mass media   Education & instruction   Human geography & demography   Library & information sciences   Neurosciences & behavior   Regional & inter-regional studies   Social work & social policy   Sociology & social sciences   Social, industrial & organizational psychology   Theoretical & cognitive psychology   Treatment & clinical psychology   Multidisciplinary, general & others     Showing results 1 to 100 of 45845 1 2 3 4 5 6     Enzymatic hydrolysis of softwood and hardwood regenerated cellulosesJacquet, Nicolas ; Maniet, Guillaume ; Richel, Aurore et alin Current Chemical Biology (in press)Regenerated celluloses from Kraft wood pulps (from hardwoods and softwoods) were hydrolysed by mean of cellulase of Trichoderma reesei. Our results highlighted that a 75% hydrolysis yield was reached for ... [more ▼]Regenerated celluloses from Kraft wood pulps (from hardwoods and softwoods) were hydrolysed by mean of cellulase of Trichoderma reesei. Our results highlighted that a 75% hydrolysis yield was reached for hardwood regenerated cellulose (HRC) and 90% for softwood regenerated cellulose (SRC). Crystallinity indices from X-Ray diffraction patterns were used to measure hydrolysis rate of crystalline and amorphous regions. Addition of β-glucosidase to the enzymatic complex of Trichoderma reesei was confirmed to enhance yields of hydrolysis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (6 ULg) Arsinoe II come dea attraverso le sue epiclesi cultualiCaneva, Stefano in Athenaeum : Studii Periodici di Letteratura e Storia (in press), 103(1), 95-122Dopo una introduzione storica e storiografica sul significato dei culti regali ellenistici, l’intervento esamina alcuni dei nomi divini attribuiti ad Arsinoe II nelle fonti letterarie e documentarie, con ... [more ▼]Dopo una introduzione storica e storiografica sul significato dei culti regali ellenistici, l’intervento esamina alcuni dei nomi divini attribuiti ad Arsinoe II nelle fonti letterarie e documentarie, con l’eccezione dell’epiclesi esclusiva Philadelphos. Scopo della ricerca è 1) una valutazione delle strategie di inserimento della nuova dea nel pantheon tradizionale; 2) una riflessione sull’autoconsapevolezza degli antichi in relazione alla propria tradizione religiosa, per come essa si manifesta attraverso l’oculata manipolazione di un elemento essenziale nella definizione della divinità, qual è il nome divino. Un’Appendice elenca, in tre tabelle, tutte le denominazioni greche di Arsinoe II (esclusa Philadelphos), fornendo indicazioni sulla fonte, la sua collocazione spaziale e temporale e sulla divinità tradizionale di riferimento. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (7 ULg) La structure de recherche comme engrenage d’indications ou comment penser la logique des “groupes althussériens” depuis la proposition II, 16 de L’EthiqueMancuso, Eva in Cahiers du GRM (in press), 7Detailed reference viewed: 77 (32 ULg) Vegetation composition and structure of some Neotropical mountain grasslands in BrazilLe Stradic, Soizig ; Buisson, Elise; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilsonin Journal of Mountain Science (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 11 (3 ULg) Sur Capitalisme, désir et servitude. Lettre à Frédéric LordonPieron, Julien in Dissensus (in press), 6(printemps 2014), Detailed reference viewed: 23 (2 ULg) A Stereocontrolled Synthesis of the Hydrophobic Moiety of RhamnolipidsMenhour, Boudjema; Mayon, Patrick; Plé, Karen et alin Tetrahedron Letters (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) Le manque de généralisation chez les enfants dysphasiques : une étude longitudinaleLeroy, Sandrine ; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle in ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (in press), 131Usage-based theories postulate that development of linguistic system depends on a gradual generalization mechanism during which use of lexicalized language forms are little-by-little replaced by use of ... [more ▼]Usage-based theories postulate that development of linguistic system depends on a gradual generalization mechanism during which use of lexicalized language forms are little-by-little replaced by use of abstract construction schemas. Several studies have shown limited morphosyntactic productivity in children with specific language impairment (SLI). In this longitudinal study, we have tested hypothesis according to which generalization would be hindered in children with SLI. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 36 (4 ULg) Magie et pharmacopée : l’utilisation des végétaux dans les papyrus iatromagiques grecsde Haro Sanchez, Magali in Mythos (in press)The iatromagical papyri, subgenus of the magical papyri, come from Egypt. From the 1st BC to AD the 7th, they appear in the form of formularies, spells copied from them, amulets and a private letter. For ... [more ▼]The iatromagical papyri, subgenus of the magical papyri, come from Egypt. From the 1st BC to AD the 7th, they appear in the form of formularies, spells copied from them, amulets and a private letter. For many years, the study of these texts has been part of a research program of the Centre de Documentation de Papyrologie Littéraire (CeDoPaL) of the University of Liège. We will present here the results from the analysis of the content of the prescriptions with plants attested in the Greek iatromagical formularies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 228 (28 ULg) Compte rendu de l'ouvrage de Cl. Prêtre, "Kosmos et kosmema. Les offrandes de parure dans les inventaires déliants"Veymiers, Richard in Revue archéologique (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (1 ULg) AIR VERSUS GROUND TRANSPORT OF PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: EXPERIENCE IN A RURAL-BASED HELICOPTER MEDICAL SERVICEMOENS, Didier ; Stipulante, Samuel ; Donneau, Anne-Françoise et alin European Journal of Emergency Medicine (in press)Aims Primary pre-hospital Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) interventions may play a role in timely reperfusion therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We ... [more ▼]Aims Primary pre-hospital Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) interventions may play a role in timely reperfusion therapy for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We designed a prospective study involving patients with acute myocardial infarction aimed at the evaluation of the potential benefit of such primary HEMS interventions as compared with classical EMS ground transport. Methods & results This prospective study was conducted from July 1, 2007 to June 15, 2012. Successive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) eligible for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were included. Simulated ground-based access times were computed using a digital cartographic program, allowing the estimation of healthcare system delay from call to admission to the catheterisation laboratory. During the study period, 4485 patients benefited from HEMS activations. Of these patients, 342 (8%) suffering from STEMI were transferred for primary PCI. Median primary response time time was 11 min (IQR: 8 - 14 min) using the helicopter and 32 min (25 – 44 min) using road transport. Median transport time using HEMS was 12 min (9 – 15 min) and 50 min (36 – 56 min) by road. The median system delay using HEMS was 52 min (45 – 60 min), while this time was 110 min (95 – 126 min) by road. Finally, the system delay median gain was 60 min (47 – 72 min). Conclusions Using HEMS in a rural region allows STEMI patients to benefit from appropriate rescue care with similar delays as those seen in urban patients. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 67 (3 ULg) Contribution à un lexique épigraphique: "deltographéma"Famerie, Etienne in Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 38 (11 ULg) A classification of barycentrically associative polynomial functionsMarichal, Jean-Luc; Mathonet, Pierre ; Tomaschek, Jörgin Aequationes Mathematicae (in press)We describe the class of polynomial functions which are barycentrically associative over an infinite commutative integral domain.Detailed reference viewed: 13 (1 ULg) A review of inversion techniques related to the use of relationship matrices in animal breedingFaux, Pierre ; Gengler, Nicolas in Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press)In animal breeding, prediction of genetic effects is usually obtained through the use of mixed models. For any of these genetic effects, mixed models require the inversion of the covariance matrix ... [more ▼]In animal breeding, prediction of genetic effects is usually obtained through the use of mixed models. For any of these genetic effects, mixed models require the inversion of the covariance matrix associated to that effect, which is equal to the associated relationship matrix times the associated component of the genetic variance. Given the size of many genetic evaluation systems, computing the inverses of these relationship matrices is not trivial. In this review, we aim to cover computational techniques that ease inversion of relationship matrices used in animal breeding for prediction of the following different types of genetic effects: additive effect, gametic effect, effect due to presence of marked quantitative trait loci, dominance effect and different epistasis effects. Construction rules and inversion algorithms are detailed for each relationship matrix. In the final discussion, we draw up a common theoretical frame to most of the reviewed techniques. Two computational constraints come out of this theoretical frame: setting up the matrix of dependencies between levels of the effect and setting up some parts (diagonal or block-diagonal elements) of the relationship matrix to be inverted. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 26 (6 ULg) Réflexions autour des principes de rééducation proposés aux enfants dysphasiquesMaillart, Christelle ; Desmottes, Lise ; Prigent, Gaïd et alin ANAE : Approche Neuropsychologique des Apprentissages chez l'Enfant (in press), 131This paper addresses the principles used in efficient language intervention. These principles will be examined in the light of recent data in typical and atypical language development. Particular ... [more ▼]This paper addresses the principles used in efficient language intervention. These principles will be examined in the light of recent data in typical and atypical language development. Particular attention will be given to repetition and variability, in link with recent theoretical framework about language development. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (6 ULg) Étude des contraintes mécaniques locomotrices chez le chevalNoble, Prisca ; Collin, Bernard ; Denoix, Jean-Marie et alin Annales de Médecine Vétérinaire (in press)In locomotor biomechanics, three high groups of contraints are commonly encountared : pressure, traction and torsion. In supra-maximal conditions, all of these contraints would be responsible of some ... [more ▼]In locomotor biomechanics, three high groups of contraints are commonly encountared : pressure, traction and torsion. In supra-maximal conditions, all of these contraints would be responsible of some equine diseased locomotor systems. In order to understand better the contraints in the equine locomotor dynamics, some investigations have been carried out. Moreover, some measurement methods, based on the mechanics of Newton, have been performed. This review shows the different measurement techniques and introduces the mechanical basis that are compulsory for the understanding of the equine locomotor apparatus functioning. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 158 (32 ULg) Pilgrimage Certificates from the Mamluk Period: New DataBauden, Frédéric in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 28 (7 ULg) New palaeobotanical data from the Lower Devonian of Mezquita de Loscos (Teruel Province, Spain)Cascales - Miñana, Borja ; Rial, Gonzalo; Xue, Jinzhuang et alin Historical Biology (in press)Recent fieldwork has uncovered three new localities from the Lower Devonian of Mezquita de Loscos (Teruel Province, Spain) with further plant mega-fossils and the first record of micro-fossils. Such plant ... [more ▼]Recent fieldwork has uncovered three new localities from the Lower Devonian of Mezquita de Loscos (Teruel Province, Spain) with further plant mega-fossils and the first record of micro-fossils. Such plant remains have been interpreted as belonging to a basal euphyllophyte, Taeniocrada-like stems, Hostinella genus and paired sporangia. Fourteen spore taxa were recovered, including Ambitisporites, Aneurospora, Brochotriletes, Chelinospora, Emphanisporites, Gneudnaspora and Retusotriletres, among others. New evidence confirms a Lochkovian age for this outcrop and suggests that the plant diversity was more complex than originally documented. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 8 (0 ULg) Can we identify patients with high risk of osteoarthritis progression who will respond to treatment ? A focus on epidemiology and phenotype of osteoarthritisBruyère, Olivier ; Cooper, C; Arden, N et alin Drugs & Aging (in press)Osteoarthritis is a syndrome affecting a variety of patient profiles. A European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis and the European Union Geriatric Medicine ... [more ▼]Osteoarthritis is a syndrome affecting a variety of patient profiles. A European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis and the European Union Geriatric Medicine Society working meeting explored the possibility of identifying different patient profiles in osteoarthritis. The risk factors for the development of osteoarthritis include systemic factors (e.g., age, sex, obesity, genetics, race, and bone density) and local biomechanical factors (e.g., obesity, sport, joint injury, and muscle weakness); most also predict disease progression, particularly joint injury, malalignment, and synovitis/effusion. The characterization of patient profiles should help to better orientate research, facilitate trial design, and define which patients are the most likely to benefit from treatment. There are a number of profile candidates. Generalized, polyarticular osteoarthritis and local, monoarticular osteoarthritis appear to be two different profiles; the former is a feature of osteoarthritis comorbid with inflammation or the metabolic syndrome, while the latter is more typical of post-trauma osteoarthritis, especially in cases with severe malalignment. Other biomechanical factors may also define profiles, such as joint malalignment, loss of meniscal function, and ligament injury. Early- and late-stage osteoarthritis appear as separate profiles, notably in terms of treatment response. Finally, there is evidence that there are two separate profiles related to lesions in the subchondral bone, which may determine benefit from bone-active treatments. Decisions on appropriate therapy should be made considering clinical presentation, underlying pathophysiology, and stage of disease. Identification of patient profiles may lead to more personalized healthcare, with more targeted treatment for osteoarthritis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (2 ULg) Exploring the major depletions of conodont diversity during the TriassicMartínez-Pérez, Carlos; Cascales - Miñana, Borja ; Plasencia, Pablo et alin Historical Biology (in press)In this paper, we show that the Triassic fossil record reflects just two great depletions of conodont diversity before the Rhaetian, which occurred in the Smithian (Olenekian, Early Triassic) and in the ... [more ▼]In this paper, we show that the Triassic fossil record reflects just two great depletions of conodont diversity before the Rhaetian, which occurred in the Smithian (Olenekian, Early Triassic) and in the Julian (Carnian, Late Triassic). By exploring this context, our results highlighted that they respond to different origination-extinction dynamics. Thus, while the Smithian diversity depletion can be interpreted as a consequence of elevated extinction, the Julian diversity depletion was triggered by fluctuations in origination regime. This evidence suggests that, despite the role of extinction on diversity losses, conodonts suffered crucial changes on the origination regimes during the Late Triassic which triggered these events. Notwithstanding, our results indicate that the end-Triassic diversity depletion of conodonts was produced by background extinction levels in a context of lower origination. This suggests that several biological factors, rather than a unique, environmental and/or cyclic cause, could have influenced the evolutionary history of conodonts during the Triassic. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 4 (0 ULg) Rugose corals across the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in NW TurkeyDenayer, Julien in Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (4 ULg) Réduire l’altérité au travers des processus de traduction et de représentationLeclercq, Bruno ; Smette, Bernard in Doctorales. Revue LLA-SHS de Montpellier (in press)WVO Quine questions the « myth » of an ideal realm of shared meanings which every national language would express in its own way. Against the hope of transparent translations, he insists on the necessity ... [more ▼]WVO Quine questions the « myth » of an ideal realm of shared meanings which every national language would express in its own way. Against the hope of transparent translations, he insists on the necessity for building equivalences from one language to another through a strategy of reducing the differences in rationality among nations as much as possible. According to Quine, otherness is not insuperable impediment to meeting/encounter and mutual understanding ; by throwing our conceptual schemes on the other communities’ uses/practices – which of course involves some symbolic violence – gaps can always been narrowed. Similarly E. Laclau questions the traditional conception of political representation, which is seen as the transparent process of transmitting someone’s will or interests on another level. For this ideal conception of representation, Laclau substitutes a pragmatic conception which takes in account the irreducible gap between the actors as well as the constitutive opacity of the process of representation : the subject’s will is constituted within the process of representation and through the representative’s productive role. In order to be transposed at the decision-making level, the subject’s interests must be translated by the representative as well as be negotiated with the other represented interests. This implies that the initial will undergoes some identity transformations. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (6 ULg) Identification of cardiac repercussions after intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise in young sedentary people.LE GOFF, Caroline ; Kaux, Jean-François ; Couffignal, Vincent et alin Clinical physiology and functional imaging (in press)INTRODUCTION: Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among ... [more ▼]INTRODUCTION: Cardiopathies are the world's leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Although rare, cardiovascular accidents can occur during intense and infrequent sporting activity, particularly among those who are unaware of their heart condition. The development of cardiospecific biochemical markers has led to a reconsideration of the role of biology in the diagnosis of cardiovascular illnesses. The aim of this study therefore was, through the use of cardiac biomarker assays, to highlight the impact of sustained physical effort in the form of intense and prolonged concentric isokinetic exercise and to research potential cardiovascular risks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighteen subjects participated in a maximal concentric isokinetic exercise involving 30 knee flexion-extensions for each leg. Five blood tests were taken to study the kinetics of the cardiac biomarkers. Haemodynamic parameters were measured continuously using a Portapres, and respiratory parameters were measured using a Sensormedics Vmax 29C. RESULTS: The results showed significant increases in the creatine kinase, myoglobin, homocysteine and haemoglobin cardiac markers. Evolutionary trends were also observed for the following biomarkers: NT-proBNP, myeloperoxydase and C-reactive protein. All the physiological parameters measured presented statistically significant changes. CONCLUSION: Isokinetic effort leads to the release of cardiac markers in the blood, but these do not exceed the reference values in healthy subjects. Maximal concentric isokinetic exercise does not, therefore, lead to an increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 62 (24 ULg) A probabilistic model for predicting the uncertainties of the humid stiction phenomenon on hard materialsHoang Truong, Vinh ; Wu, Ling ; Paquay, Stéphane et alin Journal of Computational & Applied Mathematics (in press)Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the ... [more ▼]Stiction is a major failure in microelectromechanical system (MEMS) devices in which two contacting surfaces can remain stuck together because of the adhesive forces. Due to the difference between the surfaces roughness and the adhesive force range, the real contact areas are usually smaller than the apparent one, resulting in a scatter in the adhesive forces. Consequently, the stiction is an uncertain phenomenon. In this work, we develop a probabilistic model to predict the uncertainties of stiction due to the capillary forces acting on stiff materials. This model contains two levels: at the deterministic level, the model can predict the pull-out adhesive contact forces for a given surface topology; at the probabilistic level, the model generates independent identically distributed surfaces on which the deterministic solution can be applied to evaluate the uncertainties related to the stiction phenomenon. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 79 (23 ULg) Conditioning materials with biomacromolecules: composition of the adlayer and influence on cleanabilityToure, Yetioman ; Genet, J. Michel; Dupont-Gillain, C. Christine et alin Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (in press)The influence of substrate hydrophobicity and biomacromolecules (dextran, bovine serum albumin - BSA) adsorption on the cleanability of surfaces soiled by spraying aqueous suspensions of quartz particles ... [more ▼]The influence of substrate hydrophobicity and biomacromolecules (dextran, bovine serum albumin - BSA) adsorption on the cleanability of surfaces soiled by spraying aqueous suspensions of quartz particles (10 to 30 µm size), then dried, was investigated using glass and polystyrene as substrates. The cleanability was evaluated using radial flow cell (RFC). The surface composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The interpretation of XPS data allowed the complexity due to the ubiquitous presence of organic contaminants to be coped with, and the surface composition to be expressed in terms of both the amount of adlayer and the mass concentration of adlayer constituents. When soiled with a suspension of particles in water, glass was much less cleanable than polystyrene, which was attributed to its much lower water contact angle, in agreement with previous observations on starch soil. Dextran was easily desorbed and did not affect the cleanability. The presence of BSA at the interface strongly improved the cleanability of glass while the contact angle did not change appreciably. In contrast, soiling polystyrene with quartz particles suspended in a BSA solution instead of water did not change markedly the cleanability, while the contact angle was much lower and the aggregates of soiling particles were more flat. These observations are explained by the major role of capillary forces developed upon drying, which influence the closeness of the contact between the soiling particles and the substrate and, thereby, the adherence of particles. The capillary forces are proportional to the liquid surface tension and depend in a more complex way on contact angles of the particles and of the substrate. The dependence of cleanability on capillary forces, and in particular on the liquid surface tension, is predominant as compared with its dependence on the size and shape of the soiling aggregates, which influence the efficiency of shear forces exerted by the flowing water upon cleaning. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 42 (11 ULg) The Sceptical President: Václav Klaus' Influence on Czech Public Opinion on Climate ChangeDe Pryck, Kari; Gemenne, François in Climatic Change (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 84 (1 ULg) One injection of platelet-rich plasma associated to a submaximal eccentric protocol to treat chronic jumper's kneeKaux, Jean-François ; Croisier, Jean-Louis ; Bruyère, Olivier et alin The Journal of sports medicine and physical fitness (in press)INTRODUCTION: Jumper's knee is a frequent chronic overuse syndrome of the upper part of the patellar tendon. Platelets contain lots of growth factors which could enhance the healing process of tendons ... [more ▼]INTRODUCTION: Jumper's knee is a frequent chronic overuse syndrome of the upper part of the patellar tendon. Platelets contain lots of growth factors which could enhance the healing process of tendons. METHODS: Twenty patients with chronic upper patellar tendinopathy were enrolled. Assessments were made before infiltration of PRP, and 6 weeks and 3 months after the infiltration, using a 10--point Visual Analogic Scale, clinical examinations with a pressure algometer, algofunctional scores (IKDC and VISA--P), functional assessments (isokinetic and optojump evaluations) and imagery (ultrasounds and MRI). The PRP was obtained with an apheresis system (COM.TEC, Fresenius). Six millilitres of PRP were injected without local anaesthetic. One week after infiltration, patients started a standardised sub--maximal eccentric reeducation. RESULTS: Pain during daily activities significantly decreased with time. During functional evaluation, it decreased as well, but without significant functional improvement. No improvements in the imagery measurements were observed. Younger patients seemed to be more susceptible to have an improvement of pain by the PRP infiltration. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that a local infiltration of PRP associated with a submaximal eccentric protocol can improve symptoms of chronic jumper's knee in patients non--responsive to classical conservative treatments. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 72 (24 ULg) Genetic parameters for mid-infrared methane indicators based on milk fatty acids in dairy cowsKandel, Purna Bhadra ; Gengler, Nicolas ; Soyeurt, Hélène in Journal of Applied Animal Research (in press)Dairy production is identified as a major source of methane (CH4) emissions. Selective breeding canbe one method used to mitigate CH4 emissions but practical and cheap measurement of this trait is not ... [more ▼]Dairy production is identified as a major source of methane (CH4) emissions. Selective breeding canbe one method used to mitigate CH4 emissions but practical and cheap measurement of this trait is not currently available. The mid-infrared (MIR) prediction of milk fatty acids is relevant in this context. Five MIR methane indicators were derived from the literature and were calibrated from 600 samples analyzed by gas chromatography. Genetic parameters for these traits were estimated using single trait random regression test-day models from 619,265 records collected from 2007 to 2011 on 71,188 Holstein cows in their first three lactations. For the published indicator showing the highest relationship with the methane data (R2 = 0.88), the average daily heritability was 0.34±0.01, 0.37±0.01 and 0.34±0.01 for the first three lactations, respectively. The methane emission (g/day) was increased from beginning of lactation, reached at the highest in peak of lactation and decreased towards end of lactation. The largest differences between estimated breeding values (EBV) of sires having daughters in production eructing the highest and the lowest methane content was 21.80, 22.75 and 24.89 kg per lactation for the first three parities. Positive genetic correlations were estimated between indicator traits and milk fat and protein content. Low negative correlation was observed with milk yield. In conclusion, this study shows the feasibility to predict methane indicator traits by MIR. Moreover, the estimated genetic parameters suggest also a potential genetic variability of the quantity of methane eructed by dairy cows. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 140 (56 ULg) Child labour, Agency and Family dynamics: The Case of Mining in Katanga (DRC)Andre, Géraldine ; Godin, Mariein Childhood (in press)In the last three decades, the development of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector has been increasing in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), bringing more and more urban families into ... [more ▼]In the last three decades, the development of the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) sector has been increasing in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), bringing more and more urban families into this flourishing business sector, and among them, children. At first glance, one could see children in the mining sector mainly as victims entangled in the flows of raw materials of unbridled capitalism. But this paper aims to look at the often unconceivable, and as a result neglected, social agency of children even when they are involved in stigmatized and prohibited types of child labour. To do so, it relies on the results of a socio-anthropological collective research project on children’s mining activities which was carried out in a small locality called La Ruashi in the city of Lubumbashi (Province of Katanga). The article aims to provide a more comprehensive understanding of what is often normatively only labelled as ‘child labour’ by looking at different spheres of social relations within which children are embedded. Examining the set of social interactions that children have with their families, the broader community and their ‘peers’, several ‘family portraits’ are offered, highlighting a heterogeneity of social interpretations regarding this ‘new’ form of child work. It will be shown that for families from middle-class background, this kind of work is often socially disruptive, at the forefront of inter-generational conflict. As for families from lower classes, social changes induced by children’s mining activities are often better incorporated into the family habitus. Common social changes encountered in all families irrespective of class belonging will also be portrayed, showing the transversal societal impact these ‘new’ forms of child economic activities can provoke at a micro level. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (11 ULg) Chemical composition of colostrum from Azawak cow in Niger compared with meta-analytical dataAbdou, Harouna; Marichatou, Hamani; Beckers, Jean-François et alin Animal Genetic Resources Information = Bulletin d'Information sur les Ressources Génétiques Animales = Boletin de Informacion sobre Recursos Geneticos Animales (in press)This study aimed at comparing data obtained from Azawak zebu colostrum with literature data. The comparison was performed by a meta-analytical approach. Colostrum samples were hand-collected after 5 h ... [more ▼]This study aimed at comparing data obtained from Azawak zebu colostrum with literature data. The comparison was performed by a meta-analytical approach. Colostrum samples were hand-collected after 5 h from 7 Azawak cows at calving between August 27, to September 10, 2009 in the Sahel. For data from literature, twenty one (21) references were identified in the following analytical databases: PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar, Collection from University of Liege. The references were selected according to the following two criteria: i) only studies reported on bovine colostrum were used irrespective of breeds, and ii) among the selected studies, those not providing complete information to allow meta-analytical calculation were excluded. Samples were analyzed for immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA), lactoferrin, and chemical composition (dry mater, protein, fat, lactose, ash, Ca, P, NA, K, Mg). The mean levels of IgG, IgM, dry matter, protein and fat for Azawak cows were lower (P ˂ 0.001) than those obtained in other breeds; however colostrum from the Azawak was higher in IgA but the difference was not significant. For lactose and ash, mean values for Azawak cows were higher (P ˂ 0.001) than those from the literature. Contents of Ca, P, Na and Mg in Azawak bovine colostrum were significantly higher (P ˂ 0.001) than the mean levels in form the literature data. In conclusion, the colostrum from Azawak cows appears to be lower in most immunoglobulins, in fat and in protein than the values reported in the literature, but higher in lactose and minerals. This could be an adaptation to sahelian contraints. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (7 ULg) A Parallel Processing Approach to Dynamic Simulations of Combined Transmission and Distribution SystemsAristidou, Petros ; Van Cutsem, Thierry in International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems (in press)Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is ... [more ▼]Simulating a power system with both transmission and distribution networks modeled in detail is a huge computational challenge. In this paper, a Schur-complement-based domain decomposition algorithm is proposed to provide accurate, detailed dynamic simulations of such systems. The simulation procedure is accelerated with the use of parallel programming techniques, taking advantage of the parallelization opportunities inherent to domain decomposition algorithms. The proposed algorithm is general, portable and scalable on inexpensive, shared-memory, multi-core machines. A large-scale test system is used for its performance evaluation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (5 ULg) Levallois et GravettienOtte, Marcel ; Noiret, Pierre in Praehistoria (in press)Par opposition à ceux de l’Aurignacien, les ensembles lithiques gravettiens procèdent selon une méthode rappelant le Levallois quant à la préparation des supports. Mais les variations observables au sein ... [more ▼]Par opposition à ceux de l’Aurignacien, les ensembles lithiques gravettiens procèdent selon une méthode rappelant le Levallois quant à la préparation des supports. Mais les variations observables au sein du Gravettien touchent autant les processus de symbolisation dans l’art et les sépultures. Elles affectent différents substrats eurasiatiques, plutôt septentrionaux, comme mis en réserve dès les Néandertaliens. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 46 (6 ULg) Paradoxon ! Perception de la puissance divine et du pouvoir royal dans l’Alexandrie des Ptolémées.Caneva, Stefano in Mythos. Rivista di Storia delle Religioni (in press), 8The paper first distinguishes ritual action for sovereigns, which integrates the honoured rulers at a practical level within the religious life of a community, from other, more discrete configurations of ... [more ▼]The paper first distinguishes ritual action for sovereigns, which integrates the honoured rulers at a practical level within the religious life of a community, from other, more discrete configurations of the relation between royal and divine power. Among these trends, focus is on the rhetorical and spectacular dimension of wonder. The strategies of wonder-making are first studied in theory through paradoxography, then the categories of grandeur, exoticism and technical excellence are identified in action in Alexandrian religious life and festivals. Master of an empire with universal claims and collector of everything that is beautiful, rare and precious in the world, the king distances himself from his subjects in order to make his superior status explicit. Distance is, however, only the premise for the king to manifest himself to the great public through epiphanies that can be compared with those of divine power. The paper also discusses the way the conformism of court elites not only satisfied their own need to claim for distinguished social status, but also helped royal message spread and caused loyalty to it. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 50 (17 ULg) Evaluation of the impact of 6-month training by whole body vibration on the risk of falls among nursing home residents, observed over a 12-month period: a single blind, randomized controlled trial.Buckinx, Fanny ; Beaudart, Charlotte ; Maquet, Didier et alin Aging Clinical & Experimental Research (in press)BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that short sessions of whole body vibration (WBV) were not able to significantly improve fall risk among nursing home residents but some trends towards an improvement ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that short sessions of whole body vibration (WBV) were not able to significantly improve fall risk among nursing home residents but some trends towards an improvement of motor capacity were observed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of 6-month training by WBV on functional and motor abilities among nursing home residents observed over a 12-month period. METHODS: Patients were randomized into two groups: the WBV group which received three training sessions every week composed of five series of 15 s of vibration at 30 Hz intensity for a period of 6 months and a control group with normal daily life. The impact of this training on the risk of falls was assessed blindly after 6 and 12 months by the Tinetti Test, the "Timed Up and Go" test and a quantitative evaluation of a 10-s walk performed with a tri-axial accelerometer. The occurrence of falls was also observed. RESULTS: 62 elderly healthy volunteers, (47 women and 15 men, mean age 83.2 +/- 7.9 years) were included in this study. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the Tinetti test (p = 0.75), the "Timed Up and Go" test (p = 0.19) and the Locometrix(R) test, except for the step length, measured by dual task (p < 0.01). No significant inter-group difference in the frequency of falls was observed during the 12 months of research. A total of 42 falls were recorded during the first 6 months of experimentation: 24 falls in the treated group and 18 in the control group (p = 0.60). During the next 6 months, 19 falls occurred: 8 falls in the treated group and 11 in the control group (p = 0.52). CONCLUSION: This study failed to establish the effectiveness of low doses of WBV, under the conditions used in our study, on functional and motor abilities of institutionalized elderly patients. However, given the positive results of other studies, further investigations, with modified therapeutic protocols, seem necessary to clarify the effects of WBV in the elderly. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 93 (38 ULg) A note on weighted likelihood and Jeffreys modal estimation of proficiency levels in polytomous item response modelsMagis, David in Psychometrika (in press)Warm (1989) established the equivalence between the so-called Jeffreys modal and the weighted likelihood estimators of proficiency level with some dichotomous item response models. The purpose of this ... [more ▼]Warm (1989) established the equivalence between the so-called Jeffreys modal and the weighted likelihood estimators of proficiency level with some dichotomous item response models. The purpose of this note is to extend this result to polytomous item response models. First, a general condition is derived to ensure the perfect equivalence between these two estimators. Second, it is shown that this condition is fulfilled by two broad classes of polytomous models including, among others, the partial credit, rating scale, graded response and nominal response models. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 33 (5 ULg) Thin film superconducting shieldsClaassen, John; Osofsky, Michael; Namburi, Devendra et alin IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (in press)To date, magnetic shields utilizing high-temperature superconductor materials mostly comprise bulk materials, usually shaped into a cylinder and then heat treated. We analyze the potential of thin-film ... [more ▼]To date, magnetic shields utilizing high-temperature superconductor materials mostly comprise bulk materials, usually shaped into a cylinder and then heat treated. We analyze the potential of thin-film technology, whereby a layer of superconductor is deposited on a substrate, to fabricate magnetic shields. Films deposited on a curved surface are inevitably granular, leading to reduced critical current density compared with crystalline films. This limits the maximum field that can be screened. Granular films also have an enhanced penetration depth compared with the bulk value, which determines the maximum possible screening at applied fields below the maximum.We demonstrate the utility of a mutual inductancemeasurement to evaluate small flat test samples of a granular film for their potential as a shielding material in a more complex geometry. Thismeasurement predicts both themaximum magnetic field that can be screened and the residual leakage at fields below the maximum. The tested film was produced by the Electrophoretic deposition of YBCO on a silver substrate. The maximum screening field was comparable with that obtained for a similar film on a cylindrical substrate. We also show comparable results from a crystalline YBCO film. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 17 (1 ULg) Development and validation of the French version of a tool assessing patient's expectations in lower limb osteoarthritisNEUPREZ, Audrey ; Delcour, JP; Fatemi, F et alin Journal of Orthopaedics (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 48 (28 ULg) Acyclic, connected and tree setsBerthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et alin Monatshefte für Mathematik (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) Soutenir le développement des compétences des enseignants du supérieur par la documentation, l’investigation et le partage des pratiques en classePoumay, Marianne ; Georges, François in Dossiers des Sciences de l'Education (Les) (in press)L’article aborde le développement professionnel des enseignants à travers un master complémentaire en pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur. Orientée recherche, cette formation met en œuvre les principes ... [more ▼]L’article aborde le développement professionnel des enseignants à travers un master complémentaire en pédagogie de l’enseignement supérieur. Orientée recherche, cette formation met en œuvre les principes du courant « SoTL ». Elle préconise une documentation de ses pratiques, une investigation de type scientifique de l’apprentissage des étudiants dans sa propre classe et une production de connaissance par le partage de ses avancées. Les articles de régulation rédigés à l’issue de la formation par une cohorte de dix participants montrent leur réelle inscription dans ce courant « SoTL » ; une enquête donne par ailleurs des indices d’efficacité de la formation sur ces mêmes critères à moyen terme. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 88 (19 ULg) Influence of process operating conditions on solvent thermal and oxidative degradation in post-combustion CO2 captureLéonard, Grégoire ; Crosset, Cyril; Toye, Dominique et alin Computers & Chemical Engineering (in press)///Document soumis, la révision doit encore être faite./// The CO2 post-combustion capture with amine solvents is modeled as a complex system interconnecting process energy consumption and solvent ... [more ▼]///Document soumis, la révision doit encore être faite./// The CO2 post-combustion capture with amine solvents is modeled as a complex system interconnecting process energy consumption and solvent degradation and emission. Based on own experimental data, the kinetics of monoethanolamine degradation is included into a model of the CO2 capture process. The influences of operating conditions and flowsheet improvements on solvent loss and process energy requirement are quantified and validated with pilot plant data. Oxidative degradation in the absorber is identified as the major cause of solvent loss. On the contrary, thermal degradation does not appear as a major concern. Finally, this study leads to a decrease by 10% of the process exergy requirement along with a reduction by 11% of the solvent loss, all that by using a single model. Thus, this model provides a practical tool to minimize both the energy requirement and the solvent degradation by the design of large-scale CO2 capture units. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 49 (7 ULg) Maqriziana XIV: Al-Maqrīzī’s Last Opus (Al-Ḫabar ʿan al-Bašar) and Its Significance for the History of IslamBauden, Frédéric in Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 60 (9 ULg) Conditions de travail, stress et burnout des professionnels belges de radiothérapie: analyse comparative et exploration du rôle du travail émotionnelLaurent, Julie ; BRAGARD, Isabelle ; COUCKE, Philippe et alin Cancer Radiotherapie (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 65 (26 ULg) Per una edizione integrale e analitica dell'incipit della Storia d'Italia di Francesco GuicciardiniMoreno, Paola in Laboratoire Italien : Politique et Société (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (12 ULg) Singing ability is rooted in vocal-motor control of pitchHutchins, Sean; Larrouy, Pauline ; Peretz, Isabellein Attention, Perception & Psychophysics (in press)The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and ... [more ▼]The inability to vocally match a pitch can be caused by poor pitch perception or by poor vocal-motor control. Although previous studies have tried to examine the relationship between pitch perception and vocal production, they have failed to control for the timbre of the target to be matched. In the present study, we compare pitch matching accuracy with an unfamiliar instrument (the slider) and with the voice, designed such that the slider plays back recordings of the participant’s own voice. We also measured pitch accuracy in singing a familiar melody (“Happy Birthday”) to assess the relationship between single pitch matching tasks and melodic singing. Our results showed that participants (all nonmusicians) were significantly better at matching recordings of their own voices with the slider than with their voice, indicating that vocal-motor control is an important limiting factor on singing ability. We also found significant correlations between the ability to sing a melody in tune and vocal pitch matching, but not instrumental pitch matching. Better melodic singers also tended to have higher quality voices (as measured by acoustic variables). These results provide important evidence about the ultimate causes of poor singing ability, and demonstrate that single pitch matching tasks can be useful in measuring general singing abilities. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (5 ULg) Imaging myeloma and related monoclonal plasma cell disorders: Still room for standard radiography?WITHOFS, Nadia ; Nanni, Cristina; Fanti, Stefano et alin Clin.Translat.Imaging (in press)A majority of multiple myeloma patients present with osteolytic bone lesions that can cause bone pain, fractures or hypercalcaemia. Correct identification of these lesions is important in the initial ... [more ▼]A majority of multiple myeloma patients present with osteolytic bone lesions that can cause bone pain, fractures or hypercalcaemia. Correct identification of these lesions is important in the initial assessment of the disease. Although the radiological skeletal survey is the gold standard to detect bone osteolytic lesions, it may miss small bone lesions or lesions located in the spine or pelvis due to the superimposed images of soft tissues. These limitations propelled newer imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. In addition, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT and MRI have prognostic value and can be used to monitor disease. This review discusses the additional value of PET/CT and MRI in the management of MM. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (3 ULg) La « nouvelle orthographe » n'est-elle qu'une question d'orthographe ? Le cas du pluriel des noms empruntésBaiwir, Esther ; Steffens, Marie in Français Moderne (Le) (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 40 (9 ULg) Le point sur l’évaluation de la force des muscles respiratoiresKellens, Isabelle ; Crielaard, Jean-Michel in Revue Médicale de Liège (in press)The strength of respiratory muscles is crucial for quality of life, especially for patients with lung or neurological disorders. Several methods can be used to assess them: i.e direct or indirect ... [more ▼]The strength of respiratory muscles is crucial for quality of life, especially for patients with lung or neurological disorders. Several methods can be used to assess them: i.e direct or indirect, voluntary or involuntary. The conventional spirometry method assesses indirectly the respiratory function by measuring maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressure, which reflects the coordination of all respiratory muscles. Techniques of magnetic and electrical stimulation can detect a specific muscle dysfunction, independently of the patient's motivation, however they are invasive methods as measurements are made in the esophagus and stomach. The voluntary techniques are generally non-invasive and require patient's cooperation. Measures of respiratory muscle strength, coupled to a conventional spirometry, can predict the development of ventilatory support in patients at risk, and may be useful during weaning from mechanical ventilation in intensive care units. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 152 (39 ULg) A European survey on attitudes towards pain and end-of-life issues in locked-in syndromeDemertzi, Athina ; Jox, Ralf J; Racine, Eric et alin Brain Injury (in press)Objectives: Patients with locked-in syndrome often self-report a higher quality of life than generally expected. This study reports third-person attitudes towards several salient issues on locked-in ... [more ▼]Objectives: Patients with locked-in syndrome often self-report a higher quality of life than generally expected. This study reports third-person attitudes towards several salient issues on locked-in syndrome. Methods: Close-ended survey among conference attendees from 33 European countries. Analysis included chi-square tests and logistic regressions. Results: From the 3332 respondents (33% physicians, 18% other clinicians, 49% other professions; 47% religious), 90% agreed that patients with locked-in syndrome can feel pain. The majority (75%) disagreed with treatment withdrawal, but 56% did not wish to be kept alive if they imagined themselves in this condition (p50.001). Religious and southern Europeans opposed to treatment withdrawal more often than non-religious (p50.001) and participants from the North (p¼0.001). When the locked-in syndrome was compared to disorders of consciousness, more respondents endorsed that being in a chronic locked-in syndrome was worse than being in a vegetative state or minimally conscious state for patients (59%) than they thought for families (40%, p50.001). Conclusions: Personal characteristics mediate opinions about locked-in syndrome. The dissociation between personal preferences and general opinions underlie the difference in perspective in disability. Ethical responses to dilemmas involving patients with locked-in syndrome should consider the diverging ethical attitudes of stakeholders. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 116 (7 ULg) Explorer la banque de graines du sol pour mieux comprendre la dynamique de régénération des forêts tropicales africaines (synthèse bibliographique)Douh, Chauvelin ; Daïnou, Kasso ; Loumeto, Jean Joël et alin Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement = Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society and Environment [=BASE] (in press), 18(4), La banque de graines du sol des forêts denses humides africaines a été très peu étudiée, alors qu’elle pourrait jouer un rôle déterminant dans les cycles sylvigénétiques naturels. Elle pourrait également ... [more ▼]La banque de graines du sol des forêts denses humides africaines a été très peu étudiée, alors qu’elle pourrait jouer un rôle déterminant dans les cycles sylvigénétiques naturels. Elle pourrait également être avantageusement utilisée dans les programmes de restauration, à l’instar de ce qui se fait sur d’autres continents. La présente synthèse bibliographique fait le point sur les connaissances actuelles relatives à la banque de graines du sol, en mettant l’accent sur le continent africain. Elle montre qu’une meilleure caractérisation de la banque de graines du sol des différentes communautés végétales constituerait une contribution notable pour la gestion durable des forêts tropicales d’Afrique. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (11 ULg) La pollution lumineuse, entre écologie et santéJEDIDI, Haroun ; DEPIERREUX, Frédérique ; JEDIDI, Zayd et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (in press)Light pollution is defined as the abnormal and disturbing presence of light and its adverse consequences on flora, faunae, ecosystems and its suspected or proven effects on human health. Light pollution ... [more ▼]Light pollution is defined as the abnormal and disturbing presence of light and its adverse consequences on flora, faunae, ecosystems and its suspected or proven effects on human health. Light pollution is a quite recent and increasing phenomenon within our society and it leads to a major environmental damage, obviously near wildlife, but also on human health (cancers, obesity, fatigue, depression...). The solutions to this problem are however simple, efficient and de facto inexpensive and involving a substantial energy saving. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (10 ULg) Périls de la copie : les cas de l’Estoire del Saint Graal, du Merlin et de la Suite VulgateCombes, Annie in Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (9 ULg) Experimental and numerical study of the flight of geeseDimitriadis, Grigorios ; Gardiner, James; Tickle, Peter et alin Aeronautical Journal (in press)The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three ... [more ▼]The flight of barnacle geese at airspeeds representing high-speed migrating flight is investigated using experiments and simulations. The experimental part of the work involved the filming of three barnacle geese (Branta Leucopsis) flying at different airspeeds in a wind tunnel. The video footage was analysed in order to extract the wing kinematics. Additional information, such as wing geometry and camber was obtained from a 3D scan of a dried wing. An unsteady vortex lattice method was used to simulate the aerodynamics of the measured flapping motion. The simulations were used in order to successfully reproduce the measured body motion and thus obtain estimates of the aerodynamic forces acting on the wings. It was found that the mean of the wing pitch angle variation with time has the most significant effect on lift while the difference in the durations of the upstroke and downstroke has the major effect on thrust. The power consumed by the aerodynamic forces was also estimated; it was found that increases in aerodynamic power correspond very closely to climbing motion and vice versa. Root-mean-square values of the power range from 100 W to 240 W. Finally, it was observed that tandem flying can be very expensive for the trailing bird. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 48 (4 ULg) Internal encoding style and schizotypy: towards a conceptually-driven account of positive symptomsBelayachi, Sanaa ; Laloyaux, Julien ; Laroi, Frank et alin Journal of Personality Disorders (in press)Perception results from a combination of actual data and interpretative schemata based on pre-existing knowledge. Thus, ensuing subjective experience depends on the dynamic interplay between data-driven ... [more ▼]Perception results from a combination of actual data and interpretative schemata based on pre-existing knowledge. Thus, ensuing subjective experience depends on the dynamic interplay between data-driven and conceptually-driven processing. A chronic imbalance between these two sources of stimulus encoding is likely to be maladaptive and could underlie cognitive and behavioral disturbances similar to that observed in schizotypy, especially if the balance is tipped too far towards conceptually-driven processing (i.e., Internal encoding style). This study aimed to examine the relationships between encoding style and various dimensions of schizotypy, by using a questionnaire that evaluates the extent to which pre-existing schemata (versus cues from the outside world) affect encoding processes. Consistent with previous findings, our results revealed that both Cognitive-Perceptual and Disorganization dimensions were related to an internal mode of encoding, suggesting that individuals with these features may be characterized by a disposition to biases at early stages of encoding. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (11 ULg) An analogue of Cobham's theorem for graph directed iterated function systemsCharlier, Emilie ; Leroy, Julien ; Rigo, Michel in Advances in Mathematics (in press)Feng and Wang showed that two homogeneous iterated function systems in $\mathbb{R}$ with multiplicatively independent contraction ratios necessarily have different attractors. In this paper, we extend ... [more ▼]Feng and Wang showed that two homogeneous iterated function systems in $\mathbb{R}$ with multiplicatively independent contraction ratios necessarily have different attractors. In this paper, we extend this result to graph directed iterated function systems in $\mathbb{R}^n$ with contraction ratios that are of the form $\frac{1}{\beta}$, for integers $\beta$. By using a result of Boigelot {\em et al.}, this allows us to give a proof of a conjecture of Adamczewski and Bell. In doing so, we link the graph directed iterated function systems to Büchi automata. In particular, this link extends to real numbers $\beta$. We introduce a logical formalism that permits to characterize sets of $\mathbb{R}^n$ whose representations in base $\beta$ are recognized by some Büchi automata. This result depends on the algebraic properties of the base: $\beta$ being a Pisot or a Parry number. The main motivation of this work is to draw a general picture representing the different frameworks where an analogue of Cobham's theorem is known. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 18 (5 ULg) All for a container: Technological mediation, transnational business and love affairsJedlowski, Alessandro in Transfers: Interdisciplinary Journal of Mobility Studies (in press)This paper analyzes the articulation between mobility and technology within life trajectories marked by migration, exile and the search for economic achievement. It does so by focusing on a Nigerian ... [more ▼]This paper analyzes the articulation between mobility and technology within life trajectories marked by migration, exile and the search for economic achievement. It does so by focusing on a Nigerian couple’s (attempted) itinerary of return migration from Italy to Nigeria, and on the role played by a specific transport technology, the shipping container, within this process. It highlights how, throughout the itinerary that brings the container from Italy to Nigeria, its social meaning and value become the center of a series of tense interactions, in which different conceptions of family hierarchies, contrasting spiritual beliefs, as well as diverging imaginaries about transnational mobility, migration and life abroad come to the fore, and provoke radical transformations in the life of the people involved in the itinerary of the container itself [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 35 (8 ULg) A study of composite laminates failure using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced damage mean-field homogenization modelWu, Ling ; Sket, Federico; Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M et alin Composite Structures (in press)The failure of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates is studied using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced continuum damage model embedded in a mean-field homogenization scheme. In each ply, a homogenized ... [more ▼]The failure of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy laminates is studied using an anisotropic gradient-enhanced continuum damage model embedded in a mean-field homogenization scheme. In each ply, a homogenized material law is used to capture the intra-laminar failure. The anisotropy of the homogenized material model results from the homogenization method and from the reformulation of the non-local continuum damage theory to account for the material anisotropy. As a result the damage propagation direction in each ply is predicted with accuracy as compared to the experimental results, while the problems of losing uniqueness and strain localization, which occur in classical finite element simulations when strain softening of materials is involved, can be avoided. To model the delamination process, the hybrid discontinuous Galerkin/extrinsic cohesive law method is introduced at the ply interfaces. This hybrid method avoids the need to propagate topological changes in the mesh with the propagation of the delamination while it preserves the consistency and stability in the un-cracked interfaces. As a demonstration, open-hole coupons with different stacking sequences are studied numerically and experimentally. Both the intra- and inter-laminar failure patterns are shown to be well captured by the computational framework. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 47 (12 ULg) A multi-scale magnetotail reconnection event at Saturn and associated ows: Cassini/UVIS observationsRadioti, Aikaterini ; Grodent, Denis ; Jia, X. et alin Icarus (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (14 ULg) La maladie de Lyme entre cadrage infectieux, vectoriel et zoonotique : vers une écologisation des problèmes sanitairesMassart, Clémence in VertigO : la Revue Electronique en Sciences de l'Environnement (in press)This paper is devoted to the qualification of Lyme disease in France. Firt vectorial disease in the northern hemisphere, Lyme diseas is transmitted by a genus of tick called Ixodes (in Europe by Ixodes ... [more ▼]This paper is devoted to the qualification of Lyme disease in France. Firt vectorial disease in the northern hemisphere, Lyme diseas is transmitted by a genus of tick called Ixodes (in Europe by Ixodes ricinus ; in Asia by Ixodes persulcatus ; in United States and in Canada by Ixodes scapularis). Concerned only with human health and limited to Lyme, a first framing has grown around physicians and patients which are involved in a controversy. Progressively, a second framing has emerged, called vectorial and structured around ecologists, normally not involved in human health. Based on the vector, this framing includes other diseases transmitted by Ixodes ricinus which, during the last 30 years, have been discovered : Tick-Borne Encephalitis, Babesia divergens, Bartonella infection, Tularemia, etc. Linked to these new pathologies, the media coverage of Lyme has finally opened the « vectorial transmission category » – usually associated to mosquitoes and south countries – to ticks and diseases from the north. A third framing dedicated to animal reservoir and called zoonotic is emerging at last. We can see in that framing overlapping a kind of “ecologization” of sanitary issues. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 77 (13 ULg) Négocier une majorité politique et devenir bourgmestre en Belgique. Quelles influences des droits régionaux ?Grandjean, Geoffrey in Revue Régionale de Droit [= RRD] (in press)Depuis 2001, les Régions sont compétentes en matière d’organisation et d’élection des pouvoirs locaux. Elles ont adopté des règles différentes. Dans quelle mesure ces règles influencent-elles la ... [more ▼]Depuis 2001, les Régions sont compétentes en matière d’organisation et d’élection des pouvoirs locaux. Elles ont adopté des règles différentes. Dans quelle mesure ces règles influencent-elles la négociation d’une majorité politique et la désignation des bourgmestres en Belgique ? Afin de répondre à cette question, des entretiens semi-directifs ont été réalisés avec plusieurs bourgmestres et échevin issus de communes localisées dans les trois Régions. Des différences entre Régions mais également au sein de celles-ci ont été relevées. Les dispositions relatives au mode de désignation du bourgmestre sont primordiales pour comprendre les dynamiques de négociations politiques. Au final, cet article tisse les liens entre les normes juridiques et les jeux des acteurs politiques. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 38 (3 ULg) Les défis colossaux auxquels la santé publique va devoir faire face !COUCKE, Philippe in Onco : Revue Multidisciplinaire d'Oncologie (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 58 (12 ULg) Enhanced exploratory activity in woodlice exposed to random visuo-tactile patternsAnselme, Patrick in Learning & Motivation (in press)In birds and mammals, randomness is known to have excitatory effects on exploratory behavior, but this phenomenon has not extensively been studied in invertebrates. Four experiments examined the ... [more ▼]In birds and mammals, randomness is known to have excitatory effects on exploratory behavior, but this phenomenon has not extensively been studied in invertebrates. Four experiments examined the propensity of woodlice (Porcellio scaber) to choose between the exploration of an environment composed of random visuo-tactile patterns and the exploration of an environment composed of regular visuo-tactile patterns. Rearing-up behavior and distance traveled were measured to determine (i) woodlice’s reactivity to a forced exposure to random or regular patterns, (ii) the effect of random and regular patterns on exploratory choice, (iii) the effect of random and regular patterns on exploratory choice in preexposed animals, and (iv) the effect of a shelter available in the less explored environment on exploratory choice. The results suggest that random visuo-tactile patterns have an excitatory effect on the exploratory behavior of woodlice and that this effect develops more rapidly if the woodlice were initially preexposed to those patterns. They also suggest that exploration is related to the search for better habitat conditions because the presence of a shelter abolishes that behavior. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 11 (0 ULg) Le Mur et le masque. À propos de Banksy.Saint-Amand, Denis in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 42 (8 ULg) La première interprétation heideggérienne de la MonadologiePieron, Julien in Philosophie (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 49 (8 ULg) Congenital jaundice in bovine aborted fetuses: an emerging syndrome in Southern BelgiumDelooz; Mori, M; Petitjean, T et alin Transboundary and Emerging Diseases (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 17 (0 ULg) Metacognitive components in learning to learn approachesFrenkel, Stéphanie in International Journal of Psychology : A Biopsychosocial Approach (in press)Background. Numerous students are having school difficulties linked to the way they learn. Some people speak of a “metacognitive deficit”. We refer to a “sleeping potential” instead. Be it psychologists ... [more ▼]Background. Numerous students are having school difficulties linked to the way they learn. Some people speak of a “metacognitive deficit”. We refer to a “sleeping potential” instead. Be it psychologists, teachers or parents, all wish to develop their skills in order to help these students. This is the case in primary and secondary school. The EDUCA + project is intended to provide possible solutions. Purpose. The aim of this paper is to present a metacognitive and cognitive theory of learning to learn, which will (a) explain why numerous students are having school difficulties, and (b) predict the success of the EDUCA + project. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 63 (16 ULg) Metabolic variability in bioprocessing : implications of microbial phenotypic heterogeneityDelvigne, Frank ; Zune, Quentin ; Lara, Alvaro et alin Trends in Biotechnology (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (11 ULg) Spinoza contre Spinoza: l'antihumanisme de Lordon, un althussérisme?Mancuso, Eva in Dissensus (in press), 6Detailed reference viewed: 98 (23 ULg) Science et Dynastie en Belgique : les "conseillers scientifiques" du Roi sous Albert Ier et Léopold IIIPirot, Pascal in Mosaïque, revue de jeunes chercheurs en SHS – Lille Nord de France – Belgique (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 30 (11 ULg) Compte rendu de G. TOUSSAINT, Kreuz und Knochen. Reliquien zur Zeit der Kreuzzüge, Berlin, 2011.George, Philippe in Cahiers de Civilisation Médiévale (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 21 (1 ULg) Mediterranean agri-food processing wastes pyrolysis after pre-treatment and recovery of precursor materials: A TGA-based kinetic modeling studyManara, Panagiota; Vamvuka, V; Sfakiotakis, S et alin Food Research International (in press)Valorization strategies of wastes from agri-food processes are intertwined with clean technological approaches and eco-industrial management. By-products from Mediterranean agri-food processes such as ... [more ▼]Valorization strategies of wastes from agri-food processes are intertwined with clean technological approaches and eco-industrial management. By-products from Mediterranean agri-food processes such as olive oil, wine and fruit create a considerable disposal problem for the agro-industry. Their characteristics in combination with Mediterranean climate enhance microbial development and can be source of health and safety concerns. After pre-treatment and recovery of valuable precursor materials (lignin, pulp), pyrolysis can be used for fuels, chemicals and carbon bio-based materials production. Since thermal degradation kinetic studies are a key step for the efficient design of thermo-chemical processes, in this study pyrolysis experiments were performed, using TGA for the estimation of the process kinetic parameters. The independent parallel reaction model validat- ed against experimental results, showing a good agreement with experimental data, with deviation values rang- ing from 1.07 to 3.54%. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (1 ULg) Diversity patterns of the vascular plant group Zosterophyllopsida in relation to Devonian palaeogeographyCascales - Miñana, Borja ; Meyer-Berthaud, Brigittein Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 7 (0 ULg) Du patrimoine au plat. Diversités et convergences culinaires dans un atelier de cuisine « interculturelle ».Mescoli, Elsa in Autrepart : Revue de Sciences Sociales au Sud (in press)En 2010 les gastronomies marocaine et italienne sont inscrites ensemble sur la liste représentative du patrimoine immatériel de l’humanité par l’Unesco. Elles font partie de la "diète méditerranéenne ... [more ▼]En 2010 les gastronomies marocaine et italienne sont inscrites ensemble sur la liste représentative du patrimoine immatériel de l’humanité par l’Unesco. Elles font partie de la "diète méditerranéenne", dont les cuisines partagent « savoir-faire, connaissances, pratiques et traditions qui vont du paysage à la table […] » . Cultures alimentaires sensiblement différentes sont ainsi rapprochées les unes aux autres par un discours qui vise à les préserver. Ce discours atteint aussi les individus ; en particulier, lorsque les appartenances culturelles se rencontrent grâce à la mobilité des groupes et de leurs pratiques, on observe comment un patrimoine fabriqué à plusieurs mains fait l’objet d’échanges concrets. L’analyse ethnographique d’un atelier de cuisine arabe organisé dans le nord d’Italie mettra en évidence les diversités et les convergences, les nuances régionales et générationnelles qui dotent ce patrimoine d’un dynamisme et d’une appartenance territoriale mobile et partagée. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (3 ULg) Meteorological variation in daily travel behaviour: evidence from revealed preference data from the NetherlandsCreemers, Lieve; Wets, Geert; Cools, Mario in Theoretical & Applied Climatology (in press)This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation ... [more ▼]This study investigates the meteorological variation in revealed preference travel data. The main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of weather conditions on daily activity participation (trip motives) and daily modal choices in the Netherlands. To this end, data from the Dutch National Travel Household Survey of 2008 were matched to hourly weather data provided by the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute and were complemented with thermal indices to indicate the level of thermal comfort and additional variables to indicate the seasonality of the weather conditions. Two multinomial logit–generalised estimation equations (MNL-GEE) models were constructed, one to assess the impact of weather conditions on trip motives and one to assess the effect of weather conditions on modal choice. The modelling results indicate that, depending on the travel attribute of concern, other factors might play a role. Nonetheless, the thermal component, as well as the aesthetical component and the physical component of weather play a significant role. Moreover, the parameter estimates indicate significant differences in the impact of weather conditions when different time scales are considered (e.g. daily versus hourly based). The fact that snow does not play any role at all was unexpected. This finding can be explained by the relatively low occurrence of this weather type in the study area. It is important to consider the effects of weather in travel demand modelling frameworks because this will help to achieve higher accuracy and more realistic traffic forecasts. These will in turn allow policy makers to make better long-term and short-term decisions to achieve various political goals, such as progress towards a sustainable transportation system. Further research in this respect should emphasise the role of weather conditions and activityscheduling attributes. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 84 (18 ULg) Siting Controversies Analysis: Framework and Method for Questioning the ProcedureRossignol, Nicolas ; Parotte, Céline ; Joris, Geoffrey et alin Journal of Risk Research (in press)Siting controversies are commonplace, as well against the construction of roads, railways, nuclear waste disposals, as against windfarms. Local citizens resist against siting decisions taken by the ... [more ▼]Siting controversies are commonplace, as well against the construction of roads, railways, nuclear waste disposals, as against windfarms. Local citizens resist against siting decisions taken by the authorities, following a dynamics often quoted as ‘Not In My Back Yard’. Yet contested for its lack of analytical value, NIMBY is still used strategically by actors to qualify citizens as irrational and egoistic. Beyond this labelling, many factors are investigated to understand the dynamics behind siting controversies. In this paper, we focus on the impact of the legal procedure structuring the implantation of windfarms in the Walloon Region (Belgium), and its translations within different decision making processes in specific case studies. To that regard, we consider the legal procedure as a ‘public policy instrument’. It is neither neutral nor natural, and carry values and interests. It organizes inter-personal relations between actors, and is potentially catalyzer of frustrations. In addition, this legal procedure is the object of translations within different contexts, including different actors participating to specific decision making processes. The empirical approach of this paper is based on case studies data and on the use of an innovative methodology called ‘Open Process Workshop’. This methodology consists in a structured workshop with key stakeholders, during which the legal procedure is questioned. Overall, we demonstrate that the focus on the legal procedure - and its translations within different decision making processes - allows systemic analysis providing deep understandings of controversies and reaffirming the interlinks between ‘the social’ and ‘the technical’ in such controversies. In addition, we argue that the methodology used fosters the production of innovative knowledge, mutual understanding and collective learning between the participants. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 41 (10 ULg) Les voyages du goût, entre localité et exotisme.Mescoli, Elsa in Anthropology of Food (in press)« Savourer la nourriture et respirer la culture marocaine deviennent une expérience et une émotion unique, à découvrir et à vivre grâce à la combinaison d’arômes, goûts, couleurs, formes et musiques ». Au ... [more ▼]« Savourer la nourriture et respirer la culture marocaine deviennent une expérience et une émotion unique, à découvrir et à vivre grâce à la combinaison d’arômes, goûts, couleurs, formes et musiques ». Au travers de ce slogan, un renommé restaurant d’inspiration marocaine de la ville de Milan en Italie, invitait ses clients à voyager au travers de leur sensorialité dans une culture alimentaire (et par synecdoque, une culture tout court) autre. Le goût les aurait amenés à expérimenter un exotisme, qui était néanmoins contrôlé, car certaines conditions imposées par les normes locales faisaient en sorte que le déplacement vécu ne fût pas excessivement déstabilisant. Le résultat de ces négociations consistait d’un menu qui accostait les gastronomies marocaine et italienne (ou les procédures de l’une et de l’autre) dans certains plats décrits comme « fusion », qui satisfaisaient (ou non) les exigences des clients. Dans cet article, je vise à mettre en évidence les mécanismes de production discursive et matérielle de ces plats, ainsi comme les opinions des consommateurs. Pour ce faire, j’analyserai le matériel ethnographique collecté auprès du local en question en le comparant avec les pratiques observés dans d’autres restaurants milanais. En ce qui concerne les effets obtenus, j’appuierait mon analyse sur une plateforme de médias sociaux consacrée aux recensions d’endroits et locaux touristiques. La culture alimentaire sera étudiée dans ses aspects symboliques mais aussi matériels, en faisant également recours au matériel visuel récolté. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 27 (8 ULg) Long term-cultured and cryopreserved primordial germ cells from various chicken breeds retain high proliferative potential and gonadal colonisation competencyTonus, Céline ; Cloquette, Karine; Ectors, Fabien et alin Reproduction, Fertility and Development (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 47 (18 ULg) Assessment of Toll-like receptor 2, 4 and 9 SNP genotypes in canine sino-nasal aspergillosisMercier; Peters, Iain; Farnir, Frédéric et alin BMC Veterinary Research (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (5 ULg) Modulating effect of COMT Val158Met polymorphism on interference resolution during a working memory taskJaspar, Mathieu ; DIDEBERG, Vinciane ; Bours, Vincent et alin Brain & Cognition (in press)Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has received increasing attention in the last 15 years, in particular as a potential modulator of the neural substrates ... [more ▼]Genetic variability related to the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene has received increasing attention in the last 15 years, in particular as a potential modulator of the neural substrates underlying inhibitory processes and updating in working memory (WM). In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we administered a modified version of the Sternberg probe recency task (Sternberg, 1966) to 43 young healthy volunteers, varying the level of interference across successive items. The task was divided into two parts (high vs. low interference) to induce either proactive or reactive control processes. The participants were separated into three groups according to their COMT Val158Met genotype [Val/Val (VV); Val/Met (VM); Met/Met (MM)]. The general aim of the study was to determine whether COMT polymorphism has a modulating effect on the neural substrates of interference resolution during WM processing. Results indicate that interfering trials were associated with greater involvement of frontal cortices (bilateral medial frontal gyrus, left precentral and superior frontal gyri, right inferior frontal gyrus) in VV homozygous subjects (by comparison to Met allele carriers) only in the proactive condition of the task. In addition, analysis of peristimulus haemodynamic responses (PSTH) revealed that the genotype-related difference observed in the left SFG was specifically driven by a larger increase in activity from the storage to the recognition phase of the interfering trials in VV homozygous subjects. These results confirm the impact of COMT genotype on inhibitory processes during a WM task, with an advantage for Met allele carriers. Interestingly, this impact on frontal areas is present only when the level of interference is high, and especially during the transition from storage to recognition in the left superior frontal gyrus. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 64 (1 ULg) What do Pneumocystis organisms tell us about the phylogeography of their hosts? The case of the woodmouse Apodemus sylvaticus in continental Europe and western Mediterranean islandsDemanche, christine; Deville, Manjula; Michaux, Johan et alin PLoS ONE (in press)Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the ... [more ▼]Pneumocystis fungi represent a highly diversified biological group with numerous species, which display a strong host-specificity suggesting a long co-speciation process. In the present study, the presence and genetic diversity of Pneumocystis organisms was investigated in 203 lung samples from woodmice (Apodemus sylvaticus) collected on western continental Europe and Mediterranean islands. The presence of Pneumocystis DNA was assessed by nested PCR at both large and small mitochondrial subunit (mtLSU and mtSSU) rRNA loci. Direct sequencing of nested PCR products demonstrated a very high variability among woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis organisms with a total number of 30 distinct combined mtLSU and mtSSU sequence types. However, the genetic divergence among these sequence types was very low (up to 3.87%) and the presence of several Pneumocystis species within Apodemus sylvaticus was considered unlikely. The analysis of the genetic structure of woodmouse-derived Pneumocystis revealed two distinct groups. The first one comprised Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Spain, France and Balearic islands. The second one included Pneumocystis from woodmice collected in continental Italy, Corsica and Sicily. These two genetic groups were in accordance with the two lineages currently described within the host species Apodemus sylvaticus. Pneumocystis organisms are emerging as powerful tools for phylogeographic studies in mammals [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 32 (0 ULg) Impact of soft splints on upper limb spasticity in chronic patients with disorders of consciousness: A randomized, single-blind, controlled trialThibaut, Aurore ; Deltombe, Thierry; Wannez, Sarah et alin Brain Injury (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 35 (0 ULg) Dabigatran Etexilate and Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Other Cardiovascular Events, Major Bleeding, and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.Douxfils, Jonathan; Buckinx, Fanny ; Mullier, Francois et alin Journal of the American Heart Association (in press)BACKGROUND: Signals of an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have been identified with dabigatran etexilate in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND RESULES: We conducted searches of ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Signals of an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) have been identified with dabigatran etexilate in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS AND RESULES: We conducted searches of the published literature and a clinical trials registry maintained by the drug manufacturer. Criteria for inclusion in our meta-analysis included all RCTs and the availability of outcome data for MI, other cardiovascular events, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality. Among the 501 unique references identified, 14 RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Stratification analyses by comparators and doses of dabigatran etexilate were conducted. Peto odds ratio (ORPETO) values using the fixed-effect model (FEM) for MI, other cardiovascular events, major bleeding, and all-cause mortality were 1.34 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.65, P=0.007), 0.93 (95%CI 0.83 to 1.06, P=0.270), 0.88 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.99, P=0.029), and 0.89 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.00, P=0.041). When compared with warfarin, ORPETO values using FEM were 1.41 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.80, P=0.005), 0.94 (95%CI 0.83 to 1.06, P=0.293), 0.85 (95% CI 0.76 to 0.96, P=0.007), and 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.01, P=0.061), respectively. In RCTs using the 150-mg BID dosage, the ORPETO values using FEM were 1.45 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.91, P=0.007), 0.95 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.09, P=0.423), 0.92 (95% CI 0.81 to 1.05, P=0.228), and 0.88 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.00, P=0.045), respectively. The results of the 110-mg BID dosage were mainly driven by the RE-LY trial. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis provides evidence that dabigatran etexilate is associated with a significantly increased risk of MI. This increased risk should be considered taking into account the overall benefit in terms of major bleeding and all-cause mortality. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (8 ULg) Arrêts sur images – usages et pratiques du photogrammeThonon, Jonathan in MethIS : Méthodes et Interdisciplinarité en Sciences Humaines (in press)Le photogramme est, au cinéma, la plus petite unité de prise de vue. Image fixe, unité élémentaire du film, le photogramme forme la cellule figée d’un mouvement qui se reconstitue sous l’effet d’un ... [more ▼]Le photogramme est, au cinéma, la plus petite unité de prise de vue. Image fixe, unité élémentaire du film, le photogramme forme la cellule figée d’un mouvement qui se reconstitue sous l’effet d’un défilement réglé (24 photogrammes/seconde) par le dispositif technique du cinéma. Image paradoxale en ce qu’elle reste invisible au spectateur malgré sa force iconique, le photogramme trouve cependant, dans le flux qui le conduit insensiblement à la disparition, certaines zones de visibilité qui en révèlent le caractère à la fois fragile et intensif. Nous allons donc envisager certaines pratiques ou certains usages du photogramme cinématographique, tout en essayant de dégager, au départ de ces pratiques, les éléments d’une théorie du photogramme, que Roland Barthes et Sylvie Pierre appelaient déjà de leurs vœux. Des protos-photogrammes et de leur usage scientifique chez Muybridge et Marey, aux usages artistiques contemporains, en passant par des pratiques publicitaires, promotionnelles ou analytiques, nous allons voir que le photogramme reste un objet singulier. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 37 (2 ULg) Characterizing the morphology of suburban settlements: a method based on a semi-automatic classification of building clustersde Smet, Fabian; Teller, Jacques in Landscape Research (in press)Urban sprawl is transforming our landscapes and rural areas at a spectacular pace. Measuring the strength of the phenomenon and proposing dynamic ways to delineate suburban areas have been the object of ... [more ▼]Urban sprawl is transforming our landscapes and rural areas at a spectacular pace. Measuring the strength of the phenomenon and proposing dynamic ways to delineate suburban areas have been the object of much debate amongst scientists. The present article takes the view that, beyond measuring and delineating suburban areas, more efforts should be directed to qualifying the morphology of built settlements within these areas. Therefore it proposes a method based on a semi-automatic classification system of building clusters, designed to describe and interpret the phenomenon from a morphological perspective. This method is based on a combination of field surveys with numerical analyses of digital land cadastre maps. The application of this classification system to the suburban area around Liege reveals that, far from developing in a complete indifference of local conditions, contemporary suburban settlements are influenced by landscape structures inherited from the past. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (10 ULg) Cervical (pre)neoplastic microenvironment promotes the emergence of tolerogenic dendritic cells via RANKL secretionDemoulin, Stéphanie ; SOMJA, Joan ; duray, anaelle et alin OncoImmunology (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (4 ULg) Bayesian versus frequentist methods for estimating disease true prevalence and 4 diagnostic test performanceSanogo, M; Abatih, E; Saegerman, Claude in Veterinary Journal (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 24 (7 ULg) Bifix codes and interval exchangesBerthé, Valérie; De Felice, Clelia; Dolce, Francesco et alin Journal of Pure and Applied Algebra (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 9 (0 ULg) The utility of Google Scholar when searching geographical literature: comparison with three commercial bibliographic databasesStirbu, Simona ; Thirion, Paul ; Schmitz, Serge et alin Journal of Academic Librarianship (in press)This study aims to highlight what benefits, if any, Google Scholar (GS) has for academic literature searches in the field of geography, compared to three commercial bibliographic databases: Web of Science ... [more ▼]This study aims to highlight what benefits, if any, Google Scholar (GS) has for academic literature searches in the field of geography, compared to three commercial bibliographic databases: Web of Science (WoS) and FRANCIS (multidisciplinary databases) and GeoRef (specialized in geosciences). To ensure a valid comparison, identical bibliographic searches were applied using each of the four bibliographic tools. To exclude automatic variations of the ten keywords tested, they were placed between quotation marks and searched only in the “title” field of the respective search tools’ interfaces. The results were limited to bibliographic references published from 2005 to 2009. In order to assess the repeatability of the results, the exact same process was repeated monthly between November 2010 and July 2011. Initially the whole set of results was analyzed, after which the search results for two keywords (selected since they yielded a manageable number of results) were studied in more detail. The results indicate that GS search results show a large degree of overlap with those of the other databases but, moreover, yield numerous unique hits, which should be useful to researchers in both the fields of human and physical geography. GS leads the other tools widely on number of results, independently of keyword, subfield, year of publication, or time of search. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 20 (11 ULg) Validation of the analytical procedure for the determination of malondialdehyde and three other aldehydes in vegetable oil using Liquid Chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and application to linseed oilDouny, Caroline ; Tihon, Angélique; Bayonnet, Pierre et alin Food Analytical Methods (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 34 (6 ULg) Expression microarray as a tool to identify candidate blood biomarkers in horses suffering from inflammatory airway diseaseRamery, Eve ; Fraipont, Audrey ; Art, Tatiana et alin Veterinary Clinical Pathology (in press)Background: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) affects performance and well-being in horses. Diagnosis is primarily reached by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology but this is invasive and requires ... [more ▼]Background: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) affects performance and well-being in horses. Diagnosis is primarily reached by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology but this is invasive and requires sedation. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify candidate blood biomarkers of IAD using species-specific expression microarrays. Methods: Horse Gene Expression Microarrays were used to investigate global mRNA expression in circulating leukocytes from healthy and IAD-affected standardbreds and endurance horses. Results: Nine genes were significantly differentially regulated in standardbreds and 61 in endurance horses (P < 0.001). These genes were mainly related to inflammation (eg. ALOX15B, PLA2G12B and PENK), oxidant/antioxidant balance (eg. DUOXA2 and GSTO1-1) and stress (eg. V1aR, GRLF1, Homer-2 and MAOB). DUOXA2, ALOX15B, PLA2G12B, MAOB and GRLF1 variations of expression were further validated by RT-qPCR. The deregulation of the oxidant/antioxidant balance was demonstrated at the protein level by an increase of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in heparinised whole blood of IAD-affected standardbreds (P = 0.0025) and endurance horses (P = 0.0028). There was good correlation (r = 0.7354) between BAL neutrophil percentage and whole blood GPx activity in all horses. Conclusions: There is accumulating evidence that, even when systemic clinical signs are not evident, circulating leukocyte gene expression can reflect responses of other tissues, leading to potential diagnostic applications in the future. Although not specific for IAD, whole blood GPx activity appears to reflect BAL neutrophil percentage. This finding should be further assessed by testing a larger number of horses. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 65 (13 ULg) Glycine receptors control the generation of projection neurons in the developing cerebral cortexAvila, Ariel; Vidal, P.M.; Tielens, Sylvia et alin Cell Death & Differentiation (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 27 (10 ULg) Représentations et expérience des pères « primipares » de l’allaitement maternel : lien avec la durée de l’allaitementNoirhomme-Renard, Florence ; Michèle, Close; Gosset, Christiane in Journal de Pédiatrie et de Puériculture (in press)ntroduction. — This study aim to investigate fathers experiences and representations in regard to breastfeeding. Methods. — Two groups of fathers were recruited in the year following the birth of their ... [more ▼]ntroduction. — This study aim to investigate fathers experiences and representations in regard to breastfeeding. Methods. — Two groups of fathers were recruited in the year following the birth of their child: a group whose child was breastfed less than three months (n = 16), and the other whose child was breastfed more than 6months (n=17). They were interviewed by semi-structured interviews and completed a questionnaire of attitudes toward child feeding (IIFAS). Results. — Although the representation that had fathers of breastfeeding during pregnancy dif- fered somewhat between the two groups, medical and social factors are primarily associated with a short AM: medical complications in the mother or the child, social vulnerabilities, early breastfeeding difficulties. The involvement of health professionals has been mentioned by many fathers when breastfeeding difficulties, but it has, in most cases, led to the failure of AM in time. Increased fathers take place in the triad, sometimes modulated by their partner, and their emo- tional involvement and practice in breastfeeding are associated with long AM. Fathers whose baby was breastfed for more than 6 months have a score more in favor of breastfeeding on the scale IIFAS. Conclusion. — The inclusion of fathers in the comprehensive model of the determinants of breastfeeding provides further insight to the factors already identified. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 22 (8 ULg) Survivances et métamorphoses. Les gemmes isiaques remployées au Moyen Âge et leur interprétationVeymiers, Richard in Anabases : Traditions et Réception de l'Antiquité (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 15 (0 ULg) Commentary on recent therapeutic guidelines for osteoarthritisCutolo, M; Berenbaum, F; Hochberg, M et alin Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism (in press)Background Despite availability of international evidence-based guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) management, agreement on the different treatment modalities is lacking. Method A symposium of European ... [more ▼]Background Despite availability of international evidence-based guidelines for osteoarthritis (OA) management, agreement on the different treatment modalities is lacking. Method A symposium of European and US OA experts was held within the framework of the Annual European Congress of Rheumatology to discuss and compare guidelines and recommendations for the treatment of knee OA and to reach a consensus for management, particularly for areas in which there is no clear consensus: non-pharmacological therapy; efficacy and safety of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); intra-articular (i.a.) hyaluronates (HA); and the role of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and/or glucosamine sulfate (GS). Results All guidelines reviewed agree that knee OA is a progressive disease of the joint whose management requires non-pharmacological and pharmacological approaches. Discrepancies between guidelines are few and mostly reflect heterogeneity of expert panels involved, geographical differences in the availability of pharmacotherapies, and heterogeneity of studies included. Panels chosen for guideline development should include experts with real clinical experience in drug use and patient management. Implementation of agreed guidelines can be thwarted by drug availability and reimbursement plans, resulting in optimal OA treatment being jeopardized, HA and symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SySADOAs) being clear examples of drugs whose availability and prescription can greatly vary geographically. In addition, primary care providers, often responsible for OA management (at least in early disease), may not adhere to clinical care guidelines, particularly for non-pharmacological OA treatment. Conclusion Harmonization of the recommendations for knee OA treatment is challenging but feasible, as shown by the step-by-step therapeutic algorithm developed by European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO). More easily disseminated and implemented guidance for OA treatment in the primary care setting is key to improved management of OA. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 51 (4 ULg) Island floras are not necessarily more species-poor than continental ones.Patiño, J.; Solymos, P.; Carine, M.A. et alin Journal of Biogeography (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 18 (0 ULg) Genetic heterogeneity of bovine noroviruses in ItalyDi Martino, Barbara; Di Profio, Federica; Di Felice, Elisabetta et alin Archives of Virology (in press)By screening 104 faecal samples from asymptomatic calves in Italy, bovine norovirus RNA was detected with a prevalence rate of 10.5 % (11/104). A continuous sequence spanning the RdRp region and the 50 ... [more ▼]By screening 104 faecal samples from asymptomatic calves in Italy, bovine norovirus RNA was detected with a prevalence rate of 10.5 % (11/104). A continuous sequence spanning the RdRp region and the 50 end of the capsid gene was generated for 7 of the 11 strains. Upon phylogenetic analysis, five strains were grouped with GIII.2 Newbury2-like viruses, and one strain was grouped with GIII.1 Jena-like noroviruses. Interestingly, one strain (80TE/IT) was genetically related to the GIII.1/Jena/80/De in the RdRp but resembled the GIII.2/Newbury2/76/UK in the capsid gene, suggesting a recombination event occurring in the ORF1/ORF2 junction region. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 9 (3 ULg) Exploratory Single Grain OSL data analysis of quartz from archeological mortars: on the use of an exponential distribution of light exposure of grains and consequences for datingGuibert, Pierre; Urbanova, Petra; Blain, Sophie et alin Radiation Measurements (in press)Dating archaeological mortar by OSL is one of the challenging objectives leading to the chronology of ancient constructions. Single grain OSL analysis is a very convenient tool to examine the bleaching ... [more ▼]Dating archaeological mortar by OSL is one of the challenging objectives leading to the chronology of ancient constructions. Single grain OSL analysis is a very convenient tool to examine the bleaching state of the series of quartz grains extracted from a mortar sample. Indeed, during the making process, sand is extracted from a sedimentary source, transported, stored then mixed with lime and set into the walls being constructed. Experience shows that incomplete bleaching is frequent for these materials. The aim of this study is to model the distribution of single grain equivalent doses of mortars following the assumption that a population of grains corresponds to a unique distribution of heterogeneously bleached grains rather than to a mixture of well bleached quartz grains with poorly bleached ones. An exponential distribution of light exposure of grains is examined. By comparing experimental distributions of doses with simulated ones, we investigate the appropriateness of this distribution function and then we calculate the average residual dose integrated into the process of the ED determination and finally the OSL age. Limits and potentials of this approach are discussed using various case-studies of structures and buildings of known age (from the roman to the post-medieval period). Even in case of very poorly bleached samples we observed that the simulated ED distribution fits satisfactorily with the experimental one, which offers new encouraging perspectives in single grain dating of mortars. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 34 (2 ULg) Are Children Conservative, Liberal or Metacognitive? Preliminary Evidence for the Involvement of the Distinctiveness Heuristic in Decision MakingGeurten, Marie ; Willems, Sylvie ; Meulemans, Thierry in Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (in press)The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognition rate after distinctive encoding by implementing a strategic metacognitive rule. Seventy-two children ... [more ▼]The present experiment investigates whether young children are able to reduce their false recognition rate after distinctive encoding by implementing a strategic metacognitive rule. Seventy-two children, aged 4, 6, and 9 years, studied two lists of unrelated items. One of these lists was visually displayed (picture condition) while the other was presented auditorily (word condition). After each study phase, participants completed recognition tests. Finally, they answered questions about their explicit knowledge of the distinctive-encoding effect. The results revealed that even the youngest children in our sample showed a smaller proportion of intrusions in the picture condition than in the word condition. Furthermore, the results of the signal detection analyses were consistent with the hypothesis that the lower rate of false recognitions after picture encoding results from the implementation of a conservative response criterion based on metacognitive expectations (distinctiveness heuristic). Moreover, the absence of correlation between children’s explicit knowledge of the distinctiveness rule and their effective use of this metacognitive heuristic seems to indicate that its involvement in memory decisions could be mediated by implicit mechanisms. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 23 (5 ULg) Composantes métacognitives ; Définitions et outils d’évaluationFrenkel, Stéphanie in Enfance : Psychologie, Pédagogie, Neuropsychiatrie, Sociologie (in press)Many tools have been developed since the 1970s in order to assess metacognition and its first implementations. Over time, questionnaires, tests, interviews, observations, computer programmes, and other ... [more ▼]Many tools have been developed since the 1970s in order to assess metacognition and its first implementations. Over time, questionnaires, tests, interviews, observations, computer programmes, and other methods have become more and more based on self-regulated learning theories. At the same time, for the last fifteen years or so, the number of students with learning difficulties linked to the way they learn seems to be increasing slowly but steadily. Therefore, it seems essential to enable these learners develop a more efficient learning behaviour. Similarly, we see that professional field workers are increasingly asking for efficient and adapted tools in this field. The purpose of this paper is twofold: it provides a review of the above-mentioned assessment tools, and it discusses them in order to contribute to the creation of new tools with a wider scope. Following an analysis of the abundant literature on the subject, two classifications were developed. Thirty-five tools were kept and categorised: first, according to a developmental perspective (preschool, primary school, secondary school and/or adult), second, according to the metacognitive component they assess (metacognitive knowledge, strategies and/or experiences). However, no existing tool covers the whole period of compulsory education. Moreover, in order to assess the learners’ metacognitive abilities fully, it is necessary to combine online and offline assessments in concrete situations. There are still some needs to be met in this regard. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 94 (19 ULg) lES CHUTES DE LA PERSONNE AGEEGILLAIN, Sophie ; ELBOUZ, Leila ; Beaudart, Charlotte et alin Revue Médicale de Liège (in press)Detailed reference viewed: 79 (23 ULg) Le marché des radicaux libres. Sur quelques conditions médiatiques de la posture « néo-réactionnaire ».Durand, Pascal in Quaderni : la Revue de la Communication (in press)L’énorme succès de librairie obtenu par Éric Zemmour avec Le Suicide français, les polémiques ayant entouré l’élection d’Alain Finkielkraut à l’Académie, les mesures prises par un Robert Ménard élu à la ... [more ▼]L’énorme succès de librairie obtenu par Éric Zemmour avec Le Suicide français, les polémiques ayant entouré l’élection d’Alain Finkielkraut à l’Académie, les mesures prises par un Robert Ménard élu à la mairie de Béziers avec le soutien du FN ou, plus récemment encore, les controverses déclenchées, avant même sa parution, par le sixième roman de Michel Houellebecq (Soumission) viennent de remettre à l’ordre du jour une « querelle » qui, depuis l’Enquête sur les nouveaux réactionnaires publiée par Daniel Lindenberg (2002), n’a cessé de se relancer en des contextes nouveaux. Pour médiocre qu’il soit apparu aux yeux de beaucoup, à commencer par ceux qu’il prenait pour cibles, ce bref essai n’en pointait pas moins quelques problématiques appelées à s’installer durablement sur la scène publique. Au nom d’une lutte contre la « gauche morale » et le « politiquement correct », les charges se sont en effet multipliées jusqu’à nous contre les effets de la « pensée 68 » et de la théorie critique, l’État culturel et la culture de masse, la doxa des droits de l’homme et le libéralisme moral, l’antiracisme et le multiculturalisme, ou bien encore le déclin de l’École et des valeurs républicaines. Forgée sur le modèle des « nouveaux philosophes » et de la « nouvelle droite » des années 1970-1980, l’appellation « nouveaux réactionnaires » procède bien évidemment d’une construction médiatique et polémique, et comme telle paraît bien peu définissable au-delà des coups de force dont elle est le produit autant que le vecteur. Si extensible qu’elle paraisse, et peut-être bien pour cette raison même, elle ne s’est pas moins intégrée, qu’on le veuille ou non, au vocabulaire politique et médiatique courant. Et s'il n’est pas sûr que le phénomène qu'elle recouvre relève à proprement parler d’une histoire des idées, au-delà des controverses idéologiques qui l’ont imposé comme entité collective et qu’il continue de nourrir, ce phénomène n’en constitue pas moins, et à deux titres, un fait identifiable au sein du discours social : en tant qu’il est l’un des produits polémiques de certaines régions de ce discours et en tant qu’il fait bien entendre, dans ce discours, une rhétorique particulière, qui a ses ressorts, ses supports, son histoire. Après avoir pris deux points de vue historiques sur ce phénomène — à longue et courte portée — et évoqué, à la lumière d’une réflexion ouverte par Luc Boltanski et Arnaud Esquerre, ce qui semble le relier à certaines transformations du champ politique de la France des années 2000-2010, l'article met en évidence quelques-unes des transformations de l'espace médiatique et éditorial susceptibles de favoriser sa montée en force dans l'espace public et la capacité qu'ont ses représentants les plus visibles de désigner, au moins nominalement, un certain nombre de problématiques « politiques » et d'urgences « sociales » ou « culturelles » dont il s'agirait de se saisir. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 58 (10 ULg) Dynamic single-cell analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under process perturbation: comparison of different methods for monitoring the intensity of population heterogeneityDelvigne, Frank ; Baert, Jonathan ; Gofflot, Sébastien et alin Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology (in press)BACKGROUND: Single cell biology has attracted a lot of attention these past few years and has led to numerous fundamental results pointing out the heterogeneity of clonal cell populations. In this context ... [more ▼]BACKGROUND: Single cell biology has attracted a lot of attention these past few years and has led to numerous fundamental results pointing out the heterogeneity of clonal cell populations. In this context, microbial phenotypic heterogeneity under bioprocessing conditions needs to be further investigated. In this study, yeast based processes have been investigated by using on-line flow cytometry in combination with a fluorescent transcriptional reporter (GFP) and viability fluorescence tags (propidium iodide, PI). Methods aiming at expressing the dispersion of these fluorescence tags among the yeast populations have been investigated for different bioreactor operating conditions. RESULTS: Yeast viability was determined on the basis of PI uptake. Segregation between PI negative and positive subpopulations could be efficiently quantified on the basis of the mean-to-median ratio or the amplitude of the interquartile range. On the other hand, the same quantification could not be made for the segregation occurring at the level of GFP synthesis. Indeed, when cells were exposed to sub-lethal or mild stresses (such as in scale-down reactors) two GFP subpopulations could be visualized by real-time FC, but quantification by one of the above-mentioned methods was not possible. CONCLUSIONS: Yeast population heterogeneity was observed in representative bioreactor operating conditions. Difficulties for the determination of segregation at the level of GFP synthesis point out the fact that one needs to understand the segregation mechanisms for the applied fluorescent reporters, to judge whether simple mathematical tools may be applied or if more sophisticated computational tools are needed for the quantification of the microbial population segregation. [less ▲]Detailed reference viewed: 47 (25 ULg)